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Rheology Essentials of Cosmetic and Food Emulsions

# Rheology Essentials of Cosmetic and Food Emulsions

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03/18/2014

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– The true value is a purely theoretical number and rarely known exactly. It is
thevaluewewould obtain inaperfectmeasurement. Truevalues arebynature
indeﬁnite.
– Example 1: In our dice game the true value is 3.5. This means that we should
obtain amean of 3.5for anideal diceifwethroughthediceaninﬁnitenumber
oftimes.Ifwedonotobtain3.5asthemeanafteraninﬁnitenumberofthrows,
the difference is the so-called bias.

10.1.4 StandardDeviationandVariance

Another characteristic parameter besides the mean is the degree of ﬂuctuation
(standard deviation or variance). Variance is a measure of how the individual
data are distributed around the mean (how strongly the data ﬂuctuate around the
mean).

The following is valid for the variance: var(χ) from n data : χi

var(χ) = 1

n − 1

n
i=1

χi −χ 2

= 1
n − 1

n
i=1

χ2

i − nχ2

(10.4)

We divide here by n − 1 because the mean used in the equations was calculated
from the data. This reduces the number of degrees of freedom. For calculation of

136

10 Calibration/Validation

the variance the square is used because then the points lying farther away more
strongly inﬂuence the result.
In our dice experiment the calculated mean we used was 3.25. The variance
derived from this is therefore

s2

= var

χ = 1

12 − 1

n
i=1

χi − 3.25 2

= 3.66

(10.5)

If we had based our calculation on the true value µ rather than on the mean χ,
then we would not divide by n − 1 but by n. We often speak of the error of each
measurement or the true value.
Here we use Greek symbols (reference to the true value) rather than Roman
letters (reference to the calculated mean): σ2

(variance) or σ (standard devia-

tion):

σ2

= 1

n

n
i=1

χi −µ 2

= 1

n

n
i=1

χ2

i − nµ2

(10.6)

The true value in our dice game is characterized by assuming an ideal dice and
obtaining a mean of 3.5 with many throws. The true value is then 3.5.

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