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1-PAKISTAN AND THE MODERN WORLD
Liaquat Ali Khan
“Liaquat Ali Khan” is one of those Muslim leaders who worked hard to bring liberty for Muslims of Sub-Continent. In fact, he was considered the right hand of Quaid-e-Azam. Present essay is a speech, given by him at the occasion of receiving the honorary degree from the “Kansas University”. In this speech, he clearly described why the Muslims of India demanded a separate homeland. Moreover, he explained the problems faced by Pakistan. And finally he laid down the importance of the role of America and West to bring peace, prosperity, and above all progress in the newly established countries like Pakistan.
Describe the circumstances that led to the creation of Pakistan. Or Why the Muslims of Sub-Continent did demanded a separate homeland? Or
What were the main differences between the Muslims and the Hindus?
“Pakistan and the Modern World” is an address by Liaquat Ali Khan at the University of Kansas. He was the first Prime Minister of Pakistan who visited America in 1950. His purpose was to introduce Pakistan to people of America and Western World. In his address, he justified the demand of a separate homeland by the Muslims of India. He gave many reasons in this respect. Firstly, he said, in British India, there lived one hundred million Muslims along with three hundred million others, mostly Hindus. The Muslim feared that if they got freedom from British, they would be under permanent domination of Hindus. Secondly, the Muslims differed from the Hindus in every sphere of life, whatever; it was religious, social or economic. Thirdly, the Hindus believed in caste system, whereas, the Muslims believed in equality of human beings. Fourthly, the Muslims believed in the rights of private inherent laws of everyone, whereas the Hindus didn’t. Fifthly, Muslims feared that under Hindu domination they would not be able to promote their own culture and to practice the golden principles of Islam. Sixthly, the Sub-Continent was vast enough that it could be divided into two independent countries.
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In short, these were some of the reasons given by Liaquat Ali Khan in his speech to justify the demand of Muslims for a separate homeland.
What were the expectations of L.A Khan from America and West?
As the Asian countries, including Pakistan, were facing a lot of problems at the time, so Liaquat Ali Khan emphasized much upon the role of America and the Western World. According to L.A. Khan, America and the West were advanced countries. They were not facing such problems as faced by the new and undeveloped countries. So the newly discovered and established countries were hoping that America and West would come forward and play their role in the development and peace of such countries. He said that Western World should not make the democracy limited just within the advanced countries, but it should also promote and encourage democracy in backward countries of Asia.“Liaquat Ali Khan” further said that the Western World was aware of the problems faced by Asian countries and should try to eradicate starvation, aggression ( ,)جاسحیت anxiety ( ,)پشیؾاًیtyranny, poverty and diseases prevailing in them. As far as Pakistan was concerned it would make all efforts to bring peace, love, and harmony in its region and the Muslim world. These were the expectations of L.A Khan from America and West.
What were the chief qualities we find in L.A Khan?
“Liaquat Ali Khan” is one of those Muslim leaders who worked hard to bring liberty for the Muslims of Sub-Continent. In fact, he was considered the right hand of Quaid-e-Azam. He was an excellent orator and unique statesman ( .)عیاعتذاىHe played an important part in the revolution of freedom and in the early days of independence. L.A Khan was one of the greatest leaders of his age. He was an excellent orator who spoke effectively and impressed his listeners with the sincerity of his words and profundity ( )گہشاییof his arguments. He has very forcefully justified the demand of Muslims for a separate homeland. He effectively described the problems faced by the new state and expected role of America and the West for peace in the world. This essay shows his power of reasoning and love for his country. In short, this man of exceptional qualities was rightly awarded the title of Quaid-i-Millat.
What were the problems faced by Pakistan after its establishment?
Pakistan had to face many problems after its creation. The new state had a severe lack of capital ( ,)عشهایہadministration ( ,)اًتظاهیہarmy, food and technology. Even it had no flag and capital. The biggest problem faced by the Pakistan was economy. There was no trade, industry and agriculture. It had no industry as all
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the major industries were in India. Pakistan was allotted an army, but its soldiers were so dispersed that they could not be brought together for a long time. The government needed a lot of time and support to handle this problem. About eight million Muslims migrated from India. The government had to face the serious problem of settling them. Though, they were trying their best to overcome all these big problems, yet they were looking towards the West for help and cooperation. In short, these were some of the problems faced by Pakistan after its establishment. But, the people of Pakistan were united and had a firm belief in the golden principles of Islam, so they overcome all these problems.
“The creation of Pakistan by itself dissolved what would have been a perpetual ( )دایویdanger zone in Asia”. Discuss.
This line is the part of L.A Khan’s speech in which he has discussed a very important issue. According to him, if creation of Pakistan has not taken place, Sub-Continent would have been one of the most dangerous regions of Asia. The main reason being the social, cultural, political and religious differences between the Hindus and the Muslims. There was no chance of better relations between the two. Hence, due to these differences both nations could not tolerate each other, resulting in a continuous strife ( )جھگڑاbetween them. This continuous strife would always have led to violence ( )تؾذدand bloodshed ( .)قتل و غاستSimilarly, it would provide an opportunity to Muslims to live according to their own traditions. It would give an opportunity to Hindus also that they could promote their own culture, without any hindrance by the Muslims. Therefore, the division of SubContinent had saved this region from disaster and moved it to the path of progress.
According to L.A Khan, what is true freedom?
In his speech, L.A Khan also explained the real meanings of freedom. He said freedom does not mean just freedom from foreign domination. Not only the government should be free from foreign rule, but the people should also be free. They should be free from hunger, disease, ignorance and backwardness. He said unless these aims are achieved, freedom does not have any importance for a common man. He said that our freedom demand from us that we should stand by the present world to get the rightful place. He basically wanted to say that if a nation is facing above said major problems, it cannot compete with the modern world. But unfortunately, if we analyze our present condition, we are sad to find that these three major problems are still prevailing in our country. Every government talks high of controlling them. But alas, no one is making sincere efforts to eradicate them. Hence, it can be said that if these problems are going to increase like this, we would never be able to compete with the modern world.
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This essay is written by “Virginia Wolf”. She is well known for her power of imagination. This essay basically shows how an eclipse created a wonderful effect on the people of England for some time. The writer has beautifully described the shades of the world and people due to changing effect of sun.
QNo1: How the writer has given romantic touch to this essay? Or Describe the scene in which the people of England were excited to see the eclipse. Answer:
This essay is about an incident of eclipse that took place in England one morning. “Virginia Wolf” has given a romantic touch to even such an incident, by using colourful language. It was dawn time and people were gathering on the Euston Railway Station to travel to the North. They were very excited to watch the strange eclipse which was about to appear. The dawn was approaching converting everything into pale shade. The rivers, the fields, crops, grass and flowers were presenting a special grace ( )دلکؾیand colour, losing their own natural colour. All of a sudden the sun started rising, making people even more anxious. As the sun just appeared, a thick cloud over come it. It was a strange sort of strife going on. The sun was trying its best to overcome this invasion, but in vain. However, this was not enough, an eclipse was to follow. The people patiently witnessed the whole scene. As the eclipse started the sun appeared to be defeated by the thick cloud. It looked like a crescent sun ( .)ًیاچاًذThe whole atmosphere was darkening, converting everything blue into purple and pink faces into green. Even the atmosphere was bit chilly ( .)عشدEveryone looked sad at the expected defeat of the sun. However, after sometime, the dying sun once again began to appear in its full grandeur ( .)ؽاى و ؽوکتThe bright rays of the sun were providing enough light to the whole world. In this way the 24 seconds of wonder and anxiety came to an end. In the end it can be said that the writer has not exaggerated ()تڑھاچڑھا کش تیاى کشًا anything, but she has given romantic touch to her description.
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QNo2: “The eclipse” deals with the human appreciation of unusual phenomena ( .)هظہشقذستElaborate. Answer:
“The Eclipse” is a beautiful essay, showing how an eclipse created a wonderful effect on the people of England for some time. Eclipse is something that happens rarely and that is why it is considered an unusual phenomenon. During those days, people could not witness such scenes more often. So whenever it happened, they took great interest in viewing it. That’s why, according to writer, people took so much interest to see the eclipse. They came out of their houses in abundance to watch this strange activity of nature with their own eyes. In short, to appreciate the unusual phenomena is a natural tendency ( )سحجاىof human beings.
QNo3: What is the significance of the conclusion that “The whole fabric ( ) of civilization was modeled and moulded? Answer:
As far as the conclusion is concerned, it is very significant and logical (.)هٌطقی The words “The whole fabric of civilization was modeled and moulded”, show the importance of sun in the system of universe. Sun being a symbol of life provides energy, light and vitality ( )قوت حیاتto this world. However, with the start of life, man started using his talent to model and to mould this world, according to his own requirements, thus providing whole fabric of civilization. As the eclipse appeared, as shown in essay it diminished ( )کن کشًاeverything causing chaos (.)اتتشی The people were surprised to see a change so different. But, its end transformed the whole world into its original shape and splendor ( .)چوک دهکEven the confidence of the people also recovered when the sun washed away all the darkness prevailing upon the world. In the end, it can be said that the sun is the flesh and blood of the whole system of the world and life on earth is impossible with its light. In short, by saying that “the whole fabric of civilization was modeled and moulded”, the writer means that the grandeur of the earth looked the same as before the eclipse it was.
QNo3: What are different shades presented due to changing effect of the sun? Answer: QNo4: What were the two temporary invasions that the sun had to face? Answer:
From the answer of QNo1.
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From the answer of QNo1.
3-WHISTLING OF THE BIRDS
By D.H Lawrence
“Whistling of the Birds” is one the beautiful essays written by “D.H Lawrence”. In this essay, he presents his analysis of changing weather and its effects on the birds. He has used certain images to present a contrast between two contrary seasons: Winter and spring. All this shows his deep study of natural phenomena in all its complexities (.)پچیذگیاں
QNo1: Discuss some images used by D.H Lawrence to suggest a contrast between spring and winter. Answer:
“D.H Lawrence” has used different images to show a contrast between spring and winter. These images show us his minute observation of these two contrasting seasons. The images used for winter are: bloody cloaks (ٍ )لثادof birds, torn carcasses ( ,)هشدٍ اجغامsurge ( )صوسداس تاسػof rain, black tide, sullen (ٍ )آصسدthunder, ragged ( ,)کٹی پھٹیhorror, far off darkness, and bats ( )چوگادڑیںin our hair, mortification ( )کغی عضوکاتیکاسہوجاًاand tearing ( )ٹکڑے کشًاand so on. In this way the images used for spring are: warm and soothing (,)عکوى تخؼ gleams ( )کشًیںof sunshine, whistling and cooing ( ,)فاختہ یاکثوتش کی آواصgloomy ()اداط sunset, thread of silver, new world, silver realm, rolling of the soft and happy dreams, a new heaven and new earth, silver fountain, the glimmering ( )جھلکof new creation and many others. In short, through these images the writer has presented the reality and significance of life and death.
QNo2: “Whistling of the Birds” shows D.H Lawrence’s love for nature. Elaborate (.)تفصیلی طوس پش تیاى کشًا Answer:
“Whistling of the Birds” definitely shows D.H Lawrence’s love for nature. He has used objects of nature to present his point of view. The different shades of nature, its changing colours due to effect of season, the dismal ( ٍ )تھیاًک، افغشدpicture of tiny creatures and above all the scene of changing weather with all its
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complexities, clearly shows his deep observation and his love for nature. Moreover, the details about the heaps of dead bodies, carcasses, remains, lap ( )آغوػwings, red wings, thrushes (ٍ )ایک طشح کاگاًے واال پشًذand numerous other creatures, are evidence of his love for nature. In short, nature has a sweet as well as fearful face; and the writer has presented them beautifully, showing his love for nature.
QNo3: What are the effects of winter on birds? Or Describe the destruction that winter caused in the essay “Whistling of the birds”. Answer:
“Whistling of the birds” is description of D.H. Lawrence’s keen observation of winter season. The writer has described that how winter is not only destructive for man but birds also. The details about death and destruction of winter are real life like and much appealing to us. D.H. Lawrence says that winter has dreadful effect on birds. The heavy frost, which has continued for many days, has ended. It has left its effect on birds. Many have died and some are still dying, buried under the snow. The dead bodies of birds can be seen scattered all around presenting a dismal picture of life. The writer also tells us about the condition of earth in winter. He says that, during winter it is laying degraded ( .)ستثہ کن کشًاThe under spring are quite as they are just waiting for the change of weather and then to burst. These were the effects of winter on the birds.
QNo4: What was the effect of spring on birds? Answer:
The start of the spring had a very strange effect on birds. It brought a pleasant change. The afternoon witnessed the little rays of sun bringing life and hope in the world. The birds seemed happy and doves seen cooing, perhaps welcoming the change. In the evening a gentle wind blew. It follows a strange fearful sound of birds after a long silence. The ice was melting and presenting a new shade. The coming of spring though real seemed fantasy. However, when the spring reached its peak, everything started blooming ( )کھلٌاwith joy, including the birds. In short, though the spring was very strange after sever winter, yet it was an inevitable ( )ًاگضیشreality for the world.
QNo5: What is the message of this essay? Answer:
The message of this essay is that the death and life are two side of the same picture. If one is there other will be out of scene. In fact, they are inevitable realities and we have to face them courageously and against our will. The writer
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actually means to say that nothing is going to remain forever and we have to spend our life accordingly. Hence, we should never be hesitant while facing these realities of life. Moreover, the writer has tried to prove that life is journey from mortality ( )فاًی ہوًاto immortality ( .)غیش فاًی ہوًاIn short, he gives us a message of hope and optimism ( )اچھی اهیذ سکھٌاin this world of harsh realities.
4-TAKE THE PLUNGE
By Gloria Emerson
“Take the Plunge” is an interesting and informative essay written by “Gloria Emerson”. It is basically about writer’s experience of jumping with parachute. In a beautiful manner, she has described the experience of sky diving. She has given even minute observations of whole process.
QNo1: What were the different stages of her plunge?
What details does Gloria provides about the plunge from the aero plane into space? What details does the writer provides about the operation of the parachute, descent and landing? Answer:
In a beautiful manner, “Gloria Emerson” has described her experience of taking plunge from the aero plane. She was physically weak and often teased by her companions for her weakness. Hence, she wanted to do something to astonish them. For this she joined the first US sports parachuting center. After initial training, at last the day came for Gloria to prove herself. She boarded “Cessna 180”. She was given newly designed parachute, a jump suit, a helmet, and a pair of boots to get ready. Wearing all this made her little uneasy. First of all, her companions made a smooth jump and now it was her turn. Suddenly, a fear struck her and she refused to jump. But on being harshly ordered by her instructor she had to take a plunge. She jumped out in harassment ( .)تؾویؼHer parachute opened at some distance. This gave her the most beautiful experience of her life. She could not believe she was in air, passing through most memorable phase of her life. All her fear had gone. She could see
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the earth below glittering in different colours. She safely landed on a sandpit ( سیت کا .)ڈھیشAfter her successful plunge she was taken to General James who praised her for courage and tremendous ( )ؽاًذاسdive. Even her center fellows were highly excited and praised her on her wonderful performance. In short, the writer has beautifully given even the minute details of her wonderful experience.
QNo2: How has the writer described her feelings before and after the plunge? Answer:
Gloria Emerson has mix feelings before and after the plunge. She was bit hesitant on the day she has to dive. She boarded a plane. First of all, her companions make smooth jump and now it was her turn. Suddenly, a fear struck her and she refused to jump. But, being harshly ordered by her instructor, she had to take a plunge. Her parachute opened at some distance. This gave her the most beautiful experience of her life. She could not believe she was in air, passing through most memorable phase of her life. All her fear had gone. She could see the earth below glittering in different colours. She safely landed on a sandpit. After her successful plunge she had altogether different sort of feelings; feelings proud of her. In short, these were mix feelings through which the writer passed during most memorable incident of her life.
Q No3: “Take the Plunge” describes that physical weakness in not a hindrance in doing something extra-ordinary in life. Answer:
Take the Plunge’ is a fantastic essay with the message that Determination is the key to success. We can always turn impossible into possible if we have confidence and strong will power. The writer, Gloria Emerson, has told us about her personal experience of taking the plunge to prove this message. She has such a poor physical condition that everything that everybody used to take pity on her and thought her worth nothing. So she decided to do something extra ordinary to wash the mark of pity off her. She thought about many adventures but the only one suited with her bad back and uncertain ankles was to dive in the air with parachute from aero plane. She joined a flying club to learn the art of diving with the help of a parachute. After completing her training successfully, she boarded a Corona 180 along with a companion. When she took the plunge, she felt the slap of wind and noise but after when her parachute opened, everything came into peace giving her pleasant look of colours of earth and soothing expanse of space. In the end, she landed successfully. Nobody could expect from her such an act but she surprised all her friends by doing this bold act despite her poor physical condition. People applauded her attempt and her determination. In short, Take the Plunge proves that physical weakness is not a hindrance if someone wants to do something extra-ordinary in life.
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5-NAGASAKI, AUGUST 9, 1945
By Michiato Ichimaur
“Nagasaki, August 9, 1945” is a highly thought provoking essay written by Macchiato Ichimaru. In this essay, the writer has presented the tragic ( ) picture of the damage caused by the nuclear bomb blast, during Second World War in Nagasaki. His purpose in giving all these details is to wake up the conscience ( )ضویشof mankind to the fact that such dreadful incidents could cause unaccountable disaster ( )تثاہیto mankind, if not checked on time.
QNo1: Describe the misery and horror caused by the atomic explosion on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.
“I cannot get rid of the sounds of crying women in the destroyed fields. As I got near the school, there were black chard ( )جلی ہوییbodies with white edges showing in the arms and legs”. Writer in your own words the tragedy that befell ( )ًاصل ہوًاNagasaki in above paragraph. Answer:
According to writer, it was bright sunny day on 9th August, 1945. He left his house to catch a tram to go to medical college. But he failed to catch one and returned home. At 11a.m. when he was sitting in his room with his friend, he heard the sound of B.29. In no time, there was a threatening bomb blast, causing the air to turn yellow. They ran downstairs but fell unconscious. On returning to his senses he witnessed the most tragic scene of his life. Everything was ruined to nothing, only structures were left behind. He tried to rush towards the college but fire prevented him to so. The sky turned black causing black rain to fall, turning everything to ashes. The whole city was converted into structure of concrete just looking a graveyard. The women and children were crying with pain. Many students have died or severely wounded destined to die in a few days. Some were badly affected with radiation and were dying. He rescued many of his friends along with other people but unfortunately they could not survive. It was a terrible sight to see his
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friends dying in front of him. However, on 15th, he left Nagasaki for his hometown and saw many survivals crying. These were the details presented by the writer which reveal effect of the blast on Nagasaki.
QNo2: What is the aim of the writer in giving the details of the bomb blast? What is the message of this essay? Answer:
The message of this essay is that man should not use such fatal weapons in any circumstances. These weapons are constant threat to the welfare and prosperity of mankind. Where is the need of such weapons? Can’t we save mankind from the catastrophic ( )تثاٍ کيdestiny ( ?)هقذس،ًصیةNobody but time is going to answer these questions. In short, the whole essay shows the writer’s woe ( )سًج، غنover the misuse of deadly weapons in this beautiful world. His ideas and words clearly present his faith in human brotherhood and his hatred over the use of aggression ( )جاسحیتfor power. In fact, the writer has tried to protest against the aggressive attitude of nations towards each other just to prove their superiority.
QNo3: Macchiato Ichimaru is a witness to the nuclear bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Give details of the awesome ()خوفٌاک power of the blast that reveal the unusual affect. How do you think it to the contemporary ( )ہن عصشsituation? Answer:
Like the answer of QNo1 except last line + Reading the awesome power of the blast that ruined the Nagasaki about 60 years back, we can analyze it with the present situation of the world. There is no doubt that man has progressed considerably during the last 50 to 60 years, but unfortunately, incidents of violence and bloodshed are still a part of this beautiful world. There is hardly any day when we do not hear about some blast in any part of the world. Hence, we can say that the mental approach of man has not been affected by the progress of the world during these years.
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6-WALKING ON THE MOON
“Walking on the Moon” is basically detail of David Scott’s visit to moon. He was one of three astronauts who stepped on the moon and recorded their name in the history. The write has used colourful language to present the story of his visit. The story of the visit is described in such a beautiful way that we love to read every word of it.
QNo1: What aspects of expedition ( )هہنon the moon have been stressed in the essay “Walking on the Moon”?
What sights, not previously experienced by human beings, have been described by the writer? Answer:
“Walking on the Moon” is basically detail of David Scott’s visit to moon. He was one of three astronauts who stepped on the moon and recorded their name in the history. The writer along with his two companions piloted the CSM Endeavour, in the Apollo-15 mission. Before landing on the moon they made 12 revolutions around moon and witnessed its beauty once from the night and other from the dayside. While orbiting it, they witnessed the geological ( )صهیي عے هتعلقہ details never experienced before in their career. Moreover, the sun rose above and made visible the hills, gorges ( )تٌگ گھاٹیand depths of moon. After all they landed on the moon and Scott and his companion Irwin stepped on the moon and got recorded their names in the history of space travel. They felt strange sensation ( ,)عٌغغٌی، جوػputting their first foot on the moon and then moving on it for many hours. Their weights were one-sixth of that on the earth. Hence, special abilities to walk on the moon were needed, for which they have trained. They were moving freely here and there. They had to dig their heels to stop, sometimes even falling with pleasure. They stayed there for 67 hours in different expeditions and got soil samples and countless photographs. They witnessed the different types of hills, rocks, and atmosphere with no wind and sound. It was too hot at day time but cold at night. They also witnessed the earth in its different colours, presenting a marvelous sight. After their memorable visit they came back to earth and were given warm welcome. In short, these were the details of the journey of the writer to the moon.
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QNo2: Had the writer been writing to audience of future astronauts ( ,)خالًوسدhow might the descriptions and exposition ( )تفصیلhave been different? Answer:
This essay is basically the detail of the writer’s visit to moon. He has used colourful language and similes ( )تؾثیہاتto present the story of his visit. The details of the essay are very absorbing and profound ( .)گہشی،هکولBut language is bit odd as for as the information for the future astronauts is concerned. In that case, it should have been a bit different. That is somewhat scientific in which the write would have used a simple and technical language. He would have given facts and figures. He would not have used similes. In that case, it would have been much better exposition for the future astronauts than the one presented in this essay.
QNo3: How does David Scott think about the moon after two years that he is back on the earth? Answer:
After coming back from the moon David Scott once again got busy in his scientific research. Moreover, once he was alone, he thought about his visit of moon. After two years while traveling in his car he witnessed the moon in its full glow. Once again the scene of being on moon ran before his eyes. He felt perhaps he would not be able to witness the moon again, as he had done before. This made him sad. He also considered the moon an important destination for scientists. In short, even after two years, the writer once again, wanted to be on the moon and had the most wonderful experience of his life.
QNo4: Describe the David Scott’s experience of weightlessness on the lunar space. Answer:
While staying on the moon several hours, the writer and his companions had a wonderful experience of weightlessness. The writer says that the force of gravity of the moon is less than that of the earth. Hence, it was quite difficult to walk on it. They felt like babies while walking on it. Moreover, they fell in slow motion with no injury at all, rather it looked quite funny. The only problem they faced was the dust that stuck to their clothes and could not be removed. In short, whatever the case, still it was a rare experience of their life walking on the moon due to weightlessness.
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7- MY GRANDFATHER
“My Grandfather” is a beautiful essay written by W.B Yeats. He is basically known for his imaginative poetry, though he has written a lot of prose also. This essay presents the memory of his childhood and youth days. The writer has beautifully recollected the miseries, pains, and joys of childhood, especially related to maternal relatives. However, greater part of the essay reveals a character analysis of Yeats’ maternal grandfather.
QNo1: How does Yeats compare his grandfather and grandmother? Answer:
This essay basically presents the memories of writer’s childhood, especially related to maternal. However, greater part of the essay reveals a character analysis of Yeats’ maternal grandfather and grandmother. He says that his grandfather, William Pollex fen, was a man of his own nature. Though he was never harsh or unkind to him, yet it was practice to fear and praise him. He was a man of exceptional qualities and had traveled a lot in his youth. Physically he was very strong besides having a hard temper. He could even handle the burglar himself instead of going to the law. Being the only son of his parents, he had very few friends. This shows his nature of remaining alone, though he has acquaintance ( )جاى پہچاىwith some famous people. All his children were well afraid of their proud father. As for as, Yeats’ grandmother is concerned, she was a totally different sort of character. She was kind hearted, considerate and helpful by nature. Though she once punished him because he was playing with a servant, yet he always loved to be in her company. Moreover, she had a fantastic aesthetic ( حغي کے )هتعلقہ،جوالیاتیnature and was admirer ( )تعشیف کشًے واال، پغٌذ کشًے واالof art. Her room was beautifully decorated with different paintings. She always took keen interest in looking after her garden. In short, she had a personality of her own and everybody loved and admired her. These were the writer’s views about his grandfather and grandmother.
QNo2: Why does Yeats remember the pain of childhood? Were the miseries of childhood created by others or of his own mind?
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This essay shows Yeats’ memories of childhood related with maternal. Remembering his childhood he says that it was full of mixed feelings. Summer vocations were often spent with the maternal, where he was not always happy. At maternal, he always faced the threat of being punished by God for his misdeeds. He did not know it was just a trick by elders to keep him away from committing mischief ( .) تشاکامHe even remembers being punished by the grandmother for playing with a servant. His uncle and aunts were very kind hearted and humorous by nature. But, he always wished for someone of his age who could accompany him. In spite of having a pony to ride on and a big garden to play in, he did not feel easy while staying there. However, coming years of his life brought some joy and confidence in him. Thus we can say that though Yeats’ childhood was bit painful still his miseries were created by his own mind, not particular person.
QNo3: What is “something in myself” that Yeats felt that he gradually conquered during his life? Answer:
Answer of the last question except last line + After reading about Yeats’ childhood and problems he faced during that period, we analyze that his childhood was full of uncertainty and lack of confidence. That’s why; he never enjoyed his life while staying at his maternal. However, there was “something in him” which made him overcome all these previous feelings. In short, as he grew up he overcome all his short comings and turned into a mature and confident man.
QNo4: How did the writer and his uncle outwit ()رہاًت عے هغلوب کشًا grandfather? Answer:
In this essay the writer has shown his grandfather a strict person. He had imposed certain harsh rules over his family. One of such rule was not to leave the house late at night. However, once the writer and his uncle were able to outwit the grandfather. Actually, Yeats’ uncle wanted a railway pass, which he could not get from the grandfather. As it was urgently needed, so uncle made a plane to sent him to his uncle’s friend to borrow a railway pass. Yeats says that first he was very hesitant, but being encouraged by his uncle he decided to go to bring pass at night. On the way he was really terrified of the consequences ( ). Because he was sure that as he would return, the grandfather would be standing at the door and he would be punished surely. But this was just his apprehension ( .)خذؽہ As he returned home, he was really relieved to see that it was his uncle and not the grandfather waiting for him, who was delighted to see the pass. In short, this is how the writer and his uncle were able to “out wit” the grandfather.
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8- MY TAILOR
By Stephen Leacock
“My Tailor” is a humorous and pathetic ( )دل پش اثش کشًے واالessay written by one of the greatest humorist of the world, Stephen Leacock. In this essay the writer has humorously presented the character of his tailor. It is, in fact, a character of an ordinary man, but is described in a beautiful manner, making it very interesting even for a common reader.
QNo1: How the writer has presented his tailor in this essay?
What picture of the tailor has been drawn in this essay? Answer:
In this essay the Stephen Leacock has humorously described the character of his tailor, with whom he was long associated. He says he used to stand in the back of his shop. He had tape around his neck and always gave endearing smile. He had a great affection ( )هحثت، الفتfor serge and tweed and usually convinced his customers to get their suits ready with it and often succeed in his purpose. Moreover, his typical style of showing the cloth by lifting one leg and spreading the cloth on it was worth seeing. For the writer he always suggested serge. When he took measurement of writer’s chest he increased a bit every time but contented with other measurements. About the payment he always either avoided or started talking about the weather in the most customary manner. As he was to leave the shop he used to accompany him to the door just talking about the shirts. But, unfortunately here he always failed to convince ( )قاٴیل کشًاthe writer. And in that long association, he had never bought a single shirt from him. This is how tailor used to deal with his customers. After talking about the jolly nature of tailor’s life he now talks about pathetic aspect of his life. During his long association, he did not analyze any change in his character and nature. Hence, he considered him an “immortal creature”. One day as he entered his shop in routine, he was shocked to hear the sad news of his death. However, a great shock was waiting when he came to know that tailor was spending a miserable life. He remained worry about his business and domestic affairs ( ,)هعاهالتwhich perhaps were the cause of his death. Moreover, he learnt that he was a married person having a daughter. He was a
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deeply religiously person and above all adorer ( )عاؽق،هذاحof music. The writer came out of his shop not knowing what to do. But he still felt his presence there with a typical but impressive gesture. That is how the writer has presented the character sketch of his tailor.
QNo2: Why does Leacock regard the tailor as “Immortal”? Answer:
In this essay Leacock has presented the character of his tailor, with whom he has a long association. During that long period, he saw his tailor possessing different qualities. But during this long association, he did not analyze any change in his character and nature. Hence, he considered him an “immortal creature”. Moreover, another aspect which made him to consider the tailor immortal is that the writer has never seen him on humanitarian grounds. He did not know anything about his present life, not even his name, his family, personal problems, and things like that. For writer he is a static figure, a type of personality that is not bound to change. All these things contribute in making him believe that he is an “immortal creature”.
QNo3: Is there any moral in this essay? Answer:
“My Tailor” is a humorous and pathetic essay written by one of the greatest humorist of the world, Stephen Leacock. In this essay the writer has humorously presented the character of his tailor, with whom he has a long association. However, the whole essay gives a moral that we should never only try to see everybody outwardly especially those with whom we have a long association. Rather we should try to see into their inner self. Knowing others outwardly shows our mechanical, inhuman, and unsympathetic attitude, devoid of humanistic values. Such an attitude always makes us repent later on knowing the reality.
QNo4: How did tailor deal with the customers? Answer:
From the answer of QNo1.
QNo5: What was the shocking news for the writer? How did the writer come to know about the personal life of the tailor? Answer:
This beautiful essay shows the different phases of a tailor’s life in an impressive manner. The writer knew the tailor for many years, but he did not know much about his personal life. However, one day when he entered his shop in routine, he shocked to know the sad news of his death……… rest from the answer of question no 1.
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9- THE BEAUTY INDUSTRY
“The Beauty Industry” is an informative and a meaningful essay written by Aldous Huxley. He is known for presenting the basic realities of life and mixing humour and satire ( )طٌضto make his point of view forceful and impressive. The present essay is a criticism on the women of modern world, who indulge themselves in the habit of using excess of cosmetics. In this way they are creating a negative effect on the society.
QNo1: Point out irony ( )طٌضand humour in Huxley’s essay “The Beauty Industry”. Answer:
“The Beauty Industry” is an informative and a meaningful essay written by Aldous Huxley. In this essay he criticizes the women of modern world who indulge themselves in the habit of using excess of cosmetics. In this way they are creating a negative effect on the society. In order to make his point of view forceful and impressive, the writer has mixed humour with irony. By humour we mean presenting something in the most ridiculous ( )ًاهعقولmanner, where as irony is used to say something and suggest something else. The writer has used these two terms quite artistically to criticize the modern women, who use cosmetics just to look attractive and distinct. He ironically gives the figure of 130million pounds which is used on this activity, almost twice the revenue of India. He humorously says that it is all because of the race to look attractive. However, he, very ironically says that today’s women try to be more attractive and less virtuous ( )ًیک than their grandmothers. His ironical but a bit humorous remarks that the campaign ( )هہنfor more physical beauty seems to be both a tremendous success and a lamentable ( )افغوط ًاکfailure, are full of meaning and purpose. In short, in an ironical and humorous manner the writer has tried to condemn the negative approach of women towards life.
QNo2: “The campaign for more physical beauty seems to be both a tremendous success and a lamentable failure”. Elaborate. Answer:
Aldous Huxley’s remarks that the campaign for more physical beauty seems to be both a tremendous success and a lamentable failure, are full of
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meaning and purpose. Through these remarks the writer has basically shown the hidden vices ( )عیة،ًقصof women. He says that the women use excess of cosmetics for two purposes; one to look attractive and second to attract and impress the opposite sex. He says that the campaign for more physical beauty is very successful as far as physical appearance is concerned making the women look youthful and charming. But he says it is a lamentable failure when we probe ( )غوسعے هؾاہذٍ کشًاdeep into ourselves and find out hollowness ( ,)کھوکھال پيsterility ()تٌجشپي and vanity ( )چھچھوساپيhere. Hence, their entire struggle to paint their faces just to look beautiful becomes a real failure. In short, these remarks suggest that the real beauty of a person lies in his inner self, the beauty of soul.
QNo3: How according to Huxley, can human race become beautiful? Do you agree with Huxley? Answer:
According to Huxley human race can become beautiful if all the people try to ignore the physical beauty and pay more attention to their spiritual beauty, beauty of soul. Moreover, this world can be made beautiful if human being start living a harmonious ( )ہن آہٌگlife. This world can become more worth living if they start living a life which is free from the mal-practices harmful to the body as well as soul. In short, a life full of purity, spirituality, and harmony and above all love is essential to bring happiness and prosperity in this world. And I definitely agree with Huxley’s remarks about making this world beautiful.
QNo4: What is the moral purpose of this essay? Answer:
The moral purpose of this essay is that man should ignore the mal-practices which are harmful to the body as well as soul. He should adopt a life full of love, co-operation, and harmony. Man should try to get rid of spiritual ugliness which makes him sinful. He should adopt a simple, pure, and natural life to bring happiness and prosperity in life. + Answer of QNo3.
QNo5: What are the practical results of this modern cult ()ٕعثادت، هزہة of beauty? The exercises and the massages, the health motors and skin foods, to what have they led? Are women more beautiful than they were? Do they get something from the enormous expenditure ( )اخشاجاتof energy and money demanded of them by the beauty cult? Answer these questions in this paragraph. Answer:
After reading the whole essay, we find the practical result of this modern cult of beauty. Due to exercises, use of cosmetics the modern women has definitely succeeded in improving their physical beauty. But the writer says that sometimes this cult leads them to the failure as they are unable to fulfill the motives of looking beautiful. Moreover, due to use of exercise, massages, health motors, skin food, they have started looking younger and more beautiful than
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they actually are. But all these artificial techniques had led them to the wastage of energy and time. The women had lost the moral values of virtues ( )خوتی،صفتand chastity (.)پاکیضگی Physically they definitely look younger and more beautiful, but not inwardly, which is actual beauty of a woman. In short, all these things have given nothing morally and spiritually to women.
10- ARE DOCTORS MEN OF SCEINCE
George Bernard Shaw
This interesting essay is an extract ( )ًچوڑof Bernard Shaw’s preface to “The Doctor’s Dilemma”, one of his greatest plays. Bernard Shaw is an Irish novelist, music critic, and reformer ( .)اصالح کشًے واالHe through his writings had tried to point out the common problems, prevailing around us, and tried to eradicate them. In this essay, he has exposed the powers of doctors and vices and follies found in them. In short, in a delightful manner he has shown the hidden realities of the so called doctors, considered as men of science.
QNo1: “Doctoring is not even the art of keeping people in health”. How far do you agree with G.B Shaw? Answer:
G.B Shaw’s remark, “Doctoring is not even the art of keeping the people in health”, is quite justified and I definitely agree to it. Through this remark he is trying to tell us that the duty of doctor is only to cure illness and not to keep people healthy. A doctor is always consulted when a person is only suffering from some kind of ailment. In that case the doctor only diagnoses the ailment and prescribes the suitable medicine for its remedy. This means that he is keeping a person healthy but only curing the disease. To keep oneself healthy demands more than just medicine i.e. proper diet, proper exercise and proper fitness. If a person has all these things, then he remains healthy. Hence, keeping oneself healthy and curing a disease are two different fields, and doctor is not the only person to handle them. Hence, Shaw’s remarks are quite right.
QNo2: Is there no difference between doctors and quack (?)ًین حکین Give illustration to prove your point.
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There is much difference between a doctor and quack, though Shaw has criticized doctors by making them almost similar to that of a quack. A doctor gets the degree of MBBS and acquires proper training in the medical field. Moreover, he does house job in a hospital and gets practical experience. As far as a specialist is concerned, he also undergoes a through training in a particular field so that he becomes expert in it. On the other hand, the quacks such as bonesettlers, herbalists and witches ( )جادوگشًیاںmostly get knowledge either through personal experience or inherit qualities. These people are playing with the lives of the patients. But, according to G.B Shaw there is much resemblance between a doctor and a quack, except that he cannot issue death certificate. Shaw’s remarks actually rebukes ( )تشاتھال کہٌاthe non-serious attitude of the qualified doctors towards their profession. In short, there is definitely a difference between a doctor and a quack.
QNo3: “The doctors have adopted the profession just for convenience”. Prove. Or Why does Shaw ridicule doctors? Are they really ridiculous? Answer:
Shaw says that people often impressed by the appearances of doctors and consider them men of science, but they have non-serious attitude towards their sacred duty. He says that actually every doctor cannot be a man of science, just as every captain of a ship cannot be Galileo. For him doctors are no more scientists than tailor. Their role is not to keep people healthy, but is cure illness. They often destroy the patient’s health by their self-drawn conclusions. His highly satirical remark that a quack has resemblance with a doctor, except that he cannot issue death certificate, has deep allegorical significance. Furthermore, he criticized some qualified doctors that sometimes they prescribe medicine which is harmful to their patient. Many people die in operation theaters due to the ignorance and slackness ( )عغتیof surgeons. They do not realize how precious life is. They suppose that they have the right to kill patient, wearing the mask of a doctor. Hence, Shaw’s ideas that, doctors should not always be considered as man of science looks right under these circumstances. For him every human life is precious and such an attitude of doctors is highly condemnable ( .)قاتل هالهتIn short, the writer is quite right in condemning the doctors especially those who have adopted this profession just for convenience.
QNo4: How do the quacks play with the life of people? Answer:
In this essay G.B Shaw has not only criticized the doctors but quacks also. He says that these quacks are playing with lives of the people. The quacks are making huge money as far as their practice in under-developed areas is concerned. The bone-settlers, for example, are making a lot of money in the
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presence of qualified surgeons, showing lack of consciousness among people. The village witches and herbalists are convincing and curing people with different charms and herbs respectively. The patients, even some educated people, have deep faith in them. They often use their treatment as blessing. This is how the quacks are playing with the lives of the people.
QNo5: Relate the story, Bernard Shaw tells at the end of this essay. Answer:
Shaw says that even some qualified doctors prescribe such medicine which is harmful to their patient. In this respect, he tells a story of an old woman who was a psychological patient. One day she went to a specialist and told him that she felt that she was a heart patient and needed some treatment. The doctor, without investigating whether the lady was really suffering from heart disease or not, gave her a very strong medicine. Shaw says that the lady was fortunate enough to survive from the reaction of the medicine and thought that the problem was solved, but actually it was not this. He says that in a society where we find such doctors how can one consider himself safe. In short, through this story Shaw has criticized the non-serious attitude of the doctors.
11-HOSTS AND GUESTS
“Hosts and Guests” is a light hearted humorous essay written by “Max Beerbohm”. It shows writer’s deep observation of human nature. He has worked upon the words “Hosts and Guests” in a very convincing manner. He has ridicule the maliciousness ( )کیٌہ پشوسیfound in both the instincts ( )جثلتof being a guest or a host.
QNo1: How does Max Beerbohm differentiate between hosts and guests? Answer:
“Hosts and Guests” though seems to be a light hearted humorous essay, but deep down it has a profound allegorical significance. It shows writer’s deep observation of human nature. He has worked upon the words “Hosts and Guests” in a very convincing manner.
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He has separated mankind into two classes: the hosts and guests. He says that modern society is full of men who either posses the instinct of an active host or a passive guest. A host is a person who always offers hospitality, while a guest is a person who always receives hospitality. Moreover, he says that these noble instincts are used in a negative sense for material benefits, thus degrading their values. In short, he opines ( )ساے سکھٌاthat there is definitely a big difference between being a host or a guest. He further says that a person should try to acquire ( حاصل )کشًاthese instincts according to circumstances to make it look elegant ( ،ًفیظ )خوتصوستand worth praising.
QNo2: “Our deepest instincts, bad or good, are those which we share with the rest of animal creation”. Discuss in the light of this essay. Answer:
Beerbohm statement “Our deepest instincts, bad or good, are those which we share with the rest of animal creation”, presents a true picture of human nature. In this line he has tried to show that animals and men share their basic instincts with each other, that is, most of the people do not like to share their belongings with others. If we try to go through the past we will see that the ancient people did not share their possession. Similarly, many animals, like the ancient men do not share their things. But the modern man does share their belongings. But, the writer wants to say that this modern instinct of sharing has made people somewhat suspicious ( .)هؾتثہHe thinks that today people share their things for some material benefits. That is why these noble instincts have lost their values and significance. In short, his remarks clearly show his deep study of human nature.
QNo3: What is message/moral of this essay? Answer:
In this light hearted and humorous essay the writer has tried to comment on the basic instinct of man of being a host or a guest. He has not only differentiated between both of them but also criticized the underlying instincts found in them. But, he has also given us a message that a man should always maintain balance between both the roles, instead of being always a host or a guest. He says that when hospitality becomes an art it loses its soul and real significance becomes useless. In short, every individual posses these instincts and should always use them accordingly to make it look elegant and worth praising.
QNo4: How does being rich or poor persuade ( )آهادٍ کشًاa person to be a host or a guest? Or Why the rich are always hosts and the poor always guests?
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“Hosts and Guests” though seems to be a light hearted humorous essay, but deep down it has a profound allegorical significance. It shows writer’s deep observation of human nature. He has worked upon the words “Hosts and Guests” in a very convincing manner. The writer says that God has blessed man with these instincts so that he uses them in a proper way. In this way he would always share love and co-operation with others. But unfortunately, the modern man has misused these instincts for his material benefits. As we see that the rich people are more inclined towards affection. They always want to show themselves off; hence, they prefer to be host instead of being a guest. On the other hand most of the poor people are always very humble, simple and submissive ( ), who have nothing to show off or expose before others. Hence, they avoid becoming host and prefer to be guests. These are the reasons why the rich are mostly hosts and the poor guests.
12-THE BACEHLOR’S DILEMMA
“The Bachelor’s Dilemma” is a humorous but ironical essay written by a renowned American novelist, essayist, and short story writer, Herbert Gold. This essay highlights the problems faced by a bachelor in this world, especially in American society. The essay shows writer’s deep observation of human nature particularly that of a young bachelor.
QNo1: What are the real problems faced by a bachelor as expressed in this essay? “The life of a bachelor is a disorganized life”. Do you agree? Answer:
This essay highlights the problems faced by a bachelor in this world, especially in American society. The writer says a bachelor is person who does not know where he stands in this civilized society. He has no belief, no notions, and no aims in life. His life is much disorganized. He always finds himself on the verge of some dilemma ( .)عاًحہ،دوًوں طشف هؾکلHe always feels himself alone in this world. Probably, he finds himself misfit in this environment but having no alternative where to go. He often found in parties wandering alone. When Bachelor looks, into a mirror he has an altogether different idea about himself. The mirror gives him the reflection of a healthy young man with a lot of
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time, chance, and money; who can eat, drink, and roam at will. He feels himself free without a wife or children to look after. But same mirror sometimes gives him some displeasing aspects as well. He feels himself alone and unwanted by society. He even faces many problems such as due to irregular diet and above all sex, producing two types of bachelor. There is one who is handsome, charming and always in search of new girls and even getting them. The other is a bit mediocre ( ,)اوعظ دسجے کاalways considering himself a hero in dreams. He has intimacy with pretty girls only in imagination, but a failure in life. He always tosses in bed, but sometime fortunate enough to get a meeker ( )ًشم هضاج سکھٌے والیgirl like him as a partner. But the problem with both of them is that they are not satisfied with themselves. They always need true love but seldom get and always get what they do not want. In short, these are some problems faced by an American bachelor as expressed in this essay.
QNo2: What are different feelings of different people towards a bachelor? Answer:
This essay highlights the problems faced by a bachelor in this world, especially in American society. Moreover, it shows the point of view of different people about a bachelor. According to writer, a bachelor is a person who often found in parties, wandering alone. A wife might on the one hand see him as a bad example for her husband but on the other hand having sympathy and delicate feelings about him. She wants to relieve him from his sorrow and frustration ( .)هحشوهیBut a husband might have mix feelings about him. He sometimes considers him lucky not to be labeled as a married person, but also a poor fellow not having charms of a matrimonial life and its comforts. In the eyes of young girls a true bachelor has special attraction. She considers him a possible match and desires to trap him with her beauty and gesture. Where as a bachelor might take him as a friend or rival who might take away his girl. A hostess considers him an extra man and for a psychiatrist he is no more than a patient. This is how the writer has beautifully described the feelings of different people about a bachelor.
QNo3: What is the dilemma faced by a Pakistani bachelor. Does he have anything common with that of an American counterpart (?)جوڑ Answer:
This essay highlights the problems faced by a bachelor in this world, especially in American society. However, after reading the whole essay carefully we do find certain problems that are common between an American and Pakistani bachelor. A Pakistani bachelor also finds himself alone and unwanted. He is often criticized and considered to be failure according to the norms of society. His deep rooted bonds with the family stop him from doing
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something according to his will. He is considered misfit and thus his opinions and ideas have no weight at all. His life is even more miserable than an American counterpart, as he is not free to live his life according to his own choice. He has to face many restrictions as far as social freedom or sex is concerned. In fact, a Pakistani bachelor’s life is an amalgam (ٍ )آهیضof dependence, loneliness, tension, frustration and negligence.
“Tolerance” is one of the best essays ever written on such a critical and significant issue. It is taken from E.M Foster’s collection of essays “Two Cheers for Democracy”. The essay presents the significance of Tolerance in the development of a peaceful society. In a very profound and forceful style the writer has analyzed the importance of such vital topics as Tolerance, Love and fanaticism ( )هزہثی جٌوًیتin this essay. In short, this is very beautiful essay having deep allegorical significance.
QNo1: What is tolerance and how much it is needed for the prosperity of the world? Answer:
“Tolerance” is one of the best essays ever written on such a critical and significant issue. At the start of the essay the writer says that people often talks about the reconstruction of this world, but it is quite pity that no one actually makes a real effort to do it. The writer opines that the only way to make this world beautiful and worth living is to create an instinct of beauty in yourself. Furthermore, the writer says that the people think that “love” is a remedy to eradicate the negative instinct of aggression, tyranny and prejudice ( )تعصةfrom this world. But, he does not consent to it. In his opinion love is concerned with private life and it does not work in public affairs. It is a stupidity to think that nations or business correspondents will love each other in business or political affairs. Something much more serious and productive is needed in public relations and reconstruction of nature. He says that it is in fact “Tolerance” which is the key to solve all the problems of the world. Tolerance means to bear up the people even if you disagree with them and have broad mindedness in one’s attitude. Even if you have a difference in social,
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economic, religious, and political set up, still you can go on well with others if you possess Tolerance. In fact, it is needed in all spheres of our social life. He asserts that if you do not like some one’s face or nose, what you are going to do. Are you going to kill just like the German who killed the Jews or you going to tolerate. Certainly, later is more virtuous ( )ًیکand desirable for the bright future of the world. And finally he says that all the pioneers of the world like Buddha preached tolerance to people to make their lives peaceful and worth living. In short, tolerance is the greatest virtue and a mysterious power that can bring peace, happiness, and reconstruction.
QNo2: “It is very easy to see fanaticism in other people, but difficult to spot it in oneself”. Is it really so? Answer:
Foster’s famous words, “It is very easy to see fanaticism in other people, but difficult to spot it in oneself”, have been a subject of discussion by the critics. The word fanaticism means having an abnormal enthusiasm ( جوػ و )خشوػin one’s views especially concerned with the religious and political matters. It is basically an evil instinct giving birth to hatred and prejudice. However, it is very ironic that people find fanaticism in others but seldom try to observe it in themselves. Different religious, political, and social groups are involved in the practice of fanaticism. They are crushing others for their own material obsession. It is a negative tendency leading people towards bloodshed, wastage of time and money. Fanaticism is, in fact, opposite to tolerance which is the foundation of a peaceful society. In short, every quarter of society is fanatic killing others for nothing. But it is ironic nobody is ready to accept himself to be a fanatic, rather always condemning others to be one, and treating them in the most deadly manner.
QNo3: What is significance of “Tolerance” for us in Pakistan? Answer:
Pakistan, being an Islamic state is definitely in need of tolerance. It is a pity that though this sacred country was established in the name of Islam. But, unfortunately all the evils such as corruption and fanaticism are a part and parcel of our society. Pakistan has adversely been affected by the religious, sectarian, ethic, and political fanaticism. It has, in fact, ruined the peace and progress of our country ever since independence. No one wants to tolerate others. Almost all the spheres of our life are badly under shadow of destruction. The main reason is our deviation from the fundamental concept of Islam. The only remedy is a thorough change of attitude and adoption of tolerance in our everyday dealings. By including tolerance in our society, we can guarantee the well being and harmony of our nation. In short, tolerance is a must for our country if we want to make it a true Islamic state.
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QNo4: How can we make this world peaceful, happy and worth living? Answer: QNo5: What message/moral has the writer tried to give in this essay? Answer:
“Tolerance” is one of best essay, signifying the importance of tolerance of in making this world peaceful and worth living. The writer has tried to give us a message that if we want to make this world beautiful and worth living, we will have to adopt tolerance. He says that even if we do not agree with someone, you should try to bear him. If someone have any kind of social, economic, religious or political differences still he can go on well with others if he posses tolerance. Moreover, he had condemned fanaticism, calling it an evil instinct that gives birth to hatred, tyranny, bloodshed and deprive man of the basic humanistic values. Hence, we should try to stay away from fanaticism and adopt positive outlook in life. In short, the writer has given us a message of love, hope, brotherhood, and above all tolerance. From the answer of question no 1.
QNo6: Why E.M Foster in his essay “Tolerance” does not favour love for rebuilding civilization? Love is a great force in private life. It is indeed the greatest of all the things. But love in public affairs does not work. Discuss in the light of this essay. Answer: QNo7: The progress and prosperity of this world is damaged by the fanatic attitude of people. Is it really so? Fanaticism always breeds negative instinct in man where as tolerance embalms ( )گلٌے عڑًے عے هحفوظ سکھٌاthem. Answer:
Like the answer of question no 2. Like the answer of question no 1.