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. I




H eal ing

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Cau tion: T his book is not intended as a g u ide to the u se of
hal l u cinog enic pl ants. Its pu rpose is to offer scientific, his-
torical , and cu l tu ral docu mentation concerning a g rou p of
pl ants that are or hav e been of importance to many societies.
Ing estion of some of these pl ants or pl ant produ cts may be
dang erou s. T he remedies, approaches, and techniq u es de-
scribed herein are meant to su ppl ement, and not be a su b-
stitu te for, professional medical care or treatment. T hey
shou l d not be u sed to treat a seriou s ail ment withou t prior
consu l tation with a q u al ified heal thcare professional .
H eal ing A rts Press
One Park Street
Rochester, Vermont 0 5 7 6 7
www. l nnerT raditions. com
First pu bl ished by H eal ing A rts Press in 1 9 9 2
A produ ction of E M B -Serv ice for Pu bl ishers,
L u cerne, Switzerl and
Copy rig ht © 1 9 9 8 ( u pdated v ersion) E M B -Serv ice for
Pu bl ishers, L u cerne, Switzerl and
E ng l ish transl ation second edition Copy rig ht © 2 0 0 1
A l l rig hts reserv ed. No part of this book may be reprodu ced
or u til ized in any form or by any means, el ectronic or me-
chanical , incl u ding photocopy ing , recording , or by any infor-
mation storag e and retriev al sy stem, withou t permission in
writing from the pu bl isher.
L ibrary of Cong ress Catal og ing -in-Pu bl ication Data
Schu l tes, Richard E v ans.
Pl ants of the g ods : their sacred, heal ing , and hal l u cino-
g enic powers I Richard E v ans Schu l tes, A l bert H ofmann,
Christian Rbtsch. — 2 nd ed.
p. cm.
Incl u des bibl iog raphical references
ISB N 0 — 8 9 2 8 1 — 9 7 9 — 0
1 . H al l u cinog enic pl ants. 2 . H al l u cinog enic pl ants— U ti-
l ization. 3 . E thnobotany . I. H ofmann, A l bert, 1 9 0 6 - II.
Rä tsch, Christian, 1 9 5 7 - Il l . T itl e
Q K 9 9 . A 1 S3 9 2 0 0 1
3 9 4 . 1 '4 — dc2 l
2 0 0 1 0 0 4 4 2 5
1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
H eal ing A rts Press is a div ision of Inner T raditions
International
Pictu re on titl e pag e: M ay an stone" from
E l Sal v ador, l ate formativ e period ( 3 0 0 c. — & . D. 2 0 0 ) ;
heig ht 1 3 ¼ in. ( 3 3 . 5 cm) .
Orig inal concept and desig n: E mil M . B Ohrer, Franz G isl er,
J oan H al ifax , and Robert T obl er
New material transl ated by : A nnabel L ee and
M ichael B easl ey
Composition: SatzW eise, FOhren, G ermany
Photol ithog raphY : Pesav ento A G , Z u rich, Switzerl and
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T he dreaming smok er stretched ou t
comfortabl y on his chaise enj oy s v isions
indu ced by H ashish. T his eng rav ing is
from M . v on Schwind's A l bu m of E tch-
ing s, pu bl ished in 1 8 4 3 .
Pag e 4 l eft: T he witches of mediev al
E u rope indu ced inebriation with a g reat
v ariety of brews, most of which had at
l east one of the Nig htshades as a
psy choactiv e constitu ent. Du ring their
intox ications, they eng ag ed in many
aspects of hex ing , both mal ev ol ent and
benev ol ent. T his il l u stration, a woodcu t,
pu bl ished in 1 4 5 9 , portray s two witches
cal l ing for rain and thu nder, possibl y
du ring a dry spel l , and preparing a brew
to hel p them achiev e this g oal .






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For the H u ichol Indians of M ex ico, the Pey ote cactu s ( L ophophora wil l iams/ i)
( see pag e 7 ) is not a pl ant bu t a g od, a g ift from the E arth G oddess to hu -
mans to assist them in attaining a connection to her in the
my stical real ms.
T he H u ichol cel ebrate a g reat Pey ote festiv al ev ery y ear ( be/ ow) , at which al l
members of the tribe partak e in eating the freshl y harv ested Pey ote cactu s.
A
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bil l ion



























7
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T he shamans of the H u ichol Indians u se the sacred Pey ote cactu s so that
they may attain a v isionary state of consciou sness in the al ternate real ity
which is cau sal to occu rrences in mu ndane real ity ; what affects the former
8
wil l chang e the l atter. T he shaman in the middl e of the y arn painting is
depicted with a sk u l l becau se he is a " dead man" and thu s has the abil ity to
trav el into the nether real ms.
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Datu ra has l ong been connected to the
worship of Shiv a, the Indian g od asso-
ciated with the creativ e and destru ctiv e
aspects of the u niv erse. In this ex traor-
dinary bronze scu l ptu re from Sou th-
east India of the el ev enth or twel fth
centu ry , Shiv a dances the A nandatã n-
dav a, the sev enth and l ast of his
dances, which combines al l infl ections
of his character. U nder his l eft foot,
Shiv a cru shes the demon A pasmã ra-
pu ru sa, who is the personification of
ig norance. In Shiv a's u pper rig ht hand,
he hol ds a tiny dru m that sy mbol izes
T ime by the rhy thm of his cosmic
dance in the fiel d of L ife and Creation.
H is l ower rig ht hand is in the abhay a-
mu drã , ex pressing Shiv a's q u al ity of
safeg u arding the u niv erse. In his u pper
l eft hand, he hol ds a fl ame that bu rns
the v eil of il l u sion. H is l ower l eft hand is
hel d in the g aj ahasta and points to his
raised l eft foot, which is free in space
and sy mbol izes spiritu al l iberation.
Shiv a's hair is bou nd with a band, and
two serpents hol d a sk u l l as a central
ornament, thu s showing Shiv a's de-
stru ctiv e aspects of T ime and Death.
On the rig ht is a Datu ra fl ower. G ar-
l ands of Datu ra bl ossoms are wov en
among the l ock s of his whirl ing hair.

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B el ow: T his painting by the Peru v ian shaman Pabl o A maring o depicts the
creation of the drink A y ahu asca, the most important medicine of the A mazo-
nian Indians. T he mag ical drink has powerfu l v isionary properties, which re-
v eal to the participant a g l impse of " tru e real ity ," the fantastic real m of v isions.


















Pag e 1 3 top: T he hal l u cinog enic u se of H emp ( Cannabis) can be traced far
back into history . It is possibl e that the ing estion of this pl ant was responsibl e
for the wil d dances of the M ong ol ian shaman.

















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l ics,

— —

















. che-















B el ow rig ht: In India the fl owers of the potent hal l u cinog enic T horn A ppl e
( Datu ra metel ) are brou g ht as an offering to the H indu g od Shiv a. T hey are
al so ritu al l y smok ed.
B el ow l eft: H enbane ( H y oscy arnu s al bu s) is one of the most important hal l u -
cinog enic pl ants of E u rope. It was u sed for oracl es and ritu al l y bu rned in
ancient G reece.
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B el ow: M aria Sabina rev erentl y ing ests the niñ os santos, hol y chil dren," as
she l ov ing l y refers to the v isionary and heal ing M ag ic M u shrooms.
either






















Pag e 1 5 : T he M azatec shaman M aria Sabina incenses sacred mu shrooms
prior to their ing estion du ring the heal ing ceremony of the y e/ ada.
frog s,












































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— —









































H al l u cinog enic species occu r among the hig hest-ev ol v ed
fl owering pl ants ( ang iosperms) and in the div ision fu ng i of
the simpl er pl ants. A ng iosperms are su bdiv ided into mono-
cots ( one seed l eaf) and dicots ( two seed l eav es) .
Sweet Fl ag , H emp ( M arij u ana) , and Deadl y Nig htshade
( abov e, rig ht) as wel l as Fl y A g aric ( bel ow, rig ht) are repre-
sentativ e psy choactiv e species.

rcap M oss
Pr,! ,,,trirh, rn rnrnrn, nfl
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Spermatophy tes are the seed pl ants, su bdiv ided into
cone-bearers ( g y mnosperms) and fl owering pl ants
( ang iosperms) .
Seaweeds
A l g ae
Dicots ( fl owering pl ants with two seed l eav es) are separated into
A rchichl amy deae ( petal s absent or separate) and M etachl amy -
deae ( petal s j oined) .
M u shrooms and mol ds ( fu ng i) , seaweeds ( al g ae) , mosses
and l iv erworts ( bry ophy tes) , and ferns ( pteridophy tes) are
simpl er pl ants.
1 7
W hite H ne
Pinu s strobu s
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B el ow: A fl ower and l eav es of the hal l u cinog enic Datu ra innox ia, which be-
l ong s to one of the most hig hl y ev ol v ed famil ies of the fl owering pl ants.
Pag e 1 9 l eft: T his fossil of bl u e-g reen al g ae ( Co/ l en/ a) is approx imatel y 2 . 3
bil l ion y ears ol d and is one of the earl iest k nown specimens of l ife on E arth.
Pag e 1 9 rig ht A fossil ized al g ae col ony from the Cambrian period in B ol iv ia
demonstrates that l ife-forms can be su ccessfu l l y preserv ed ov er bil l ions of
y ears.













































































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Some psy choactiv e compou nds are al so produ ced by animal s. T he Col orado
Riv er toad ( B u fo a/ v a riu s) secretes considerabl e amou nts of 5 -M eO-DM T .
isol ated





































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M escal ine— H CI Psil ocy bine
( mescal ine-hy drochl oride, cry stal l ized from al cohol ) ( cry stal l ized from methanol )
psy chiatry ,
















Psil ocine
( cry stal l ized from methanol )
M any al k al oids cry stal l ize poorl y as free bases. T hey wil l separate as a cry s-
tal l ized sal t, howev er, when neu tral ized with a su itabl e acid, either by cool ing
the satu rated sol u tion or by ev aporation of the sol v ent. Cry stal l ization of su b-
stances from sol u tions is carried ou t mainl y fpr pu rification, since by -produ cts
remain in the sol v ent.
A s each su bstance has its own specific cry stal l ine form, this form serv es for
identification and characterization of a su bstance. A modern method for the
el u cidation of chemical constitu tions is the X -ray stru ctu re anal y sis. For the
appl ication of this method, al k al oids and other su bstances mu st be av ail abl e
in cry stal l ized form.
2 3
/
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. . B y












B e/ ow: T he photog raph depicts an aerial v iew of the K u l u ene Riv er, the sou thernmost tribu tary
of the X ing ü Riv er, a main affl u ent of the A mazon.
Rig ht: " T here were enormou s trees, crowned with mag nificent fol iag e, deck ed with fantastic
parasites, and hu ng ov er with l ianas, which v aried in thick ness from sl ender threads to hu g e
py thon-l ik e masses, were now rou nd, now fl attened, now k notted and now twisted with the
reg u l arity of a cabl e. Intermix ed with the trees, and often eq u al to them in al titu de, g rew nobl e
pal ms; whil e other and far l ov el ier species of the same famil y , their ring ed stems sometimes
scarcel y ex ceeding a fing er's thick ness, bu t bearing pl u me-l ik e fronds and pendu l ou s bu nches
of bl ack or red berries, q u ite l ik e those of their l oftier al l ies, formed, al ong with shru bs and
arbü scl es of many ty pes, a bu shy u nderg rowth, not v isu al l y v ery dense or difficu l t to penetrate
It is worthy to be noted that the l oftiest forest is g eneral l y the easiest to trav erse; the l ianas
and parasites. . . being in g reat part too hig h to be mu ch in the way . .
— Richard
2 4
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T op: A t the Shiv a T empl e of Pashu patinath near K athmandu , Nepal , Indian
y og is smok e M arij u ana in preparation for the ardu ou s body practice and
meditation.









B el ow: Visions rev eal ed by hal l u cinog ens can be su bseq u entl y
processed
and rendered artistical l y . In this way the ex perience is carried into and
con-
nected with ev ery day l ife. ( H al l u cig enia by Christian Rä tsch, watercol or, circa
1 9 9 3 )










u sed















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• NA T IVE U SE OF M A J OR I
H A L L U CINOG E NS
Notwithstanding the g reater ag e of cu l tu res and the
widespread u se of hal l u cinog ens in the E astern • • - -
H emisphere, the nu mber of species so u sed is far
the W estern H emisphere. A nthropol og ists
hav e e pl ained this disparity on cu l tu ral
T here does not, to be a sig nificant
difference between the two hemispheres in the nu m
ber of pl ants possessing hal l u cinog enic pnricipl es
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T here are few cu l tu res in the W estern H emisphere that
did not v al u e at l east one hal l u cinog enic pl ant in
mag ico-rel ig iou s ceremonies. M any cu l tu res had
sev eral . In addition to hal l u cinog ens, a nu mber of
otherwise psy choactiv e pl ants shared the honors:
T obacco, Coca, G u ay u sa, Y oco, G u arancá . Some of
these— especial l y T obacco and Coca— rose to ex al ted
positions in the sacred nativ e pharmacopoeias. T hese
maj or hal l u cinog ens are cu l tu ral l y sig nificant in the
areas indicated by the sy mbol s.
e
H y oscy amu sspp.
A manita mu scaria
A tropa bel l adonna
Cannabis sativ a
CIa v iceps pu rpu rea
Datu raspp.
T abernanthe ibog a
0
A nadenanthera pereg rina
4 '
A nadenanthera col u brina
4 ,
q 3 Q B anistenopsis caapi
4 ,
B ru g mansiaspp.
L ophophora wil l iamsii 0
Psil ocy bespp
T u rbina cory mbosa et l pomoea v iofacea
4 '
Virol aspp
Du boisia spp.
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Rig ht: Shamans remain the g u ardians of wisdom concerning the mag ical ef-
fects of the psy choactiv e pl ants. T his photog raph was tak en at the hol y
mou ntain K al inchok ( 4 ,0 0 0 m) in the H imal ay as of Nepal .
famil y .

— —



















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T he botanical inv estig ation of medicinal
pl ants has, ov er the y ears, become
more and more ex act and sophisticated.
In 1 5 4 3 , the writer of one of the most
beau tifu l l y il l u strated herbal s, L eonard
Fu chs, presented this accu rate sk etch
of Datu ra stramoniu m, the T horn A ppl e
( l eft) . three hu ndred y ears l ater,
K ohl er, in his M edizinal Pfl anzen, pu b-
l ished a more detail ed pharmacog nostic
rendering of this v ery important thera-
peu tic pl ant ( center) . In the 1 2 5 y ears
since the establ ishment of L innaeu s's
herbariu m and the binomial sy stem of
nomencl atu re, ou r herbaria hav e g reatl y
enhanced the u nderstanding of the
morphol og ical v ariation of v eg etal
species throu g h the col l ection of dried
specimens arou nd the worl d. T he third
il l u stration depicts a ty pical herbariu m
specimen of the T horn A ppl e repre-
senting the k ind of material that now
au thenticates botanical identification.
M odern technol og y ( for ex ampl e, the
el ectron-scanning microscope) is mak -
ing av ail abl e morphol og ical detail s,
su ch as the l eaf su rface hairs of the
T horn A ppl e, which prov ide g reater ac-
cu racy in the work of pl ant identification.
3 1
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hal l u cinog enic pl ants are il l u - A cacia 1 E l A hij ado 2 1
strated and described on the fol l owing pag es A g ara 3 5 E l M acho 2 1
( 3 4 — 6 0 ) .
A g u acol l a 9 4 E l Nene 2 1
T he l ex icon is in al phabetical order by g enu s
A j u ca 5 6 E pená 9 6
name. E ach tex t in the l ex icon incl u des the fol - A ng el 's T ru mpet 1 1 , 1 2 E reriba 3 9
l owing information in its heading :
A rbol de Campanil l a 4 2 E rg ot 2 0
• G enu s, au thor, and, in brack ets, the nu mber of A rbol de l os B ru j os 4 7 E sak u na 2 5
species k nown to ex ist in the g enu s. A x ocatzin 8 6 Fal se Pey ote 7
• B otanical name of the species shown. T he A y ahu asca 9 , 9 3 Fang -K 'u ei 7 2
species k nown to contain hal l u cinog enic A ztec Dream G rass 1 6 Fl ag Root 2
properties orto be u sed as hal l u cinog ens wil l B adoh 9 5 Fl oripondio 1 1 , 1 2
be fou nd in the reference section " Ov erv iew of B adoh Neg ro 4 3 Fl y A g aric 3
Pl ant U se," pag es 6 5 — 8 0 , which is org anized B ak ana 2 4 , 8 4 Frij ol es 8 8
by common name. T his reference section! B el l adonna 8 G al ang a 4 5
chart prov ides the botanical names of the B hang 1 7 G anj a 1 7
pl ants and describes the history , ethnog raphy , B iak — B iak 5 7 G enista 2 6
contex t, pu rpose of u sag e, and preparation, B l ack H enbane 4 1 G ig antOn 9 4
as wel l as chemical components and effects. B l ood-Red A ng el 's T ru mpet 1 2 G i'-i-Sa-W a 5 2
• Pl ant famil y . B l u e M eanies 6 3 G i'-i-W a 5 2
• Reference nu mber. B l u e W ater L il y 6 0 G ol den A ng el 's T ru mpet 1 1
• G eog raphical distribu tion of the g enu s. B orrachero 1 1 , 1 2 , 3 0 , 4 2 H ashish 1 7
Common names are l isted here bel ow with the B ov ista 5 2 H awaiian W ood Rose 6
nu mber desig nating each pl ant's l ocation in the B ru nfel sia 1 3 H emp 1 7
l ex icon. Caapi 9 , 9 3 H enbane 4 0 ,4 1
Caapi-Pinima 9 3 H ierba de Ia Pastora 8 2
Cahu a 8 0 H ierba de Ia Virg en 8 2
Cal amu s 2 H ierba L oca 7 0
Cawe 6 2 H ik u l i 2 4
Cebil 4 H ik u l i 5 1
Cebol l eta 6 1 H ik u l i M u l ato 3 3
Chacru na 8 0 H ik u l i Rosapara 3 3
Chacru na B u sh 8 0 H ik u l i Rosapara 5 3
Chal ice Vine 8 7 H ik u l i Su namé 7
Channa 8 3 H ik u ri 5 3
Charas 1 7 H ik u ri 3 2
Chau tl e 7 H ik u ri Orchid 6 1
Chichipe 8 6 H ong o de San Isidro 7 6
Chil icote 3 4 H oop-petticoat 6 4
Chiricaspi 1 3 H u acacachu 1 1 ,1 2
Chiric-Sanang o 1 3 H u anto 1 1 ,1 2
Cohoba 5 H u edhu ed 7 0
Col eu s 2 1 H u el patl 8 7
Col orines 3 4 ,8 8 H u il ca 1 4
Common Reed 7 4 Ibog a 9 0
Conocy be 2 2 J ambu r 6 3
Copel andia 6 3 J imsonweed 2 9
Coral B ean 8 8 J u rema T ree 5 6
Coral T ree 3 4 K anna 8 3
Cowhag e 5 8 K iel i 8 7
Cu mal a T ree 9 6 K ieri 8 7
Dacha 4 8 K it 1 7
Dag g a 1 7 K oribo 9 2
Dama da Noite 1 9 K ou g u ed 8 3
Dark -rimmed M ottl eg il l 6 5 K ratom 5 7
Datu ra 2 8 K u ma M u shroom 1 0
Deadl y Nig htshade 8 K washi 6 6
Div iner's Sag e 8 2 L ady of the Nig ht 1 9
Dog G rass 1 6 L atu é 4 7
Du tra 2 8 L atu y 3 0
3 2
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L emong rass
L iberty Cap
L ion's T ail
M ace
M aconha
M ag ic M u shroom
M aicoa
M aiden's A cacia
M al v a Col orada
M ammil l aria
M anak a
M andrak e
M araba
M arij u ana
M arij u anil l o
M ashihiri
M atwO
M escal
M escal B ean
M escal B u tton
M orning G l ory
Nig htshade
Ninfa
Nonda
Nu tmeg
Ny ak wana
Ol ol iu q u i
Pag u ando
Painted Nettl e
Paiq u l
Petu nia
Pey ote Cactu s
Pey ote Cimarrdn
Pey ote de San Pedro
Pey otil l o
Pincu shion Cactu s
Pipil tzintzintl i
Pital l ito Cactu s
Pitu ri
Pitu ri B u sh
Piu l e
Poison B u sh
Pok eberry
Q u etzal ax cchiacatl
Rape dos Indios
Red B ean
Red Canary G rass
Reed G rass
Sag u aro
Sanang o
San Isidro
San Pedro Cactu s
Scopol ia
Screw Pine
Shang -l a
Shanin
Shanshi
She-to
Siberian L ion's T ail
2 5 Siberian M otherwort
7 9 Sinicu ichi
4 8 Straw Fl ower
5 9 Sweet Cal omel
1 9 Sweet Fl ag
7 6 , 7 9 Sy rian Ru e
1 1 . 1 2 T abaco del Diabl o
1 T abernaemontana
8 6 T ag Il i
5 3 T aiq u e
1 3 T ak ini
5 4 T aM a
4 5 T amu
1 7 T ecomax ochitl
4 9 T eonanà catl
4 4 T epescohu ite
1 4 T hIe-pel ak ano
8 8 T horn A ppl e
8 8 T l il il tzin
5 1 T oe
4 3 T ol oache
8 5 T ol oatzin
6 0 T ong a
1 0 T o-shk a
5 9 T otu bj ansu sh
9 6 T su wiri
9 5 T u pa
4 2 T u rk estan M int
2 1 T zompar. q u ahu itl
1 9 Vil Ica
7 1 Voacang a
5 1 W av y Cap
7 W ichowak a
5 3 W ichu ri
6 9 W ichu rik i
2 4 , 5 3 W il d Dag g a
8 2 W ood Rose
3 2 X tabentu m
3 1 Y ahu tl i
3 1 Y aj é
4 3 ,8 1 Y ak ee
3 1 Y el l ow H enbane
7 5 Y opo
6 0 Y U n-shih
5 5 Z acatechichi
8 8
7 3
7 3
1 8
8 9
7 6
9 4
8 5
6 7
7 5
7 1
2 3
6 4
4 9
4 9
3 6
3 7
2
2
6 8
5 0
8 9
7 0
3 0
3 8
1 7
2 2
8 7
7 8
5 6
1 6
2 9
4 3
1 1
2 7
2 7
1 1 ,1 2
6 4
4 2
7
5 0
4 6
3 4
4
9 7
7 7
6 2
2 4
5 3
4 8
6
9 5
9 1
9
9 6
4 0 A Sou th A merican Indian harv ests a ev en mil l ennia. T he Indians cau tion
pl ant of the g ods, a B l ood-Red A n- ag ainst the thou g htl ess u se of this
is
g el 's T ru mpet ( B ru g mansia sang u i- pl ant, which cau ses su ch strong
1 6 fl ea) . T his al k al oid-rich pl ant has hal l u cinations and del iriu m that onl y
been cu l tiv ated and u sed for psy - ex perienced shamans can u se it for
choactiv e pu rposes for centu ries or div ination and heal ing .
3 3
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A CA CIA M il l .
A cacia maidenii F v on M u el l .
M aiden's A cacia
A coru s cal amu s L .
Sweet Fl ag
A raceae ( A ru m Famil y )
T emperate and warm zones
2
of both hemispheres
A M A NIT A L .
A manita mu scaria ( L . ex Fr. ) Pers.
Fl y A g aric
A manitaceae
E u rope, A frica, A sia,
3
A mericas
A NA DE NA NT H E RA Speg .
A riadenanthera col u bru na
( Vel l ozo) B rennan
Cebil , Vil l ca
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
Northwest A rg entina
4
T he g enu s A cacia is widel y dis-
tribu ted throu g hou t the tropical
and su btropical reg ions of the
worl d. It encompasses for the
most part mediu m-sized trees
with pinnate, occasional l y
smooth l eav es. T he fl owers
g row in cl u sters and the fru it is
pea-l ik e. M any acacias are a
traditional additiv e to psy cho-
activ e produ cts, su ch as betel ,
beer, bal ché , pitu ri, and pu l q u e.
Some of the species are su ited
for the preparation of A y ahu as-
ca anal og s. Nu merou s A u stra-
l ian species ( A . maidenii,
A . phl ebophy l l a, A . simpl icifol ia)
contain hig her concentrations of
DM T in their bark and, l eav es.
A cacia maidenii, a beau tifu l
erect tree with a sil v ery spl en-
dor, contains different try pta-
mines. T he bark contains
0 . 3 6 % DM T . T he l eav es are
u sabl e as a DM T -del iv ering
component of A y ahu asca ana-
l og s. T hese acacias are easy to
cu l tiv ate in temperate cl imates
su ch as in Cal ifornia and sou th-
ern E u rope.
Some ev idence, al thou g h weak
and indirect, su g g ests that the
Cree Indians of northwestern
Canada may occasional l y chew
the rootstal k of Sweet Fl ag for its
psy choactiv e effects.
Sweet Fl ag is a semiaq u atic
herb with a l ong , aromatic,
creeping rootstock produ cing
shoots of erect, l inear, swordl ik e
l eav es u p to 6 ft ( 2 m) in l eng th.
T he tiny fl owers are borne on a
sol id, l ateral , g reenish y el l ow
spadix . T he rootstal k or rhizome
contains an essential oil re-
sponsibl e for the pl ant's medic-
inal v al u e.
It has been su g g ested that the
activ e principl es are a-asarone
and T here is a stru c-
tu ral resembl ance between
asarone and mescal ine, a psy -
choactiv e al k al oid. No ev idence
has ev er been produ ced, how-
ev er, that asarone can be asso-
ciated with psy chotomimetic
activ ity .
A manita mu scaria is a beau tifu l
mu shroom g rowing in thin for-
ests u su al l y u nder birches, firs,
and y ou ng pines. It may attain a
heig ht of 8 — 9 in. ( 2 0 — 2 3 cm) .
T he somewhat v iscid, ov ate,
hemispheric, and final l y al most
fl at cap measu res 3 — 8 in. ( 8 —
2 0 cm) when matu re. T here are
three v arieties: one with a bl ood-
red cap with white warts fou nd in
the Ol d W orl d and northwestern
North A merica; a y el l ow or or-
ang e ty pe with y el l owish warts
common in eastern and central
North A merica; and a white
v ariety that is fou nd in Idaho.
T he cy l indrical stem, which has
a bu l bou s base, is white, ½ — i in.
( 1 — 3 cm) thick , with a conspicu -
ou s cream-white ring cov ered
basical l y with encircl ing scal es.
T he white v al v e adheres to the
base of the stem. T he g il l s v ary
from white to cream col or or
ev en l emon y el l ow.
T his mu shroom, perhaps
man's ol dest hal l u cinog en, has
been identified with Soma of
ancient India.
T his tree g rows 9 — 5 0 ft ( 3 — 1 8 m)
and has an al most bl ack bark
often adorned with conical
thorns. T he l eav es are finel y l o-
cu l ar and reach u p to 1 ft ( 3 0 cm)
l ong . T he y el l owish white fl ow-
ers are rou nd. T he l eathery dark
brown fru it pods g row to 1 ft
( 3 5 cm) l ong and contain v ery
fl at red-brown seeds ½ to 1 in.
( 1 — 2 cm) wide, with rou nded to
rig ht ang l es.
T he seeds hav e been u sed as
a hal l u cinog en by the Indians of
the sou thern reg ion of the A n-
des for approx imatel y 4 ,5 0 0
y ears. T hey are either work ed
into a snu ff powder, smok ed, or
u sed as an additiv e for beer.
Primaril y they are u sed in
shamanism.
T he seeds of the CebIl or Vil l -
ca contain try ptamines, espe-
cial l y bu fotenine.
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
A u stral ia
3 4
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A NA DE NA NT H E RA Speg . ( 2 ) A RG Y RE IA L ou r.
( 9 0 ) A RIOCA RPU S Scheidw. ( 6 )
nadenanthera pereg rina ( L . ) Speg .
L eg u mifl OSae ( Pea Famil y )
T ropical zones of Sou th
5
A merica, W est Indies
A nadenanthera pore g rina is a
mimosa-l ik e tree, mainl y of open
g rassl ands, attaining a heig ht of
6 5 ft ( 2 0 m) and with a tru nk 2 ft
( 6 0 cm) in diameter. T he bl ack -
ish bark is coarsel y armed with
conical mu cronate proj ections.
T he l eav es hav e from 1 5 to 3 0
pairs of pinnae with many v ery
smal l hairy l eafl ets. M any min-
u te white fl owers in spherical
heads arrang ed in terminal or
ax il l ary cl u sters comprise the
infl orescence. Fl at, thin, g l ossy
bl ack , rou ndish seeds occu r in
rou g h, woody pods, from 3 to 1 0
in a pod.
A potent hal l u cinog enic snu ff
is made from the beans of A na-
denanthera pereg rina in the Or-
inoco basin, where it is cal l ed
Y opo. Its former shamanic and
ritu al u se in the W est Indies, u n-
der the name Cohoba, was re-
ported as earl y as 1 4 9 6 . Sadl y ,
this u se has disappeared du e to
the ex pl oitation of the nativ e
peopl e.
T he tree nativ e to the edg es of
the l arg e forested areas of
G u y ana is stil l u sed by different
tribes, primaril y the Y anomano
and W aik a, for the produ ction of
E pená . T he shamanic snu ff is
made from cu l tiv ated trees in
addition to other su bstances
and pl ant ashes. T he seeds
contain mostl y N,N-Dimethy l -
try ptamine ( DM T ) as wel l as
5 -M eO-DM T and other try pta-
mines. T he shaman of the rain
forest peopl e of the Orinoco re-
g ion ( for ex ampl e, the Piaroa)
cu l tiv ate this tree which is not
nativ e to that area. T hat way
they secu re their snu ff su ppl ies.
A rg y reia nerv osa ( B u rman f. ) B oj er,
H awaiian W ood Rose
Conv ov u l aceae
( M orning G l ory Famil y )
India, Sou theast A sia,
6
H awaii
T he matu re stems of this v ig or-
ou sl y g rowing twining bindweed
cl imb u p to 3 Oft ( l Om) hig h and
carry a l atex l ik e mil k . T he
stemmed, heart-shaped l eav es
are finel y haired and hav e a
sil v ery appearance du e to a
dense white down that cov ers
the y ou ng stems and the l eaf
u ndersides. T he fu nnel -shaped
fl owers are v iol et or l av ender
and are carried in the l eaf ax is.
T heir sepal s are finel y haired.
T he rou nd fru it are berry l ik e and
contain smooth brown seeds. In
each seed capsu l e there are 1 —
4 seeds.
T he pl ant orig inates in India,
where it has been u sed medic-
inal l y since ancient times. A tra-
ditional u se as an entheog en
has not y et been discov ered.
Phy tochemical research is to
thank for the awareness of its
potent psy chedel ic constitu tion.
T he seeds contain 0 . 3 % E rg ot
al k al oids ( erg ine and l y serg ic-
acid-am ides) . M ost psy cho-
nau ts describe L SD-l ik e effects
after tak ing 4 — 8 seeds.
A riocarpu s retu su s Scheidw.
Fal se Pey ote
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
M ex ico, T ex as
T hese pl ants are smal l , g ray ish
g reen to pu rpl ish g ray or brown-
ish cactu ses, 4 — 6 in. ( 1 0 — 1 5 cm)
in diameter. T hey hardl y appear
abov e the g rou nd. Often cal l ed
L iv ing Rock s, they can easil y be
mistak en for rock s in the stony
desert where they g row. T heir
horny or fl eshy , u mbricated,
three-ang l ed tu bercl es are
characteristic of the g enu s.
Dense masses of hair often fil l
the areol es. T he fl owers v ary
from white to pink and pu rpl ish
and measu re approx imatel y
2 1 / 4 in. ( 6 cm) l ong and u p to
1 ½ in. ( 4 cm) wide when fu l l y
open.
Indians in northern and cen-
tral M ex ico consider A . fissu ra-
tu s and A . retu su s as " fal se
T hese species of cactu s, re-
l ated to L ophophora, are ty pical
desert pl ants, g rowing preferen-
tial l y in the open su n in sandy or
rock y stretches.
Sev eral psy choactiv e pheny -
l ethy l amine al k al oids hav e been
isol ated from A . fissu ratu s and
A . retu su s.
3 5
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A T ROPA L .
A tropa bel l adonna L .
Deadl y Nig htshade
( 4 )
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
E u rope, North A frica, A sia
T his mu ch-branched perennial
herb u p to 3 ft ( 9 0 cm) tal l may be
g l abrou s or pu bescent-g l andu -
l ar. T he ov ate l eav es attain a
l eng th of 8 in. ( 2 0 cm) . T he sol i-
tary , drooping , bel l -shaped,
brown-pu rpl e fl owers, approx i-
matel y 1 1 / s in. ( 3 cm) l ong , pro-
du ce shiny bl ack berries 1 ½ —
1 ½ in. ( 3 — 4 cm) in diameter. A l l
parts of the pl ant contain potent
al k al oids. It g rows in thick ets
and woods on l ime soil s and is
natu ral ized especial l y near ol d
bu il ding s and hedg es.
It is bel iev ed that B el l adonna
fig u red as an important ing redi-
ent in many of the witches'
brews of antiq u ity . T here are, of
cou rse, nu merou s records of
accidental and pu rposefu l poi-
soning associated with the
Deadl y Nig htshade.
T his pl ant pl ay ed a maj or rol e
in the war of the Scots u nder
Du ncan I ag ainst the Norweg ian
k ing Sv en Canu te abou t A .
1 0 3 5 . T he Scots destroy ed the
Scandinav ian army
by sending them food and beer
to which " Sl eepy Nig htshade"
had been added.
3 6
T he main psy choactiv e con-
stitu ent is atropine bu t l esser
amou nts of scopol amine and
trace amou nts of minor tropane
al k al oids are al so present. T he
total al k al oid content in the
l eav es is 0 . 4 % , in the roots
0 . 5 % , and in the seeds 0 . 8 % .
In addition to the u su al B el l a-
donna there is a rare, y el l ow
bl ooming v ariety ( v ar. Iu tea) as
wel l as l ithe k nown rel ated k inds.
T he Indian B el l adonna ( A tropa
acu minata Roy l e ex L indl . ) is
cu l tiv ated for pharmaceu tical
pu rposes becau se of its hig h
content of scopol amine. In A sia
the Cau casian B el l adonna
( A tropa cau casia K rey er) and
the T u rk menish B el l adonna
( A tropa k omaro v ii B l in. et Shal )
are fou nd. B el l adonna is stil l
cu l tiv ated for the pharmaceu ti-
cal produ ction of atropine.
B A NIST E RIO PS IS
C. B . Robinson et Smal l
( 2 0 — 3 0 )
B anisteriopsis caapi ( Spru ce ex G ri-
seb. ) M orton, A y ahu asca
M al pig hiaceae
( M al pig hia Famil y )
T ropical zones of northern
9
Sou th A merica, W est Indies
T hese g iant forest l ianas are the
basis of an important hal l u cino-
g enic drink ( A y ahu asca) ritu al l y
consu med in the western hal f of
the A mazon Val l ey and by iso-
l ated tribes on the Pacific sl opes
of the Col ombian and E cu ador-
ean A ndes. T he bark of B anis-
teriopsis caapi and B . inebrians,
prepared in col d water or after
l ong boil ing , may be tak en al one,
bu t v ariou s pl ant additiv es—
especial l y the l eav es of Dipl op-
tens cabrerana, k nown as Oco-
Y aj é , and of Psy chotria v iridis—
are often u sed to al ter the effects
of the hal l u cinog enic drink .
B oth species are l ianas with
smooth, brown bark and dark
g reen, chartaceou s, ov ate-l an-
ceol ate l eav es u p to abou t 7 in.
( 1 8 cm) in l eng th, 2 — 3 in. ( 5 —
8 cm) wide. T he infl orescence is
many -fl owered. T he smal l f l ow-
ers are pink or rose-col ored. T he
fru it is a samara with wing s
abou t 1 % in. ( 3 . 5 cm) l ong .
B . inebrians differs from B . caa-
pu n its thick er ov ate, more at-
tenu ate l eav es and in the shape
of the samara wing s. T he l iana
contains M A O inhibitors.
B OL E T U S Dil l . ex Fr.
B ol etu s manicu s H el m
K u ma M u shroom
B ol etaceae
Cosmopol itan
1 0
( 2 2 5 )
Sev eral species of B ol etu s are
inv ol v ed in the cu riou s " mu sh-
room madness" of the K u ma of
New G u inea. B ol etu s reay i, one
of these, is characterized by a
hemispherical , strong brownish
red cap that is cream-y el l ow at
the periphery ; it measu res from
3 / 4 to 1 ½ in. ( 2 to 4 cm) in dia-
meter. T he fl esh of the cap is
l emon-col ored. T he stipe v aries
from orang e at the top, to a
marbl ed g reen and g ray -rose in
the middl e, to a g reen at the
base. T he spores, which are
el ong ated el l ipsoidal , hav e a
y el l ow membrane bu t are ol iv e-
col ored within.
B . manicu s is a wel l -k nown
species that, as its name im-
pl ies, has somewhat tox ic prop-
erties, ( mania = insanity ) . H al l u -
cinog enic properties hav e not
y et been prov en.
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B RU G M A NSIA Pers. ( 9 — 1 0 )
B ru g mansia sang u T hea
( l Ru iz et Pav ó n) D. Don
B l ood-Red A ng el 's T ru mpet
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
Sou th A merica,
1 2 Col ombia to Chil e
B RU NFE L SIA L . ( 4 0 )
B ru n fe/ s/ a g rand/ fl ora D. Don
B ru nfel sia
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
T ropical zones of northern
1 3 Sou th A merica, W est Indies
Cl osel y rel ated to Datu ra, the
species of B ru g mansIa are ar-
borescent, and it is su spected
that they are al l cu l tig ens u n-
k nown in the wil d. B iol og ical l y
v ery compl ex , al l species ap-
pear to hav e been u sed as hal -
l u cinog ens for mil l ennia. B ru g -
mans/ a su av eol ens and
B . Insig nis occu r in warmer
parts of Sou th A merica, espe-
cial l y in the western A mazonia,
where they are empl oy ed al one
or mix ed with other pl ants,
u su al l y u nder the name T oo.
M ost of the species, howev er,
prefer the cool , wet hig hl ands
abov e 6 ,0 0 0 ft. ( 1 ,8 3 0 m) . T he
most widespread species in the
A ndes is B ru g mansia au rea,
with both y el l ow and, more com-
monl y , white fl ower forms. In the
horticu l tu ral l iteratu re it has fre-
q u entl y been misidentified as
B ru g mansia ( or Datu ra) arbor-
ea, which is in real ity a mu ch
l ess common pl ant. B ru g mansia
au rea is a shru b or smal l tree u p
to 3 0 ft ( 9 m) tal l with obl ong -el -
l iptic, often minu tel y hairy
l eav es, the bl ade measu ring 4 —
1 6 in. ( 1 0 — 4 0 cm) l ong , 2 — 6 ½ in.
( 5 — 1 6 cm) wide, borne on a pe-
tiol e u p to 5 in. ( 1 3 cm) l ong . T he
fl owers are nodding , not whol l y
pendu l ou s, u su al l y 7 — 9 in. ( 1 8 —
2 3 cm) l ong and v ery frag rant,
especial l y in the ev ening . T he
tru mpet-shaped corol l a fl aring
broadl y at the mou th is white or
g ol den y el l ow, its sl ender basal
part compl etel y encl osed by the
cal y x , its teeth 1 in. ( 4 —
6 cm) l ong , recu rv ing . T he el on-
g ate-ov oid, smooth, g reen fru it,
which is v ariabl e in size, re-
mains fl eshy , nev er becoming
hard or wool l y . T he ang u l ar,
bl ack ish or brownish seeds are
rel ativ el y l arg e, measu ring
abou t ½ by % in. ( l 2 by 9 mm) .
In addition to their u se as hal l u -
cinog ens, al l species hav e
pl ay ed maj or rol es as medicines
for a l arg e spectru m of il l s,
especial l y in the treatment of
rheu matic pains. T hey contain
potent hal l u cinog enic tropane
al k al oids.
T his perennial B ru g mansia is
heav il y branched and reaches 6 —
1 6 ft ( 2 — Sm) , dev el oping a v ery
woody tru nk . T he g ray -g reen
l eav es are fu rry and rou g hl y ser-
rated at the edg e. T he B l ood-Red
A ng el 's T ru mpet does not emit
scents in the nig ht. U su al l y the
fl owers are g reen at the base,
y el l ow in the middl e, and hav e a
red edg e arou nd the top. T here
are al so g reen-red, pu re y el l ow,
y el l ow-red, and al most compl e-
tel y red v arieties. T he smooth
ov al fru its are bu l bou s in the cen-
ter and pointed at the ends and
are u su al l y partial l y protected by
the dried cal y x . In Col ombia this
powerfu l shaman pl ant was ri-
tu al l y u sed in the cu l t of the su n of
pre-Col u mbian times. T he pl ant
is stil l u sed as a hal l u cinog en by
the shamans and Cu randeros of
E cu ador and Peru .
T he entire pl ant contains tro-
pane al k al oids. T he fl owers
contain essential l y atropine and
onl y traces of scopol amine
( hy oscine) . In the seeds ap-
prox imatel y 0 . 1 7 % total
al k al oids are present; of those,
7 8 % are scopol amine.
Sev eral species of B ru n fe/ s/ a
hav e medicinal and psy cho-
activ e rol es in the Col ombian,
E cu adorean, and Peru v ian
A mazon as wel l as in G u y ana.
Scopol etine has been fou nd in
B ru n fe/ s/ a, bu t this compou nd is
not k nown to be psy choactiv e.
B . chiricaspi and B . g rand/ -
fl ora are shru bs or smal l trees
reaching a heig ht of abou t l oft
( 3 m) . T he obl ong or l anceol ate
l eav es, measu ring 2 1 / 2 _ 1 2 in.
l ong ( 6 — 3 0 cm) , are scattered
al ong the branchl ets. T he f l ow-
ers hav e a tu bu l ar corol l a, l ong er
than the bel l -shaped cal y x and
measu ring abou t 4 — 4 ¾ in. ( 1 0 —
1 2 cm) across, bl u e to v iol et,
fading with ag e to white. B . chir-
icaspi differs from B . g rand/ fl ora
in hav ing mu ch l arg er l eav es,
l ong er l eaf stal k s, a few-f l ow-
ered infl orescence, and de-
fl ex ed corol l a l obes. B . chiricas-
p/ occu rs in the west A mazonia
of Col ombia, E cu ador, and
Peru . B . g rand/ fl ora is wide-
rang ing in western Sou th A mer-
ica from Venezu el a to B ol iv ia.
B ru n fe/ s/ as serv e as A y ahu asca
additiv es.
3 7
B RU G M A NSIA Pers. ( 7 — 8 )
B ru g mansia au rea L ag erh.
G ol den A ng el 's T ru mpet
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
W estern Sou th A merica
1 1
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Cacal ia cordifol ia L . f ii.
M atwü
Compositae ( Su nfl ower Famil y )
E ast A sia, North A merica,
1 4 M ex ico
Caesal pinia sepiaria Rox b.
Y ü n-Shih
Cal ea zacatechichi Schl echt.
Dog G rass
Cannabis sativ a L .
H emp
Cannabaceae ( H emp Famil y )
W arm-temperate zones,
1 7 worl dwide
A smal l shru bby cl imber,
Cacal ia cordifol ia has du sty -
pu beru l ent, six -ang l ed stems.
T he l eav es are thin, ov ate, and
basal l y cordate, 1 ½ — 3 ½ in. ( 4 —
9 cm) l ong . T he fl owering head
is su bsessil e or pedicel l ate,
abou t % in. ( 1 cm) l ong .
T his and sev eral other spe-
cies of Cacal ia hav e been re-
ferred to in parts of northern
M ex ico as Pey ote and may pos-
sibl y hav e once been empl oy ed
for hal l u cinatory pu rposes. In
M ex ico Cacal ia cordifol l a is a
presu med aphrodisiac and cu re
for steril ity . A n al k al oid has been
reported from the pl ant, bu t
there is no ev idence of a chemi-
cal constitu ent with psy cho-
activ e properties.
T his l ittl e researched pl ant is
apparentl y often confu sed with
Cal ea zacatechichi.
Caesal pinia sepiaria or Y ü n-
Shih, a shru bby v ine with retro-
rsel y hook ed spines, is repu t-
edl y u sed as a hal l u cinog en in
China. T he roots, fl owers, and
seeds al so hav e v al u e in fol k
medicine.
T he earl iest Chinese herbal —
Pen-ts'-ao-ching — — stated that
the " fl owers cou l d enabl e one to
see spirits and, when tak en in
ex cess, cau se one to stag g er
madl y ? ' If consu med ov er a l ong
period, they produ ce l ev itation
and " commu nication with the
spirits? '
T his pl ant is an ex tensiv e
cl imber with pinnate l eav es 9 —
1 5 in. ( 2 3 — 3 8 cm) l ong and
l inear-obl ong l eafl ets in 8 — 1 2
pairs. T he l arg e, erect, u n-
branched showy racemes, 2 1 in.
( 5 3 cm) l ong , bear canary y el l ow
fl owers. T he smooth, el ong ate-
ov oid, pointed fru it has 4 to 8
ov oid, brown- and bl ack -mottl ed
seeds, % in. ( 1 cm) l ong . A n al -
k al oid of u nk nown stru ctu re has
been reported from Caesal pinia
sepiaria.
K nown in M ex ico as Z acatechi-
chi ( " bitter g rass" ) , this incon-
spicu ou s shru b, occu rring from
M ex ico to Costa Rica, has been
important in fol k medicine. It has
al so been v al u ed as an
insecticide.
Recent reports su g g est that
the Chontal Indians of Oax aca
tak e a tea of the cru shed, dried
l eav es as a hal l u cinog en. B e-
l iev ing in v isions seen in
dreams, Chontal medicine men,
who assert that Z acatechichi
cl arifies the senses, cal l the
pl ant T hIe-pel ak ano, or " l eaf of
g od? '
Cal ea zacatechichi is a heav -
il y branching shru b with
triang u l ar-ov ate, coarsel y
toothed l eav es in. ( 2 —
6 . 5 cm) l ong . T he infl orescence
is densel y many -fl owered
( u su al l y abou t 1 2 ) .
No constitu ent with hal l u cina-
tory properties has as y et been
isol ated from C. zacatechichi.
T he pl ant contains g ermacra-
nol ides. T he su btil e psy choac-
tiv e effect can be described as
dreaml ik e.
Cannabis sativ a has become
v ery pol y morphic, bu t it is
u su al l y a rank , robu st, erect,
l oosel y branched annu al herb,
sometimes attaining a heig ht of
l 8 ft ( 5 . 4 m) . T he sex es are nor-
mal l y on separate pl ants, the
staminate weak er and dy ing
after shedding pol l en, the pistil -
l ate stock ier and more fol iose.
T he membranaceou s l eav es are
dig itate, with 3 to 1 5 ( u su al l y 7
to 9 ) l inear-l anceol ate, serrated
seg ments commonl y 2 ¼ — 4 in.
( 6 — 1 0 cm) wide. T he fl owers are
borne in ax il l ary or terminal
branches, dark g reen, y el l ow-
g reen, or brownish pu rpl e. T he
fru it is an ov oid, sl ig htl y com-
pressed, often brownish ak ene
cov ered by a persistent cal y x ,
env el oped by an enl arg ed bract,
u su al l y l ack ing a strong marbl ed
pattern; it is firml y attached to
the è tal k withou t a definite ar-
ticu l ation. T he seed is ov oid,
mostl y ½ by 1 / 6 in. ( 4 by 2 mm) .
Cannabis indica is py ramidal
or conical in form and u nder 4 —
5 ft ( 1 2 0 — 1 5 0 cm) in heig ht.
Cannabis ru deral is is smal l
and is nev er cu l tiv ated.
CA CA L IA L . ( 5 0 ) CA E SA L PINIA L . ( 1 0 0 ) CA L E A L . ( 9 5 ) CA NNA B ISL . ( 3 )
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
1 5 both hemispheres
Compositae ( Su nfl ower Famil y )
T ropical zones of northern
1 6 Sou th A merica, M ex ico
3 8
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CA RNE G IE A B ritt. et Rose ( 1 ) CE ST RU M L . ( 1 6 0 ) CL A VICE PS T u l asne ( 6 ) COL E U S L ou r.
( 1 5 0 )
Carneg iea g ig anfea ( E ng eim. ) B ritt.
at Rose
Sag u aro
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
Sou thwestern North
1 8 A merica, northern M ex ico
T his l arg est of the col u mnar
cactu s pl ants, Sag u aro, reach-
ing a heig ht of some 4 0 ft ( 1 2 m) ,
is a candel abra-branched " tree. "
T he many -ribbed stems and
branches attain a diameter of 1 —
2 ½ ft ( 3 0 — 7 5 cm) . T he spines
near the top of the pl ant are y el -
l ow-brown. M easu ring 4 — 5 in.
( 1 0 — 1 3 cm) in l eng th, the white,
fu nnel -shaped fl owers open
du ring the day . T he fru it, red or
pu rpl e, is an ov oid or el l ipsoid
I
berry spl itting down the side into
two or three sections and mea-
su ring 2 ½ — 3 ½ in. ( 6 — 9 cm) l ong .
T he nu merou s smal l seeds are
bl ack and shining .
A l thou g h there are no reports
of the Sag u aro as a hal l u cino-
g en, the pl ant does contain
pharmacol og ical l y activ e al k a-
l oids capabl e of psy choactiv ity .
Carneg ine, 5 -hy drox y carne-
g ine, and norcarneg ine, pl u s
trace amou nts of 3 -methox y ty r-
amine and arizonine ( a tetrahy -
droq u inol ine base) , hav e been
isol ated from Sag u aro.
T he nativ e peopl e mak e a
wine from the pressed fru it.
Cestru m parq u i L H é rit.
L ady of the Nig ht
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
Chil e
1 9
Cestru m parq u i has been u sed
medicinal l y and ritu al l y for sha-
manic heal ing since pre-
Col u mbian times by the M a-
pu che in sou thern Chil e. T he
pl ant has the power to withstand
attack s of sorcery or bl ack ma-
g ic. T he dried l eav es of Cestru m
parq u i are smok ed.
T he shru b g rows to 5 ft ( 1 . 5 m)
and has smal l , l anceol ate matte
g reen l eav es. T he bel l -shaped
y el l ow fl owers hav e fiv e pointy
petal s. T hey hang from the stem
in cl u sters. T he fl owers bl oom in
Chil e between October and No-
v ember and rel ease a powerfu l ,
heady aroma. T he pl ant has
smal l ov al berries that are a
shiny bl ack col or.
Cestru m parq u i contains so-
l asonine, a g l y coside steroid-al -
k al oid, as wel l as sol asonidine
and a bitter al k al oid ( Farq u in's
formu l a C2 1 H 3 9 N0 3 ) , which has
a simil ar action to stry chnine or
atropine.
Cl av iceps pu rpu rea ( Fr. )
T u l asne
E rg ot
Cl av icipitaceae
T emperate zones of E u rope,
2 0 northern A frica, A sia,
North A merica
/
E rg ot is a fu ng al disease of cer-
tain g rasses and sedg es, pri-
maril y of ry e. M eaning " spu r,"
E rg ot refers to the scl erotiu m or
fru iting body of an ascomy cete
or sac fu ng u s. T he spu r is a
pu rpl ish or bl ack , cu rv ed, cl u b-
shaped g rowth ½ — 2 ½ in. ( 1 —
6 cm) l ong , which parasitical l y
repl aces the endosperm of the
k ernel . T he fu ng u s produ ces
psy choactiv e and tox ic al k a-
l oids.
T here are two distinct periods
in the l ife cy cl e of this fu ng u s: an
activ e and a dormant stag e. T he
E rg ot or spu r represents the
dormant stag e. W hen the spu r
fal l s to the g rou nd, the E rg ot
sprou ts g l obu l ar heads cal l ed
ascocarps from which g row
asci, each with threadl ik e as-
cospores that are disseminated
when the asci ru ptu re.
In the M iddl e A g es and earl ier
in E u rope, especial l y where ry e
was u sed in bread-mak ing ,
whol e areas freq u entl y were
poisoned, su ffering pl ag u es of
erg otism, when fu ng u s-infected
ry e k ernel s were mil l ed into
fl ou r.
Col eu s bl u mei B enth.
Painted Nettl e
L abiatae ( M int Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
2 1 E u rope, A frica, A sia
T wo species of Col eu s hav e sig -
nificance in M ex ico. Rel ated to
Sal v ia div inoru m is L a H embra
( " the woman" ) ; C. pu mi/ u s is E l
M acho ( " the man" ) ; and two
forms of C. bl u mei are E l Nene
( " the chil d" ) and E l A hij ado ( " the
g odson" ) . C. b/ u mei attains a
heig ht of 3 ft ( 1 m) and has
ov ate, marg inal l y toothed l eav es
u p to 6 in. ( 1 5 cm) in l eng th; the
bottom su rface is finel y hairy ,
the u pper su rface u su al l y with
l arg e dark red bl otches. T he
more or l ess bel l -shaped bl u e or
pu rpl ish fl owers, measu ring
abou t ½ in. ( 1 cm) l ong , are
borne in l ong l ax , whorl ed
racemes u p to 1 2 in. ( 3 0 cm) in
l eng th.
Recentl y , sal v inorine-l ik e su b-
stances ( diterpene) were dis-
cov ered. T he chemical stru ctu re
has not y et been determined, It
is possibl e that by dry ing or
bu rning the diterpene, its che-
mical stru ctu re is modified into
potent material . T he chemistry
and pharmacol og y mu st be re-
searched fu rther.
3 9
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CONOCY B E ( 4 0 )
Conocy be sil l g ineoides H eim
Conocy be
A g aricaceae ( B ol bitiaceae)
( A g aric Famil y )
Cosmopol itan
2 2
Conocy be sil ig ineoides has
been reported as one of the
sacred intox icating mu shrooms
of M ex ico. Psil ocy bine has not
as y et been isol ated from this
species, bu t Conocy be
cy anopu s of the U nited States
has been shown to contain this
psy choactiv e al k al oid.
T his beau tifu l mu shroom, u p
to abou t 3 m. ( 8 cm) tal l , l iv ing on
rotting wood, has a cap u p to
1 in. ( 2 . 5 cm) in diameter that is
fawn-orang e-red, with a deeper
orang e at the center. T he g il l s
are saffron-col ored or brownish
orang e with chrome y el l ow
spores.
M any species of the g enu s
Conocy be contain psil ocy bine,
are psy choactiv e, and are u sed
ritu al l y . Recentl y a ru dimentary
cu l t arou nd T amu ( a Conocy be
species, " M u shroom of A ware-
ness" ) has been discov ered.
Conocy be sil ig eneoides is an
obscu re mu shroom which has
not been fou nd or anal y zed
ag ain since its first description.
CORIA RIA L . ( 1 5 )
Coriara thy mifol ia H B K ex W il id.
Shanshi
In the hig hest A ndes from Co-
l ombia to Chil e, Coriaria thy mi-
fol ia adorns the hig hway s with
its frondl ik e l eav es. It has been
feared in the A ndean cou ntries
as a pl ant tox ic to browsing ani-
mal s. H u man deaths hav e su p-
posedl y fol l owed ing estion of the
fru it. Reports from E cu ador,
nev erthel ess, su g g est that the
fru it ( shanshi) may be eaten to
indu ce an intox ication charac-
terized by sensations of soaring
throu g h the air.
Coriaria thy mifol l a is a shru b
u su al l y u p to 6 ft ( 1 . 8 m) tal l . T he
l eav es are obl ong -ov ate, 1 / 2 _
3 / 4 in. ( 1 — 2 cm) in l eng th, borne
on sl ender, arching l ateral
branches. T he smal l , dark pu r-
pl e fl owers occu r densel y on
l ong drooping racemes. T he
rou nd pu rpl ish bl ack fru it is
composed of fiv e to eig ht com-
pressed fl eshy parts, or carpel s.
T he whol e shru b has a fernl ik e
appearance.
No psy choactiv e properties
hav e been isol ated y et.
CORY PH A NT H A
( E ng el m. ) L em.
Cory phantha compacta
( E ng el m. ) B ritt. et Rose
Pincu shion Cactu s
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
Sou thwestern North
2 4 A merica, M ex ico, Cu ba
A smal l , sol itary , g l obu l ar bu t
somewhat fl attened, spiny cac-
tu s u p to 3 ¼ in. ( 8 cm) in dia-
meter, Cory phantha compacta
g rows in dry hil l y and mou ntai-
nou s reg ions. It is hardl y v isibl e
in the sandy soil where it occu rs.
T he radial spines are whitish,
in. ( 1 — 2 cm) in l eng th; the
central spines are u su al l y ab-
sent. T he crowded tu bercl es are
arrang ed in 1 3 rows. A rising
from the center of the crown
either sing l y or in pairs, the y el -
l ow fl owers measu re u p to 1 in.
( 2 . 5 cm) in l eng th. T he T arahu -
mara of northern M ex ico con-
sider Cory phantha compacta a
k ind of Pey ote. T he pl ant, cal l ed
B ak ana, is tak en by shamans
and is respected and feared. It is
u sed as a su bstitu te for Pey ote.
Cory phantha pal merii has
l ik ewise been reported as a hal -
l u cinog en in M ex ico. Variou s al -
k al oids, incl u ding the psy choac-
tiv e pheny l ethy l ammnes, hav e
been isol ated from sev eral
species of Cory phantha: horde-
nine, cal ipammne, and macro-
merine.
CY M B OPOG ON Spreng el ( 6 0 )
G y m bopog on densifioru s Stapf
L emong rass
G ramineae ( G rass Famil y )
W arm zones of A frica and
2 5 A sia
Nativ e medicine men in T anza-
nia smok e the fl owers of Cy m-
bopog on densifl oru s al one or
with tobacco to cau se dreams
that they bel iev e foretel l the fu -
tu re. T he l eav es and rhizomes,
pl easantl y aromatic of citron,
are l ocal l y u sed as a tonic and
sty ptic.
T his perennial g rass has
stou t, erect cu l ms with l inear to
l inear-l anceol ate l eav es, basal l y
wide and rou nded and tapering
to a fine point, 1 ft. ( 3 0 cm) in
l eng th and 1 / 2 _ i in. ( 1 — 2 . 5 cm) in
width. T he fl owering spik es are
sl ender, ol iv e g reen to brownish.
T his species g rows in G abon,
the Cong o, and M al awi.
L ittl e is k nown abou t the psy -
choactiv e properties of the
g rass. T he g enu s Cy mbopog on
is rich in essential oil s, and ster-
oidal su bstances hav e been
fou nd in some species.
( 6 4 )
Coriariaceae ( Coriaria Famil y )
Sou thern E u rope, northern
2 3 A frica, A sia; New Z eal and;
M ex ico to Chil e
4 0
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CY T ISU SL . ( 3 0 )
I
DA T U RA L . ( 1 4 — 1 6 ) DA T U RA L . ( 1 4 — 1 6 ) DA T U RA L . ( 1 4 — 1 6 )
Cy tisu s canariensis ( L . ) 0 . K u ntze
G enista
Rarel y are foreig n pl ants incor-
porated in ceremonial u se in
aborig inal A merican societies.
Nativ e to the Canary Isl ands,
G enista was introdu ced into
M ex ico from the Ol d W orl d,
where it has no record of u se as
a hal l u cinog en. It apparentl y has
acq u ired mag ical u se among
the Y aq u I Indians of northern
M ex ico, where medicine men
v al u e the seed as a
hal l u cinog en.
A coarse, ev erg reen, mu ch-
branched shru b u p to 6 ft ( 1 . 8 m)
tal l , Cy tisu s canariensis bears
l eav es with obov ate or obl ong ,
hairy l eafl ets ¼ — ½ in. ( . 5 — 1 cm)
l ong . T he frag rant, brig ht y el l ow
fl owers, in terminal , many -fl ow-
ered, dense racemes, measu re
abou t ½ in. ( 1 cm) in l eng th. T he
pods are hairy , in. ( 1 —
2 cm) l ong .
Cy tisu s is rich in the l u pine al -
k al oid cy tisine, which is com-
mon in the L eg u minosae. Cy -
stifl e has simil ar properties as
nicotine. For this reason, pl ants
that contain cy stine are often
smok ed as a su bstitu te for
T obacco.
Datu ra innox ia M il l . ( D. metel oides)
T ol oache
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
T ropical and warm-
2 7 temperatu re zones of both
hemispheres
T he most ex tensiv e u se of Da-
tu ra centers in M ex ico and the
A merican Sou thwest, where the
most important psy choactiv e
species seems to be Datu ra in-
nox ia. T his is the famou s T o-
l oache of M ex ico, one of the
pl ants of the g ods among the
A ztecs and other Indians. T he
modern T arahu mara of M ex ico
add the roots, seeds, and l eav es
of D. innox ia to tesq u ino, a cere-
monial drink prepared from
maize. M ex ican Indians bel iev e
that, u nl ik e Pey ote, T ol oache is
inhabited by a mal ev ol ent spirit.
Datu ra innox ia is a herbac-
eou s perennial u p to 3 ft ( 1 m)
tal l , g ray ish becau se of fine
hairs on the fol iag e; the l eav es,
u neq u al l y ov ate, repand or su b-
entire, measu re u p to 2 or 2 ¼ in.
( 5 cm) in l eng th. T he erect,
sweet-scented fl owers, 5 ½ — 9 in.
( 1 4 — 2 3 cm) l ong , are white with
a 1 0 -pointed corol l a. T he pen-
dant fru it is nearl y g l obose, 2 in.
( 5 cm) in diameter, cov ered with
sharp spines.
Datu ra mete! L .
Datu ra
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
T ropical and warm-
2 8 temperate zones of A sia
and A frica
In the Ol d W orl d, the most cu l -
tu ral l y important species of Da-
tu ra for medicinal and hal l u cino-
g enic u se is D. mete! .
Datu ra mete! , nativ e probabl y
to the mou ntainou s reg ions of
Pak istan or A fg hanistan west-
ward, is a spreading herb,
sometimes becoming shru bby ,
3 — 6 ft ( 1 — 2 m) tal l . T he triang u -
l ar-ov ate, sinu ate, and deepl y
toothed l eav es measu re 5 ½ —
8 ½ in. ( 1 4 -2 2 cm) l ong , 3 —
4 ¼ in. ( 8 — 1 1 cm) wide. T he sol i-
tary fl owers, which may be pu r-
pl e, y el l owish, or white, are tu b-
u l ar, fu nnel - or tru mpet-shaped,
al most circu l ar when ex panded,
may attain a l eng th of 6 ½ in.
( 1 7 cm) . T he drooping , rou nd
fru it, u p to 2 ¼ in. ( 6 cm) in dia-
meter, is conspicu ou sl y tu ber-
cu l ate or mu ricate, opening to
ex pose fl at, l ig ht brown seeds.
T he fl owers are primaril y v iol et
and g row at an ang l e or u prig ht
to the sk y .
A l l ty pes of Datu ra contain the
hal l u cinog enic tropane al k al oids
scopol amine, hy osy amine and
someatropine.
Datu ra stramoniu m L .
T horn A ppl e
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
T ropical and moderate zones
2 9 of both hemispheres
T his annu al herb g rows to abou t
4 ft ( 1 . 2 m) and has many -fork ed
branches and branched, l eafl ess
stems. T he rich g reen l eav es are
coarsel y serrated. T he fu nnel -
shaped fl owers are 5 -pointed,
stand erect, and open u pward.
T he common v ariety carries
white fl owers that at 2 — 3 in. ( 6 —
9 cm) l ong are among the smal -
l est of the Datu ra species. T he
tatu l a v ariety has smal l er v iol et
fl owers. T he g reen eg g -shaped
fru it is cov ered with thorns and
stands erect. T he fl at, l iv er-
shaped seeds are bl ack .
T he orig ins of this powerfu l
hal l u cinog enic species of T horn
A ppl e is u ncertain and its bota-
nical history ardentl y arg u ed
ov er. Some au thors su g g est that
Datu ra stramoniu m is an ancient
species that orig inates in the re-
g ion of the Caspian Sea. Others
bel iev e that M ex ico or North
A merica is the orig inal habitat.
T oday the herb is fou nd
throu g hou t North, Central , and
Sou th A merica; North A frica;
Central and Sou thern E u rope; in
the near E ast; and in the
H imal ay as.
4 1
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
Sou thern E u rope, northern
2 6 A frica, western A sia; Canary
Isl ands, M ex ico
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DE SFONT A INIA R. et P.
Desfontainia spinosa ft et P.
T aiq u e
( 1 — 3 )
Desfontainiaceae
H ig hl ands of Central
3 0 A merica and Sou th A merica
One of the l east-k nown A ndean
pl ants, Desfontainia spinosa is
sometimes assig ned to a differ-
ent famil y : L og an iaceae or P0 -
tal iaceae. B otanists are not in
ag reement as to the nu mber of
species in the g enu s.
Des fontainia spinosa, a beau -
tifu l shru b 1 — 6 ft ( 3 Ocm-1 . 8 m) in
heig ht, has g l ossy g reen l eav es,
resembl ing those of Christmas
hol l y , and tu bu l ar red fl owers
with a y el l ow tip. T he berry is
white or g reenish y el l ow, g b-
bose, with many l u strou s seeds.
It has been reported as a hal l u -
cinog en from Chil e and sou th-
ern Col ombia. In Chil e it is
k nown as T aiq u e, in Col ombia
as B orrachero ( " intox icator" ) .
Col ombian shamans of the
K amsá tribe tak e a tea of the
l eav es to diag nose disease or
" to dream. " Some medicine men
assert that they " g o crazy " u nder
its infl u ence. Nothing is as y et
k nown of the chemical constitu -
ents of Des fontainia.
In sou thern Chil e Des fontai-
nia is u sed for shamanic pu r-
poses simil ar to L atu a pu bifl ora.
4 2
DU B OISIA R. B r.
Du boisia hop wood/ i F. v . M u el l .
Pitu ri B u sh
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
Central A u stral ia
( 3 )
T he branched ev erg reen shru b
with woody stems g rows to ap-
prox imatel y 6 — 9 ft — Its
wood has a y el l ow col or and a
distinct scent of v anil l a. T he g reen
l eav es are l anceol ate, with a con-
tinu ou s marg in tapered at the pe-
tiol e and are 4 — 5 in. l ong ( 1 2 —
1 5 cm) . T he fl owers are white, oc-
casional l y with rose speck l es, and
bel l -shaped ( to 7 mm l ong ) and
hang in cl u sters off the tips of the
branches. T he fru it is a bl ack ber-
ry with nu merou s tiny seeds.
T he psy choactiv e Pitu ri has
been hedonistical l y and ritu al l y
u sed by the A borig ines since their
settl ement of A u stral ia. T he
l eav es are g athered in A u g u st
when the pl ants are in fl ower.
T hey are hu ng u p to dry or roasted
ov er afire. T hey are either chewed
as Pitu ri or smok ed in cig arettes
rol l ed with al k al ine su bstances.
Du boisia hopwoodii contains
a v ariety of powerfu l and stimu -
l ating bu t tox ic al k al oids: pitu r-
in du bosine, D-nor-nicotine,
and nicotine. T he hal l u cinog enic
tropane al k al oids hy oscy amine
and scopol amine hav e been
discov ered in the roots.
E CH INOCE RE U S E ng el m. ( 7 5 )
E chinocereu s trig l ochidiatu s E n-
g el m.
Pital l ito Cactu s
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
Sou thwestern North
3 2 A merica, M ex ico
T he T arahu mara Indians of Chi-
hu ahu a consider two species as
fal se Pey otes or H ik u ri of the
mou ntainou s areas. T hey are
not so strong as A riocarpu s,
Cory phantha, E pithel antha,
M ammil l aria, or L ophophora.
E chinocereu s sal mdy ck ianu s is
a l ow, caespitose cactu s with
decu mbent, y el l ow-g reen stems
in. ( 2 — 4 cm) in diameter.
T he ribs nu mber 7 to9 . T he 8 or
9 radial spines are y el l ow, ½ in.
( 1 cm) l ong , central spine sol i-
tary and l ong er than radial s. T he
orang e-col ored fl owers mea-
su re 3 1 / 4 — 4 in. ( 8 — 1 0 cm) l ong
and hav e obl anceol ate to
spathu l ate perianth seg ments.
T his species is nativ e to Chi-
hu ahu a and Du rang o in M ex ico.
E chinocereu s trig l ochidiatu s dif-
fers in hav ing deep g reen stems,
fewer radial spines, which tu rn
g ray ish with ag e, and scarl et
fl owers 2 — 2 ¾ in. ( 5 — 7 cm) l ong .
A try ptamine deriv ativ e has
been reported from E chinocer-
eu s trig l ochidiatu s ( 3 -hy drox y -4 -
methox y phenethy l amine) .
E PIT H E L A NT H A W eber
ex B ritt. et Rose
( 3 )
E pithel antha micromeris ( E ng el m. )
W eber ex B ritt. et Rose
H ik u l i M u l ato
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
Sou thwestern North
3 3 A merica, M ex ico
T his spiny cactu s, one of the so-
cal l ed fal se Pey otes of the T ara-
hu mara Indians of Chihu ahu a,
has acidic, edibl e fru it cal l ed Chi-
l itos. M edicine men tak e H ik u l i
M u l ato to mak e their sig ht cl earer
and to permit them to commu ne
with sorcerers. It is tak en by ru n-
ners as a stimu l ant and " protec-
tor," and the Indians bel iev e that it
prol ong s l ife. It is reportedl y abl e
to driv e ev il peopl e to insanity or
throw them from cl iffs.
A l k al oids and triterpenes hav e
been reported from E pithel antha
micromeris. T his v ery smal l ,
g l obu l ar cactu s g rows to a dia-
meter of 2 ½ in. ( 6 cm) . T he l ow
tu bercl es, 1 A 6 in. ( 2 mm) l ong , are
arrang ed in many spiral s. T he
nu merou s white spines al most
hide the tu bercl es. T he l ower ra-
dial spines measu re 1 A 6 in.
( 2 mm) l ong , the u pper abou t
% in. ( 1 cm) . T he smal l fl owers,
which arise from the center of the
pl ant in a tu ft of wool and spines,
are whitish to pink , ¼ in. ( 5 mm)
broad. T he cl av ate fru it, in.
( 9 — 1 3 mm) l ong , bears rather
l arg e, shining bl ack seeds, 1 A 6 in.
( 2 mm) across.
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E RY T H RINA L .
E ry thrina americana M il l .
Coral T ree
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
3 4 both hemispheres
T zompanq u ahu itl of the ancient
A ztecs may hav e been from the
many species in the g enu s E ry -
thrina, the seeds of which are
bel iev ed to hav e been empl oy ed
as a medicine and hal l u cinog en.
In G u atemal a the beans are
empl oy ed in div ination.
T he beans of E ry thrina
constitu te a T arahu mara
Indian medicinal pl ant of many
v aried u ses, which may hav e
been u til ized as a hal l u cinog en.
E ry thrina fl abe/ / iformis is a
shru b or smal l tree with spiny
branches. T he l eafl ets are 2 1 / 2 _
3 ½ in. ( 3 — 6 cm) l ong , u su al l y
broader than l ong . T he densel y
many -fl owered racemes bear
red fl owers 1 1 / 5 _ 2 1 / 2 in. ( 3 — 6 cm)
l ong . Sometimes attaining a
l eng th of 1 ft ( 3 0 cm) , the pods,
shal l owl y constricted between
the seeds, contain from two to
many dark red beans. T his spe-
cies is common in the hot, dry
reg ions of northern and central
M ex ico and the A merican
Sou thwest.
G A L B U L IM IM A F. M . B ail ey
G al bu l imima beig rav eana
( F. v . M u el l . ) Sprag u e
A g ara
H imantandraceae
Northeast A u stral ia,
3 5 M al ay sia
Nativ es in Fapu a boil the bark
and l eav es of this tree with a
species of H oma/ omena to pre-
pare a tea that cau ses an intox -
ication l eading to a deep sl u m-
ber, du ring which v isions are
ex perienced.
T his tree of northeastern
A u stral ia, Papu a, and M ol u cca
is u nbu ttressed, attaining a
heig ht of 9 Oft ( 2 7 m) . T he hig hl y
aromatic, g ray brownish, scal y
bark measu res ½ in. ( 1 cm) in
thick ness. T he el l iptic, entire
l eav es are a g l ossy , metal l ic
g reen abov e, brown beneath,
and are normal l y 4 1 / 2 — 6 in. ( 1 1 —
1 5 cm) l ong and in. ( 5 —
7 cm) wide. L ack ing sepal s and
petal s bu t with many conspicu -
ou s stamens, the fl owers hav e a
pal e y el l ow or brownish y el l ow
hu e with a ru sty brown cal y x .
T he el l ipsoidal or g l obose fru it is
fl eshy -fibrou s, reddish, ¾ in.
( 2 cm) in diameter.
A l thou g h 2 8 al k al oids hav e
been isol ated from G al bu l imima
beig rav eana, a psy choactiv e
principl e has not y et been fou nd
in the pl ant.
H E IM IA L ink et Otto
H eimia sal icifol ia
( H . B . K . ) L ink et Otto
Sinicu ichi
L y thraceae ( L oosestrife Famil y )
Sou thern North A merica to
3 6 A rg entina, W est Indies
T his g enu s has three v ery simi-
l ar species, and al l pl ay impor-
tant rol es in fol k medicine. Sev -
eral v ernacu l ar names reported
from B razil seem to indicate
k nowl edg e of psy choactiv ity ,
e. g . , A bre-o-sol ( " su n-opener')
and H erv a da Vida ( " herb of
l ife" ) .
Sinicu ichi ( H el m/ a
is 2 — 6 ft ( 6 Ocm-1 . 8 m) tal l with
l anceol ate l eav es ¾ _ 3 1 / 2 in. ( 2 —
9 cm) l ong . T he y el l ow fl owers
are borne sing l y in the l eaf ax il s;
the persistent bel l -shaped cal y x
dev el ops l ong hornl ik e appen-
dag es. T he shru b g rows abu n-
dantl y in moist pl aces and al ong
streams in the hig hl ands.
In the M ex ican hig hl ands, the
l eav es of H . sal icifol ia are
sl ig htl y wil ted, cru shed in water,
and the preparation is then al -
l owed to ferment into an intox i-
cating drink . A l thou g h it is be-
l iev ed that ex cessiv e u se of
Sinicu ichi may be phy sical l y
harmfu l , there are u su al l y no
u ncomfortabl e aftereffects. T his
pl ant contains q u inol izidine al -
k al oids ( l y thrine, cry og enine, l y -
fol ine, nesidine) .
H E L ICH RY SU M M il l
H el ichry su m ( L ) M oench.
Straw Fl ower
Compositae ( Su ntl ower Famil y )
E u rope, A frica, A sia,
3 7 A u stral ia
T wo species are u sed by witch
doctors in Z u l u l and " for inhal ing
to indu ce trances. " It is pre-
su med that the pl ants are
smok ed for these effects.
H e/ ichry su m foetidu m is a tal l ,
erect, branching herb 1 0 — l 2 in.
( 2 5 — 3 0 cm) in heig ht. It is sl ig htl y
woody near the base and is v ery
strong l y scented. T he l anceo-
l ate or l anceol ate-ov ate, basal l y
l obed, entire l eav es, measu ring
u p to 3 ½ in. ( 9 cm) l ong and
¾ in. ( 2 cm) wide, basal l y en-
cl asp the stem; they are g ray -
wool l y beneath and g l andu l ar
abov e. T he fl owers occu r in
l oose, terminal , cory mbose
cl u sters of sev eral stal k ed
heads ¾ — 1 ½ in. ( 2 — 4 cm) in dia-
meter, su btended by cream-co-
l ored or g ol den y el l ow bracts.
T hese species of H el / chry su m
are some of the pl ants k nown in
E ng l ish as E v erl asting .
Cou marine and diterpenes
hav e been reported from the
g enu s, bu t no constitu ents with
hal l u cinog enic properties hav e
been isol ated.
4 3
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H E L ICOST Y L IS T ré cu l
H el icosty l is pedu ncu l ata
B enoist
T ak ini
M oraceae ( M u l berry Famil y )
Central A merica, tropical
3 8 zones of Sou th A merica
H OM A L OM E NA Schott
H omal omena l au terbachii E ng i.
E reriba
A raceae ( A ru m Famil y )
Sou th A merica, tropical
3 9 zones of A sia
H Y OSCY A M U S L .
H y oscy amu s al bu s L .
Y el l ow H enbane
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
M editerranean, Near E ast
4 0
H Y OSCY A M U S L .
H y oscy amu s nig er L .
B l ack H enbane
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
E u rope, northern A frica,
4 1 sou thwestern and central
A sia
T ak ini is a sacred tree of the G u i-
anas. From the red " sap" of the
bark a mil dl y poisonou s intox i-
cant is prepared. E x tracts from
the inner bark of two trees el icit
central nerv ou s sy stem depres-
sant effects simil ar to those pro-
du ced by Cannabis sativ a. T he
two species responsibl e for this
hal l u cinog en are H . pedu ncu l ata
and H . tomentosa.
T hese two species of trees are
simil ar. B oth are cy l indrical or
v ery sl ig htl y bu ttressed forest
g iants 7 5 ft ( 2 3 m) tal l with g ray ish
brown bark ; the l atex is pal e y el -
l ow or cream-col ored. T he l eath-
ery l anceol ate-el l iptic l eav es at-
tain a l eng th of 7 in. ( 1 8 cm) and a
width of 3 in. ( 8 cm) . T he fl eshy ,
pistil l ate fl owers are borne in g b-
bose cau l ifl orou s heads.
Very l ittl e is k nown abou t these
trees and they are rarel y stu died.
T he hal l u cinog en cou l d theoreti-
cal l y orig inate from either of the
rel ated g enera B rosimu m or Pir-
atinera. E x tracts from the inner
bark of both trees hav e been
pharmacol og ical l y stu died; they
hav e a softening or dampening
effect, simil ar to Cannabis sativ a.
4 4
In Papu a New G u inea the na-
tiv es are said to eat the l eav es of
a species of H omal omena with
the l eav es and bark of G al bu l i-
mima beig rav eana to indu ce a
v iol ent condition ending in sl u m-
ber, du ring which v isions are ex -
perienced. T he rhizomes hav e a
nu mber of u ses in fol k medicine,
especial l y for the treatment of
sk in probl ems. In M al ay a an u n-
specified part of a species was
an ing redient of an arrow
poison.
T he species of H omal omena
are smal l or l arg e herbs with
pl easantl y aromatic rhizomes.
T he l eav es are obl ong -
l anceol ate or cordate-ov ate,
borne on v ery short stems,
rarel y ex ceeding 6 in. ( 1 5 cm) in
l eng th. T he spathe u su al l y per-
sists in fru it. T he mal e and fe-
mal e portions of the spadix are
prox imate. T he smal l berries are
few or many -seeded.
T he chemistry of this g rou p of
pl ants has not y et discl osed any
hal l u cinog enic principl e.
A l thou g h the herb has erect
stems, it often appears bu shy . It
g rows to approx imatel y 8 — 1 2 in.
( 4 0 — 5 0 cm) hig h. T he l ig ht g reen
stems and serrated l eav es, as
wel l as the fu nnel -shaped f l ow-
ers and fru its, are al l pil eou s.
T he herb bl ooms from J anu ary
to J u l y . T he col or of the fl owers
is l ig ht y el l ow with deep v iol et on
the interior. T he seeds hav e a
whitish or ocher col or, occasion-
al l y a g ray col or.
T his henbane was the most
widel y u sed mag ical herb and
medicinal pl ant. T he hal l u cino-
g en was an important mediu m in
antiq u ity , u sed to promote a
trance and tak en by oracl es and
div initory women. In the ancient
earth oracl e of G aia, it is the
" drag on's herb? ' T he g oddess of
the witches, H ecate, u ses " crazy -
mak er" in the K obch oracl e. L ate
antiq u ity g iv es u s " Z eu s's B eans"
in the oracl e of Z eu s-A m mon and
the Roman g od J u piter. In the
Del phi oracl es of A pol l o, who is
the G od of " prophetic insanity ," it
is k nown as " A pol l o's Pl ant? '
T he entire pl ant contains the
tropane al k al oids hy oscy amine
and scopol amine.
H enbane is a coarse annu al or
biennial , v iscid, hairy , strong -
smel l ing herb u p to abou t 3 0 in.
( 7 6 cm) tal l . T he l eav es are en-
tire or occasional l y hav e a few
l arg e teeth, ov ate, 6 — 8 in. ( 1 5 —
2 0 cm) l ong , the l ower cau l ine
ampl ex icau l l eav es being obl ong
and smal l er. T he fl owers, y el l ow
or g reenish y el l ow v eined with
pu rpl e, attain a l eng th of abou t
1 ½ in. ( 4 cm) and are borne in
two rank s in a scorpioid cy me.
T he fru it is a many -seeded cap-
su l e encl osed in the persistent
cal y x with its fiv e triang u l ar
points becoming rig id. T he
seeds rel ease a powerfu l and
distinctiv e odor when sq u eezed.
In antiq u ity and the M iddl e
A g es, H y oscy amu s nig er was
empl oy ed in E u rope as an im-
portant ing redient of the witches'
brews and ointments. . It not onl y
redu ced pain bu t al so indu ced
obl iv ion.
T he activ e principl es in this
sol anaceou s g enu s are tropane
al k al oids, especial l y scopol a-
mine. Scopol amine is a potent
hal l u cinog enic ag ent.
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0 CH ROM A B enth, ( 2 4 ) IPOM OE A L . ( 5 0 0 )
J U ST ICIA L .
( 3 5 0 )
: chroma fu chsioides ( B enth. ) M iers
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
T ropical and su btropical
4 2 zones of Sou th A merica
the K amsá Indians of
the Col ombian A ndes, I. fu ch-
sb/ des is tak en by shamans for
difficu l t diag noses.
T he intox ication is not pl ea-
sant, l eav ing aftereffects for
sev eral day s. T he shru b is v a-
l u ed al so as a medicine for
treating difficu l ties with dig estion
or bowel fu nction, and to aid in
cases of difficu l t chil dbirth.
l ochroma fu chsboides, a
shru b or smal l tree 1 O— l 5 ft ( 3 —
4 . 5 m) tal l , bu t sometimes l arg er,
occu rs in the Col ombian and
E cu adorean A ndes at abou t
7 ,0 0 0 ff ( 2 ,2 0 0 m) al titu de. T he
branches are reddish brown,
and the l eav es, obov ate-obl ong ,
measu re 4 — 6 in. ( 1 0 — 1 5 cm) in
l eng th. T he cl u stered tu bu l ar or
bel l -shaped fl owers are red, 1 —
1 ½ in. ( 2 . 5 — 4 cm) l ong . T he red
I fru it is an ov oid or py riform berry
abou t ¾ in. ( 2 cm) in diameter,
partial l y encl osed in a persistent
cal y x .
T he pl ant contains
withanol ide.
l pomoea v iol acea L .
M orning G l ory
Conv ol v u l aceae
( M orning G l ory Famil y )
M ex ico to Sou th A merica
4 3
In Oax aca, in sou thern M ex ico,
the seeds of this v ine are es-
teemed as one of the principal
hal l u cinog ens for u se in div ina-
tion as wel l as mag ico-rel ig iou s
and cu ring ritu al s. T he Chinan-
tec and M azatec Indians cal l the
seeds Piu l e; the Z apotecs, B a-
doh Neg ro. In pre-Conq u est
day s, the A ztecs k new them as
T l il il tzin and empl oy ed them in
the same way as Ol ol iu q u l , the
seeds of another M orning G l ory ,
T u rbina cory mbosa.
l pomoea v bol acea, k nown
al so as I. ru brocaeru l ea, is an
annu al v ine with entire, ov ate,
deepl y cordate l eav es 2 1 / 2 — 4 in.
( 6 — 1 0 cm) l ong , ¾ — 3 m. ( 2 — 8 cm)
wide. T he infl orescence is three-
or fou r-fl owered. T he fl owers
v ary from white to red, pu rpl e,
bl u e or v iol et-bl u e, and measu re
2 — 2 ¾ in. ( 5 — 7 cm) wide at the
mou th of the tru mpet-shaped,
corol l a tu be, 2 — 2 ¾ in. ( 5 — 7 cm)
l ong . T he ov oid fru it, abou t ½ in.
( 1 cm) in l eng th, bears el ong ate,
ang u l ar bl ack seeds.
T his v ariabl e species rang es
throu g h western and sou thern
M ex ico and G u atemal a and in
the W est Indies. It can be fou nd
as wel l in tropical Sou th A meri-
ca. It is wel l k nown in horticu l -
J u st/ cia pectora/ isJ acq . v ar.
stenophy / l a L eonard
M ashihiri
A canthaceae ( A canthu s Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
4 4 Central and Sou th A merica
J u sticia pectoral / s v ar. steno-
phy l l a differs from the wide-
spread j . pectoral / s mainl y in its
smal l er statu re and its v ery nar-
rowl y l anceol ate l eav es and
shorter infl orescence. It is an
herb u p to 1 ft ( 3 0 cm) tal l , with
erect or ascending stems,
sometimes rooting at the l ower
nodes. T he internodes are
short, u su al l y l ess than ¾ in.
( 2 cm) l ong . T he nu merou s
l eav es measu re normal l y ¾ —
2 ¼ in. ( 2 — 5 cm) l ong , % — l in. ( 1 —
2 cm) wide. T he dense infl ores-
cence, cov ered with g l andu l ar
hairs, may reach a l eng th of 4 in.
( 1 0 cm) bu t is u su al l y mu ch
shorter. T he inconspicu ou s
fl owers, abou t ¼ in. ( 5 mm) l ong ,
are white or v iol et, freq u entl y
pu rpl e-spotted. T he fru it, ¼ in.
( 5 mm) l ong , bears fl at, reddish
brown seeds.
Chemical ex amination of J u s-
t/ c/ a has been inconcl u siv e.
Prel iminary indications that the
l eav es of J . pectoral / s v ar. ste-
nophy / l a contain try ptamifl eS
( DM T ) need confirmation. T he
dried herb contains cou marin.
4 5
tu re.
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K A E M PFE RIA L .
K aempferia g al ang a L .
G al ang a
u sed as
a hal l u cinog en in New G u inea.
T hrou g hou t the rang e of this
species, the hig hl y aromatic rhi-
zome is v al u ed as a spice to fl a-
v or rice, and al so in fol k medi-
cine as an ex pectorant and
carminativ e as wel l as an aph-
rod isiac. A tea of the l eav es is
empl oy ed for sore throat, swel -
l ing s, rheu matism, and ey e in-
fections. In M al ay sia, the pl ant
was added to the arrow poison
prepared from A ntiaris tox icaria.
T his short-stemmed herb has
fl at-spreading , g reen, rou nd
l eav es measu ring 3 — 6 in. ( 8 —
1 5 cm) across. T he white fl ow-
ers ( with a pu rpl e spot on the
l ip) , which are fu g aciou s, appear
sing l y in the center of the pl ant
and attain approx imatel y 1 in.
( 2 . 5 cm) in breadth.
B ey ond the hig h content of
essential oil in the rhizome, l ittl e
is k nown of the chemistry of the
pl ant. Psy choactiv e activ ity
mig ht possibl y be du e to consti-
tu ents of the essential oil s.
L A G OCH IL U S B u ng e
L ag ochil u s inebrians B u ng e
T u rk estan M int
L abiatae ( M int Famil y )
Central A sia
4 6
On the dry steppes of T u rk estan,
the T aj ik , T atar, T u rk oman, and
U zbek tribesmen hav e u sed a
tea made from the toasted
l eav es of the mint L ag ochil u s in-
ebrians as an intox icant. T he
l eav es are freq u entl y mix ed with
stems, fru iting tops, and fl owers,
and honey and su g ar may occa-
sional l y be added to l essen the
intense bitterness of the drink .
T his pl ant has been wel l stu -
died from the pharmacol og ical
point of v iew in Ru ssia. It is re-
commended for its antihemor-
rhag ic and hemostatic effects to
redu ce permeabil ity of bl ood
v essel s and as an aid in bl ood
coag u l ation. It has al so been
considered hel pfu l in treating
certain al l erg ies and sk in pro-
bl ems. It has sedativ e
properties.
Phy tochemical stu dies hav e
shown the presence of a cry s-
tal l ine compou nd cal l ed l ag ochi-
l ine— a diterpene of the g rinde-
ian ty pe.
T his compou nd is not k nown to
be hal l u cinog enic.
L A T U A Phil .
L atu a pu bifl ora ( G riseb. ) B ail l .
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
Chil e
4 7
L atu a, 6 — 3 0 ft ( 2 — 9 m) tal l , has
one or more main tru nk s. T he
bark is reddish to g ray ish brown.
T he spiny branches, rig id and
1 in. ( 2 . 5 cm) l ong , arise in the
l eaf ax il s. T he narrow el l iptic
l eav es, dark to l ig ht g reen
abov e, pal er beneath, are mar-
g inal l y entire or serrate and
measu re 1 3 / 8 — l ¾ in. ( 3 ½ —
4 ½ cm) by % — 1 ½ in. ( 1 . 5 — 4 cm) .
T he fl owers hav e a persistent,
bel l -shaped, g reen to pu rpl ish
cal y x and a l arg er, mag enta to
red-v iol et, u rceol ate corol l a 1 s/ a—
1 ½ in. ( 3 . 5 — 4 cm) l ong , ½ in.
( 1 cm) wide at the mou th. T he
fru it is a g l obose berry abou t
1 in. ( 2 . 5 cm) in diameter, with
nu merou s k idney -shaped
seeds.
T he l eav es and fru it of L . pu b-
ifl ora contain 0 . 1 8 % hy oscy a-
mine and atropine and 0 . 0 8 %
scopol amine. -
L E ONOT IS ( pers. ) R. B r.
L eonotis l eonu ru s ( L . ) R. B r.
L ion's T ail
L abiatae ( M int Famil y )
4 8
Sou th A frica
T his Sou th A frican shru b has
orang e-col ored fl owers and is
reported to be " hal l u cinog enic? '
In A frica it is cal l ed Dacha, Dag -
g ha, or W il d Dag g a, which
means " wil d hemp? ' T he H otten-
tots and the B u sh peopl e smok e
the bu ds and the l eav es as a
narcotic. It is possibl e that this
pl ant is one of the narcotic
pl ants cal l ed K anna ( compare to
Scel etiu m tortu osu m) . T he resi-
nou s l eav es, or the resin ex -
tracted from the l eav es, are
smok ed al one or mix ed with to-
bacco. Chemical stu dies are
l ack ing .
In Cal ifornia the pl ant has
been g rown and tested, rev eal -
ing a bitter-tasting smok e and a
l ig htl y psy choactiv e effect that is
reminiscent of both Cannabis
and Datu ra. In eastern Sou th
A frica, the cl osel y rel ated L eo-
notis ov ata is reportedl y u sed for
the same pu rpose.
Z ing iberaceae ( G ing er Famil y )
T ropical zones of A frica,
4 5 sou theastern A sia
4 6
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L eonu ru s sibiricu s L .
Siberian M otherwort
Famil y )
Siberia to E ast A sia, Central
4 9 aid Sou th A merica
( fiatu ral ized)
T his herb g rows erect and tal l ,
reaching ov er 6 ft ( 2 m) often on
a sing l e stem. It has max il l iform
branches and finel y serrated,
dark g reen l eav es. T he v iol et
fl owers appear on the ends of
each stem and the infl orescence
can be l ong and attractiv e.
T he Siberian M otherwort is
mentioned in the ancient Chi-
nese Shih Ching ( the B ook of
Song s, written approx imatel y
1 0 0 0 — 5 0 0 B . c. ) , where it is
cal l ed t'u ei. L ater it was occa-
sional l y praised as a medicinal
pl ant in ol d Chinese herbal s.
T he dried l eav es, harv ested
from the fl owering pl ant, are
smok ed as marij u ana su bstitu te
in Central and Sou th A merica
( 1 — 2 g per cig arette) .
In the pl ant, 0 . 1 % of the fl av o-
noid g l y coside ru tin has been
ascertained. Of particu l ar inter-
est with reg ard to the psy ch oac-
tiv e properties was the discov -
ery of three new diterpenes:
l eosibiricine, l eosibirine, and the
isomers isol eosibiricine in
essential oil .
L obel ia tu pa L .
T abaco del Diabl o
Campanu l aceae ( L obel iaceae)
( H arebel l Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones
5 0
T his beau tifu l , red- or red-pu r-
pl e-fl owered, 6 — 9 ft ( 2 — 3 m) hig h
pol y morphic L obel ia is wel l re-
cog nized as tox ic in the A ndes
of sou thern Peru and northern
Chil e, where it is cal l ed T u pa or
T abaco del Diabl o ( " dev il 's to-
bacco" ) . It fl ou rishes in dry soil ,
and its stems and roots hav e a
white l atex that irritates the sk in.
T he l u x u riant fol iag e cl othes
nearl y the whol e l eng th of the
pl ant with g ray ish g reen, el l iptic,
often minu tel y hairy l eav es 4 —
9 in. ( 1 0 — 2 3 cm) l ong . 1 ¼ — 3 1 / 4 in.
( 3 — 8 cm) wide. Carmine red or
pu rpl e, the fl owers, 1 ½ in. ( 4 cm)
in l eng th, are borne densel y on a
stal k 1 4 in. ( 3 6 cm) l ong . T he
corol l a is decu rv ed, sometimes
recu rv ed with the l obes u nited at
the apex .
T u pa l eav es contain the pi-
peridine al k al oid l obel ine, a re-
spiratory stimu l ant, as wel l as
the dik eto- and dihy drox y -deri-
v ativ es l obel amidine and nor-b-
bedamidine. T hese constitu ents
are not k nown to possess hal l u -
cinog enic properties. Nev erthe-
l ess, the smok ed l eav es hav e a
psy choactiv e effect.
L OPH OPH ORA Cou l t.
L ophophora wil l iams/ i ( L em. ) Cou l t.
Pey ote
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
M ex ico, T ex as
5 1
T wo species of L ophophora are
recog nized: they differ morpho-
l og ical l y and chemical l y .
B oth species of L ophophora
are smal l , spinel ess g ray -g reen
or bl u ish g reen top-shaped
pl ants. T he su ccu l ent chl oro-
phy l l -bearing head or crown
measu res u p to 3 ¾ in. ( 8 cm) in
diameter and is radial l y div ided
in from 5 to 1 3 rou nded ribs.
E ach tu bercl e bears a smal l , fl at
areol e from the top of which
arises a tu ft of hairs ¾ in. ( 2 cm)
l ong . T he whitish or pink ish
campanu l ate, u su al l y sol itary ,
in. ( 1 . 5 — 2 . 5 cm) l ong fl ow-
ers are borne in the u mbil icate
center of the crown.
T he Indians cu t off the crown
and dry it for ing estion as a hal -
l u cinog en. T his dry , disk l l k e
head is k nown as the M escal
B u tton or Pey ote B u tton.
L ophophora wil l iams/ i is
u su al l y bl u e-g reen with from 5 to
1 3 ribs and normal l y straig ht
fu rrows. It has u p to 3 0 al k a-
l oids— primaril y M escal ine— as
wel l as fu rther psy choactiv e
pheny l ethy l amines and isoq u i-
nol ines. L . diffu sa has a g ray -
g reen, sometimes ev en a rather
y el l owish g reen crown with in-
definite ribs and sinu ate fu rrows.
T he fl owers are u su al l y mu ch
l arg er than in L . wil l iams/ i. T he
chemical constitu tion is mu ch
simpl er.
B oth species of L ophophora
inhabit the driest and stoniest of
desert reg ions, u su al l y on cal -
careou s soil . W hen the crown is
remov ed, the pl ant wil l often
g row new crowns and thu s
Pey otes with mu l tipl e heads are
commonl y seen. T he hal l u cino-
g enic effects of Pey ote are
strong , with k al eidoscopic, richl y
col ored v isions. T he other
senses— hearing , feel ing ,
taste— can al so be affected.
T here are reportedl y two stag es
in the intox ication. A t first, a per-
iod of contentment and sensitiv -
ity occu rs. T he second phase
bring s g reat cal m and mu scu l ar
sl u g g ishness, with a shift in at-
tention from ex ternal stimu l i to
introspection and meditation.
4 7
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L Y COPE RDON L . ( 5 0 — 1 0 0 ) M A M M IL L A RIA H aw. ( 1 5 0 — 2 0 0 ) M A NDRA G ORA L . ( 6 )
L y coperdon mix tecoru m H eim
L y coperdon marg inatu m Vitt.
B ov ista
L y coperdaceae
( Cl u b M oss Famil y )
T emperate zones of M ex ico
5 2
In northern M ex ico, among the
T arahu mara of Chihu ahu a, a
species of L y coperdon, k nown
as K al amoto, is tak en by sor-
cerers to enabl e them to ap-
proach peopl e withou t being de-
tected and to mak e peopl e sick .
In sou thern M ex ico, the M ix tecs
of Oax aca empl oy two species
to indu ce a condition of hal f-
sl eep, du ring which it is said that
v oices and echoes can be
heard.
L y coperdon mix tecoru m,
k nown onl y from Oax aca, is
smal l , attaining a diameter of no
more than 1 ¼ in. ( 3 cm) . Itis
su bg l obose, somewhat fl at-
tened, abru ptl y constricted into
a pedu ncl e scarcel y ½ in.
( 3 mm) l ong . T he ex terior su r-
face is densel y cobbl ed-pu stu l i-
form and l ig ht tan in col or. T he
interior su bstance is straw co-
l ored.
T he spherical spores, brown-
ish tawny with a su btl e ting e of
v iol et, measu re u p to T his
terrestrial species g rows in l ig ht
forest and in pastu res.
Psy choactiv e constitu ents
hav e not y et been isol ated.
4 8
M ammil l aria spp.
Pincu shion Cactu s
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
Sou thwestern North
5 3 A merica, Central A merica
A mong the most important
" fal se Pey otes" of the T arahu -
mara Indians are sev eral spe-
cies of M ammil l aria, al l of them
rou nd and stou t-spined pl ants.
N-methy l -3 ,4 -dimethox y -phe-
ny l ethy l amine has been isol ated
from M . hey derii, a species do-
sel y rel atedtoM . craig ii. H orde-
nine is present in many species.
M ammil l aria crai,g ii is g l obose
bu t apical l y somewhat fl attened
with conical , ang l ed tu bercl es
abou t ½ 1 n. ( 1 cm) l ong and ax il s
and areol es at first wool l y ; the
central spines are abou t ¼ in.
( 5 mm) l ong . T he rose-col ored
fl ower attains a l eng th of % in.
( 1 . 5 cm) . M . g rahamii may be
g l obose or cy l indric, 2 ½ in.
( 6 cm) in diameter with smal l tu -
bercl es and nak ed ax il s; the
central spines are 3 / 4 in. ( 2 cm) or
l ess in l eng th. T he fl owers,
which attain a l eng th of 1 in.
( 2 . 5 cm) , hav e v iol et or pu rpl ish
seg ments, sometimes with
white marg ins.
M andrag ora officinaru m L .
M andrak e
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
Sou thern E u rope, northern
5 4 A frica, western A sia to
H imal ay as
Probabl y no pl ant has had a
more fantastic history than the
M andrak e. A s a mag ical pl ant
and hal l u cinog en, its ex traordin-
ary pl ace in E u ropean fol k l ore
can nowhere be eq u al ed.
K nown for its tox ic and real and
presu med medicinal properties,
M andrak e commanded the fear
and respect of E u ropeans
throu g hou t the M iddl e A g es and
earl ier. Its fol k u ses and attri-
bu tes were inex tricabl y bou nd
u p with the Doctrine of Sig na-
tu res, becau se of its anthropo-
morphic root.
W hil e there are six species of
M andrag ora, it is M . officinaru m
of E u rope and the Near E ast
that has pl ay ed the most impor-
tant rol e as a hal l u cinog en in
mag ic and witchcraft. It is a
steml ess perennial herb u p to
1 ft ( 3 0 cm) hig h, with a thick ,
u su al l y fork ing root and l arg e,
stal k ed, wrink l ed, ov ate l eav es,
marg inal l y entire or toothed and
measu ring u pto 1 1 in. ( 2 8 cm) in
l eng th. T he whitish g reen, pu r-
pl ish, or bl u ish bel l -shaped fl ow-
ers, 1 ¼ in. ( 3 cm) in l eng th, are
borne in cl u sters among the
tu fted l eav es. T he g l obose or
ov oid, su ccu l ent y el l ow berry
has a del ig htfu l frag rance.
T he total content of tropane
al k al oids in the root is 0 . 4 % .
T he principal al k al oids are
hy oscy amine and scopol amine,
bu t atropine, cu scohy g rine, or
mandrag orine is al so present.
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M A Q U IIRA A u bI.
M aq u ira scl erophy l l a ( Du ck e) C. C.
B erg
Rape dos Indios
M oraceae ( M u l berry Famil y )
T ropical zones of Sou th
5 5 A merica
M IM OSA L .
M imosa hostil is ( M art. ) B enth. ( M i-
mosa tenu ifl ora)
J u rema T ree
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
M ex ico and B razil
5 6
In the Pariana reg ion of the B ra-
zil ian A mazon, the Indians for-
merl y prepared a potent hal l u ci-
nog enic snu ff that, al thou g h no
l ong er prepared and u sed, is
k nown as Rape dos Indios ( " In-
dian snu ff" ) . It is bel iev ed
hav e been made from the fru it of
an enormou s forest tree, M a-
q u ira scierophy l l a ( k nown al so
as Ol medioperebea sciero-
phy l l a) .
M aq u ira scierophy l l a attains a
heig ht of 7 5 — l OOft ( 2 3 — 3 0 m) .
T he l atex is white. Very thick and
heav y , the ov ate or obl ong -
ov ate, marg inal l y inrol l ed l eav es
are 8 — 1 2 in. ( 2 0 — 3 0 cm) l ong , 3 —
6 ½ in. ( 8 — 1 6 cm) wide. T he mal e
fl owering heads are g l obose, u p
to abou t ½ in. ( 1 cm) in dia-
meter; the femal e infl ores-
cences are borne in the l eaf ax -
Is and hav e one or rarel y two
fl owers. T he dru pe or fru it, cin-
namon-col ored and frag rant, is
g l obose, in. ( 2 — 2 . 5 cm) in
diameter. T he tree contains
cardiac g l y cosides.
In the dry caating as of eastern
B razil , this bu sy , sparsel y spiny
treel et fl ou rishes abu ndantl y .
T he spines are basal l y swol l en,
½ in. ( 3 mm) l ong . Its finel y pin-
nate l eav es are 1 ½ — i ¾ in. ( 3 —
5 cm) l ong . T he fl owers, which
occu r in l oosel y cy l indrical
spik es, are white and frag rant.
T he l eg u me or pod, abou t 1 —
1 ¼ in. ( 2 . 5 — 3 cm) l ong , break s
into 4 — 6 sections. A n al k al oid
was isol ated from the root of this
treel et and cal l ed nig erine. It
was l ater shown to be identical
with the hal l u cinog enic
N, N-dimethy l try ptamine.
Sev eral species of M imosa
are cal l ed J u rema in eastern
B razil . M . hostil is is often k nown
as J u rema Prê ta ( " bl ack j u re-
ma" ) . It is identical to the M ex i-
can T epescohu ite ( M . tenu i-
fl ora) . T he rel ated M . v erru cosa,
from the bark of which a stu pe-
facient is said to be deriv ed, is
freq u entl y cal l ed J u rema B ranca
( " white j u rema" ) .
T he tropical tree or shru b g rows
in marshy areas. Often it g rows
onl y to 6 — 9 ft ( 3 — 4 m) hig h, oc-
casional l y to 3 6 — 4 2 ft ( 1 2 — 1 6 m) .
It has an erect stem with fork ed
branches that g row obl iq u el y
u pward. T he g reen ov al l eav es
( 8 — 1 2 cm) are v ery broad and
become narrower toward the tip,
which is pointed. T he fl owers
are deep y el l ow and hang in
g l obu l ar cl u sters. T he seeds are
wing ed.
T he dried l eav es are smok ed,
chewed, or work ed into an ex -
tract cal l ed K ratom or M ambog .
T he psy choactiv e properties
of k ratom are paradox ical . Per-
sonal research, the descriptions
of it in the l iteratu re, as wel l as
the pharmacol og ical character-
istics of the material hav e re-
v eal ed k ratom to be simu l ta-
neou sl y stimu l ating l ik e cocaine
and soothing l ik e morphine. T he
stimu l ating effects beg in within 5
to 1 0 minu tes of chewing the
fresh l eav es.
A s earl y as the 1 9 th centu ry
the u se of K ratom as an opiu m
su bstitu te and a cu rativ e for
opiu m addiction was reported.
T here are nu merou s indol e al -
k al oids present in the pl ant. T he
primary constitu ent is mitrag y -
nine, which is apparentl y easil y
tol erated and shows barel y any
tox icity ev en in hig h doses.
M IT RA G Y NA K orth.
M itrag y na speciosa K orthal s
K ratom
Ru biaceae ( M adder Famil y )
Sou theast A sia ( T hail and,
5 7 northern M al ay Peninsu l a to
B orneo, New G u inea)
4 9
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M u cu na pru riens ( L . ) DC.
Cowhag e
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
5 8 both hemispheres
M Y RIST ICA G ronov .
M y ristica frag rans H ou tt.
Nu tmeg
M y risticaceae ( Nu tmeg Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
5 9 E u rope, A frica, A sia
NY M PF-IA E A L .
DC.
W ater L il y
Ny mphaeaceae
( W ater L il y Famil y )
T emperate and warm zones
6 0 of both hemispheres
ONCIDIU M Sw.
Oncidiu m cebol l eta ( J acq . ) Sw.
H ik u ri Orchid
Orchidaceae ( Orchid Famil y )
Central A merica, Sou th
6 1
A merica, Fl orida
M u cu na pru riens has not been
reported as a hal l u cinog en, bu t
the pl ant has been chemical l y
shown to be rich in psy choactiv e
constitu ents ( DM T , 5 -M eO-DM T ) .
T his stou t, scandent herb,
with acu te ang u l ate stems, has
three-fol iol ate l eav es. T he l eaf-
l ets, obl ong or ov ate, are den-
sel y hairy on both su rfaces. T he
dark pu rpl e or bl u ish fl owers, ¾ —
1 1 / 4 in. ( 2 — 3 cm) l ong , are borne
in short hang ing racemes. T he
pods, with l ong , stiff, sting ing
hairs, measu re abou t 1 ½ — 3 ½ in.
( 4 — 9 cm) l ong , ½ in. ( 1 cm) thick .
T he total indol e al k y l amine
content was stu died from the
point of v iew of its hal l u cino-
g enic activ ity . It was fou nd that
mark ed behav ioral chang es oc-
cu rred that cou l d be eq u ated
with hal l u cinog enic activ ity . It is
possibl e that Indian peopl es
may hav e discov ered and u ti-
l ized some of these psy choac-
tiv e properties of M . pru riens.
T he powdered seeds are con-
sidered aphrodisiac in India.
T he seeds contain DM T and are
u sed as an A y ahu asca anal og
today .
5 0
Nu tmeg and mace can, in l arg e
doses, indu ce an intox ication
characterized by space and time
distortion, a feel ing of detach-
ment from real ity , and v isu al and
au ditory hal l u cinations. Fre-
q u entl y with u npl easant effects
su ch as sev ere headache, dizzi-
ness, nau sea, tachy cardia, nu t-
meg intox ication is v ariabl e.
M y ristica frag rans is a hand-
some tree, u nk nown in a tru l y
wil d state, bu t widel y cu l tiv ated
for nu tmeg , from the seed, and
for mace, from the red aril su r-
rou nding the seed. T he two
spices hav e different tastes
becau se of differing concentra-
tions of components of their
essential oil s. T he aromatic
fraction of oil of nu tmeg is made
u p of nine components bel ong -
ing to the g rou ps terpenes and
aromatic ethers. T he maj or
component— my risticine— is a
terpene, bu t its biol og ical activ ity
is bel iev ed to be that of an
irritant.
T he psy chotropic activ ity is
thou g ht to be du e primaril y to
aromatic ethers ( my risticine and
others) .
T here is ev idence that Ny m-
phaea may hav e been empl oy ed
as a hal l u cinog en in both the Ol d
and New W orl ds. T he isol ation
of the psy choactiv e apomor-
phine has offered chemical su p-
port to this specu l ation. Nu cifer-
me and nornu ciferine are al so
isol ated from N. amp/ a.
Ny mphaea amp/ a has thick ish
dentate l eav es, pu rpl e beneath,
measu ring 5 ½ — il in. ( 1 4 —
2 8 cm) across. T he beau tifu l ,
showy white fl owers, with 3 0 —
1 9 0 y el l ow stamens, become 3 —
5 1 / 4 in. ( 7 — 1 3 cm) across at ma-
tu rity . T he E g y ptian nativ e
N. caeru / ea's ov al , pel tate
l eav es, irreg u l arl y dentate,
measu re 5 — 6 in. ( 1 2 — 1 5 cm) in
diameter and are g reen-pu rpl e
bl otched beneath. T he l ig ht bl u e
fl owers, du l l white in the center,
open three day s in the mid-
morning ; they measu re 3 — 6 in.
( 7 . 5 — 1 5 cm) across; the petal s,
acu te-l anceol ate, nu mber 1 4 to
2 0 , whil e the stamens nu mber
5 0 or more.
Oncidiu m cebo/ / eta is an epi-
phy tic orchid that g rows on
steep, stone cl iffs and trees in
the T arahu mara Indian cou ntry
of M ex ico. It is empl oy ed as a
temporary su rrog ate of Pey ote
or H ik u ri ( L ophophora wi/ / l am-
sii) . L ittl e is k nown, howev er, of
its u se.
T he tropical orchid is widel y
distribu ted in the New W orl d.
T he pseu do-bu l bs appear as l it-
tl e more than a swel l ing at the
base of the fl eshy , erect, rou nd
l eav es, g ray ish g reen, often
spotted with pu rpl e. T he fl ower-
ing spik e, often arching , has a
g reen stal k with pu rpl ish or pu r-
pl e-brown spots. T he fl owers
hav e brownish y el l ow sepal s
and petal s spotted with dark
brown bl otches. T he three-l obed
l ip, 3 / 4 in. ( 2 cm) l ong by 1 1 / 8 in.
( 3 cm) across the mid-l obe, is
brig ht y el l ow with reddish brown
mark s.
A n al k al oid has been reported
from Oncidiu m cebol / eta.
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PA CH Y CE RE U S ( A . B erg er)
B ritt. et Rose
Pachy cereu s pecten-aborig inu m
( E ng el m. ) B ritt. et Rose
Cawe
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
M ex ico
6 2
PA NA E OL U S ( Fr. )
Panaeol u s cy anescens B erk . et B r.
B l u e M eanies
Coprinaceae
W arm zones of both
6 3 hemispheres
PA NA E OL U S ( Fr. )
Q u é l et
Panaeol u s sphinctrinu s ( Fr. ) Q u bl et
H oop-petticoat
Coprinaceae
Cosmopol itan
6 4
A pl ant of many u ses among the
Indians, this tal l , treel ik e col u m-
nar cactu s, arising from a 6 ff
( 1 . 8 m) tru nk , attains a heig ht of
3 5 ff ( 1 0 . 5 m) . T he short spines
are characteristicafy g ray with
bl ack tips. T he 2 — 3 in. ( 5 — 8 cm)
fl owers are pu rpl ish in the ou t-
ermost petal s, white in the inner
parts. T he fru it, g l obose and
measu ring 2 1 / 2 — 3 in. ( 6 — 8 cm) in
diameter, is densel y cov ered
with y el l ow wool and l ong y el l ow
bristl es.
T he T arahu mara, who k now
the pl ant as Cawe and W icho-
wak a, tak e a drink made from
the j u ice of the y ou ng branches
as a narcotic. It cau ses dizzi-
ness and v isu al hal l u cinations.
T he term W ichowak a al so
means " insanity " in the T arahu -
mara l ang u ag e. T here are a
nu mber of pu rel y medicinal u ses
of this cactu s. Recent stu dies
hav e isol ated 4 -hy drox y -
3 -methox y pheny l ethy l amine
and 4 -tetrahy droisoq u inol ine
al k al oids from this pl ant.
Panaeol u s cy anescens is a
smal l , fl eshy or nearl y membra-
naceou s, campanu l ate mu sh-
room. T he sl ender stipe is fra-
g il e and the l amel l ae are
v arieg ated, with metu l oid co-
l ored, pointed cy stidia on the
sides. T he spores are bl ack . T he
fru iting bodies tak e on bl u ish
fl eck s with ag e or after bru ising .
T he isl anders of B al i pick
Panaeol u s cy anescens from
cow and water bu ffal o du ng and
ing est them for cel ebrations and
artistic inspiration. T he mu sh-
room is al so sol d as a hal l u cirio-
g en to strang ers as they pass
throu g h on their trav el s.
A l thou g h this mu shroom is
primaril y tropical , the discov ery
that it contains psil ocy bine was
made with material col l ected in a
g arden in France. U p to 1 . 2 % of
psil ocine and 0 . 6 % of psil ocy -
bine has been fou nd in this
species.
One of the sacred hal l u cinog enic
mu shrooms empl oy ed in div ina-
tion and other mag ic ceremonies
in northeastern Oax aca, M ex ico,
among the M azatec and Chi-
nantec Indians is this member of
the smal l g enu s Panaeol u s. It is
k nown in M azatec as 1 -ha-na-
sa, She-to, and T o-shk a. She-to
means " pastu re mu shroom" and
T o-shk a, " intox icating mu sh-
room. " W hil e not so important as
the sev eral species of Psil ocy be
and Stropharia, P sphinctrinu s
is on occasion u sed by certain
shamans. T his and other spe-
cies of Panaeol u s hav e been re-
ported to contain the hal l u cino-
g enic al k al oid psil ocy bine.
G rowing on cow du ng in for-
ests, open fiel ds, and al ong
roads, P sphinctrinu s is a del i-
cate y el l owish brown mu shroom
u p to 4 in. ( 1 0 cm) in heig ht. It
has an ov oid-campanu l ate, ob-
tu sel y pointed, tan-g ray cap u p
to 1 ¼ in. ( 3 cm) in diameter. T he
stipe is dark g ray ish. T he dark
brownish bl ack g il l s bear bl ack ,
l emon-shaped spores that v ary
in size; they can measu re 1 2 to
1 5 by 7 . 5 to 8 . 3 1 1 .
T he fl esh is thin, in col or simi-
l ar to the su rface, with scarcel y
any bdor. Sev eral inv estig ators
hav e at times arg u ed that
P sphinctrinu s is not among the
hal l u cinog enic mu shrooms
u sed by shamans in Indian
commu nities of Oax aca, bu t this
v iew is contradicted by ampl e
ev idence. Its u se by Oax acan
Indians al ong with so many
other mu shroom species de-
monstrates the tendency among
shamans to u se a su rprising l y
wide rang e of different mu sh-
rooms, depending on season,
weather v ariation, and specific
u sag e. Inv estig ators now be-
l iev e that there may be more
species and g enera of mu sh-
rooms in u se among M ex ican
Indian popu l ations than those
now k nown.
In E u ropean Panaeol u s
sphinctrinu s no psil ocy bine has
been detected. Neither hav e
psy choactiv e effects been de-
termined in hu man pharmacol o-
g ical ex periments. It is possibl e
that chemical l y different ty pes
ex ist.
5 1
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Q u é l et
Panaeo/ u s su bbal teatu s B erk . et
B roome
Dark -rimmed M ottl eg il l
Coprinaceae
E u rasia, North and Central
6 5 A merica
T he Dark -rimmed M ottl eg il l is
widel y distribu ted throu g hou t
E u rope. It g rows in du ng -ferti-
l ized, g rassy earth, in particu l ar
in horse pastu res and in con-
j u nction with horse manu re. T he
cap is in. ( 2 — 6 cm) wide
and somewhat smooth. T his
mu shroom spreads rapidl y . It is
at first damp brown and g rows
drier toward the middl e, so that
the edg e often appears mark edl y
dark er. T he red-brown l amel l ae
are cu rv ed and ev entu al l y be-
come bl ack du e to the spores.
T here is no information
passed on abou t a traditional
u se of this mu shroom. It is pos-
sibl e that it was an ing redient in
the mead or beer of the G er-
mans. Nev erthel ess, this mu sh-
room has a sy mbiotic rel ation-
ship with the horse, the sacred
animal of the G erman g od of
ecstasy , W odan.
T he fru iting body contains 0 . 7 %
psil ocy bine as wel l as 0 . 4 6 %
baeocy stine, a fair amou nt of ser-
otonine and al so
tophane, bu t no psil ocine. A ctiv ity
is ex perienced with 1 . 5 g dried
mu shroom; 2 . 7 g are v isionary .
5 2
Pancratiu m trianthu m H erbert
K washi
M any of the 1 5 species of this
pl ant are potent cardiac poi-
sons; others are emetics; one is
said to cau se death by paral y sis
of the central nerv ou s sy stem.
P trianthu m is repu tedl y one of
the most tox ic species.
L ittl e is k nown of the u se of
Pancratiu m trianthu m. In Dobe,
B otswana, the B u shmen report-
edl y v al u e the pl ant as a hal l u ci-
nog en, ru bbing the sl iced bu l b
ov er cu ts made in the scal p. In
tropical west A frica, P trianthu m
seems to be rel ig iou sl y important.
T he species of Pancratiu m
hav e tu nicated bu l bs and l inear
l eav es, mostl y appearing with
the fl owers. T he white or g reen-
ish white fl owers, borne in an
u mbel terminating in an erect,
sol id, stou t scape, hav e a
fu nnel -shaped perianth with a
l ong tu be and narrow seg ments.
T he stamens, l ocated at the
throat of the perianth, are j oined
tog ether at the base into a k ind
of cu p. T he seeds are ang l ed
and bl ack .
In the bu l b of P trianthu m the
al k al oids l y corine and hordenine
hav e been detected.
Pandanu ssp.
Screw Pine
Pandanaceae
( Screwpine Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
6 7 E u rope, A frica, A sia
Nativ es of New G u inea empl oy
the fru it of a species of Panda-
nu sfor hal l u cinog enic pu rposes,
bu t l ittl e is k nown of this u se.
Dimethy l try ptamine has been
isol ated and identified in Panda-
nu s nu ts. Pandanu s is a v ery
l arg e g enu s of the Ol d W orl d
tropics. It is dioeciou s, treel ik e,
sometimes cl imbing , with pro-
minent fl y ing -bu ttress- or stil tl ik e
roots. T he l eav es of some spe-
cies attain a l eng th of 1 5 ft
( 4 . 5 m) and are u sed for matting :
they are commonl y l ong , stiff,
swordl ik e, armed with prick l es,
hook ed forward and back ward.
T he nak ed fl owers occu r in l arg e
heads encl osed in spathes. T he
ag g reg ate fru it or sy ncarpiu m, is
a l arg e, heav y , hard, composite
bal l -l ik e, orconel ik e mass com-
prising the u nion of the ang l ed,
easil y detachabl e carpel s. M ost
species of Pandanu s occu r
al ong the seacoast or in sal t
marshes. T he fru its of some
species are u sed as food in
Sou theast A sia.
T he Sy rian Ru e is an herb nativ e
to desert areas. It is a bu shy
shru b attaining a heig ht of 3 ft
( 1 m) . T he l eav es are cu t into
narrowl y l inear seg ments, and
the smal l white fl owers occu r in
the ax il s of branches. T he g b-
bose, deepl y l obed fru it contains
many fl at, ang l ed seeds of a
brown col or, bitter taste, and
narcotic odor. T he pl ant pos-
sesses psy choactiv e principl es:
t3 -carbol ine al k al oids— harmine,
harmal ine, tetrahy droharmine—
and rel ated bases k nown to oc-
cu r in at l east eig ht famil ies of
hig her pl ants. T hese constitu -
ents are fou nd in Peg anu m har-
ma/ a in the seeds.
T he hig h esteem that P har-
ma/ a enj oy s in fol k medicine
wherev er the pl ant occu rs may
indicate a former semisacred
u se as a hal l u cinog en in nativ e
rel ig ion and mag ic. It has
recentl y been postu l ated that
P harma/ a may hav e been the
sou rce of Soma or H u oma of the
ancient peopl es of Persia and
India.
PA NA E OL U S ( Fr. ) ( 2 0 — 6 0 )
I
PA NCRA T IU M L . ( 1 5 )
I
PA NDA NU S L . fil . ( 6 0 0 )
I
PE G A NU M L . ( 6 )
A mary l l idaceae
( A mary l l is Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
6 6 A frica and A sia
Peg anu m harmal a L .
Sy rian Ru e
Z y g ophy l l aceae
( Cal trop Famil y )
W estern A sia to northern In-
6 8 dia; M ong ol ia, M anchu ria
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PE L E CY PH ORA E hrenb. ( 2 )
Pel ecy phora asel l iformis E hrenb.
Pey otil l o
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
M ex ico
6 9
T here are su spicions that this
rou nd cactu s may be v al u ed in
M ex ico as a " fal se Pey ote" It is
l ocal l y k nown as Pey ote and
Pey otil l o.
A beau tifu l cactu s, P asel l i-
formis is a sol itary , g ray -g reen,
tu fted, cy l indric-conical pl ant 1 —
2 ½ in. ( 2 . 5 — 6 . 5 cm) , al thou g h
rarel y u p to4 in. ( 1 0 cm) india-
meter. T he l ateral l y fl attened tu -
bercl es are spiral ed, not ar-
rang ed on ribs, and bear v ery
smal l , scal el ik e, pectinate
spines. T he apical bel l -shaped
fl owers measu re u p to 1 ¼ in.
( 3 cm) in width; the ou ter seg -
ments are white, the inner red-
v iol et.
Recent inv estig ations hav e
indicated the presence of al k a-
l oids, mescal ine among others.
W hen consu med, the cactu s
has a simil ar effect to Pey ote.
PE RNE T T Y A ( 2 0 )
G au d. -B eau p.
Pernetty a fu rens ( H ook . ex DC. )
K l otzch
H ierba L oca
E ricaceae ( H eath Famil y )
M ex ico to the A ndes; G al a-
7 0 pag os and Fal k iand Isl ands;
New Z eal and
Nu merou s reports indicate that
Pernetty a is intox icating . T he
fru it of P fu rens, the H u edhu ed
or H ierba L oca of Chil e, cau ses
mental confu sion, madness,
and ev en permanent insanity .
T he effects of the intox ication
are said to be simil ar to those
cau sed by Datu ra. T ag l Ii, or
P parv ifol ia, has tox ic fru it cap-
abl e, when ing ested, of indu cing
hal l u cinations as wel l as other
psy chic and motor al terations.
It has been su g g ested that
Pernetty a was empl oy ed by
aborig inal peopl es as a mag ico-
rel ig iou s hal l u cinog en.
T hese two species of Pernet-
ty a are smal l , sprawl ing to su b-
erect shru bs with densel y l eafy
branches. T he fl owers are white
to rose-tinted. T he berry l ik e fru it
is white to pu rpl e.
PE T U NIA J u ss. ( 4 0 )
Petu nia v iol acea L indl .
Shanin
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
W arm zones of North
7 1
A merica, Sou th A merica
A recent report from hig hl and
E cu ador has indicated that a
species of Petu nia is v al u ed as a
hal l u cinog en. It is cal l ed Shanin
in E cu ador. W hich g rou p of In-
dians empl oy s it, what species,
and how it is prepared for u se
are not k nown. It is said to in-
du ce a feel ing of l ev itation or of
soaring throu g h the air, a ty pical
characteristic of many k inds of
hal l u cinog enic intox ications.
M ost of the cu l tiv ated ty pes of
Petu nia are hy brids deriv ed from
the pu rpl e-fl owered Petu nia v io-
l acea and the white Petu nia ax -
il l aris. T hese species are nativ e
to sou thern Sou th A merica.
Phy tochemical stu dies of the
horticu l tu ral l y important g enu s
Petu nia are l ack ing , bu t as a so-
l anaceou s g rou p al l ied to Nicoti-
ana— the tobaccos— it may wel l
contain biol og ical l y activ e
principl es.
PE U CE DA NU M L . ( 1 2 5 )
Peu cedanu m j aponicu m T hu nb.
Fang -K 'u ei
U mbel l iferae ( Parsl ey Famil y )
T emperate zones of E u rope,
7 2 sou thern A frica, A sia
Peu cedanu mj aponicu m is a
stou t perennial , bl u e-g reen herb
with-thick roots and short rhi-
zomes. T he sol id, fibrou s stems
attain a l eng th of 2 0 — 4 0 in. ( 0 . 5 —
1 m) . T he thick l eav es are 8 —
2 4 in. ( 2 0 — 6 1 cm) l ong , twice or
thrice ternate with obov ate-
cu neate l eafl ets 1 ¼ — 2 ½ in. ( 3 —
6 cm) l ong . T he fl owers are
borne in u mbel l ate cl u sters. T he
1 0 to 2 0 ray s are ¾ — 1 ¼ in. ( 2 —
3 cm) l ong . T he el l ipsoid fru it is
minu tel y hairy , 1 1 / 2 — 2 in. ( 3 . 5 —
5 cm) l ong . T his pl ant is com-
mon on sandy pl aces near sea-
shores.
T he root of Fang -K 'u ei is em-
pl oy ed medicinal l y in China as
an el iminativ e, diu retic, tu ssic,
and sedativ e. A l thou g h thou g ht
to be rather del eteriou s, it may ,
with prol ong ed u se, hav e tonic
effects.
A l k al oidal constitu ents hav e
been reported from Peu ceda-
nu m. Cou marin and fu rocou -
mann are widespread in the
g enu s and occu r in Pj aponi-
cu m.
5 3
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PH A L A RIS L .
Phal aris aru ndinacea L .
Red Canary G rass
G raminaea ( G rass Famil y )
Cosmopol itan
7 3
PH RA G M IT E S A dans.
Phrag mites au stral is ( Cay . ) T rin. ex
Steu d.
Common Reed
G ramineae ( G rass Famil y )
Cosmopol itan
7 4
PH Y T OL A CCA L .
Phy tol acca acinosa Rox b.
Phy tol accaceae
T ropical and warm zones of
7 5 both hemispheres
PSIL OCY B E ( Fr. ) Q u é l et
Psil ocy be cu bensis ( E arl e) Sing .
San Isidro
Strophariaceae
Nearl y cosmopol itan in the
7 6 tropics
T his perennial g rass has g ray ish
g reen stal k s that g row to 6 ff ( 2 m)
and can be spl it l eng thwise. T he
l ong , broad l eav es hav e rou g h
edg es. T he pan ol e can tak e on a
l ig ht g reen or red-v iol et col ora-
tion. T he cal y x hol ds one fl ower.
T he Red Canary G rass was
k nown al ready in antiq u ity . T hu s
far, no traditional u se of Phal aris
aru ndinacea as a psy choactiv e
su bstance is k nown.
T he psy choactiv e constitu -
ents of Phal aris were first no-
ticed by a phy tochemical stu dy
on g rasses done for ag ricu l tu ral
pu rposes. It is possibl e that in
the past few y ears " cel l ar sha-
mans" mig ht hav e been ex peri-
menting with a possibl e psy -
choactiv e u se for the g rass in
A y ahu asca anal og s and DM 1
ex tracts.
T he entire g rass contains in-
dol e al k al oids, which are hig hl y
v ariabl e according to their spe-
cies, tribe, position, and harv est.
In most, DM T , M M T , and 5 -
M eO-DM T are to be fou nd. T he
g rass can al so contain hig h
concentrations of g ramine, an
ex tremel y tox ic al k al oid.
5 4
T he Common Reed, the l arg est
g rass in Central E u rope, often
g rows in harbors. It has a thick ,
many -branched rhizome. T he
stal k s are 3 — 9 ft ( 1 — 3 m) hig h; the
l eav es hav e rou g h edg es and
g row u pto 1 6 — 2 0 in. ( 4 0 — 5 0 cm)
l ong and in. ( 1 — 2 cm) wide.
T he v ery l ong pan ide, 6 — 1 6 in.
( 1 5 — 4 0 cm) l ong , has many dark
pu rpl e fl owers. It fl owers from
J u l y to September. Seeds matu re
in winter, at which point the l eav es
drop and the panicl e tu rns white.
T he Common Reed had many
u ses in ancient E g y pt, particu -
l arl y as fibrou s material . T radi-
tional u se for psy choactiv e pu r-
poses has been docu mented,
onl y as a fermented ing redient in
a beerl ik e drink .
T he rootstal k contains DM T ,
5 -M eO-DM T , bu fotenine, and
g ram me. Reports concerning
psy choactiv e properties are pri-
maril y from ex periences with an
A y ahu asca anal og made from an
ex tract of the roots, l emon j u ice,
and the seeds of Peg anu m har-
ma/ a. U npl easant side effects
su ch as nau sea, v omiting , and
diarrhea hav e been described.
Phy tol acca acinosa is a g l ab-
rou s perennial with robu st,
branching g reen stems u p to 3 ff
( 9 1 cm) in l eng th. T he el l iptic
l eav es av erag e abou t 4 % in.
( 1 2 cm) l ong . T he white fl owers,
abou t % in. ( 1 cm) in diameter,
are borne on densel y fl owered
racemes4 in. ( 1 0 cm) in l eng th.
T he pu rpl e-bl ack , berry l ik e fru it
bears smal l bl ack k idney -
shaped seeds ½ in. ( 3 mm) l ong .
A wel l -k nown Phy tol acca in
China, Shang -l u ex ists in two
forms: one with white fl owers
and a white root and one with
red fl owers and a pu rpl ish root.
T he l atter ty pe is considered to
be hig hl y tox ic, al thou g h the for-
mer is cu l tiv ated as a food. T he
fl owers— Ch'ang -hau '— are es-
teemed for treating apopl ex y .
T he root is so poisonou s that it is
normal l y u sed onl y ex ternal l y .
Phy tol acca acinosa is hig h in
saponines and the sap of the
fresh l eav es has been reported
to hav e antiv iral properties.
T his mu shroom, k nown in Oax -
aca as H ong o de San Isidro, is
an important hal l u cinog en,
al thou g h it shou l d be noted that
not al l shamans wil l u se it. T he
M azatec name is Di-shi-tj o-l e-
rra-j a ( " div ine mu shroom of
manu re" ) .
T he mu shroom may attain a
heig ht of 1 % — 3 m. ( 4 — 8 cm) , v ery
rarel y u p to 5 % in. ( 1 5 cm) . T he
cap, u su al l y % — 2 in. ( 2 — 5 cm) in
diameter ( rarel y l arg er) , is conic-
campanu l ate, at first especial l y
papil l ose, then becoming con-
v ex to pl ane. It is g ol den y el l ow,
pal e tan to whitish near the mar-
g in; in ag e or u pon inj u ry , it may
become cy anaceou s. T he stipe
is hol l ow, u su al l y thick ened at
the base, white bu t y el l owing or
becoming ashy red, and
strong l y l ined. T he g il l s v ary
from whitish to deep g ray -v iol et
or pu rpl e-brown. T he el l ipsoid
spores are pu rpl e-brown.
T he activ e principl e in Psil o-
cy be cu bensis is psil ocy bine.
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Psil ocy be cy anescens is rel a-
tiv el y easy to identify by its wav y
brown cap in. ( 2 — 4 cm)
wide. It doesn't l iv e on du ng , bu t
on decay ing pl ants, coniferou s
mu l ch, and hu mu s-rich earth. In
ol der mu shroom g u ides it is of-
ten cal l ed H y phal oma cy anes-
cens. It is v ery cl osel y rel ated to
the species Psiocy be azu res-
cens and Psiocy be bohemica,
both al so v ery powerfu l
hal l u cinog ens.
A traditional or shamanic u se
of this hig hl y potent Psil ocy be
has not y et been docu mented.
T oday , Psil ocy be cy anescens
is u sed in Central E u rope and
North A merica in neo-pag an
ritu al s. In addition, cu l tiv ated
mu shrooms that hav e a v ery
hig h concentration of psil ocy -
bine are eaten. Visionary doses
are 1 g of the dried mu shroom,
which contains approx imatel y
1 % try ptamine ( psil ocy bine,
psil ocine, and baeocy stine) .
P mex icana g rows at al titu des
of 4 ,5 0 0 — 5 ,5 0 0 ft ( 1 ,3 7 5 —
1 ,6 7 5 m) , especial l y in l ime-
stone reg ions, isol ated or v ery
sparsel y in moss al ong trail s, in
wet meadows and fiel ds, and in
oak and pine forests. One of the
smal l est of the hal l u cinog enic
species, it attains a heig ht of 1 —
( rarel y ) 4 in. ( 2 . 5 — 1 0 cm) . T he
conic campanu l ate or freq u entl y
hemispherical cap, ¼ — 1 ½ in.
( 1 — 3 cm) in diameter, is a weak
straw col or or g reenish straw
col or ( sometimes ev en brownish
red) when l iv ing , dry ing to a
g reenish tan or deep y el l ow; it
has brown striations, and the
terminal nippl e is often reddish.
T he fl esh of the cap tu rns bl u ish
on bru ising . T he hol l ow stipe is
y el l ow to y el l owish pink , red-
brown near the base. T he
spores are deep sepia to dark
pu rpl e-brown.
Psi/ ocy be semil anceata is the
most common and widespread
mu shroom in the Psil ocy be
g enu s. T he L iberty Cap prefers
to g row in fiel ds with ol d manu re
pil es and on g rassy , fertil e mea-
dows. Its cap, in. ( 1 — 2 . 5 cm)
wide, is conical and often
peak ed. It u su al l y feel s damp and
sl imy . T he " head sk in" is easy to
peel off. T he smal l l amel s are ol -
iv e to red-brown; the spores are
dark brown or pu rpl e-brown.
P semi/ anceata contains hig h
concentrations of psil ocy bine
( 0 . 9 7 % u p to 1 . 3 4 % ) , some psi-
l ocine, and l ess baeocy stine
( 0 . 3 3 % ) . T his species is one of
the most potent Psiocy be
mu shrooms.
T oward the end of the M iddl e
A g es in Spain, P semil anceata
was probabl y u sed as a hal l u ci-
nog en by women who were ac-
cu sed of being witches. A l l eg -
edl y the nomads of the A l ps
named P semil anceata the
" dream mu shroom" and tradi-
tional l y u sed it as a psy cho-
activ e su bstance. T oday this
mu shroom is ritu al l y tak en in
certain circl es.
T he ev erg reen shru b can g row
into a smal l tree with a woody
tru nk , bu t u su al l y remains at a
heig ht of 6 — 9 ft ( 2 — 3 m) . Its
whorl ed l eav es are l ong and
narrow with a col or rang ing from
l ig ht g reen to dark g reen and a
shiny top side. T he fl owers hav e
g reenish white petal s on l ong
stal k s. T he red fru it is a berry
that contains nu merou s smal l
l ong ov al seeds, abou t 1 in.
( 4 mm) l ong .
T he l eav es mu st be g athered
in the morning . T hey are u sed
either fresh or dried in the pro-
du ction of A y ahu asca. T oday
they are al so u sed as an A y a-
hu asca anal og .
T he l eav es contain 0 . 1 —
0 . 6 1 % DM T , as wel l as traces of
simil ar al k al oids ( M M T , M T H C) ;
most of the l eav es contain
arou nd 0 . 3 % DM T .
pSIL OCY B E ( Fr. ) Q u é l et ( 1 8 0 ) PSIL OCY B E ( Fr. ) Q u el et ( 1 8 0 ) PSIL OCY B E ( Fr. ) Q u é l et ( 1 8 0 ) PSY CH OT RIA L . ( 1 2 0 0 — 1 4 0 0 )
Psi/ ocy be cy anescens W ak efiel d Psi/ ocy be mex icana H el m
emend. K rieg el steiner T eonaná catl
Nav y Cap
Strophariaceae Strophariaceae
North A merica, Nearl y cosmopol itan
7 7 Central E u rope
7 8
Psil ocy be semil anceata ( Fr. ) Q u é l et Psy chotria v iridis Ru iz et Pav dn
L iberty Cap Chacru na
Strophariaceae Ru biaceae ( M adder Famil y )
Cosmopol itan, A mazonia— from Col ombia
7 9 ex cept M ex ico 8 0 to B ol iv ia and eastern B razil
M any species of Psil ocy be are
empl oy ed in sou thern M ex ico as
sacred mu shrooms, P mex ica-
na being one of the most widel y
u sed.
. . ' '
• — . , ) _ _ '_ •
5 5
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RH Y NCI-IOSIA L ou r.
Rhy nchosia phaseol oides DC.
Piu l e
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
T ropical and warm zones of
8 1 both hemispheres
SA L VIA L . ( 7 0 0 )
Sal v ia div inoru m E pi. et
J á tiv a-M .
Div iner's Sag e
L abiatae ( M int Famil y )
Oax aca, M ex ico
8 2
SCE L E T IU M
Scel etiu m tortu osu m L .
K ou g u ed
A izoaceae ( Carpetweed Famil y )
Sou th A frica
8 3
SCIRPU S L .
Scirpu s atrov irens W il Id.
B ak ana
Cy peraceae ( Sedg e Famil y )
Cosmopol itan
T he beau tifu l red and bl ack
beans of sev eral species of
Rhy nchosia may hav e been em-
pl oy ed in ancient M ex ico as a
hal l u cinog enic. Painting s of
these seeds on frescoes dated
A . 3 0 0 — 4 0 0 at T epantitl a su g -
g est former u se as a sacred
pl ant.
T hese two species are simi-
l ar— scandent v ines with fl owers
in l ong racemes. T he fl owers of
R. l ong eracernosa are y el l ow;
the seeds are mottl ed l ig ht and
dark brown. R. py ramidal l s has
g reenish fl owers and handsome
hal f-red, hal f-bl ack seeds.
Chemical stu dies of Rhy nch-
osia are stil l prel iminary and in-
decisiv e. A n al k al oid with cu r-
are-l ik e activ ity has been
reported from one species.
E arl y pharmacol og ical ex peri-
ments with an ex tract of R. pha-
seol oides produ ced a k ind of
semi-narcosis in frog s.
In Oax aca, M ex ico, the M azatec
Indians cu l tiv ate Sal v ia div inor-
u rn for the l eav es, which are
cru shed on a metate, dil u ted in
water, and dru nk or chewed
fresh for their hal l u cinog enic
properties in div inatory ritu al s.
T he pl ant, k nown as H ierba de
Ia Pastora ( " herb of the shep-
herdess" ) or H ierba de Ia Virg en
( 'herb of the Virg in" ) , is cu l ti-
v ated in pl ots hidden away in
forests far from homes and
roads.
Sal v ia div inoru m is a peren-
nial herb 3 ft ( 1 m) tal l or more,
with ov ate l eav es u p to 6 in.
( 1 5 cm) and finel y dentate al ong
the marg in. T he bl u ish fl owers,
borne in panicl es u p to 1 6 in.
( 4 1 cm) in l eng th, are approx i-
matel y 5 / 8 in. ( 1 5 mm) l ong .
It has been su g g ested that the
narcotic Pipil tzintzintl i of the an-
cient A ztecs was Sal v ia div inor-
u rn, bu t at present the pl ant
seems to be u sed onl y by the
M azatecs. T he pl ant contains the
potent compou nd sal v inorin A .
Ov er two centu ries ag o, Du tch
ex pl orers reported that the H ot-
tentots of Sou th A frica chewed
the root of a pl ant k nown as
K anna or Channa as a v ision-in-
du cing hal l u cinog en. T his com-
mon name is today appl ied to
sev eral species of Scel etiu m
that hav e al k al oids— mesembr-
me and mesembrenine— with
sedativ e, cocainel ik e activ ities
capabl e of indu cing torpor.
Scel etiu m ex pansu rn is a
shru b u p to 1 2 in. ( 3 0 cm) tal l with
fl eshy , smooth stems and pros-
trate, spreading branches. T he
l anceol ate-obl ong entire,
smooth, u neq u al l eav es, mea-
su ring 1 ½ in. ( 4 cm) l ong , ½ in.
( 1 cm) wide, are ofafresh g reen
col or and v ery g l ossy . B orne on
sol itary branches in g rou ps of
one to fiv e, the white or du l l y el -
l ow fl owers are 1 ½ — 2 in. ( 4 —
5 cm) across. T he fru it is ang u l ar.
B oth S. ex pansu rn and S. for-
tu osu m were formerl y M esem-
bry anthemu m.
One of the most powerfu l herbs
of the T arahu mara of M ex ico is
apparentl y a species of Scirpu s.
T arahu mara Indians fear to cu l -
tiv ate B ak ana l est they become
insane. Some medicine men
carry B ak ana to rel iev e pain.
T he tu berou s u nderg rou nd part
is bel iev ed to cu re insanity , and
the whol e pl ant is a protector of
those su ffering from mental il l s.
T he intox ication that it indu ces
enabl es Indians to trav el far and
wide, tal k with dead ancestors,
and see bril l iantl y col ored
v isions.
A l k al oids hav e been reported
from Scirpu s as wel l as from the
rel ated g enu s Cy peru s.
T he species of Scfrpu s may
be annu al s or perennial s and
are u su al l y g rassl ik e herbs with
few- to many -fl owered spik el ets
that are sol itary or in terminal
cl u sters. T he fru it is a three-
ang l ed ak ene with or withou t a
beak . T hey g row in many habi-
tats bu t seem to prefer wet soil
or bog s.
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SCOPOL IA
J acq Corr. L ink
Scopol ia carniol ica J acq u es
Scopol ia
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
A l ps, Carpathian M ou ntains,
8 5 Cau casu s M ou ntains,
L ithu ania, L atv ia, and
U k raine
T his herbaceou s annu al often
g rows 1 — 3 ft ( 3 0 — 8 0 cm) . T he
du l l g reen l eav es are l ong ish,
pointed, and sl ig htl y pil eou s.
T he fl eshy root is tapered. T he
smal l , bel l -shaped fl owers are
v iol et to l ig ht y el l ow and hang
down indiv idu al l y from the ra-
chis and l ook simil ar to the fl ow-
ers of henbane ( H y oscy amu s
al bu s) . It fl owers A pril to J u ne.
T he fru it dev el ops a capsu l e
with dou bl ed div iding wal l and
many smal l seeds.
In Sl ov enia, Scopol ia was
possibl y u sed for the prepara-
tion of witches' sal v es. In E ast
Pru ssia, the root was u sed as a
nativ e narcotic, beer additiv e,
and aphrodisiac. W omen al l eg -
edl y u sed it to sedu ce y ou ng
men into being wil l ing l ov ers.
T he whol e pl ant contains
cou marins ( scopol ine, scopol e-
tine) as wel l as hal l u cinog enic
al k al oids ( hy oscy amine,
scopol amine) and chl orog enic
acid. T oday the pl ant is g rown for
the indu strial harv est of
L -hy oscy amine and atropine.
SIDA L . ( 2 0 0 )
Sida acu ta B u rm.
A x ocatzin
M al v aceae ( M al l ow Famil y )
W arm zones of both hemi-
8 6 spheres
T hese two species are herbs or
shru bs often u p to 9 ft ( 2 . 7 m) in
heig ht, fou nd in hot l owl ands.
T he stiff branches are empl oy ed
in mak ing rou g h brooms. T he
eav es, l anceol ate to obov oid
and measu ring abou t 1 in.
( 2 . 5 cm) wide and u pto 4 in.
( 1 0 cm) l ong , are beaten in
water to produ ce a soothing
l ather for mak ing sk in tender.
T he fl owers v ary from y el l ow to
white.
Sida acu ta and S. rhombifol ia
are said to be smok ed as a sti-
mu l ant and su bstitu te for M ari-
j u ana al ong the G u l f coastal re-
g ions of M ex ico. E phedrine is
fou nd in the roots of these spe-
cies of Sida. T he dried herb
smel l s distinctl y l ik e cou marine.
A l u x u riant cl imbing bu sh with
showy fl owers resembl ing those
of B ru g mansia, Sol andra is v a-
l u ed for its hal l u cinog enic pu r-
poses in M ex ico. A tea made
from the j u ice of the branches of
S. brev ical y x and of S. g u errer-
ensis is k nown to hav e strong
intox icant properties. M entioned
by H erná ndez as T ecomax ochitl
or H u el patl of the A ztecs,
S. g u errerensis is u sed as an in-
tox icant in G u errero.
T hese two species of So/ an-
dra are showy , erect, or rather
scandent shru bs with thick el l ip-
tic l eav es u p to abou t 7 in.
( 1 8 cm) in l eng th and with l arg e,
cream-col ored or y el l ow, fra-
g rant, fu nnel -form fl owers, u p to
1 0 in. ( 2 5 cm) in l eng th and
opening wide at matu rity .
T he g enu s Sol andra, as
wou l d be ex pected in v iew of its
cl ose rel ationship to Datu ra,
contains tropane al k al oids:
hy oscy amine, scopol amine,
nortropine, tropine, cu scohy -
g rine, and other bases hav e
been reported.
T he beau tifu l red beans of this
shru b were once u sed as a hal -
l u cinbg en in North A merica.
Sophora secu ndif/ ora seeds
contain the hig hl y tox ic al k al oid
cy tisine, bel ong ing pharmacol o-
g ical l y to the same g rou p as ni-
cotine. It cau ses nau sea, con-
v u l sions, and ev entu al l y , in hig h
doses, death throu g h respira-
tory fail u re. T ru l y hal l u cinog enic
activ ity is u nk nown for cy tisine,
bu t it is probabl e that the power-
fu l intox ication cau ses, throu g h
a k ind of del iriu m, conditions
that can indu ce a v isionary
trance.
Sophora secu ndif/ ora is a
shru b or smal l tree u p to 3 5 ff
( 1 0 . 5 m) in heig ht. T he ev er-
g reen l eav es hav e 7 to 1 1 g l ossy
l eafl ets. T he frag rant, v iol et-bl u e
fl owers, borne in drooping ra-
cemes abou t 4 in. ( 1 0 cm) l ong ,
measu re u p to 1 ¼ in. ( 3 cm) in
l eng th. T he hard, woody pod,
constricted between each seed,
bears two to eig ht brig ht red
beans.
( 3 -5 ) SOL A NDRA Sw. ( 1 0 — 1 2 )
Sol andra g randif/ ora Sw.
Chal ice Vine
Sol anaceae
( Nig htshade Famil y )
T ropical zones of Sou th
8 7 A merica, M ex ico
SOPH ORA L .
( 5 0 )
Sophora secu ndif/ ora ( Ort. ) L ag . ex
DC.
M escal B ean
L eg u minosae ( Pea Famil y )
Sou thwestern North
8 8 A merica, M ex ico
5 7
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T abernaemontana spp.
Sanang o
A pocy naceae ( Dog bane Famil y )
T ropical zones of both
8 9 hemispheres
M ost species of T abernaemon-
tana are bu shy shru bs, cl imbers,
or smal l trees. T he l eav es are
ev erg reen, l anceol ate, often
with a l eathery top side. T he
fl owers consist of fiv e pointed
petal s that mostl y g row in cl u s-
ters ou t of the cal y x . T he two
sy mmetrical fru its are div ided
and mark ed with fairl y v isibl e
v eins. B ecau se of this, they are
easil y confu sed with the testes
of a mammal .
In the A mazon, the Sanang o
( T abernaemontana sananho R.
et P. ) is considered a panacea.
T he l eav es, roots, and the l atex -
rich bark are u sed in fol k medi-
cine. T he tree g rows as tal l as
l 5 ft ( 5 m) . T he l eav es are u sed
as a psy choactiv e additiv e to
A y ahu asca. It is u sed in combi-
nation with Virol a in the produ c-
tion of an oral l y effectiv e hal l u ci-
nog en. In the A mazon, Sanang o
is al so considered a " memory
pl ant. " A y ahu asca is enhanced
with it in order that the v isions
can be better recal l ed.
Phy tochemical research has
recentl y been done on the
g enu s. Indol e al k al oids are the
primary constitu ent, in some
ev en ibog aine and v oacang ine
hav e been ascertained. For this
reason, this species is of parti-
cu l ar interest for the discov ery
of new psy choactiv e pl ants. A
few of the species ( T abernae-
montana coffeoides B oj er ox
DC. , T abernaemontana crassa
B enth. ) hav e al ready rev eal ed
psy choactiv e properties and
u ses.
T aberrianthe ibog a B ail l .
Ibog a
A pocy naceae ( Dog bane Famil y )
T ropical zones of western
9 0 A frica
T a be rnanthe ibog a is a shru b 3 —
4 ½ ft ( 1 — 1 . 5 m) tal l , fou nd in the
u nderg rowth of tropical forests
bu t often cu l tiv ated in nativ e
doory ards. T he shru b has co-
piou s white, v il e-smel l ing l atex .
T he ov ate l eav es, u su al l y 3 ½ —
4 in. ( 9 — 1 0 cm) l ong , abou t
1 1 / 4 in. ( 3 cm) wide ( bu t occa-
sional l y u p to 8 ½ by 2 ¾ in. or 2 2
by 7 cm) , are y el l owish g reen
beneath. T he tiny y el l owish,
pink ish, or white- and pink -
spotted fl owers, which g row in
g rou ps of5 to 1 2 , hav e acra-
teriform corol l a ( a l ong , sl ender
tu be abru ptl y fl aring at the
mou th) with twistG d l obes ¾ in.
( 1 cm) l ong . T he ov oid, pointed
y el l ow-orang e fru its occu r in
pairs and become as l arg e as
ol iv es.
Chemical stu dies on T aber-
nanthe ibog a hav e shown at
l east a dozen indol e al k al oids,
the most activ e being ibog aine,
the effects of which, in tox ic
doses, l ead to ex traordinary
v isions; an ov erdose, to paral y -
sis and death.
T A G E T E S L . ( 5 0 )
T ag etes l u cida Cay .
Y au htl i
Compositae ( Su nfl ower Famil y )
W arm zones of the A mericas
9 1 mostl y M ex ico
T he H u ichol of M ex ico indu ce
v isions by smok ing a mix tu re of
Nicotiana ru stica and T ag etes
l u cida. T hey freq u entl y drink a
fermented beer from maize
al ong with the smok ing in order
" to produ ce cl earer v isions. "
T ag etes l u cida is occasional l y
smok ed al one.
T ag etes l u cida is a strong l y
scented perennial herb u p to
1 ½ ft ( 4 6 cm) tal l . T he opposite
l eav es are ov ate-l anceol ate,
toothed, and pu nctated with oil
g l ands. T he fl owering heads are
produ ced in dense terminal
cl u sters ½ in. ( 1 cm) in diameter,
u su al l y y el l ow to y el l ow-orang e.
T his species is nativ e to M ex ico,
where it is v ery abu ndant in the
states of Nay arit and J al isco. No
al k al oids hav e been isol ated
from T ag etes, bu t the g enu s is
rich in essential oil s and thio-
phene deriv ativ es; / -inositol ,
saponines, tannins, cou marine
deriv ativ es, and cy anog enic g l y -
cosides hav e been reported.
T A B E RNA E M ONT A NA L . ( 1 2 0 ) T A B E RNA NT H E B ail l . ( 2 — 7 )
5 8
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T A NA E CIU M Sw. ( 7 )
noctu rnu m ( B arb. -Rodr. )
3 u r. et K . Schu m.
K oribo
B ig noniaceae ( B ig nonia Famil y )
T ropical zones of Central
9 2 A merica and Sou th A merica,
W est Indies
T anaeciu m noctu rnu m is a
mu ch-branched cl imber with
broadl y el l iptic l eav es 5 ½ in.
( 1 3 . 5 cm) l ong , 4 in. ( 1 0 cm)
wide. T he white fl owers, 6 ½ in.
( 1 6 . 5 cm) l ong , are tu bu l ar,
borne in fiv e- to eig ht-fl owered
racemes 3 m. ( 8 cm) l ong , aris-
ing from the stem. T he stem,
when cu t, emits an odor of al -
mond oil .
T he Pau mari, who l iv e on the
Rio Pu ru s, create a ritu al snu ff
that they cal l k oribo-na fu n/ ou t of
the l eav es. T he shamans sniff it
when they are deal ing with diffi-
cu l t cases— for ex ampl e, in or-
der to ex tract a mag ical obj ect
ou t of the body of the sick per-
son. T hey al so sniff it du ring a
ritu al for protection of chil dren,
du ring which they fal l into a
trance. T he snu ff is u sed onl y by
the men. T his species is said to
be prized as an aphrodisiac by
Indians of the Col ombian
Chocó .
Saponines and tannins hav e
been fou nd in T anaeciu m. T he
l eav es contain pru ssic acid and
cy anog l y cosides, which disinte-
g rate when roasted.
It is u ncertain as to whether
the tox in's waste produ cts con-
tribu te to the psy choactiv e effect
of T noctu rnu m. It is not y et
k nown if there are other activ e
compou nds in the l eav es or
other parts of the pl ant. It is
possibl e that this pl ant contains
su bstances of u nk nown chemi-
cal stru ctu re and pharmacol og i-
cal effect.
T E T RA PT E RIS Cay . ( 8 0 )
T etrapteris methy stica R. E . Schu l t.
Caapi-pinima
M al pig hiaceae ( M al pig hia Famil y )
T ropical zones of Sou th
9 3 A merica, M ex ico,
W est Indies
T he nomadic M ak ü Indians of
the Rio T ik ié in the northwestern
most A mazonas of B razil pre-
pare a hal l u cinog enic drink , a
sort of A y ahu asca or Caapi,
from the bark of T etrapteris
methy stica. Reports of the ef-
fects of the dru g wou l d su g g est
that ( 3 -carbol ine al k al oids are
present.
T etrapteris methy stica ( T mu -
cronata) is a scandent bu sh with
bl ack bark . T he l eav es are char-
aceou s, ov ate, in. ( 6 —
8 . 5 cm) l ong , 1 — 2 in. ( 2 . 5 — 5 cm)
wide, brig ht g reen abov e, ashy
g reen beneath. T he infl ores-
cence is few-fl owered, shorter
than the l eav es. T he sepal s are
thick , hairy withou t, ov ate-Ian-
ceol ate, with eig ht bl ack ov al -
shaped g l ands; the petal s,
spreading , membranaceou s,
y el l ow with red or brown in the
center, el ong ate-orbicu l ar, ½ in.
( 1 cm) l ong , 1 / 1 6 in. ( 2 mm) wide.
T he fru it, or samara, is ov oid, ¼
by ½ by 1 A 6 in. ( 4 by 4 by 2 mm) ,
with brownish wing s abou t ½ by
Y l 6 in. ( l oby 2 mm) .
T RICH OCE RE U S ( A . B erg er)
Riccob.
T richocereu s pachanoi
B ritt. et Rose
San Pedro Cactu s
Cactaceae ( Cactu s Famil y )
T emperate and warm zones
9 4 of Sou th A merica
T his cactu s is a branched, often
spinel ess, col u mnar pl ant 9 —
2 0 ft ( 2 . 7 5 — 6 m) in heig ht. T he
branches, which hav e 6 to 8 ribs,
are g l au cou s when y ou ng , dark
g reen in ag e. T he pointed bu ds
open at nig ht to produ ce v ery
l arg e, 7 ½ — 9 ¼ in. ( 1 9 — 2 4 cm) ,
fu nnel -shaped, frag rant fl owers
with the inner seg ments white,
the ou ter seg ments brownish
red, and l ong , g reenish stamen
fil aments. T he fru it, as wel l as
the scal es on the fl oral tu be,
hav e l ong bl ack hairs.
T richocereu s pachanoi is rich
in mescal ine: 2 % of the dried
material or 0 . 1 2 % of the fresh
material . Other al k al oids hav e
been reported from the pl ant:
3 ,4 -dimethox y pheny l ethy l a-
mine, 3 -methox y -ty ramine, and
traces of other bases.
T richocereu s pachanoi ( E chi-
nopsis pachanoi) occu rs in the
central A ndes between 6 ,0 0 0
and 9 ,0 0 0 ft( 1 ,8 3 0 — 2 ,7 5 0 m) ,
particu l arl y in E cu ador and
northern Peru .
5 9
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T U RB INA Rat. ( 1 0 )
VIROL A A U bI. ( 6 0 ) VOA CA NG A ( 1 0 — 2 0 )
T u rbina cory mbosa ( L . ) Raf.
Ol ol iu q u i
Conv ol v u l aceae
( M orning G l ory Famil y )
T ropical zones of the
9 5 A mericas, mostl y M ex ico
and Cu ba
T he seeds of T u rbina cory mbo-
sa, better k nown as Riv ea cor-
y mbosa, are v al u ed as one of
the maj or sacred hal l u cinog ens
of nu merou s Indian g rou ps in
sou thern M ex ico. T heir u se
g oes back to earl y periods.
K nown as Ol ol iu q u i, they were
important in A ztec ceremonies
as an intox icant with repu tedl y
anal g esic properties.
T u rbina cory mbosa is a l arg e
woody v ine with heart-shaped
l eav es 2 — 3 ½ in. ( 5 — 9 cm) l ong
and in. ( 2 . 5 — 4 . 5 cm) wide.
T he cy mes are many -fl owered.
T he bel l -shaped corol l as, 3 / 4 _
1 ½ in. ( 2 — 4 cm) l ong , are white
with g reenish stripes. T he fru it is
dry , indehiscent, el l ipsoidal with
persistent, enl arg ed sepal s, and
bears a sing l e hard, rou ndish,
brown, minu tel y hairy seed
abou t 1 / s in. ( 3 mm) in diameter.
T he seeds contain l y serg ic acid
amide, anal og ou s to L SD.
Cl assification of g enera in
the M orning G l ory famil y or
Conv ol v u l aceae has al way s
been difficu l t. T his species has
at one time or another been
assig ned to the g enera Conv ol -
v u / u s, Ipomoea, L eg endrea,
Riv ea, and T u rbina. M ost che-
mical and ethnobotanical stu -
dies hav e been reported u nder
the name Riv ea cory mbosa,
bu t recent critical ev al u ation in-
dicates that the most appropri-
ate binomial is T u rbina
cory mbosa.
V/ rota theiodora ( Spr. ) W arb.
Cu mal a T ree
M y risticaceae ( Nu tmeg Famil y )
T ropical zones of Central
9 6 A merica and Sou th A merica
M ost, if not al l , species of Virol a
hav e a copiou s red 'resin" in the
inner bark . T he resin from a
nu mber of species is prepared
as a hal l u cinog enic snu ff or
smal l pel l ets.
Probabl y the most important
species is Viro/ a theiodora, a
sl ender tree 2 5 -7 5 ft ( 7 . 5 — 2 3 m)
in heig ht, nativ e to the forests of
the western A mazon basin. T he
cy l indrical tru nk , 1 ½ ft( 4 6 cm) in
diameter, has a characteristic
smooth bark that is brown
mottl ed with g ray patches. T he
l eav es ( with a tea-l ik e frag rance
when dried) are obl ong or
broadl y ov ate, 3 1 ,4 . 1 3 in ( 9 —
3 3 cm) l ong , 1 ½ — 4 ½ in. ( 4 —
1 1 cm) wide. T he mal e infl ores-
cences are many -fl owered,
u su al l y brown- or g ol d-hairy ,
shorter than the l eav es; the v ery
smal l fl owers, borne sing l y or in
cl u sters of 2 to 1 0 , are strong l y
pu ng ent. T he fru it is su bg l obose,
3 / $ _ 3 / 4 in. ( 1 — 2 cm) by ¼ — % in. ( . 5 —
1 . 5 cm) ; the seed is cov ered for
hal f its l eng th by a membranac-
eou s, orang e-red aril .
T he resin of the Virol a con-
tains DM T and 5 -M eO-DM T .
Voacang a spp.
Voacang a
A pocy naceae ( Dog bane Famil y )
T ropical A frica
9 7
T he Voacang a g enu s has re-
ceiv ed l ittl e research. T he spe-
cies are simil ar to one another.
T hey mu l tipl e-branched,
ev erg reen shru bs or smal l trees.
T he fl owers are mostl y y el l ow or
white with fiv e u nited petal s.
T here are two sy mmetrical
fru its. L atex ru ns in the bark .
T he bark and seeds of the
A frican Voacang a africana
Stapf. contain u pto 1 0 % indol e
al k al oids of the ibog a ty pe ( v oa-
camine is the primary al k al oid,
ibog aine) and shou l d be simu -
l ating and hal l u cinog enic. In
W est A frica the bark is u sed as a
hu nting poison, stimu l ant, and
potent aphrodisiac. Su pposedl y
the seeds are u sed by A frican
mag icians in order to produ ce
v isions.
T he seeds of the Voacang a
g randifl ora ( M iq . ) Rol fe are u sed
by mag icians in W est A frica for
v isionary pu rposes. U nfortu -
natel y the detail s are not y et u n-
cov ered, as the k nowl edg e of
the mag icians is a cl osel y
g u arded secret.
6 0
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col l ect


Pag e 6 1 : T he Fl y A g aric is u sed for shamanic pu rposes worl dwide. It has
ev en been l ink ed to the ancient Indian Soma.
Sou th













— —

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A bov e: T he sy mbol s in H u ichol my thol og y are v iv idl y depicted in their popu l ar
sacred art. T he beau ty of the forms has as a basis the ceremonial u se of
Pey ote. T he y arn painting abov e, l ik e an A ztec Codex , is a chronicl e of the
creation of the worl d. T he g ods emerg ed from the U nderworl d to M other
E arth. T his was possibl e becau se K au y u mari, Ou r E l der B rother Deer, fou nd
the nierik a, or portway . T he nierik a of K au y u mari ( top center) u nifies the spirit
of al l thing s and al l worl ds. T hrou g h it al l l ife came into being .
B el ow K au y u mari's nierik a, Ou r M other E ag l e ( center) l owers her head to
l isten to K au y u mari, who sits on a rock , bottom rig ht. H is sacred words trav el
down a thread to a pray er bowl and are transformed into l ife energ y , depicted
as a white bl ossom.
A bov e K au y u mari, the Spirit of Rain, a serpent, g iv es l ife to the g ods. T atewari,
first shaman and Spirit of Fire ( top center rig ht) , is bending down toward K au y u -
marl l istening to his chant. B oth are connected to a medicine bask et ( center
rig ht) , which binds them tog ether as shamanic al l ies. Ou r Father Su n, seen op-
posite T atewari on the l eft, is connected with the Spirit of Dawn, the orang e fig u re
bel ow. T he Su n and Spirit of Dawn are both fou nd in W irl k u ta, the Sacred L and of
Pey ote. A l so in W irik u ta is K au y u mari's nierik a and the templ e of E l der B rother
Deer T ail . T he templ e is the bl ack fiel d, l ower center. Deer T ail , with red antl ers, is
seen with his hu man manifestation abov e him. B ehind Deer T ail is Ou r M other
the Sea. A crane bring s her a pray er g ou rd containing the words of K au y u mari.
B l u e Deer ( l eft center) enl iv ens al l sacred offering s. A stream of energ y g oes from
him toou rM other Sea's pray erg ou rd; he al so offers his bl ood to the g rowing corn,
the staff of l ife g erminating bel ow him. A bov e B l u e Deer is the First M an, who
inv ented cu l tiv ation. First M an faces a sacrificed sheep.
Pag e 6 2 : T his earl y -six teenth-centu ry A ztec statu e of X ochipil l i, the ecstatic
Prince of Fl owers, was u nearthed in T l amanal co on the sl opes of the v ol cano
Popocatepetl . T he sty l ized g l y phs depict v ariou s hal l u cinog enic pl ants. From
l eft to rig ht, the g l y phs represent: mu shroom cap; tendril of the M orning G l ory ;
fl ower of T obacco; fl ower of the sacred M orning G l ory ; bu d of Sinicu iche; and,
on the pedestal , sty l ized caps of Psil ocy be aztecOru m.
6 3
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K ey sy mbol s desig nating pl ant ty pes in
Ov erv iew of Pl ants U se
X E ROPH Y T E S A ND
SU CCU L E NT S
L IA NA S
VINE S
A ND
H E RB S
PL A NT S
FU NG I


T RE E S
A Q U A T IC PL A NT S
L eft: T he E ng l ish botanist Richard
Spru ce spent fou rteen y ears in fiel d
research in Sou th A merica du ring the
1 8 0 0 's. A n insatiabl e pl ant-ex pl orer, he
mig ht be cal l ed the prototy pe of ethno-
botanists of tropical A merica. H is
stu dies l aid the fou ndation of research
on the hal l u cinog ens Y opo and Caapi—
research stil l in prog ress.
Pag e 6 4 : T he cu l tu re of Col ombia
( from 1 2 0 0 to 1 6 0 0 ) has y iel ded many
enig matic g ol d pectoral s with mu sh-
rooml ik e representations. T hey may
impl y the ex istence of a cu l t u sing these
intox icating fu ng i, species of which
occu r in the area. M any of the pectoral s
hav e wing l ik e stru ctu res, possibl y
sig nify ing mag ic fl ig ht, a freq u ent char-
acteristic of hal l u cinog enic intox ication.
6 5
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RE F
NU M B E R
COM M ON
NA M E
T Y PE OF
PL A NT
B OT A NICA L
NA M E
U SA G E :
H IST ORY A ND E T I-INOG RA PH Y
A g ara
G al bu l imima beig rav eana ( F. M u el l . ) Sprag u e Nativ es in Papu a
I I
A ng el 's T ru mpets
Fl oripondio
B ru g mansia arborea ( L . ) L ag erh. ;
B . au rea L ag erh. ; B . x insig nis ( B arb. -Rodr. )
B ru g mansia are empl oy ed in the warmer parts of Sou th
A merica, especial l y in the western A mazon, u nder the
1 2
B orrachero
H u acacachu
L ock wood ex R. E . Schu l t. ;
B . Sang u ifl ea ( R. et P. ) Don;
name of T oe.
A l so u sed by the M apu che Indians of Chil e, the Chib-
H u anto
B . su av eol ens ( H . et B . ex W il Id. ) cha of Col ombia, and k nown to Peru v ian Indians as
M aicoa B ercht. et Presl . ; H u acacachu .
T oe B . v ersicol or L ag erh. ;
T ong a B . v u l canicol a ( A . S. B arcl ay ) R. E . Schu l t.
( see al so pag es 1 4 0 — 1 4 3 )
A y ahu asca
Caapi
B anisteriopsis caapi ( Spru ce ex G riseb. ) M orton;
B . inebrians M orton; B . ru sby ana ( Ndz. ) M orton;
U sed in the western hal f of the A mazon Val l ey and by
isol ated tribes on the Pacific sl opes of the Col ombian
Y aj é Dipl optery s cabrerana ( Cu atr. ) B . G ates and E cu adorean A ndes.
( see al so pag es 1 2 4 — 1 3 9 )
A ')
B adoh Neg ro
piu l e
Ipomoea v iol acea L . Oax aca, sou thern M ex ico.
K nown to the A ztecs as T l il il tzin and empl oy ed in
T l il il tzin
the same way as Ol ol iu q u i, Ipomoea is cal l ed Piu l e by
( see al so pag es 1 7 0 — 1 7 5 )
the Chinantec and M azatec, and B adoh Neg ro by the
Z apotec.
2 A
B ak ana
H ik u l i
Cory phantha compacta ( E ng el m. )
B ritt. et Rose; C. app.
T he T arahu mara Indians of M ex ico consider C. corn-
pacta ( W ichu ri, al so referred to as B ak ana or B ak ana-
W ichu ri
wa) a k ind of Pey ote or H ik u l i ( see Pey ote) .
o A
0 '1
B ak ana Scirpu s sp. A species of Scirpu s is apparentl y one of the most
powerfu l herbs of the T arahu mara Indians of M ex ico.
T he Indians fear the pl ant becau se of possibl e
insanity .
6 V
B l u e W ater L il y
Ninfa
Ny mphaea amp/ a ( Sol isb. ) DC. ;
N. caeru l ea Say ,
W ater L il ies enj oy ed an ex ceptional l y prominent pl ace in
the my thol og y and art of M inoan and dy nastic E g y ptian
Q u etzal ax ochiacatl
cu l tu res, in India and China, as wel l as in the M ay an
worl d from the M iddl e Cl assical period u ntil the inception
of the M ex ican period.
A mong Ol d and New W orl d simil arities is the rel ation
of N. amp/ a to the toad, itsel f associated with hal l u cino-
g enic ag ents, and the rel ation of the pl ant to death.
Caapi-Pinima
Caapi ( see A y ahu asca)
T etrapteris methy st/ ca R. E . Schu l . ;
T mu cronata Cay ,
Caapi-Pinima is empl oy ed by the nomadic M ak ü Indians
of the Rio T ik ié in the northwestern A mazon of B razil .
.
T hey cal l it Caapi, the same as B anister/ opal s. Sev eral
writers hav e mentioned " more than one k ind" of Caapi in
the Rio Vau pé s area of B razil and adj acent Col ombia.
6 2
Cawe
W ichowak a
Pachy cereu s pecten-aborig inu m ( E ng eim. )
B ritt. et Rose
E mpl oy ed by the T arahu mara Indians of M ex ico, W icho-
wak a means " insanity " in the l ocal l ang u ag e.
A
Cebil
Vil Ica
A nadenanthera col u brina ( VeIl . ) B renan;
A . col u brina ( Veil . ) B renan v ar.
A . pereg rina is u sed today by tribes of the Orinoco basin
( Y opo) and was first reported in 1 9 4 6 . No l ong er u sed in
5
Y opo
( see al so pag es 1 1 6 — 1 1 9 )
Cebl / ( G riseb. ) A l tschu l ;
A . pereg rina ( L . ) Speg . ;
A . pereg rina ( L . ) Speg . v ar. fa/ cata ( B enth. )
A l tschu l
the W est Indies.
Indians of A rg entina ( Vil Ica or H u il ca) and sou thern
Peru ( Cebu l ) are bel iev ed to hav e empl oy ed A . co/ u brina
in precol onial times.
i
'j I
Cebol l eta
'* '
Onc/ diu m cebo/ / eta ( J acq . ) Sw. It is su spected that the T arahu mara of M ex ico mak e u se
of this orchid.
8 V
Chacru na
Chacru na B u sh
Psy chotria v / rid/ s Ru iz et Pav ó n U sed for ag es in the A mazon reg ion as a sig nificant in-
g redient of A y ahu asca.
Cahu a
6 6
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U SA G E :
CONT E X T A ND PU RPOSE
PRE PA RA T ION CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
A ND E FFE CT S
H al l u cinog enic intox ication T he bark and l eav es of this tree are boil ed with a spe- A l thou g h 2 8 al k al oids hav e been isol ated, a psy choac-
cies of H omal omena to prepare a tea. tiv e principl e has not y et been fou nd.
Visions of men and animal s to be k il l ed are ex peri-
enced.
T he Indians of Sibu ndoy u se B ru g mansia for mag ico- T he dru g is u su al l y tak en in the form of powdered A l l species of B ru g mansia are chemical l y simil ar, with
medicinal pu rposes, the M apu che as medicine for seeds added to fermented drink s, or as a tea made of scopol amine as their principal psy choactiv e constitu -
recal citrant chil dren, the l eav es. ent. Content of l esser al k al oids is al so simil ar.
T he Chibcha formerl y g av e fermented Chicha with A dang erou s hal l u cinog en, B ru g mansia bring s on an
B ru g mansia seeds to wiv es and sl av es of dead chief- intox ication often so v iol ent that phy sical restraint is
tains to indu ce a stu por before they were bu ried al iv e necessary before the onset of a deep stu por, du ring
. v ith their hu sbands or masters, which v isions are ex perienced.
Indians in Peru stil l bel iev e that B ru g mansia permits
them to commu nicate with ancestors and that it can
rev eal treasu res preserv ed in g rav es.
U su al l y dru nk in rel ig iou s ceremonies. T he bark , prepared in col d or boil ing water, may be T he hal l u cinog enic activ ity is primaril y du e to harmine,
In the famou s T u k anoan Y u ru parI ceremony in Co- tak en al one or with additiv es— especial l y the l eav es of the maj or 3 -carbol ine al k al oid in the pl ants.
l ombia— an adol escent initiation ritu al for boy s. T he B . ru sby ana ( Dipl optery s cabrerana) and of Psy chotria E ffects of tak ing the bitter and nau seating drink
J iv aro bel iev e that A y ahu asca mak es possibl e corn- v / rid/ s— which al ter the effects. rang e from pl easant intox ication with no hang ov er to
mu nication with ancestors and that, u nder its infl u - T he bark can al so be chewed. Recent ev idence from v iol ent reactions with sick ening aftereffects. U su al l y ,
ence, a man's sou l may l eav e the body and wander the northwestern A mazon su g g ests that the pl ants are v isu al hal l u cinations in col or occu r. T he intox ication
free, al so u sed in the form of a snu ff. ends with a deep sl eep and dreams.
In sou thern M ex ico, this v ine is respected as one of A drink is prepared from abou t a thimbl efu l of the T he al k al oid content is fiv e times that of T u rbina
the principal hal l u cinog ens for u se in div ination, cru shed seeds. cory mbosa; according l y nativ es u se fewer seeds. T he
mag ico-rel ig iou s, and cu ring ritu al s, same al k al oids are fou nd in other M orning G l ories bu t
u sag e is restricted to M ex ico. ( See Ol ol iu q u i. )
M edicinal pu rposes. T he abov eg rou nd T eu il e ( " meat" of the cactu s) is eaten Variou s al k al oids, incl u ding pheny l ethy l arnines, hav e
T ak en by shamans as a potent medicine and g reatl y fresh or dried. E ig ht to twel v e cactu s " tops" are an been isol ated from Cory phantha, a promising g enu s for
feared and respected by the Indians. adeq u ate dose. fu tu re stu dies.
Scirpu s pl ay s an important rol e in fol k medicine T he tu berou s roots of Scirpu s are often col l ected from A l k al oids hav e been reported from Scirpu s and rel ated
snd as a hal l u cinog en; it mu st be treated with g reat faraway pl aces. sedg es. T he Indians bel iev e that they can trav el to dis-
'ev erence. tant pl aces, tal k with their ancestors, and hav e col ored
v isions.
T here ex ist nu merou s interesting paral l el s between Dried fl owers and bu ds of Ny mphaea amp/ a are T he al k al oids apomorphine, nu ciferine, and nornu ci-
the ritu al istic ( shamanic) sig nificance of Ny mphaea in smok ed. T he rhizomes are eaten raw or cook ed. T he ferine, isol ated from the rhizomes of N. amp/ a, may be
the Ol d and the New W orl ds, su g g esting that Ny m- bu ds of N. caeru / a are u sed to mak e a tea, responsibl e for the psy chotropic activ ity .
phaea may hav e been u sed as a narcotic, possibl y a
hal l u cinog en.
N. amp/ a has recentl y been reported to be u sed in
M ex ico as a recreational dru g with " powerfu l hal l u ci-
natory effects. "
H al l u cinog enic intox ication. A drink is prepared from the bark of T methy stica in
col d water. T he infu sion is y el l owish, u nl ik e the brown-
ish col or of the bev erag e prepared from B anisteriopsis.
It has not been possibl e as y et to carry ou t chemical
ex amination of T met hy stica, bu t reports of the effects
of the dru g wou l d su g g est that the same or simil ar
j 3 -carboiine al k al oids are present as in B anisteriopsis.
T here are sev eral pu rel y medicinal u ses of this A hal l u cinog enic drink is prepared from the j u ice of the 4 -hy drox y -3 -methox y pheny l ethy l amine and fou r tetra-
cactu s, y ou ng branches of P pecten-aborig inu m. hy droisoq u inol irie al k al oids hav e been isol ated.
It cau ses dizziness and v isu al hal l u cinations.
Now smok ed as a hal l u cinog enic intox icant by Indians T he snu ff is prepared from the beans, which are T ry ptamine deriv ativ es and j 3 -carbol ines.
n northern A rg entina. u su al l y moistened, rol l ed into a paste, and dried by
toasting .
W hen pu l v erized to a g ray -g reen powder, it is mix ed
with an al k al ine pl ant ash or snail shel l l ime.
A twitching of the mu scl es, sl ig ht conv u l sions, and
l ack of mu scu l ar coordination fol l owed by nau sea,
v isu al hal l u cinations, and distu rbed sl eep. M acropsia.
Reportedl y u sed as a hal l u cinog en, 0 . cebo/ l eta is U nk nown. A n al k al oid has been reported from 0 . cebol / eta.
empl oy ed as a temporary su rrog ate for Pey ote.
T his bu sh has g reat cu l tu ral sig nificance as a DM T - Fresh or dried l eav es are mix ed with v ines or the hu sk T he l eav es contain 0 . 1 % to 0 . 6 1 % N,N,-DM T , as wel l
prov iding ing redient of the hal l u cinog en A y ahu asca, of B anisteriopsis caapi and cook ed. T he preparation is as traces of other al k al oids.
which has a central pl ace in the shamanic tradition of dru nk as A y ahu asca ( Caapi, Y ag d,) .
; he A mazon.
6 7
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RE F
NU M B E R
COM M ON
NA M E
T Y PE OF
PL A NT
B OT A NICA L
NA M E
U SA G E :
H IST ORY A ND E T H NOG RA PH Y
3 I
Chiricaspi
Chiric-Sanang o
B ru nfel sia chiricaspi Pl owman;
B . g randifl ora Don;
B ru nfel sia is k nown as B orrachero ( 'the intox icator" ) to
Col ombian Indians, and as Chiricaspi ( col d tree" ) in
M anak a B . g randffl ora Don su bsp. schu l tesii Pl owman westernmost A mazonia ( Col ombia, E cu ador, and Peru ) .
3 A
Col orines
Chil icote
M il l . ;
E . coraioides M oc. et Sesse ex DC. ;
T he beans of v ariou s species are freq u entl y sol d with
those of Sophora secu ndffl ora ( M escal B eans) in
T zompanq u ahu itl E . fl abel l iformis K earney M ex ico. T hey are u sed as amu l ets or charms.
7 A
'+
Common Reed Phrag mites au stral ia ( Cay . ) T riniu s ex Steu del U sed for medicinal pu rposes since ancient times. Psy -
choactiv e u se is a recent phenomenon.
Copel andia
J ambu r
Panaeol u s cy anescens B erk . et B r. ;
Copel andia cy anescens ( B erk . et B r. ) Sing er
Cu l tiv ated on cow and bu ffal o du ng in B al i.
5 0
0
Cowhag e ( L . ) DC. India. U sed in A y u rv edic medicine. T he seeds are u sed
worl dwide as charms or amu l ets.
I
Dams da Noite
( L ady of the Nig ht)
Cestru m Iaev ig atu m Schl echt;
Cestru m L 'H erit.
Coastal reg ions of sou thern B razil , sou thern Chil e.
Pal q u i
M aconha
2 0
Datu ra
Du tra
Datu ra metel L . D. metel is mentioned as a hal l u cinog enic pl ant in earl y
Sansk rit and Chinese writing s.
( see al so pag es 1 0 6 — 1 1 1 ) K nown as a dru g to the A rabian phy sician A v icenna in
. the el ev enth centu ry .
E mpl oy ed today especial l y in India, Pak istan, and A f-
g hanistan.
D. ferox , a rel ated Ol d W orl d species, pl ay s a minor
rol e.
8
Deadl y Nig htshade
B el l adonna
A tropa bel l adonna L . E u rope, Near E ast.
Deadl y Nig htshade fig u red as an important ing redient in
( see al so pag es 8 6 — 9 1 ) many of the witches' brews of the M iddl e A g es.
A tropa pl ay ed a prominent rol e in the my thol og y of
most E u ropean peopl es.
2
E l Nene
E l A hij ado
Col eu s bl u mei B enth. ; C. pu mil u s B l anco Nativ e to the Phil ippine Isl ands, two species of this pl ant
hav e acq u ired sig nificance simil ar to Sal v ia in sou thern
E l M acho M ex ico among the M azatec Indians.
'v '-'
E pená
Ny ak wana
Virol a cal ophy l l a W arb. ;
V cal ophy l l oidea M ark g r. ;
In B razil , Col ombia, Venezu el a and Peru a nu mber of
species of Virol a are u sed, the most important of which
Y ak ee V el ong ata ( Spr. ex B enth. ) W arb. ; appears to be V theiodora.
( see al so pag es 1 7 6 -1 8 1 ) V theiodora ( Spr. ) W arb. T he hal l u cinog enic snu ff has v ariou s names depend-
ing on the l ocal ity or tribe, with the most commonl y re-
cog nized terms being Paricá , E pená , and Ny ak wana in
B razil , Y ak ee and Y ato in Col ombia.
E reriba H omal omena sp. T he nativ es of Papu a are reported to u se H oriial omena.
2
E rg ot C/ av j ceps pu rpu rea ( Fr. ) T u l asne It has recentl y been conv incing l y arg u ed that E rg ot
'-' ( see al so pag es 1 0 2 — 1 0 5 ) pl ay ed a rol e in the E l eu sinian my steries of ancient
G reece.
W hen accidental l y g rou nd u p with ry e fl ou r du ring the
M iddl e A g es, E rg ot ( which g rows primaril y as a fu ng al
disease on ry e) poisoned whol e districts with erg otism.
T hese mass poisoning s became k nown as St. A ntho-
ny 's fire.
6 8
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U SA G E :
CONT E X T A ND PU RPOSE
PRE PA RA T ION CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
A ND E FFE CT S
n A mazonian fol k medicine, B ru nfel sia pl ay s a maj or T he K ofá n of Col ombia and E cu ador and the J iv aro of
Scopol etine has been fou nd in B ru nfel sia, bu t this
mag ico-rel ig iou s rol e. E cu ador add B ru nfel sia to Y aj é , prepared basical l y compou nd is not k nown to be psy choactiv e.
U sed as an additiv e to the hal l u cinog enic drink Y al e from B anisteriopsis ( see A y ahu asca) . It heig htens the
A sensation of chil l s fol l ows ing estion, an effect that
( see A y ahu asca) . hal l u cinog enic effects, has g iv en rise to the name Chiricaspi tree" ) .
T he pl ant may once hav e been u sed by the T arahu - T he red beans are often mix ed with the simil ar ones of Some species of E ry thrina contain al k al oids of the er-
mara, who v al u e the beans medicinal l y . Sophora secu ndifl ora. y thran ty pe, produ cing effects simil ar to those of cu rare
or cy tisine.
U sed today as a DM T -del iv ering ag ent for A y ahu asca T wenty to 5 0 g of roots are boil ed with 3 g of seeds from T he roots contain the psy chedel ic or v ision-indu cing
anal og s. Peg anu m harmal a and the preparation is consu med as
a drink ,
al k al oid N, N-DM T , 5 -M E O-DM T , B u fotenin, and the
tox in g ramine.
U sed in nativ e festiv al s in B al i and reportedl y sol d to T he mu shrooms are eaten fresh or dried. U p to 1 . 2 % of psil ocine and 0 . 6 % of psil ocy bine hav e
l oreig n v isitors as a hal l u cinog en, been fou nd in C. cy anescens, which is the hig hest
content of these al k al oids fou nd in hal l u cinog enic
mu shrooms.
Indian peopl es may hav e u til ized the psy choactiv e Powdered seeds. Sou rce of DM 1 for A y ahu asca A l thou g h M u cu na has not been reported as a hal l u ci-
properties. anal og s. nog en, it is rich in psy choactiv e al k al oids ( su ch as
M u cu na is considered an aphrodisiac in India. DM T ) capabl e of indu cing behav ioral chang es eq u ita-
bl e with hal l u cinog enic activ ity .
T he M apu che of sou thern Chil e smok e Pal q u i. T he l eav es are smok ed as a su bstitu te for M arij u ana. T he u nripened fru it, l eav es, and fl owers contain sapo-
nines that are not k nown to be hal l u cinog enic.
U sed as an aphrodisiac in the E ast Indies. Powdered seeds added to wine. See T ol oache.
Val u abl e dru g . T he seeds are added to al cohol ic drink s, to Canna-
Ceremonial intox ication and recreation. bis cig arettes or tobacco, and occasional l y to the betel
chew mix tu re.
W itches' brews; the sabbat. T he entire pl ant contains psy choactiv e constitu ents. T he pl ant contains al k al oids, capabl e of indu cing hal -
T oday , A . bel l adonna is an important sou rce for l u cinations. T he main psZ choactiv e constitu ent is
medicinal dru g s. hy oscy amine, bu t l esser amou nts of scopol amine and
trace amou nts of minor tropane al k al oids are al so
present.
H av ing mag ico-rel ig iou s sig nificance, Col eu s is u sed T he l eav es are chewed fresh or the pl ants are g rou nd, No hal l u cinog enic principl e has y et been discov ered in
as a div inatory pl ant. then dil u ted with water for drink ing , the 1 5 0 k nown Col eu s species.
E pená or Ny ak wana may be snu ffed ceremonial l y by Some Indians scrape the inner l ay er of the bark and dry T ry ptamine and 1 3 -carbol ine al k al oids, 5 -methox y di-
al l adu l t mal es, occasional l y ev en withou t any ritu al the shav ing s ov er a fire. W hen pu l v erized, powdered methy l try ptamine and dimethy l try ptamine ( DM T ) ,
connection. T he medicine men u se the dru g in diag - l eav es of J u st ic/ a, the ashes of A masita, the bark of being the main constitu ents, are responsibl e for the
nosis and treatment of il l nesses. E l izabetha princeps may be added. hal l u cinog enic activ ity . E ffects of the intox ication v ary .
T he u se of Y ak ee or Paricá is restricted to shamans. Other Indians fel l the tree, col l ect the resin, boil it to a
paste, su n-dry the paste, cru sh and sift it. A shes of sev -
eral bark s and the l eaf powder of J u sticia may be added.
A fu rther method is to k nead the inner shav ing s of
freshl y stripped bark and to sq u eeze ou t the resin and
boil it to a paste, which is su n-dried and prepared into
snu ff with ashes added.
A g rou p of M ak ü Indians in the Col ombian Vau pé s
ing est the u nprepared resin as it is col l ected from the
bark .
T hey u su al l y incl u de initial ex citabil ity , setting in within
sev eral minu tes from the first snu ffing . T hen fol l ows
nu mbness of the l imbs, twitching of the facial mu scl es,
inabil ity to coordinate mu scu l ar activ ity , nau sea, v isu al
hal l u cinations, and final l y , a deep, distu rbed sl eep.
Pl ants are u sed in traditional medicine and to create T he l eav es are eaten with the l eav es and bark of G al - L ittl e is k nown stil l of the constitu ents of this g enu s.
hal l u cinog enic dreams. bu l imima be/ g rav eana ( see A g ara) . Viol ent derang ement is fol l owed by sl u mber with
v isions.
It appears that E rg ot has nev er been u til ized pu r- U sed for psy choactiv e pu rposes. T ak en as a col d- E rg ol ine al k al oids, mainl y deriv ativ es of l y serg ic acid,
posefu l l y as a hal l u cinog en in mediev al E u rope. water infu sion. Dosag e is difficu l t to determine and can are the pharmacol og ical l y activ e constitu ents of E rg ot.
E mpl oy ed ex tensiv el y as a medicine by midwiv es in be dang erou s! E rg ot al k al oids or deriv ativ es of them are the basis of
cases of difficu l t chil dbirth du ring the M iddl e A g es, important medicines u sed today in obstetrics, internal
E rg ot indu ced contractions of inv ol u ntary mu scl es medicine, and psy chiatry . T he most potent hal l u cino-
and was a strong v asoconstrictor. g en, l y serg ic acid diethy l amide ( L SD) , is a sy nthetic
deriv ativ e of E rg ot.
6 9
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RE F
NU M B E R
COM M ON
NA M E
T Y PE OF
PL A NT
B OT A NICA L
NA M E
U SA G E :
H IST ORY A ND E T F-INOG RA PI-IY
2 5
E sak u na Cy mbopog on densffl oru s Stapf U sed by medicine men in T anzania.
7 2
Fang -K 'u ei Peu cedanu mj aponicu m T hu nb. China
Fl y A g aric
( see al so pag es 8 2 — 8 5 )
A manita mu scaria ( L . ex Fr. ) Pers. Finno-U g rian peopl es in eastern and western Siberia.
Sev eral g rou ps of A thabask an peopl es of North
A merica. A . mu scaria cou l d v ery wel l be the my steriou s
g od-narcotic Soma of ancient India, tak en by the
A
5
G al ang a
M araba
K aempferia g al ang a L . T here are v ag u e reports that G al ang a is empl oy ed as a
hal l u cinog en in New G u inea.
2 V
G enista Cy t/ su s canariensj s ( L . ) 0 . K u ntze A l thou g h nativ e to the Canary Isl ands, G enista was in-
corporated in aborig inal A merican societies.
G enista has apparentl y acq u ired an important rol e
among the Y aq u i Indians of M ex ico.
5 2
G i'-i-W a
G i'-i-Sa-W a
L y coperdon marg inatu m Vitt. ;
L . mix tecoru m H el m
In sou thern M ex ico, the M ix tec of Oax aca empl oy two
species to indu ce a condition of hal f-sl eep. T here seems
to be no ceremony connected with the u se.
In northern M ex ico, among the T arahu mara of Chi-
hu ahu a, a species of L y coperdon, k nown as K al amota,
is empl oy ed.
A
''J
1 -l enbane
( see al so
H y oscy amu s nig erL . ; H . a/ bu s L . Du ring the M iddl e A g es, H enbane was an ing redient of
the witches' brews and ointments.
A . 1
'+ I
In ancient G reece and Rome, reports of " mag ic
drink s" indicate that H enbane freq u entl y serv ed as an
ing redient. It has been su g g ested that the priestesses
Del phi prophesied u nder the infl u ence of H enbane.
8 2
H ierba de Ia Pastora
H ierba de Ia Virg en
Sal v ia div / foru m E pI. et J ativ a-M . U sed by the M azatec Indians of M ex ico as a su bstitu te
for psy choactiv e mu shrooms, S. div inoru m ( " of the dl v i-
Pipil tzintzintl i ners" ) is cal l ed " herb of the shepherdess: ' It is commonl y
bel iev ed to be the narcotic Pipil tzintzintl i of the A ztec
Indians.
3 3
H ik u l i M u l ato
H ik u l i Rosapara
E pithel antha micromeris ( E ng el m. )
W eber ex B ritt. et Rose
One of the " fal se Pey otes" of the T arahu mara Indians of
Chihu ahu a and the H u ichol of northern M ex ico.
7
H ik u l i Su namé
Chau tl e
A riocarpu s fissu ratu s Schu mann;
A . retu su s Scheidw.
T he T arahu mara Indians in northern and central M ex ico
assert that A . fissu ratu s is strong er than Pey ote ( L o-
Pey ote CimarrOn phophora) .
T su wiri H u ichol Indians of M ex ico.
'-"
Ibog a
( see al so pag es 1 1 2 — 1 1 5 )
T abernanthe ibog a B ail l . In G abon and the Cong o, the cu l t su rrou nding Ibog a
prov ides the nativ es with the strong est sing l e force
ag ainst the missionary spread of Christianity and Isl am
in this reg ion.
5 6
J u rema
A j u ca
M imosa host/ / is ( M art. ) B enth. ;
M . v erru cosa B enth. = M imosa tenu / f/ ora
Val u ed in eastern B razil , where sev eral tribes in Pernam-
bu co u se the pl ant in ceremonial s; al so empl oy ed by v ar-
T epescohu ite
( W il Id. ) Poir. bu s now ex tinct tribes of the same area.
Ov er two centu ries ag o, Du tch ex pl orers reported that
the H ottentots of Sou th A frica empl oy ed the root of a
pl ant k nown as Channa or K anna.
8 3
K anna
M esembry anthemu m ex pansu m L . ;
M . tortu osu m L . = Scel etiu m tortu osu m ( L . )
N. E . B r.
7 0
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Ibog a is k nown to be u sed as a hal l u cinog en in mag ico-
rel ig iou s contex t, especial l y the B witi cu l t, and serv es
to seek information from ancestors and the spirit worl d,
hence 'a coming to terms with death. " M oreov er, intox -
ication is practiced in the initiation ceremonies.
T he dru g al so has the repu tation of a powerfu l
stimu l ant and aphrodisiac.
T he hal l u cinog enic u se of M imosa hostil is in ceremo-
nies seems to hav e nearl y disappeared today . E m-
pl oy ed in connection with warfare.
Probabl y once u sed as a v ision-indu cing hal l u cino-
g en.
T he root of Fang -K 'u ei is empl oy ed medicinal l y in
China.
Fresh or dried roots are eaten pu re, or added to pal m
wine. Rou g hl y l og of dried root powder indu ces a
psy chedel ic effect.
T he root of M imosa hostil is was the sou rce of a " mira-
cu l ou s drink ," k nown l ocal l y as A j u ca or Vinho de J u re-
ma.
In the hinterl ands of Sou th A frica, the roots and l eav es
are stil l smok ed.
A pparentl y , the l eav es are sometimes dried after
fermentation and chewed as an inebriant.
CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
A ND E FFE CT S
It is not k nown to which compou nd the al l eg ed hal l u ci-
nog enic activ ity has to be attribu ted.
A l k al oidal constitu ents hav e been reported from Peu -
cedanu m, bu t whether or not they are of hal l u cinog enic
ty pes is not k nown. Cou marins and fu rocou marins are
widespread in the g enu s; both occu r in P j aponicu m.
Ibog a contains at l east a dozen indol e al k al oids, ibo-
g ame being the most important. Ibog aine is a strong
psy chic stimu l ant that in hig h doses produ ces al so
hal l u cinog enic effects.
One activ e al k al oid identical with the hal l u cinog enic N,
N-dimethy l -try ptamine has been isol ated.
T he common name is today appl ied to
sev eral species
of Scel etiu m and M esembfy afl ttl emu m that
hav e al k a-
l oids — mesembrine and mesembrenine
— with sedativ e
activ ities capabl e of indu cing torpor.
K anna produ ces a strong intox ication.
7 1
U SA G E :
CONT E X T A ND PU RPOSE
PRE PA RA T ION
E mpl oy ed to cau se dreams in order to foretel l the fu -
tu re.
Fol k medicine.
Smok ing of the fl owers, either al one or with tobacco.
Shamanistic inebriation.
One or sev eral mu shrooms are tak en su n-dried or Ibotenic acid, M u scimol e, M u scazone.
Rel ig iou s sig nificance; heal ing ceremonies.
sl owl y toasted ov er a fire. T hey may al so be dru nk as E u phoria, col ored v isions, macropsia; on occasion
Rel ig iou s ceremonies,
an ex tract in water or reindeer mil k or with the j u ice of
Vacciniu m ol ig inoru m or E pil obiu m ang u stifol iu m. Ri-
tu al istic drink ing of the u rine of intox icated indiv idu al s
in Siberia al so occu rs.
rel ig iou s ferv or and deep sl eep may occu r.
H al l u cinog enic intox ication ( ? ) ,fol k medicine, aphro-
T he hig hl y aromatic rhizome is v al u ed l ocal l y as a B ey ond the hig h content of essential oil ( to which hal -
disiac.
condiment; a tea from the l eav es is empl oy ed in fol k
medicine,
l u cinog enic activ ity mig ht be du e) in the rhizome of this
rel ativ e of G ing er, l ittl e is k nown of the chemistry .
Ceremonial u se in Nativ e A merican tribes.
T he seeds are v al u ed by Y aq u l medicine men. Cy tisu s is rich in the l u pine al k al oid cy tisine.
E mpl oy ed especial l y by the medicine men as a hal -
H al l u cinog enic activ ity has not been reported
l u cinog en in mag ic ceremonies.
cy tisine, bu t it is k nown to be tox ic.
U sed as au ditory hal l u cinog en. T he fu ng i are eaten.
T here is as y et no phy tochemical basis to ex pl ain the
T ak en by sorcerers to enabl e them to approach
psy chotropic effects.
peopl e withou t being detected and to mak e peopl e
sick .
W itches' brews; mag ic infu sions.
T he dried herb is smok ed as a cig arette or smok ed in a T he activ e principl es in this sol anaceou s g enu s are
Indu ces a cl airv oy ant trance.
smok ehou se. T he seeds are mainl y smok ed. T he
seeds are u sed as a su bstitu te for hops in mak ing beer.
Dosag e v aries from person to person.
tropane al k al oids, especial l y hy oscy amine scopo-
l amine, the l atter being mainl y responsibl e for the
hal l u cinog enic effects.
In Oax aca, M ex ico, the M azatec Indians cu l tiv ate
T he l eav es are chewed fresh or cru shed on a metate, T he main activ e ing redient, sal v inorin A , can bring
S. div inoru m for its hal l u cinog enic properties in div i-
then dil u ted with water and fil tered for a drink ,
abou t ex treme hal l u cinations when inhal ed in amou nts
natory ritu al s,
of 2 5 0 to 5 0 0 mcg .
It is apparentl y u sed when T eonaná catl or Ol ol iu q u i
seeds are rare.
M edicine men tak e H ik u l i M u l ato to mak e their sig ht Cactu s fl esh is eaten fresh or dried.
A l k al oids and triterpenes hav e been reported.
cl earer and permit them to commu ne with sorcerers, It
T his cactu s is reportedl y abl e to driv e ev il peopl e
is tak en by ru nners as a stimu l ant and " protector" and
insanity and throw them from cl iffs.
the Indians bel iev e that it prol ong s l ife.
Val u ing it in witchcraft, the T arahu mara bel iev e that
Consu med either fresh or cru shed in water.
Sev eral pheny l ethy l amine al k al oids hav e been
thiev es are powerl ess to steal when this cactu s cal l s
isol ated.
its sol diers to its aid.
T he H u ichol consider A riocarpu sto be ev il , insisting
that it may cau se permanent insanity .
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T anaeciu m noctu rnu m ( B arb. -Rodr. )
B u r. et K . Schu m.
E mpl oy ed by the K aritiana Indians of the Rio M adeira in
A mazonian B razil .
5 7
K ratom
B iak -B iak
M itrag y na speciosa K orthal s In the 1 9 th centu ry , K ratom was k nown as an opiu m
su bstitu te in T hail and and M al ay sia.
Q U
K washi Pancratiu m fr/ ant hu m H erbert K washi is empl oy ed by the B u shmen in Dobe,
B otswana.
A 7
1
L atCie
A rbol de l os B ru j os
L atu a pu b/ fl ora ( G riseb. ) B ail l . Formerl y u sed by the M apu che Indian shamans of
Val div ia, Chil e.
I
L iberty Cap Psil ocy be semi/ anceata ( Fries) Q u el et It is possibl e that this fu ng u s has been u sed for psy cho-
activ e pu rposes in Central E u rope for abou t 1 2 ,0 0 0
y ears. E arl ier, it was u sed as a hal l u cinog en by the A l pen
nomads and has al so been u sed in E u ropean witchcraft.
A 8
L ion's T ail
W il d Dag g a '
L eon/ f/ s l eonu ru s ( L . ) R. B r. T his herb has been u sed as a narcotic in sou thern A frica
since ancient times.
Dacha
i
'
M aiden's A cacia A cacia maidenii F. v on M u el l . ;
A . phiebophy l l a F. v on M u el l . ;
A . simpl icifol ia Dru ce
M any A cacias are u sed in traditional medicine. T he
psy choactiv e u se of A cacia, W hich contains DM T , is v ery
recent and has been dev el oped especial l y in A u stral ia
and Cal ifornia.
8 6
M al v a Col orada
Chichibe
Sida acu ta B u rm. ; S. rhomb/ fol ia L . Sida acu ta and Sida rhomb/ fol ia are said to be smok ed
al ong the G u l f Coast of M ex ico.
A x ocatzin
5 A
M andrak e
( see al so pag es 8 6 — 9 1 )
M andrag ora off/ cinaru m L . M andrak e has a compl ex history in the Ol d W orl d.
T he root of M andrak e can be l ik ened to the hu man
form, hence its mag ic.
7 I
M arij u ana
B hang
Cannabis sat/ v a L . ; C. md/ ca L am. In India, u se of Cannabis has had rel ig iou s sig nificance.
Specimens nearl y 4 ,0 0 0 y ears ol d hav e tu rned u p in an
Charas E g y ptian site.
Dag g a In ancient T hebes, the pl ant was made into a drink with
G anj a opiu m-l ik e effects.
H ashish T he Scy thians, who threw H emp seeds and l eav es on
H emp hot stones in steam baths to produ ce an intox icating
K if smok e, g rew the pl ant al ong the Vol g a 3 ,0 0 0 y ears ag o.
T a M a Chinese tradition pu ts the u se of the pl ant back 4 ,8 0 0
( see al so pag es 9 2 — 1 0 1 ) . y ears.
Indian medical writing , compil ed before 1 0 0 0 B .
ports therapeu tic u ses of Cannabis.
T he G reek phy sician G al en wrote, abou t A . 1 6 0 , that
g eneral u se of Cannabis in cak es produ ced intox ication.
In 1 3 th-centu ry A sia M inor, org anized mu rderers,
rewarded with H ashish, were k nown as hash/ shins, from
which may come the term assassin in E u ropean
l ang u ag es.
M ashihiri
J u st/ cia pectoral / s J acq . v ar.
stenophy l l a L eonard
T he W aik á and other Indians of the u ppermost Orinoco
and the adj acent parts of northwestern B razil cu l tiv ate
J u st/ cia.
7 2
RE F COM M ON
T Y PE OF B OT A NICA L U SA G E :
NU M B E R NA M E
PL A NT NA M E H IST ORY A ND E T H NOG RA PH Y
8 7
K iel ifK ieri
Sol andra brev / cal y x Standl . ; M entioned by H erná ndez as T ecomax ochiti or H u eipatl
H u eipatl
S. g u errerensis M artinez of the A ztec Indians.
T ecomax ochiti
In the my thol og y and sy mbol ism of the M ex ican H u i-
chol and other tribes, sev eral species of Sol andra are
important.
9 2
K oribo
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Cannabis has a l ong history of u se in fol k medicine
and as a psy choactiv e su bstance.
It is the sou rce of fiber, an edibl e fru it, an indu strial
oil , a medicine, and an intox icant.
U se of Cannabis has g rown in popu l arity in the past
4 0 y ears as the pl ant has spread to nearl y al l parts of
the g l obe. Increase in the pl ant's u se as an inebriant in
W estern cou ntries, especial l y in u rban centers, has
l ed to maj or probl ems and dil emmas for E u ropean
and A merican au thorities. T here is a sharp div ision of
opinion as to whether the widespread u se of Canna-
bis is a v ice that mu st be stamped ou t or is an innoc-
u ou s habit that shou l d be permitted l eg al l y . T he su b-
j ect is debated hotl y , u su al l y with l imited k nowl edg e.
E x tracts from the hu sk and l eav es of A . maidenii, the
bark of A . simpl icifol ia, or the l eav es of A . phiebophy l l a
are combined with the seeds from Peg anu m harmal a.
M ethods of consu ming Cannabis v ary . In the New
W orl d, M arij u ana ( M aconha in B razil ) is smok ed— the
dried, cru shed fl owering tips or l eav es are often mix ed
with tobacco or other herbs in cig arettes. H ashish, the
resin from the femal e pl ant, is eaten or smok ed, often
in water pipes, by mil l ions in M u sl im cou ntries of
northern A frica and western A sia. In A fg hanistan and
Pak istan, the resin is commonl y smok ed. E ast Indians
reg u l arl y empl oy three preparations: B hang consists of
pl ants that are g athered g reen, dried and made into a
drink with water or mil k or into a candy ( maj u n) with
su g ar and spices; Charas normal l y smok ed or eaten
with spices, is pu re resin; G anj a, u su al l y smok ed with
tobacco, consists of resin-rich dried tops from the
femal e pl ant.
M any v arieties of A cacia contain the psy chedel ic su b-
stance, DM T . T he bark of A . maideniicontains 0 . 3 6 %
DM T ; the l eav es of A . phiebophy l l a contain 0 . 3 % DM T .
T he bark of A . simpl icifol ia can contain u p to 3 . 6 % al -
k al oids, of which DM T accou nts for rou g hl y one third.
T he psy choactiv e principl es— cannabinOtic com-
pou nds— are fou nd in g reatest concentration in a resin
produ ced most abu ndantl y in the reg ion of the pistil l ate
infl orescence. A fresh pl ant y iel ds mainl y cannabidiol ic
acids, precu rsors of the tetrahy drocannabinOl s and re-
l ated constitu ents, su ch as cannabinol and cannabi-
diol . T he main effects are attribu tabl e to
tetrahy drocannabinol .
T he principal effect is eu phoria. E v ery thing from a
mil d sense of ease to hal l u cinations, from feel ing s of
ex al tation and inner j oy to depression and anx iety hav e
been reported. T he dru g 's activ ities bey ond the central
nerv ou s sy stem seem to be secondary . T hey
consist of
a rise in pu l se rate and bl ood pressu re,
tremor, v ertig o,
difficu l ty in mu scu l ar coordination, increased
tactil e
sensitiv ity , and dil ation of the pu pil s.
T he nativ es mix J u sticia l eav es with the snu ff pre-
pared from Virol a ( see E pena) to " mak e the snu ff
smel l better'
T he l eav es are dried and pu l v erized.
T ry ptamines hav e been su spected from
sev eral spe-
cies of J u sticia.
7 3
U SA G E :
CONT E X T A ND PU RPOSE
PRE PA RA T ION CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
A ND E FFE CT S
T he H u ichol worship and fear Sol andra as a g od-nar-
cotic, K iel i, a powerfu l aid in sorcery . Real izing the
cl ose rel ationship of Sol andra, Datu ra, and B ru g man-
sia, the H u ichol sometimes combine their u se: they
disting u ish between Datu ra inox ia or K iel itsa ( " bad
K iel i" ) and the real K iel i or Sol andra.
S. g u errerensis is k nown to be empl oy ed as an
intox icant in the state of G u errero.
A tea made from the j u ice of the branches of both spe-
des is k nown to be empl oy ed as an intox icant.
T he g enu s Sol andra, cl osel y rel ated to Datu ra, con-
tains hy oscy amine, scopol amine, nortropine, tropine,
scopine, cu scohy g rine, and other tropane al k al oids
with strong hal l u cinog enic effects.
Fol k medicine.
T his species is said to be praised as an aphrodisiac
by Indians of the Col ombian ChocO.
A tea is made of the l eav es of this l iana and those of an
u nidentified pl ant as a remedy for diarrhea.
Reports from botanical col l ectors of the odor of T noc-
tu rnu m su g g est that cy anog enesis occu rs in this spe-
des. Saponines and tannins hav e been isol ated.
In Sou theast A sia, the l eav es are chewed or smok ed
for u se as a stimu l ant or a narcotic,
Fresh l eav es are chewed, dried, and smok ed, or tak en
internal l y as atea or ex tract. T he l eav es are sometimes
u sed tog ether with B etel .
T he entire pl ant contains al k al oids, of which M itrag y -
nine is the main activ e ing redient. M itrag y nine, which is
chemical l y simil ar to y ohimbine and psil ocy bine, is a
v ery powerfu l psy choactiv e su bstance.
Reportedl y u sed as a hal l u cinog en and in fol k medi-
cine.
Rel ig iou simportanceassu medintropical W estA ftica.
T he bu l bs are cu t in two and ru bbed ov er incisions on
the scal p. T his cu stom most cl osel y approaches the
W estern habit of inj ecting medicine.
M any of the 1 5 species contain v ery tox ic al k al oids.
T he tox ic state may be accompanied by hal l u cinog enic
sy mptoms.
is a v iru l ent poison once u sed to indu ce del ir-
l u m, hal l u cinations, and ev en permanent insanity ,
Dosag es were a secret cl osel y g u arded. T he fresh fru it
was preferential l y empl oy ed.
T he l eav es and fru it contain 0 . 1 5 % hy oscy amine and
0 . 0 8 % of scopol amine, responsibl e for hal l u cinog enic
activ ity .
T his mu shroom has been u sed worl dwide for its hal -
l u cinog enic and v ision-indu cing q u al ities,
E aten fresh or dried. T hirty fresh mu shrooms or
rou g hl y 3 g of dried mu shrooms is a su fficient psy che-
del ic dose.
Contains hig h concentrations of psil ocy bin, and some
psil ocine and baeocy stine ( the total al k al oid concen-
tration is rou g hl y 1 % of the dried mass) . T his is a
potent hal l u cinog en.
T he H ottentots and bu sh peopl e smok e the pl ant as a
narcotic or as a su bstitu te for Cannabis.
T he dried bu ds and l eav es are smok ed either al one or
mix ed with tobacco.
T here hav e been no chemical stu dies to date.
A cacia resin is u sed in conj u nction with Pitu ri by the
A u stral ian A borig ines. T oday , v ariou s v arieties of
A cacia are u sed as DM T sou rces and al so in the pre-
paration of A y ahu asca anal og s for hal l u cinog enic
ex periences.
E mpl oy ed as a stimu l ant and su bstitu te for M arij u ana. Smok ing .
E phedrine, which indu ces a mil d stimu l ating effect, has
been reported from these species of Sida.
U sed as a panacea, M andrak e pl ay ed an ex traordin-
T here ex isted v ariou s precau tions in pu l l ing the root
T ropane al k al oids with hy oscy amine as the main con-
ary rol e as a mag ic pl ant and hal l u cinog en in E u r-
from the earth becau se the pl ant's u nearthl y shriek s
stitu ent besides scopol amine, atropine, mandrag orine,
T he total
opean fol k l ore. A n activ e hal l u cinog enic ing redient of
cou l d driv e col l ectors mad.
and others are the psy choactiv e
is 0 . 4 % .
the witches' brews, M andrak e was probabl y the most
content of tropane al k al oids
potent admix tu re.
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RE F.
NU M B E R
COM M ON
NA M E
T Y PE OF
PL A NT
B OT A NICA L
NA M E
U SA G E :
H IST ORY A ND E T H NOG RA PH Y
• 4 A
M atwO
H u il ca
Cacal ia cordifol l a L . f ii. M ex ico
8 8
M escal B ean
Coral B ean
Col orines
Frij ol es
Red B ean
Sophora secu ndifl ora ( On. ) L ag . ex DC. U se of M escal B ean g oes far back into prehistory in the
Rio G rande basin, where they hav e had ritu al u ses for at
l east 9 ,0 0 0 y ears.
T he A rapaho and Iowa tribes in the U nited States
were u sing the beans as earl y as 1 8 2 0 .
A t l east a dozen tribes of Indians in northern M ex ico
and sou thern T ex as practiced a v ision-seek ing dance.
0 0
Nig htshade Scopol ia carniol ica J acq u es Probabl y u sed as an ing redien. t of witches' sal v es and
ointments; u sed in E astern E u rope as a su bstitu te for
M andrak e; al so u sed as an intox icating ing redient in
beer.
I U
Nonda B ol etu s k u meu s H el m; B . manicu s H el m;
B . nig rov iol aceu s H el m; B . reay i H eim
New G u inea
5 9
Nu tmeg
M ace
M y ristica frag rans H ou tt. K nown as " narcotic fru it" in ancient Indian writing s.
Occasional l y u sed as a su rrog ate for H ashish in
E g y pt.
U nk nown in cl assical G reece and Rome, Nu tmeg was
introdu ced to E u rope in the first centu ry A . 0 . by the
A rabs, who empl oy ed it ass medicine.
Nu tmeg poisoning was common in the M iddl e A g es,
and du ring the 1 9 th centu ry in E ng l and and A merica.
9 5
Ol ol iu q u i
B adoh
X tabentu m
( see al so pag es 1 7 0 — 1 7 5 )
,
T u rbina cory mbosa ( L . ) Raf.
[ = Riv ea cory mbosa]
T he seeds of this M orning G l ory , formerl y k nown as
Riv ea cory mbosa, are v al u ed as one of the maj or sacred
hal l u cinog ens of nu merou s Indian g rou ps in sou thern
M ex ico. T heir u se g oes back to earl y periods, and they
were important in A ztec ceremonies as an intox icant
and as a mag ic potion with repu tedl y anal g esic
properties.
A 2
Pag u ando
B orrachero
T otu bj ansu sh
A rbol de Campanil l a
Iochroma fu chsioides M iers U sed by the Indians of the Sibu ndoy Val l ey of sou thern
Col ombia and the K amsá of the sou thern A ndes of
Col ombia.
5 1
Pey ote
H ik u l i
M escal B u tton
( see al so pag es 1 4 4 — 1 5 5 )
L ophophora diffu sa ( Croizat) B rav o;
L . wil l iamsii ( L em. ) Cou l t.
Spanish chronicl es described u se of Pey ote by the A z-
tec Indians. L ophophora is v al u ed today by the T arahu -
mara, H u ichol , and other M ex ican Indians as wel l as by
members of the Nativ e A merican Chu rch in the U nited
States and western Canada.
Pey otil l o Pel ecy phora asel l iformis E hrenb. T here are su spicions that this rou nd cactu s may be
v al u ed in M ex ico as a " fal se Pey ote: '
3 2
Pital l ito
H ik u ri
E chinocereu s sal mdy ck ianu s Scheer;
E . trig l ochidiatu s E ng el m.
T he T arahu mara Indians of Chihu ahu a consider both
species as " fal se Pey otes. "
3 -1
Pitu ni
Pitu ri B u sh
Poison B u sh
Du boisia hopwoodii F. con M u el l . Pitu ni l eav es hav e been u sed for at l east 4 0 ,0 0 0 y ears in
A u stral ian ritu al s and are u sed for both medicinal and
pl easu rabl e pu rposes.
8 1
'
Piu l e
Rhy nchosj a l ong eracemosa M art. et G al . ;
R. phaseol oides; R. py ramidal is ( L am. ) U rb.
T he red/ bl ack beans of sev eral species of Rhy nchosia
may hav e been empl oy ed in ancient M ex ico as a
hal l u cinog en.
Rape dos Indios
M aq u ira scl erophy l l a ( Du ck e) C. C. B erg Indians of the Pariana reg ion of the B razil ian A mazon
formerl y u sed M aq u ira, bu t encroaching civ il ization has
ended this cu stom.
7 4
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U SA G E :
CONT E X T A ND PU RPOSE
PRE PA RA T ION CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
A ND E FFE CT S
Presu med aphrodisiac and cu re for steril ity .
T he dried herb is smok ed. One al k al oid has been reported.
No ev idence of hal l u cinog enic properties.
T he arriv al of the Pey ote cu l t, centering on L opho-
A drink was prepared from the red beans of T he seeds contain the hig hl y tox ic al k al oid cy tisine,
phora, a safer hal l u cinog en, l ed the nativ es to aban- S. secu ndifl ora.
which pharmacol og ical l y bel ong s to the same g rou p as
don the Red B ean Dance, which had made u se of the
nicotine. H al l u cinog enic activ ity from cy ti-
beans as an oracu l ar, div inatory , and hal l u cinog enic
sine, bu t the powerfu l intox ication may cau se a k ind of
mediu m.
del iriu m comparabl e to a v isionary trance.
In hig h doses, respiratory fail u re may l ead to death.
Pitu ri has been of central importance in A u stral ian
A borig inal society as a su bstance for social enj oy -
ment, a shamanic mag ic dru g , and a v al u abl e g ood for chewed.
trade. Pitu ri is chewed for its narcotic effects, as a
stimu l ant to dreams and v isions, and simpl y to be
enj oy ed.
H al l u cinog enic intox ication ( ? )
T he l eav es contain v ariou s psy choactiv e al k al oids
( pitu rine, nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine, and others) .
T he roots al so contain nornicotine and scopol amine.
T he chewed l eav es can act as a narcotic, stimu l ant, or
hal l u cinog en.
Chemical stu dies of Rhy nchosia are stil l indecisiv e. A n
al k al oid with cu rare-l ik e activ ity has been reported
from one species. Pharmacol og ical ex periments with
R. phaseol oides produ ced a k ind of seminarcoSis in
frog s.
U sed as an aphrodisiac and psy choactiv e l ov e potion
T he roots are u sed as an ing redient in beer. T he dried
in L ithu ania and L atv ia.
herb can be smok ed al one or mix ed with other herbs.
T he whol e pl ant contains strong hal l u cinog enic tro-
panal k al oids, especial l y hy oscy amine and scopol a-
mine. A l so contains scopol etine.
Sev eral species of B ol etu s are inv ol v ed in the re-
ported madness" of the K u ma.
T he dried, g rou nd fru it is eaten. A ctiv e principl es u nk nown.
T he most notabl e u se of Nu tmeg is fou nd in W estern
society , especial l y among prisoners depriv ed of other
dru g s.
A t l east one teaspoon is u sed when tak en oral l y or
snu ffed for narcotic pu rposes, al thou g h u su al l y mu ch
more is req u ired to bring on fu l l intox ication. Nu tmeg is
on occasion added to the betel chew.
T he main activ e ing redient of nu tmeg 's essential oil s is
my risticine; safrol and eu g enol are al so present.
In hig h doses ex tremel y tox ic and dang erou s, the
components of Nu tmeg oil so u pset normal body fu nc-
tions that they ev ok e a del iriu th comparabl e to hal l u ci-
nations, u su al l y accompanied by sev ere headache,
dizziness, nau sea, etc.
A t the present time the smal l rou nd seeds are u til ized
in div ination and witchcraft by Chinantec, M azatec,
M ix tec, Z apotec, and others and, as has recentl y
been stated, in al most al l v il l ag es of Oax aca
one finds seeds stil l serv ing the nativ es as an ev er-
present hel p in time of trou bl e! '
T he seeds, which mu st be col l ected by the person who
is to be treated, are g rou nd by a v irg in on a metate,
water is added, and then the drink is fil tered. T he
patient drink s it at nig ht in a q u iet, secl u ded pl ace.
E rg ol ine al k al oids were fou nd to be the psy choactiv e
principl es, l y serg ic acid amide and l y serg ic acid hy dro-
x y ethy l amide, cl osel y rel ated to the potent hal l u cino-
g en L SD, being the most important constitu ents.
A ccording to shamans, the aftereffects are so strong
that the pl ant is u sed for div ination, prophecy , and di-
ag nosis of disease onl y when other medicines" are
u nav ail abl e, or for especial l y difficu l t cases.
T he fresh bark is rasped from the stem and boil ed with
an eq u al amou nt of l eav es, u su al l y a handfu l . T he re-
su iting tea, when cool ed, is dru nk with no admix tu re.
T he dose is said to be one to three cu pfu l s of a strong
decoction ov er a three-hou r period,
A l thou g h chemical inv estig ation of this g enu s has not
been carried ou t, it bel ong s to the Nig htshade famil y ,
wel l recog nized for its hal l u cinog enic effects.
T he intox ication is not pl easant, hav ing after effects
of sev eral day s.
M y thol og ical and rel ig iou s sig nificance; heal ing cere-
monies.
In the U nited States, u se of Pey ote is av ision-q u est
ritu al with a combination of Christian and Nativ e el e-
ments and hig h moral principl es.
T he cactu s may be eaten raw, dried, or made into a
mash or a tea.
From 4 to 3 0 tops are consu med du ring the
ceremony .
Contains u p to 3 0 al k al oids of the pheny l ethy l amine
and tetrahy droisoq u inol ine ty pe. T he main constitu ent
responsibl e for the hal l u cinog enic activ ity is trimethox -
y pheny l ethy l amine, named mescal ine.
H al l u cinations are characterized by col ored v isions.
T he cactu s is u sed in northern M ex ico as Pey ote
( L ophophora wil l iams/ i) .
Cactu s fl esh is eaten fresh or dried.
Recent inv estig ations hav e indicated the presence of
al k al oids.
T he T arahu mara sing to Pital l ito du ring col l ection and
say it has " hig h mental q u al ities! '
Cactu s fl esh is eaten fresh or dried.
A try ptamine deriv ativ e has been reported from
E . trig / ochid/ atu s.
T he fermented l eav es are mix ed with al k al ine pl ant
ashes and other resins ( su ch as A cacia resin) and
T he snu ff was tak en du ring tribal ceremonial s.
T he seeds are referred to by Indians of Oax aca by the
same name u sed for the hal l u cinog enic seeds of
M orning G l ory ( T u rbina cory mbosa) .
T he method of preparation from the dried fru it is ap-
parentl y remembered onl y by the v ery ol d.
No chemical stu dies hav e been carried ou t on
M . scierophy l l a.
7 5
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RE F COM M ON
NU M B E R NA M E
7 3
Reed G rass
T Y PE OF B OT A NICA L
PL A NT NA M E
Phal aris aru ndinacea L .
U SA G E :
H IST ORY A ND E T H NOG RA PH Y
A l thou g h Reed G rass was famil iar to writers of antiq u ity ,
its psy choactiv e u se is v ery recent.
Sou thwestern U nited States and M ex ico. A l thou g h there
are apparentl y no ethnol og ical reports of Sag u aro as a
hal l u cinog en, the pl ant is an important medicine among
the Indians.
T here are many v arieties of the g enu s T a be rnaemon-
tana in A frica and Sou th A merica. E special l y in A frica,
some v arieties seem to hav e been u sed for a l ong time in
shamanic or traditional medicine practices.
1 8
Sag u aro Carneg iea g ig an tea ( E ng el m. ) B ritt. et Rose
8 9
Sanang o
T abernaemontana
T abernaemonfana coffeoj des B oj er ex DC. ;
T crassa B entham; T dichotoma Rox bu rg h;
T pandacaq u i Poir.
[ = E rv atamia pandacaq u i ( Poir. ) Pichonj
A
San Pedro T richocereu s pachanoi B ritt. et Rose U sed by the nativ es of Sou th A merica, especial l y in the
A g u acol l a
[ = A ndes of Peru , E cu ador, and B ol iv ia.
G ig antó n
( see al so pag es 1 6 6 — 1 6 9 )
6 7
ScrewPine Pandanu ssp. NewG u inea
Shang -l a Phy tol acca acinosa Rox b. China
Shanin Petu nia v iol acea L indi. A recent report from hig hl and E cu ador has indicated
Petu nia
- that a species of Petu nia is v al u ed as a hal l u cinog en.
2 3
Shanshi Coriaria thy mifol ia H B K . ox W il id. Peasants in E cu ador.
A
Siberian L ion's T ail L eonu ru s sibiricu s L .
T he Siberian M otherwort has been u sed medicinal l y
M arij u anil l o
from the v ery beg inning of Chinese medicine. Since the
Siberian M otherwort
pl ant was transpl anted to the A mericas, it has been u sed
as a su bstitu te for M arij u ana.
Sinicu ichi H eimia sal icifol ia ( H B K ) L ink et Otto A l thou g h al l three species of H eimia are important in
M ex ican fol k medicine, mainl y H . sa/ icifol ia has been
v al u ed for its hal l u cinog enic properties.
Straw Fl ower
H el ichry su m foetidu m ( L . ) M oench; Z u l u l and, Sou th A frica.
H . stenopteru m DC.
2
Sweet Fl ag A coru s cal amu s L . Cree Indians of northwest Canada.
Fl ag Root
Sweet Cal omel
Cal amu s
Sy rian Ru e
Peg anu m harmal a L . P harmal a is v al u ed today from A sia M inor across to
India with ex traordinary esteem, su g g esting former
rel ig iou s u se as a hal l u cinog en.
T ag il i
Pernetty a fu rens ( H ook . ex DC. ) K l otzch; P fu rens is cal l ed H ierba L oca in Chil e ( " maddening
'-' H ierba L oca
P parv ifol l a B entham
pl ant" ) , whil e P parv ifol ia is k nown as T ag Il i in E cu ador.
H u edhu ed
T aiq u e
Desfontainia spinosa ft et P. Reported as a hal l u cinog en from Chil e ( T aiq u e) and
B orrachero
sou thern Col ombia ( B orrachero = " intox icant" ) .
L atu y
7 6
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U SA G E :
CONT E X T A ND
M ex ican nativ es report that Sinicu ichi possesses
su pernatu ral v irtu es, bu t the pl ant does not appear to
be tak en ritu al l y or ceremonial l y .
Some nativ es assert that it hel ps them cl earl y to
recal l happening s of l ong ag o— ev en prenatal ev ents.
K nown to be empl oy ed as a hal l u cinog en, it has been
su g g ested that Pernetl y a has pl ay ed a rol e in mag ico-
rel ig iou s ceremonies in Sou th A merica— a stil l u npro-
v en cl aim.
M edicine men of the K amsá tribe drink a tea from the
l eav es for the pu rpose of diag nosing disease or when
they " want to dream'
In the M ex ican hig hl ands the l eav es of H . sal icifol ia are
sl ig htl y wil ted, cru shed in water, and then al l owed to
ferment into an intox icating drink .
A l k al oids of the q u inol izidine ty pe hav e been isol ated,
among them cry og enine ( v ertine) , to which the psy -
chotropic activ ity may be attribu ted.
T he bev erag e indu ces g iddiness, a dark ening of the
su rrou nding s, shrink ag e of the worl d arou nd, and a
pl easant drowsiness. A u ditory hal l u cinations may oc-
cu r with v oices and distorted sou nds that seem to
come from far away .
T he pl ant possesses u ndou bted hal l u cinog enic
princi-
pl es: f3 -carbol ine al k al oids— harmine, harmal ine, tetra-
hy droharmine, and rel ated bases k nown to occu r in at
l east eig ht famil ies of hig her pl ants. T hese
constitu ents
are fou nd in the seeds.
T he chemistry of the tox ic fru its of both P fu rens
and
P parv ifol ia, which cau se mental confu sion
and ev en
insanity , is not y et el u cidated.
Nothing is as y et k nown of the chemistry of
D. spinOSa.
Visions are ex perienced and some of the
medicine
men assert that they temporaril y " g o
crazy " u nder its
infl u ence.
PRE PA RA T ION CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
A ND E FFE CT S
In connection with research on the so-cal l ed A y a-
hu asca anal og s, a species of Reed G rass has been
discov ered that has a hig h DM T content and can be
u sed psy choactiv el y .
A n ex tract is made from the l eav es. In combination with
Peg anu m harmal a, it has v isionary effects, and can be
dru nk as a su bstitu te for A y ahu asca.
T his g rass contains many indol e al k al oids, especial l y
N,N-DM T ,5 -M eO-DM T ,M M T and [ sometimes] g rarnine.
DM T and 5 -M eO-DM T hav e v ery strong psy chedel ic
effects, whil e g ramine is v ery tox ic.
T he Sen Indians of Sonora consider Sag u aro effica-
ciou s ag ainst rheu matism.
T he fru it of Carneg iea is v al u ed as food and in wine-
mak ing .
T he pl ant contains pharmacol og ical l y activ e al k al oids
capabl e of psy choactiv ity . Carneg ine, 5 -hy drox y carne-
g ine, aRd norcarneg ine, pl u s trace amou nts of 3 -meth-
ox y ty ramine and the new al k al oid arizonine ( a tetrahy -
droq u inol ine base) , hav e been isol ated.
T abernaemor,tana crassa is u sed in W est A frica as a
narcotic in traditional medicine. T dichotoma is u sed
for its psy choactiv e effects in India and Sri L ank a.
T he seeds of T dichotoma are u sed as a hal l u cinog en.
U nfortu natel y , v ery l ittl e is k nown abou t this interesting
g enu s.
M ost v arieties contain ibog aine-l il ce al k al oids ( su ch as
v oacang ine) , which hav e v ery strong hal l u cinog enic
and v ision-indu cing effects.
H al l u cinog enic intox ication.
T he u se of I pachanoi appears to be primaril y for
div ination, diag nosis of disease, and to mak e onesel f
owner of another's identity .
Short pieces of the stem are sl iced and boil ed in water
for sev eral hou rs. Sev eral other pl ants, B ru g mansia,
Pernetty a, and L y copodiu m, for ex ampl e, are some-
times added.
T pachanoiis rich in mescal ine: 2 % of dried material
( or 0 . 1 2 % of fresh material ) .
A species of Pandanu s is said to be u sed for hal l u ci-
nog enic pu rposes, whil e others are k nown to be Va-
l u ed in fol k medicine, in mag ic, and for ceremonial
pu rposes.
It has recentl y
reported that nativ es of New
G u inea empl oy the fru it of a species of Pandanu s.
Dimethy l try ptamine ( DM T ) has been detected in an al -
k al oid ex tract. E ating su bstantial amou nts of the nu ts is
said to cau se an " ou tbreak of irrational behav ior"
k nown as K aru k a madness among l ocal peopl e.
Shang -l a is a wel l -k nown medicinal pl ant in China. It
was reportedl y u sed by sorcerers, who v al u ed its hal -
l u cinog enic effects.
T he fl owers and roots enter Chinese medicine: the for-
mer for treating apopl ex y , the l atter for ex ternal u se
onl y .
P acinosa has a hig h concentration of saponines.
T he tox icity and hal l u cinog enic effects of Shang -l a
are commonl y mentioned in Chinese herbal s.
T ak en by the Indians of E cu ador to indu ce a sensation
of fl ig ht.
T he dried herb is smok ed.
Phy tochemical stu dies of Petu nia are l ack ing .
T he pl ant is said to indu ce a feel ing of fl y ing .
Recent reports su g g est that the fru it may pu rposefu l l y
be eaten to indu ce intox ication.
T he fru it is eaten.
T he chemistry is stil l poorl y k nown.
L ev itation or sensations of soaring throu g h the air.
T his herb is smok ed in B razil and Chiapas as a su b-
stitu te for Cannabis.
T he fl owering herb is dried and smok ed al one or mix ed
with other pl ants. One to 2 g of the dried pl ant is an
effectiv e dose.
Contains al k al oids, fl av ong l y cosides, diterpenes, and
an essential oil . T he psy choactiv e effects may be attri-
bu tabl e to the diterpenes ( l eosibiricine, l eosibirine, and
isol eosibirine) .
T hese herbs are u sed by nativ e doctors 'for inhal ing to
indu ce trances: '
T he dried herb is smok ed.
Cou marins and diterpenes are reported, bu t no consti-
tu ents with hal l u cinog enic properties hav e been
isol ated.
A ntifatig u e medicine; al so u sed ag ainst toothache,
Chewing of the rootstal k .
T he activ e principl es are a-asarone and 3 -asarone.
In l arg e doses, v isu al hal l u cinations and other ef-
headache, and asthma.
fects simil ar to those of L SD may occu r.
H al l u cinog enic intox ication ( u ncertain)
Sy rian Ru e has many u ses in fol k medicine, as wel l as T he dried seeds
constitu te the Indian dru g H armal .
being v al u ed as an aphrodisiac. Often u sed as
incense.
E ating of the fru it.
T ea made from the l eav es or fru it.
7 7
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I
Z acatechichi
I
T hie-Pel ak ano
A ztec Dream G rass
RE F
NU M B E R
COM M ON
NA M E
T Y PE OF
PL A NT
B OT A NICA L
NA M E
U SA G E :
H IST ORY A NDE T H NOG RA pH Y
3 8
T ak ini H el icosty l l s pedu ncu l ata B enoist;
H . tomentosa ( P. et E . ) M acbride
In the G u l anas, T ak ini is a sacred tree.
2 2
T eonaná catl
T amu
Conocy be sil ig ineoides H eim;
Panaeol u s Sphinctrinu s ( Fr. ) Q u el et;
M u shroom worship seems to be rooted in centu ries of
nativ e Indian tradition of M iddl e A merica.
6 4
H ong o de San Isidro
She-to
Psil ocy be acu tissima H eim;
P aztecoru m H el m; P caeru l escens M u rr. ;
T he A ztec Indians cal l ed the sacred mu shrooms T eo-
naná catl ; the M azatec and Chinantec in northeastern
7 6
T o-shk a
( see al so pag es 1 5 6 1 6 3 )
P caerU l escens M u rr. v ar. al bida H el m;
P caeru l escens M u rr. v ar. mazatecoru m H eim;
P caeru l escens M u rr. v ar. nig ripes H el m;
Oax aca, M ex ico, refer to Panaeo/ u s sphinctrinu s as
T -ha-na-sa, T o-shk a ( " intox icating mu shroom" ) , and
She-to ( " pastu re mu shrooms" ) . W hil e in Oax aca Psil o-
7 8 P caeru / escens M u rr. v ar. ombrop/ i/ / a H eim;
P mex icana H el m; P mix aeensis H el m;
P semperv iv a H el m et Cail l eu x ;
P wassoniiH eim;
P y u ng ensis Sing er; P zapotecoru m H eim;
Psil ocy be cu bensis E arl e
cy be cu bensis is named H ong o de San Isidro, in the
M azatec l ang u ag e it is cal l ed Di-shi-tj o-l e-rra-j a ( " div ine
mu shroom of manu re" ) .
2
T horn A ppl e
J imsonweed
Datu ra stramoniu m L . Reportedl y empl oy ed by the A l g onq u in and others.
Ing redient of the witches' brews of mediev al E u rope.
( see al so pag es 1 0 6 — 1 1 1 )
U sed in both the Ol d and New W orl d, the g eog raphic
orig in of J imsonweed is u ncertain.
2
T ol oache
T ol oatzin
Datu ra innox ia M il l . ;
D. disco/ or B ernh. ex T romms. ;
K nown al so as D. met el oides, D. innox ia is u sed in M ex -
ico and the A merican Sou thwest.
( see al so pag es 1 0 6 — 1 1 1 ) D. k y matocarpa A . S. B arcl ay ;
D. pru inosa G reenm. ;
D. q u ercifol ia H B K ;
D. rebu rra A . S. B arcl ay ;
D. sframoniu m L . ;
D. wrig htii Reg el .
5 r%
T u pa
T abaco del Diabl o
L obe/ ia tu pa L .
Recog nizing L . tu pa as tox ic, the M apu che Indians of
Chil e v al u e the l eav es for their intox icating properties.
Other A ndean Indians tak e it as an emetic and
pu rg ativ e.
A
T u rk estan M int L ag ochi/ u s inebrians B u ng e
T he T aj ik , T atar, T u rk oman, and U zbek tribesman on the
dry steppes of T u rk estan hav e for centu ries prepared a
tea made from L . inebrians.
n7
Voacang a Voacang a africana Stapf;
V bracteata Stapf;
V dreg ei E . M ey . V g randifl ora ( M iq . ) Rol fe.
In A frica, a nu mber of v arieties of the g enu s Voacang a
hav e been u sed as hal l u cinog ens, aphrodisiacs, and
medicines.
5 0
W ichu rik i
H ik u l i Rosapara
M ammil / aria craig ii L indsay ;
M . g raham/ i
T he T arahu mara Indians of M ex ico v al u e sev eral spe-
cies of M amm/ Il aria among the most important " fal se
H ik u ri M . sen/ / is ( L odd. ) W eber Pey otes. '
Pey ote de San Pedro
M ammil l aria
W ood Rose A rg y reia nerv osa ( B u rman f. ) B oj er T he W ood Rose has been u sed since ancient times in
H awaiian W ood Rose
A y u rv edic medicine. A traditional u se as a hal l u cinog en
has been discov ered in Nepal .
I
Y au htl i T ag etes l u cida Cay .
T ag etes is u sed by the H u ichol of M ex ico and v al u ed
ceremonial l y fdr its hal l u cinatory effects.
1 5
Y On-Shih
Caesa! pinia sepia na Rox b.
[ = C. decapetal a ( Roth) A l stonj
China; u sed medicinal l y in T ibet and Nepal .

7 8
Seems to be u sed onl y by the Chontal Indians of Oax a-
Ca, ev en thou g h it rang es from M ex ico to Costa Rica.
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U SA G E :
PRE PA RA T ION CH E M ICA L COM PONE NT S
CONT E X T A ND PU RPOSE
A ND E FFE CT S
L ittl e is k nown of the u se.
A mil dl y poisonou s intox icant is prepared from the red No specific hal l u cinog enic constitu ents hav e been
" sap" of the bark , identified. E x tracts from the inner bark of both species
hav e pharmacol og ical l y been shown to el icit depres-
sant effects simil ar to those produ ced by M arij u ana.
M y thol og ical and sacramental u se.
Personal preference, pu rpose of u se, and seasonal T he indol ic al k al oids psil ocy bine and psil ocine are the
E mpl oy ed today in div ination and heal ing ceremo-
av ail abil ity determine the k inds of mu shrooms u sed by main hal l u cinog enic principl es of the sacred mu sh-
nies.
different shamans. P mex icana, one of the most widel y rooms. T he content v aries from species to species be-
Contacts with Christianity or modern ideas do not
u sed, may perhaps be considered the most ty pical tween 0 . 2 and 0 . 6 % of psil ocy bine and smal l amou nts
seem to hav e infl u enced the deep spirit of rev erence sacred mu shroom. of psil ocine in dried mu shroom material . T he mu sh-
characteristic of the mu shroom ritu al .
A ny where from 2 to 3 0 mu shrooms ( depending on rooms cau se both v isu al and au ditory hal l u cinations,
It has been su g g ested that Psil ocy be species may
the ty pe u sed) are eaten du ring a ty pical ceremony . with the dreaml ik e state becoming real ity .
be empl oy ed for hal l u cinog enic inebriation al so by the
T hey may be consu med either fresh or g rou nd and
Y u rimag u a Indians of A mazonian Peru . made into an infu sion.
Initiation rites.
T he roots of the T horn A ppl e may hav e been u sed in See T ol oache.
Ing redient of the witches' brews. the A l g onq u in drink wy soccan.
D. innox ia was empl oy ed medicinal l y and as a sacred
T he T arahu mara add D. innox ia to their maize beer and A l l species of the g enu s Datu ra are chemical l y simil ar
hal l u cinog en by the A ztec and other Indians. T he Z u ni u se the roots, seeds, and l eav es,
with the activ e principl es tropane al k al oids, especial l y
Indians v al u e the pl ant as an anal g esic and as a
T he Z u ni chew the roots and pu t powder prepared
hy oscy amine and scopol amine, the l atter being the
pou l tice to cu re wou nds and bru ises. T ol oache is said from them into the ey es. main component.
to be the ex cl u siv e property of the rain priests. Val u ed
A mong the Y ok u t Indians, the seeds are said to be
in initiation ritu al s,
tak en onl y once du ring a man's l ifetime.
H al l u cinog enic intox ication; fol k medicine.
Smok ing of the l eav es and tak en internal l y . T u pa l eav es contain the piperidine al k al oid l obel ine, a
respiratory stimu l ant, as wel l as the dik eto- and dihy -
drox y -deriv ativ es l obel amidine and nor-l obel amidine,
which are not k nown to. be hal l u cinog enic.
H al l u cinog enic intox ication.
T he l eav es are toasted to produ ce a tea. Dry ing and
storag e increases the aromatic frag rance. Stems,
fru iting tops, and fl owers may be added.
T he presence of a cry stal l ine compou nd cal l ed ag o-
chil ine— a diterpene of the g rindel ian ty pe— is k nown.
T his compou nd is not k nown to be hal l u cinog enic.
T he seeds of v ariou s Voacang a v arieties are tak en by T he seeds or the bark of v ariou s Voacang a v arieties
M any v arieties of Voacang a contain psy choactiv e in-
A frican mag ic men to create v isu al hal l u cinations, can be tak en.
dol e al k al oids, especial l y v oacang ine and v occamine,
both of which are chemical l y rel ated to ibog aine.
U sed as a v isu al hal l u cinog en.
M . craig / i is spl it open, sometimes roasted, and the
N-methy l -3 , 4 -di-methox y pheny l ethy l amifl e has been
M . g raham/ i is tak en by shamans in special cere-
central tissu e is u sed. T he top of the pl ant, div ested of isol ated from M . hey derii, a cl ose rel ativ e to M . craig / i.
monies,
its spines, is the most powerfu l part; the fru it and u pper
part of M . g raham/ i are said to hav e simil ar effects,
Deep sl eep, du ring which a person is said to trav el
g reat distances, and bril l iant col ors characterize the
intox ication.
In A y u rv edic medicine, W ood Rose is u sed ass tonic
T he seeds are g rou nd and mix ed with water. Fou r to 8 T he seeds contain 0 . 3 % erg ot al k al oids ( especial l y
and as an aphrodisiac, and it is al so u sed to increase
seeds ( approx imatel y 2 g ) are su fficient for a mediu m chanocl av in-l , al so erg ine ( L SA ) , erg onov ine, and iso-
intel l ig ence and to sl ow down the ag ing process. T o- psy choactiv e dose. l y serg ic acid amide,
day , the seeds are of interest in W estern society for
their psy choactiv e properties.
U sed to indu ce or enhance v isions.
T l u cida is occasional l y smok ed al one bu t is some-
times mix ed with tobacco ( N/ cot/ aria ru st/ ca) .
No al k al oids hav e been isol ated from T ag etes, bu t
the g enu s is rich in essential oil s and thiophene
deriv ativ es.
If consu med ov er a l ong period, the fl owers are said to Roots, fl owers, and seeds.
A n u nk nown al k al oid has been reported.
indu ce l ev itation and " commu nication with the Spirits? '
T he earl iest Chinese herbal stated: the " fl owers en-
Fol k medicine,
abl e one to see spirits and cau se one to stag g er
madl y ? '
U sed in fol k medicine, especial l y as an aperitif, a feb- T ea is made of the cru shed dried l eav es and u sed as a
T here is an as y et u nidentified al k al oid. A l so contains
rifu g e, and an astring ent for treating diarrhea. T he
hal l u cinog en. A fter drink ing Z acatechichi, the Indians sesq u iterpene-l actone.
Chontal tak e Z acatechichi to cl arify the senses,
recl ine q u ietl y to smok e a cig arette of the dried l eav es.
Restfu l and drowsy condition du ring which the In-
dians say that one's own heart and pu l se can be fel t.
7 9
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1 T
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T he G reek l ecy thu s isa sacramental
v essel fil l ed with frag rant oil s and pl aced
nex t to a death bed or g rav e. On this
l ecy thu s ( 4 5 0 — 4 2 5 B . c. ) , a crowned
T riptol emu s hol ds the E l eu sinian g rain, a
g rass probabl y infected with E rg ot; whil e
Demeter or Persephone pou rs a sacred
l ibation, prepared presu mabl y from the
infected g rain. T he two fig u res are sepa-
rated by the staff of T riptol emu s and u ni-
ted into one fiel d by the g rain and pou red
l ibation.
Pag e 8 0 : M andrak e ( M andrag ora offici-
naru m) , " the man-l ik e pl ant," has a
compl ex history of u sag e. In E u rope, it
was empl oy ed as a stu pefacient in
addition to being one of the strong est
ing redients added to the brews con-
cocted by witches of the M iddl e A g es.
T he root of the M andrak e was l ik ened to
the form of a man or woman, and ac-
cording to su perstition, if the pl ant were
pu l l ed from the earth, its shriek s cou l d
driv e the col l ectors mad. T his imag e of
M andrag ora was eng rav ed by the wel l -
k nown artist M atthSu s M erian in the
earl y eig hteenth centu ry .
8 1
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A M A NIT A
Fl y A g aric
( T he nu mber refers to the " Pl ant L ex i-
con'; the common name refers to the
reference chart " Ov erv iew of Pl ant
U se" )

Pag e 8 3 top: Cl iff drawing of a shaman
in the A l tai mou ntains of A sia.
Pag e 8 3 rig ht: Fl y A g aric ( A manita
mu scaria) is fou nd arou nd the worl d and
is associated nearl y ev ery where with
fairy worl ds, al ternativ e real ities, and
shamanic practices.
Siberian shamans u se el aborate sy m-
bol ic costu mes and decorated dru ms in
their ceremonies. T he l eft fig u re is a
shaman from K rasnoj arsk District; at
rig ht, the K amtchatk a District.


















. . Father
































































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. . U nder











T he activ e principl e of A manita mu scaria was thou g ht once, a centu ry ag o,
to
hav e been mu scarine when Schmiedeberg and K oppe isol ated
this su b-
stance. T his bel ief has been prov ed erroneou s. Recentl y E u g ster
in Switzer-
l and and T ak emoto in J apan isol ated ibotenic acid and the al k al oid
mu scimol e
as being responsibl e for the Fl y A g aric's psy chotropic
effects. T he mu shroom
is tak en u su al l y dried. T he dry ing process indu ces the
chemical transforma-
tion of ibotenic acid to mu scimol e, the most activ e constitu ent.
8 3
T he Chemistry of Fl y A g aric
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Rig ht: T he Fl y A g aric is often and fal sel y
feared as being a poisonou s mu sh-
room; nev erthel ess, it is g l adl y u sed for
l u ck -bring ing candy .
A bov e l eft: T o bring g ood l u ck into the
coming y ear, firework s in the shape of
Fl y A g aric are set off on New Y ear's E v e.
A bov e rig ht: T he resu l ts of smok ing Fl y
A g aric are depicted in the G erman chil -
dren's book M eck i and the Dwarv es.
B el ow rig ht: It is possibl e that Fl y A g aric
is identical to the Vedic wonder-dru g
Soma. T oday E phedra ( E phedra g er-
ardiana) is cal l ed somal ata, " soma
pl ant. " In Nepal E phedra is not hal l u ci-
nog enic or psy chedel ic bu t is a v ery
strong stimu l ant.
8 4

























. . are













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. . I
















L eft: A K amtchatk a shaman impl ores
the Fl y A g aric, her ritu al su bstance, to
assist her in trav el ing to other real ms.
A bov e rig ht: T he Spirit of the Fl y A g aric
in J apan is the l ong -nosed, red-faced
T eng u . W hoev er eats B eni-T eng u -Dak e
( Red T eng u mu shroom) wil l encou nter
the l iv el y entity .
B el ow l eft: T he my th of Soma stil l l iv es
on. H ere it is the name of a bar in a
l u x u ry hotel in Del hi.

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A T ROPA
° Deadl y Nig htshade
A
H Y OSCY A M U S A L B U S
Y el l ow H enbane
A i H Y OSCY A M U S
NIG E R
B l ack H enbane
M A NDRA G ORA
M andrak e

A bov e l eft: T he y el l ow bl ossom of the
rare v ariety of A tropa bel l adonna v ar.
l u tea. T he y el l ow Deadl y Nig htshade
is reg arded as particu l arl y potent for
mag ic and witchcraft.
A bov e rig ht: T he bel l -shaped fl owers of
the Deadl y Nig htshade cl earl y show its
membership in the Nig htshade famil y .
Pag e 8 7 abov e l eft: T he fl owers of the
M andrak e ( M andrag ora officinaru m)
are rarel y seen, as they bl oom v ery
briefl y and then q u ick l y v anish.
Pag e B 7 abov e rig ht: T he fl owers of the
B l ack H enbane ( H y oscy amu s nig er)
hav e a characteristic col oring and an
u nforg ettabl e pattern on the petal s. In
earl ier times, it was thou g ht to be the
ey e of the dev il .
8 6


















































C.
H omer









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T he Chemistry of Deadl y Nig htshade, H enbane, and M andrak e
three sol anaceou s pl ants A tropa, H y oscy amu s, and M andrag ora
contain
the same activ e principl es: primaril y the al k al oids hy oscy amine, atropine,
and
scopol amine. T he difference is onl y one of rel ativ e concentration. B el l adonna
contains l ittl e scopol amine, bu t this al k al oid is the main component of
M an-
drak e and especial l y of H enbane.
T he al k al oids are fou nd in the entire pl ant, with the hig hest concentration
in
the seeds and roots. T he hal l u cinog enic effects are du e essential l y to scopo-
l amine. A tropine and hy osy amine are l ess activ e u nder these circu mstances.
L eft: A ccording to this il l u stration from
the J u l iana Codex , the G reek herbal ist
Dioscorides receiv ed the M andrak e
pl ant from H eu resis, g oddess of discov -
ery , il l u strating the bel ief that
this medi-
cine was a pl ant of the g ods.
8 7
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A bov e: T he ancient g oddess of witches,
H ecate, l ords ov er the psy choactiv e and
mag ical herbs, particu l arl y those in the
Nig htshade famil y . In this col ored print
by W il l iam B l ak e, she is depicted with
her shamanic animal s.
Pag e 8 9 bel ow rig ht: T he desig n for the
cov er of a book abou t medicinal pl ants
depicts the anthropomorphic M andrak e.
8 8











































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L eft: T he mag ical conj u ration of the
M andrak e is a du rabl e theme in E u r-
opean l iteratu re and art history . H ere
is a scene from a modern comic,
G aza.
B e/ ow rig ht: W itches" persecu ted
du ring the Inq u isition were often ac-
cu sed of u sing hal l u cinog enic pl ants of
the Nig htshade famil y , in particu l ar,
H enbane and M andrak e. For this
many were tortu red, mu rdered, and
bu rned.



















reported
8 9
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T op: A mphibians, especial l y frog s
( which often produ ce poisons in their
bodies) , hav e al way s been connected
with witchcraft and mag ic in the Ol d as
wel l as the New W orl d. T hese animal s
were occasional l y added to potent
witches' brews in E u rope. T hey hav e
al so fig u red sig nificantl y in certain New
W orl d cu l tu res in connection with hal l u -
cinog enic activ ities.
A bov e l eft: T he del ig htfu l l y scented fru it
of the M andrak e ( M andrag ora officinar-
u rn) are al so cal l ed A ppl es of L ov e and
are identical to the g ol den appl es of
A phrodite.
A bov e middl e: T he ripe bl ack berries of
the Deadl y Nig htshade ( A tropa bel l a-
donna) .
A bov e rig ht: W hite or y el l ow H enbane
( H y oscy amu s al bu s) was consecrated
to the g od of oracl es, A pol l o.
9 0























. cl ap




















c.















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A bov e l eft: In the T empl e of A pol l o at
Del phi, the " nav el of the worl d," the Siby l
and prophetess informed the Py thia of
her oracl e after she had inhal ed the
smok e of H enbane.
A bov e middl e: T he root of the M andrak e
( M andrag ora officinaru m) .
A bov e rig ht: T he G inseng 's ( Panax g in-
seng ) root is not onl y simil ar to the
M andrak e, bu t in K orea, G inseng root is
al so attribu ted with secret and mag ical
powers.
B el owl eft: T he su n and oracl e g od
A pol l o at a l ibation in front of a rav en.
( Discov ered at Del phi) .
9 1
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1 7 CA NNA B r

arij u ano
H ashish
























A bov e rig ht: M nstirl ine pl ant of a H emp
cross-breed ( Cannabis indica x sat/ v a) .
9 2































A bov e l eft: W il d Inmp pl ants ( Cannabis
md/ ca) with spinol id white fl owers in
the L ang tang u n ii of the H imal ay as
( Nepal ) .
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B el ow l eft: T he bl u e-sk inned H indu g od Shiv a tak es g reat pl easu re in H emp.
B ecau se of this, it is a sacred pl ant of the g ods and is u sed for ritu al s and
T antric practices.
Rig ht: T he l ong -haired Sadhu s or " hol y men" of India dev ote their l iv es to the
g od Shiv a. T hey hav e no property and practice y og a and meditation. In ad-
dition they often smok e a l arg e amou nt of charas ( handmade hash) and
g anj a ( M arij u ana) sometimes mix ed with Datu ra l eav es and other psy choac-












tiv e pl ants ( Sadhu at a Shiv a templ e, Pashu patinath, K athmandu Val l ey ,
Nepal ) .
B ottom rig ht: Cannabis is consu med in many cou ntries, u su al l y il l eg al l y . It is
often smok ed in hand-rol l ed cig arettes. T here are cou ntl ess produ cts for the
consu mption of marij u ana for ev ery one from beg inners to the special ists— for
instance, l arg e-format rol l ing papers, preferabl y ou t of H emp. A l so shown here
are a metal cig arette box and l ig hter.
















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A bov e: In A frica H emp is smok ed for
medicinal and pl easu rabl e pu rposes, as
this wood carv ing shows.
T op: characteristic H emp l eaf
( Cannabis indica) was formerl y a sy m-
bol of the su bcu l tu re and rebel l ion. T o-
day , it has become a sy mbol of ecol og i-
cal awareness.
9 4














































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T op: Feminine fl ower of indu strial H emp
( Cannabis sativ a) .
A bov e: T he Chinese emperor Shen-
Nu ng is said to hav e discov ered the
medicinal properties of many pl ants. H is
pharmacopoeia, bel iev ed to hav e been
first compil ed in 2 7 3 7 B . C. , notes that
Cannabis sativ a has both mal e and fe-
mal e pl ants.
9 5
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Rig ht: T here are cou ntl ess strains of H emp that contain barel y any T H C, the
intox icating and eu phoric constitu ent. T hese species are u sed in the produ c-
tion of fiber, bu t are not su ited for personal consu mption, as the warning sig n
in the botanical g ardens in B ern, Switzerl and, states: " T his indu strial H emp is
u sel ess for the produ ction of dru g s becau se of its l ack of activ e properties. "
B ottom: Feminine pl ants of fl owering indu strial hemp ( Cannabis sativ a) .





























fishermen









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T op l eft: In northern India the H emp
l eav es are soak ed in water, shredded,
and then roil ed into bal l s. T hese are
sol d as " B hang " on the mark et ( displ ay
in the G ov ernmental G anj a Shop Om
Varnasi, B enares) .
T op rig ht: T he B hang bal l s are either
su ck ed on or mix ed into a drink with
mil k , y og u rt, and water.
Pag e 9 7 abov e l eft: T he Cora Indians of
the Sierra M adre Occidental of M ex ico
smok e Cannabis in the cou rse of their
sacred ceremonies. Rarel y is an intro-
du ced foreig n pl ant adopted and u sed in
indig enou s rel ig iou s ceremonies, bu t it
seems that the Cora of M ex ico and the
Cu na of Panama hav e tak en u p the ri-
tu al smok ing of Cannabis, notwith-
standing the fact that, in both areas, it
was brou g ht in by the earl y E u ropeans.
Pag e 9 7 abov e rig ht: T hese three
photog raphs show the g erminating
H emp pl ant. T he rou nded l eav es are
coty l edons or seed-l eav es. T he first real
l eav es are al way s simpl e, not seg men-
ted as are the matu re l eav es.
Pag e 9 6 middl e ( 4 Photos) : T he u se of
Cannabis by peopl es ot both the Ol d
W orl d and the New is widespread. In the
Ol d W orl d ( l eft to rig ht) Cannabis is
being smok ed by a K u ng woman from
Sou th A frica, a Py g my from the Cong o,
a trav el er in K ashmir, and North A frican
H ashish smok ers.
9 7
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T he Chemistry of M arij u ana
W hereas the psy choactiv e principl es of most hal l u cinog enic pl ants are al k a-
l oids, the activ e constitu ents of Cannabis are non-nitrog enou s and occu r in a
resinou s oil . T he psy choactiv e properties are du e to cannabinoids, of which
the most effectiv e is tetrahy drocannabinol , or T H C— chemical l y :
transtetrahy drocannabinol . T he hig hest concentration is fou nd in the resin of
the u nfertil ized pistil l ate infl orescence. E v en thou g h l ess potent, the dried
l eav es are al so empl oy ed for their psy choactiv e effects.
Fol l owing the el u cidation of the chemical stru ctu re ( see mol ecu l ar model
on pag e 1 8 4 ) , it has recentl y been possibl e to sy nthesize T H C.
Psy choactiv e Pl ants that are u sed as a M arij u ana Su bstitu te
B otanical Name
A ichornea fl oribu nda
A rg emone mex icana
A rtemisia mex icana
Cal ea zacatechichi
Canav al ia maritima
Catharanthu s roseu s
Cecropia mex icana
Cestru m Iaev ig atu m
Cestru m parq u i
Cy mbopog on dens ifl oru s
H el ichry su m foetidu rn
H el ichry su m stenopteru m
H ieraciu m piocel l a
L eonotis l eonu ru s
L eonu ru s sibiricu s
Nepeta cataria
Piper au ritu m
Scel etiu m tortu osu m
Sida acu ta
Sida rhombifol l a
T u rnera diffu sa
Z ornia diphy l l a
Z ornia l atifol l a
9 8
Common Name
Niando
Prick l y Poppy
M ex ican M u g wort
Dog G rass
Sea B ean
M adag ascar Periwink l e
Chancarro
L ady of the Nig ht
Pal q u i
L emong rass
E v erl asting
E v erl asting
H awk weed
W il d Dag g a
Siberian M otherwort
Catnip
Root B eer Pl ant
K ou g u ed
Common W ireweed
E scobil l a
Damiana
M aconha B rav a
M aconha B rav a
Part of Pl ant U sed
Roots
L eav es


L eav es
L eav es





H erbag e
H erbag e



L eav es




L eav es






























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A bov e l eft: In C. sativ a, wel l -dev el oped
hairs of g l andu l ar and non-g l andu l ar
k inds are shown in v ariou s stag es of
dev el opment.
T op rig ht: Different ty pes of g l andu l ar
hairs of Cannabis. T he capitate g l and
with a prominent pseu do-stal k on the
su rface of the anther wal l that faces the
center of the fl ower.
B ottom rig ht: B u l bou s g l and from adax -
ial l eaf su rface. T he stal k and head are
made u p of two cel l s each. T he tip of the
g l and possesses a smal l , disk -shaped
reg ion bel ow which resin accu mu l ates
in the ex tended membrane.
Pag e 9 8 : A bov e, Cannabis sal iv a is
being harv ested for H emp at the tu rn
of the centu ry . T his species attains a
heig ht of 1 8 feet ( 6 m) . B el ow, an ex tre-
mel y potent H ashish is produ ced from
Cannabis indica, a l ow, py ramidal ,
densel y branched species, as shown
abov e g rowing wil d near K andahar,
A fg hanistan.
9 9
Scanning E l ectron M icroscopy
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T op: Drawing by W . M il l er. Copy rig ht
1 9 7 8 T he New Y ork erM ag azine, Inc.
'H ey , what is this stu ff? mak es ev ery -
thing I think seem profou nd. "
B el ow: G u stav e Doré 's painting 'Com-
position of the Death of G erard de Ner-
v al ," for which he may hav e u sed Can-
nabis and Opiu m for inspiration. T he
contemporary A merican cartoon shows
in a hu morou s way the resu rrection of
this bel ief.
1 0 0

'I
.
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A bov e: M arij u ana is made from the
dried and sl ig htl y fermented bl ossoms
of the feminine K emp pl ant.
L eft: L ewis Carrol l 's A l ice in W onder-
l and, the encou nter between A l ice and
the l ang u orou s caterpil l ar is as fol l ows:
" She stretched hersel f u p on tiptoe, and
peeped ov er the edg e of the mu shroom,
and her ey es immediatel y met those of
a l arg e bl u e caterpil l ar that was sitting
on the top, with its arms fol ded, q u ietl y
smok ing a l ong hook ah, and tak ing not
the sl ig htest notice of her or any thing
" T his

















A bov e: In the nineteenth centu ry , a se-
l ect g rou p of E u ropean artists and wri-
ters tu rned to psy choactiv e ag ents in an
attempt to achiev e what has come to be
reg arded as " mind-ex pansion" or " mind-
M any peopl e, su ch as the
French poet B au del aire ( bel ow) , be-
l iev ed that creativ e abil ity cou l d be
g reatl y enhanced by the u se of Canna-
bis. In fact, B au del aire wrote v iv id de-
scriptions of his personal ex periences
u nder the infl u ence of Cannabis.
1 0 1

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E rg ot

A bov e: W hil e E rg ot infects a nu mber of
different g rasses, it is best k nown as a
parasite on the infl orescence of ry e.
Pag e 1 0 3 top: T he E rg ot of ry e are con-
siderabl y big g er than those of the Pas-
pal u m g rass.
Pag e 1 0 3 l eft: Fru iting bodies of C/ a v i-
ceps pu rpu rea. T he specific name of
this fu ng u s means pu rpl e," a col or that
in antiq u ity was l ink ed with powers of
the u nderworl d.
Pag e 1 0 3 rig ht: W hen g rain is infected
by E rg ot, l ong bl ack g rowths appear on
the heads, cal l ed scl erotiu m.
1 0 2


















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T he activ e ing redients in E rg ot are indol e al k al oids, al l deriv ed from the same
basic compou nd, l y serg ic acid. T he most important al k al oids in E rg ot of ry e
are erg otamine and erg otox ine, in which l y serg ic acid is connected with a
peptide radical consisting of three amino acids. T hese al k al oids and their
deriv ativ es hav e v ariou s medicinal u ses.
tox ic doses they cau se g ang rene becau se of their v asoconstricting
properties. E rg ot from wil d g rasses, howev er, contains essential l y simpl e
l y serg ic acid amides, erg ine, and l y serg ic acid-hy drox y ethy l amide ( fou nd
onl y in traces in E rg ot of ry e) . T hese psy chotropic al k al oids may hav e pl ay ed
a rol e in the conv u l siv e form of erg otism. T hey occu r as the main activ e
principl es in the M ex ican M orning G l ory Ol ol iu q u i ( T u rbina cory mbosa) [ see
pag e 1 8 7 for the mol ecu l ar model of the chemical stru ctu re] and other B ind-
weeds ( Ipomoea v iol acea, A rg y reia nerv osa) .
1 0 3










T he Chemistry of E rg ot
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T 1 'u I'i It is possibl e that the al k al oid-rich
DI the Paspal u m g rass was u sed
Secret ing redient in K y k eon, the
Inhl iq Iory drink of E l eu sis.
l eft: T he g oddess Demeter with
of g rain and opiu m pods in her
it
rig ht: T he Pl u tonl u on of E l eu sis.
bottom: One of the rare ou t-
brerik s of erg otism in E ng l and attack ed
One tomil y in W attisham in 1 7 6 2 . So
L ift was this pl ag u e that it has been
meit l orial ized with a pl aq u e in the parish
1 0 -4






























































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L o
aitsT arifh. ,

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u i at of


















-
-

sn - U rfnd,e
-
- ba
-
A bov e l eft: Persephone, the Q u een of
the Dead, mak ing an offering of shafts
of is enthroned beside her hu s-
band, H ades, L ord of the U nderworl d.
Orig inal l y a g oddess associated with
g rain, she was abdu cted to the U nder-
worl d by H ades, and her retu rn from the
real m of the dead was connected with
sy mbol ic rebirth ex periences in the
E l eu sinian my steries, where the wor-
shipers bel iev ed that the restoration of
the g oddess to the u pper worl d ensu red
the faithfu l a resu rrection. It is possibl e
that these amazing ev ents in Perse-
phone's l ife mig ht hav e been l ink ed with
intox ication from E rg ot, since G reek
sophistication in the chemical proper-
ties of pl ants was wel l dev el oped.
A bov e rig ht: T he titl e pag e of a G erman
book from 1 7 7 1 , E rg ot: A n A l l eg ed
Cau se of the So-cal l ed St. A nthony 's
Fire.
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2 7
DA T U RA INNOX IA
' T ol oache
DA T U RA M E T E L
Datu ra
2 n
DA T U RA ST RA M ONIU M
T horn A ppl e


A bov e l eft: T he Datu ra stramoniu m v ar.
tatu l a is the most common in the H ima-
l ay as. It is easil y recog nized by the
v iol et col or of the fl ower.
A bov e rig ht: T he sacred T horn A ppl e
( Datu ra metel ) is often fou nd in the
H imal ay as on al tars to the g ods of the
mou ntains ( photo tak en in T u k che,
Nepal ) .
B el ow rig ht: A y el l ow-fl owered Datu ra
metel in fu l l bl oom.
1 0 6










































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T he v ariou s species of Datu ra the same maj or al k al oids as rel ated
sol anaceou s pl ants ( A ng el 's T ru mpet, B el l adonna, H enbane, and M andrak e)
hy oscy amine and, in g reatest concentration, scopol amine. M etel oidine is a
characteristic secondary al k al oid of D. meteL
























































A bov e l eft: T he hang ing fru it of Datu ra
innox ia. T he seeds that are chewed by
shamans to indu ce a cl airv oy ant trance
are cl earl y v isibl e.
A bov e middl e: M any species of Datu ra
hav e pl ay ed a v ital medicinal and ineb-
riant rol e in M ex ico since earl y times.
T his pag e from the " B adianu s M anu -
scripr' ( Codex B erberini L atina 2 4 1 ,
Fol io 2 9 ) depicts two species of Datu ra
and describes their therapeu tic u ses.
T his docu ment of 1 5 4 2 is the first herbal
to be written in the New W orl d.
A bov e rig ht: A Datu ra fl ower is l eft as an
offering on a Shiv a L ing am at Pashu pa-
tinath ( Nepal ) .
1 0 7
of Datu ra
T op: T raditional depiction of the T horn
A ppl e on a T ibetan medicinal painting .
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Rig ht: T he ty pical fru it of the Datu ra
mete! . In India it is g iv en to the g od
Shiv a as an offering .

B el ow: It was bel iev ed that when B u d-
dha preached, dew or raindrops fel l
from heav en on Datu ra. T his bronze
shrine from the Su i period of China de-
picts A mitabha B u ddha seated u nder
the j ewel ed trees of Paradise.











































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a




























Pag e 1 0 8 bottom rig ht: T he opening
bl ossom of a Datu ra innox ia. T he
M ay ans cal l it x tohk 'u h, 'toward the
g ods: ' and stil l u se it for shamanic pu r-
poses su ch as div ination and medicinal
heal ing .
A bov e l eft: A Datu ra fru it has been l eft
as an offering at the imag e of Nandi,
Shiv a's sacred steer.




















PE RFU M E
CH A M Ico
B ottom l eft: In northern India Datu ra
fru it is threaded into g arl ands and
offered to the H indu g od Shiv a.
B ottom rig ht: T he Cu randeros ( l ocal
heal ers) of northern Peru enj oy u sing a
perfu me that is named Chamico ( T horn
A ppl e) .
1 0 9
1 4
- V
I,
• J t
J
L a ü nicisofu cidn Conocido iribu s
del A l to U cay el i. E l perfu me CH A M ICO te di enenq ia
pare hacer el amer coonl as v ases g amma 5 omarl ar a
a persona q u é g ammas. Q u ieres sir sensu al ? Cain -
pertwne.
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T op l eft: T he thorn-protected fru it of a
rare species of T horn A ppl e.
B ottom l eft: T he bl ossoms of the T horn
A ppl e ( Datu ra stramoniu m) open in the
ev ening , ex u de a del ig htfu l scent
throu g hou t the nig ht, and fade in the
morning .
Rig ht: A pu rpl e v ariety of the Datu ra
mete! , better k nown as Datu ra fastu osa.
In particu l ar, this pl ant is u sed in A frica
as an inebriant in initiation rites.
" I








































































































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Rig ht: A mag ician of K u ma in northeast
A frica l eads entranced women in a ritu al
dance. T he su bstance that they ing est con-
sists of a secret mix tu re of many different
pl ants, most ot which are u nk nown. E v i-
dence su g g ests that Datu ra is among them.
T he women are possessed by the spirits
who u se them as their mediu m.
L eft: T he il l u stration from the earl y
writing s of Sahag u n, the Spanish friar
who wrote shortl y after the conq u est
of M ex ico, pictu res the u til ization of
an infu sion of Datu ra to rel iev e
rheu matism. T his u se is stil l fou nd
recommended in modern
pharmacopoeias.
























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T A B E RNA NT H E
'7 V Ibog a

Pag e 1 1 3 top: Dried Ibog a roots.
Pag e 1 1 3 middl e l eft: Ol d wooden fetish
obj ects of the Fang , who were once
associated with an Ibog a cu l t.
Pag e 1 1 3 middl e rig ht T he conspicu -
ou s brig ht y el l ow fru its of the l bog a.

. he


















L eft: T he roots of the Ibog a bu sh are ri-
tu al l y eaten by the B witi cu l t in order to
cal l forth the ancestors.
Rig ht: Ibog a, necessary for ritu al s, is
g rown at the templ e of the B witi cu l t.
1 1 2

















break


















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A s with other hal l u cinog ens, especial l y T eonaná catl ( Psil ocy be spp. ) and
Ol ol iu q u i, the activ e principl es of T abernanthe ibog a bel ong to the l arg e cl ass
of indol e al k al oids. Ibog aine, which can be produ ced sy nthetical l y , is the main
al k al oid of T ibog a. Its hal l u cinog enic effects are accompanied by strong sti-
mu l ation of the central nerv ou s sy stem.
Ibog a roots contain an al k al oid k nown as ibog aine. T his su bstance was first
introdu ced in the 1 9 6 0 s by the Chil ean psy chiatrist Cl au dio Naranj o as a
" fantasy -enhancing dru g " for psy chotherapy . T oday , ibog aine is in the spot-
l ig ht of neu ropsy chol og ical research, which has shown that the al k al oid can
ease dru g addiction ( to su ch dru g s as heroin and cocaine) and
mak e way for
a cu re. l bog aine cal ms the motor activ ity that is present when
u nder the infl u -
ence of an opiate. T he chiropractor K arl Naeher say s that
" l bog aine, when
tak en in one hig h dose by an opiate addict, drastical l y redu ces withdrawal
sy mptoms and, at the same time, cau ses a 'trip' that rev eal s su ch deep in-
sig hts into the personal cau ses of the addiction that the maj ority of those who
u nderg o this ty pe of therapy can g o for months withou t a rel apse. B u t sev eral
additional sessions are req u ired before a l asting stabil ization is ev ident? '
Research into the potential u se of ibog aine as a treatment for su bstance
abu se is being carried ou t by Deborah M ash and her team in M iami.
1 1 3
T he Chemistry of Ibog a
A ddiction T herapy with Ibog aine
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/ 'ag e 1 1 5 top: seeds of the Ibog a
bu sh can g erminate onl y u nder particu -
l : tr conditions. T hey themsel v es contain
rio activ e compou nds.
Pag e 1 1 5 rig ht: M u sic pl ay s a central
rol e in the B witi cu l t. T he harp pl ay er
not onl y al l ows the string s to resonate,
bu t al so sing s l itu rg ies in which the
cosmol og y and woridv iew of the tribe
are ex pressed.
T op T he ty pical l eav es of the Ibog a
bu sh.
T hp rig ht: A herbariu m specimen of
T abernanthe ibog a in a comparativ e
botanical col l ection.
A bov e l eft and rig ht: Du ring the initiation
ril er of the B witi cu l t, the nov ices ing est
ex tremel y hig h doses of the Ibog a root
in order to attain contact with the an-
cestors du ring the powerfu l ritu al .
1 1 4
























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. they
A NA DE NA NT H E RA
'-' PE RE G RINA
Y opo

I— • g -
i
L eft: T he beans of the Y opo T ree ( A na-
denanthera pereg rina) are u sed by
many Indians as a shamanic snu ff
( specimen col l ected in G u y ana) .
Rig ht: B aron A l ex ander v on H u mbol dt
and his co-col l ector A imé B onpl and
carefu l l y ex pl ored the fl ora of the Orino-
co Riv er, the frontier between Col ombia
and Venezu el a, and whil e there they
encou ntered the preparation and u se of
Y opo snu ff in 1 8 0 1 .

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B el ow l eft: T he finel y pinnate l eav es of
the Y opo tree are important for identit I-
cation, bu t contain no activ e properties.
Rig ht: In the open g rassl ands, or cam-
poe, of the northern A mazon of B razil ,
A nadenanthera g rows profu sel y . T he
tree bears l ong pods with u su al l y six to
twel v e seeds, which are the sou rce of
the hal l u cinog enic snu ff.
B el ow rig ht: Ov er 1 2 5 y ears ag o, the
E ng l ish ex pl orer Richard Spru ce col -
l ected on the Orinoco these artifacts
associated with the preparation and
u se of Y opo snu ff. T hey are stil l pre-
serv ed in the mu seu m at the Roy al
B otanic G ardens, K ew.
g oing


















Y opo














T he Chemistry of Y opo
T he activ e principl es of A nadenanthera pereg rina bel ong to both open-
chained and ring ed try ptamine deriv ativ es and, therefore, to the important
cl ass of iridol e al k al oids. T ry ptamine is al so the basic compou nd of the amino
acid try ptophane, widel y distribu ted in the A nimal K ing dom. Dimethy l try pta-
mine ( DM T ) and 5 -hy drox y dimethy l try ptamine ( bu fotenine) are representa-
tiv es of the open-chained A nadenanthera try ptamines. B u fotenine has al so
been fou nd in the sk in secretion of a toad ( B u fo sp. ) — hence its name. Ring ed
try ptamine deriv ativ es fou nd in A nadenanthera are 2 -methy l - and 1 ,2 -di-
methy l -6 -methox y tetrahy dro-1 3 -carbol ine.
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Photo seq u ence pag es 1 1 8 — 1 9 :
U ndou btedl y the most intense of
Y opo snu ff prepared from A nade-
nanthera pereg rina is fou nd among the
v ariou s g rou ps of W aik h l iv ing in
sou thernmost Venezu el a and adj acent
parts of northernmost B razil . T hese
peopl es consu me enormou s amou nts
of the hal l u cinog enic powder, bl owing it
forcefu l l y into the nostril s throu g h l ong
tu bes made from the stems of
maranthaceou s pl ants.
B efore snu ffing Y opo, the W aik á sha-
mans g ather and chant, inv ok ing the
H ek u l a spirits with whom they wil l be
commu nicating du ring the ensu ing
intox ication.
T he snu ff acts rapidl y , cau sing first a
profu se fl ow of mu cu s from the nasal
passag es and occasional l y a notabl e
q u iv ering of the mu scl es, especial l y in
the arms, and a contorted ex pression
on the face.
T his period q u ick l y g iv es way to one
in which the shamans beg in to prance,
g esticu l ating and shriek ing v iol entl y ,
cal l ing on the H ek u l a.
T he ex penditu re of energ y l asts from
hal f an hou r to an hou r; ev entu al l y , fu l l y
spent, they fal l into a trancel ik e stu por,
du ring which v isions are ex perienced.
1 1 8






















. " Fol l owing a description of the













Drawing s rig ht ( pag es 1 1 8 — 1 9 ) :
Cou ntl ess artifacts rel ated to the ritu al
u se of snu ff hav e been discov ered in
archaeol og ical dig s in the Caribbean
and in Sou th A merica ( for ex ampl e,
H aiti, Costa Rica, Col ombia, and
B razil ) .
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A A NA DE NA NT H E RA


A bov e from l eft to rig ht: T he M ataco u se
a decoction of fresh ( stil l g reen) Cebit
pods as a head wash for headaches.
Cebit, the " Seeds of Civ il ization"
( seeds of the A nadenanthera col u bri-
na) . B u fotenine is the main activ e con-
stitu ent.
T he ripe seed pods of the Cebit tree
( A nadenanthera col u brina v ar. cebil )
col l ect u nderneath the l eaf canopy .
T he k notty bark of the A rg entinian Cebit
tree ( A nadenanthera col u brina bv ar.
cebil .
Pag e 1 2 1 : T he Cebit tree ( A nade-
nanthera col u brina v ar. cebil ) with ripe
seed pods.


















y ears.







































T he Chemistry of A nadenanthera col u brIna
Some v arieties Cebl i seed contain ex cl u siv el y bu fotenin ( C1 2 H 1 6 0 N2 )
psy choactiv e ing redient. In of seeds, 5 -M eO-M M T , DM 1 ,
N-ox ide, bu fotenin, and were of
seeds











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B el ow: T he G erman artist Nana Nau wal d de-
picted her ex perience with Cebl i seeds in a
painting in 1 9 9 6 . T he pictu re bears the titl e
" Nothing is separate from me" and shows the
ty pical " worm-l ik e" v isions.
Rig ht: Recentl y it was reported that the M ataco
in northern A rg entina smok e and sniff A nade-
nanthera col u brina. W ith this, the Spaniards'
assu mption, that the snu ffs CebIl and Vil Ica are
made from this pl ant, is confirmed.
W hat W as Vil ica?
In the col onial l iteratu re of New Spain, there are. nu merou s references to the
psy choactiv e u se of certain seeds or fru its that were k nown v ariou sl y as
H u il ca, H u il l ca, Vil ca, Vil cas, Vil ica, W il 'k a, W il l ca, or W il ik a. T he ethnohistori-
cal l y docu mented v u / ca ( fru it) is today k nown as the seed of A nadenanthera
col u brina. Vil l ca was of g reat ritu al and rel ig iou s sig nificance in Peru in the
time before the arriv al of the Spaniards, and was k nown to the Incan hig h
priests and soothsay ers ( u mu ) as Viica or V/ I/ ca camay o. A hol y Indian rel ic
( hu aca) was k nown as Vil l ca or Vi/ cacona and an especial l y hol y mou ntain is
k nown as Vil l ca Coto. On the peak of Vil l ca Coto, it is said that a cou pl e of
hu mans sav ed themsel v es du ring the primev al del u g e.
Vil ica seeds had a ceremonial sig nificance for the Incas as a psy choactiv e
su bsitu te for beer. T he " j u ice" of Vil l ca was added to a fermented corn bev -
erag e and tak en by the soothsay er, who wou l d then be abl e to l ook into the
fu tu re.
Vil l ca was al so the name for enemas, which were u sed for medicinal or
shamanic pu rposes.
1 2 2
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Far l eft: Pre-Col u mbian snu ff tool s from
a g rav e at San Pedro de A tacama.
L eft: Pre-Col u mbian snu ff v essel made
from a carv ed bone ( San Pedro de
A tacama, Chil e) .
A bov e: T he northwest A rg entinian
reg ion of Pu na is the area in which the
l ong est continu ed u se of v isionary and
shamanic pl ants can be prov ed. In this
reg ion the CebIl seeds hav e been
smok ed or sniffed for 4 ,5 0 0 y ears for
heal ing ceremonies.
L eft: T he painting ( oil on canv as, 1 9 9 6 )
by the Col u mbian-A merican artist
Donna T orres shows the stu dy of an
ethnobotaniSt who is researching
A nadenanthera col u brina.
1 2 3
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B A NIST E RIOPSIS
A y ahu asca
PSY CH OT RIA
Chacru na
6 0

Sy rian Ru e
T E T RA FT E RIS


1 2 4

































































piJ y l l u ni;


















































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V
T op: T he Chacru na shru b ( Psy chotria
v iridis) is the second most important
ing redient in the A y ahu asca drink .
A bov e rig ht: T he shoots of the A y a-
hu asca l iana.
L eft: A Shipibo Indian with an
A y ahu asca hana that he has cu l tiv ated
in his g arden.
Pag e 1 2 4 abov e: T he A y ahu asca l iana
( B anisteriopsis caapi) is a powerfu l and
v ig orou sl y g rowing tropical v ine.
Pag e 1 2 4 bel ow: T he pieces of
branch are the base of the A y ahu asca
preparation.
1 2 5
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A bov e l eft: T he B ritish pl ant ex pl orer
Spru ce col l ected the first botanical spe-
cimens of B anisteriopsis caapiin 1 8 5 1 .
H e sent material from the same pl ant for
chemical anal y sis. T he material was l o-
cated in the M u seu m at the Roy al B ota-
nic G ardens at K ew in 1 9 6 9 .
A bov e rig ht: A mong the K ofá n of Co-
l ombia and E cu ador, special medicine
men prepare Cu rare and Y aj é . T here is
an association between these two pl ant
produ cts, and Y aj é is tak en before hu nt-
ing in the bel ief that the v isions wil l re-
v eal the hiding pl aces of the animal s to
besou g ht.
Far rig ht: T o mak e A y ahu asca or Caapi,
the freshl y stripped bark mu st be v ig or-
ou sl y pou nded before being boil ed in
water or k neaded thorou g hl y in col d
water.
Pag e 1 2 7 l eft: T he nu merou s T u k anoan
tribes of the Vau pé s Riv er basin in Co-
l ombia and B razil practice a mal e-
oriented ancestor ceremony . T he
Y u ru pari dance, in which Caapi is a
maj or el ement, enabl es the participants
to commu nicate with spirits of the dead.
Pag e 1 2 7 rig ht: L ine dancing with intri-
cate steps and g ou rd rattl es accompa-
ny ing chants is ty pical of B arasana
ceremonies in which Caapi is tak en,
Piraparanb Riv er.
1 2 6








































































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B anisteriopsis spp.
K och/ a scoparia ( L . ) SCH RA D.
Passifl ora inv ol u crata
Passifl ora spp.
Peg anu m harmal a L .
Stry chnos u sambarensis G IL G
T ribu l u s terrestris L .
H armine
H armine, H armane
1 3 -Carbol ine
H armine, H armane, etc.
H armine, T etrahy droharmine,
Dihy droharmal ine, H armane, Isohar-
mine, T etrahy droharmol , H armal ol ,
H armol , Norharmine,
H armal ine
H armane
H armine, among others
T he Chemistry of A y ahu asca
In the bel ief that they were new discov eries, the first al k al oids isol ated from
B anisteriopsis were cal l ed tel epathine and banisterine. Fu rther chemical in-
v estig ations rev eal ed that these preparations were identical with the al k al oid
harmine, prev iou sl y isol ated from Sy rian Ru e, Peg anu m Fu rther-
more, the secondary al k al oids of Pag anu m, harmal ine and tetrahy drohar-
mine, al so occu r in B anisteriopsis. T he activ e principl es are indol e al k al oids
fou nd in sev eral other hal l u cinog enic pl ants.
T he drink made from A y ahu asca is a u niq u e pharmacol og ical combination
of B anisteriopsis caapi, a l ana that contains harmal ine, and Chacru na ( Psy -
chotria v iridia) l eav es, which contain DM T . H armal ine is an M A O inhibitor; it
redu ces the body 's produ ction and distribu tion of monoamine ox idase ( M A O) .
M A O normal l y break s down the v ision-indu cing ing redient DM T before it can
cross the bl ood-brain barrier into the central nerv ou s sy stem. Onl y with this
combination of ing redients can the drink hav e its consciou sness-ex panding
effects and trig g er v isions.
Pl ants Containing the M A O-Inhibiting f3 -Carbol ine A l k al oids:
1 2 7
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— G .

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caapi inebrians







































































































T op: M any species of Passion fl ower
( Passifl ora spp. ) contain the activ e su b-
stances harmine and harmal ine.
A bov e rig ht: Sy rian Ru e ( Peg anu m
harmal a) with fru it capsu l es.
Pag e 1 2 8 abov e: T he mu ral in the
Cu zco A irport ( Peru ) rev eal s the
v isionary worl d of A y ahu asca.
Pag e 1 2 8 bel ow: Shipibo Indians in
traditional costu mes decorated with
A y ahu asca patterns ( Y arinacocha,
Peru ) .
1 2 9
3 .
.
. ''
,. '
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L eft: A beer mu g of the Conibo-Shipibo
Indians that has been compl etel y
painted with the A y ahu asca pattern.
Rig ht: Shipibo women commu nal l y
paint a ceramic with A y ahu asca pat-
terns.
1 3 0
































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A bov e: M any species of the g enu s B a-
nisteriopsis, l ik e this B . mu ricata from
sou thern M ex ico, are rich in M A O-
inhibiting B ecau se of this,
they are particu l arl y su ited in the
preparation of A y ahu asca anal og s.














. . to

















A bov e l eft: A Shipibo woman paints
a piece of fabric with her traditional
A y ahu asca pattern.
A bov e rig ht: T he j u ng l e pharmacy of the
Shipibo Indians. Cou ntl ess medicinal
pl ants are tak en with A y ahu asca, which
streng then the effects.
1 3 1
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A bov e: A B arasana Indian traces in
sand near his mal oca patterns seen
du ring the cou rse of Caapi intox ication.
It has been su g g ested that many of the
desig n motifs indu ced by Caapi are, on
the one hand, cu l tu re-bou nd and, on the
other hand, control l ed by specific bio-
chemical effects of the activ e principl es
in the pl ant.
1 3 2


















































. . and






















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L eft: T his beau tifu l eng rav ing on a g ran-
ite rock at Ny l on the l ower Piraparaná
Riv er in Col ombia is obv iou sl y ancient.
T he rapids at this point on the riv er are
at the earth's eq u ator, a zone v ertical l y
rel ated to the rising and setting constel -
l ations. It has been su g g ested that this
tu rbu l ent area of the riv er was the pl ace
where the Su n Father married E arth
M pther to create the first T u k anoans.
T he Indians interpret the triang u l ar face
as a v ag ina and the sty l ized hu man
fig u re as a wing ed phal l u s.
A bov e: T he tal ented Peru v ian artist
Y ando, the son of an A y ahu asq u ero
from Pu cal l pa, drew this A y ahu asca v i-
sion. Notice that the compl ex ities of the
hal l u cinations are treated in an imag ery
in which microscopic and macroscopic
dimensions are sk il l fu l l y bl ended.
1 3 3
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cu l tiv ated Chacru na
( Psy c/ ii'! ria v iridis) .
A sel ection of pl ants u sed in the preparation of the A y ahu asca drink
to g iv e it its desired
heal ing powers or specific q u al ities:
A y ahu ma
B atsik awa
Cabal ong a
Catahu a
Cat's cl aw
Chiricaspi
Cu chu ra-caspi
Cu mal a
G u atil l o
G u ay u sa
H iporu ru
K ana
K apok tree
L u pu na
Pfaffia
Pichana
Pin pin
Pu l ma
Rami
Remo caspi
Sanang o
Su cu ba
T obacco
E u phorbia sp.
Capsicu m fru tescens
E ry thrina spp.
B ru g mansia spp.
Cou rou pita g u ianensis
Psy chotria sp.
T hev etia sp.
H u ra crepitans
U ncaria tomentosa
B ru nfel sia spp.
M al ou etia tamaq u arina
Virol a spp.
Iochroma fu chsioides
fl ex g u ay u sa
A ichornea castanaefol ia
Sabicea amazonensis
Ce/ ba pentandra
Chorisia insig nis
Pfaffia iresinoides
Ocimu m micranthu m
Cy peru s sp.
Cal athea v eitchiana
L y g odiu m v enu stu m
Pitheceiobj u m / aetu m
T abernaemontana sananho
H imatanthu s su cu u ba
Nicotiana ru stica
for better sing ing
tonic
pu rg ativ e
to treat del u sions,
il l nesses cau sed by mag ic arrows
( chonteado) ,
and enchantment
streng thens the body
for cool ing and redu ction of v isions
protects ag ainst spirits
pu rg ativ e
streng thens;
u sed to treat al l erg ies,
k idney probl ems, stomach u l cer,
v enereal disease
for fev er, rheu matism, and arthritis
to enabl e a better diag nosis
streng thens the v ision
streng thens the v ision
for pu rification and treatment
of v omiting
to treat diarrhea
" sweetens" the A y ahu asca drink
diarrhea, intestinal probl ems
to treat intestinal probl ems
sex u al weak ness
fev er
frig ht; promotes spiritu al
dev el opment; for abortions
to stimu l ate v isions
to streng then the A y ahu asca drink
streng thens the A y ahu asca drink
poor memory ;
for spiritu al dev el opment;
arthritis, rheu matism
to ex tract mag ic arrows
for poisoning
streng thens the v ision
A y ahu asca Ing redients
A i cu ro
A j I
A macisa
A ng el 's T ru mpet
A hiov e: . Farmers toii; j cco ( Nicotiana
,n,l ica) one of tin most important
pl ants in

/ I T he fru it of
; pecies of T hev e-
to Cabal ong ,, is added to
,. v thu asca to protoct l ie drink er from
l iciou s spirits.
T oe
Ipomoea carnea
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1 : T he Chiricaspi bu sh ( B ru nfel sia
g rand/ fl ora spp. schu l tesii) is an impor-
tant shaman pl ant in the northern
reg ions of Sou th A merica.
2 : Cat's Cl aw ( U ncaria tomentosa) is
one of the important medicinal pl ants for
treating chronic il l nesses among the
Peru v ian Indians.
7
3 : For many Indians, the K apok tree
( Ce/ ba pentandra) is the worl d tree.
4 : T he bindweed Ipomea carnea con-
tains potent psy choactiv e al k al oids and
is u sed in the Peru v ian A mazon basin
as an ing redient in A y ahu asca.
5 : T he Sanang o l eav es ( T a be rnaemon-
l ana sananho) streng then the memory .
6 : T he Pal o de B orracho " tree of dru n-
k enness" ( Choris/ a insig nis) is a worl d
tree in the cosmol og y of the shaman. Its
astring ent bark is added to A y ahu asca.
7 : A l eaf cu tting from Psy chotria v / rid/ s
( g ro'Nn in Cal ifornia) .
1 3 5
1
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Pag e 1 3 6 : T he G erman artist Nana
Nau wal d renders her A y ahu asca
v isions in this painting , al l owing the
v iewer a g l impse into the al ternate
real ity ? '
A bov e: M any species of the North
A merican pl ant g enu s Desmodiu m
contain the potent su bstance DM T in
their root bark , mak ing them su ited in
the preparation of drink s simil ar to
A y ahu asca.
A bov e: T he seeds of the M imosa scab-
re/ Ia contain DM T and are u sabl e in the
preparation of A y ahu asca anal og s.
1 3 7
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I: T he l eaf of the ex tremel y rare A cacia
phiebophy l l a is rich with DM T . It g rows
Onl y on one mou ntain in A u stral ia.
2 : T he A u stral ian nativ e A cacia maiden/ i
contains a hig h concentration of DM T in
its bark .
3 : T he seeds of the Sou th A merican
tree Dicty l oma incanescens. T his tree
contains ampl e amou nts of 5 -M eO-
DM T .
4 : T he seeds of the tropical M u cu na
pru riens are preferred by the traditional
peopl e to mak e j ewehy In addition they
contain hig h concentrations of DM T and
5 -M eO-DM T .
5 : A species of the DM T -containing
g enu s Desmodiu m.
6 : T he T u rk ey Red v ariety of the g rass
P/ ia/ ar/ s aru ndinacea contains l iberal
amou nts of DM T .
7 : T he root bark of the M ex ican M imosa
tenu ifl ora ( M imosa host/ I/ is) is fu l l of
psy choactiv e al k al oids. T he dried root
bark contains abou t 1 % DM T . It is
wel l su ited for the produ ction of an
A y ahu asca anal og .
1 3 8
A y ahu asca A nal og s: Pl ants that contain DM 1
Pl ant Famil y Dru g T ry ptamine
A ru ndo donax L . Rhizome DM T
Pha/ aris aru ndinacea L . G rass, root DM 1
Phal aris tu berosa L . ( Ital ian strain) L eav es DM T
Phrag mites au stral is ( Cay . ) T R. et ST . Rhizome
L eg u minosae ( Fabaceae)
A cacia maideniiF. v . M u el l .
A cacia phiebophy l l a F. v . M u el l .
A cacia simpil cifol ia Dru ce
A nadenanthera pereg rina ( L . ) Spag .
Desmanthu s il l inoensis ( M ichx . ) M acm.
Desmodiu m pu l chel l u m B enth. ex . B ak .
Desmodiu ni spp.
L espedeza capitata M ichx .
M imosa scabrel l a B enth.
M imosa tenu ifl ora ( W il d. ) Poir.
M u cu na pru riens DC.
B ark
L eav es
L eav es, bark
B ark
Root-bark
Root bark
0 . 3 6 % DM T
0 . 3 % DM T
0 . 8 1 % DM T



DM T

0 . 5 7 — 1 % DM 1
Seeds DM T , 5 -M eO-DM T
M al pig hiaceae
Dipl optery s cabrerana ( Cu atr. ) G ates L eav es
M y risticaceae
Virol a sebifera A u b. B ark DM T
Virol a theiodora ( Spru ce ex B enth. ) W arb. Fl owers 0 . 4 4 % DM 1
Virol a spp. B ark , resin DM T , 5 -M eO-DM T
Ru biaceae
Psy chotria poeppig iana M U E L L . -A RG . L eav es DM 1
Psy chotria v iridis R. et R L eav es DM T
Ru taceae
Dicty ol oma incanescens DC B ark 0 . 0 4 % 5 -M eO-DM T
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A y ahu asca Chu rches
In addition to the tru e shamanic u se of A y a-
hu asca, recentl y v ariou s sy ncretic chu rches
hav e been establ ished that al so u se A y a-
hu asca as part of their rel ig iou s ritu al s. T he
Santo Daime cu l t as wel l as the A y ahu asca
chu rch, U niã o do Veg atal , hol d reg u l ar
meeting s in which the members— the g reat
maj ority of whom are mestizos from the l ow-
er cl asses— drink A y ahu asca tog ether and
sing piou s song s. L ed by a priest, the g rou p
trav el s to the spirits of the trees as wel l as to
the Christian hol y spirits. M any cu l t mem-
bers discov er a new meaning to l ife and find
heal ing for the sou l . For the members of
these B razil ian chu rches, which hav e al so
made headway in E u rope, the u se of this
mag ic potion is j u st as l eg al as it is for the
shamans of the j u ng l e.
Santo Daime, the ritu al drink of a cu l t, and
hoasca, the sacrament of another chu rch,
are both made according to an orig inal
Indian recipe in which the B anisteriopsis
caapi v ine and the l eav es of the charcru na
shru b ( Psy chotria v iridis) are boil ed to mak e
an ex tremel y psy chedel ic mix tu re.
T he Santo Daime cu l t al so has mission-
aries activ e in E u rope, and this B razil ian
g rou p has been especial l y su ccessfu l in
G ermany and the Netherl ands. In A mster-
dam, they hav e their own chu rch. A l so in
the Netherl ands, the potential u se of A y a-
hu asca to treat addictions is being tested.
7
T his A y ahu asca anal og is k nown among peopl e k nowl edg eabl e in the fiel d as
a preparation that is the most psy choactiv e and easiest to tol erate.
Per per-
son, prepare:
3 g Peg anu m harmal a, finel y g rou nd
9 g root hu sk of M imosa tenu ifl ora
L emon or l ime j u ice
T he g rou nd seeds of Sy rian Ru e ( Peg anu m harmal a) are soak ed in water and
swal l owed or tak en in a g el atin capsu l e. Fifteen minu tes l ater, drink the boil ed
mix tu re of l emon or l ime j u ice and M imosa hu sk .
A fter 4 5 to 6 0 minu tes— often after brief nau sea or v omiting — the v isions
beg in. T hey often tak e the form of firework s or k al eidoscope-l ik e desig ns,
fl ashing col ors, fantastic mandal as, or trav el s to another worl d. T he effects
are eq u al to the effects of the A y ahu asca preparations from
the A mazon.
J u remahu asca or M imohu asca
1 3 9
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B RU G M A NSIA A U RE A
G ol den A ng el 's T ru mpet

B l ood-Red A ng el 's T ru mpet

1 : T he shamanic u se of the g ol d-y el l ow
fl owering B ru g mansia occu rs primaril y
in Col ombia and northern Peru .
2 : T he fl owers and l eav es are u sed by
many Indian shamans for medicinal
pu rposes.
3 : T he ripe fru it of the B ru g mansia
sang u inea. T his A ng el 's T ru mpet pu ts
ou t far more fru it than does any other
species.
4 : T he fl ower of B ru g mansia sang u inea.





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A bov e: T he seeds of B ru g mansia su a-
v eol ens are u sed in Peru as an intox i-
cating additiv e to corn beer. T hey are
tak en by the shamans in hig her doses
and often produ ce a del iriu m that can
l ast for day s with the most powerfu l of
hal l u cinations.
B el ow: T he B l ood-Red A ng el 's T ru mpet
is often pl anted in sacred pl aces and
cemeteries. H ere is a l arg e pl ant g row-
ing with an imag e of the M adonna in
sou thern Chil e.
T he Chemistry of B ru g mansia
T he sol anaceou s B ru g mansia arborea, B . au rea, B . sang u inea, B . su av eo-
l ens, and B . v ersicol or contain the same tropane al k al oids as the Datu ras:
scopol amine, hy oscy amine, atrbpine, and the v ariou s secondary al k al oids of
the tropane g rou p, su ch as norscopol amine, aposcopol amine, metel oidine,
etc. Scopol amine, responsibl e for the hal l u cinog enic effects, is al way s fou nd
in the l arg est q u antity . T he l eav es and stems of B . au rea, for ex ampl e, with a
total al k al oid of 0 . 3 percent, contain 8 0 percent scopol amine, which is al so
the main al k al oid in the roots of B ru g mansia.
1 4 1
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Rig ht: T he Val l ey of Sibu ndoy in sou th-
ern Col ombia is a l ocation of intensiv e
u se of B ru g mansia. One of the most
renowned medicine men of the K amsá
tribe is Sal v ador Chindoy . H ere he is
pictu red in his ceremonial g arb at the
beg inning of a B ru g mansia-indu ced
intox ication for pu rposes of div ination.
L eft: y ou ng K amsá Indian boy of
Sibu ndoy , Col ombia, hol ds a fl ower and
l eav es of Cu l ebra prior to
brewing a tea for the pu rpose of intox i-
cation in preparation for l earning the
secrets of u se of hal l u cinog ens in mag ic
and medicine.
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Rig ht: T he beau tifu l fl owers of the A n-
g el 's T ru mpet inspired the Sy mbol ists
( fabric printed after a desig n by
A l phonse M u cha, Paris 1 8 9 6 ; orig inal is
in the W u rttembu rg State M u seu m,
Stu ttg art, G ermany ) .
L oft: T his drawing by a G u ambiano In-
dian of the sou thern A ndes of Col ombia
depicts a nativ e woman u nder a B orra-
chero tree, B ru g mansia v u l canicol a.
T he portray al of an eag l e associated
with an ev il spirit indicates the dang er-
ou s tox icity of this tree, which cau ses a
person tarry ing u nder it to become for-
g etfu l and to feel as if he were fl y ing .
1 4 3
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L OPH OPH ORA
Pey ote

Pag e 1 4 5 top: T he Pey ote crowns tak e
on many different forms, depending on
ag e and g rowing conditions.
Pag e 1 4 5 be/ ow: A g rou p of l arg e
Pey ote cacti in their nativ e habitat of
sou thern T ex as.




































Rig ht: A H u ichol y arn painting shows
the nu rtu ring and fertil e g ifts of the
Pey ote cactu s.
1 4 4










L eft: T he fl owering Pey ote cactu s
( L ophophora
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T he activ e principl e of L ophophora wil l iamsii, the first hal l u cinog enic pl ant to
be chemical l y anal y zed, was al ready identified at the end of the
nineteenth
centu ry as a cry stal l ized al k al oid ( see pag e 2 3 ) . B ecau se the dried
cacti from
which the al k al oid was ex tracted are cal l ed mescal bu ttons, it was
named
mescal ine. In addition to mescal ine, responsibl e for the v isu al hal l u cinog enic
effects, sev eral rel ated al k al oids hav e been isol ated from Pey ote and
rel ated
cacti.
W hen the chemical stru ctu re of mescal ine was determined, it
cou l d be
produ ced sy nthetical l y . T he chemistry is rel ativ el y simpl e:
3 ,4 ,5 ,-trimethox y -
pheny l ethy l amine. T he model of this stru ctu re is shown on pag e 1 8 6 .
M escal ine is chemical l y rel ated to the neu rotransmitter noradrenal ine
( nor-
epinephrine) , a brain hormone, al so shown here. T he activ e dose
of mesca-
l ine is 0 . 5 — 0 . 8 g ram when appl ied oral l y .
1 4 5
T he Chemistry of Pey ote
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Rig ht: A n ol d and v ery l arg e Pey ote
cactu s that is addressed as " G rand-
father" by the Indians. Notice the y ou ng
crowns.
1 4 6




























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In


beaded " Pey ote snak es" decorated with
desig ns of the Pey ote to remote mou n-
tam shrines of E arth M other as an
offering of g ratitu de.
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A bov e: Different cacti that are k nown in
M ex ico as Pey ote, H ik u l i, Pey otil l o, or
Fal se Pey ote. T hey primaril y contain
the su bstance mescal ine and other
psy choactiv e al k al oids.
A bov e l eft: A riocarpu s retu su s
A bov e rig ht: A strophy ton asterias
B el ow l eft: A ztek iu m riterl l
B el ow rig ht: A riocarpu s fissu ratu s
L eft: T he earl iest k nown botanical il l u s-
tration of L ophophora wil l iamsii, pu b-
l ished in 1 8 4 7 . It has been fou nd in
archaeol og ical sites more than sev en
thou sand y ears of ag e. It was probabl y
the first and most spectacu l ar v ision-
indu cing pl ant encou ntered by the
Spanish conq u erors of M ex ico.
1 4 7
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H u ichol g eog raphy , W irik u ta, the
pl ace of the ancestor-g ods, is the l ocal -
ity of the orig in of the sacred l ife of the
tribe. Pey ote g rows here and is col -
l ected on the annu al pil g rimag es made
by smal l g rou ps of dev ou t H u ichol s. T he
trip to W irik u ta is l ong and ardu ou s, with
the pil g rims trav el ing as A ncient Ones.
L ik e the g ods, they refrain from food,
sex , and sl eep du ring this ex traordinary
trip. W hen they first enter the domain of
their Paradise, the mara'ak ame Ramó n
M edina Sil v a g estu res toward K au -
k ay ari ( power spots) that once were
the l iv ing forms of the g ods.

































































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Rig ht: A Pey ote hu nter spreads ou t his harv est at
home.
L eft: T he bask ets carried to W irik u ta contain onl y a few
personal and ceremonial obj ects. On the retu rn trip they
are fil l ed with the Pey ote bu ttons col l ected on the pil -
g rimag e. T he H u ichol say that Pey ote is " v ery del icate,"
so the heav il y l aden bask ets are carefu l l y transported
back to the Sierras in order to av oid bru ising the cactu s.
L eaning ag ainst the bask et is a H u ichol v iol in, u sed to
prov ide mu sic for the Pey ote dancing .
B el ow rig ht: H u ichol Indians retu rning from a
pil g rimag e.
B el ow l eft: A Pey ote hu nter with a bask etfu l of Pey ote
cacti.















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Pag e 1 4 8 rig ht: E ach pil g rim has
brou g ht offering s to Pey ote. A fter these
g ifts are carefu l l y displ ay ed, the pil g rims
raise candl es in the direction of the as-
cending su n. T hey weep and pray that
the g ods accept their offering , whil e
A amó n ( second from rig ht) ferv entl y
chants.
1 4 9
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Pag e 1 5 1 l eft T he H u ichol " trinity " of
deer, maize, and Pey ote is a hy persy m-
bol ic compl ex , a concept hark ening
back to the time of creation. T his para-
disiacal era antedates the separation of
pl ants from animal s, with Pey ote repre-
senting the trans-temporal l ink with the
su pernatu ral . On the annu al Pey ote
hu nt of the H u ichol , the pil g rims shoot
the first fou nd Pey ote with an arrow and
that special Pey ote is l ik ened to a dy ing
deer and accorded particu l ar chants;
offering s of maize seeds are l ik ewise
made.
Pag e 1 5 1 rig ht: T he Y aq u i Indians of
northern M ex ico sy mbol ize the Pey ote
cactu s as a bu ck , as in this wood
carv ing .
A bov e: " It is one, it isa u nity ; it is ou r-
sel v es: ' T hese words of H u ichol
mara'ak ame Ramó n M edina Sil v a de-
scribe the my stical rapport u nfol ding
among commu nicants in the Pey ote
ceremonies that is su ch an important
dimension in the l iv es of these peopl e.
In this y arn painting , six pey oteros and
the shaman ( on top) achiev e that u nity
in a fiel d of fire. In the center of the
pey oteros is T atewari, the First Sha-
man, as a fiv e-pl u med fire.
1 5 0
Rig ht A H u ichol sacrificial bowl deco-
rated with Pey ote desig ns.
A ccording the
fire.


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B e/ ow: T he H u ichol shaman Ramó n M edina Sil v a
sil entl y awaits his Pey ote v isions. W rapped in his bl an-
k et, g azing into the ceremonial fire, he sits motionl ess
for many hou rs as he receiv es messag es from the
g ods. H e said of the Pey ote pil g rimag e: " Ou r sy m-
bol s— the deer, the Pey ote, the maize of fiv e col ors—
al l , al l that y ou hav e seen, there in W irik u ta, when we
g o to hu nt the Pey ote— these are beau tifu l . T hey are
beau tifu l becau se they are rig ht' ( From B arbara
M y erhoff, Pey ote H u nt)










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Rig ht: T he red M escal beans ( Sophora
secu ndifl ora) .
1 1 1 1
V
q
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
A bov e l eft: T he roadman in the Nativ e
A merican Chu rch officiates at the
Pey ote meeting as a representativ e of
the G reat Spirit. It is his du ty to show the
'Pey ote road" to the participants. T he
roadman in Stephen M opope's painting
hol ds traditional ceremonial obj ects as-
sociated with the rel ig ion: the fan, staff,
and rattl e. On his cheek is painted the
crown of a Pey ote pl ant. In the center
pictu re, al so by M opope, chanting parti-
cipants sit inside the sacred tepee, in
the middl e of which is Father Fire and
the crescent moon al tar. A bov e the te-
pee is the Pey ote water dru m. T he
photog raph on the far rig ht depicts the
Siou x medicine man H enry Crow Dog
chanting at a Pey ote meeting on the
Rosebu d Reserv ation.
A bov e middl e: A l so by M opope. T his
shows the participant who sits sing ing in
the interior of his sacred tipi. In the mid-
dl e is Father Fire and the sick l e shaped
al tar. A bov e the tipi is the water con-
tainer.
A bov e rig ht: Siou x M edicine M an H enry
Crow Dog at a Pey ote G athering on the
Rosebu d reserv ation.
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L eft: T he Pey ote rattl e is an important
instru ment for the Pey ote ceremony of
the Nativ e A merican Chu rch.
A bov erig ht: T he photog raph portray s
the roadman's feathered staff of au thor-
ity : two smok ing stick s for l ig hting the
ritu al cig arettes, one of which indicates
in the combination of the thu nderbird
and the cross the mel ding of Christian
and Nativ e el ements; corn shu ck s for
cig arettes; a dru mstick ; sev eral g ou rd
rattl es; two M escal bean neck l aces,
part of the roadman's dress; a bu ndl e of
sag ebru sh; Pey ote bu ttons; a Pey ote
ceremony neck tie; a bl ack " Pey ote
cl oth," an eag l e wing -bone fl u te and
a smal l pil e of " cedar' needl es for
incensing .
1 5 3
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A bov e: A H u ichol shaman
( mara'ak ame) sing s with his assistants
in front of the templ e in which the Pey ote
ceremony wil l tak e pl ace.
Pag e 1 5 5 top: T he g rou nd Pey ote is
mix ed with water and g iv en to the parti-
cipants at the intox icating ceremony .
1 5 4


































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T op l eft: T he Pey ote G oddess, or E arth
M other, of the H u ichol in a modern de-
piction. H er dress is decorated with
sy mbol s of the sacred cactu s. T he
Pey ote is her g ift to hu mans in order that
they may enter into contact with her. B y
k nowing her, man l earns to respect and
honor the earth and u se her wisel y .
T op rig ht: A H u ichol man with the smal l
Pey ote g arden he has pl anted in his v il -
l ag e and which he l ov ing l y cares for.
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A bov e: A modern Pey ote bird of the
Nav aj o.
L eft: A Pey ote fan ( Nav aj o) made from
peacock feathers is u sed by the Indians
to indu ce v isions.
1 5 5
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1 . Psil ocy be mex icana
2 . Psil ocy be somperv iv a
3 . Psil ocy be y u ng ensis
F
4 . Psil ocy be caeru l escens v ar. mazatecoru m
5 . Psil ocy be caeru l escens v ar. nig ripes
2 2
CONOCY B E
PA NA E OL U S CY A NE SCE NS
'" B l u e

PA NA E OL U S SPH INCT RINU S
H oop-petticoat
PA NA E OL U S SU B B A L T E A T U S
U s. ) Dark -rimmed M ottl eg il l
PSIL OCY B E CU B E NSIS
IU San Isidro
PSIL OCY B E CY A NE SCE NS
'
' W av y Cap
PSIL OCY B E M E X ICA NA
° T eonaná catl
PSIL OCY B E SE M IL A NCE A T A
L iberty Cap
A bov e: One of the l arg est fru iting bodies
of Psiocy be fou nd.
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B el ow: In 1 9 7 9 the l arg est and most potent mu shroom
in the Psil ocy be g enu s was fou nd in A storia, Oreg on.
Psil ocy be azu rescens contains the hig hest concentra-
tion of psil ocy bine of al l mu shrooms.
6 . Psil ocy be cu bensis
7 . Psil ocy be wassonhi
8 . Psiocy be hoog shag enl l
9 . Psiocy be sil ig ineoides
1 0 . Panaeol u s sphinctrinu s
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B e/ ow: In E u rope and North A merica
there are cou ntl ess modern artifacts
that refl ect the contemporary mu sh-
room cu l t.
A bov e: M u shrooms with psy choactiv e
properties are fou nd arou nd the worl d.
In many pl aces T -shirts with mu shroom
motifs are av ail abl e for the trav el ing
mu shroom l ov er. E mbroidery from
K athmandu , Nepal .
A bov e rig ht: T he Psiocy be pel / icu l osa
is a rel ativ el y weak moderatel y activ e
mu shroom from the Pacific North W est.
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T he Chemistry of T eonaná catl









W oman


L eft: T he six teenth-centu ry Spanish
friar B ernardino de Sahag Cin
denou nced the A ztec's sacramental
u se of T eonaná catl , the " wondrou s
mu shroom. " T his drawing , which
appears in famou s chronicl e,
Codex Fl orentino, depicts a demonl ik e
spirit ov er cru del y drawn mu shrooms.
T eonaná catl , the sacred mu shrooms of M ex ico, owe their hal l u cinog enic ef-
fects to two al k al oids k nown as psil ocy bine and psil ocine.
T he main component, psil ocy bine, is the phosphoric acid ester of psil ocine,
which occu rs u su al l y onl y in trace el ements. Psil ocy bine and psil ocine, being
try ptamine deriv ativ es, bel ong to the cl ass of indol e al k al oids. T heir cry stal s
are shown on pag e 2 3 ; their chemical stru ctu re on pag e 1 8 6 . T he chemical
rel ationship of these hal l u cinog ens to the phy siol og ical compou nd serotonine
is especial l y sig nificant. Serotonine, the mol ecu l ar model of which is shown
on pag e 1 8 7 , is a neu rotransmitter and, therefore, important in the biochem-
istry of psy chic fu nctions. B oth psil ocy bine and psil ocine can be produ ced
sy nthetical l y . T he activ e dose in man is 6 — 1 2 mg . T wenty to 3 0 mg indu ce
strong v isions.



A bov e l eft; In M ex ico an u nu su al saint
named E l Niñ o is worshiped in the
Cathol ic Chu rch. T he M ex ican Indians
u nderstand him as an embodiment of
the sacred mu shroom, which they al so
cal l Niñ o. ( A l tar in San Cristó bal de L as
Casas, Chiapas)
A bov e rig ht: T he tropical M ag ic M u sh-
room Psiocy be cu bensis ( Stropharia
cu bensis) was first g athered in Cu ba
and my col og ical l y ascertained, It g rows
in al l tropical zones, preferring cow
manu re.
1 5 9
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In 1 9 5 8 , the famou s M azatec shaman
M aria Sabina performed a Vel ada ( nig ht
v ig il ) on behal f of a sev enteen-y ear-ol d
y ou th, Pefecto J osé G arcia, who was
seriou sl y il l .
L eft to rig ht: Pefecto awaits the com-
mencement of the Vel ada.
Pefecto stands u p at the beg inning of
the ceremony , and M aria Sabina tu rns
her head to g aze at him.
T he shaman has incensed pairs of
sacred mu shrooms and hands Pefecto
the intox icating pl ant for ing estion.
Pefecto has heard the u nfav orabl e
diag nosis, which M aria Sabina has
l earned throu g h the hel p of the mu sh-
rooms— that there is no hope for his
recov ery . Re col l apses in terror and
despair.
T he shaman and her dau g hter, adv erse
diag nosis notwithstanding , continu e to
chant, hoping for more insig ht— ev en
thou g h she has l earned that Pefecto's
sou l has been irrev ocabl y l ost.
1 6 0

















































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Rig ht: A cel ebrant depicted in the
six teenth-centu ry M ag l iabecChiafl O
Codex is ing esting a pair of hal l u cino-
g enic mu shrooms du ring a sacred rite.
B ehind him is the L ord of the U nder-
worl d, M ictl antl cu htl i. T he three j ade
g reen mu shrooms in front of the cel e-
brant u ndou btedl y were painted in this
col or to indicate their g reat v al u e as
sacred obj ects.
A bov e: A l bert H ofmann v isited the sha-
man M aria Sabina in 1 9 6 2 and took
many portraits of her.
Pag e 1 6 3 : T he sincerity and absol u te
faith in the rev el atory power of the
mu shrooms is ev ident in these photo-
g raphs of M aria Sabina, who, du ring the
nig htl ong chanting and cl apping cere-
mony , feel s hersel f fu l l y in contact with
the other worl d, which the mu shrooms
hav e al l owed her to v isit.
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DIVINORU M
o
de Ia Pastora

Pag e 1 6 5 top l eft: Painted nettl e is u sed
by the M azatecs as a repl acement for
Sal v ia div inoru m.
Pag e 1 6 5 top rig ht: Col eu s pu mil u s is
considered by the M azatecs to be re-
l ated to Sal v ia div inoru m.
Pag e 1 6 5 middl e: Sal v ia div inoru m in
the M ex ican rain forest.
1 6 4












































Rig ht: Sal v ia div irioru m is easy to Cl osel y with the
its stem. mu shroom

paste made fresh l eav es
Sal v ia
Sal v ia div inoru m is chewed sl owl y ,
cl ear if was u sed in the —





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T he l eav es contain the neocerodan-diterpenes sal v inorin A and
sal v inorin B
( al so k nown as div inorin A and div inorin B ) , as wel l as two other,
simil ar su b-
stances that hav e not y et been precisel y identified. T he
main ing redient is
sal v inorin A ( chemical formu l a: C2 3 H 2 8 0 5 ) , which has ex treme
consciou s-
ness-al tering effects with amou nts as smal l as 1 5 0 — 5 0 0 mg .
Sal v inorin is not
an al k al oid. It was first described by Orteg a et al . by
the name of sal v inorin
( 1 9 8 2 ) . L ater, Val des et al . described it u nder the name of div inorin
A ( 1 9 8 4 ) .
T he neu rochemistry of sal v inorin is stil l an u nsol v ed pu zzl e. T he
ing redients
hav e not bou nd to any receptors in any receptor tests ( the
Nov aScreen meth-
od) . T he pl ant al so contains l ol iol id.
1 6 5
W hat W as Pipil tzintzintl i?
T he ancient A ztecs k new and u sed a pl ant cal l ed Pipil tzintzintl i ( the pu rest
l ittl e prince) v ery simil arl y to the u se of Psil ocy be mex icana in entheog enic
ritu al s. T here are mascu l ine and feminine forms of this pl ant, macho and
hembra. in the National A rchiv es in M ex ico City , there are Inq u isition fil es
from the y ears 1 6 9 6 , 1 6 9 8 , and 1 7 0 6 that mention Pipil tzintzin and hint at its
intox icating effects. Variou s au thors hav e tak en this to be Sal v ia div inoru m.
T he Chemistry of Sal v ia div inoru m
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fl A T RICH OCE RE U S
San Pedro

A bov e l eft: Pieces of San Pedro pil ed u p
for sal e in the " witches' mark et" in
Chicl ay o in northern Peru .
A bov e rig ht: T he fast-g rowing San
Pedro cactu s dev el ops few, if any ,
thorns when cu l tiv ated.
1 6 6




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T he Chemistry of San Pedro
T richocereu s contains as its main al k al oid mescal ine, responsibl e for the v i-
su al hal l u cinog enic effects. From dried specimens of San Pedro, 2 percent
mescal ine has been isol ated. In addition, hordenine has al so been detected.































T op: T he San Pedro cactu s
( T richocereu s pachanol ) .
A bov e l eft: T he fl owers of San Pedro
remain cl osed du ring the day time.
A bov e rig ht: In the earl y ev ening the
l arg e fl owers of the San Pedro bl ossom
in su mptu ou s spl endor.
Far l eft: A species from the T richocer-
eu s g enu s that has not y et been
botanical l y categ orized. It g rows in
northwestern A rg entina, where it is al so
cal l ed San Pedro and u sed psy cho-
activ el y .
1 6 7
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T op l eft: A ceramic pot from the ChimO
cu l tu re, A . D. T he owl -faced
femal e depicted on this v essel is prob-
abl y an herbal ist and shaman; she hol ds
H u achu ma ( T richocereu s) . E v en today
in nativ e mark ets, the women who sel l
the hal l u cinog enic are u su al l y
both herbal ists and shamans, and
according to nativ e bel iefs, the owl is
associated with these women.
T op rig ht: T here are many herbs cal l ed
" condu ro' that bel ong to different g en-
era ( for ex ampl e, L y copodiu m) and are
traditional l y u sed as ing redients in the
San Pedro drink .
M iddl e: A north Peru v ian cu randero
( heal er) sets u p his 'mesa" for the San
Pedro ritu al on the bank s of Shimbe
L ak e.
B el ow rig ht: T he mesa is su rrou nded by
mag ical stav es. T hey are either from
pre-Col u mbian g rav es or modern repl i-
cas made from the A mazonian Chonta
Pal m.
1 6 8





















































. . the

a

. . It
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. . incl u siv e
. . incl u ding

. . l ik e


. . are























. . " E cstatic




. . One

.























T op l eft: H arv ested and stored pieces
of San Pedro continu e l iv ing and often
beg in g rowing ag ain after months, ev en
y ears.
T op rig ht: T he W ol f's M il k pl ant ( Pedi-
l anthu s tithy mal oides) is sometimes
added to the San Pedro drink in order to
streng then its effects. Sometimes is has
been said that Pedil anthu s is hal l u cino-
g enic, bu t this has not been prov ed.
A bov e: T he v iew of the mesa g iv es a
cl ear impression of the sy ncretic cos-
mol og y of the modern heal er. G ods and
deities from different cu l tu res l ay nex t to
snail shel l s, archaeol og ical obj ects, and
perfu me bottl es.
1 6 9
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IPOM OE A
M orning G l ory
0 5
T U RB INA
" Ol ol iu q u i

T op rig ht: Fl y ing Sau cers are a fav orite
cu l tiv ated strain of the enchanting
M orning G l ory , l pomoea v iol acea.
A bov e: A n earl y painting of Ol ol iu q u i
from Sahag ü n's H istoria de l as Cosas
q e Nu ev a E spañ a, written in the second
hal f of the six teenth centu ry , cl earl y de-
picts the pl ant as a M orning G l ory .
1 7 0

. de-







.
A























































T op l eft T he Ol ol iu q u i v ine T u rbina
cory mbosa.
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. . produ ced










. especial l y

. . T hey


. . If


. . T he




. No

. . bel iev es . . is



A bov e l eft: T he v ery woody tru nk of the
Ol ol iu q u i v ine.
A bov e rig ht: T he capsu l es and seeds of
Ipomoea v iol acea are characteristic.
B el ow: T he E u ropean bindweed
Conv ol v u l u s tricol or al so contains
psy choactiv e al k al oids, al thou g h there
is no k nowl edg e of any traditional u se.
T he Chemistry of the
L y serg ic acid al k al oids are the hal l u cinog enic compou nds of Ol ol iu q u l . T hey
are indol e al k al oids that hav e al so been isol ated from E rg ot. L y serg ic acid
amide, al so k nown as erg ine, and l y serg ic acid hy drox y ethy l amide are the
main components of the al k al oid mix tu re in Ol ol iu q u i. T heir mol ecu l ar ar-
rang ement is shown on pag e 1 8 7 . T he try ptamine radical in the ring stru ctu re
of l y serg ic acid establ ishes its rel ationship with these erg ol ine al k al oids as
wel l as with the activ e principl es of Psil ocy be and of the brain hormone ser-
otonine.
L SD, l y serg ic acid diethy l amide, a semi-sy nthetic compou nd, is the most
potent hal l u cinog en k nown today . It differs from l y serg ic acid amide onl y by
repl acement of two hy drog en atoms for two ethy l g rou ps ( p. 1 8 7 ) . T he activ e
principl e of Ol ol iu q u i ( hal l u cinog enic dose 2 — 5 mg ) , howev er, is abou t 1 0 0
times l ess potent than L SD ( hal l u cinog enic dose 0 . 0 5 mg ) .
1 7 1
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A bov e: A n ancient Indian M other G od-
dess and her priestl y attendants with a
hig hl y sty l ized v ine of Ol ol iu q u i, in one
of the mu ral s from T eotihu acá n, M ex ico,
dated abou t A . D. 5 0 0 . H al l u cinog enic
nectar appears to fl ow from the bl os-
soms of the pl ant, and disembodied
ey es" and birds are other sty l istic fea-
tu res associated with hal l u cinog enic
intox ication.
1 7 2
. thu s





T he

. bu rned

T obacco,







. . and




H is








- . T he

Rig ht: In Sou th A merica the bindweed
Ipomoea carnea is u sed as an inebriant.
It al so has the psy choactiv e al k al oid
erg otine.
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L eft: T he M orning G l ory Ipomoea v iol a-
cea as a wil dfl ower in sou thern M ex ico.
. . was Depiction of

was



X tabentu n, " the as















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B el ow: A Z apotec shaman in San B ar-
tol o Y au tepec, M ex ico, preparing an in-
fu sion of seeds of Ipomoca v iol acea.
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. . Div ination


. g rows of

. . T he
















are the ocher-col ored, some-
what rou nd seeds of T u rbina cory m-
bosa. On the rig ht are the bl ack , ang u l ar
seeds of the Ipomoea v iol acea.
A bov e: T he shaman administers the in-
fu sion to a patient, assisted by a y ou ng
g irl . T he brew mu st be tak en at nig ht in a
secl u ded and q u iet pl ace. T he patient's
probl ems wil l be diag nosed by the sha-
man from interpretation of what he say s
whil e u nder the infl u ence of the pl ants.
1 7 5
Pag e 1 7 4 top: T he Cu ban stamp on the
l eft of T u rbina cory mbosa was issu ed at
Christmastime. T cory mbosa is v ery
abu ndant in the western part of the
isl and and fl owers in December. T he
H u ng arian stamp on the rig ht indicates
the horticu l tu ral importance of l pomoea
v iol acea and its v arieties.
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VIROL A
E pená

A bov e: T he seeds of Virol a su rinamen-
sis, cal l ed U cu ba, are u sed ethnome-
dicinal l y .
B el ow rig ht: T he most important spe-
cies of Virol a in hal l u cinog enic prepara-
tions is V theiodora, of the north-
western A mazon. Virol a is an A merican
g enu s rel ated to the Ol d W orl d g enu s of
the Nu tmeg . T he tiny fl owers of Virol a
hav e a hig hl y pu ng ent frag rance.
1 7 6



























l ophy l l a,






















































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A bov e l eft: L eaf, fl owers, and y ou ng fru it
of the rain forest tree Virol a cal ophy l l a.
A bov e rig ht: A branch of Virol a theio-
dora with fl owers.
1 7 7
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• -:
. . . • . ; 4 -.

: 4

Once a y ear, W aik á Indians in north-
eastern B razil come tog ether from mil es
arou nd for an endocannibal istic cere-
mony for which a hu g e q u antity of Virol a
snu ff is made and consu med. T he
ceremony hel d in ty pical rou nd hou ses
commemorates the dead of the pre-
v iou s y ear.
1 7 8
























— —













l oreten—






















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W aik b Indians consu me incredibl e
amou nts of Virol a powder, u sing l arg e
snu ffing tu bes made of the stems of
maranthaceou s pl ants. T he tu bes are
fil l ed with three to six teaspoonfu l s of
snu ff for each inhal ation.
A fter a stag e of hy peractiv ity and stimu l ation du r-
ing which the participants who hav e inhal ed the
snu ff eng ag e the hek u l a spirits, a period of dis-
tu rbed sornnol escence sets in du ring which nig ht-
marish v isu al hal l u cinations continu e ( l eft) .
W aik á shamans freq u entl y empl oy Virol a snu ff
or E pená in ritu al cu ring ( bel ow l eft) . T he intricate
rel ationship between mag ico-rel ig iou s and " med-
icinal " practices of these peopl es mak es it difficu l t
to disting u ish the bou ndaries of the su pernatu ral
and the prag matic. In fact, the Indian himsel f does
not mak e a distinction between these two areas.
A ppl ication of the snu ff is a v ig orou s
process, the powder being bl own far
into the nostril s and sinu ses. It cau ses
an immediate l acrimation and ex cessiv e
discharg e of mu cu s from the nose.













































Chemistry of E pená
A M ahek ototen shaman ( abov e) stru g -
g l ing ag ainst death, an ev er-present
threat. T he W aik á bel iev e that commu -
nication with the spirit worl d occu rring
du ring Virol a intox ication enabl es the
shaman to stav e off death, which they
ex pl ain as the resu l t of the activ ity of
mal ev ol ent spirits.
T he chemical anal y sis of v ariou s Virol a snu ffs rev eal ed abou t a hal f-dozen
cl osel y rel ated indol e al k al oids bel ong ing to the simpl e, open-chained or
cl osed-ring try ptamine deriv ativ es with a
sy stem. T he
main constitu ents of these snu ffs are 5 -methox y -N,N-dimethy l try ptamine
and Dimethy l try ptamine.
monomethy t-
try ptamine, and 2 -methy l - and 1
l ine u su al l y occu r onl y in trace amou nts. T he al k al oid mix tu res are al most
identical to those isol ated from the A nadenanthera snu ff powders.
1 7 9
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prepared
the . . throu g h . into
. . he

immediatel y




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Pag e 1 8 0 l eft, top to bottom: T he W aik á
carefu l l y pick ov er the l eav es of J u sticia
before dry ing them as an additiv e to the
Virol a snu ff.
One method of preparing Virol a snu ff
starts with the accu mu l ation of the red,
resinl ik e l iq u id on the inner bark and its
sol idification by heat ( as shown in the
photog raph of a W aik á Indian) .
A W itoto Indian beats the sy ru p l eft
after boil ing down Virol a resin.
Pag e 1 8 0 middl e and rig ht: J u sticia
l eav es are hig hl y aromatic when dried
and are, on occasion, added to Virol a
snu ff. T hey may , howev er, al so be the
sou rce of a hal l u cinog enic snu ff.
A mong the W aik b, the inv ariabl e ashes
mix ed with Virol a powder come from the
bu rning of the bark of a beau tifu l bu t rare
tree, E l iza bet ha princeps.
A bov e l eft: Indians u nder Virol a intox i-
cation characteristical l y hav e faraway ,
dreaml ik e ex pressions that are, of
cou rse, du e to the activ e principl es of
the dru g , bu t which the nativ es bel iev e
are associated with the temporary ab-
sence of the shamans' sou l s as they
trav el to distant pl aces. T he chants du r-
ing the incessant dancing performed by
shamans may at times refl ect conv er-
sations with spirit forces. T his transpor-
tation of the sou l to other real ms repre-
sents to the W aik b one of the most
sig nificant v al u es of the effects of this
hal l u cinog en.
A bov e rig ht: T he l eav es of J u sticia pec-
toral is v ar. stenophy l l a are an important
ing redient in the snu ff that is made from
the Virol a.
1 8 1
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DU B OISIA
Pitu ri B u sh


























A bov e: Pitu ri bu shes are represented by
the g ray dots on this painting by A bori-
g inal artist W al ang ari K arntawarra J a-
k amarra ( detail from oil painting , 1 9 9 4 ) .
B el ow: T he tru nk of the Pitu ri bu sh.
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T he Chemistry of Pitu ri
Du boisia hopwoodil contains v ariou s strong l y stimu l ating bu t al so tox ic al k a-
l oids ( pitu rin, D-nor-nicotine and D-nor-nicotine seems to be the
main activ e su bstance, and my osimin, N-formy l nornicotine, cotinin, N-acety l -
nornicotine, anabasine, anabatin, anatal l ine, and bipy ridy l are al so present.
T he hal l u cinog enic tropanal k al oid hy oscy amine has been discov ered in the
roots, as wel l as traces of scopal amine, nicotine, nornicotine, metanicotine,
my osmine, and N-formy l nornicotine. Du boisia my oporoides contains l arg e
q u antities of scopol amine.
Pl ants W hose A shes A re A dded to Pitu ri
Protaceae
G rev il l ea striata R. B R. ( Ij iny j a)
M imosaceae ( L eg u minosae)
A cacia aneu ra F. M u el l . ex B enth. ( M u l g a)
A cacia coriacea DC. ( A wintha)
A cacia k empeana F. M u el l . ( W itchitty bu sh)
A cacia l ing u l ata A . Cu nn. ex . B enth.
A cacia pru inocarpa
A cacia sail cina L indl ey
Caesal piniaceae ( L eg u minosae)
Cassiaspp.
Rhamnaceae
Venti/ ag o v iminal l s H ook . ( A tny ira)
M y rtaceae
E u cal y ptu s microtheca F. M u el l . ( A ng k irra)
E u cal y ptu s spp. ( G u ms)
E u cal y ptu ssp. ( Red g u m)
M el al eu ca sp.













































T op: T he Pitu ri bu sh.
M iddl e: T he fermented Pitu ri l eav es.
B ottom: T he G oodenia is a Pitu ri repl a-
cement for the l eav es of Du boisia
hopwoodii Pl ants of the g enu s G oode-
nia are ethnobotanical l y sig nificant
medicinal and nu tritional pl ants for the
A borig ines.
1 8 3
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T etrahy drocannabinol ( T H C)











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T he mol ecu l ar model s of hal l u cinog ens on pag es 1 8 6 — 8 7 show the che-
mical el ements of which these su bstances consist and the manner in
which the atoms of these el ements are rel ated to one another in the
mol ecu l es. T he bl ack bal l s mean carbon atoms, the white hy drog en, the
red ox y g en, the g reen nitrog en, and the y el l ow bal l in the psil ocy bine
mol ecu l e indicates a phosphoric atom. T here is, in fact, no space be-
tween atoms connected with each other; they tou ch. M oreov er, atoms of
v ariou s el ements are of different sizes. Onl y the especial l y smal l size of
the hy drog en atoms has been indicated in these model s.
It is hardl y possibl e to imag ine the real dimension of atoms and
mol ecu l es: 0 . 1 mg ( a tenth of a thou sandth of a g ram) of a hal l u cinog en,
barel y v isibl e, consists of abou t 2 x 1 0 1 7 ( = 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 )
mol ecu l es.
cel l s) .





Recent stu dies show differences in the internal stru ctu re of wood between
Cannabis sativ a ( far l eft) and C. indica. A s shown in these microscopic cross-
sections, one of the most sig nificant differences is the u su al l y sing l e condu -
civ e v essel s in the former species as contrasted with the consistentl y g rou ped
v essel s in the l atter.
T H C, fou nd onl y in Cannabis, is concentrated in the resin and is absent
from the woody tissu e, which for this reason is specifical l y ex empted from
control in A merican Cannabis l eg isl ation.
l anine,






















































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Pey otl ( L ophophora wil l iamsii)
-I'-
Psil ocine
( hal l u cinog enic principl e of T eonanL catl )
4 '
Psil ocy bine
( hal l u cinog enic principl e of T eonaná catl )
Noradrenal ine
( a brain hormone)
M escal ine
( v ision-cau sing hal l u cinog enic principl e of
Pey ote)
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Dr. A l bert H ofmann, born 1 9 0 6 , discov erer of
L SD and the hal l u cinog enic principl es of T eona-
ná catl and of Ol ol iu q u i, is shown here with the
mol ecu l ar model of L SD in his pharmaceu tic-
chemical research l aboratory , Sandoz, B asel ,
Switzerl and, 1 9 4 3 .
Pag e 1 8 6 : T he comparison between M escal ine
and Noradrenal ine and between Psil ocy bine and
Psil ocine with Serotonine shows the rel ationship
in the chemical stru ctu re between the hal l u cino-
g ens and brain hormones.
T he cl ose chemical rel ationship between the
activ e principl es of Ol ol iu q u i and L SD, the most
potent hal l u cinog en k nown today , is ev ident
when comparing the mol ecu l ar model s of L y ser-
g ic A cid A mide and L y serg ic A cid H y drox y ethy -
l amide with L y serg ic A cid Diethy l amide.
T he activ e properties of hal l u cinog ens are du e
not onl y to their composition with certain atoms;
the spatial arrang ement of the atoms in the
mol ecu l e is eq u al l y important in determining
the hal l u cinog enic effects. A s an ex ampl e, L SD
and iso-L SD ( at rig ht) consist of the same el e-
ments, bu t they differ in the spatial arrang ement
of the diethy l amide g rou p. In comparison to
L SD, iso-L SD is practical l y withou t hal l u cino-
g enic effect.
L SD
( semi-sy nthetic hal l u cinog en)
iso-L SD
( semi-sy nthetic compou nd)
L y serg ic acid amide L y serg ic A cid H y drox y ethy l amide
( hal l u cinog enic principl e of ( hal l u cinog enic principl e of
Ol ol iu q u i) Ol ol iu q u i)
4
Serotonine
( a brain hormone)
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— —






D. fl .
DISSE RT A 'J 'IO
.
• .
• .

. .
4



. VO? ) IL ISS! M O. : J j : Y . E X PE RJ Z tV. T 1 SSIM O,
1 1


rr B OT A N.
. U PE A L .
M ONSPE L .

--
OL A Y CS . RE INFI

IL


/
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Pag e 1 8 8 : T he first treatise on inebriants is apparentl y the doctoral thesis of
A l ander, a stu dent of L innaeu s, who is the father of modern botany . T his
thesis, defended in 1 7 6 2 at U ppsal a, was a mix tu re of scientific and pseu do-
scientific information. A n observ er present at the thesis defense may hav e
doodl ed these profil es, possibl y depicting the academic ex aminers.
depending

















B el ow: Visionary ex periences produ ced by hal l u cinog ens are a sou rce of in-
spiration for painters. T hese two watercol ors by Christian Rä tsch emerg ed
after tak ing L SD and show the my stical character of the ex perience.
ecstasy
perience
















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B el ow l eft: L SD is u su al l y distribu ted on printed and perforated paper. T he
desig ns often hav e my stical references and u se icons of E astern rel ig ions.
In
















B el ow rig ht and pag e 1 9 1 : T hese drawing s were done in 1 9 7 2 . T he two on top
( p. 1 9 1 ) were done before and after the L SD session. T he three drawing s
bel ow ( pp. 1 9 0 — 1 9 1 ) were done before, du ring , and after the session with the
same hal l u cinog en.
psy choanal y sis





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L
I
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Pag e 1 9 2 : In the 1 9 6 0 s, many artists in the U nited States and E u rope ex -
perimented with hal l u cinog ens in order to enhance the creativ e process. T he
painting on the l eft is an ex ampl e of this g enre.
ev ery








B el ow: Onl y a few artists are capabl e of ex pressing the v isionary real ms whil e
directl y u nder the infl u ence of hal l u cinog ens. T he two painting s by Fred
W eictmann were ex ecu ted whil e u nder the infl u ence of Psil ocy be
cy anescens. B oth are acry l ic on marbl ed paper.
L eft: Sl ipping and Sl iding I ( T here ex ists another painting from the same day . )
Rig ht: T he G arden of Pan
cou l d












































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B el ow: Du ring v isionary ex periences, many peopl e see spiral s, whirl pool s,
and mil k y way s. T he artist Nana Nau wal d depicted su ch an ex perience in her
painting T he M iddl e Is E v ery where.
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B el ow l eft: T he painting Spirit and M atter A re Indiv isibl e docu ments a recu r-
ring hal l u cinog en-infl u enced ex perience.
B el ow rig ht: M any peopl e recog nize the W il l to L iv e when they hav e tasted the
pl ants of the g ods. Nana Nau wal d ex presses this artistical l y .












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A bov e: In H u ichol , the term nierik a refers to a portway between so-cal l ed
ordinary and non-ordinary real ities. It isa passag eway and, at the same time,
a barrier between worl ds. Nierik a, a decorated ceremonial disk , is al so said to
mean " mirror" as wel l as " face of the deity . " T his nierik a shows the fou r cardi-
nal directions and the sacred center. T he coordinating ax is is pl aced in a fiel d
of fire.
Sev eral





















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L OU IS L E W IN
1 8 5 0 — 1 9 2 9
1 9 7
E RNST FRE IH E RR VON B IB RA
1 8 0 6 — 1 8 7 8
CA RL H A RT W ICH
1 8 5 1 — 1 9 1 7
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A rnau , F. , Rau schg ift, L u cerne 1 9 6 7 : 1 0 1 bel ow rig ht
A -Z B otanical Coil . , L ondon: 1 7 abov e l eft
B ibl ioteca A postol ica Vaticana, Vatican City ( Codex
B arberini L at. 2 4 1 fol . 2 9 r) : 1 1 1 l eft
B ibl ioteca M edicea L au renziana, Fl orence: 1 5 9
abov e ( Photo: Dr. G . B . Pineider)
B ibl ioteca Nazional e Central e di Firenze, Fl orence:
1 6 2 abov e ( Photo: G . Sansoni)
B iedermann, H . , L ex ik on der Fel sbl l dk u nst, G raz
1 9 7 6 : 8 3 abov e
B il darchiv B u cher, L u cerne: 1 7 bel ow rig ht
B iocca, E . , Y anoà ma, B an 1 9 6 5 ( Photo: Padre L .
Cocco) : 1 7 8 middl e, 1 7 8 / 1 7 9 , 1 7 9 middl e, rig ht,
1 8 1 l eft
B l ack Star, New Y ork : 9 6 middl e, l eft and rig ht ( Photo
C. H enning )
B ou v ier, N. , Col og ny -G enev e: 8 2
B ril l , D. , Col l eg e Park , G eorg ia: 1 6 8 abov e l eft
Carrol l , L . , A l ice's A dv entu res in W onderl and, New
Y ork 1 9 4 6 : 1 0 1 bel ow l eft
Col eman Col l ection, U x bridg e: 1 7 abov e, center l eft
Cu rtis B otanical M ag azine, v ol . III, third series, L on-
don 1 8 4 7 : 1 4 7 bel ow
E ditions Del cou rt, Paris: 8 9 abov e l eft
E M B A rchiv es, L u cerne: 5 . 1 3 abov e, centerrig ht, 2 8 /
2 9 , 3 6 ( 9 , 1 0 ) , 3 8 ( 1 4 ,1 5 ) , 4 0 ( 2 2 , 2 5 bel ow) , 4 3
( 3 5 ) , 4 4 ( 3 8 , 3 9 ) , 4 6 ( 4 6 ) and bel ow, 4 8 ( 5 2 , 5 3 )
and bel ow, 4 9 ( 5 5 , 5 6 ) , 5 3 ( 7 0 , 7 2 ) and bel ow, 5 6
( 8 4 ) and bel ow, 5 8 ( 8 9 ,9 0 ) , 5 9 ( 9 3 ) , 6 0 ( 9 6 ) , 6 2 , 8 8 ,
1 1 8 , 1 1 9 , 1 2 2 abov e, 1 3 2 , 1 3 3 rig ht, 1 4 5 abov e,
1 7 7 ,1 8 7 abov e
E mboden, W . , Cal ifornia State U niv ersity , Northridg e:
9 5 rig ht
E rdoes, R. , New Y ork and Santa Fe: 1 5 2 rig ht
E T H -B ibl iothek , Z u rich: 1 9 7 center l eft
Forman, W . , A rchiv e, L ondon: 6 2 rig ht
Frö h! ich, A . , L u cerne: 1 8 6 abov e
Fu chs, L . , New K reu terbu ch, B ase! 1 5 4 3 : 3 1 l eft
Fu rst, P. T . , New Y ork State U niv ersity , A l bany , New
Y ork : 1 7 2 bel ow
G oodman, M il l Val l ey , Cal ifornia: 9 6 center l eft
H al ifax Col l ection, Oj ai, Cal ifornia: 1 5 0 bel ow, 1 9 0 /
1 9 1 middl e, 1 9 1 abov e, 1 9 6
H arv ard B otanical M u seu m, Cambridg e, M ass. : 3 1
center l eft, 9 8 abov e, 1 5 2 l eft, 1 5 3 abov e rig ht, 1 7 0
bel ow, 1 8 5 abov e, 1 9 7 abov e
H erná ndez de A l ba, G . , Nu estra G ente Namu y M is-
ag , B og ota: 1 4 3 l eft
H ofmann, Dr. A . , B u rg . L . : 2 3 , 1 6 2 l eft
H ol ford, M . , L ou g hton: 1 0 5 bel ow
H ol mstedt, B . , K arol insk a Institu te, Stock hol m: 1 9 7
bel ow
H u nt Institu te for B otanical Docu mentation, Carneg ie-
M el l on U niv ersity , Pittsbu rg h: 1 8 8
1 9 8
K au fmann, P. B . , Department of B otany , U niv ersity of
M ichig an, A nn A rbor: 9 9
K obel , H . , Sandoz Research L aboratories, B asel : 1 0 3
bel ow rig ht
K och-G ru nberg , 1 . , Z wei J ahre u nter den Indianern,
B erl in, 1 9 1 0 : 1 2 7 l eft
K ö hl er, M edizinal -Pfl anzenatl as, v ol . I, G era-U nterm-
hau s 1 8 8 7 : 2 1 bel ow, 3 1 center l eft
K rippner, S. , San Francisco: 1 9 2
L eu enberg er, H . , Y v erdon: 1 1 1 rig ht
L y ck ner, K . -Ch. , H ambu rg : 1 1 0 abov e l eft
M oreau de T ou rs, J . , Du H achisch et de
M ental e, Paris 1 8 4 5 : 1 0 0 bel ow
M u seo del Oro, B og ota: 6 4
M u seu m of Fine A rts, B oston, G ift of M rs. W . Scott
Fritz: 1 0 8 l eft
M u seu m of the A merican Indian, H ey e Fou ndation,
New Y ork : 1 5 2 middl e
M u seu m Rietberg , Z u rich: 2 ( Photo: K ammerer/
W ol fsberg er) , 1 0 / 1 1 Samml u ng v on der H ey dt
( Photo: W ettstein & K au f)
M y erhoff, B . , L os A ng el es: 1 4 8 , 1 4 9 abov e l eft, 1 5 1
bel ow
Nau wal d, N. , Su derg el l ersen: 1 9 4 , 1 9 5
Neg rin, J . , M ex ico: 6 3 ( Photo: L . P. B ak er) )
New Y ork er; New Y ork : 1 0 0 top
Osterreichische National bibl iothek , Vienna ( Codex
Vindobonensis S. N. 2 6 4 4 — T acu inu m Sanitatis in
M edicina— Fol io 4 0 ) : 8 7 bel ow
Ott, J . , X al apa: 5 6 ( 8 2 )
Park er, A . : Y al e U niv ersity , New H av en: 9 7 bel ow l eft
Pel t, J . M . , Drog u es etpl antes mag iq u es, Paris 1 9 7 1 :
1 5 1


Petersen, W . : M eck i bel den 7 Z werg en, K bIn ( © for
the M eck i-character: Diehl -FiIm, M u nich) : 8 4 center
rig ht
Photoarchiv E mil Schu l thess E rben, Z u rich: 2 4
Radio T imes H u l ton Pictu re L ibrary , L ondon: 4
R& tsch, C. , H ambu rg : 7 , 8 , 1 3 center, rig ht, 1 7 bel ow,
center l eft, 1 8 , 1 9 ,2 1 abov e, 2 2 , 2 4 / 2 5 , 2 7 , 3 0 , 3 4 ,
3 5 , 3 6 , 3 7 ( 8 ) , 3 8 ( 1 6 , 1 7 ) , 3 9 , 4 0 , ( 2 3 , 2 4 ) , 4 2 , 4 3
( 3 4 ,

5 6 ( 8 1 , 8 3 ) , 5 7 , 5 8 ( 9 1 ) , 5 9 ( 9 2 , 9 4 ) , 6 0 ( 9 5 ,
9 7 ) , 8 3 bel ow, 8 4 abov e, center l eft, bel ow, 8 5
abov e rig ht, bel ow, 8 6 , 9 7 abov e l eft, abov e rig ht,
8 9 bel ow, 9 0 bel ow, 9 1 , 9 2 , 9 3 , 9 4 , 9 5 abov e, 9 6
abov e, bel ow, 9 7 , abov e l eft, abov e rig ht, 1 0 1
abov e, 1 0 2 , 1 0 3 abov e rig ht, bel ow rig ht, 1 0 4 , 1 0 5
rig ht, 1 0 6 , 1 0 7 abov e, bel ow l eft, bel ow rig ht, 1 0 8
abov e rig ht, bel ow, 1 0 9 , 1 1 0 bel ow l eft, rig ht, 1 1 2 ,
1 1 3 abov e bel ow l eft, 1 1 4 abov e, 1 1 5 abov e, 1 1 7
l eft, abov e l eft, 1 2 0 , 1 2 1 , 1 2 2 bel ow, 1 2 3 , 1 2 4 ,
1 2 5 , 1 2 8 , 1 2 9 , 1 3 0 , 1 3 1 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 5 , 1 3 6 , 1 3 7 , 1 3 8 ,
1 3 9 , 1 4 0 , 1 4 1 , 1 4 2 rig ht, 1 4 4 , 1 4 5 bel ow, 1 4 6 , 1 4 7
abov e, 1 5 0 abov e, 1 5 1 abov e rig ht, 1 5 2 abov e, 1 5 3
abov e l eft, 1 5 4 abov e l eft, 1 5 5 bel ow, 1 5 6 abov e,
1 5 7 abov e, 1 5 8 , 1 5 9 bel ow, 1 6 4 , 1 6 5 , 1 6 6 , 1 6 7 ,
1 6 8 abov e rig ht, middl e, bel ow, 1 6 9 , 1 7 0 abov e l eft,
bel ow, 1 7 2 abov e, 1 7 3 , 1 7 5 abov e, 1 7 6 l eft, 1 8 1
rig ht, 1 8 2 , 1 8 9 , 1 9 0 l eft
Rau h, Prof. , Dr. W . , Institu t fu r Sy stematische B ota-
nik u nd Pfl anzeng eog raphie der U niv ersitä t H ei-
del berg : 1 6 abov e rig ht, middl e, bel ow, 1 7 mid-
dl e, 6 0
Rog er Viol l et, Paris: 1 1 6 rig ht
Roy al B otanical G ardens, K ew. 1 1 7 bel ow rig ht, 1 2 6
l eft, 1 9 7 center rig ht
B . de, H istoria G eneral de l as Cosas de
Nu ev aE spana, M ex ico 1 8 2 9 : 1 0 7 bel ow middl e
Sal zman, E . : Denv er, Col orado: 8 5 abov e l eft
Samorini, G . : Dozza: 1 1 2 rig ht, 1 1 3 bel ow rig ht, 1 1 4
bel ow, 1 1 5 bel ow
Scal a, Fl orence: 1 0 5 l eft
Schaefer, S. B . : M cA l l en, T ex as: 6 , 1 4 9 abov e rig ht,
middl e, 1 5 4 abov e rig ht, bel ow, 1 5 5 abov e
Schmid, X . : W etzik on: 5 5 ( 7 9 )
Schu l tes, R. E . , H arv ard B otanical M u seu m, Cam-
bridg e, M ass. : 9 8 bel ow, 1 1 7 abov e rig ht, 1 2 6 mid-
dl e, rig ht, 1 2 7 rig ht, 1 3 3 l eft, 1 4 2 , 1 7 8
Schu ster, M . , B asel : 1 1 8 abov e l eft, 1 1 9 abov e
middl e
Science Photo L ibrary , L ondon ( L ong A shton Re-
search Station, U niv ersity of B ristol ) : 3 1 rig ht
Sharma, G . , U niv ersity of T ennessee, M artin: 9 8 cen-
ter rig ht
Sinsemil l a: M anj u ana Fl owers © Copy rig ht 1 9 7 6 , Ri-
chardson, W oods and B og art. Permission g ranted
by : A nd/ Or Press, Inc. , P0 B ox 2 2 4 6 , B erk el ey , CA
9 4 7 0 2 : 9 7 bel ow rig ht
Smith, E . W . , Cambridg e, M ass. : 1 5 6 / 1 5 7 bel ow, 1 7 1
abov e rig ht, 1 7 6 rig ht
Starnets, P Ol y mpia: 1 5 8 rig ht
T obl er, R. , L u cerne: 1 6 abov e l eft, 8 1
T opham, J . , Pictu re L ibrary , E denbridg e: 1 7 abov e
rig ht, 9 0 abov e
Val entini, M . B . , Viridariu m reformatu m, seu reg nu m
v eg eta bil e, Frank fu rt a. M ain 1 7 1 9 : 8 0
W asson, R. G . , H arv ard B otanical M u seu m, Cam-
bridg e, M ass. : 1 4 . 1 5 ( Photo A . B . Richardson) ,
1 7 4 bel ow, 1 7 5 bel ow ( Photo: C. B artol o)
W eidmann, F. , M u nich: 1 9 3
Z entral bibl iothek Z u rich ( M s. F2 3 , p. 3 9 9 ) : 8 9 abov e
rig ht
Z erries, 0 . , M u nich: 1 1 8 bel ow rig ht, 1 1 8 / 1 1 9 , 1 1 9
abov e rig ht
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Shou l d this book su cceed in g iv ing its readers a better
u nderstanding of the rol e of hal l u cinog enic pl ants in
the cu l tu ral dev el opment of man throu g h the centu -
ries, we mu st thank the patience and friendl iness of
shamans and other nativ e peopl es with whom we
hav e had the happy opportu nity of work ing .
T he debt that we owe for the faithfu l cooperation
and encou rag ement of ou r many professional col l ea-
g u es ov er the y ears can be neither easil y nor ade-
q u atel y pu t into words, bu t nonethel ess it is deepl y
appreciated.
T o the su ndry scientific institu tions and many
l ibraries that hav e freel y and fu l l y hel ped u s in so
many way s, both before and du ring the preparation of
the book , we ex press ou r heartfel t thank s. W ithou t
this su pport, the book nev er cou l d hav e been born in
its present form.
T he g enerosity of the many indiv idu al s and institu -
tions that hav e made av ail abl e, often at g reat ex pense
of time and research, the ex tensiv e il l u strativ e mate-
rial for this v ol u me— mu ch of it hitherto u npu bl ished—
has heartened u s du ring the freq u ent fru strations that
we hav e met in ou r efforts to produ ce a book con-
ceiv ed with a fresh and forward-l ook ing ov erv iew of
one of the fu ndamental el ements of hu man cu l tu re—
the hal l u cinog ens.
Christian Râ tsch thank s Cl au dia M U l l er-E bel ing ,
Nana Nau wal d, Stacy Schaefer, A rno A del aars, Fel ix
H asl er, J onathan Ott, G iorg io Samorini, and Pau l
Stamets for comments on the rev ision.

A aronson, B ernard & H u mphrey Osmond ( ed. )
1 9 7 0 Psy chedel ics. New Y ork : A nchor B ook s.
A dov asio, J . M . & G . F. Fry
1 9 7 6 " Prehistoric Psy chotropic Dru g U se in North-
eastern M ex ico and T rans-Pecos T ex as" E conomic
B otany 3 0 : 9 4 -9 6 .
A g u rel l , S.
1 9 6 9 " Cactaceae A l k al oids. I. " L l oy d/ a 3 2 : 2 0 6 — 2 1 6 .
A iston, G eorg
1 9 3 7 T he A borig inal Narcotic Pitcheri" Oceania
7 ( 3 ) : 3 7 2 — 3 7 7 .
A l iotta, G iov anni, Daniel l e Piomel l i, & A ntonio Pol l io
1 9 9 4 " L e piante narcotiche e psicotrope in Pl inio e
Dioscoride" A nna/ i del M u sei Civ ic! de Rev ereto
9 ( 1 9 9 3 ) : 9 9 — 1 1 4 .
A l v ear, Sil v io L u is H aro
1 9 7 1 Shamanismo y farmacopea en € 1 re/ no de
Q u ito. Q u ito, Institu to E cu atoriana de Ciencias
Natu ral es ( Contribu ciOn 7 5 ) .
A ndritzk y , W al ter
1 9 8 9 Schaman/ smu s u nd ritu el / es H e/ l en im A / ten
Peru ( 2 v ol u mes) . B erl in: Cl emens Z erl ing .
1 9 8 9 " E thnopsy chol og ische B etrachtu ng des H el l -
ritu al s mit A y ahu asca ( B anisteriopsis caapi) u nter
besonderer B eru ck sichtig u ng der Piros ( Ostperu ) "
A nthropos 8 4 : 1 7 7 — 2 0 1 .
1 9 8 9 " Sociopsy chotherapeu tic Fu nctions of A y a-
hu asca H eal ing in A mazonia" J ou rnal of Psy cho-
actIv e Dru g s 2 1 ( 1 ) : 7 7 — 8 9 .
1 9 9 5 " Sak ral e H eil pfl anze, K reativ itã t u nd K u l tu r:
indig ene M al erei, G ol d- u nd K eramik k u nst in Peru
u nd K ol u mbien" Cu rare 1 8 ( 2 ) : 3 7 3 — 3 9 3 .
A renas, Pastor
1 9 9 2 " E l 'cebil ' o el 'á rbol de Ia ciencia del bien y del
mal " Parodiana7 ( 1 — 2 ) : 1 0 1 — 1 1 4 .
A ré v al o Val era, G u il l ermo
1 9 9 4 M edicina / ndIg ena Ship/ bo-Con/ bo: L as pl an-
l as medic/ na/ es y su beneficio en Ia sal u d. L ima:
E dició n A idesep.
B aer, G erhard
1 9 6 9 " E ine A y ahu asca-Sitzu ng u nter den Piro ( Ost-
Peru ) " B u l l etin de Ia Socié té Su isse des A mer/ can-
isl es 3 3 : 5 — 8 .
1 9 8 7 " Peru anische ay ahu asca-Sitzu ng en' in:
A . Dittrich & Ch. Scharfetter ( ed. ) , E thno-
psy chotherapie, 5 . 7 0 — 8 0 , Stu ttg art: E nk e.
B arrau , J acq u es
1 9 5 8 " Nou v el l es observ ations au su j et des pl antes
hal l u cing enes d'u sag e au tochtone en Nou v el l e-
G u inee" J ou rnal d'A g r/ cu l tu re T ropical e et de B ota-
niq u e A ppl iq u ee 5 : 3 7 7 — 3 7 8 .
1 9 6 2 " Observ ations et trav au x ré cents su r l ea y e-
g etau x hal l u cinog enes de Ia Nou v el l e-G u iné e"
J ou rnal d'A g r/ cu / tu re T ropical e et de B otaniq u e A p-
pl iq u ee 9 : 2 4 5 — 2 4 9 .
B au er, W ol fg ang , E dzard K l app & A l ex andra Rosen-
bohm
1 9 9 1 Der F/ ieg enpil z: E / n k u l tu rhistor/ sches M u -
seu m. Col og ne: W ienand-Verl ag .
B ering er, K u rt
1 9 2 7 Der M esk a/ / nrau sch. B erl in: Spring er ( reprint
1 9 6 9 ) .
B ianchi, A ntonio & G iorg io Samorini
1 9 9 3 " Pl ants in A ssociation with A y ahu asca" J ahr-
bu ch fü r E thnomed/ zin u nd B ewu B tseinsforschu ng
2 : 2 1 — 4 2 , B erl in: VW B .
B ibra, B aron E rnst v on
1 9 9 5 P/ ant Intox icants: A Cl ass/ c T ex t on the U se of
M ind-A l tering P/ ants. T echnical notes by J onathan
Ott. H eal ing A rts Press: Rochester, VT . Orig inal l y
pu bl ished as Die Narcot/ sche G enu B mittel u nd der
M ensch. Verl ag v on W il hel m Schmid, 1 8 8 5 .
B isset, N. G .
1 9 8 5 a " Phy tochemistry and Pharmacol og y of Voa-
cang a Species" A g ricu l tu ral U niv ersity W ag en/ ng en
Papers 8 5 ( 3 ) : 8 1 — 1 1 4 .
1 9 8 5 b " U ses of Voacang a Species" A g ricu l tu ral
U niv ersIty W ag ening en Papers 8 5 ( 3 ) : 1 1 5 -1 2 2 .
B l ä tter, A ndrea
1 9 9 5 " Die Fu nk tionen des Drog eng ebrau chs u nd
ihre k u l tu rspezifische Nu tzu ng " Cu rare 1 8 ( 2 ) : 2 7 9 —
2 9 0 .
1 9 9 6 " Drog en im prak ol u rnbischen Nordamerik a"
J ahrbu ch fü r E thnomedizin u nd B e-
wu ! 3 tse/ nsforschu ng 4 ( 1 9 9 5 ) : 1 6 3 -1 8 3 .
B og ers, H ans, Stephen Snel ders & H ans Pl omp
1 9 9 4 De Psy chedel / sche ( R) ev ol u tie. A msterdam:
B res.
B ov é , Frank J ames
1 9 7 0 T he Story of E rg ot. B asel , New Y ork :
S. K arg er.
B oy d, Carol y n E . & J . Phil ip Dering
1 9 9 6 " M edicinal and H al l u cinog enic Pl ants Identi-
fied in the Sediments and Pictog raphs of the L ow-
er Pecos, T ex as A rchaic" A ntiq u ity 7 0 ( 2 6 8 ) : 2 5 6 —
2 7 5
B rag s, D. L . & J . L . M cL au g hl in
1 9 6 9 " Cactu s A l k al oids. V: Isol ation of H ordenine
and N-M ethy l ty ramine from A riocarpu s retu su s"
P/ a nta M ed/ ca 1 7 : 8 7 .
B rau , J ean-L ou is
1 9 6 9 Vom H aschisch zu m L SD. Frank fu rt/ M . : Insel .
B u ng e, A .
1 8 4 7 " B eitrag e zu r K enntnis der Fl ora Ru l 3 l ands
u nd der Steppen Z entral -A siens" M om. Say E l r.
Petersb. 7 : 4 3 8 .
B y e, Robert A .
1 9 7 9 " H al l u cinog enic Pl ants of the T arahu mara"
J ou rnal of E thnopharmaco/ og y 1 : 2 3 — 4 8 .
Cal l away , J ames
1 9 9 5 " Some Chemistry and Pharmacol og y of A y a-
hu asca" J ahrbu ch fü r E thnomodizin u nd B ewu B t-
seinsforschu ng 3 ( 1 9 9 4 ) : 2 9 5 — 2 9 8 , B erl in: VW B .
1 9 9 5 " Pharmahu asca and Contemporary E thno-
Cu rare 1 8 ( 2 ) : 3 9 5 — 3 9 8 .
Campbel l , T . N.
1 9 5 8 " Orig in of the M escal B ean Cu l t" A merican
A nthropol og ist 6 0 : 1 5 6 -1 6 0 .
Camporesi, Piero
1 9 9 0 Das B rot der T rä u me. Frank fu rt/ New Y ork :
Campu s.
Carstairs, G . M .
1 9 5 4 " Daru and B hang : Cu l tu ral Factors in the
Choice of Intox icants" Q u arterl y J ou rnal for the
Stu dy of A l cohol 1 5 : 2 2 0 — 2 3 7 .
Chao, J ew-M ing & A ra H . Der M arderosian
1 9 7 3 " E rg ol ine A l k al oidal Constitu ents of
H awaiian B aby W ood Rose, A rg y re/ a nerv osa
( B u rm. f. ) B oj er" J ou rnal of Pharmaceu tical
Sciences 6 2 ( 4 ) : 5 8 8 — 5 9 1 .
Cook e, M ordecai C.
1 9 8 9 T he Sev en Sisters of Sl eep. L incol n, M A :
Q u arterman Pu bI. ( reprint 1 8 6 0 ) .
Cooper, J . M .
1 9 4 9 " Stimu l ants and Narcotics" in: J . H . Stewart
( ed. ) , H andbook of Sou th A merican Indians, B u r
A m. E thno/ . B u l l . 1 4 3 ( 5 ) : 5 2 5 — 5 5 8 .
Cordy -Col l ins, A l ana
1 9 8 2 " Psy choactiVe Painted Peru v ian Pl ants: T he
Shamanism T ex til e" J ou rnal of E thnobio/ og y 2 ( 2 ) :
1 4 . 4 — 1 5 3 .
Dav is, W ade
1 9 9 6 One Riv er: E x pl orations and Discov eries in
the A mazon Rain Forest. New Y ork : Simon &
Schu ster.
De Smet, Peter A . G . M . & L au rent Riv ier
1 9 8 7 " Intox icating Paricá Seeds of the B razil ian
M au é Indians" E conomic B otany 4 l ( 1 ) : 1 2 — 1 6 .
DeK orne, J im
1 9 9 5 Psy chedel / scher Neo-Schamanismu s. L ö hr-
bach: W erner Pieper's M edienX perimente ( E dition
Rau schk u nde) .
Del tg en, Fl orian
1 9 9 3 G e/ enk te E k stase: Die hal l u zinog ene Dmg e
Y ebá masa-/ ndianer. Stu ttg art: Franz Stei-
ner Verl ag ( A cta H u mbol dtiana 1 4 ) .
1 9 9
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Descol a, Phil ippe
1 9 9 6 T he Spears of T wil ig ht: L ife and Death in the
A mazon J u ng l e. L ondon: H arperCol l ins.
Dev ereu x , Pau l
1 9 9 2 Shamanism and the M y stery L ines: L ey
L ines, Spirit Paths, Shape-Shifting & Ou t-of-B ody
T rav el . L ondon, New Y ork , T oronto, Sy dney : Q u an-
tu m.
1 9 9 7 T he L ong T rip: A Prehistory of Psy chedel ia.
New Y ork : Peng u in/ A rk ana.
Diaz, J osé L u is
1 9 7 9 " E thnopharmacol og y and T ax onomy of M ex i-
can Psy chody sl eptic Pl ants" J ou rnal of Psy chede-
l ic Dru g s 1 1 ( 1 — 2 ) : 7 1 — 1 0 1 .
Dieck hOfer, K . , T h. Vog el , & J . M ey er-L indenberg
1 9 7 1 " Datu ra Stramoniu m al s Rau schmittel " Der
Nerv enarzt 4 2 ( 8 ) : 4 3 1 — 4 3 7 .
Dittrich, A dol f
1 9 9 6 A tiol og ie-u nabhà ng ig e Stru k tu ren v erä nder-
ter W achbewu I3 tseinszu stl l nde. Second edition,
B erl in: VW B .
Dobk in de IRios, M arl ene
1 9 7 2 Visionary Vine: H al l u cinog enic H eal ing in the
Peru v ian A mazon. San Francisco: Chandl er.
1 9 8 4 H al l u cinog ens: Cross-Cu l tu ral Perspectiv es.
A l bu q u erq u e: U niv ersity of New M ex ico Press.
1 9 9 2 A mazon H eal er: T he L ife and T imes of an
U rban Shaman. B ridport, Dorset: Prism Press.
Dru ry , Nev il l
1 9 8 9 Vision Q u est. B ridport, Dorset: Prism Press.
1 9 9 1 T he Visionary H u man. Shaftesbu ry , Dorset:
E l ement B ook s.
1 9 9 6 Shamanism. Shaftesbu ry , Dorset: E l ement.
Du k e, J ames A . & Rodol fo Vasq u ez
1 9 9 4 A mazonian E thnobotanical Dictionary B oca
Raton, FL : CRC Press.
Du T oit, B rian M .
1 9 7 7 Dru g s, Ritu al s and A l tered States of Con-
sciou sness. Rotterdam: B al k erna.
E fron, Daniel H . , B o H ol mstedt, & Nathan S. K l ine
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'T he



u nd G enu Il mittel . B asel :


and M ental / I/ ness. New


cy anescens-eine weitere

M itteil u ng sbl att 2 9 : —
Cl au dia &
L iebestrank . M u nich:
M u l l er-E bel ing ,

A arau :

( Datu ra stramoniu m)
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H .
1 9 9 1 Rau schg ift u nd M edizin. M u nich:


psicotropi-
cas 2 4 : —
E tnomedicina y mitol og ia. Ou ito:


H u ichol Creation of the W orl d. Sacra-


A rzneipfl anzen u nd J ag dg ifte.
Stu ttg art:


div inoru m ( L abiatae) " Chem.
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Pharmacotheon E ntheog enic Dru g s, T heir
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A nal og u es: Pang oean E ntheo-
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1 9 9 5 and A y ahu asca A nal og u es: Pan-
G aean

bu ch fü r E thnomediZ in u nd B ewu fl tsemnsforschu ng
3 ( 1 9 9 4 ) : —

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1 9 7 0 Rau schg ift-DrOg en ( second edition) . B erl in
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1 7 0 .
W assé n, S. H enry & B o H ol mstedt
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W asson, R. G ordon
1 9 5 7 " Seek ing the M ag ic M u shroom" L ife ( 1 3 M ay
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1 9 5 8 'T he Div ine M u shroom: Primitiv e Rel ig ion
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1 9 6 2 " A New M ex ican Psy chotropic Dru g from the
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2 0 3
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l ions.
1 ,2 -dimethy l -6 -methox y tetra-
hy dro4 l -carbol ine 1 1 7 , 1 7 9
2 -methy l -6 -methox y tetrahy -
dro-fI-carbol ine 1 1 7 , 1 7 9
3 ,4 -dimethox y pheny l ethy l a-
mine 5 9
3 -hy drox y -4 -methox y phe-
nethy l amine 4 2
3 -methox y -ty ramine 3 9 , 5 9 , 7 7
4 -hy drox y -3 -methox y pheny -
l ethy l amine 5 1 , 6 7 , 6 9
4 -tetrahy droisoq u inol ine al k a-
l oids 5 1
5 -hy drox y dimethy l try ptamine
1 1 7
5 -hy drox y -try ptophane 5 2
5 -hy drox y carneg ine 3 9 , 7 7
5 -M eO-DM T 2 2 , 3 5 , 5 0 , 5 4 ,
6 0 , 6 9 , 7 7 , 1 3 7 , 1 3 8 , 1 3 8
5 -M eO-M M T 1 2 0
5 -methox y ( — N,N) -dimethy l -
try ptamine 6 9 , 1 7 9
5 -OH -DM T -N-ox ide 1 2 0
6 -methox y -N,N-dimethy l try p-
tamine 1 7 9
a-asarone 3 4 , 7 7
A -mu -k / a 1 7 3
A borig ines 4 2 , 7 3 , 7 5 , 1 8 2 ,
1 8 3 , 1 8 3
A cacia 3 4 . 7 2
A cacia resin 7 3 , 7 5
A cacias 7 2 , 7 3 , 7 5
A cacia aneu ra 1 8 3
A cacia coriacea 1 8 3
A cacia k empeana 1 8 3
A cacia l ing u l ata 1 8 3
A cacia maidenl l 3 4 , 7 2 , 7 3 ,
1 3 8 , 1 3 8
A cacia phl ebophy l / a 3 4 , 6 7 ,
7 2 , 7 3 , 1 3 8
A cacia pru inocarpa 1 8 3
A cacia sal / c/ na 1 8 3
A cacia simpl icifo/ l a 3 4 , 7 2 , 7 3 ,
1 3 8
A ccu l taration 6 5
A chu ma 1 6 6 , 1 6 8
A coru s 3 4
A coru s cal amu s 1 6 , 3 4 , 7 6
A fg hanistan 4 1 , 6 8 , 7 3 , 8 8 , 9 9
A fl otox ins 1 9
A frica 2 6 , 3 4 , 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 1 , 4 6 ,
4 9 , 5 0 , 5 2 , 6 0 , 6 4 , 7 3 , 7 6 ,
7 8 , 8 8 , 9 4 , 9 6 , 9 7 , 9 8 , 9 9 ,
1 0 9 , 1 1 0 , 1 1 1 , 1 1 5
A g ara 2 6 ,4 3 , 6 6 , 6 9
A g av e 1 0 9
A g e of H erbal s 1 6
A g ricu l tu re 2 0
A g u acol l a 2 7 , 3 0 , 7 6 , 1 6 8
A g u ardiente 1 4 3
A hij ado 3 9
A hnishinau beg 8 5
A hriman 1 0 2
A i cu ro 1 3 4
A u 1 3 4
A j u ca 7 0 , 7 1
A j U wri-k ahi-má 1 2 6
A l an 1 1 4
A l ander 1 8 9
A l bertu s the G reat 8 7
A l bornoz, Cristobal de 1 2 0
A l cohol 1 0 , 2 3 ,8 2 , 1 6 0
A l cohol ic drink s 6 9
A / cornea castanaefo/ / a 1 3 4
A / cornea fl oribu nda 9 8 , 1 1 4
A l g ae 1 7 , 1 8 , 1 9
A l g onq u in 7 8 , 7 9 , 1 1 0
A l ice in W onderl and 1 0 1
2 0 4
A l k al ine pl ant ash( es) 6 7 , 7 5 ,
1 8 2 , 1 8 3
A l k al oid( s) 2 3 , 3 4 , 3 8 , 3 9 , 4 0 ,
4 2 , 4 3 , 4 7 , 5 0 , 5 2 , 5 3 , 5 4 ,
5 6 , 5 9 , 6 7 , 6 9 , 7 1 , 7 3 , 7 5 ,
7 7 ,7 9 , 1 0 5 , 1 2 0 , 1 8 4
A l l erg ies 4 6
A l pen nomads 7 2
A l tai 8 2
A l ternanthera l ehman/ i 1 2 4
A ma 1 7 8
A macisa 1 3 4
A manita 3 4 , 6 4 , 8 2 — 8 5
A man/ ta mu scaria 1 7 , 2 9 , 3 4 ,
7 0 ,8 1 ,8 2 — 8 5 , 8 2
A maring o, Pabl o 1 2
A mary l l is famil y 2 6
A masita 6 9 , 1 7 8
A mazon 2 4 , 3 0 ,3 6 ,4 9 , 5 9 , 6 0 ,
8 1 , 1 1 7 ,1 2 4 — 1 3 5 ,1 3 9 ,1 4 1 ,
1 6 2 , 1 7 6 , 1 7 7 , 1 7 8
A mazon Val l ey 6 6
A mazonia 1 2 , 3 7 , 5 5 , 5 8 , 6 8 ,
1 1 9 ,1 3 9
A mazonian B razil 7 2 , 7 4 , 1 7 7
A mazonian fol k medicine 6 9
A mazonian Peru 7 9
A merica( s) 2 0 , 3 4 , 7 4 , 7 6 , 8 4 ,
1 1 0 ,1 4 4 ,1 6 2
A merican basil 1 2 4
A merican Sou thwest 7 8 , 1 0 7
A mitabha B u ddha 1 0 8
A mphibians 9 0
A mrita 9 2
A msterdam 1 3 9
A mu l ets 6 8 , 9 0
A nabasine 7 5 , 1 7 9 , 1 8 3
A nabatin 1 8 3
A nadenanthera3 4 , 8 1 , 1 1 6 —
1 1 9 , 1 1 7 ,1 7 9
A nadenanthera col u brina 2 9 ,
3 4 , 6 6 , 1 2 0 , 1 2 2 , 1 2 3
A nadenanthera col u brina v ar.
Ceb1 1 6 6 , 1 2 0 — 1 2 3 , 1 2 0
A nadenanthera pereg rina 2 9 ,
3 5 ,6 6 ,1 1 6 — 1 1 9 , 1 1 6 — 1 1 8 ,
1 3 8
A nadenanthera pereg rina v ar.
fa/ cata 6 6
A nahu asca 1 3 7
A nal g esics 1 3
A nandatandav a 1 0
A natal l ine 1 8 3
A ncestor-commu nication ritu al
1 1 2 — 1 1 5 ,1 2 9
A ncestors —
Indians 7 8
A ndes 3 0 , 3 3 , 3 4 , 4 0 , 4 2 , 4 5 ,
5 3 , 5 9 , 6 6 , 7 4 ,7 6 ,8 1 , 1 1 6 ,
1 1 7 ,1 4 0 ,1 4 1 ,1 4 2 ,1 4 3 ,
1 4 3 , 1 6 8
A ndromedotox in 5 3
A neg l ak y a 1 0 6
A nesthetic 1 0 7
A ng er's tru mpet( s) 6 6 , 1 0 7 ,
1 3 4 , 1 4 0 — 1 4 3
A ng el itos 8 4
A ng iosperms 1 6 , 1 7 , 1 8
A ng l er's W eed 9 6
A ng l o-Sax on period 9 5
A ng ro M ay nes 1 0 2
A nimal K ing dom 1 4 ,1 1 7
A nt/ ar/ s tox / caria 4 6
A ntibiotics 1 9
A ntiq u ity 2 6 , 3 6 , 4 4 , 4 8 , 6 6 , 7 6
A ntil l es 1 1 6
A nx iety 7 3
A pasmä rapu ru sa 1 0
A peritif 7 9
A phrodisiac 4 6 , 5 7 , 6 0 , 6 9 , 7 1 ,
7 3 , 7 5 , 7 7 , 7 8 , 7 9 , 1 0 9 , 1 7 0
A phrodite 9 0
A pol l o 4 4 , 9 0
A pol l o's pl ant 4 4
A pol l o's templ e 9 1
A pomorphine 5 0 , 6 7
A poscopol amine 1 4 1
A ppl es of L ov e 9 0
A q u atic pl ants 6 5
A rabian phy sician 6 8
A rabian territory 9 8
A rabs 7 4
A rapaho 7 4
A rbol de Campanhl l a 7 4
A rbol de l os B ru j os 2 7 , 3 0 , 7 2
A rchichl amy deae 1 7
A rg emone mex / cana 9 8
A rg entina 3 0 , 4 3 , 6 6 , 6 7 , 8 1 ,
1 2 0 , 1 2 2 , 1 6 7
A rg y re/ a 3 5 -
A rg y reia nerv osa 3 5 , 7 8 , 1 0 3
A r/ ocarpu s 3 5 , 4 2 , 7 1
A r/ ocarpu s f/ ssu ratu s 3 5 , 7 0 ,
1 4 7
A riocarpu sretu su s3 5 , 7 0 , 1 4 7
A rizonine 3 9 , 7 7
A romo 1 2 2
A rrow poisons 1 0
A rtau d, A ntonin 8 , 1 4 7
A rtemis/ a l u dov iciana 1 5 3
A rtemisia mex icana 9 8
A ru m famil y 2 6
A ru ndo donax 1 3 8
A ru tam wak ani 1 4 3
A ry ans 7 0 , 8 2
A sarones 3 4
A sia 2 6 , 3 4 , 3 6 , 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 1 , 4 4 ,
4 9 , 5 0 , 5 2 , 5 3 , 6 4 , 8 2 , 8 2 ,
8 4 , 8 8 , 9 5 , 1 0 8
A sia M inor 7 2 , 7 6 , 9 7 , 9 8
A ssassin 7 2
A ssy rians 9 4 , 9 8 , 9 9 , 1 0 2
A storia 1 5 7
A strophy ton aster/ as 1 4 7
A tacama 1 2 0 , 1 2 3
A tang a tree 1 1 2
A thabask an peopl es 7 0
A tropa 3 6 , 8 6 — 9 1
A tropa bel l adonna 1 7 ; 2 9 , 3 6 ,
6 8 ,6 9 ,8 6 — 9 1 ,8 6 ,9 0
A tropa bel iadonna v ar. l u tea
3 6 , 8 6
A tropa cau casia 3 6
A tropa k omarov l i 3 6
A tropine 3 6 , 3 7 , 3 9 , 4 1 ,4 6 , 4 8 ,
7 3 , 8 6 , 8 7 , 1 4 1
A tropos 8 8
A u ditory hal l u cinations 7 7 , 7 9
A u stral ia 2 6 ,3 4 ,4 2 ,4 3 ,7 2 , 7 4 ,
8 1 , 1 3 8 ,1 8 3
A v icenna6 8 , 1 0 7
A x ocatzin 5 7 , 7 2
A y ahu asca 1 2 , 1 9 , 3 0 , 3 6 , 5 5 ,
5 9 , 6 2 , 6 3 , 6 4 , 6 6 , 6 7 , 6 9 ,
8 1 , 1 2 4 — 1 3 5 , 1 2 4 — 1 3 7 ; 1 3 9 ,
1 4 1 ,1 4 3
A y ahu asca additiv e( s) 3 7 , 5 8 ,
1 2 4 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 8
A y ahu asca anal og s 3 4 , 5 4 , 5 5 ,
6 9 , 7 3 , 7 7 , 1 3 1 , 1 3 7 — 1 3 9
A y ahu asca
1 3 0 ,
1 3 1
A y ahu asca v ine 3 6 , / 2 5
A y ahu asca Vision( s) 1 3 3 , 1 3 7
A y ahu asq u ero 1 3 3
A y ahu ma 1 3 4
A y an-bey em 1 1 5
A y u rVedic medicine 6 8 , 7 8 , 7 9
A ztec Codex 6 3
A ztec Dream G rass 7 8
A ztec( s) 2 6 , 2 7 ,4 1 , 4 3 ,4 5 , 5 6 ,
6 0 , 6 2 , 6 3 , 6 6 , 7 0 , 7 2 , 7 4 ,
7 8 , 7 9 , 8 1 , 1 0 9 ,1 4 6 ,1 5 6 ,
1 5 9 , 1 6 4 , 1 6 5 ,1 7 0 , 1 7 2 ,
1 7 3 , 1 7 4
A ztec Sag e 1 6 4
A ztek iu m r/ ter/ / 1 4 7
j I-asarone 7 7
al k al oids 5 2 , 5 9 ,
6 7 , 6 9 , 7 7 , 1 2 7
1 3 -carbol ines 6 7 , 8 1 , 1 2 7 , 1 3 1
1 3 -phenethy l amine 4 0 , 5 7
B acchanal s 8 9
B actr/ s species
M anu scipt 1 0 7
B adoh
Neg ro 4 5 , 6 6 , 1 7 5
B aeocy stine 5 2 , 5 5 , 7 3
B ak ana

3 4
B al i 5 1 ,6 8 ,6 9
1 2 7
B anister/ opsis ( app. ) 3 6 , 6 7 , 6 9 ,
8 1 ,1 2 4 — 1 3 5 ,1 3 7 , 1 3 7 ,1 4 3
B anister/ opal s caap/ 2 9 , 3 6 ,

inebrians 3 6 ,

mu ricata 1 3 1
B anisteriopsis q u / tensis 1 2 4
ru sby ana 6 6 ,

1 7 7 ,
1 3 4
B au del aire, Charl es 1 0 1 , 1 0 1
B au hin
8 8
B eer7 l ,7 4 ,7 5 , 1 0 9 ,1 2 2 ,1 3 0 ,
1 4 1
B el g ian 1 1 4
B el g iu m 1 0 4
B el l adonna 2 6 , 6 8 , 8 8 , 1 0 7
B enares
B eni-T eng u -Dak e 8 5
B en-ben 9 5
B ering Strait 8 4
B ern 9 6
B etel 7 3
B etel chew mix tu re 6 9
B ey ama 1 1 4
B hang
B haraorak asha 9 5
B iak -B iak 7 2
B iang an
9 7 , 1 6 1
B ibra, E rnst Freiherr Von 1 9 6 ,
1 9 7 , 1 9 7
B ig Rav en 8 2
B indweed( s) 1 0 3 , 1 3 5 , 1 7 1
B iocca, E ttore 1 7 6
B ipy ridy l 1 8 3
B l ack H enbane 4 4
B l ak e, W il l iam 8 8
B l ood-red A ng el 's T ru mpet 3 3 ,
3 7 , 1 4 0 — 1 4 3 , 1 4 0
B l u e M eanies 5 1 , 1 4 6 -1 6 3
B l u e W ater L il y 6 6
B og ota 1 1 7
B o/ etu s 3 6 ,
k u meu s 7 4
manicu s 3 6 ,
nirg ov iol aceu s 7 4
reay i 3 6 ,
1 8 , 7 6 ,
A imé 1 4 0

2 7 , 6 6 , 6 8 , 7 4 , 7 6 ,

B otswana 2 6 , 7 2
B ov ista 4 8
B razil 6 6 , 6 8 , 7 0 , 7 2 , 7 3 , 7 7 ,
1 1 7 ,1 1 8 ,1 1 9 ,1 3 9 ,1 7 7 ,

B ritish G u y ana 1 1 9
B ru g mansia ( app. ) 3 7 ,
6 7 ,7 3 ,7 7 ,8 1 ,
arborea 6 6 ,

au rea 3 7 ,

x 6 6 ,
sang u inea 3 3 ,

su av eol ens 6 6 ,

v ersico/ or 6 6 ,
v u / can/ col a 6 6 ,

B ru nfel sia 3 0 , 3 7 , 6 8 , 6 9 , 1 2 4
B ru nfel sia chiricaspi 3 7 ,

fe/ s/ a g randifl ora 3 7 ,

fe/ s/ a g rand/ fl ora sap.
1 3 5
B ry ophy ta 1 6
B u ddha 9 7 , 1 0 7 , 1 0 8
B u ddhism 9 7 , 9 8
B u fo a/ v ar/ u s 2 2
B u fotenine 6 9 , 1 2 0 , 1 2 0
B u sh peopl e 7 3
B u shmen 2 6 , 7 2 , 9 9
B u y é s 1 4 1
B witi cu l t 2 6 ,7 1 , 1 1 2 — 1 1 5 ,
1 1 2 — 1 1 5
Caapi 3 0 , 6 6 , 6 2 , 6 7 , 1 2 4 , 1 2 6
Caapi-Pinima 5 9 , 6 6
Cabal ong a
bl anca 1 3 4
Cacal ia 3 8
cordifol ia 3 8 ,

1 3 1
Cactu s 6 7 , 7 1 , 7 5 , 1 2 4
Caesal pinia 3 8
decapetal a 7 8
sep/ aria 3 8 ,


7 6
Cal athea v eitch/ ana 1 2 4
Cal ea
zacatech/ chi 3 8 , 7 8 , 9 8
Cal ifornia
reg ion 1 6 2
Cal trop 1 3 7
Cameroon 1 1 4
Camps 1 2 7
Campanil l a 2 6
Canada 7 6 ,
Isl ands 7 0
Canav a/ / a mar/ tima 9 8
acids 7 3
Cannabinol ( s) 9 3
Cannabinotic compou nds 7 3
Cannabis 1 2 ,3 8 ,7 2 ,7 3 ,8 1 ,
— — 1 0 7 ,

Cannabis cak es 7 2
Cannabis cig arettes 6 9
Cannabis/ nd/ ca 7 2 , 9 2 —
1 8 5
Cannabis md/ ca x sat/ v a 9 2
Cannabis ru deral is 9 3
Cannabis sat/ v a 1 7 ; 2 9 , 3 8 , 7 2 ,
1 1 4 , 1 8 5
Cannabis su bstitu te 7 7
Caribbean
v / ca 1 7 9 ,
3 9 ,
g ig antea 7 6
7 7
Carrol l , L ewis 1 0 1
Cassiaspp. 1 8 3
Cat's cl aw 1 3 4 , 1 3 5
Catahu a 1 3 4
Catharanthu s roseu s 9 8
Chu rch 1 5 9
1 1 5
Catnip 9 8
Cawe5 l ,

Cebl I 3 0 , 3 4 ,6 6 , 1 2 0 — 1 2 3 , 1 2 0
Cebol etta 6 6
Cecropia mex icans 9 8
Ce/ ba pentandra 1 3 5
Ceremonial
3 9
Cestru m / aev ig atu m 6 8 ,
parq u i3 g , 6 8 ,

9 8
Chacru na 5 5 ,6 6 ,1 2 4 -1 3 5 , 1 3 4
Chacru na B u sh 6 6 , 1 3 9
Chacs 8 4
Chal ice Vine 5 7
Chamico 1 0 9
Channa7 O
7 9
Charas 2 6 , 7 2 , 7 3
Charms 6 8
Chatin area 1 7 4
Chatino 1 5 8
Chau tl e 7 0
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Chav in de H u antar 1 2 2 , 1 6 6
Costa Rica 7 8 , 1 1 8 , 1 6 2
Diag nosis 6 9 , 7 5 , 7 7 , 1 7 7
E pithel antha micromeris 4 2 , 7 0 G ol den A ng el 's T ru mpet 3 7 ,
Chiapas 7 7 , 1 5 9 , 1 6 2 Cotinin 1 8 3
Diarrhea 7 3 ,7 9
E reriba 2 6 ,4 4 , 6 8 1 4 0 — 1 4 3
Chibcha 6 6 , 6 7 , 1 1 6
Cou marines 7 1 , 7 7
Dicoty l edoneae 1 7
E rg ine ( L SA ) 7 9 , 1 0 3 , 1 7 1 G oodenia 1 8 3
Chicha 6 7 , 1 4 0 , 1 4 1 Cowhag e 6 8
Dicty l oma incanescenS 1 3 8 ,
E rg ol ine al k al oids 6 9 , 1 7 1 G ramine 6 9 ,7 7
Chichibe7 2
Cree Indians 7 6
1 3 8
E rg onov ine7 9 , 1 0 5 G ramineae 1 3 8
Chichimeca 1 4 4 , 1 4 5 Crow Dog , H enry 1 5 2
Dicty onema 1 9
E rg ot 2 6 , 3 9 , 6 8 , 6 9 , 1 0 2 — 1 0 5 , G rasses 6 5
Chicl ay o 1 6 6 Cru sades 1 0 3
Dietnes 1 4 2 1 7 1
G reece 1 3 ,2 6 ,6 8 ,7 0 ,7 4 ,8 1 ,
Chihu ahu a 7 0 , 7 4 , 1 4 4 Cry og enine 7 7
Dig ital is 1 0
E rg ot al k al oids 6 9 , 1 0 3
8 6 , 9 7 , 1 0 2
Chil dbirth 9 6 , 1 0 4
Cu ba 4 0 , 6 0 , 1 5 9 , 1 7 5
Dihy droharmine 1 2 7 E rg otamine 1 0 5
G reek phy sician 7 2 , 9 5
Chil e 6 6 ,6 8 ,6 9 ,7 2 ,7 6 ,7 8 ,9 5 ,
Cu l ebra borrachero 1 4 2
Dimethy l try ptamine 6 9 , 7 7 , E rg otine 1 7 2
G rev il l ea striata 1 8 3
1 2 3 , 1 4 1
Cu mal a ( T ree) 6 0 , 1 3 4
1 1 7 , 1 7 9 E rg otism 6 8 , 1 0 3
G u aianas 7 8
Chil icote 6 8
Cu na 9 7
Diony su s 8 8
E rg otoX ifl e 1 0 3
G u ahibo 1 1 7 , 1 1 9
ChimO cu l tu re 1 6 8
Cu randerismo 1 6 6
Dioscorides 1 6 ,8 7 ,9 6 ,1 0 7 ,1 7 1 E rog a 1 1 4
G u ambiano 1 4 0 , 1 4 3
China 6 6 , 7 0 , 7 1 , 7 6 , 7 7 ,7 8 ,
Cu randero 1 0 9 , 1 6 8
Dipl optery s cabrerana 6 6 , 6 7 , E rv atamia pandacaq u i7 6
G u araná 2 9
9 4 , 1 0 7 , 1 0 8 Cu rare 6 9 , 1 2 6
1 2 4 , 1 2 6 , 1 2 9 , 1 3 8
E ry thran ty pe al k al oids 6 9
G u atemal a 6 2 ,8 1 ,8 4 , 1 6 1 , 1 6 2
Chinantec 6 6 , 7 5 , 7 8 , 1 5 8 ,
Cu rare-l ik e activ ity 7 5
Diterpenes 7 7 E ry thrina4 2 , 6 9
G u atil l o 1 3 4
1 7 3 , 1 7 4
Cu scohy g rine 7 3
Div ination 7 5 ,7 7 , 1 0 9 , 1 2 4 ,
E ry thrina americana 4 2 , 6 8
G u ay u sa 2 9 , 1 3 4
Chindoy , Sal v ador 1 4 2
Cu zco 1 2 9 , 1 6 9
1 4 2 , 1 6 4 , 1 7 1 , 1 7 5 , 1 7 7 E ry thrina coral l oides 6 8
G u errero 7 3
Chinese medicine 7 6 , 7 7 ' Cy anog enesis 7 3
Div inatory pl ant 6 9
E ry thrina fl abel l iformis 4 2 , 6 8 G u l f Coast of M ex ico 7 2
Chinese shamanism 9 4
Cy mbopog on 4 0
Div iner's sag e 2 7 , 5 6 , 1 6 4 — 1 6 5 E sak u na 7 0
G u mil l a 1 1 8
Chinese writing s 6 8 , 7 2 , 7 9 ,
Cy mbopog on densifl oru s 4 0 , Div inorin A , B 1 6 5
E schwei! era itay ensis 1 7 1 G u ms 1 8 3
9 4 , 1 0 7
7 0 , 9 8
DM T 6 7 , 6 9 , 7 2 ,7 3 ,7 7 , 1 1 7 , E scobil l a 9 8
G u stav ia poeppig iana 1 7 9
Chiric-Sanang o 6 8
Cy peru s 1 2 4
1 2 0 , 1 2 7 , 1 3 7 , 1 3 7 , 1 3 8 , 1 3 8 E ssential oil ( s) 1 9 , 3 4 , 4 0 ,4 6 ,
G u ttiferae 1 2 4
Chiricaspi 3 0 , 6 8 , 6 9 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 5 Cy tisine 6 9 ,7 1 ,7 5
DM T -N-ox ide 1 2 0
4 7 ,5 7 ,5 8 ,7 1 ,7 5 ,7 7
G u y ana 1 1 6
Chocb 1 4 1
Cy tisu s4 l ,7 1
DOB 1 4
E u cal y ptu s microthecal 8 3
G y mnospermae 1 7 ,1 8 1
Chonta Pal m 1 6 8
Cy tisu s canariensis 4 1 , 7 0 Dobe 7 2
E u cal y ptu s app. 1 8 3
H ades 1 0 5
Chontal Indians 7 8 , 7 9
Dodart 1 0 4
E u g enol 7 5
H aiti 1 1 8
Chorisia insig nis 1 3 5 binol 7 3 , 9 8
Dog G rass 3 8 E u g ster 8 3
H al l u cinations 1 2 , 6 9 , 7 1 , 7 3 ,
Chou dy nasty 9 4
D-nbr-nicotine 1 8 3
Dog bane famil y 2 6 E u phoria 7 1 , 1 0 1
7 5 , 8 6 , 8 8 , 1 0 3 , 1 1 2 , 1 4 1
Christian hol y spirits 1 3 9 Dacha 7 2
Dog rib A thabascan peopl es 8 5 E u phorics 1 3
H al l u cinog en( s) 1 0 -1 4 , 2 8 , 6 2 ,
Christianity 7 0 , 7 9 , 1 1 5 , 1 2 2 , Dag g ha 2 6
Doré , G u stav e 1 0 0
E u rope 1 3 , 1 3 , 2 6 , 6 4 , 6 8 , 6 9 , 6 4 , 6 7 , 6 9 , 7 0 , 7 1 ,7 3 , 7 4 ,
1 4 7
Dag g a 7 2 , 9 8
Dry opteris fil ix -mas 1 6
7 2 ,7 4 , 8 1 ,8 8 , 1 3 9 , 1 5 8 , 1 9 3
7 5 ,7 6 ,7 7 ,7 8 ,7 9 ,9 4 , 1 0 2 ,
Chu chu -caspi 1 3 4
Dama da Noite 6 8
Du boisia 4 2 , 1 8 2 — 1 8 3
E u ropean fol k l ore 7 3
1 0 7 , 1 4 0 , 1 4 1 , 1 4 2 , 1 4 2 ,
Cig ars 1 6 5
Damiana 9 8
Du boisia hopwoodii4 2 , 7 4 ,
E u ropean peopl es 6 8 1 4 7 , 1 7 6 , 1 9 6
Cig arette 7 1 , 7 3 , 7 9 , 9 3 Dá pa 1 2 4
1 8 2 — 1 8 3 , 1 8 3 E v erl asting 9 8
H al l u cinog en-asSisted psy -
Cimora 1 6 8 Dark A g es 9 1
Du boisia my oporoides 1 8 3 Fabaceae 1 3 8
choanal y sis 1 9 3
Cl av iceps 3 9 , 1 0 2 — 1 0 5 , 1 0 2 —
Dark -rimmed M ottl eg il l 5 2 ,
Du boisia app. 2 9
Fal se pey ote 3 5 , 7 0 , 7 4 , 7 8
H al l u cinog enic dreams 6 9
1 0 5
1 5 6 — 1 6 3
Dog G rass 9 8 Fang 1 1 2
H al l u cinog enic dru g s 1 9 1 , 1 9 5
Cl av icepspaspal il O2
Datu ra 1 0 ,2 6 ,2 7 ,4 1 ,6 4 ,6 8 ,
Drag on dol l 9 1
Fang -K 'u ei 5 3 , 7 0 ,7 1
H al l u cinog enic effects 7 3 ,7 5 ,
Cl av icepS pu rpu rea 2 9 , 3 9 , 6 8 , 7 3 , 7 9 , 8 1 , 9 3 , 9 7 , 1 0 6 — 1 1 1 ,
Dreamtime 1 8 2 — 1 8 3
Farmer's tobacco 1 3 4 7 7 , 7 8
1 0 2 — 1 0 5 , 1 0 2 — 1 0 5
1 4 0 , 1 4 1 , 1 4 7 , 1 7 2
Du ck e 1 7 6
Febrifu g e 7 9
H al l u cinog enic intox ication 6 7 ,
Cl inton, B il l 1 5 5
Datu ra ceratoca u / a 1 1 1
Du tch 7 0 , 1 0 2
Fermented drink 6 7
7 1 , 7 5 , 7 7 ,7 9 , 1 9 3
Cl u siaceae 1 2 4
Datu ra discol or 7 8
Du tra 6 8 Fern 1 6
H al l u cinog enic mu shrooms 6 9
Coatl -x ox o u hq u i 1 7 0
Datu ra fastu osa 1 1 0
Dwal e 8 8
Fetish pl ants 1 1 4
H al l u cinog enic smok e 7 2
Coax ihu itl 1 7 0
Datu ra ferox 6 8 , ( 1 0 9 )
Dwal eberry 8 8
Fig famil y 9 3
H ardwick e 1 0 8
Coca 1 3 ,2 9 ,6 4 , 1 1 7
Datu ra innox ia 1 8 ,4 1 ,7 3 ,7 8 ,
E ag l e 6 3 , 1 1 0
Finno-U g rian peopl es 7 0 ,8 2 H armal 7 7
Cocaine 1 2 ,1 1 3 7 9 , 1 0 6 — 1 1 1
E arth G oddess 6 , 6 3 Fish 1 4
H armal ol 1 2 7
Codeine 1 2
Datu ra k y matocarpa 7 8
E arth M other 1 3 3 , 1 4 6 , 1 5 4 Fl ag Root 7 6
H armahne 7 7 , 1 2 7 , 1 2 9 , 1 3 7
Codex B erberiniL atina 2 4 1 , 1 0 7
Datu ra mete! 1 3 , 4 1 , 6 8 , 1 0 6 -
E ast Indies 6 9 , 1 0 9
Fl av ong l y cosides 7 7 H armane 1 2 7
Codex Fl orentino 1 5 9 1 1 1 , 1 0 6
E astern E u rope7 4
Fl oripondio2 7 , 6 6
H armine7 7 , 1 2 7 , 1 2 9 ,1 3 7
Cohoba 2 6 , 1 1 6
Datu ra metel oides 7 8
E astern H emisphere 2 8 , 3 0 Fl y A g aric 1 6 , 1 7 , 2 6 , 3 4 , 6 2 ,
H arrison Narcotic A ct 1 2
Col d tree 6 8 , 6 9
Datu ra pru inosa 7 8
E bena 1 7 7
7 0 , 8 1
H artwich, Carl 1 9 6 , 1 9 7
Col eu s 3 9 , 6 9
Datu ra rebu rra 7 8
E bers Papy ru s 8 6
Fl y ing Sau cers 1 7 0
H ashish 5 ,7 2 ,7 4 , 9 2 — 1 0 1
Col eu s bl u mei 3 9 , 6 8 , 1 6 5 Datu ra app. 2 9 , 1 0 6 — 1 1 1
E bok a 1 1 2
Fol k medicine 7 1 , 7 3 , 7 6 , 7 7 ,
H ashish-snu ffing cu l ts 9 9
Col eu s pu ml l u s3 9 , 6 8 , 1 6 4 ,1 6 5
Datu ra stramoniu m 3 1 , 4 1 , 7 8 , E chinocereu s 4 2 7 9
H ash/ shins 7 2
Col ima 1 6 2 1 0 6 — 1 1 1
E chinocereu s sal mdy ck ianu s France 1 0 3
H awaiian W ood Rose 3 5 , 7 8
Col l enia 1 8 , 1 8
Datu ra stramoniu m v ar. ferox 4 2 , 7 4
French 1 0 2 , 1 1 4
H awk 1 1 0
Col ombia 3 0 , 6 5 , 6 7 , 6 8 , 6 9 , 1 0 9
E chinocereu s trig l ochidiatu s
French A cademy 1 0 4
H awk weed 9 8
7 4 , 7 6 , 1 1 6 , 1 1 6 , 1 1 7 , 1 1 8 ,
Datu ra stramoniu m v ar. tatu l a 4 2 ,7 4 , 7 5
Frij ol es 7 4
H ay o 1 1 7
1 1 9 , 1 2 6 , 1 3 3 , 1 4 0 , 1 4 0 , 1 0 6
E chinopsis pachanol 7 6 Frij ol il l o 2 7
H eath famil y 2 7
1 4 1 , 1 4 2 ,1 6 2 ,1 7 6 ,1 7 7 ,1 7 8
Datu ra wrig htii7 8
E cu ador 2 7 , 3 0 , 6 8 , 6 9 ,7 6 ,7 7 , Frog s 1 4 , 9 0
H ecate 8 8
Col ombian ChocS 7 3 Dau phiné 1 0 3
1 2 6
Fu chs, L eonard 3 1
H eimia 4 3
Col ombian Indiana 6 8 De Candol l e, A . P. 1 0 5
E cu ador/ an A ndes 6 6 , 7 6 Fu ng i 1 8 , 6 5 , 6 5 , 7 1 , 1 5 6 , 1 9 6
H eimia sal icifol ia 4 3 , 7 6 ,7 7
Col ombian Vau pé s 6 9 , 1 2 4 Dead Sea 9 0
E g y pt 5 4 , 7 4 , 8 8 , 1 0 3
Fu rocou marinea 7 1
H eimia species 7 6
Col orado Riv erT oad 2 2
Deadl y Nig htshade 1 6 , 1 7 ,3 6 ,
E g y ptian cu l tu re 6 6 ,8 6
G abon 2 6 ,7 0 ,8 1 , 1 1 2 — 1 1 5
H ek u l a 1 1 6 — 1 1 9 , 1 1 8 , 1 7 9
Col orines 6 8 , 7 4 6 8 , 8 1 , 8 6 — 9 1
E g y ptian H enbane 8 8 G al ang a 4 6 , 7 0
H el ichry su m 4 3
Comanche 1 5 1 , 1 5 2 Death 7 5
E g y ptian sites 7 2
G al bu l imima 4 3
H el ichry su m foetidu m4 3 , 7 6 ,
Common Reed 5 4 , 6 8 Deer 6 3 , 1 4 4 -1 5 5
E idetics 1 2
G al bu l imima bel g rav eana 4 3 , 9 8
Common W ireweed 9 8 Del aware 1 5 4
E l A hij ado 6 8 , 1 6 5 6 6 , 6 9
H el ichry su m stenopteru m 7 6 ,
Condu ro 1 6 8
Del ay , J ean 1 9 0
E l M acho 6 8 , 1 6 4 G al en 7 2 ,9 5 ,9 6
9 8
Cong o 2 6 , 7 0 , 8 1 , 9 7 , 9 9 Del hi 8 5
E l Nene 6 8 , 1 6 5 G al il eo 9 0
H el icosty l iS 4 4
Conibo-Shipibo 1 2 6 , 1 2 9 , 1 3 0 Del iranta 1 2
E l Nino 1 5 9
G al l ows man 9 1
H eil costy l is pedu nczil ata 4 4 ,
Conocy be 4 0 , 1 5 6 -1 6 3
Del iriu m 7 3 , 7 5 , 8 6 , 1 0 3
E l aeophorbia dru pifera 1 1 5 G anj a 2 6 , 7 2 ,7 3 , 9 7
7 8
Conocy be siig ineoides 4 0 , 7 8 Del phi 7 0 , 8 6 , 9 1
E l eu sia 1 0 2 , 1 0 4
G anoderma l u cidu m 1 7
H el icosty l is tomentosa 4 4 , 7 8
Conv ol v u l u s tricol or 1 7 1 Del tg en, Fl orian 1 3 2
E l eu sinian my steries 6 8 ,8 1 ,1 0 2
G arden of E den 9 1
H emp 1 2 , 1 6 , 1 7 , 2 6 , 3 8 , 7 2 ,
Cook e, M ordecai 1 9 6 , 1 9 7 Del u sionog ens 1 2
E l izabetha princeps 6 9 , 1 7 8 , G aston 1 0 3
9 2 — 1 0 1 , 9 2 — 1 0 1 , 1 8 4
Copal 1 5 0 , 1 6 4
Demeter 8 1 , 1 0 4
1 8 1
G eniata 2 7 , 4 1 , 7 0
H enbane 1 3 , 2 6 ,7 0 , 8 1 , 8 6 —
Copel andia 6 8 Depression 7 3
E nema 1 2 2
G enu l l mittel 1 0
9 1 , 8 6 , 1 0 7
Cope/ and/ a cy anescens 6 8 , 6 9 Desfontapia 4 2
E ng l and 7 4 , 9 5 , 9 6 , 1 0 4 G erard 9 1 , 1 0 9
H enry VIII 9 5
Cora Indiana 9 7 , 1 4 5 , 1 4 6 ,
Desfontainia spinosa 2 7 , 4 2 , E ntheog ens 1 2
G erman( s) 1 0 2 , 1 1 4
H erb of the Shepherdess 7 0
1 4 7 , 1 4 9
7 6 ,7 7
E pená 6 8 , 6 9 , 7 3 , 1 7 6 — 1 8 1
G ermany 9 5 , 1 3 9 , 1 4 3
H erbs 6 5 ,7 5
Coral B ean 7 4
Desg rang es of L y ons 1 0 4
E phedra 8 4
G hang i 9 7
H erná ndeZ , Dr. FranciscO 7 2 ,
Coral T ree 4 3
Desmanthu s il l inoensis 1 3 8
E phedra g erardiana 8 4
G i'-i-Sa-W a 7 0
1 0 9 , 1 4 6 , 1 5 7 , 1 7 0
Coriaria 4 0
Desmodiu m 1 3 7 , 1 3 8
E phedrine 1 9 , 7 3
G i'-i-W a 2 7 , 7 0
H erodotu a 9 4
Coriaria thy mifol ia 4 0 , 7 6
Desmodiu m pu l chel l u m 1 3 8 E pil epsy 1 0 3
G ig antó n 7 6 , 1 6 8
H eroin 1 2 , 1 1 3
Cory phanta 4 0 , 6 7
Desmodiu m app. 1 3 8
E pil obiu m ang u stifol iu m 7 1 G ing er 7 1
H eu resia 8 7
Cory phanta compacta 4 0 , 6 6 Dev il 'S H erb 8 8
E pinephrine 1 4 5
G ing er famil y 2 6
H ex ing H erbs 8 6 — 9 1
Cory phanta pa! merii4 O Dhatu ra 1 0 7
E piphy l l u m 1 2 4
G inseng 9 1 , 9 4
H idal g o 9 9
Cory phanta app. 6 6
Di-shi-tj o-l e-rra-J a 7 8
E pithel antha 4 2
G od-narcotic 7 3
H ieraciU m pil osel l a 9 8
2 0 5
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H ierba de Ia Pastora 2 7 , 7 0 ,
1 6 4 — i 6 5
H ierba de Ia Virg en 7 0
H ierba L oca 2 7 , 5 3 , 7 6
H ierba M aria 1 7 5
H ig hl and M ay a 6 2
H ik u l i 6 6 , 7 0 , 7 4 , 1 5 1
H ik u l i M u l ato 4 2 , 7 0 , 7 1
H ik u l i Rosapara 7 0 , 7 8
H ik u l i Su namé 7 0
H l k u ri 7 4 ,7 8 , 1 4 8 , 1 5 0
H ik u ri Orchid 5 0
H imal ay as 3 0 , 9 8 , 9 7 , 1 0 6
H indu 1 3 , 9 3 , 9 7
H iporu ru 1 3 4
H ippornanes 1 0 9
H ispaniol a 1 1 6
H oa-G l io 9 5
H oasca 1 3 9
H offerl 3
H ofmann, A l bert 1 3 ,2 2 , 1 6 2 ,
1 8 7
H oj a de Ia pastors 1 6 4
H ol y Fire 1 0 3
H omal omena l au terbachil 4 4
H ornal omena sp. 4 4 , 6 7 , 6 8
H omer 8 6
H ong o de San Isidro 7 8 , 1 5 6
H oop-petticoat 5 1 , 1 S6 — 1 6 3
H ops 7 1 ,9 3
H ottentots 2 6 , 7 0 , 9 6 , 9 9
H u aca 1 4 1
H u acacachu 2 7 , 6 6
H u acachaca 1 4 1
H u achu ma 1 6 8 , 1 6 8
H u anto 2 7 , 6 6
H u edhu ed 7 6
H u eipatl 7 2
I-tu ey y tzontecon 1 7 4
H u ichol 6 ,8 ,6 2 , 6 3 ,7 0 ,7 1 ,7 2 ,
7 3 , 7 4 ,7 8 , 1 4 4 , 1 4 5 , 1 4 6 ,
1 4 7 , 1 4 8 , 1 4 9 , 1 5 0 ,
1 5 0 ,1 5 1 , 1 5 1 , 1 5 4 ,1 6 2 , 1 9 6
H u il ca 6 6 , 7 4 , 1 2 2
H u mbol d, B aron A l ex ander
v on 1 1 6 ,1 1 8 ,1 1 9 ,1 4 0
H u mming bird 1 6 6
H u mu l u s 9 3
H u ng arian stamp 1 7 5
H u sk anawing ceremony 1 1 0
H y oscy amine 6 9 , 7 1 , 7 3 , 7 5 ,
7 9 , 8 6
H y oscy amu s 4 4 , 8 6 — 9 1
H y oscy amu s al bu s 1 3 , 4 4 , 7 0 ,
8 6 — 9 1
H y oscy amu s nig er4 4 , 7 0 , 8 6 —
9 1 ,8 6
H y oscy amu s app. 2 9 ,8 6 — 9 1
H y pnotics 1 3
l bog a5 8 , 6 4 , 7 0 , 7 1 ,8 1 ,1 1 2 —
1 1 5 , 1 1 2 — 1 1 5
Ibog a cu l t 1 1 2
l bog aine7 l ,

acid 7 1 , 8 3
Ice Pl ant famil y 2 6
/ / ex drink s 6 4
Incense 1 5 0
India 2 6 ,6 2 , 6 6 ,6 8 ,6 9 , 7 0 ,7 2 ,
8 2 , 8 8 , 9 2 , 9 5 , 9 7 , 9 7 1 0 7 ,
1 0 8 , 1 0 8 , 1 0 9
Indian H enbane 8 8
Indian peopl es 6 9
Indian writing s 7 4 , 9 8
Indians 6 6 ,6 7 ,6 9 ,7 2 , 7 3 ,7 4 ,7 9
Indochina 1 0 8
Indol e al k al oids 7 1 , 7 7 , 7 9 ,
1 0 3 ,1 1 3
Indol ic al k al oids 7 9
Indonesia 2 6
Indra 8 2 , 8 3 , 9 2
Indu s Val l ey 8 2
Inebriation 8 8
Ing ano Indians 1 4 1
Initiation ritu al 6 7 , 7 1 ,7 9 ,8 1 ,
1 1 0 , 1 1 0
Insanity 7 3 , 7 7 , 8 6 ,1 6 8
Inspiration 1 0 0
Intox icant 7 3 , 7 4 , 7 6 , 7 9
2 0 6
Intox icating 3 1
Intox icating drink 7 7
Intox ication 1 0 , 6 7 , 6 9 , 7 1 ,7 2 ,
7 5 , 7 7 ,7 9 ,1 0 8 ,1 1 2 ,1 4 5 ,
1 7 2 ,
6 8
l ochroma 4 5
Iochroma fu chsioides 4 5 ,
tribes 7 4
Ipomoea4 5 , 1 7 0 — 1 7 5 , 1 7 0 — 1 7 5
Ipornoea carnea 1 3 4 , 1 3 5 , 1 7 2
Ipomoea ru brocaeru l ea 4 5
v iol acea 2 9 , 4 5 ,
1 7 0 — 1 7 5 , 1 7 0 — 1 7 5
Irel and 1 0 4
Iresine 1 2 4 ,
macrophy l l a 1 7 8
Iso-l y serg ic acid amide ( iso-
L SD) 7 9 , 1 8 6 , 1 8 7
Isoharmine 1 2 7
Isol eosibirine 7 7
Isotoma l ong / fl ora 1 6 8
7 0 , 9 8 , 1 1 5
J ag u ar( s) 1 1 9 ,1 2 6 ,1 3 0 ,1 4 2
J al isco 1 6 2
J ambu r 6 8
J apan 8 3 , 8 5
J esu it( s) 1 4 5 , 1 6 2
J esu s 1 5 4
J ibaro 6 4 , 6 9 , 1 4 1 , 1 4 2 , 1 4 3
J imsonweed 7 8
J opa
Fl av iu s 9 0
J ou zmathal 1 0 7
J u l iana Codex 8 7
J u ng ianschool l 9 o
J u rema 7 0
J u rema T ree 4 9
J u remahu asca 1 3 9
J u st ic/ a 4 5 ,
J u sticia pectoral / s v ar.
phy l l a4 5 ,7 2 ,1 7 8 , 1 8 1
K abu y are
4 6
K aempferia g al ang a 4 6 ,
9 9
K ahi 1 2 4 , 1 2 6
K ak u l j á -ik ox 8 4
K al ahari desert 1 9 6
K al amota 7 0
K al inchok 3 0
K amsá 7 4 , 7 7 ,1 4 1 , 1 4 2
tK amtchatk a 8 5
K ana 1 3 4
K andahar
K anna 2 6 , 7 0 , 7 1
K apok tree
K arau etaré 1 7 7
K arimé 1 7 7
K aritiana Indians 7 2
K aru k a madness 7 7
K asai 9 9
K ashmir 9 7
K athmandu 9 3 , 1 5 8
K au y u mari 6 3 , 1 4 8
1 3 , 2 6 , 6 4
K echwa 6 2
K hu rsu

7 2 , 7 3
K iel itsa 7 3
K ieri 7 2
K it
1 5 1 ,1 5 2 ,1 5 3
K irishaná 1 7 7
K och-G rOnberg , T heodor 1 8 0
K och/ a scoparia 1 2 7

K orea
K oribo 5 9 , 7 2
K ory ak 6 4 , 8 2 , 8 3
K ou g oed
District 8 2
K ratom 4 9 , 7 2
K u l u ene Riv er 2 4
K u ma7 S, 1 1 1
K u ma M u shroom 3 6
K u ng 9 7
K u ripak o 1 7 7
K washi 2 6 , 5 2 , 7 2
K y k eon 1 0 4
L a B arre, W eston 6 4
L ady of the Nig ht 3 9 , 6 8 , 9 8
L ag ochil ine 7 9
L ag ochil u s 2 6 , 4 6
L ag ochil u s inebrians2 6 , 4 6 , 7 8
L ak e Victoria 9 9
L atu a 4 6
L atu a pu b/ fl ora 4 6 ,
2 7 ,4 6 , 7 2 , 7 3
L atu y 7 6
L atv ia 7 5
L e-sa 1 7 9
L ecy thu s 8 1
L eg u minosae 1 3 8
L emon
4 0 , 9 8
L eon, Padre Nicol as de 1 4 7
L eonotis 4 7
L eonotis l eonu ru s 4 7 ,
4 7
L eonu ru s sibir/ cu s 4 7 ,
7 7
L eosibirine 7 7
L espedeza capital s 1 3 8
L ev itation 7 7
L ewin, L ou is 1 3 , 1 9 6 , 1 9 7 , 1 9 7
L i Shih-chen 1 0 7
L ianas 6 5
L ichens 1 8 , 1 9
L ibation 9 1
L iberty Cap( s) 5 5 , 7 2 , 1 5 6 —
1 6 3
L i/ / u rn cand/ du rn 1 6
L il y -l ik e pl ants 6 5
L indl ey , J ohn 1 6
L innaeu s, Carol u s 1 6 , 1 0 7 , 1 8 9
L innO, Carl v on 1 6
L ion's T ail 4 6 , 7 2
L iq u or 1 0 9
L ithu ania 7 5
L l anos 1 1 6
L obel amidine 7 9
L obel ia 4 7
L obel ia tu pa 4 7 ,7 8
7 9
L ol iu m 1 0 2
L ornar/ opsisj apu rensis 1 2 4
of Frank fu rt 1 0 4
7 0 ,

L ophophora diffu sa 4 7 ,
wil / / amsii 6 ,
4 7 , 7 4 , 7 5 , 1 4 4 — 1 5 5 , 1 8 6
L ov e potion 7 5
L SA 7 9
L SD 1 4 ,6 9 ,7 5 ,7 7 , 1 7 1 , 1 8 5 ,
1 8 6 , 1 8 9 , 1 9 0 ,1 9 3
L SD ecstasy 1 9 5
L u cil l u s 9 5
L u mhol tz, Carl 1 4 4 , 1 4 7
L u pu na 1 3 4
L y coperdon
marg inatu rn 4 8 ,
mix tecoru rn 4 8 , 7 0
sp.
1 6 8
L y g od/ u rn v enu stu m 1 2 4
acid 6 9 ,
L y serg ic acid amide 7 5 , 1 0 3 ,
1 7 1 ,1 8 5 , 1 8 7
L y serg ic acid diethy l amide
( L SD) 6 9 , 1 7 1 . 1 8 7
L y serg ic acid hy drox y ethy ! a-
mide7 5 , 1 0 3 ,1 7 1 ,1 8 5 , 1 8 7
M a
9 4
M aa-j u n 9 7
M ace 7 4
M acedonia 1 0 2
M ack enzie M ou ntains 8 5
M aconha 2 6 , 6 8 , 7 3
M aconha B rav a 9 8
M acropsia 6 7 , 7 1 , 1 3 3
M adag ascar Periwink l e 9 8
M adonna L il y 1 6
M aenads 8 8
M ag ic ceremonies 7 1 , 7 2
M ag ic infu sions 7 1
M ag ic M u shrooms 1 4 ,2 2 , 1 5 9
M ag ic pl ant 7 3
M ag ic potion 7 4
M ag l iabecchiano Codex 1 6 2
M ahay ana 9 7
M ahek ototen shaman 1 7 9
M aicoa 2 7 , 6 6
M aik oa 1 4 3
M aiden's A cacia 3 4 , 7 2
M aize beer7 9 , 1 0 9 ,1 2 2 ,1 4 1 ,
1 4 1 , 1 5 0

Indians 6 6 . 6 9 , 1 7 6
M ak u na 1 7 7
M al aria 9 5
M al ay a 9 8
M al ay sia 7 2
M al v a Col orada 7 2
M al oca 1 3 0 , 1 3 2
M al ou etia tamaq u ar/ na 1 2 4

1 3 8
M ammil l aria 4 8 , 7 8
M amm/ l l ar/ a craig / i 4 8 ,
g raharni/ 4 8 , 7 8 ,7 9
hey der/ i4 8 , 7 9
s/ nil / s 7 8


8 1 ,8 6 -9 1
M andrag ora offic/ naru rn 4 8 ,
8 6 — 9 1
M andrag orine 7 3
M andrak e 2 6 , 4 8 , 7 2 , 7 3 , 7 4 ,
8 1 , 8 1 ,8 6 ,8 6 -9 1 ,8 7 ,8 8 ,
8 9 , 9 0 , 9 1 , 1 0 7
M andrak e root 9 1
M A O inhibitor 1 2 7 , 1 3 1 , 1 3 7
2 7 , 6 6 , 6 9 , 7 2 , 7 8
M aq u ira4 g , 7 4
scl erophy l l a 4 9 ,

1 5 0 ,
1 5 0 , 1 5 4
M araba

1 2 , 1 3 , 1 7 ,7 2 ,7 3 ,
7 9 , 9 2 — 1 0 1
M arij u ana su bstitu te 6 9 , 7 3 ,
7 6 , 9 8
M arij u anil l o 7 6
M ascag an/ a g l andu / ifera 1 2 4
psiophy l l a v ar.
1 2 4

4 5 , 7 2


M atwCi 3 8 ,

M ay pu re
1 4 ,6 6 ,6 8 ,7 0 ,7 1 ,
7 5 ,
1 6 5 ,
and the Dwarfes 8 4
M edina Sil v a, Ramó n 1 4 8 ,
1 4 8 , 1 4 9 , 1 5 0 k 1 5 1
M el al eu ca sp.

M atthfl u s 8 1
M esa
M escal B ean 2 6 , 2 7 , 5 7 , 6 8 ,

M escal B u tton 7 4
M escal ine 2 2 , 2 3 , 7 5 , 7 7 , 1 4 5 ,
1 6 7 , 1 8 5 , 1 8 6 , 1 8 7 , 1 8 9
7 1
M esembrine 7 1
M esembry anthenu rn 7 1
ex pan-
su m 7 0
M esembry anthenu m tortu o-
su m 7 0

1 4 0
M estizos
1 7
M etanicotine 1 8 3



Indians 7 4
M ex ican M u g wort 9 8
M ex ico 6 ,2 2 , 2 6 , 2 7 , 6 2 , 6 4 ,
6 6 , 6 8 , 7 0 , 7 1 , 7 2 , 7 4 , 7 8 ,
8 1 ,9 7 ,9 9 ,1 0 7 ,

1 5 0 ,1 5 1 ,1 5 6 ,
1 6 2 ,
1 7 3 , 1 7 4
M ex ico
9 6
M iamil l 3
M ichig an 8 5
M ichoacan 1 5 8
M ictl antl cu htl i 1 6 2
M iddl e A g es 1 4 , 6 8 , 6 9 , 7 0 ,7 4 ,
8 1 , 1 0 2 , 1 0 4
M iddl e A merica 7 8
M idwiv es 6 9
M ihi 1 2 4
M il k y
1 7 4
M imohu asca

host/ l / s4 9 , 7 0 ,7 1 , 1 3 8
M imosa scabrel l a 1 3 7 , 1 3 8
tenu / fiora 4 9 ,
1 3 9
v erru cosa 7 0
M ing dy nasty 1 0 7
M inoan cu l tu re 6 6
M int 6 4
M isperceptinog ens 1 2
M istl etoe


speciosa 4 9 ,

1 5 8
M ix tec( s)
7 7
M oche


M ong ol oids

M onomethy l thry ptamine 1 7 9
M opope, Stepehn 1 5 2
M oraceae
7 4 ,

— 1 8 5

1 2 , 2 0 , 2 1
M other G al a 1 7 3
M u cha, A l phonse 1 4 3
M u cu na5 o, 6 9


M Q Il er, Ferdinand J . H . v on 1 8 3
M ü nchhau sen 1 0 5
M u hipu -nu ri 1 7 6
M u inane 1 7 8
M u isca



7 1
M u scimol e7 l , 8 3
M u shroom madness 7 5
M u shroom cap 6 3
M u shroom stones 1 6 1
M u shrooms 1 4 , 1 7 , 2 3 , 6 2 , 6 9 ,
7 0 , 7 1 , 7 3 ,7 8 ,7 9 ,8 1 , 1 5 6 —
1 6 3 ,
7 3
M u tterk orn


frag rans 5 0 ,
5 0 , 1 3 8
M y risticine 5 0 , 7 5
M y sticomimetics 1 2
M y thol og y 6 3 , 6 8 ,7 2 ,
1 8 3
N-formy l nornicotine 1 8 3
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N-methy l -3 ,4 -di-methox y phe- Ok l ahoma 1 5 2 Persephone 8 1 , 1 0 5 Protestantism 1 1 5 Red Canary G rass 5 4
ny l ethy l amine 7 9 Ol d W orl d 3 0 , 6 4 , 6 7 , 6 8 , 7 2 , Persia 9 8
Pseu do-hal l u cinationS 1 4 Red T eng u mu shroom 8 5
N,N-dimethy l try ptamine 7 1 7 8 , 9 0 , 9 2 , 9 7 , 1 0 7 ,1 7 6
Peru 6 6 , 6 7 , 6 8 , 7 6 , 8 1 , 9 5 , Psil ocine 2 3 , 2 3 , 6 9 , 7 3 , 7 9 , Reed G rass 7 6 , 7 7
N,N-DM T 6 7 , 6 9 , 7 1 , 7 7 Ol ol iu q u i 2 6 , 6 0 , 6 4 ,6 6 ,7 1 ,7 4 , 1 0 9 , 1 2 2 , 1 2 7 , 1 2 9 , 1 4 0 , 1 5 9 , 1 8 5 , 1 8 6 , 1 8 7 Reichel -Dol matoff, G erardo
Naeher, K arl 1 1 3 1 0 3 ,1 1 1 ,1 5 6 ,1 7 0 — 1 7 5 ,
1 4 1 , 1 6 2 ,1 6 6 , 1 6 6 ,1 6 7 , Psil ocy be 5 4 , 5 5 ,1 5 6 — 1 6 3 , 6 2 ,1 2 6 ,1 3 1 , 1 3 2
Nahu a 1 5 8
1 7 0 — 1 7 5 ,1 8 5 , 1 8 7 ,1 8 9 1 6 9 , 1 7 8 1 7 1 Reindeer mil k 7 1 ,8 2
Nahu atl 1 0 9 , 1 4 6 , 1 6 2 , 1 7 0 , Omag u a 1 4 0
Peru v ian A mazon 1 3 5 , 1 6 2 , Psil ocy be acu tissima7 8 Remo caspi 1 3 4
1 7 4 Oncidiu m 5 0 1 7 8
Psiocy be aztecoru m 6 3 ,7 8 Reserpine 1 3
Nandi 1 0 9
Oncidiu m cebol etta 5 0 , 6 6 , 6 7 Peru v ian Indians 6 6 , 6 7 , 1 3 5 Psiocy be azu renscens 1 5 6 , Resin 6 9 , 7 5 , 1 7 6 , 1 7 8 , 1 8 1
Naranj o, Cl au dio 1 1 3 Opiate addict 1 1 3
Peru v ian shaman 1 2 1 5 7
Rheu matism 7 7
Narcosis 1 7 4
Opiu m ( poppy ) 1 2 , 1 3 , 2 0 , 2 1 , Petu nia 2 7 , 5 3 , 7 6 , 7 7 Psil ocy be caeru l escens 7 8 , Rhizomes 6 7
Narcotic( s) 1 0 , 2 6 , 3 1 , 7 2 , 7 3 , 1 0 0 , 1 0 4
Petu nia v iol acea 5 3 , 7 6 1 6 3
Rhy nchosia 5 6 , 7 5
7 5 , 1 0 7
Opiu m su bstitu te 7 2
Peu cedanu m 5 3 , 7 1 Psil ocy be v ar. Rhy nchosia l ong eracemosa
Narcotic fru it 7 4
Opiu m-l ik e effects 7 2
Peu cedanu mj aponicu m 5 3 , al bida 7 8 7 4
Natema 3 0 , 1 2 4 , 1 4 3 Opu ntia 1 2 4 , 1 4 5 7 0 , 7 1 Psil ocy be caeru l escens v ar. Rhy nchosia phaseol oides 5 6 ,
Nativ e A merican Chu rch 7 4 , Oracl e of Del phi 8 6 , 9 1
Pey ote 6 , 8 , 1 2 , 1 3 , 2 6 , 4 7 , 6 2 , mazatecoru m 7 8 , 1 5 6 7 4 , 7 5
1 5 2 , 1 5 2 , 1 5 3 , 1 5 5
Orchid, orchids 6 5 , 6 6
6 3 , 6 4 , 6 6 , 7 0 ,7 4 , 7 5 , 8 1 , Psiocy be caeru l escens v ar. Rhy nchosia py ramidal / s 7 4
Nativ e A merican tribes 7 1 Oreg on 1 5 7
9 9 ,1 4 3 ,1 4 4 — 1 5 5 ,1 5 7 ,1 6 6 , n/ g ripes 7 8 , 1 5 6
Riamba cu l t 9 9
Nau wal d, Nana 1 2 2 ,1 3 7 , 1 9 4 , Org ies 8 8
1 7 2 , 1 7 4 , 1 8 4 , 1 8 6 Psil ocy be caeru l escens v ar. Ribas, Padre A ndrea Perez de
1 9 5
Orinoco 2 6 , 2 7 , 7 2 , 8 1 , 1 1 6 , Pey ote bird 1 5 5 ombroph/ l a 7 8 1 4 5
Nav aj o 1 1 0 , 1 5 5 1 1 8 . 1 1 9 , 1 7 6 , 1 7 7
Pey ote Cimarró n 7 0 Psil ocy be cu bensis 5 4 , 7 8 , Rig -Veda' 8 2 , 8 3
Nay arit 1 4 6 , 1 6 2
Orinoco basin 6 6 , 1 1 9 , 1 7 6 , Pey ote cu l t 6 3 , 7 5 , 1 4 4 1 5 6 -1 6 3 , 1 5 7 , 1 5 9 Rio B ranco 1 1 9
Nazca cu l tu re 1 6 6 1 7 7
. Pey ote de San Pedro 7 8 Psil ocy be cy anescens 5 5 , Rio G rande 7 4
Ndzi-ebok a 1 1 5 Orteg a 1 6 5
Pey ote fan 1 5 5 1 5 6 -1 6 3
Rio M adeira 7 2 , 1 1 9
Near E ast 6 8 Osag e 1 5 3
Pey ote festiv al 6 Psil ocy be hoog shag eni/ 1 5 7 Rio M arahon 1 4 0
Necromancers 8 7 , 9 4 Osca 1 1 7
Pey ote su rrog ate 6 7 ,7 0 , 1 4 7 Psil ocy be mex / cana 2 2 , 5 5 , Rio Neg ro 1 7 7
Neocerdan-diterpenes 1 6 5 Oshtimisk W aj ashk wedo 8 5
Pey otil l o 5 3 , 7 4 , 1 4 7 7 8 , 7 9 , 1 5 6 -1 6 3 , 1 5 6 Rio Pu rü s 1 7 7
Neol ithic 9 4
Osmond, H u mphrey 1 3 , 1 9 1 Pey otl 1 4 6 , 1 5 6 , 1 8 6 Psil ocy be mix aeensis 7 8 Rio T ik ié 6 6
Neoraimondia macrostibas Otomac 1 1 8
Pfaffl a 1 3 4 Psil ocy be pel l / cu l osa 1 5 8 Rio Vau pé s 6 6 , 1 2 6
1 6 8 Otomi 1 5 8
Pfaffl a iresinoides 1 3 4 Psil ocy be semil anceata 5 5 ,7 2
Ritu al istic sig nificance 6 7
Nepal 2 7 , 3 0 , 7 8 , 8 4 , 9 3 , 1 0 6 ,
Ou t-of-body ex periences 1 6 5 Phal aris 5 4 Psil ocy be semperv iv a 7 8 , 1 5 6 R/ v ea cory mbosa 7 4
1 0 7 , 1 5 8 Pachy cereu S 5 1
Phal aris aru ndinacea 5 4 , 7 6 , Psiocy be sil / g ineoides 1 5 7 Roman priests 8 9
Nepeta cataria 9 8 Pachy cereu s pecten-aborig i- 1 3 8 , 1 3 8 Psil ocy be species ( = spp. ) 2 9 , Romans 9 5
Nerv al , G erard de 1 0 0 nu m 5 1 , 6 6
Phal aris tu berosa 1 3 8 , 1 3 8 7 9 , 1 5 6 -1 6 3 Rome 7 0 , 7 4
Netherl ands 1 3 9 Pacific 6 4 , 1 6 2
Phanerothy mes 1 2 Psil ocy be wassonii7 8 , 1 5 7 Root B eer Pl ant 9 8
Nettl e famil y 9 3
Pacific North W est 1 5 8
Phantastica 1 3 , 1 9 6 , 1 9 7 Psi/ ocy be y u ng ensis 7 8 , 1 5 6 , Rosa M aria 9 9
New E ng l and 9 5 , 1 0 4 Paé z 1 4 0
Phantasticants 1 2 1 6 2
Rosa spinosiss/ ma 1 7
New G u inea 2 6 , 7 0 , 7 4 , 7 6 , 7 7 Pag u ando 4 5 , 7 4
Pharmahu asca 1 3 7 Psil ocy be zapotecoru m 7 8 Rosebu d Reserv ation 1 5 2
New Orl eans 9 9
Painted Nettl e 3 9 , 1 6 4
Phenethy l amine( s) 6 7 , 7 1 , 7 5 Psil ocy bin( e) 2 3 , 2 3 , 6 9 , 7 3 ,
Roy al B otanic G ardens, K ew
New Spain 1 2 2 ,1 4 6 Pak idá i 1 7 7
Pheny l al anine 1 8 5 7 9 , 1 5 7 ,1 5 9 , 1 8 5 , 1 8 6 , 1 8 7 , 1 1 7 , 1 2 6
New W orl d 2 6 , 3 0 , 6 2 , 6 4 , 6 6 , Pak istan 6 8 ,7 3
Pheny l ethy l amin( s) 1 8 5 1 8 9
Ru biaceae 1 3 8
6 7 , 7 3 ,7 8 , 9 0 ,9 9 , 1 0 5 , 1 0 7 , Pal eol ithic 1 4 0
Phil ip II of Spain 1 4 6 Psy chedel ic dose 7 3 Ru iz, Fortu nato 1 2 0
1 0 7 , 1 0 9 , 1 4 4 , 1 7 6 Pal m wine 7 1
Phil ippine Isl ands 6 8 Psy chedel ic therapy 1 9 1 Ru ssel , F. 1 1 0
New Y ears's E v e 8 4 , 1 5 3 Pal o de borracho 1 3 5
Phrag mites au stral / s6 8 , 1 3 8 Psy chedel ic( s) 1 3 , 1 9 1 Ru ssians 8 2
Niando 9 8 Pal q u i 6 8 , 6 9 ,9 8
Phry g y l anthu s eu g eno/ des Psy choanal y sis 1 9 1 Ru taceae 1 3 8
N/ cot l ana ru st/ ca 7 9 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 4 Panacea 7 3
1 2 4 Psy chody sl eptics 1 3 Ry e 6 8 , 1 0 2 , 1 0 2
Nicotiana fabacu m 1 7
Panaeol u s 5 1 ,5 2 , 1 5 6 — 1 6 3 Phy sa/ is sp. 1 7 4 Psy chog ens 1 2 Sabbat 6 9
Nicotine 7 5 , 1 8 3
Panaeol u s cy anescens 6 8 Phy tol acca 5 4 Psy chol y ws 1 9 0 , 1 9 1
Sacred mu shroom( s) 1 4 ,7 8 ,
Nierik a 6 3 , 1 9 6
Panaeol u s sph/ nctrinu s 5 1 , 7 8 , Phy tol acca acinosa 5 4 , 7 6 , 7 7 Psy choses 1 2
7 9 , 1 4 7 , 1 5 9
Nig htshade 7 4 ,8 9 1 5 6 — 1 6 3 , 1 5 7
Pichana 1 3 4 Psy chosomimetics 1 2 Sacred tree 7 8
Nig htshade famil y 2 6 , 2 7 , 3 0 , Panaeol u s su bbal teafu s 5 2 , Pij aos 1 4 2 Psy chotarax ics 1 3 Sadhu 9 3
7 5 , 8 6 , 8 8 , 8 9 1 5 6 -1 6 3
Pima 1 1 0 Psy chotica 1 2 Sat rol 7 5
Nig htshades 5
Panama 9 7 , 1 6 2
Pincu shion Cactu s 4 0 , 4 8 Psy choticants 1 2 Sag u aro 3 9 , 7 6 , 7 7
Ninfa 6 6
Panax g inseng 9 1 Pindé 3 0 , 1 2 4
Psy chotomimetic( s) 1 2 , 1 3 Sahag U n, Fray B ernardino de
Niñ os ( santos) 1 4 , 1 6 1 , 1 6 4 Pancratiu m 5 2
Pinu s strobu s 1 7 Psy chotria 5 5 , 1 2 4 — 1 3 5
1 1 1 , 1 4 4 , 1 4 5 , 1 4 7 , 1 5 9 , 1 7 0
Niopo 2 7 , 1 1 9
Pancratiu m trianthu m 5 2 , 7 2 Piper au r/ tu m 9 8
Psy chotr/ a carthag / nens/ s 1 2 4 Sal amé n 1 4 2
Nonda 7 4
Pandanu s sp. 5 2 , 7 6 , 7 7
Piper methy st/ cu m 6 4
Psy chotr/ a poeppig / ana 1 3 8 Sal em 1 0 4
Nor-l obel amidine 7 9
Papav ersomniferu m 2 1 Pipil tzin 1 6 5
Psy chotr/ a v ir/ dis 5 5 , 6 6 , 6 7 , Sal ta 1 2 0
Noradrenal ine 1 4 5 , 1 8 4 , 1 8 6 , Papu a 2 6 , 6 6 , 6 8
Pipil tzintzintl i 2 7 , 7 0 , 1 6 4 — 1 6 5 1 2 4 — 1 3 5 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 5 , 1 3 7 , Sal v es 7 4
1 8 7
Paracel su s 1 0 , 2 0
Piptaden/ a pereg r/ na 1 1 6 1 3 8 , 1 3 9
Sal v ia 5 6 , 6 8 , 1 6 4 — 1 6 5
Norcarneg ine 7 7 Parahu ré 1 7 7
Piraparaná 1 3 3 , 1 7 6 Pteridophy ta 1 6
Sal v ia d/ v inoru m 1 4 , 5 6 , 7 0 ,
Norepinephrine 1 8 4 , 1 8 5 Pariana reg ion 7 4 Pin pin 1 3 4 Pu cal l pa 1 3 3
7 1 , 1 6 4 — 1 6 5 , 1 6 4 — 1 6 5 , 1 8 4
Norharmine 1 2 7 Paricé 6 8 , 6 9 , 1 7 7
Pital l ito ( cactu s) 4 2 , 7 4 , 7 5 Pu ebl a 9 9 , 1 5 8
Sal v inorin A 7 1 , 1 6 5
Norman times 9 5 Paris 1 0 2
Pitu ri 7 3 , 7 4 , 7 5 , 8 1 , 1 8 2 — 1 8 3 Pu ff bal l s 2 7
Sal v inorin B 1 6 5
Nornicotine7 5 , 1 8 3 Parj any a8 2
Pitu ri B u sh 4 2 , 7 4 ,1 8 2 — 1 8 3 , Pu inav e 1 7 7
Samadhi 1 8 9
Nornu ciferine 6 7 Parsees 1 0 2
1 8 2 , 1 8 3 Pu l ma 1 3 4
San A ntonio 1 4 7
Norscopol amine 1 4 1
Pashu patinath 2 7 , 9 3 , 1 0 7 Pitu rin( e) 7 5 , 1 8 3 Pu na reg ion 1 2 0 , 1 2 3
San B artol o Y au tepec 1 7 4
Nortropine 7 3
Paspal u m g rass 1 0 4 Piu l e 2 7 , 5 6 , 6 6 ,7 4 , 1 7 4 Pu tu may o 1 2 6
San Critobal de L as Casas 1 5 9
North A frica 9 7
Pass/ fl ora inv ol u crata 1 2 7 Pl ains tribes 1 5 2 Py g my 9 7 , 1 1 2
San Isidro 5 4 , 1 5 6 — 1 6 3
North A merica 2 6 , 7 0 , 8 4 , 9 5 , Pass/ fl ora spp. 1 2 7 , 1 2 9 Pl ant K indom 1 6 -1 9 Py thag oras 9 0
San L u is Potosi 1 4 8
1 5 8
Passionf l ower 1 2 9 Pl iny the E l der 9 5 Py thia 9 1
San Pedro ( cactu s) 2 7 , 5 9 , 7 6 ,
Nti-si-tho 1 5 9 Paste 6 7 , 6 9 ,1 7 8
Pl u toniu on 1 0 4 Q u apaw Indians 1 5 3 1 6 6 -1 6 9 , 1 6 6 — 1 6 9
Nu ciferine 6 7
Pau maré Indians 1 7 7 Poison 7 3 , 8 6 Q u echu a 1 2 4
Sananco 1 3 4 , 1 3 5
Nu tmeg 2 6 , 5 0 , 7 4 ,7 5 , 1 7 6 Pastora 1 6 4
Poison B u sh 7 4
Q u etzal ax ochiacatl 6 6 Sanang o 5 8 ,7 6
Ny ak wana6 8 , 6 9 , 1 7 7 ,1 7 8 Pay e( s) 1 1 7 ,1 7 6
Pok eberry s4 Q u iche-( M ay a) 8 4
Sandison, Ronal d A . 1 9 0
Ny l 1 3 3
Ped/ / anthu s t/ thy ma/ oides 1 6 8 , Pol y nesian Isl anders 6 4 Q u inde 1 4 2
Sandoz 1 8 7
Ny iba-ebok a 1 1 5 1 6 9
Pol y poral es 1 7
Q u inol izidine ty pe al k al oids 7 7 Sansk rit 6 8 , 1 0 7 , 1 0 8
Ny mphaea 5 0 , 6 7
Peg anu m 5 2 , 1 2 4 , 1 3 7 — 1 3 9
Pol y trichu m commu ne 1 6 Q u inta essentia 2 0
Santo Daime 1 3 9
Ny mphaea arnpl a 5 0 , 6 6 , 6 7
Peg anu m harms/ a 5 2 , 6 9 , 7 3 , Pombe 1 0 9
Ratsch, Christian 2 7 , 1 8 9 Saponines 6 9 , 7 3 , 7 7
Ny mphaeacaeru l ea5 0 , 6 6
7 6 ,7 7 ,1 2 4 ,1 2 7 , 1 2 9 ,1 3 7 , Popocatepetl 6 3 ,1 6 1 Rahner, H u g o 8 8 Satori 1 8 9
Oax aca 6 6 , 7 0 , 7 5 , 7 8 , 1 5 8 , 1 3 9
Popol Vu h 1 6 1 Rain priests 7 9 , 1 1 0 Sax on times 9 5
1 6 2 , 1 6 4 , 1 7 0 , 1 7 3 , 1 7 4 Pel ecy phora 5 3 Poppy 2 0 , 2 1 ,2 4
Raj aw K ak u l j á 8 4 Scandinav ia 8 8 , 1 0 2
Obstetrics 6 9
Pel ecy phora asefil formis 5 3 , Ports 9 0 Rami 1 3 4
Scel etiu m 5 6 , 7 1
Ochre 1 4 2 7 4
Prescott 1 0 5 Rape dos Indios 4 9 ,7 4 Sce/ etiu m ex pansu m5 6
Ocimu m micranthu m 1 2 4
Pen T sao Ching 9 4 Prick l y Poppy 9 8 Rasping stick 1 5 0
Scel et/ u m tortu osu m 5 6 , 7 0 ,
Oco-y aj é 1 2 6
Pernambu co 7 0 Prisoners 7 5 Rav en 9 1 9 8
Ocotl 1 7 2
Pernetl y a 5 3 , 7 7
Prophecy 7 5 , 1 2 4 , 1 7 7 Recreation 6 9
Sc/ rpu s atrov irens 5 6
Ointments 7 0
Pernetty a fu rens 5 3 , 7 6 , 7 7 Prophesy 8 6 Red B ean 2 6 , 7 4 , 7 5
Scirpu s sp. 5 6 , 6 6 , 6 7
Oj ibwa 8 5
Pernetfy a parv ifol ia 5 3 , 7 6 , 7 7 Protector 7 1 Red B ean Dance 7 5
Screw Pine 5 2 , 7 6
2 0 7
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Scopine 7 3
Scopol amine 6 7 , 6 9 , 7 1 , 7 3 ,
7 5 , 7 9 , 8 6 , 8 7 , 1 0 7 , 1 4 1 ,
1 8 3
Scopol etine 6 9 , 7 5
Scopol ia 5 7
Scopol ia carniol l ca 5 7 , 7 4
Scotch Rose 1 7
Scy thians 7 2 , 9 4 , 9 5 , 9 7
Sea B ean 9 8
Seaweeds 1 7
Secal e cereal e 1 0 2
Sedativ es 1 3
Sedg es 6 5
Semil l a de Ia Virg en 1 7 5
SeminarcosiS 7 5
Sen Indians 7 7
Serotonin( e) 2 2 , 1 2 0 , 1 5 9 ,
1 7 1 , 1 8 5 , 1 8 7
SertOrner, Friedrich 2 0
Sesq u iterpene-l actone 7 9
Shaman( s) 8 , 3 0 , 6 2 , 6 7 , 6 9 ,
7 2 , 7 5 , 8 2 , 8 2 , 1 2 0 , 1 2 6 ,
1 3 4 , 1 3 9 , 1 4 2 , 1 4 8 , 1 4 9 ,
1 5 6 , 1 6 4 , 1 6 8 , 1 7 5 , 1 7 6 ,
1 7 8
Shamanic medicine 7 6 , 1 1 7
Shamanic sig nificance 6 7 , 7 1
Shamanism 6 4 , 8 5
Shang -l a 7 6 , 7 7
Shanin 5 3 , 7 6
Shanshi 2 7 , 4 0 , 7 6
Sharon, Dou g l as 1 6 9
She-to 7 8
Scheel ea 1 8 0
Shen-Nu ng 9 4 , 9 5 , 9 5
Shimbe L ak e 1 6 8
Shipibo Indians 1 2 5 , 1 2 6 ,
1 2 9 , 1 3 0 , 1 3 1
Shirianá 1 7 7
Shiv a 1 0 , 1 3 , 9 2 , 9 3 , 9 7 ,
1 0 8 , 1 0 8 , 1 0 9
Shiv a L ing am 1 0 7
Shru bs 6 5
Siberia 2 6 , 6 4 , 7 0 , 7 1 , 8 2
Siberian L ion's T ail 7 6
Siberian M otherwort 4 7 , 7 6 ,
9 8
Sibu ndoy Val l ey 6 7 , 7 4 , 1 4 1 ,
1 4 2 , 1 4 2
Siby l 9 1
Sierra M adre Occidental 9 7 ,
1 4 7
Sierra M adre Oriental 1 6 4
Sida 5 7 , 7 2 , 7 3
Sida acu te 5 7 , 7 2 , 9 8
Sida rhombifol ia 5 7 , 7 2 , 9 8
Sinal oa 1 4 5
Sinicu iche 2 7 , 4 3 , 6 3 , 7 6 , 7 7
SinO cu l tu re 6 5
Siona 1 2 6
Siou x medicine man 1 5 2
Srnok ehaou se 7 1
Snail shel l l ime 6 7 , 1 1 8 , 1 1 9
Snu ff( s) 2 7 ,6 7 ,6 8 ,7 3 ,7 5 ,8 1 ,
1 1 6 — 1 1 9 , 1 1 6 ,1 2 0 — 1 2 3 ,
1 7 6 — 1 8 1
Sog amoza 1 4 0
Sol anaceou s 7 1
Sol andra 7 2 , 7 3
Sol andra brev ical y x 7 2
Sol andra g u errerensis 7 2 , 7 3
Sol anu m maniacu m 1 7 0
Soma 6 2 , 6 2 , 7 0 , 8 2 — 8 5 , 9 7
Somal ata 8 4
Sonora 7 7
Soothsay er 1 2 2
Sophora secu ndifl ora 6 8 , 6 9 ,
7 4 , 7 5 , 1 5 2
Sorcerers7 l ,7 7 , 1 1 2 ,1 4 7
Cherry 8 8
Sorcery 7 3 , 1 2 4
Sotho 9 6
Sou th A frica 7 0 ,7 1 ,7 2 ,7 6 , 9 7
Sou th A merica 1 9 , 2 6 , 2 7 , 3 0 ,
6 2 , 6 5 , 6 6 , 7 6 . 7 7 , 8 1 , 9 5 ,
1 1 8 , 1 1 8 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 5 , 1 4 0 ,
1 6 2 , 1 6 6 , 1 7 2
Sou th A merican Indian 3 3
2 0 8
Sou theast A sia 2 6 , 7 3
Sou thwest 2 6 , 1 0 9
Spain 1 5 7
Spaniards 1 5 6 , 1 7 1
Spanish cronicl es 7 4 , 1 4 4 ,
1 7 3
Spathiphy l l u m canaefol iu m
1 7 9
Species Pl antaru m 1 6
Spermatophy ta 1 7
Sphaeradenia 1 7 9
Spru ce, Richard 2 4 , 2 4 , 6 5 ,
1 1 7 ,1 1 9 , 1 2 6 ,1 3 2 ,1 7 6
Sri
A nthony 1 0 3 , 1 0 4
St. A nthony 's fire 2 6 , 6 8 , 1 0 2 —
1 0 5
St. Peter 1 6 6
Stearns, J ohn 1 0 5
Stimu l ant 7 1 , 7 3 , 7 5 , 7 9
Straw Fl ower 4 3 , 7 6
Stopharia cu bensis 1 5 8 , 1 5 9
Stry chnos u sambarensis 1 2 7
Stu por 6 7 , 1 4 1
Su ccu l ents 6 5
Su cu ba 1 3 4
Su i period 1 0 8
Su n Father 6 3 , 1 0 6 ,1 1 7 ,1 3 1 ,
1 3 3 , 1 7 6
Su n G od 9 1
Su ng dy nasty 1 0 7
Su rarfl 1 7 7
Su shrata 9 5
Sweet Cal omel 7 6
Sweet Fl ag 1 6 , 2 6 , 3 4 , 7 6
Switzerl and 9 6
Sy rian Ru e 5 2 , 7 6 , 7 7 ,1 2 4 ,
1 2 7 , 1 2 9 , 1 3 9
Sy phil is 1 7 0
T aM a7 2
T abaco del Diabl o 4 7 , 7 8
T abernaemontana 5 8 , 7 6
T abernaemontana coffeoides
5 8 , 7 6
T a be rnaemontana crassa 5 8 ,
7 6 , 7 7
T abernaemontana dichotoma
7 6 , 7 7
T abernaemontana pandaca-
q u i7 6
T a be rnaemontana sananho
5 8 , 1 3 4 , 1 3 5
T a be rnaemontana spp. 5 8
T abernanthe 5 8 , 1 1 2 — 1 1 5
T abernanthe ibog a 2 9 , 5 8 , 7 0 ,
1 1 2 — 1 1 5 , 1 1 2 — 1 1 5
T ag etes 5 8 , 7 8 , 7 9
T ag etes l u cida 5 8 , 7 8 , 7 9
T ag Il i 2 7 , 7 6
Iamb 1 1 6
T aiq u e 2 7 , 4 2 , 7 6
T aj ik tribesmen 7 8
T ak emoto 8 3
T ak ini 4 4 , 7 8
T amu 7 8
T anaeciu m 5 9
T anaeciu m noctu rnu m 5 9 , 7 2 ,
7 3
T anay in 1 1 0
T annins 7 3
T anzania 7 0 , 1 0 9
T antric practices 9 3 , 9 7
T aoist 9 4 , 1 0 7
T arahu mara 8 , 6 6 , 6 9 , 7 0 , 7 1 ,
7 4 ,7 5 ,7 8 ,7 9 , 1 4 4 , 1 4 7 ,
1 4 9 , 1 5 0 , 1 5 1
T arascans 1 5 8
T atar 7 8
T atewari 6 2 , 1 4 8 , 1 5 0
T ax ine 1 9
T el epathine 1 2 6 , 1 2 7
T el iostachy a l anceol ata v ar.
crispa 1 2 4

T eochichimeca ritu al 1 4 7
T eonaná catl 5 5 , 6 2 , 7 8 ,.

1 8 7
T eotihu acá n 1 7 3
T epantitl a 1 7 3
T epecano Indians 9 9
T epescohu ite 7 0
T esg u ino 1 0 9
T etrahy drocannabinol 1 8 4 ,
1 8 4
T etrahy droharmine 7 7 , 1 2 7
T erahy droharmol 1 2 7
T etrahy droisoq u inol ine al k a-
l oids 6 7 , 7 5 , 7 7
T etrapteris 5 9 , 1 2 4 — 1 3 5
T etra pier/ s methy stica 5 9 ,

ra p/ er/ s mu cronata 6 6 ,

1 5 6
T ey hu intl i 1 5 7
T ex as
7 8
T hal l ophy ta 1 7
T H C 9 6 ,9 8 , 1 8 4 , 1 8 4 , 1 8 5
T hail and 7 2
T hebes 7 2 , 9 7
T heobroma 1 7 9

deriv ativ es 7 9
T hIe-Pel ak ano 7 8
T horn A ppl e 1 3 , 2 6 , 3 1 , 4 1 ,
7 9 , 1 0 6 — 1 1 1 , 1 0 9
T hornappl e 7 8
T hrace 1 0 2
T iahu anaco 1 2 0 , 1 2 2
T ibet 7 8 , 9 7 , 9 8
T l amanal co 6 3
T l apatl
T l il il tzin 6 6 , 1 7 4
T M A 1 4
T o-shk a

6 3 ,6 4 ,
6 9 ,

1 3 0 ,1 3 4 ,1 3 4 ,1 4 0 ,1 4 3 ,
1 4 8 ,1 4 9 ,1 5 0 ,1 5 3 ,1 6 5 ,



2 7 , 4 1 , 6 9 ,

7 8 , 1 0 9
T ol ohu ax ihu itl 1 0 9
T ol tecs 1 4 4
T ong a6 6 ,

7 9
T orna
C. M anu el 1 2 0
T orres, Donna 1 2 3
T otu bj ansu sh 7 4
T ox icon 1 0
T rance, cl aiv oy ant 7 1
T rance, v isionary 7 5
T rance( s) 7 7 , 8 8
T ranq u il izers 1 3 , 1 9 1
T ree of K nowl edg e 8 8 , 1 2 2
T rees 6 5
T ribu / u s terrestris 1 2 7 ,

pachanoi 5 9 ,
— —
T rimethox y pheny l ethy l amine
7 5
ferns 1 9
T riptol emu s 8 1
T riterpenes 7 1
T ropine 7 3
T ropane al k al oids 6 9 , 7 1 , 7 3 ,
7 5 ,
deriv ativ es 6 7 , 7 5 ,
1 5 9 ,
7 3 , 8 1 , 1 1 7 ,
1 2 0 ,1 2 9 ,1 3 8 ,1 7 1 ,1 8 0
T ry ptophane
J ohann J . 1 4 0
T su wiri 7 0
T u batu l obal tribe 1 1 0
T u k ano( an) Indians 6 7 , 1 2 4 ,
1 2 6 ,1 2 7 ,1 3 1 , 1 3 3 ,1 7 6 ,
1 7 7

T u nas
1 1 7 , 1 4 1
T u pa
6 0 , 1 7 0 — 1 7 5 , 1 7 0 —
1 7 5
T u rbina cory mbosa 2 9 , 6 0 ,

T u rk estan
M int 4 6 , 7 8
T u rk oman tribesmen 7 8
T u rk ey Red v ariety 1 3 8
T u rner 9 1
T u rnera diffu sa 9 8
6 5
T zompanq u ahu itl 6 8
U cu ba
U . S. Pharmacopoeia 9 9
U k raine 1 0 4
U mu 1 2 2
U ncaria fomentosa 1 3 4 ,
U niä o
my stica 1 8 9
U nited Staates 1 3 , 7 4 , 7 5 , 9 9 ,
1 4 4 ,1 5 1 ,1 5 2 ,1 5 4 ,1 5 5 ,
1 9 1 ,
U ppsal al 6 ,
U rticaceae 9 3
U sbek tribesmen 7 8
Vaccin/ u m ol / g inoru m 7 1
8 2
Val des
7 2
Varanasi
Varu na
6 9
Vau pé s 1 3 1
Vay a
1 4 , 1 6 0
Venezu el a 1 1 9 ,

v im/ na/ is 1 8 3
9 9
Vertine 7 7
Viho-mahse 1 7 6
Vik ing s 9 5
Vil l ca3 O, 3 4 , 6 6 ,1 2 0 ,1 2 2 ,
1 2 2
Vil Ica camay o 1 2 2
Vil Ica Coto 1 2 2
Vine

de J u rema 7 1
Virg inia 9 5 , 1 1 0
Virol a ( spp. ) 6 0 ,

ca/ ophy l l a 6 8 , 1 7 6 ,1 7 7 ,

V/ rol e ca/ ophy / l oidea 6 8 , 1 7 6 ,
1 7 7
cu sp/ data 1 7 6
1 7 6 ,1 7 8
l oretensis 1 7 6 ,
pav onis 1 7 8
Virol a peru v ians 1 7 6
ru fu l a 1 7 6
sebifera 1 3 8 , 1 7 6
V/ rol e su rimanensis 1 7 6 , 1 7 6 ,
1 7 8
the/ odors 6 0 ,
1 7 6 , 1 7 7 , 1 7 8
Vision-indu cing q u al ity 7 3 , 7 7
Vision-seek ing dance 7 4
Vision-q u est 7 5
Visions 1 4 ,2 6 ,2 7 , 6 4 , 6 7 , 6 9 ,
7 1 , 7 5 , 7 7 , 7 9 , 1 0 9 , 1 1 0 ,
1 2 2 , 1 4 8 ,

africans 7 8
bra cteata 7 8
dreg ei7 8
Voacang a g rand/ fl ora 6 0 ,
6 0


1 7 8 , 1 7 9 ,
1 8 1
W al ang ari K arntawarra J ak a-
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6 4
W asson, B . G ordon 8 2 , 1 5 9
W ater L il ies 5 0 , 6 6
W attisham 1 0 4
W av y Cap 5 5
W eidmann, Fred 1 9 3
W est A frica 7 7
W est Indies 6 6 , 1 1 6
W estern H emipshere 2 8 , 2 9 ,
3 0
W estern society 6 2 , 7 5 , 7 9 ,
8 1 ,1 1 5
W hal e 8 2
W hite Pine 1 7
W ichi 1 2 0
W ichowak a 6 6
W ichu ri 6 6
W ichu rik i 7 8
W il d Dag g a 7 2 , 9 8
W il Ica 1 2 2
W ine
7 7
W irik u ta6 2 , 1 4 8 , 1 4 8 ,1 5 0 ,
1 5 1
W itch( es) 8 9
W itch's B erry 8 8
W itchcraft 7 1 , 7 2 8 9
W itches mark et 1 6 6
W itches' brews 6 8 ,6 9 , 7 0 ,7 1 ,
7 3 , 7 8 , 7 9 , 8 6 — 9 1
W itches' ointments 7 4
W itches' sal v es 7 4
W itoto 1 7 6 , 1 7 8
W ol f's M il k pl ant 1 6 9
W ood Rose 7 8 , 7 9
W orl d tree 1 3 5
W y soccan 7 9 , 1 1 0
X erophy tes 6 5
X ibal ba 1 6 1
X ing 0
X ix icamatic 1 7 4
X ochipil l i 6 3 , 1 6 1
7 4 , 1 7 3
X tohk 'u h 1 0 9
Y ag e6 7 , —




Y anomamo
Indians 2 7 , 7 0 ,

Y arinacocha 1 2 9
Y as
6 8
Y au htl i 5 8 , 7 8
Y ek wana 1 2 6 , 1 7 6
Y el l ow H enbae 4 4
Y oco 2 9
Y og is
Y og u rt 9 7
Y ohimbine 7 3
Y ok u t Indians 7 9 , 1 1 0
Y op





Y u pa
Indians 7 9 , 1 6 2
Y u ru pari ceremony 6 7 , 1 2 9 ,
1 3 1
7 8
Z acatechichi 2 7 , 7 8 , 7 9
Z aire
Val l ey 9 9
Z amey eM ebeg e 1 1 2
Z apbtec 6 6 , 7 5 , 1 7 3 , 1 7 4 ,
1 7 4 , 1 7 5

9 4
Z ornia diphy l l a 9 8
l et/ to/ ia 9 8
7 6
Z u ni Indians ( = Z u ñ i) 7 9 , 1 0 6 ,
1 1 0
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A

Richard Evans Schultes

Albert Hofmann
Christian Rätsch

PLANTS OF THE GODS
Their Sacred, Healing, and Hallucinogenic Powers

"The more you go inside the world of Teonanacati, the more things are seen. And you also see our past and our future, which are there together as a single thing already achieved, already happened:. I saw stolen horses and buried cities, the existence of which was unknown, and they are going to be brought to light. Millions of things I saw and knew. I knew and saw God: an immense clock that ticks, the spheres that go slowly around, and inside the stars, the earth, the entire universe, the day and the night, the cry and the smile, the happiness and the pain. He who knows to the end the secret of Teonanacati can even see that infinite clockwork."
.
.

—Maria Sabina

A

Healing Arts Press
Rochester, Vermont

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Caution: This book is not intended as a guide to the use of hallucinogenic plants. Its purpose is to offer scientific, historical, and cultural documentation concerning a group of plants that are or have been of importance to many societies. Ingestion of some of these plants or plant products may be dangerous. The remedies, approaches, and techniques described herein are meant to supplement, and not be a substitute for, professional medical care or treatment. They should not be used to treat a serious ailment without prior consultation with a qualified healthcare professional.
Healing Arts Press One Park Street Rochester, Vermont 05767 www.lnnerTraditions.com

First published by Healing Arts Press in 1992 A production of EMB-Service for Publishers, Lucerne, Switzerland Copyright © 1998 (updated version) EMB-Service for Publishers, Lucerne, Switzerland English translation second edition Copyright © 2001 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Schultes, Richard Evans. Plants of the gods : their sacred, healing, and hallucino-

genic powers I Richard Evans Schultes, Albert Hofmann, Christian Rbtsch.—2nd ed.
p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references
ISBN 0—89281—979—0

1. Hallucinogenic plants. 2. Hallucinogenic plants—Utilization. 3. Ethnobotany. I. Hofmann, Albert, 1906- II. Rätsch, Christian, 1957- Ill. Title QK99.A1 S39 2001 394.1'4—dc2l 2001004425

1098765432
Healing Arts Press is a division of Inner Traditions
International

Picture on title page: Mayan El Salvador, late formative period (300

stone" from
c.—&. D. 200);

height 13 ¼in. (33.5cm).
Original concept and design: Emil M. BOhrer, Franz Gisler, Joan Halifax, and Robert Tobler New material translated by: Annabel Lee and Michael Beasley Composition: SatzWeise, FOhren, Germany PhotolithographY: Pesavento AG, Zurich, Switzerland

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von Schwind's Album of Etchings. Hashish) 170 VINES OF THE SERPENT Ipomoea (Morning Glory) Thrbina (Ololiugui) 102 ST. OCR. and preparing a brew to help them achieve this goal. Marijuana. published in 1843. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . THE PLANT KINGDOM PHYTOCHEMICAL RESEARCH ON SACRED PLANTS 140 TRUMPETS OF THE ANGELS Brugmansia (Golden Angel's Trumpet) Brugmansia (Blood-Red Angel's Trumpet) 20 26 GEOGRAPHY OF USAGE AND BOTANICAL RANGE 31 62 144 THE TRACKS OF THE LITTLE DEER Lophophora (Peyote) PLANT LEXICON WHO USES HALLUCINOGENIC PLANTS? 156 LITTLE FLOWERS OF THE GODS Conocybe Panaeolus cyanescens (Blue Meanies) Panaeolus sphinctrinus (Hooppetticoat) Panaeolus subbalteatus (Dark-rimmed Mottlegill) Psilocybe cubensis (San Isidro) Psilocybe cyanescens (Wavy Cap) Psilocybe mexicana (Teonanácatl) Psilocybe semilanceata (Liberty Cap) 65 81 OVERVIEW OF PLANT USE THE MOST IMPORTANT HALLUCINOGENIC PLANTS Amanita (Fly Agaric) 82 MAINSTAY OF THE HEAVENS 86 THE HEXING HERBS Atropa (Deadly Nightshade) Hyoscyamus albus (Yellow Henbane) Hyoscyamus niger (Black Henbane) Mandragora (Mandrake) 164 DIVINER'S SAGE Salvia divinoru. ANTHONY'S FIRE Claviceps (Ergot) 176 SEMEN OF THE SUN Virola (Epená) 106 HOLY FLOWER OF THE NORTH STAR Datura innoxia (Toloache) Datura metel (Datura) Datura stramoniuna (Thorn Apple) 182 GATEWAY TO DREAMTIME Duboisia (Pituri Bush) 184 CHEMICAL STRUCTURES OF HALLUCINOGENS 188 USES OF HALLUCINOGENS IN MEDICINE 196 EPILOGUE 198 PICTURE CREDITS 199 BIBLIOGRAPHY Page 4 left: The witches of medieval Europe induced inebriation with a great 112 GUIDE TO THE ANCESTORS Tabernanthe (Iboga) 116 BEANS OF THE HEKULA SPIRIT Anadenanth era peregrina (Yopo) 120 SEEDS OF CIVILIZATION Anadenanthera colubrina (CebIl) variety of brews. This illustration. a woodcut. 124 THE MAGIC DRINK OF THE AMAZON Banisteriopsis (Ayahuasca) 199 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 204 INDEX PDF compression. both malevolent and benevolent.CONTENTS 7 PREFACE 9 INTRODUCTION 10 WHAT ARE PLANT HALLUCINOGENS? 16 Psychotria (Chacruna) Peganurn (Syrian Rue) Tetrapteris (Yage) 137 AYAHUASCA ANALOGS The dreaming smoker stretched out comfortably on his chaise enjoys visions induced by Hashish. This engraving is from M. During their intoxications. most of which had at least one of the Nightshades as a psychoactive constituent. published in 1459. possibly during a dry spell. they engaged in many aspects of hexing.n 166 CACTUS OF THE FOUR WINDS Trichocereus (San Pedro) 92 THE NECTAR OF DELIGHT Cannabis (Hemp. portrays two witches calling for rain and thunder.

OCR. a gift from the Earth Goddess to humans to assist them in attaining a connection to her in the mystical realms. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor A . the Peyote cactus (Lophophora williams/i) (see page 7) is not a plant but a god. at which all members of the tribe partake in eating the freshly harvested Peyote cactus. PDF compression.For the Huichol Indians of Mexico. The Huichol celebrate a great Peyote festival every year (be/ow).

Re- markably preserved plant fossils have recently been discovered dating back 3. but the production of substances profoundly affecting the mind and spirit is often not so easily recognized. solar energy is stored in the form of chemical energy. the building materials for both plant and animal organisms. Plants also yield active principles employed as medicines.PREFACE The earliest forms of life on Earth were plants. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . These are the plants that make up the substance of Plants of the Gods.2 billion years. 7 PDF compression. The intimate relationship between the human and plant world is easily discerned. OCR. The green plant cover of the earth has a marvelous relationship with the sun: chlorophyll-bearing plants absorb solar rays and synthesize organic compounds. the human being. In vegetable matter. Thus the Plant Kingdom provides not only bodybuilding foods and calories but also vitamins essential for metabolic regulation. Plants that alter the normal functions of the mind and body have always been considered by peoples in nonindustrial societies as sacred. including that most recent of creatures. These early plants provided the foundation for the development of all later forms of plants and indeed of animals. and the hallucinogens have been "plants of the gods" par excellence. focusing attention on the origin of their use and the effect that they have had on man's development. source of all life processes.

The Thrahl4mars (1947) The shamans of the Huichol Indians use the sacred Peyote cactus so that they may attain a visionary state of consciousness in the alternate reality which is causal to occurrences in mundane reality. where to find it. with it man attains the realm beyond the material. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor 8 . PDF compression. what affects the former will change the latter. The shaman in the middle of the yarn painting is depicted with a skull because he is a "dead man" and thus has the ability to travel into the nether realms. OCR." —Antonin Artaud. and the Peyote tells us."In consciousness dwells the wondrous.

How could man in archaic societies better contact the spirit world than through the use of plants with psychic effects enabling the partaker to communicate with supernatural realms? What more direct method than to permit man to free himself from the prosaic confines of this earthly existence and to enable him to enter temporarily the fascinating worlds of indescribably ethereal wonder opened to him. I hope that the plants of the gods retain their valuable position in our world and that they reach the many people upon whom the sacredness of nature is dependent. however. An educated public must be an integral part in such development of scientific knowledge. it was a milestone in ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology. and psychiatry has not advanced so rapidly as many other fields of medicine. It is for this reason that we offer the present volume—directed neither to the scientists who are deeply involved in research in this field nor to the casual reader. the past thirty years have witnessed There is. such as visual." or as agents to be employed merely as aids in hedonistic adventure? nal character of the book and reflects the current state of knowledge. OCR. industrialized. especially in so controversial a field as hallucinogenic drugs. For man's mind. and urbanized society. need curative and corrective agents. The book inspired and influenced many young researchers around the world and encouraged them to continue in their own work. confounding. without any doubt. Christian Rätsch 9 PDF compression. further the practical interests of mankind. Are these nonaddictive drugs of interest as "mind-expanding agents. Some plants contain chemical compounds capable of inducing altered perceptions. have been known and employed in human experience since earliest man's experimentation with his ambient vegetation. It is our factories. Because of this there have been some new discoveries about the plants of the gods. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . most assuredly. mystical. bound to ancient traditions and ways of life. auditory. Hallucinogenic plants are complex chemical pleft organ. olfactory. even though fleetingly. and gustatory hallucinations. Their full potential as aids to human needs is not yet fully recognized. in one way or another. yet modern Western so- cieties have only recently become aware of the significance that these plants have had in shaping the history of primitive and even of advanced cultures. I have tried to incorporate the new information in a way that preserves the origi- Hallucinogenic plants are strange. Why? Because they are only now beginning to be the subject of truly scientific study. The amazing effects of these mind-altering plants are frequently inexplicable and indeed uncanny." as media for attaining "the mystic experience. increase interest in the technical importance of the study of these biodynamic plants. that they have long played an important role in the religious rites of early civilizations and are still held in veneration and awe belief that scientists—for the sake of humanity itself and its advancement—must make technical knowledge available to those able to take advantage of its presentation. Little wonder. Many questions about the activity and constituents of psychedelic plants have been clarified. Some of these mind-altering plants and their active chemical principles may indeed have far-reaching positive effects when they are fully understood. tac- tile. or causing artificial psychoses that. but to the concerned public. hoping that it may. It is in this spirit that we wrote Plants of the Gods. Richard Evans Schultes Albert Hofmann as sacred elements by certain peoples who have continued to live in archaic cultures. The results of these investigations will.INTRODUCTION The use of hallucinogenic or consciousnessexpanding plants has been a part of human experience for many millennia. by hallucinogens? THE REVISION When the book Plants of the Gods first appeared in 1979. as well as his body and the organs of the body. then. In fact. another aspect that engages the scientist's attention: Can a thorough understanding of the use and chemical composition of these drugs not lead to the discovery of new pharmaceutical tools for psychiatric treatment or experimentation? The central nervous system is a most com- a vertiginous growth of interest in the use and possible value of hallucinogens in our own modern. mainly because it has not had adequate tools.

however stimulating it may be in one or more phases of its activity. Under this broad definition. On the right is a Datura flower. But the term narcotic has popularly been inter- PDF10 compression. English has no term that. in proper doses represents one of our most efficacious and widely prescribed cardiac medicines." referring to the use of arrow poisons. they do not induce a terminal depression. In his upper left hand. They are likewise. We realize Datura has long been connected to the worship of Shiva. Shiva crushes the demon Apasmãrapurusa. The popular interpretation tends to accept the term toxic as implying poisoning with fatal results. caffeine does not evoke truly toxic symptoms. In this extraordinary bronze sculpture from Southeast India of the eleventh or twelfth century. though they are psychoactive. the seventh and last of his dances. In Shiva's upper right hand. etymologically refers to a substance that. who is the personification of ignorance. Webster defines toxic as "Of. It depends only upon the dose whether something is poison or not. Medicinal plants are useful in curing or alleviat- ing man's illnesses because they are toxic. he holds a flame that burns the veil of illusion. or caused by poison. to benumb." It might be more specific to state that a toxic substance is a plant or animal substance or chemical ingested for other than purely nutritional purposes and which has a noticeable biodynamic effect on the body. includes both narcotics and stimulants. like the German Genufirnittel ("medium of enjoyment"). in the broad sense of the term. since in normal doses. rectly from the Greek word for "bow. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Yet.WHAT ARE PLANT Many plants are toxic. OCR. Shiva dances the Anandatãndava. but it is popularly applied primarily to the toxic effects from overindulgence in alcohol. which is free in space and symbolizes spiritual liberation. a medicine. and a narcotic is only one of dosage. Digitalis. the Indian god associated with the creative and destructive aspects of the universe. His lower right hand is in the abhayamudrã. We all realize the meaning of the term intoxication. Garlands of Datura blossoms are woven among the locks of his whirling hair. The term narcotic. narcotics. and two serpents hold a skull as a central ornament. They induce unmistakable intoxications. yet in higher doses it is a deadly poison. terminates its effects with a depressive state on the central nervous system. Under his left foot. that this is a broad definition—a definition that would include such constituents as caffeine: while employed in its usual form as a stimulant. pertaining to. In reality. His lower left hand is held in the gajahasta and points to his raised left foot." The difference among a poison. he holds a tiny drum that symbolizes Time by the rhythm of his cosmic dance in the field of Life and Creation. It is no accident that the etymological origin of the word toxic stems di(toxileon). The stimulants such as caffeine do not fall under the definition of narco- tic. coming from the Greek (narkoyn). which combines all inflections of his character. Shiva's hair is bound with a band. alcohol and tobacco are narcotics. any toxic substance may intoxicate. thus showing Shiva's destructive aspects of Time and Death. as Paracelsus wrote in the sixteenth century: "In all things there is a poison. Hallucinogens must be classed as toxic. but in high doses it is a very definite and dangerous poison. for example. however. and there is noth- ing without a poison. expressing Shiva's quality of safeguarding the universe.

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None of the terms. even though none is known to be addictive or to have narcotic effects. deliriants. preted as referring to dangerously addictive agents. Frequently a single hallucinatory plant—as in the case of Peyote or Marijuana—may induce several plexity of psychophysiological effects that the term hallucinogen does not always cover the whole range of reactions. although it is a controlled substance. different hallucinations. such as opium and its derivatives (morphine. psychosomi- PDF compression. however. In the United States a substance must be included in the Harrison Nárcotic Act to be considered legally a narcotic: thus Marijuana is not legally a narcotic. Modern brain research has shown. Therefore. eidetics. rnisperceptinogens. that hallucinogens trigger brain activity entirely different from that apparent with true psychoses. heroin) and cocaine. But all senses maybe subject to hallucinations: auditory. psych otica. tactile. Hallucinogens are. phanerothymes. hallucinogens. a bewildering nomenclature has arisen. the most important medicine of the Amazonian Indians. often in colors. broadly speaking. however. phantasticants. psychoticants. all narcotics. Hallucinogens may likewise cause artificial psychoses—the basis of one of the numerous terms for this class of active agents: psychotominietic ("inducing psychotic states"). olfactory. codeine. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor 12 . delusionogens. which reveal to the participant a glimpse of "true reality. Page 13 top: The hallucinogenic use of Hemp (Cannabis) can be traced far back into history. The terms include entheogens. Modern studies have demonstrated such a com- There are many kinds of hallucinations: the most common and popularly recognized is the visual hallucination." the fantastic realm of visions.Below: This painting by the Peruvian shaman Pablo Amaringo depicts the creation of the drink Ayahuasca. and gustatory hallucinations can occur. OCR. The magical drink has powerful visionary properties. It is possible that the ingestion of this plant was responsible for the wild dances of the Mongolian shaman. fully describes all known effects. psycho gens. mysticomimetics.

13 PDF compression. Marijuana. in thought and in mood. But since these two terms—hallucinogen and psychotomimetic—are easily understood and widely used. (Opium. Among the many definitions that have been offered. etc. metics. In Europe. who first used the term phantastica. psych otogens. yet not all of the plants induce true hallucinations. It was used for oracles and ritually burned in ancient Greece. and hallucinogens or psychedelics (Peyote. Albert Hofmann divides them into analgesics and euphorics . in non-toxic doses. place and time. Psychotomimetic. produce changes in perception. but which seldom produce mental confusion. psychotomimetics. The German toxicologist Louis Lewin.' Basing his classification of psychoactive drugs on the older arrangements of Lewin. we shall employ them in this book. is not accepted by many specialists because not all the plants in this group cause psychotic-like states. The truth is that no one term adequately delimits such a varied group of psychoactive plants. schizogens. hypnotics (Kava-kava). web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . while often employed. Below left: Henbane (Hyoscyarnus albus) is one of the most important hallucinogenic plants of Europe. memory loss or disorientation for person. The most common name in the United States—psychedelics—is ety- mologically unsound and has acquired other meanings in the drug subculture. psychotaraxics. psycho clyslep tics." The word hallucinogen is easy to pronounce and to understand. that of Hoffer and Osmond is broad enough to be widely accepted: ccHallucinogens are.). Most of these groups modify only the mood. sedatives and tranquilizers (Reserpine). Coca). they are fre- quently called phantastica. admitted that it "does not cover all that I should wish it to convey. They are also ritually smoked. OCR.Below right: In India the flowers of the potent hallucinogenic Thorn Apple (Datura metel) are brought as an offering to the Hindu god Shiva. and psych eclelics. among other epithets. . chemicals which.

they became the firm basis for "medical" practices of most. They assume far more exalted roles than do the medicines or palliatives with direct physical action on the body. TMA.Below: Maria Sabina reverently ingests the niños santos. objects may lose their symbolic character. in strange dimensions and in a different time. users belong to this category as well. hallucinogens. Little by little. and in consciousness of self. lasting only until the causative principle is metabolized or excreted from the body. Their use goes back so far into prehistory that it has been postulated that perhaps the whole idea of the deity could have arisen as a result of the otherworldly effects of these agents. Therefore. OCR. But the last group frogs. often become greater medicines—the medicines par excellence—of the native pharmacopoeia. A person under the effects of a hallucinogen forsakes his familiar world and operates under other standards. in space and time. holy children. The hallucinogenic state is usually short-lived. Pseudohallucinogenic conditions may be induced without the ingestion of toxic plants or substances. in perception of reality." as she lovingly refers to the visionary and healing Magic Mushrooms. physically or organically induced sickness or death: both result from interference from the spirit world. There would seem to be a difference between what we might call true hallucinations (visions) and what perhaps could be described as pseudo-hallucinations. a few are derived from the Animal Kingdom (toads. Page 15:The Mazatec shaman Maria Sabina incenses sacred mushrooms prior to their ingestion during the healing ceremony of the ye/ada. Indigenous cultures usually have no concept of than the normal world. if not all. high fevers are known to cause such reactions. PDF 14 compression. Colors are frequently experienced in indescribable brilliance. aboriginal societies. While most hallucinogens are of plant origin. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Fanatics of the Middle Ages who went without food or water over long periods finally induced such alterations in normal metabolism that they did actually experience visions and hear voices through pseudo-hallucinogens. either stimulating or calming it. Conditions for all practical purposes apparently very similar to hallucinations may be induced by many highly toxic plants which so upset the normal metabolism that an abnormal mental condition may develop. fish) and some are synthetic (LSD. standing detached and assuming increased significance since they seem to possess their own existence. Without loss of consciousness. which permit the native healer and sometimes even the patient to communicate with the spirit world. Depersonalization may occur. Salvia divinorum) experimented with by members of the so-called drug subculture and which were consid- ered as newly discovered hallucinogens by their The psychic changes and unusual states of consciousness induced by hallucinogens are so far removed from similarity with ordinary life that it is scarcely possible to describe them in the language of daily living. Hallucinogenic plants owe their activity to a limited number of types of chemical substances acting in a specific way upon a definite part of the central nervous system. produces deep changes in the sphere of experience. A number of the plants (for example. the subject enters a dream world that often appears more real DOB).

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trirh. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . right) are representative psychoactive species. published in 1753. ual system"—a simple system of twenty-four classes based primarily on the number and characteristics of the stamens. While his sexual classification—highly artificial and inadequate from the point of view of an evolutionary understanding of the Plant Kingdom (which was to come later)—is no longer followed. nearly a century later. Angiosperms are subdivided into monocots (one seed leaf) and dicots (two seed leaves).000 species in 8. in 1847.. offered the first comprehensive and scientific system of classification and nomenclature for plants in his monumental.200-page book Species Plantarum. there was really no logical or widely accepted classification or naming of plants.!. the British botanist John Lindley increased the estimate to nearly 100. He gave each plant a gen- eric and a specific name. Consequently. The so-called Age of Herbals. and Deadly Nightshade (above. Linnaeus was the first to employ the system consistently. often several words long. right) as well as Fly Agaric (below. OCR.900 genera. led to the freeing of botany and medicine from the ancient concepts of Dioscorides and other classical naturalists that shaped Europe for some sixteen centuries. rn rnrnrn. 1. Sweet Flag. Hemp (Marijuana). Linnaeus grouped plants according to his "sex- Hallucinogenic species occur among the highest-evolved flowering plants (angiosperms) and in the division fungi of the simpler plants. from about 1470 to 1670. and botanists have agreed on the year 1753 as the starting point of current nomenclature. These two centuries saw more progress in botany than had taken place during the previous millennium and a half. nfl PDF compression. Linnaeus calculated the size of the Plant Kingdom as 10. resulting in a binomial nomenclature. his binomial nomenclature is now universally accepted. But Linnaeus's work and the influence of his many students had stimulated interest in the flora of the new lands that were being opened to colonization and exploration. or Carl von Linné.000 or fewer species. a Swedish naturalist-physician and professor at the University of Uppsala. Yet it was not until the eighteenth century that Carolus Linnaeus. Believing that he had classified most of the world's flora in 1753. The invention of printing and movable type in the middle of the 1400s stimulated the production of herbals—that is. Although other botanists had used binomials..THE PLANT KINGDOM Before the eighteenth century. They were known in Europe by the vernacular names current in the various countries and were referred to technically in Latin by cumbersome descriptive phrases. 16 Hal rcap Moss Pr. botanical books—mainly on medicinal plants.

subdivided into cone-bearers (gymnosperms) and flowering plants (angiosperms). White Hne Pinus strobus Seaweeds Algae Mushrooms and molds (fungi). OCR. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .Dicots (flowering plants with two seed leaves) are separated into Archichlamydeae (petals absent or separate) and Metachlamydeae (petals joined). 17 PDF compression. mosses and liverworts (bryophytes). Spermatophytes are the seed plants. seaweeds (algae). and ferns (pteridophytes) are simpler plants.

e two major groups of angiosperms: the monocotyledons. They are commonly called flowering plants. An ancient group of plants. Angiosperms are seed plants in which the seed is covered or protected by ovarian tissue. it is best represented today in tropical regions. The principal group of plants today—the plants that dominate the earth's flora and which have di- versified into the greatest number of species and which. calculate 500. Consequently. They are primarily tropical. which belongs to one of the most highly evolved families of the flowering plants. where they abound. Page 19 right A fossilized algae colony from the Cambrian period in Bolivia demonstrates that life-forms can be successfully preserved over billions of years. which have naked seeds. Page 19 left: This fossil of blue-green algae (Co/len/a) is approximately 2. Estimates of their extent vary.000 to 15. The seed-bearing plants.000 species in 450 genera. Lichens—a curious group of plants comprising a symbiotic union of an alga and a fungus—number from 16. The bryophytes comprise two groups: mosses and liverworts. clearly dominate the land flora of the present time. One contemporary mycologist.000 species. realizing that the fungi are very sparsely collected in the tropics. They are also employed in the pharmaceutical in- dustry in the synthesis of steroids and for other purposes. Other estimates. plants with one seed leaf.000 and 100. more than half being marine.3 billion years old and is one of the earliest known specimens of life on Earth. constitute a small group of some 675 species. Modern specialists estimate the fungi at between 30.000 to 20.000 to 32. These procaryotic blue-green algae (Collenia) represent the oldest known form of life on Earth. and those with usually two seed leaves. They vary from some 280.000 species. That they are not an economic group may be in part responsible for our lack of understanding of their extent. in the popular mind. estimates have greatly increased. they have dominated the several terrestrial environments of the earth. comprise the world's flora—are the angiosperms.000 species in 300 families. Economically the most Even though modern botany is only two centuries old. Most botanists hold that there are 200. Hallucinogenic compounds may be PDF compression. probably more realistic. This most varied group of plants is now believed to comprise from 19.000 species to the pteridophytes: the ferns and their allies.000. dating back into the Carboniferous Age. Algae have been found in pre-Cambrian fossils dating from one to more than three billion years of age. OCR. this group is apparently dying out. The great variance is due partly to lack of comprehensive studies of many groups and partly to inadequate means of defining some of the unicellular mem- bers.000 to 250. Present calculations assign 12. the higher figures being generally accepted by botanists whose research is centered in the still only superficially explored tropical regions. they may have a right to be known as the "most important" plants. All of the algae are aquatic. and many new species are to be expected from the tropics with increased field investigations. The gymnosperms. suggests that the total figure might reach 200.000 to 700. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . There ar. Some sections of the Plant Kingdom are of great importance from the point of view of biodynamic species with compounds of significance to medicinal or hallucinogenic activity.000 species.000 species. 18 important group of plants today. or cone-bearing plants. The fungi are of increasing interest: almost all antibiotics in wide use are derived from fungi. or spermatophytes.Below: A flower and leaves of the hallucinogenic Datura innoxia. in contrast to the gymnosperms. The monocotyledons are usually credited with one quarter of the total.

Many are of economic importance as sources of resins and timber. The bryophytes have been phytochemically neglected. They represent the source of most of our medicines of vegetal origin. Very recent investi- gations have indicated a hitherto unsuspected wealth of biodynamic compounds of potential interest to medicine and commerce. but those that have been of importance in human affairs belong to the ascomycetes (Ergot) and the basidiomycetes (various mushrooms and puffballs). Some ferns appear to be bioactive and psychoactive. but as yet no identifiable specimens or reliable information has been forthcoming. Although indigenous societies have discovered many medicinal. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . the angiosperms are the important plants: as the dominant and most numerous group and as the elements basic to man's social and material evolution. the few that have been studied have gi- ven little hope as sources of biodynamic compounds. This group of seed plants is rich impressive number of new biodynamic compounds. Similarly. most toxic species are angiospermous. have as yet not yielded any species reported as hallucinogens. and ployed in northwesternmost North America. toxic. as well as other narcotics. although several ferns are employed in South America as additives to hallucinogenic drinks (Ayahuasca). Recent research has heightened the promise of isolation of active principles from lichens: they have yielded a large number of bacteria-inhibiting compounds and have been shown to be rich in chemovars. Each species is a veritable chemical factory. belong to this group. They are known primarily as the source of the sympathomimetic alkaloid ephedrine and the very toxic taxine. No hallucinogenic constituents have yet been discovered in laboratory research or by indigenous almost all hallucinogens used by man. Undoubtedly new hallucinogens are lurking in the Plant Kingdom and. some of possible medical value. From many points of view. However. ecdyosones. and narcotic properties in their ambient vegetation. sesquiterpinoid lactones. An societies.widespread in the fungi. It is clear that the Plant Kingdom represents an only partially studied emporium of biodynamic principles. OCR. Algae and lichens. there is no rea- son to presume that their experimentation has brought to light all the psychoactive principles hidden in these plants. have already been isolated from algae. in them. and cyanogenic glycosides. In South America. phytochemical investigation has been far from exhaustive. Of the spermatophytes. A recent survey for antibacterial activity of extracts from 44 Trinidadian ferns indicated the surprising fact that 77 percent were positive. There are persistent reports of hallucinogenic lichens em- also in physiologically active stilbines and other compounds that act as protective agents against heartwood decay (essential oils). the gymnosperms exhibit few biodynamic elements. a lichen (Dictyonerna) is used as a psychoactive. 19 PDF compression. in ethnomedicine. but what is not fully recognized is the fact that the angiosperms themselves have been merely superficially examined. alkaloids. possible consti- tuents of extreme interest to modern medical practice. the mosses and liverworts seem to have been ignored. The importance of fungi as sources of aflotoxins of foods has only recently been recognized. interestingly. It is easy to understand why angiosperms have been chemically more assiduously studied.

PHYTOCHEMICAL RESEARCH ON SACRED PLANTS Plants of the gods interest various disciplines: eth- in animal organisms—their purpose being the elimination of excess nitrogen. one would expect all plants to contain such nology. with the most important tech- niques evolving only during the last decades. and they are common to all higher plants. as Paracelsus called the active compounds in plant drugs. religious studies. The two major scientific disciplines that concern themselves with these plants. and it has therefore been suggested that they may be waste products of metabolism—like uric acid 20 lated by the pharmacist Friedrich Sertürner in 1806. It remains. Most psychoactive principles in these sacred plants contain nitrogen. With pure compounds—whether isolated from the plant or synthetically produced—exact phar- macological assays and chemical tests can be made. The next step to be explored by scientists is: What constituents—which of the substances in those plants—actually produce the effects that have led to their use in religious rites and magic? What the chemist is looking for is the active principle. The botanist must establish the identity of plants that in the past were used as sacred drugs or which are still employed for that purpose today. Morpheus. The main constituents of fresh plants. to make it in the test tube quite independently of the plant. history. Once active principles are thus available. are botany and chemistry. the relative proportions of carbon. usually more than 90 percent by weight. The proportion by weight of these active principles is usually only a fraction of 1 percent. on his sense of perception. These substances as a rule have very different chemical structures from those of the usual vegetal constituents and common metabolic products. mineral salts. fats. and to establish the mole- dozen) compounds are responsible for its psychoactive effects. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . The first psychoactive principle to be produced in pure form from a plant was morphine. because many poisonous plants are in fact eaten by animals that are immune to the toxic constituents. hydrogen. however. and pigments make up several more percent of the plant. and frequently even of one part per thousand of the plant. Since then. and actually on his state of consciousness. Together with these normal components. therefore. Substances with unusual physiological and psychic effects are found only in certain special plants. oxygen. If this theory were true. etc. enormous strides have been made in developing more efficient methods for the separation and purification of active principles. proteins. an alkaloid present in the opium poppy. OCR. The next step is the synthesis of the active principle: that is. It was first iso- port medium for plant nutrients and metabolic products). This chapter describes the work of nitrogenous constituents: that is not the case. These include the techniques of chromatography: methods of separation based on the fact that different substances adhere in varying degrees on absorbent materials or are more or less readily PDF compression. Various theories have been offered.. This is not possible with whole plants because of the varying content of the active principies and interference from other constituents. But this theory likewise is hardly convincing. and it has therefore been suggested that they serve to protect the plants from animals. This new compound was named for the Greek god of sleep. the quintessence or quinta essentia. It is not known what function these special substances may have in the life of the plant. because of its sleep-inducing properties. they constitute practically the whole plant. nitrogen. and folklore. Carbohydrates (such as starch and various sugars). are cellulose (which provides the supporting structure) and water (as the solvent and trans- cular structure in which these elements are arranged. dles of nature why certain plants produce substances with specific effects on the mental and emotional functions of man. Phytochemists have the important and fascinat- ing task of separating the active principles from the rest of the plant materials and of producing them in pure form. Many of the psychoactive compounds are toxic if taken in large doses. it is possible to analyze them to deter- Among the many hundreds of different substances that make up the chemical composition of a plant. only one or two (occasionally up to half a mine the elements of which they are composed. one of the unsolved rid- chemists who analyze the constituents of plants used in religious rites and in the magic of medicine men and discusses the potential benefits from such research.

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had been 22 found to be particularly useful in experimental PDF compression. taken up in solvents that do not mix. such as psychiatry. Formerly. unless of course it be a liquid. and he was able to isolate two active compounds. and the effi- cient methods now available to plant chemists. The median effective dose for humans is 8 to 16 milligrams of psilocybine or psilocine. several generations of chemists would be needed to elucidate the complex structures of natural compounds. one merely needs to take about 0. with psilocine present usually only in traces. The greater part of this content is psilocybine. This was the mushrooms used in these rituals. and it was found that these compounds were closely related chemically to substances (serotonin) occurring naturally in the brain that play a major role in the regulation of psychic functions.1 and 0.008 gram of psilocybine to experience the hallucinogenic effects. and the spectrum of their psychotropic actions in man determined. As the pure compounds can be given in exact doses. the active principle of the Mexican cactus L op hop ho ra williamsii. were obtained in the form of colorless crystals. found in the Mexican Magic Mushroom Psilocybe mexicana. The great advances made in the field of chemistry. have in recent years made it possible to gain appreciable knowledge of the chemistry of active principles found in psychoactive plants. it takes just a few weeks or even only days to determine them with the techniques of spectroanalysis and X-ray analysis.6 percent of the dry weight of the plant tissue. The two hallucinogenic principles now known as psilocybine and psilocine. The purity and chemical homogeneity of a compound can be demonstrated by its ability to crystallize. OCR. The chemical structure of the hallucinogenic principles of the mushrooms was determined (see structural formulas in the next chapter). The methods isolated in pure form and crystallized as a salt with used in qualitative analysis and to establish the chemical structure of compounds have also under- hydrochloric acid. between 0. The Colorado River toad (Bufo a/va rius) secretes considerable amounts of 5-MeO-DMT. it was possible to study their use and effective application in medicine. By determining the presence or absence of psilocybine and psilocine. gone fundamental changes in recent years. Albert Hofmann tested one species of mushroom on himself. Chemical analyses showed clearly which species were psychoactive. Today. Once the active principles were available in pure form. Instead of swallowing 2 grams of the dried mushrooms. improved methods of chemical synthesis have been developed. The contribution made by chemists to the study of sacred plant drugs may be illustrated with the example of the Magic Mushrooms of Mexico. At the same time. it became possible to extend research into various fields. They were Similarly. he discovered that it was psychoactive. with useful results.Some psychoactive compounds are also produced by animals. an objective method was now available for distinguishing true hallucinogenic mushrooms from false ones. because their content of active principles tends to vary. mescaline. which generally last for several hours. their pharmacological actions could now be studied under reproducible conditions in animal experiments. Ethnologists had found Indian tribes in the southern parts of Mexico using mushrooms in their religious ceremonies. which have a rather unpleasant taste. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . not possible with the original mushrooms. that it could be grown under laboratory conditions. Mycologists identified With the active principles of the mushrooms available in pure form.

either by cooling the saturated solution or by evaporation of the solvent. Their effect on the human mind is just as inexplicable. For the application of this method. This also holds true for the isolated and purified active principles of other plants of the gods. however. They will separate as a crystallized salt. since by-products remain in the solvent. crystallized from alcohol) Psilocybine (crystallized from methanol) Psilocine (crystallized from methanol) psychiatry. As each substance has its own specific crystalline form./ Mescaline—HCI (mescaline-hydrochloride. Crystallization of substances from solutions is carried out mainly fpr purification. and just as magical. and synthesis of psilocybine and psilocine. A modern method for the elucidation of chemical constitutions is the X-ray structure analysis. alkaloids and other substances must be available in crystallized form. struc- tural analysis. 23 PDF compression. when neutralized with a suitable acid. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Substances that because of their effects on the mind had led Indians to believe for thousands of years that a god dwelt in those mushrooms can Many alkaloids crystallize poorly as free bases. as valuable aids to psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. now be synthetically produced in the chemist's retort. as that of the mushrooms themselves. It should be remembered. that scientific investigation has merely shown that the magic properties of the mushrooms are the properties of two crystalline compounds. One might think that with the isolation. this form serves for identification and characterization of a substance. OCR. however. the mushrooms of Mexico had lost their magic.

a single tree cut down makes no greater a gap. crowned with magnificent foliage. OCR. . formed. the southernmost tributary of the Xingü River. and is no more missed. but bearing plume-like fronds and pendulous bunches of black or red berries. the lianas and parasites. grew noble palms. By little and little."The largest river in the world runs through the largest forest . while other and far lovelier species of the same family. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . quite like those of their loftier allies. . were now round. . now knotted and now twisted with the regularity of a cable. being in great part too high to be much in the way. . —Richard Spruce Be/ow: The photograph depicts an aerial view of the Kuluene River. and hung over with lianas. their ringed stems sometimes scarcely exceeding a finger's thickness. which varied in thickness from slender threads to huge python-like masses. and where the natives think no more of destroying the noblest trees. now flattened. than we the vilest weed. and often equal to them in altitude. than when one pulls up a stalk of groundsel or a poppy in an English cornfield. —Richard 24 PDF compression." . along with shrubs and arbüscles of many types. decked with fantastic parasites. Right: "There were enormous trees. when they stand in their way. a bushy undergrowth. Intermixed with the trees. a main affluent of the Amazon. I began to comprehend that in a forest which is practically unlimited— near three millions of square miles clad with trees and little else but trees. not visually very dense or difficult to penetrate It is worthy to be noted that the loftiest forest is generally the easiest to traverse.

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laughter. the seeds of Morning Glories. a parasite on rye. probably no longer chewed the plant material used: the from two species of the Ice Plant family that induced gaiety. gang- rene. Charas. Anthony's fire. Mandrake. In scattered regions. Few areas of the globe lack at least one hallucinogen of significance in the culture of the inhabitants. the early indigenous popula- tions used mainly the snuff known as Cohoba. there are suggestions that the Eleusinian mysteries of ancient Greece were associated with this fungal genus. Although Ergot was apparently never purposefully used in medieval Europe as a hallucinogen. The major plants involved—Thorn Apple. Most significant. At least twenty-four species of these fungi are employed at the present time in southern Mexico. Of almost equal religious importance in early Mexico and surviv- and Indonesia for its narcotic effects. is Iboga. a mushroom consumed by scattered tribesmen in Siberia and possibly the sacred god-narcotic Soma of ancient India. frequently poisoned entire regions if accidentally milled into the flour. In Eurasia there are many plants employed for their hallucinatory effects. In northern Canada. It is in the New World that the number and cultural significance of hallucinogenic plants are the juice to enter the bloodstream. Nightshade family. This plague was known as St. In Papua. Maconha. sundry poorly understood hallucinogens are used. Nutmeg may once have been taken in India mony. to produce a sleep during which visions occur. and visions. Similarly. The heyday of the use of hallucinogens in Eur- ing until today in religious rituals are mushrooms. The Bushmen of Botswana slice the bulb of Kwashi of the Amaryllis family and rub it over scarifications on the head. today the most widespread of all narcotics: as Marijuana. although other cactus species are still used in northern Mexico as minor hallucinogens for special magico-religious purposes. Lagochilus. Without any question the Peyote cactus is the most important sacred hallucinogen. a root of the Dogbane family employed in Gabon and parts of the Congo in the Bwiti cult.GEOGRAPHY OF USAGE AND BOTANICAL RANGE Many more hallucinogenic plants exist than those that man has put to use. In fact. but most intensely in the Southwest. repre- ope occurred in ancient times. of course. it is the home of Hemp. The rhizome of Maraba. The famous and widely employed Kava-kava is Despite its size and extremely varied vegetation. The most famous. In Southeast Asia. Various species of Datura were employed rather widely. especially in Papua New Guinea. Mexico represents without a doubt the world's richest area in diversity and use of hallucinogens in aboriginal societies—a phenomenon difficult to understand in view of the comparatively modest number of species comprising the flora of the country. The most spectacular Eurasiatic hallucinogen is the Fly Agaric. Africa appears to be poor in hallucinogenic plants. There were some hallucinogenic species in the West Indies. is believed to be eaten in New Guinea. North America (north of Mexico) is quite poor in hallucinogens. the drug and its use have spread nearly throughout the world. The fungus Ergot. a member of the Ginger family. Agara.. etc. Kanna is a mysterious hallucinogen. The Indians of the region of Texas and adjacent areas used the Red Bean or Mescal Bean as the basis of a vision-seeking cere- Ganja. OCR. only about one thousand are known to be employed for their hallucinogenic properties. Daggha. Tribesmen in Turkestan drink an intoxicating tea made from the dried leaves of a shrubby mint. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Indians chewed the roots of Sweet Flag as medicine and supposedly also for the hallucinogenic effects. and it is believed that this custom was imported by Indians invading the Caribbean Islands from the Orinoco regions of South America. Ololiuqui. natives ingest a mixture of leaves of Ereriba of the Arum family and bark of a large tree. Belladonna—belong to the 26 PDF compression. Such attacks led hundreds of citizens to go mad and suffer hallucinations. dominating every phase of life among the aboriginal peoples. known to the Aztecs as Teonanácatl. Henbane. or death. allowing the active principles in not a hallucinogen but has been classified as a hypnotic narcotic. relatives of Thorn Apple and Henbane were used for their intoxicating properties. Of the probable halfmillion species in the world's flora. when they were used almost exclusively in witchcraft and divination. often causing permanent insanity. overwhelming. Datura was employed over wide areas of Asia.

etc. variety. Genista among the Yaqui Indi- Aztecs. and many others. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . South America ranks a close second to Mexico in the number. Ma- puche Indian witch doctors (who are mostly female) of Chile formerly employed a hallucino- genic tree of the Nightshade family—Latué or Arbol de los Brujos. both of the Heath family. In this way the experience is carried into and connected with everyday life. the Mescal Bean or known by the Mixtecs as Gi'-i-Wa. Haucacachu. a powerful snuff called Yopo or Niopo is made from the toasted seeds of a tree of the legume 27 PDF compression. watercolor. Floripondio. Campanilla.Top: At the Shiva Temple of Pashupatinath near Kathmandu. Pipiltzintzintli of the de la Pastora. Piule. Huanto. the and the fruits of Hierba Loca and Taglli. used in a vision-seeking ceremony. Maicoa. and deep magico-religious Frijolillo in the north. Taique (Desfontainia).nora. The Andean cultures had half a dozen species of Brugmansias. OCR. Sinicuichi. Tongo. the puffballs significance of hallucinogens. the diviner's sage now known as Hierba ans. Nepal. Most recently. Indian yogis smoke Marijuana in preparation for the arduous body practice and meditation. In the Orinoco and parts of the Amazon. Zacatechichi. (Hallucigenia by Christian Rätsch. Research has indicated the use in various parts of the Andes of the rare shrub Shanshi. Toe. Below: Visions revealed by hallucinogens can be subsequently processed and rendered artistically. circa 1993) sents another hallucinogen of great importance in Aztec religion and is still employed in southern Mexico. a type of Petunia has been reported as an intoxicant used in Ecua- dor. There are many hallucinogens of secondary importance: Toloache and other species of the Datura group. known as Borrachero. In Peru and Bolivia a columnar cactus called San Pedro or Aguacolla is the basis of the drink ci.

• NATIVE USE OF MAJOR I HALLUCINOGENS Notwithstanding the greater age of cultures and the widespread use of hallucinogens in the Eastern Hemisphere. the number of species so used is far the Western Hemisphere. OCR. Anthropologists have e plained this disparity on cultural to be a significant There does not. difference between the two hemispheres in the num ber of plants possessing hallucinogenic pnriciples • • - - PDF compression. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .

4. Anadenanthera peregrina Anadenanthera colubrina q3Q Banistenopsis caapi Brugmansiaspp. e Hyoscyamusspp. PDF compression. Many cultures had several. OCR.There are few cultures in the Western Hemisphere that did not value at least one hallucinogenic plant in magico-religious ceremonies. Guarancá. Guayusa. In addition to hallucinogens. Some of these—especially Tobacco and Coca—rose to exalted positions in the sacred native pharmacopoeias. Lophophora williamsii 0 4' Psilocybespp Turbina corymbosa et lpomoea viofacea Virolaspp Duboisia spp. Amanita muscaria Atropa belladonna Cannabis sativa CIa viceps purpurea Daturaspp. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . a number of otherwise psychoactive plants shared the honors: Tobacco. Yoco. Coca. Tabernanthe iboga 0 4' 4. These major hallucinogens are culturally significant in the areas indicated by the symbols.

Natema. This photograph was taken at the holy mountain Kalinchok (4. a member of the Nightshade family. OCR. Nearly 130 species are known to be used in the Western Hemisphere. Brunfelsia. it is made basically from several species of lianas of the Malpighia family. Perhaps the most important lowland hallucinogen in South America is Ayahuasca. Employed ceremonially in the western Amazon and in several localities on the Pacific coastal areas of Colombia and Ecuador. is taken for hallucinatory purposes. whereas in the Eastern Hemisphere the number reaches roughly 50. Botanists have no reason to presume that the flora of the New World is richer or poorer than that of the Old in plants with hallucinogenic properties.Right: Shamans remain the guardians of wisdom concerning the magical effects of the psychoactive plants. The Indians of northern Argentina take a snuff—CebIl or Vilica—prepared from seeds of a species closely related to Yopo. known widely in the westernmost Amazon as Chiricaspi. 30 PDF compression. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .000 m) in the Himalayas of Nepal. Caapi. family. There are more plants utilized as hallucinogens in the New World than in the Old. or Yajé. Pindé.

in his Medizinal Pflanzen. it may be picted here are illustrated for the first time. A number of the plants de- ent vernacular names in the great variety of native languages. very occasionally. In this way. If a particular name is not listed. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . effects. This order has been followed in view of the many differ- possible from living plant material or herbarium specimens. of ninety-seven plants that are known to have a hallucinogenic or psychoactive effect. the Thorn Apple (left). become more and more exact and sophisticated. and/or laboratory evidence to have definite psychoactive easily visible characteristics of the plant. the botanical descriptions are intentionally brief. OCR. psychopharmacological interest is added. the writer of one of the most beautifully illustrated herbals. field experience. published a more detailed pharmacognostic rendering of this very important therapeutic plant (center). In the 125 years since the establishment of Linnaeus's herbarium and the binomial system of nomenclature. 31 PDF compression. stressing the obvious and most of the extensive knowledge from many fields concerning these plants that native peoples around the world have considered plants of the gods.PLANT LEXICON The plant lexicon includes basic de- scriptions. Modern technology (for example. primarily botanical in nature. Emphasis is given to plants that are known from the literature. The third illustration depicts a typical herbarium specimen of the Thorn Apple representing the kind of material that now authenticates botanical identification. Some species that are reported to have "narcotic" or "intoxicating" uses are included as well. Kohler. and. such as the leaf surface hairs of the Thorn Apple. Most are direct reproductions of color photographs. Leonard Fuchs. The plants are arranged alphabetically according to the Latin name of the genus. The purpose of the lexicon is manifestly to help guide the reader more easily into the admittedly complex array of facts and stories that comprise only a small fraction sought in the index of vernacular names on pages 32—33 or at the end of the book where these epithets are cross-referenced. Inasmuch as this volume is written for the general reader. which provide greater accuracy in the work of plant identification. The illustrations in the lexicon are of two kinds: some of them are watercolors made whenever The botanical investigation of medicinal plants has. an attempt has been made in this introductory lexicon to give as broad an interdisciplinary view as possible. additional information of historical. Whenever space permits. ethnological. over the years. our herbaria have greatly enhanced the understanding of the morphological variation of vegetal species through the collection of dried specimens around the world. In 1543. presented this accurate sketch of Datura stramonium. phytochemical. the electron-scanning microscope) is making available morphological details. Some three hundred years later.

" pages 65—80. Common names are listed here below with the number designating each plant's location in the lexicon. 84 8 17 57 41 Flag Root Floripondio Fly Agaric Frijoles Galanga Ganja Genista GigantOn 11. The lexicon is in alphabetical order by genus name. Acacia Agara Aguacolla Ajuca Angel's Trumpet Arbol de Campanilla Arbol de los Brujos Axocatzin Ayahuasca Aztec Dream Grass Badoh Badoh Negro Bakana Belladonna Bhang Biak—Biak 1 35 94 56 El Ahijado El Macho El Nene Epená Ereriba Ergot Esakuna False Peyote Fang-K'uei 21 21 21 96 39 20 25 7 11. • Plant family. and. • Botanical name of the species shown. author.12 11. 93 93 80 2 Henbane Hierba de Ia Pastora Hierba de Ia Virgen Hierba Loca Hikuli Hikuli 40. 30. 12. purpose of usage.Index and Key to the Plant Lexicon Ninety-seven hallucinogenic plants are illustrated and described on the following pages (34—60). in brackets. which is organized by common name. ethnography. context.41 82 82 70 62 4 61 24 51 Chacruna Chacruna Bush Chalice Vine Channa Charas Chautle Chichipe Chilicote Chiricaspi Chiric-Sanango Cohoba Coleus Colorines Common Reed Conocybe Copelandia Coral Bean Coral Tree Cowhage Cumala Tree Dacha Dagga Dama da Noite Dark-rimmed Mottlegill Datura Deadly Nightshade Diviner's Sage Dog Grass Dutra 80 80 87 83 17 7 86 34 13 13 5 Hikuli Mulato Hikuli Rosapara Hikuli Rosapara Hikuli Sunamé Hikuri Hikuri Hikuri Orchid Hongo de San Isidro Hoop-petticoat Huacacachu Huanto Huedhued 33 33 53 7 53 32 61 76 64 11.12 70 21 Huelpatl Huilca Iboga Jambur 87 14 34. • Geographical distribution of the genus. 12 3 88 45 17 26 94 52 52 11 • Reference number. 93 16 72 2 95 43 24. and preparation.88 74 22 63 90 63 88 34 58 96 48 17 19 Jimsonweed Jurema Tree Kanna Kieli Kieri Kit 29 56 83 87 87 17 Koribo 92 Kougued Kratom Kuma Mushroom Kwashi Lady of the Night Latué Latuy 83 57 10 65 28 8 66 19 82 16 47 30 28 32 PDF compression. The species known to contain hallucinogenic properties orto be used as hallucinogens will be found in the reference section "Overview of Plant Use. 42 52 13 Gi'-i-Sa-Wa Gi'-i-Wa Golden Angel's Trumpet Hashish Hawaiian Wood Rose Hemp 17 6 17 9. Each text in the lexicon includes the following information in its heading: • Genus. the number of species known to exist in the genus. 12 42 47 86 9. OCR. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Black Henbane Blood-Red Angel's Trumpet Blue Meanies Blue Water Lily Borrachero Bovista Brunfelsia Caapi Caapi-Pinima Cahua Calamus Cawe Cebil Cebolleta 12 63 60 11. as well as chemical components and effects. This reference section! chart provides the botanical names of the plants and describes the history.

which causes such strong hallucinations and delirium that only experienced shamans can use it for divination and healing. This alkaloid-rich plant has been cultivated and used for psychoactive purposes for centuries or even millennia.quahuitl VilIca Voacanga Wavy Cap Wichowaka Wichuri Wichuriki Wild Dagga Wood Rose Xtabentum Yahutli Yajé 19 71 51 97 77 62 24 53 48 6 Peyote Cactus Peyote Cimarrdn Peyote de San Pedro Peyotillo Pincushion Cactus 7 53 69 Pipiltzintzintli Pitallito Cactus Pituri 24.81 31 Yakee 96 Yellow Henbane Yopo YUn-shih 40 Pokeberry Quetzalaxcchiacatl 75 60 55 88 73 73 18 is 16 Rape dos Indios Red Bean Red Canary Grass Reed Grass Saguaro Sanango San Isidro San Pedro Cactus Scopolia Screw Pine Shang-la Shanin Shanshi She-to Siberian Lion's Tail Zacatechichi A South American Indian harvests a plant of the gods. 89 76 94 85 67 75 71 23 64 49 33 PDF compression. The Indians caution against the thoughtless use of this plant. 12 1 Maiden's Acacia Malva Colorada Mammillaria Manaka Mandrake Maraba Marijuana Marijuanillo Mashihiri MatwO Siberian Motherwort Sinicuichi Straw Flower Sweet Calomel Sweet Flag Syrian Rue Tabaco del Diablo Tabernaemontana TagIli 49 36 37 2 2 68 50 89 70 30 38 17 86 53 13 Taique Takini 54 45 17 TaMa Tamu Tecomaxochitl 22 87 78 56 16 49 44 14 Mescal 88 88 51 Mescal Bean Teonanàcatl Tepescohuite ThIe-pelakano Thorn Apple Tlililtzin Toe 29 43 11 Mescal Button Morning Glory Nightshade Ninfa Nonda Nutmeg Nyakwana Ololiuqui Paguando 43 85 Toloache Toloatzin Tonga To-shka Totubjansush 27 27 60 10 59 11. a Blood-Red Angel's Trumpet (Brugmansia sanguiflea). 53 82 32 31 31 95 91 Pituri Bush Piule Poison Bush 9 43.Lemongrass Liberty Cap Lion's Tail 25 79 48 59 19 Mace Maconha Magic Mushroom Maicoa 76.12 64 42 7 96 95 Tsuwiri Tupa 50 46 34 4 42 21 Painted Nettle Paiqul Petunia Turkestan Mint Tzompar. OCR. 79 11. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .

The flowers grow in clusters and the fruit is pea-like. and a white variety that is found in Idaho.36% DMT. It encompasses for the most part medium-sized trees with pinnate. beer. creeping rootstock producing shoots of erect. Some evidence. lateral. ex Fr. No evidence has ever been produced. (1—2 cm) wide. These acacias are easy to cultivate in temperate climates such as in California and southern Europe. Fly Agaric Amanitaceae Europe. maidenii. a psychoactive alkaloid. ovate. The cylindrical stem. aromatic. hemispheric. The yellowish white flowers are round. suggests that the Cree Indians of northwestern Canada may occasionally chew the rootstalk of Sweet Flag for its psychoactive effects. swordlike leaves up to 6ft (2m) in length. a beautiful erect tree with a silvery splendor. smoked. perhaps man's oldest hallucinogen. is white. firs. A. and pulque. and finally almost flat cap measures 3—8 in. The tiny flowers are borne on a solid. ANADENANTHERA Speg. which has a bulbous base. The leaves are usable as a DMT-delivering component of Ayahuasca analogs. Primarily they are used in shamanism. This mushroom. Some of the species are suited for the preparation of Ayahuasca analogs. occasionally smooth leaves. 3 Americas 4 The genus Acacia is widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Sweet Flag is a semiaquatic herb with a long. Asia. Villca Leguminosae (Pea Family) Northwest Argentina Acacia maidenii F von Muell. (1—3 cm) thick. The seeds have been used as a hallucinogen by the Indians of the southern region of the Andes for approximately 4. It may attain a height of 8—9 in. Acacia maidenii. linear. although weak and indirect. They are either worked into a snuff powder.ACACIA Mill. often adorned with conical thorns. AMANITA L.500 years. 34 PDF compression. The rootstalk or rhizome contains an essential oil responsible for the plant's medicinal value. greenish yellow spadix. contains different tryptamines. ½—i in. phlebophylla. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . balché. Ariadenanthera colubruna (Vellozo) Brennan Cebil. It has been suggested that the active principles are a-asarone and There is a structural resemblance between asarone and mescaline. Amanita muscaria is a beautiful mushroom growing in thin forests usually under birches. Maiden's Acacia Leguminosae (Pea Family) Australia Acorus calamus L. however. Africa. A. Numerous Australian species (A. or used as an additive for beer. The leathery dark brown fruit pods grow to 1 ft (35 cm) long and contain very flat red-brown seeds ½ to 1 in. The gills vary from white to cream color or even lemon yellow. has been identified with Soma of ancient India. a yellow or orange type with yellowish warts common in eastern and central North America. that asarone can be associated with psychotomimetic activity. (20—23cm).) Pers. with rounded to right angles. such as betel. OCR. Sweet Flag Araceae (Arum Family) Temperate and warm zones 2 of both hemispheres Amanita muscaria (L. with a conspicuous cream-white ring covered basically with encircling scales. and young pines. There are three varieties: one with a bloodred cap with white warts found in the Old World and northwestern North America. The bark contains 0. The seeds of the CebIl or Villca contain tryptamines. especially bufotenine. leaves. The white valve adheres to the base of the stem. pituri. The leaves are finely locular and reach up to 1 ft (30 cm) long. This tree grows 9—50ft (3—18m) and has an almost black bark The somewhat viscid. (8— 20 cm) when mature. simplicifolia) contain higher concentrations of DMT in their bark and. Many acacias are a traditional additive to psychoactive products.

N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) as well as 5-MeO-DMT and other tryptamines. fissuratus and A. The plant originates in India.3% Ergot alkaloids (ergine and lysergicacid-am ides). Sadly. The flowers vary from white to pink and purplish and measure approximately 21/4 in. woody pods. The seeds contain mostly N. Indians in northern and central Mexico consider A. are typical desert plants.ANADENANTHERA Speg. They hardly appear above the ground. (6) nadenanthera peregrina (L. Phytochemical research is to thank for the awareness of its potent psychedelic constitution. grayish green to purplish gray or brownish cactuses. Dense masses of hair often fill the areoles. under the name Cohoba. A potent hallucinogenic snuff is made from the beans of Anadenanthera peregrina in the Orinoco basin. 6 Hawaii Anadenanthera pore grina is a mimosa-like tree. Their horny or fleshy. 35 PDF compression. where it is called Yopo. where it has been used medicinally since ancient times. fissuratus and A. The stemmed. OCR. retusus as "false These species of cactus. roundish seeds occur in rough. Several psychoactive phenylethylamine alkaloids have been isolated from A. The round fruit are berrylike and contain smooth brown seeds. Southeast Asia. for the production of Epená. primarily the Yanomano and Waika. thin. growing preferentially in the open sun in sandy or rocky stretches. heart-shaped leaves are finely haired and have a silvery appearance due to a dense white down that covers the young stems and the leaf undersides. West Indies (Morning Glory Family) India. (6 cm) long and up to 1½ in. 4—6in. the Piaroa) cultivate this tree which is not native to that area. Most psychonauts describe LSD-like effects after taking 4—8 seeds. retusus. The shamanic snuff is made from cultivated trees in addition to other substances and plant ashes. The shaman of the rain forest people of the Orinoco region (for example. Their sepals are finely haired. In each seed capsule there are 1— 4 seeds. this use has disappeared due to the exploitation of the native people. umbricated. A traditional use as an entheogen has not yet been discovered. three-angled tubercles are characteristic of the genus. Argyreia nervosa (Burman f. The seeds contain 0. Texas LegumiflOSae (Pea Family) 5 Tropical zones of South America. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . That way they secure their snuff supplies. (2) ARGYREIA Lour. The mature stems of this vigorously growing twining bindweed climb up to 3Oft (lOm) high and carry a latexlike milk. These plants are small.) Speg. The leaves have from 15 to 30 pairs of pinnae with many very small hairy leaflets. The funnel-shaped flowers are violet or lavender and are carried in the leaf axis. False Peyote Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Mexico. Hawaiian Wood Rose Convovulaceae Ariocarpus retusus Scheidw. (4cm) wide when fully open. mainly of open grasslands. glossy black. from 3 to 10 in a pod. Many minute white flowers in spherical heads arranged in terminal or axillary clusters comprise the inflorescence. Flat. (90) ARIOCARPUS Scheidw. attaining a height of 65ft (20m) and with a trunk 2ft (60 cm) in diameter. was reported as early as 1496. related to Lophophora. Its former shamanic and ritual use in the West Indies. The tree native to the edges of the large forested areas of Guyana is still used by different tribes.) Bojer. The blackish bark is coarsely armed with conical mucronate projections. (10—15 cm) in diameter. Often called Living Rocks. they can easily be mistaken for rocks in the stony desert where they grow.

(18 cm) in length. and in the seeds 0. caapun its thicker ovate. ovate-lanceolate leaves up to about 7 in. The Scots destroyed the Scandinavian army by sending them food and beer to which "Sleepy Nightshade" had been added. The fruit is a samara with wings about 1% in. The liana contains MAO inhibitors. In addition to the usual Belladonna there is a rare. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . (mania = insanity). All parts of the plant contain potent alkaloids. D. B. and of Psychotria viridis— are often used to alter the effects of the hallucinogenic drink. (3. (3—4 cm) in diameter. 2—3 in. Asia Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.5 cm) long. The main psychoactive constituent is atropine but lesser amounts of scopolamine and trace amounts of minor tropane alkaloids are also present. approximately 11/s in. (225) C. These giant forest lianas are the basis of an important hallucinogenic drink (Ayahuasca) ritually consumed in the western half of the Amazon Valley and by isolated tribes on the Pacific slopes of the Colombian and Ecuadorean Andes. Robinson et Small Atropa belladonna L. OCR. Both species are lianas with smooth. ex Fr. to a marbled green and gray-rose in the middle. The small f lowers are pink or rose-colored. brown bark and dark green. 36 PDF compression.) is cultivated for pharmaceutical purposes because of its high content of scopolamine. bell-shaped. (4) BANISTERIO PS IS (20—30) BOLETUS Dill. It is believed that Belladonna figured as an important ingredient in many of the witches' brews of antiquity. (3 cm) long. more attenuate leaves and in the shape of the samara wings. as its name implies. brown-purple flowers. In Asia the Caucasian Belladonna (Atropa caucasia Kreyer) and the Turkmenish Belladonna (Atropa komaro vii Blin. it measures from 3/4to 1½ in. North Africa. The stipe varies from orange at the top. The solitary. The bark of Banisteriopsis caapi and B.ATROPA L. et Shal) are found. one of these. known as OcoYajé. It grows in thickets and woods on lime soils and is naturalized especially near old buildings and hedges. The inflorescence is many-flowered. drooping. strong brownish red cap that is cream-yellow at the periphery. The total alkaloid content in the leaves is 0. numerous records of accidental and purposeful poisoning associated with the Deadly Nightshade. inebrians differs from B. chartaceous. 1035. Ayahuasca Malpighiaceae (Malpighia Family) Tropical zones of northern 9 South America. The Indian Belladonna (Atropa acuminata Royle ex Lindl.4%. yellow blooming variety (var. Deadly Nightshade Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Europe. which are elongated ellipsoidal.5%.B. but various plant additives— especially the leaves of Diploptens cabrerana. to a green at the base. in the roots 0. prepared in cold water or after long boiling. The flesh of the cap is lemon-colored.) Morton. have a yellow membrane but are olivecolored within. West Indies Boletus manicus Helm Kuma Mushroom Boletaceae Cosmopolitan 10 This much-branched perennial herb up to 3ft (90 cm) tall may be glabrous or pubescent-glandular. inebrians. Belladonna is still cultivated for the pharmaceutical production of atropine. Boletus reayi. (2 to 4cm) in diameter. (20cm). Hallucinogenic properties have not yet been proven. There are. Iutea) as well as lithe known related kinds. may be taken alone. manicus is a well-known species that. (5— 8cm) wide. Several species of Boletus are involved in the curious "mushroom madness" of the Kuma of New Guinea. The spores. produce shiny black berries 1 ½— 1½ in. has somewhat toxic properties. The ovate leaves attain a length of 8in. of course. This plant played a major role in the war of the Scots under Duncan I against the Norwegian king Sven Canute about A.8%. B. is characterized by a hemispherical.

The oblong or lanceolate leaves. The smooth oval fruits are bulbous in the center and pointed at the ends and are usually partially protected by the dried calyx. The entire plant contains tropane alkaloids. They contain potent hallucinogenic tropane alkaloids. but this compound is not known to be psychoactive. wet highlands above 6. (4— calyx. Brugmansia aurea is a shrub or small tree up to 30ft (9m) tall with oblong-elliptic. Ecuadorean. woody trunk. all species have played major roles as medicines for a large spectrum of ills. 78% are scopolamine.17% total alkaloids are present. are scattered along the branchlets. with both yellow and. B. The plant is still used as a hallucinogen by the shamans and Curanderos of Ecuador and Peru. Brugmans/a suaveolens and B. usually 7—9 in. smooth. The angular. B. pure yellow. remains fleshy. The Blood-Red Angel's Trumpet does not emit scents in the night. and have a red edge around the top. fading with age to white. In the seeds approximately 0. of those. yellow-red. all species appear to have been used as hallucinogens for millennia. the blade measuring 4— 16 in. Brun fe/s/a grand/flora D. and Peruvian Amazon as well as in Guyana. which is variable in size. prefer the cool. and it is suspected that they are all cultigens unknown in the wild. In Colombia this powerful shaman plant was ritually used in the cult of the sun of pre-Columbian times. There are also green-red. Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Tropical zones of northern 11 1 2 Colombia to Chile 1 3 South America. measuring This perennial Brugmansia is heavily branched and reaches 6— 16 ft (2—Sm). Biologically very complex. especially in the evening. its slender basal part completely enclosed by the in. recurving. (1. more commonly. borne on a petiole up to 5in. (l2by9mm). (13cm) long.830 m). 37 PDF compression. white flower forms. and Peru. Brun fe/s/as serve as Ayahuasca additives. Several species of Brun fe/s/a have medicinal and psychoactive roles in the Colombian. Don Brunfelsia (40) Brugmansia aurea Lagerh. grand/flora are shrubs or small trees reaching a height of about loft (3m). chiricaspi differs from B. The f lowers have a tubular corolla. developing a very about ½by%in. chiricasp/ occurs in the west Amazonia of Colombia. Usually the flowers are green at the base. especially in the treatment of rheumatic pains. often minutely hairy leaves. grand/flora in having much larger leaves. a few-f lowered inflorescence. where they are employed alone or mixed with other plants. The flowers contain essentially atropine and only traces of scopolamine (hyoscine). West Indies Closely related to Datura. In the horticultural literature it has frequently been misidentified as Brugmansia (or Datura) arborea. (5—16cm) wide. longer leaf stalks. and deflexed corolla lobes. which is in reality a much less common plant. The most widespread species in the Andes is Brugmansia aurea. The flowers are nodding. The trumpet-shaped corolla flaring broadly at the mouth is white or golden yellow. B. (10— 12 cm) across. 2—6½ in. The gray-green leaves are furry and roughly serrated at the edge. Insignis occur in warmer parts of South America. green fruit. Don (9—10) BRUNFELSIA L. yellow in the middle. blue to violet. especially in the western Amazonia. Most of the species. Brugmansia sanguThea (lRuiz et Pavón) D. The elongate-ovoid. Golden Angel's Trumpet Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Western South America Blood-Red Angel's Trumpet Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) South America.BRUGMANSIA Pers. (7—8) BRUGMANSIA Pers. B. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . chiricaspi and B. usually under the name Too. Ecuador. the species of BrugmansIa are arborescent. and almost completely red varieties. grand/flora is wideranging in western South America from Venezuela to Bolivia. In addition to their use as hallucinogens. OCR. (10—40cm) long. never becoming hard or woolly. its teeth 1 6cm) long. (18— 23 cm) long and very fragrant. Scopoletine has been found in Brun fe/s/a. blackish or brownish seeds are relatively large.000 ft. long (6—30 cm). however. longer than the bell-shaped calyx and measuring about 4—4¾ in. measuring 21/2_12 in. not wholly pendulous.

(4 by 2 mm). Cannabis ruderalis is small and is never cultivated. has been important in folk medicine. An alkaloid has been reported from the plant.5 cm) long. The large. enveloped by an enlarged bract. (4— 9cm) long.and black-mottled seeds. erect. dried leaves as a hallucinogen. Cannabis sativa L. (23—38cm) long and linear-oblong leaflets in 8—12 pairs. (2— toothed leaves 6. Caesalpinia sepiaria Roxb. yellowgreen. a shrubby vine with retrorsely hooked spines. 21 in. Believing in visions seen in dreams. elongateovoid. (1cm) long. loosely branched annual herb. Leguminosae (Pea Family) Tropical and warm zones of Tropical zones of northern Cannabaceae (Hemp Family) Warm-temperate zones. 1 ½—3½ in. usually lacking a strong marbled pattern. Matwü (50) CAESALPINIAL. Calea zacatechichi Schlecht. is reputedly used as a hallucinogen in China. The flowers are borne in axillary or terminal branches. This little researched plant is apparently often confused with Calea zacatechichi. it is firmly attached to the ètalk without a definite articulation. pointed fruit has 4 to 8 ovoid. Yün-Shih (100) CALEAL. This and several other species of Cacalia have been referred to in parts of northern Mexico as Peyote and may possibly have once been employed for hallucinatory purposes. The flowering head is subsessile or pedicellate. The leaves are thin. erect. (53 cm) long. The fruit is an ovoid. unbranched showy racemes. but there is no evidence of a chemical constituent with psychoactive properties. Cannabis sativa has become very polymorphic. but it is usually a rank.CACALIAL. It has also been valued as an insecticide. (6—10cm) wide. The plant contains germacranolides. (1 cm) long. the pistillate stockier and more foliose. or "leaf of god?' This plant is an extensive climber with pinnate leaves 9— 15 in. sometimes attaining a height of l8ft (5. The earliest Chinese herbal— Pen-ts'-ao-ching——stated that the "flowers could enable one to see spirits and. Cacalia cordifolia L. and basally cordate. Cacalia cordifolia has dustypuberulent. who assert that Zacatechichi clarifies the senses. call the plant ThIe-pelakano. The smooth. The seed is ovoid. No constituent with hallucinatory properties has as yet been isolated from C. cause one to stagger madly?' If consumed over a long period. The inflorescence is densely many-flowered (usually about 12). The sexes are normally on separate plants. bear canary yellow flowers. f ii. ovate. the staminate weaker and dying after shedding pollen. Dog Grass Compositae (Sunflower Family) (95) CANNABISL. six-angled stems. and seeds also have value in folk medicine. slightly compressed. % in. 38 PDF compression. North America. with 3 to 15 (usually 7 to 9) linear-lanceolate. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Recent reports suggest that the Chontal Indians of Oaxaca take a tea of the crushed. zacatechichi. dark green. when taken in excess. coarsely in. or brownish purple. Chontal medicine men. they produce levitation and "communication with the spirits?' Known in Mexico as Zacatechichi ("bitter grass"). occurring from Mexico to Costa Rica. The subtile psychoactive effect can be described as dreamlike. An alkaloid of unknown structure has been reported from Caesalpinia sepiaria. Cannabis indica is pyramidal or conical in form and under 4— 5ft (120—150cm) in height. flowers. In Mexico Cacalia cordifolla is a presumed aphrodisiac and cure for sterility. mostly ½ by 1/6 in.4m). The roots. Caesalpinia sepiaria or YünShih. Mexico 1 7 worldwide A small shrubby climber. this inconspicuous shrub. about %in. robust. often brownish akene covered by a persistent calyx. brown. The membranaceous leaves are digitate. Calea zacatechichi is a heavily branching shrub with triangular-ovate. 14 Mexico 1 5 both hemispheres 1 6 South America. Hemp (3) Compositae (Sunflower Family) East Asia. OCR. serrated segments commonly 2¼—4 in.

In the Middle Ages and earlier in Europe. and two forms of C. is an ovoid or ellipsoid berry splitting down the side into two or three sections and measuring 2½—3½ in. Meaning "spur. when fungus-infected rye kernels were milled into flour. (15 cm) in length. whorled racemes up to 12 in. Lady of the Night Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Chile CLAVICEPS Tulasne Claviceps purpurea (Fr. the Ergot sprouts globular heads called ascocarps from which grow asci. Africa. C. salvinorine-like substances (diterpene) were discovered. which parasitically replaces the endosperm of the kernel. as well as solasonidine and a bitter alkaloid (Farquin's formula C21 H39N03). The native people make a wine from the pressed fruit. especially where rye was used in bread-making. The flowers bloom in Chile between October and November and release a powerful. C. each with threadlike ascospores that are disseminated when the asci rupture. the white. The fungus produces psychoactive and toxic alkaloids. 39 PDF compression. marginally toothed leaves up to 6in. Saguaro." The many-ribbed stems and branches attain a diameter of 1— 2½ ft (30—75 cm).) Tulasne Ergot (6) COLEUS Lour. Measuring 4—5 in. Related to Salvia divinorum is La Hembra ("the woman"). The fruit. The spines near the top of the plant are yellow-brown. (1— 6cm) long. (160) Cestrum parqui LHérit.5 m) and has small. 1 8 America. its chemical structure is modified into potent material. the bottom surface is finely hairy. Cestrum parqui contains solasonine. which has a similar action to strychnine or atropine. Coleus blumei Benth. Ergot is a fungal disease of certain grasses and sedges. Carnegine. and norcarnegine. blumei are El Nene ("the child") and El Ahijado ("the godson"). Recently. are borne in long lax. plus trace amounts of 3-methoxytyramine and arizonine (a tetrahydroquinoline base). Asia / This largest of the columnar cactus plants. The chemical structure has not yet been determined. It is possible that by drying or burning the diterpene. (6—9cm) long. The bell-shaped yellow flowers have five pointy petals.CARNEGIEA Britt. have been isolated from Saguaro. heady aroma. (10—13cm) in length. is a candelabra-branched "tree. (30 cm) in length. suffering plagues of ergotism. Two species of Coleus have significance in Mexico. northern Mexico 19 20 northern Africa. et Rose (1) CESTRUM L. The plant has the power to withstand attacks of sorcery or black magic. pumi/us is El Macho ("the man"). Although there are no reports of the Saguaro as a hallucinogen. reaching a height of some 40ft (12m). b/umei attains a height of 3ft (1 m) and has ovate. clubshaped growth ½—2½ in. a glycoside steroid-alkaloid. red or purple. The chemistry and pharmacology must be re- searched further. They hang from the stem in clusters. measuring about ½ in. The shrub grows to 5ft (1. 5-hydroxycarnegine. When the spur falls to the ground. The dried leaves of Cestrum parqui are smoked. (1 cm) long. whole areas frequently were poisoned." Ergot refers to the sclerotium or fruiting body of an ascomycete or sac fungus. The Ergot or spur represents the dormant stage. OCR. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . The numerous small seeds are black and shining. curved. The more or less bell-shaped blue or purplish flowers. the plant does contain pharmacologically active alkaloids capable of psychoactivity.) Britt. the upper surface usually with large dark red blotches. The plant has small oval berries that are a shiny black color. The spur is a purplish or black. at Rose Saguaro Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Southwestern North Clavicipitaceae Temperate zones of Europe. There are two distinct periods in the life cycle of this fungus: an active and a dormant stage. North America 21 Tropical and warm zones of Europe. Painted Nettle Labiatae (Mint Family) (150) Carnegiea giganfea (Engeim. I funnel-shaped flowers open during the day. primarily of rye. lanceolate matte green leaves. Asia. Cestrum parqui has been used medicinally and ritually for shamanic healing since preColumbian times by the Mapuche in southern Chile.

Many species of the genus Conocybe contain psilocybine. but Conocybe cyanopus of the United States has been shown to contain this psychoactive alkaloid.5cm) in width. Little is known about the psychoactive properties of the grass. New Zealand. Coryphantha palmerii has likewise been reported as a hallucinogen in Mexico. Coriaria thymifolla is a shrub usually up to 6ft (1. "Mushroom of Awareness") has been discovered. the central spines are usually absent.CONOCYBE Conocybe sillgineoides Heim Conocybe (40) CORIARIA L. including the psychoactive phenylethylammnes. and steroidal substances have been found in some species. It is hardly visible in the sandy soil where it occurs. Reports from Ecuador. (1—2 cm) in length. Shanshi (15) CORYPHANTHA (Engelm. The plant. The genus Cymbopogon is rich in essential oils. in. erect culms with linear to linear-lanceolate leaves. The radial spines are whitish.) Britt. It is used as a substitute for Peyote. The leaves and rhizomes. Coriaria thymifolia adorns the highways with its frondlike leaves. OCR. suggest that the fruit (shanshi) may be eaten to induce an intoxication characterized by sensations of soaring through the air. and macromerine. 40 PDF compression. Conocybe siligeneoides is an obscure mushroom which has not been found or analyzed again since its first description.5 cm) in length. living on rotting wood. olive green to brownish. The flowering spikes are slender. 1 ft. and Malawi. are locally used as a tonic and styptic. The round purplish black fruit is composed of five to eight compressed fleshy parts. Arising from the center of the crown either singly or in pairs. Psilocybine has not as yet been isolated from this species. Cuba 25 Asia Conocybe siligineoides has been reported as one of the sacred intoxicating mushrooms of Mexico. The small. dark purple flowers occur densely on long drooping racemes. up to about 3m. This perennial grass has stout. Human deaths have supposedly followed ingestion of the fruit. have been isolated from several species of Coryphantha: hordenine. Asia. (30 cm) in length and 1/2_i in. It has been feared in the Andean countries as a plant toxic to browsing animals. (1—2cm) in length. basally wide and rounded and tapering to a fine point. Various alkaloids. northern 22 Gramineae (Grass Family) Warm zones of Africa and 23 Africa. Mexico. (1—2 . (2. Coriara thymifolia HBK ex Wilid. with a deeper orange at the center. Recently a rudimentary cult around Tamu (a Conocybe species. solitary. (2.8m) tall. The gills are saffron-colored or brownish orange with chrome yellow spores. A small. is taken by shamans and is respected and feared. (8 cm) tall. are psychoactive. Coryphantha compacta grows in dry hilly and mountainous regions. nevertheless. and are used ritually. (8 cm) in diameter. called Bakana. et Rose Pincushion Cactus Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Southwestern North (64) CYMBOPOGON Sprengel Gym bopogon densifiorus Stapf Lemongrass (60) Agaricaceae (Bolbitiaceae) (Agaric Family) Cosmopolitan Coriariaceae (Coriaria Family) Southern Europe. the Congo. In the highest Andes from Colombia to Chile. pleasantly aromatic of citron. Coryphantha compacta (Engelm. borne on slender. No psychoactive properties have been isolated yet. The crowded tubercles are arranged in 13 rows. The leaves are oblong-ovate. The Tarahumara of northern Mexico consider Coryphantha compacta a kind of Peyote. 1/2_ 3/4 in. calipammne. arching lateral branches. Mexico to Chile 24 America. the yellow flowers measure up to 1 in. globular but somewhat flattened.5 cm) in diameter that is fawn-orange-red. This beautiful mushroom. This species grows in Gabon. Native medicine men in Tanzania smoke the flowers of Cymbopogon densiflorus alone or with tobacco to cause dreams that they believe foretell the future. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . has a cap up to 1 in. or carpels. spiny cactus up to 3¼ in. The whole shrub has a fernlike appearance.) Lem.

which may be purple. This is the famous Toloache of Mexico. many-flowered. where medicine men value the seed as a hallucinogen. hairy leaflets ¼—½ in. Thorn Apple (14—16) Cytisus canariensis (L. Cystifle has similar properties as nicotine. are white with a 10-pointed corolla. plants that contain cystine are often smoked as a substitute for Tobacco. and in the Himalayas. Native to the Canary Islands. meteloides) Toloache Datura Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Tropical and warm- Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Tropical and warm- Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Tropical and moderate zones 26 Africa. hyosyamine and someatropine. sinuate. and open upward. The drooping. may attain a length of 6½ in. (5 cm) in diameter. sweet-scented flowers. up to 2¼ in.2 m) and has many-forked branches and branched. The flat. The pendant fruit is nearly globose. (6— lar-ovate. is a spreading herb. 9cm) long are among the smallest of the Datura species. Today the herb is found throughout North.5—1 cm) long. (D. The funnelshaped flowers are 5-pointed. The erect. The origins of this powerful hallucinogenic species of Thorn Apple is uncertain and its botanical history ardently argued over. seeds. 2 in. northern Datura innoxia Mill. 5½—9 in. Toloache is inhabited by a malevolent spirit. and deeply toothed leaves measure 5½— 8½ in. The solitary flowers. For this reason. repand or subentire. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Canary Islands. Datura mete!. (14—16) DATURAL. mete!. All types of Datura contain the hallucinogenic tropane alkaloids scopolamine. or white. The triangu- This annual herb grows to about 4ft (1. are tubular. stand erect. Central and Southern Europe. evergreen. the most culturally important species of Datura for medicinal and hallucinogenic use is D. where it has no record of use as a hallucinogen.or trumpet-shaped. native probably to the mountainous regions of Pakistan or Afghanistan westward. opening to expose flat. Mexican Indians believe that. Central. almost circular when expanded. In the Old World. western Asia. The rich green leaves are coarsely serrated. where the most important psychoactive species seems to be Datura innoxia. in terminal. 41 PDF compression. livershaped seeds are black. The flowers are primarily violet and grow at an angle or upright to the sky. Others believe that Mexico or North America is the original habitat. Datura mete! L. OCR. bright yellow flowers. The in. in the near East. grayish because of fine hairs on the foliage. unlike Peyote. North Africa. which is common in the Leguminosae. covered with sharp spines. Genista was introduced into Mexico from the Old World. Datura stramonium L. round fruit. (1 4-22 cm) long. measure up to 2 or 2¼ in. The tatula variety has smaller violet flowers. the leaves. Kuntze Genista Leguminosae (Pea Family) Southern Europe. The most extensive use of Datura centers in Mexico and the American Southwest. measure about ½in. innoxia to tesquino. dense racemes. (14—16) DATURAL. sometimes becoming shrubby. (30) I DATURAL. A coarse. 2cm) long.) 0. The green egg-shaped fruit is covered with thorns and stands erect. Some authors suggest that Datura stramonium is an ancient species that originates in the region of the Caspian Sea. a ceremonial drink prepared from maize. The modern Tarahumara of Mexico add the roots. (1— pods are hairy. light brown seeds. Datura innoxia is a herbaceous perennial up to 3ft (1 m) tall. (17 cm). unequally ovate. (. (14—23cm) long. (1 cm) in length. 3—6ft (1—2m) tall. It apparently has acquired magical use among the YaquI Indians of northern Mexico. Cytisus is rich in the lupine alkaloid cytisine. Cytisus canariensis bears leaves with obovate or oblong. (8—11 cm) wide. and leaves of D. The common variety carries white flowers that at 2—3 in.CYTISUSL. (6cm) in diameter. Mexico 27 temperature zones of both hemispheres 28 temperate zones of Asia and Africa 29 of both hemispheres Rarely are foreign plants incorporated in ceremonial use in aboriginal American societies. yellowish. 3— 4¼ in. (5 cm) in length. muchbranched shrub up to 6ft (1.8 m) tall. one of the plants of the gods among the Aztecs and other Indians. funnel. is conspicuously tuberculate or muricate. The fragrant. leafless stems. and South America.

et Rose Hikuli Mulato Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Southwestern North Southwestern North 30 America and South America 32 America. 42 PDF compression. caespitose cactus with decumbent. The leaves are gathered in August when the plants are in flower. A tryptamine derivative has been reported from Echinocereus triglochidiatus (3-hydroxy-4methoxyphenethylamine). are whitish to pink. and nicotine. Muell. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . It is reportedly able to drive evil people to insanity or throw them from cliffs. with a continuous margin tapered at the petiole and are 4—5 in. This spiny cactus. has acidic. The branched evergreen shrub with woody stems grows to approximately 6—9ft (2. which turn grayish with age. Botanists are not in agreement as to the number of species in the genus. This very small. Alkaloids and triterpenes have been reported from Epithelantha micromeris. Echinocereus triglochidiatus Engelm. (75) EPITHELANTHA Weber ex Britt. in. (1 cm). They are hung up to dry or roasted over afire. edible fruit called Chilitos. ½ in. are arranged in many spirals." and the Indians believe that it prolongs life. D-nor-nicotine. The ribs number 7 to9. The numerous white spines almost hide the tubercles. Epithelantha. In Chile it is known as Taique. Its wood has a yellow color and a distinct scent of vanilla. fewer radial spines. The hallucinogenic tropane alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine have been discovered in the roots. The berry is white or greenish yellow. (2mm) across. The orange-colored flowers measure 31/4—4in. (8—10cm) long Duboisia hopwoodii contains a variety of powerful and stimulating but toxic alkaloids: piturin dubosine.DESFONTAINIA R. The small flowers. OCR. central spine solitary and longer than radials. and tubular red flowers with a yellow tip. (9—13mm) long. gbbose. Mexico 33 America.8m) in height. In southern Chile Des fontainia is used for shamanic purposes similar to Latua pubiflora. The flowers are white. The fruit is a black berry with numerous tiny seeds. a beautiful shrub 1—6ft (3Ocm-1. Coryphantha. and bell-shaped (to 7mm long) and hang in clusters off the tips of the branches. or Lophophora. (6 cm). (5—7 cm) long. (3) ECHINOCEREUS Engelm. Echinocereus triglochidiatus differs in having deep green stems. Br. has glossy green leaves. Nothing is as yet known of the chemical constituents of Des fontainia. (2—4cm) in diameter. The Tarahumara Indians of Chihuahua consider two species as false Peyotes or Hikuri of the mountainous areas. Desfontainia spinosa is sometimes assigned to a different family: Logan iaceae or P0taliaceae. The psychoactive Pituri has been hedonistically and ritually used by the Aborigines since their settlement of Australia. Mexico One of the least-known Andean plants. They are not so strong as Ariocarpus. v. et P. ¼ in. The low tubercles. (1 cm) long. The 8 or 9 radial spines are yellow. shining black seeds. Duboisia hop wood/i F. Colombian shamans of the Kamsá tribe take a tea of the leaves to diagnose disease or "to dream. The clavate fruit. 1A6 in. and have oblanceolate to spathulate perianth segments. 1A6 in. yellow-green stems in. (2 mm) long. Mammillaria. Des fontainia spinosa.) Weber ex Britt. The lower radial spines measure 1A6 in. which arise from the center of the plant in a tuft of wool and spines. Medicine men take Hikuli Mulato to make their sight clearer and to permit them to commune with sorcerers. Taique Pituri Bush Desfontainiaceae Highlands of Central Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Central Australia Pitallito Cactus Epithelantha micromeris (Engelm.5—3m). The green leaves are lanceolate. in Colombia as Borrachero ("intoxicator"). and scarlet flowers 2—2¾ in. occasionally with rose speckles. et Rose (3) Desfontainia spinosa ft et P. the upper about % in. long (12— 15cm). with many lustrous seeds. It is taken by runners as a stimulant and "protector. This species is native to Chihuahua and Durango in Mexico. bears rather large." Some medicine men assert that they "go crazy" under its influence. It has been reported as a hallucinogen from Chile and southern Colombia. resembling those of Christmas holly. Echinocereus salmdyckianus is a low. (1—3) DUBOISIA R. They are either chewed as Pituri or smoked in cigarettes rolled with alkaline substances. (2mm) long. (5mm) broad. one of the socalled false Peyotes of the Tarahumara Indians of Chihuahua. globular cactus grows to a diameter of 2½ in.

nesidine). the flowers have a pale yellow or brownish yellow hue with a rusty brown calyx. Abre-o-sol ("sun-opener') and Herva da Vida ("herb of life").8m) tall with lanceolate leaves ¾_31/2 in. entire leaves are a glossy.ERYTHRINA L. entire leaves. This species is common in the hot." It is presumed that the plants are smoked for these effects. These species of Hel/chrysum are some of the plants known in English as Everlasting. Lacking sepals and petals but with many conspicuous stamens. lyfoline. gray brownish. salicifolia are slightly wilted. they are graywoolly beneath and glandular above. and are normally 41/2—6in.g. attaining a height of 9Oft (27m). Coumarine and diterpenes have been reported from the genus. He/ichrysum foetidum is a tall. Papua. measuring up to 3½ in. (2 cm) wide. (9 cm) long and ¾ in. Straw Flower Compositae (Suntlower Family) Europe. The beans of Erythrina flabelI/form/s constitute a Tarahumara Indian medicinal plant of many varied uses. Bailey Galbulimima beigraveana (F. The lanceolate or lanceolate-ovate. This tree of northeastern Australia. woody near the base and is very strongly scented. shallowly constricted between the seeds. but no constituents with hallucinogenic properties have been isolated.) Sprague Agara Himantandraceae Northeast Australia. M. Although it is believed that excessive use of Sinicuichi may be physically harmful. HEIMIA Link et Otto Heimia salicifolia (H. Several vernacular names reported from Brazil seem to indicate knowledge of psychoactivity. erect. The yellow flowers are borne singly in the leaf axils. The flowers occur in loose. and all play important roles in folk medicine. (2—4cm) in dia- meter. branching herb 10—l2in. Coral Tree GALBULIMIMA F. which may have been utilized as a hallucinogen. (3—6 cm) Natives in Fapua boil the bark and leaves of this tree with a species of Homa/omena to prepare a tea that causes an intoxication leading to a deep slumber. The shrub grows abundantly in moist places and along streams in the highlands. basally lobed. the leaves of H. The highly aromatic. Although 28 alkaloids have been isolated from Galbulimima beigraveana. during which visions are experienced. The densely many-flowered racemes bear red flowers 1 1/5_21/2 in.K. scaly bark measures ½in. The ellipsoidal or globose fruit is fleshy-fibrous. The elliptic. 43 PDF compression. Erythrina americana Mill. contain from two to many dark red beans. reddish. brown beneath. v. subtended by cream-colored or golden yellow bracts. This plant contains quinolizidine alkaloids (lythrine. the pods. e. Sometimes attaining a length of 1 ft (30 cm). Leguminosae (Pea Family) Tropical and warm zones of 34 both hemispheres 35 Malaysia 36 Argentina. 9cm) long.) Link et Otto Sinicuichi Lythraceae (Loosestrife Family) Southern North America to HELICHRYSUM Mill Helichrysum (L) Moench. usually broader than long. a psychoactive principle has not yet been found in the plant. the seeds of which are believed to have been employed as a medicine and hallucinogen. Africa. In the Mexican highlands. Muell. (1 cm) in thickness. Erythrina flabe//iformis is a shrub or small tree with spiny branches. This genus has three very similar species.. OCR. (25—30 cm) in height. (2 cm) in diameter. The leaflets are 21/2_ 3½ in. and the preparation is then allowed to ferment into an intoxicating drink. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . terminal. Two species are used by witch doctors in Zululand "for inhaling to induce trances. the persistent bell-shaped calyx develops long hornlike appendages. West Indies 37 Australia Tzompanquahuitl of the ancient Aztecs may have been from the many species in the genus Erythrina. ¾ in. (2— long. Asia. and Molucca is unbuttressed. there are usually no uncomfortable aftereffects. (3—6cm) long. dry regions of northern and central Mexico and the American Southwest. (5— 15cm) long and 7cm) wide. In Guatemala the beans are employed in divination. cryogenine. crushed in water. metallic green above. It is slightly Sinicuichi (Helm/a is 2—6ft (6Ocm-1. corymbose clusters of several stalked heads ¾—1½ in.B. basally enclasp the stem. (11— in.

(40—50cm) high. Hecate. In the Delphi oracles of Apollo. they have a softening or dampening effect. Hyoscyamus niger was employed in Europe as an important ingredient of the witches' brews and ointments. tropical HYOSCYAMUS L. HYOSCYAMUS L. viscid. strongsmelling herb up to about 30 in. The leathery lanceolate-elliptic leaves attain a length of 7 in. (18cm) and a width of 3 in. (76 cm) tall. The fleshy. The male and female portions of the spadix are proximate. Although the herb has erect stems. Scopolamine is a potent hallucinogenic agent.. used to promote a trance and taken by oracles and divinitory women. the lower cauline amplexicaul leaves being oblong and smaller. as well as the funnel-shaped f lowers and fruits.HELICOSTYLIS Trécul HOMALOMENA Schott Homalomena lauterbachii Engi. Extracts from the inner bark of both trees have been pharmacologically studied. The seeds have a whitish or ocher color. Ereriba Araceae (Arum Family) South America. especially for the treatment of skin problems. uses "crazymaker" in the Kobch oracle. Late antiquity gives us "Zeus's Beans" in the oracle of Zeus-Am mon and the Roman god Jupiter. southwestern and central Asia Takini is a sacred tree of the Guianas. In antiquity and the Middle Ages. Yellow Henbane Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Hyoscyamus niger L. 6—8 in. These two species of trees are similar. The two species responsible for this hallucinogen are H. 44 PDF compression. The chemistry of this group of plants has not yet disclosed any hallucinogenic principle. Helicostylis pedunculata Benoist Takini Hyoscyamus albus L. during which visions are experienced. The hallucinogen could theoretically originate from either of the related genera Brosimum or Piratinera. In Malaya an unspecified part of a species was an ingredient of an arrow poison. Black Henbane Moraceae (Mulberry Family) Central America. the latex is pale yellow or cream-colored. yellow or greenish yellow veined with purple. (15cm) in length. Extracts from the inner bark of two trees elicit central nervous system depressant effects similar to those produced by Cannabis sativa. The species of Homalomena are small or large herbs with pleasantly aromatic rhizomes. attain a length of about 1½ in. are all pileous. Very little is known about these trees and they are rarely studied. pedunculata and H. (8cm). web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . tomentosa. The leaves are oblonglanceolate or cordate-ovate. similar to Cannabis sativa. The fruit is a many-seeded capsule enclosed in the persistent calyx with its five triangular points becoming rigid. Henbane is a coarse annual or biennial. The small berries are few or many-seeded. northern Africa. In the ancient earth oracle of Gaia. In Papua New Guinea the natives are said to eat the leaves of a species of Homalomena with the leaves and bark of Galbulimima beigraveana to induce a violent condition ending in slumber. The leaves are entire or occasionally have a few large teeth. it often appears bushy. Near East 38 zones of South America 39 zones of Asia 40 41 Europe. The flowers. The hallucinogen was an important medium in antiquity. It not only reduced pain but also induced oblivion. The rhizomes have a number of uses in folk medicine. rarely exceeding 6 in. tropical Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Mediterranean. (15— 20 cm) long. The light green stems and serrated leaves. hairy." it is known as "Apollo's Plant?' The entire plant contains the tropane alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine. especially scopolamine. The spathe usually persists in fruit. (4cm) and are borne in two ranks in a scorpioid cyme. OCR. From the red "sap" of the bark a mildly poisonous intoxicant is prepared. borne on very short stems. occasionally a gray color. Both are cylindrical or very slightly buttressed forest giants 75 ft (23 m) tall with grayish brown bark. who is the God of "prophetic insanity. The color of the flowers is light yellow with deep violet on the interior. it is the "dragon's herb?' The goddess of the witches. This henbane was the most widely used magical herb and medicinal plant. pistillate flowers are borne in gbbose cauliflorous heads. ovate. The active principles in this solanaceous genus are tropane alkaloids. The herb blooms from January to July. It grows to approximately 8—12 in. The seeds release a powerful and distinctive odor when squeezed.

(10cm) but is usually much shorter. The plant contains withanolide. about ½ in. known also as I. and the leaves.200m) altitude. about ¼ in. and measure 2—2¾ in. %—l in. measure 4—6in. The shrub is valued also as a medicine for treating difficulties with digestion or bowel function. with erect or ascending stems. (2. stenophy/la contain tryptamifleS (DMT) need confirmation. ¾—3m. Morning Glory Convolvulaceae (Morning Glory Family) Mexico to South America 42 zones of South America 43 Acanthaceae (Acanthus Family) Tropical and warm zones of 44 Central and South America I the Kamsá Indians of the Colombian Andes. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . and to aid in cases of difficult childbirth. (500) JUSTICIA L. (5mm) long.5—4cm) long. covered with glandular hairs. sometimes rooting at the lower nodes. obovate-oblong. The dense inflorescence. in southern Mexico. The internodes are short. pectoral/s var. lpomoea vbolacea. (10—15cm) in length. The flowers vary from white to red. OCR. reddish brown seeds. (1 cm) in length. 2cm) wide. I.5 m) tall. the Aztecs knew them as Tlililtzin and employed them in the same way as Ololiuqul. bears flat. bears elongate. The branches are reddish brown. deeply cordate leaves 21/2—4in. (5—7 cm) long. The numerous leaves measure normally ¾— 2¼ in. (24) IPOMOEA L. ovate. frequently purple-spotted. The clustered tubular or bell-shaped flowers are red. (2—8cm) Justicia pectoral/s var. The intoxication is not pleasant. the Zapotecs. a shrub or small tree 1O—l5ft (3— 4. stenophylla differs from the widespread j. (5mm) long. It is well known in horticulture. (2—5 cm) long. The dried herb contains coumarin. (5—7cm) wide at the mouth of the trumpet-shaped. ¼ in. the seeds of this vine are esteemed as one of the principal hallucinogens for use in divination as well as magico-religious and curing rituals. (6—10cm) long. may reach a length of 4in. It can be found as well in tropical South America. The Chinan- tec and Mazatec Indians call the seeds Piule.000ff (2. (2 cm) in diameter. are white or violet. The red fruit is an ovoid or pyriform berry about ¾ in. It is an herb up to 1 ft (30 cm) tall. (1— wide. occurs in the Colombian and Ecuadorean Andes at about 7. partially enclosed in a persistent calyx. pectoral/s mainly in its smaller stature and its very narrowly lanceolate leaves and shorter inflorescence. fuchsb/des is taken by shamans for difficult diagnoses. Turbina corymbosa. The inconspicuous flowers. Badoh Negro.0CHROMA Benth. purple. the seeds of another Morning Glory. 2—2¾ in. The fruit. stenophy/la Leonard Mashihiri (350) :chroma fuchsioides (Benth. The inflorescence is threeor four-flowered. 45 PDF compression. usually less than ¾ in. rubrocaerulea. (2 cm) long. but sometimes larger. angular black seeds. 1— 1½ in. Chemical examination of Just/c/a has been inconclusive. lochroma fuchsboides. var. corolla tube. Preliminary indications that the leaves of J. In Oaxaca.) Miers Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Tropical and subtropical lpomoea violacea L. In pre-Conquest days. Just/cia pectora/isJacq. blue or violet-blue. is an annual vine with entire. The ovoid fruit. This variable species ranges through western and southern Mexico and Guatemala and in the West Indies. leaving aftereffects for several days.

dark to light green above. Turkoman. On the dry steppes of Turkestan. are marginally entire or serrate and measure 13/8—l¾in. Chemical studies are lacking. fruiting tops. the highly aromatic rhizome is valued as a spice to flavor rice. The bark is reddish to grayish brown.) R. This short-stemmed herb has flat-spreading.) R. Throughout the range of this species. Tatar. In California the plant has been grown and tested. Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Chile 45 southeastern Asia 46 47 48 Kaempferia galanga is used as a hallucinogen in New Guinea. It has sedative properties. and eye infections. bell-shaped. (2. and honey and sugar may occasionally be added to lessen the intense bitterness of the drink. or Wild Dagga. Lion's Tail Labiatae (Mint Family) South Africa Latua pubiflora (Griseb. rheumatism. and Uzbek tribesmen have used a tea made from the toasted leaves of the mint Lagochilus inebrians as an intoxicant.18% hyoscyamine and atropine and 0. or the resin extracted from the leaves.5 cm) in diameter.) Baill. 6—30ft (2—9m) tall. This plant has been well studied from the pharmacological point of view in Russia. rigid and 1 in. This compound is not known to be hallucinogenic. (3½— 4½ cm) by %—1½ in.KAEMPFERIA L. Br. green. pubiflora contain 0. arise in the leaf axils. LEONOTIS (pers. (2. The narrow elliptic leaves. It has also been considered helpful in treating certain allergies and skin problems. Leonotis leonurus (L. It is possible that this plant is one of the narcotic plants called Kanna (compare to Sceletium tortuosum). revealing a bitter-tasting smoke and a lightly psychoactive effect that is reminiscent of both Cannabis and Datura. Br. swellings. the plant was added to the arrow poison prepared from Antiaris toxicaria.5 cm) long. The resinous leaves. round leaves measuring 3—6 in. Psychoactive activity might possibly be due to constituents of the essential oils. (2. little is known of the chemistry of the plant.5 cm) in breadth. (8— 15 cm) across. urceolate corolla 1 s/a— 1½ in. OCR. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .5—4cm) long. A tea of the leaves is employed for sore throat. green to purplish calyx and a larger. The white flowers (with a purple spot on the lip). Beyond the high content of essential oil in the rhizome. Kaempferia galanga L. the closely related Leonotis ovata is reportedly used for the same purpose. (3. The spiny branches. It is recommended for its antihemorrhagic and hemostatic effects to reduce permeability of blood vessels and as an aid in blood coagulation. - This South African shrub has orange-colored flowers and is reported to be "hallucinogenic?' In Africa it is called Dacha. the Tajik. has one or more main trunks. In eastern South Africa.08% scopolamine. and also in folk medicine as an expectorant and carminative as well as an aphrod isiac. The fruit is a globose berry about 1 in. which are fugacious. In Malaysia. Latua. with numerous kidney-shaped seeds. (1 cm) wide at the mouth. which means "wild hemp?' The Hottentots and the Bush people smoke the buds and the leaves as a narcotic. Zingiberaceae (Ginger Family) Tropical zones of Africa. magenta to red-violet. The leaves and fruit of L. Galanga LAGOCHILUS Bunge Lagochilus inebrians Bunge Turkestan Mint Labiatae (Mint Family) Central Asia LATUA Phil. Daggha. and flowers. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of a crystalline compound called lagochiline—a diterpene of the grindeian type. ½ in. are smoked alone or mixed with tobacco. 46 PDF compression. The leaves are frequently mixed with stems. The flowers have a persistent. appear singly in the center of the plant and attain approximately 1 in. paler beneath. (1.5—4cm).

Each tubercle bears a small. L. 6—9ft (2—3m) high polymorphic Lobelia is well recognized as toxic in the Andes of southern Peru and northern Chile. as well as the diketo. with a shift in attention from external stimuli to introspection and meditation. The flowers are usually much larger than in L. 0. Lophophora williams/i (Lem. sometimes recurved with the lobes united at the apex. Siberian Motherwort Family) Lobelia tupa L. Carmine red or purple. the smoked leaves have a psychoactive effect. It flourishes in dry soil. elliptic. are smoked as marijuana substitute in Central and South America (1—2g per cigarette). The dried leaves. the plant will often grow new crowns and thus Peyotes with multiple heads are commonly seen. The violet flowers appear on the ends of each stem and the inflorescence can be long and attractive. Leonurus sibiricus L.LOPHOPHORA Coult. (10—23cm) long.). usually solitary. Of particular interest with regard to the psych oactive properties was the discovery of three new diterpenes: leosibiricine. written approximately 1000—500 B. harvested from the flowering plant. (1 . with kaleidoscopic. williams/i. (2cm) long. This dry. leosibirine. richly colored visions. 47 PDF compression. where it is called t'uei. Central Campanulaceae (Lobeliaceae) (Harebell Family) Tropical and warm zones Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Mexico. where it is called Tupa or Tabaco del Diablo ("devil's tobacco"). OCR. Nevertheless. It has up to 30 alkaloids—primarily Mescaline—as well as further psychoactive phenylethylamines and isoquinolines. Tupa leaves contain the piperidine alkaloid lobeline. In the plant. and the isomers isoleosibiricine in essential oil.5cm) long flowers are borne in the umbilicate center of the crown. and its stems and roots have a white latex that irritates the skin. Both species of Lophophora are small. This beautiful. taste—can also be affected. Later it was occasionally praised as a medicinal plant in old Chinese herbals.) Coult. (8 cm) in diameter and is radially divided in from 5 to 13 rounded ribs. The succulent chlorophyll-bearing head or crown measures up to 3¾ in. Peyote Tabaco del Diablo Siberia to East Asia.5—2.and dihydroxy-derivatives lobelamidine and nor-bbedamidine. The second phase brings great calm and muscular sluggishness. dark green leaves. These constituents are not known to possess hallucinogenic properties. The corolla is decurved. are borne densely on a stalk 14 in. usually on calcareous soil. the flowers. The chemical constitution is much simpler. At first. c. Both species of Lophophora inhabit the driest and stoniest of desert regions. There are reportedly two stages in the intoxication. (36 cm) long. reaching over 6ft (2m) often on a single stem. The hallucinogenic effects of Peyote are strong. The other senses—hearing. Lophophora williams/i is usually blue-green with from 5 to 13 ribs and normally straight furrows. flat areole from the top of which arises a tuft of hairs ¾ in. The Siberian Motherwort is mentioned in the ancient Chinese Shih Ching (the Book of Songs. 1¼—31/4in.1% of the flavonoid glycoside rutin has been ascertained. The luxuriant foliage clothes nearly the whole length of the plant with grayish green. Two species of Lophophora are recognized: they differ morphologically and chemically. (4cm) in length. It has maxilliform branches and finely serrated. The whitish or pinkish campanulate. red. Texas 49 aid South America (fiaturalized) 50 51 This herb grows erect and tall. The Indians cut off the crown and dry it for ingestion as a hallucinogen.or red-purple-flowered. feeling. diffusa has a gray- green. (3—8 cm) wide. a period of contentment and sensitivity occurs. When the crown is removed. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . a respiratory stimulant. spineless gray-green or bluish green top-shaped plants. in. diskllke head is known as the Mescal Button or Peyote Button. 1½ in. sometimes even a rather yellowish green crown with indefinite ribs and sinuate furrows. often minutely hairy leaves 4— 9in.

brownish tawny with a subtle tinge of violet. the Mixtecs of Oaxaca employ two species to induce a condition of halfsleep. attaining a diameter of no more than 1¼ in. As a magical plant and hallucinogen. known only from Oaxaca. Mammillaria spp. the central spines are about ¼ in. known as Kalamoto. sometimes with white margins. grahamii may be globose or cylindric. Bovista Lycoperdaceae (Club Moss Family) Temperate zones of Mexico Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Southwestern North Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Southern Europe. among the Tarahumara of Chihuahua.LYCOPERDON L. The globose or ovoid. (2 cm) or less in length. The whitish green. 2½ in. (2. Itis subglobose. Known for its toxic and real and presumed medicinal properties. Lycoperdon mixtecorum. purplish. (28cm) in length. is small. craigii. Pincushion Cactus (150—200) MANDRAGORA L. N-methyl-3. (3cm) in length. is taken by sorcerers to enable them to approach people without being detected and to make people sick. The rose-colored flower attains a length of % in. during which it is said that voices and echoes can be heard. it is M. Its folk uses and attributes were inextricably bound up with the Doctrine of Signatures. all of them round and stout-spined plants. OCR. (6cm) in diameter with small tubercles and naked axils.5 cm). succulent yellow berry has a delightful fragrance. officinarum of Europe and the Near East that has played the most important role as a hallucinogen in magic and witchcraft. ovate leaves. M. (3cm). wrinkled. Mammillaria crai. The exterior surface is densely cobbled-pustuliform and light tan in color. It is a stemless perennial herb up to 1 ft (30 cm) high. In northern Mexico. Mandrake (6) Lycoperdon mixtecorum Heim Lycoperdon marginatum Vitt. have violet or purplish segments.4%. Mandrake commanded the fear and respect of Europeans throughout the Middle Ages and earlier. 1¼ in.gii is globose but apically somewhat flattened with conical. The spherical spores. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . its extraordinary place in European folklore can nowhere be equaled. a species do- selyrelatedtoM. (1 cm) long and axils and areoles at first woolly. The principal alkaloids are hyoscyamine and scopolamine. or mandragorine is also present. 48 PDF compression. but atropine. or bluish bell-shaped flowers. The interior substance is straw colored. western Asia to Himalayas Probably no plant has had a more fantastic history than the Mandrake. (5 mm) long. (1. northern 52 53 America. usually forking root and large.4-dimethoxy-phenylethylamine has been isolated from M. heyderii. marginally entire or toothed and measuring upto 11 in. stalked. measure up to This terrestrial species grows in light forest and in pastures. angled tubercles about ½1n. (3 mm) long. Central America 54 Africa. The flowers. (50—100) MAMMILLARIA Haw. because of its anthropomorphic root. somewhat flattened. Psychoactive constituents have not yet been isolated. are borne in clusters among the tufted leaves. a species of Lycoperdon. Among the most important "false Peyotes" of the Tarahumara Indians are several species of Mammillaria. abruptly constricted into a peduncle scarcely ½ in.Hordenine is present in many species. with a thick.5cm). While there are six species of Mandragora. In southern Mexico. the central spines are 3/4 in. which attain a length of 1 in. cuscohygrine. The total content of tropane alkaloids in the root is 0. Mandragora officinarum L.

the descriptions of it in the literature. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . tenuiflora). breaks into 4—6 sections. (20—30cm) long. as well as the pharmacological characteristics of the material have revealed kratom to be simultaneously stimulating like cocaine and soothing like morphine. Several species of Mimosa are called Jurema in eastern Brazil. 49 PDF compression. ½in. C. about 1— 1¼ in. The green oval leaves (8—12cm) are very broad and become narrower toward the tip. the female inflorescences are borne in the leaf axIs and have one or rarely two flowers. Often it grows only to 6—9ft (3—4m) high. is globose. chewed. (Mimosa tenuiflora) Jurema Tree Leguminosae (Pea Family) Mexico and Brazil MITRAGYNA Korth. The flowers. which is pointed. (1 cm) in diameter. 3— 6½ in. (3— The tropical tree or shrub grows in marshy areas. Its finely pinnate leaves are 1½—i ¾ in. Maquira sclerophylla (Ducke) C. Personal research. Mimosa hostilis (Mart. N-dimethyltryptamine. There are numerous indole alkaloids present in the plant. is frequently called Jurema Branca ("white jurema"). the ovate or oblongovate.5—3 cm) long. (2. (2—2. Very thick and In the dry caatingas of eastern Brazil. The tree contains cardiac glycosides. marginally inrolled leaves are 8—12 in.5 cm) in diameter. this busy. is known as Rape dos Indios ("Indian snuff"). It was later shown to be identical with the hallucinogenic N. which is apparently easily tolerated and shows barely any toxicity even in high doses. As early as the 19th century the use of Kratom as an opium substitute and a curative for opium addiction was reported. The latex is white. Mitragyna speciosa Korthals Kratom Rubiaceae (Madder Family) Southeast Asia (Thailand. The primary constituent is mitragynine. New Guinea) In the Pariana region of the Brazilian Amazon. Maquira scierophylla attains a height of 75—lOOft (23—30m). from the bark of which a stupefacient is said to be derived. in.) Benth. The dried leaves are smoked. OCR. heavy. are white and fragrant. The spines are basally swollen. the Indians formerly prepared a potent hallucinogenic snuff that. MIMOSAL. occasionally to 36—42 ft (12—16m). hostilis is often known as Jurema Prêta ("black jurema"). The flowers are deep yellow and hang in globular clusters. M. The seeds are winged. or worked into an extract called Kratom or Mambog. The legume or pod. It is identical to the Mexican Tepescohuite (M. The psychoactive properties of kratom are paradoxical. (3mm) long. It has an erect stem with forked branches that grow obliquely upward. An alkaloid was isolated from the root of this treelet and called nigerine. The related M. which occur in loosely cylindrical spikes. up to about ½ in. verrucosa. Berg Rape dos Indios Moraceae (Mulberry Family) Tropical zones of South 55 America 56 57 northern Malay Peninsula to Borneo. although no longer prepared and used. It is believed have been made from the fruit of an enormous forest tree. (8—16cm) wide. The stimulating effects begin within 5 to 10 minutes of chewing the fresh leaves. 5cm) long. The drupe or fruit. cinnamon-colored and fragrant. Maquira scierophylla (known also as Olmedioperebea scierophylla).MAQUIIRA AubI. The male flowering heads are globose. sparsely spiny treelet flourishes abundantly.

Cowhage NYMPF-IAEA L.5—15cm) across. Nymphaea amp/a has thickish dentate leaves. round leaves. The tropical orchid is widely distributed in the New World. but the plant has been chemically shown to be rich in psychoactive constituents (DMT. of its use. 5-MeO-DMT). dull white in the center. ½ in. The psychotropic activity is thought to be due primarily to aromatic ethers (myristicine and others). measuring 5½—il in. The beautiful. ONCIDIUM Sw. 50 PDF compression. has three-foliolate leaves. stone cliffs and trees in the Tarahumara Indian country of Mexico. ¾— 11/4 in. has a green stalk with purplish or purple-brown spots. An alkaloid has been reported from Oncidium cebol/eta. from the seed. purple beneath. Mucuna pruriens (L. The isolation of the psychoactive apomorphine has offered chemical support to this speculation. number 14 to 20. (7. There is evidence that Nymphaea may have been employed as a hallucinogen in both the Old and New Worlds. Oncidium cebo//eta is an epiphytic orchid that grows on steep. are densely hairy on both surfaces. OCR. while the stamens number 50 or more. The seeds contain DMTand are used as an Ayahuasca analog today. Florida Mucuna pruriens has not been reported as a hallucinogen.MYRISTICA Gronov. induce an intoxication characterized by space and time distortion. a feeling of detachment from reality. Africa. the petals. acute-lanceolate. nausea. pruriens. The aromatic fraction of oil of nutmeg is made up of nine components belonging to the groups terpenes and aromatic ethers. The powdered seeds are considered aphrodisiac in India. become 3— 51/4 in. unknown in a truly wild state. dizziness.) DC. erect. The pods. Nuciferme and nornuciferine are also isolated from N. Asia 60 of both hemispheres Orchidaceae (Orchid Family) Central America. The flowers have brownish yellow sepals and petals spotted with dark brown blotches. (14— 28 cm) across. The flowering spike. irregularly dentate. nutmeg intoxication is variable. The leaflets. peltate leaves. open three days in the midmorning. (4—9cm) long. It was found that marked behavioral changes occurred that could be equated with hallucinogenic activity. caeru/ea's oval. The Egyptian native N. with long. with acute angulate stems. often arching. Frequently with unpleasant effects such as severe headache. is bright yellow with reddish brown marks. however. tachycardia. in large doses. South 61 America. The pseudo-bulbs appear as little more than a swelling at the base of the fleshy. stinging hairs. Oncidium cebolleta (Jacq. they measure 3—6 in. Nutmeg Myristicaceae (Nutmeg Family) Tropical and warm zones of Nymp/iaea amp/a (Salisb. oblong or ovate. amp/a. Little is known. grayish green. and visual and auditory hallucinations. The three-lobed lip. It is possible that Indian peoples may have discovered and utilized some of these psychoactive properties of M. Myristica fragrans is a handsome tree. (2cm) long by 11/8 in. The major component—myristicine—is a terpene. Nutmeg and mace can. The total indole alkylamine content was studied from the point of view of its hallucinogenic activity. It is employed as a temporary surrogate of Peyote or Hikuri (Lophophora wi//lamsii).) Sw. This stout. measure about 1 ½—3½ in. showy white flowers. (3 cm) across the mid-lobe. often spotted with purple. Water Lily Leguminosae (Pea Family) Tropical and warm zones of Nymphaeaceae (Water Lily Family) Temperate and warm zones 58 both hemispheres 59 Europe. The two spices have different tastes because of differing concentrations of components of their essential oils. with 30— 190 yellow stamens. scandent herb. (7—13 cm) across at ma- turity. The dark purple or bluish flowers. 3/4 in. stiff. but widely cultivated for nutmeg. and for mace. measure 5—6in. Hikuri Orchid Myristica fragrans Houtt. (2—3cm) long. The light blue flowers. from the red aril surrounding the seed. are borne in short hanging racemes. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . but its biological activity is believed to be that of an irritant.) DC. (1 2—15cm) in diameter and are green-purple blotched beneath. (1cm) thick.

Several investigators have at times argued that P sphinctrinus is not among the hallucinogenic mushrooms used by shamans in Indian communities of Oaxaca.5m). open fields. campanulate mushroom. P sphinctrinus is on occasion used by certain shamans. with metuloid colored. "intoxicating mushroom. It is known in Mazatec as 1-ha-nasa. The spores are black. white in the inner parts.) Quélet Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum (Engelm. and To-shka. One of the sacred hallucinogenic mushrooms employed in divination and other magic ceremonies in northeastern Oaxaca. among the Mazatec and Chinantec Indians is this member of the small genus Panaeolus.311. The fruit. Neither have psychoactive effects been determined in human pharmacological experiments. et Rose Cawe Panaeolus cyanescens Berk. P sphinctrinus is a delicate yellowish brown mushroom up to 4in. Up to 1. arising from a 6ff (1.PACHYCEREUS (A. The term Wichowaka also means "insanity" in the Tarahumara language. but this view is contradicted by ample evidence.2% of psilocine and 0. and specific usage. Although this mushroom is primarily tropical. (3cm) in diameter. obtusely pointed. weather variation. The flesh is thin.8 m) trunk. et Br. It has an ovoid-campanulate. The fruiting bodies take on bluish flecks with age or after bruising. lemon-shaped spores that vary in size. The 2—3 in. Mexico.) PANAEOLUS (Fr. fleshy or nearly membranaceous.5 to 8. 51 PDF compression.6% of psilocybine has been found in this species. The slender stipe is fragile and the lamellae are variegated. In European Panaeolus sphinctrinus no psilocybine has been detected. (6—8cm) in diameter. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor ." While not so important as the several species of Psilocybe and Stropharia. Investigators now believe that there may be more species and genera of mushrooms in use among Mexican Indian populations than those now known. It is possible that chemically different types exist. The short spines are characteristicafy gray with black tips. Blue Meanies Panaeolus sphinctrinus (Fr. who know the plant as Cawe and Wichowaka. with scarcely any bdor. The dark brownish black gills bear black. attains a height of 35ff (10. (5—8 cm) flowers are purplish in the outermost petals. The stipe is dark grayish. the discovery that it contains psilocybine was made with material collected in a garden in France. tan-gray cap up to 1¼ in. they can measure 12 to 15 by 7.) Britt. is densely covered with yellow wool and long yellow bristles. and along roads. The mushroom is also sold as a halluciriogen to strangers as they pass through on their travels. et Rose PANAEOLUS (Fr. treelike columnar cactus. this tall. This and other species of Panaeolus have been reported to contain the hallucinogenic alkaloid psilocybine. pointed cystidia on the sides. The islanders of Bali pick Panaeolus cyanescens from cow and water buffalo dung and ingest them for celebrations and artistic inspiration. Panaeolus cyanescens is a small. She-to means "pasture mushroom" and To-shka. Recent studies have isolated 4-hydroxy3-methoxyphenylethylamine and 4-tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids from this plant.) Qublet Hoop-petticoat Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Mexico Coprinaceae Warm zones of both Coprinaceae Cosmopolitan 62 63 hemispheres 64 A plant of many uses among the Indians. depending on season. Its use by Oaxacan Indians along with so many other mushroom species demonstrates the tendency among shamans to use a surprisingly wide range of different mushrooms. take a drink made from the juice of the young branches as a narcotic. Growing on cow dung in forests. The Tarahumara. Berger) Britt. She-to. It causes dizziness and visual hallucinations. (10 cm) in height. globose and measuring 21/2—3in. OCR. in color similar to the surface. There are a number of purely medicinal uses of this cactus.

The naked flowers occur in large heads enclosed in spathes. bitter taste.5g dried mushroom. Peganum harmala L. The seeds are angled and black. stout scape.PANAEOLUS (Fr. stiff. The fruits of some species are used as food in Southeast Asia. located at the throat of the perianth. It is dioecious. but no psilocine. It is a bushy shrub attaining a height of 3ft (1 m). rubbing the sliced bulb over cuts made in the scalp. treelike. armed with prickles. It has recently been postulated that P harma/a may have been the source of Soma or Huoma of the ancient peoples of Persia and India. Pandanus is a very large genus of the Old World tropics. the Bushmen reportedly value the plant as a hallucinogen. swordlike. with prominent flying-buttress. The Syrian Rue is an herb native to desert areas. The leaves are cut into narrowly linear segments. (2—6 cm) wide and somewhat smooth. P trianthum seems to be religiously important. It is possible that it was an ingredient in the mead or beer of the Germans. Syrian Rue (6) Panaeo/us subbalteatus Berk. The species of Pancratium have tunicated bulbs and linear leaves. North and Central Zygophyllaceae (Caltrop Family) Western Asia to northern In- 65 America 66 Africa and Asia 67 Europe. orconelike mass comprising the union of the angled. Dimethyltryptamine has been isolated and identified in Pandanus nuts. sometimes climbing. so that the edge often appears markedly darker. Nevertheless. et Broome Pancratium trianthum Herbert Kwashi Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis Family) Tropical and warm zones of Pandanussp. The red-brown lamellae are curved and eventually become black due to the spores. The plant possesses psychoactive principles: t3-carboline alkaloids—harmine. composite ball-like. the sacred animal of the German god of ecstasy. The leaves of some species attain a length of 15 ft (4. Botswana. harmaline. tetrahydroharmine— and related bases known to occur in at least eight families of higher plants. hard. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . one is said to cause death by paralysis of the central nervous system. have a funnel-shaped perianth with a long tube and narrow segments. and narcotic odor. The high esteem that P harma/a enjoys in folk medicine wherever the plant occurs may indicate a former semisacred use as a hallucinogen in native religion and magic. in particular in horse pastures and in conjunction with horse manure. OCR. Africa. The white or greenish white flowers.or stiltlike roots. In the bulb of P trianthum the alkaloids lycorine and hordenine have been detected. In Dobe. The cap is in. In tropical west Africa. borne in an umbel terminating in an erect. P trianthum is reputedly one of the most toxic species. The aggregate fruit or syncarpium. Activity is experienced with 1 .7g are visionary. It grows in dung-fertilized. a fair amount of serotonine and also tophane.) Quélet (20—60) I PANCRATIUM L. grassy earth. deeply lobed fruit contains many flat. this mushroom has a symbiotic relationship with the horse. There is no information passed on about a traditional use of this mushroom. others are emetics. Screw Pine Pandanaceae (Screwpine Family) Tropical and warm zones of Dark-rimmed Mottlegill Coprinaceae Eurasia. This mushroom spreads rapidly. These constituents are found in Peganum harma/a in the seeds. Little is known of the use of Pancratium trianthum. It is at first damp brown and grows drier toward the middle. but little is known of this use. easily detachable carpels. Many of the 15 species of this plant are potent cardiac poisons. The fruiting body contains 0. 52 PDF compression. Asia 68 dia. are joined together at the base into a kind of cup. 2. The gbbose. Most species of Pandanus occur along the seacoast or in salt marshes. (600) I PEGANUM L. heavy.5 m) and are used for matting: they are commonly long. hooked forward and backward.7% psilocybine as well as 0. Wodan. Manchuria The Dark-rimmed Mottlegill is widely distributed throughout Europe. fil. Natives of New Guinea employ the fruit of a species of Pandanusfor hallucinogenic purposes. and the small white flowers occur in the axils of branches. The stamens. (15) I PANDANUS L. solid. Mongolia.46% baeocystine. angled seeds of a brown color. is a large. mostly appearing with the flowers.

not arranged on ribs. the cactus has a similar effect to Peyote. (3 cm) in width. The fruit of P furens. Shanin (40) PEUCEDANUM L. This plant is common on sandy places near seashores. when ingested. cylindric-conical plant 1— 2½ in. The 10 to 20 rays are ¾—1¼ in. twice or thrice ternate with obovatecuneate leaflets 1¼—2½ in. (3. TaglIi. A beautiful cactus. although rarely up to4in. These two species of Pernettya are small. pectinate spines. (2— 3cm) long. South America Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Mexico Ericaceae (Heath Family) Mexico to the Andes. When consumed. the Huedhued or Hierba Loca of Chile. Most of the cultivated types of Petunia are hybrids derived from the purple-flowered Petunia violacea and the white Petunia axillaris. Numerous reports indicate that Pernettya is intoxicating.PELECYPHORA Ehrenb. of inducing hallucinations as well as other psychic and motor alterations. A recent report from highland Ecuador has indicated that a species of Petunia is valued as a hallucinogen. Peyotillo (2) PERNETTYA Gaud. with prolonged use. the inner redviolet. The flowers are borne in umbellate clusters. Recent investigations have indicated the presence of alkaloids. The apical bell-shaped flowers measure up to 1¼ in. It has been suggested that Pernettya was employed by aboriginal peoples as a magicoreligious hallucinogen. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . or P parvifolia. Coumarin and furocoumann are widespread in the genus and occur in Pjaponicum. (10cm) indiameter. the outer segments are white. The berrylike fruit is white to purple. fibrous stems attain a length of 20—40 in. has toxic fruit capable.5 cm). but as a solanaceous group allied to Nicotiana—the tobaccos—it may well contain biologically active principles. Which group of Indians employs it. The flowers are white to rose-tinted. scalelike. P aselliformis is a solitary.5— 1 m). a typical characteristic of many kinds of hallucinogenic intoxications. OCR. Pernettya furens (Hook. Pelecyphora aselliformis Ehrenb. Alkaloidal constituents have been reported from Peucedanum. causes mental confusion. and bear very small. tussic. The ellipsoid fruit is minutely hairy.5—6. Peucedanumjaponicum is a stout perennial. and how it is prepared for use are not known.5— 5cm) long. Although thought to be rather deleterious. it may. diuretic.) Klotzch Hierba Loca (20) PETUNIA Juss. (3— 6cm) long. The laterally flattened tubercles are spiraled. what species. ex DC. It is said to induce a feeling of levitation or of soaring through the air. tufted. sprawling to suberect shrubs with densely leafy branches. Asia There are suspicions that this round cactus may be valued in Mexico as a "false Peyote" It is locally known as Peyote and Peyotillo. mescaline among others. It is called Shanin in Ecuador. Petunia violacea Lindl. 11/2—2in. The thick leaves are 8— 24 in. The effects of the intoxication are said to be similar to those caused by Datura. 53 PDF compression. (125) Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Warm zones of North 71 America. The solid. blue-green herb with-thick roots and short rhizomes.-Beaup. New Zealand 72 southern Africa. The root of Fang-K'uei is employed medicinally in China as an eliminative. Phytochemical studies of the horticulturally important genus Petunia are lacking. madness. (20—61 cm) long. (2. Gala- 69 70 pagos and Falkiand Islands. These species are native to southern South America. and sedative. gray-green. have tonic effects. Fang-K'uei Umbelliferae (Parsley Family) Temperate zones of Europe. (0. and even permanent insanity.

it may become cyanaceous. Thus far. usually thickened at the base. at which point the leaves drop and the panicle turns white. The rootstalk contains DMT. Red Canary Grass PHRAGMITES Adans. broad leaves have rough edges. an extremely toxic alkaloid. It is possible that in the past few years "cellar shamans" might have been experimenting with a possible psychoactive use for the grass in Ayahuasca analogs and DM1 extracts. (40—50cm) long and in. is coniccampanulate. although the former is cultivated as a food. The pan ole can take on a light green or red-violet coloration. Reports concerning psychoactive properties are primarily from experiences with an Ayahuasca analog made from an extract of the roots. OCR. It has a thick. The root is so poisonous that it is normally used only externally. ex Steud. In most. The stipe is hollow.PHALARIS L. particularly as fibrous material. lemon juice. about % in. then becoming convex to plane. The Red Canary Grass was known already in antiquity. It is golden yellow. The cap. (12 cm) long. (3 mm) long. and the seeds of Peganum harma/a. The white flowers. The latter type is considered to be highly toxic. tribe. very rarely up to 5% in. only as a fermented ingredient in a beerlike drink. The mushroom may attain a height of 1%—3m. Unpleasant side effects such as nausea. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (10cm) in length. pale tan to whitish near the margin. often grows in harbors.) Quélet Psilocybe cubensis (Earle) Sing. The psychoactive constituents of Phalaris were first noticed by a phytochemical study on grasses done for agricultural purposes.) Trin. Phragmites australis (Cay. The elliptic leaves average about 4% in. berrylike fruit bears small black kidneyshaped seeds ½ in. San Isidro Graminaea (Grass Family) Cosmopolitan Gramineae (Grass Family) Cosmopolitan Phytolaccaceae Tropical and warm zones of Strophariaceae Nearly cosmopolitan in the 73 74 75 both hemispheres 76 tropics This perennial grass has grayish green stalks that grow to 6ff (2 m) and can be split lengthwise. 6—16 in. in age or upon injury. The very long pan ide. MMT. branching green stems up to 3ff (91 cm) in length. bufotenine. although it should be noted that not all shamans will use it. Phalaris arundinacea L. It flowers from July to September. (2—5cm) in diameter (rarely larger). The ellipsoid spores are purple-brown. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . The long. the leaves have rough edges and grow upto 16—20 in. The purple-black. which are highly variable according to their species. The entire grass contains indole alkaloids. Shang-lu exists in two forms: one with white flowers and a white root and one with red flowers and a purplish root. (4—8cm). vomiting. known in Oaxaca as Hongo de San Isidro. (1 cm) in diameter. (15cm). Phytolacca acinosa is high in saponines and the sap of the fresh leaves has been reported to have antiviral properties. The stalks are 3—9ft (1—3m) high. The active principle in Psilocybe cubensis is psilocybine. The gills vary from whitish to deep gray-violet or purple-brown. and harvest. at first especially papillose. The Mazatec name is Di-shi-tjo-lerra-ja ("divine mushroom of manure"). Common Reed PHYTOLACCA L. Traditional use for psychoactive purposes has been documented. (15—40cm) long. and 5MeO-DMTare to be found. usually %—2in. The Common Reed had many uses in ancient Egypt. no traditional use of Phalaris arundinacea as a psychoactive substance is known. and strongly lined. white but yellowing or becoming ashy red. and gram me. many-branched rhizome. A well-known Phytolacca in China. Phytolacca acinosa is a glabrous perennial with robust. 54 PDF compression. the largest grass in Central Europe. 5-MeO-DMT. The Common Reed. This mushroom. and diarrhea have been described. is an important hallucinogen. position. The grass can also contain high concentrations of gramine. Seeds mature in winter. The calyx holds one flower. are borne on densely flowered racemes4in. DMT. The flowers—Ch'ang-hau'—are esteemed for treating apoplexy. PSILOCYBE (Fr. has many dark purple flowers. (1—2 cm) wide.

¼—1½ in. The flowers have greenish white petals on long stalks. In older mushroom guides it is often called Hyphaloma cyanescens. redbrown near the base. (2—4cm) wide. and baeocystine). (1—3cm) in diameter.375— 1.61 % DMT. Psi/ocybe semilanceata is the most common and widespread mushroom in the Psilocybe genus. The leaves must be gathered in the morning. The flesh of the cap turns bluish on bruising. but on decaying plants. in.pSILOCYBE (Fr..1— 0. They are used either fresh or dried in the production of Ayahuasca.97% up to 1. P mexicana being one of the most widely used. One of the smallest of the hallucinogenic species. The leaves contain 0. Today they are also used as an Ayahuasca analog. drying to a greenish tan or deep yellow.3% DMT.500—5. The small lamels are olive to red-brown. It doesn't live on dung. but usually remains at a height of 6—9ft (2—3m). is a weak straw color or greenish straw color (sometimes even brownish red) when living. coniferous mulch. (1200—1400) Psi/ocybe cyanescens Wakefield emend.) Quélet (180) PSILOCYBE (Fr. Today. OCR.) Quélet Liberty Cap Psychotria viridis Ruiz et Pavdn Chacruna Rubiaceae (Madder Family) Strophariaceae Nearly cosmopolitan Strophariaceae Cosmopolitan. cultivated mushrooms that have a very high concentration of psilocybine are eaten. Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr. and humus-rich earth. P semilanceata was probably used as a hallucinogen by women who were accused of being witches.5—10cm). Allegedly the nomads of the Alps named P semilanceata the "dream mushroom" and traditionally used it as a psychoactive substance. both also very powerful hallucinogens.) Quélet (180) PSYCHOTRIA L. The Liberty Cap prefers to grow in fields with old manure piles and on grassy. and in oak and pine forests. P semi/anceata contains high concentrations of psilocybine (0.' • —. is conical and often peaked. It is very closely related to the species Psiocybe azurescens and Psiocybe bohemica. Its whorled leaves are long and narrow with a color ranging from light green to dark green and a shiny top side. The conic campanulate or frequently hemispherical cap. The spores are deep sepia to dark purple-brown. psilocine. and the terminal nipple is often reddish. (2. and less baeocystine (0. In addition. about 1 in. which contains approximately 1 % tryptamine (psilocybine. It usually feels damp and slimy. Amazonia—from Colombia 77 Central Europe 78 79 except Mexico 80 to Bolivia and eastern Brazil . Kriegelsteiner Navy Cap Strophariaceae North America. Toward the end of the Middle Ages in Spain. the spores are dark brown or purple-brown. especially in limestone regions. (1—2.. The evergreen shrub can grow into a small tree with a woody trunk.5cm) wide. P mexicana grows at altitudes of 4. Visionary doses are 1 g of the dried mushroom.34%). isolated or very sparsely in moss along trails. it has brown striations. Psilocybe cyanescens is used in Central Europe and North America in neo-pagan rituals. The "head skin" is easy to peel off. Many species of Psilocybe are employed in southern Mexico as sacred mushrooms. Its cap. The hollow stipe is yellow to yellowish pink. some psilocine.675 m). fertile meadows.33%). A traditional or shamanic use of this highly potent Psilocybe has not yet been documented. (4 mm) long. The red fruit is a berry that contains numerous small long oval seeds. Today this mushroom is ritually taken in certain circles. in wet meadows and fields. This species is one of the most potent Psiocybe mushrooms. most of the leaves contain around 0. MTHC). 55 PDF compression. it attains a height of 1— (rarely) 4in. )__'_• ' Psilocybe cyanescens is relatively easy to identify by its wavy brown cap in.500ft (1. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .) Quelet Psi/ocybe mexicana Helm Teonanácatl (180) PSILOCYBE (Fr. as well as traces of similar alkaloids (MMT.

Chemical studies of Rhynchosia are still preliminary and indecisive. but at present the plant seems to be used only by the Mazatecs. et Játiva-M. diluted in water. Both S. spreading branches. the white or dull yellow flowers are 1 ½—2 in. Tarahumara Indians fear to cultivate Bakana lest they become insane.RHYNCI-IOSIA Lour. 300—400 at Tepantitla suggest former use as a sacred plant. Dutch explorers reported that the Hottentots of South Africa chewed the root of a plant known as Kanna or Channa as a vision-inducing hallucinogen. The tuberous underground part is believed to cure insanity. (15mm) long. The fruit is a threeangled akene with or without a beak. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . (1cm) wide. R. cocainelike activities capable of inducing torpor. smooth stems and prostrate. The bluish flowers. The flowers of R. phaseoloides produced a kind of semi-narcosis in frogs. is cultivated in plots hidden away in forests far from homes and roads. Mexico 81 Tropical and warm zones of both hemispheres 82 Aizoaceae (Carpetweed Family) South Africa 83 Cyperaceae (Sedge Family) Cosmopolitan The beautiful red and black beans of several species of Rhynchosia may have been employed in ancient Mexico as a hallucinogenic. Salvia divinorum is a perennial herb 3ft (1 m) tall or more. Diviner's Sage Labiatae (Mint Family) Oaxaca. ½in. (30cm) tall with fleshy. Borne on solitary branches in groups of one to five. Piule Leguminosae (Pea Family) Salvia divinorum Epi. talk with dead ancestors. (700) SCELETIUM Sceletium tortuosum L. Paintings of these seeds on frescoes dated A. half-black seeds. The lanceolate-oblong entire. are approximately5/8in. Kougued SCIRPUS L. Some medicine men carry Bakana to relieve pain. Alkaloids have been reported from Scirpus as well as from the related genus Cyperus. Scirpus atrovirens WilId. The species of Scfrpus may be annuals or perennials and are usually grasslike herbs with few. and the whole plant is a protector of those suffering from mental ills. They grow in many habitats but seem to prefer wet soil or bogs. pyramidalls has greenish flowers and handsome half-red. One of the most powerful herbs of the Tarahumara of Mexico is apparently a species of Scirpus. measuring 1½ in. known as Hierba de Ia Pastora ("herb of the shepherdess") or Hierba de Ia Virgen ('herb of the Virgin"). OCR. (4— 5cm) across. which are crushed on a metate. the Mazatec Indians cultivate Salvia divinorurn for the leaves. The plant contains the potent compound salvinorin A. longeracernosa are yellow. fortuosum were formerly Mesembryanthemum. Over two centuries ago. This common name is today applied to several species of Sceletium that have alkaloids—mesembrme and mesembrenine—with sedative. Sceletium expansurn is a shrub up to 12in. smooth. the seeds are mottled light and dark brown. An alkaloid with curare-like activity has been reported from one species. and drunk or chewed fresh for their hallucinogenic properties in divinatory rituals. It has been suggested that the narcotic Pipiltzintzintli of the ancient Aztecs was Salvia divinorurn. Early pharmacological experiments with an extract of R. (15cm) and finely dentate along the margin. These two species are similar—scandent vines with flowers in long racemes. Bakana Rhynchosia phaseoloides DC. are ofafresh green color and very glossy. PDF compression. The intoxication that it induces enables Indians to travel far and wide. SALVIA L. borne in panicles up to 16 in. The fruit is angular. Mexico. (41 cm) in length. The plant. and see brilliantly colored visions. D. with ovate leaves up to 6 in. (4cm) long. In Oaxaca. expansurn and S.to many-flowered spikelets that are solitary or in terminal clusters. unequal leaves.

belonging pharmacologically to the same group as nicotine. Link Scopolia carniolica Jacques Scopolia (3-5) SIDA L. The genus Solandra. A luxuriant climbing bush with showy flowers resembling those of Brugmansia. Mescal Bean Leguminosae (Pea Family) Malvaceae (Mallow Family) Warm zones of both hemi- Southwestern North 85 Caucasus Mountains. It flowers April to June. 57 PDF compression. brevicalyx and of S.) Lag. (200) SOLANDRASw. and other bases have been reported. The flowers vary from yellow to white. scopolamine) and chlorogenic acid. cream-colored or yellow. bell-shaped flowers are violet to light yellow and hang down individually from the rachis and look similar to the flowers of henbane (Hyoscyamus albus). (3cm) in length.7m) in height. A tea made from the juice of the branches of S. Scopolia was possibly used for the preparation of witches' salves. The stiff branches are employed in making rough brooms. and slightly pileous. These two species are herbs or shrubs often up to 9ft (2. Mentioned by Hernández as Tecomaxochitl or Huelpatl of the Aztecs. (25cm) in length and opening wide at maturity. (50) Sida acuta Burm. the root was used as a native narcotic. The eaves. scopolamine. Sophora secundif/ora seeds contain the highly toxic alkaloid cytisine. Solandra grandif/ora Sw. erect. Women allegedly used it to seduce young men into being willing lovers. and Ukraine 86 spheres 87 America. Truly hallucinogenic activity is unknown for cytisine. as would be expected in view of its close relationship to Datura. The dried herb smells distinctly like coumarine. The whole plant contains coumarins (scopoline. Mexico This herbaceous annual often grows 1—3ft (30—80cm). Sophora secundif/ora is a shrub or small tree up to 35ff (10. OCR. The evergreen leaves have 7 to 11 glossy leaflets. Carpathian Mountains. Ephedrine is found in the roots of these species of Sida. death through respiratory failure. scopoletine) as well as hallucinogenic alkaloids (hyoscyamine. woody pod. measure up to 1¼ in. tropine. The dull green leaves are longish. Mexico 88 America. found in hot lowlands. through a kind of delirium. or rather scandent shrubs with thick elliptic leaves up to about 7in. bears two to eight bright red beans. Latvia. are beaten in water to produce a soothing lather for making skin tender. borne in drooping racemes about 4in. beer additive. S.5cm) wide and upto 4in. The beautiful red beans of this shrub were once used as a hallucinbgen in North America. (2. violet-blue flowers. pointed. and eventually. ex DC. The fruit develops a capsule with doubled dividing wall and many small seeds. The hard. In Slovenia. fragrant. up to 10 in. Lithuania. The small. (18 cm) in length and with large. convulsions. guerrerensis is used as an intoxicant in Guerrero. constricted between each seed. contains tropane alkaloids: hyoscyamine. in high doses. and aphrodisiac. guerrerensis is known to have strong intoxicant properties.SCOPOLIA Jacq Corr. Axocatzin Sophora secundif/ora (Ort. but it is probable that the powerful intoxication causes. lanceolate to obovoid and measuring about 1 in. funnel-form flowers. Today the plant is grown for the industrial harvest of L-hyoscyamine and atropine. The fleshy root is tapered. The fragrant. (10cm) long. conditions that can induce a visionary trance. It causes nausea. (10—12) SOPHORA L. In East Prussia. Sida acuta and S. These two species of So/andra are showy. cuscohygrine. Chalice Vine Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Tropical zones of South Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Alps. (10cm) long. Solandra is valued for its hallucinogenic purposes in Mexico. rhombifolia are said to be smoked as a stimulant and substitute for Marijuana along the Gulf coastal regions of Mexico. nortropine. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor .5m) in height.

this species is of particular interest for the discovery of new psychoactive plants. It is used in combination with Virola in the production of an orally effective hallucinogen. The ovate leaves. climbers. and cyanogenic glycosides have been reported. vile-smelling latex. Yauhtli (50) Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family) Tropical zones of both Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family) Tropical zones of western Compositae (Sunflower Family) 89 hemispheres 90 Africa 91 Warm zones of the Americas mostly Mexico Most species of Tabernaemontana are bushy shrubs. They frequently drink a fermented beer from maize along with the smoking in order "to produce clearer visions. The leaves are used as a psychoactive additive to Ayahuasca. The flowers consist of five pointed petals that mostly grow in clusters out of the calyx. Tabernaemontana spp. Ta be rnanthe iboga is a shrub 3— 4½ ft (1—1. or 22 by 7 cm). but the genus is rich in essential oils and thiophene derivatives." Ayahuasca is enhanced with it in order that the visions can be better recalled. Indole alkaloids are the primary constituent. and the latexrich bark are used in folk medicine. The ovoid. the Sanango (Tabernaemontana sananho R. the effects of which. A few of the species (Tabernaemontana coffeoides Bojer ox DC.) have already revealed psychoactive properties and uses. The opposite leaves are ovate-lanceolate. tannins. For this reason. toothed. The tiny yellowish.and pinkspotted flowers. or small trees. usually yellow to yellow-orange. (9—10 cm) long. lead to extraordinary visions. OCR." Tagetes lucida is occasionally smoked alone. often with a leathery top side. which grow in groups of5to 12. where it is very abundant in the states of Nayarit and Jalisco. slender tube abruptly flaring at the mouth) with twistGd lobes ¾ in. The tree grows as tall as l5ft (5m). about 11/4 in. The shrub has copious white. Tabernaemontana crassa Benth. to paralysis and death. (1 cm) in diameter. Because of this. /-inositol. an overdose. are yellowish green beneath. (3cm) wide (but occasionally up to 8½ by 2¾ in. pointed yellow-orange fruits occur in pairs and become as large as olives. in some even ibogaine and voacangine have been ascertained. No alkaloids have been isolated from Tagetes. The leaves are evergreen. The two symmetrical fruits are divided and marked with fairly visible veins. or white. The leaves. Chemical studies on Tabernanthe iboga have shown at least a dozen indole alkaloids. they are easily confused with the testes of a mammal. found in the undergrowth of tropical forests but often cultivated in native dooryards. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Sanango (120) TABERNANTHE Baill. The Huichol of Mexico induce visions by smoking a mixture of Nicotiana rustica and Tagetes lucida. (1 cm) long. roots. Taberrianthe iboga Baill. The flowering heads are produced in dense terminal clusters ½ in.) is considered a panacea. This species is native to Mexico. 58 PDF compression. and punctated with oil glands. Sanango is also considered a "memory plant. Phytochemical research has recently been done on the genus. lanceolate. In the Amazon. have acrateriform corolla (a long. Tagetes lucida Cay. pinkish. coumarine derivatives.5 m) tall.. Tagetes lucida is a strongly scented perennial herb up to 1½ ft (46 cm) tall. Iboga (2—7) TAGETES L. the most active being ibogaine.TABERNAEMONTANA L. In the Amazon. saponines. usually 3½— 4in. in toxic doses. et P.

et Rose San Pedro Cactus Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Temperate and warm zones nocturnum (Barb. during which they fall into a trance. (80) TRICHOCEREUS (A. The Paumari. who live on the Rio Purus. et K. greenish stamen filaments. shorter than the leaves. They also sniff it during a ritual for protection of children. (2.5—5cm) wide. is ovoid. The leaves contain prussic acid and cyanoglycosides. (19—24 cm). which disintegrate when roasted. spreading. from the bark of Tetrapteris methystica.75—6m) in height. (7) TETRAPTERIS Cay. 3-methoxy-tyramine. 59 PDF compression. Trichocereus pachanoi (Echinopsis pachanoi) occurs in the central Andes between 6. The white flowers. (16. The stem. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . 1—2in. Schum. E. (4by4by2mm). membranaceous. yellow with red or brown in the center.4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine. Tetrapteris methystica (T mucronata) is a scandent bush with black bark. 1/16 in. have long black hairs. (1 3. bright green above. Mexico. elongate-orbicular. ½ in. are glaucous when young. 6½ in. Caapi-pinima Bignoniaceae (Bignonia Family) Tropical zones of Central Malpighiaceae (Malpighia Family) Tropical zones of South 92 America and South America. are tubular.5cm) long.000 and 9. and long.12% of the fresh material. ovate. Saponines and tannins have been found in Tanaecium. This cactus is a branched. particularly in Ecuador and northern Peru. The fruit. columnar plant 9— 20ft (2. dark green in age. in. create a ritual snuff that they call koribo-na fun/out of the leaves. The nomadic Makü Indians of the Rio Tikié in the northwestern most Amazonas of Brazil prepare a hallucinogenic drink.750m). Yl6in. ovate-Ianceolate. The branches. Other alkaloids have been reported from the plant: 3. The snuff is used only by the men.830—2.TANAECIUM Sw.-Rodr. often spineless. Koribo Tetrapteris methystica R. (10cm) wide. (1 cm) long. the outer segments brownish red. Trichocereus pachanoi is rich in mescaline: 2% of the dried material or 0.000ft(1. The shamans sniff it when they are dealing with difficult cases—for example. It is not yet known if there are other active compounds in the leaves or other parts of the plant. West Indies 93 America. The leaves are characeous. ¼ by½by1A6in. Trichocereus pachanoi Britt. It is uncertain as to whether the toxin's waste products contribute to the psychoactive effect of T nocturnum. arising from the stem. the petals. Reports of the effects of the drug would suggest that (3-carboline alkaloids are present. The pointed buds open at night to produce very large.5cm) long. Schult. (6— 8. 4in. with eight black ovalshaped glands. (2mm) wide. and traces of other bases. or samara. borne in five.5 cm) long. fragrant flowers with the inner segments white. The sepals are thick. 7½—9¼ in. Berger) Riccob. as well as the scales on the floral tube.to eight-flowered racemes 3m. emits an odor of almond oil. when cut. a sort of Ayahuasca or Caapi. which have 6 to 8 ribs. ashy green beneath. hairy without. The inflorescence is few-flowered. in order to extract a magical object out of the body of the sick person. (loby2mm). with brownish wings about ½ by funnel-shaped. It is possible that this plant contains substances of unknown chemical structure and pharmacological effect.) 3ur. West Indies 94 of South America Tanaecium nocturnum is a much-branched climber with broadly elliptic leaves 5½ in. This species is said to be prized as an aphrodisiac by Indians of the Colombian Chocó. The fruit. (8 cm) long. OCR.

The seeds of the Voacanga grandiflora (Miq. they were important in Aztec ceremonies as an intoxicant with reputedly analgesic properties. The fruit is dry. The leaves (with a tea-like fragrance when dried) are oblong or broadly ovate. Known as Ololiuqui. In West Africa the bark is used as a hunting poison.) Rolfe are used by magicians in West Africa for visionary purposes.4. are strongly pungent. minutely hairy seed about 1/s in. 31. ellipsoidal with persistent. The cylindrical trunk.5—23 m) in height. The resin of the Virola contains DMTand 5-MeO-DMT.13 in (9— 33cm) long. The Voacanga genus has received little research. borne singly or in clusters of 2 to 10. The bell-shaped corollas. They multiple-branched.) Warb.) Raf. The cymes are many-flowered. 3/4_ 1½ in.5— 1. Rivea. orange-red aril. Turbina corymbosa (L. (4— 11 cm) wide. stimulant. (1—2cm) by ¼—% in. has a characteristic smooth bark that is brown mottled with gray patches. 1½ft(46cm) in diameter. (3 mm) in diameter.or gold-hairy. Most chemical and ethnobotanical studies have been reported under the name Rivea corymbosa. Most. Classification of genera in the Morning Glory family or Convolvulaceae has always been difficult. Cumala Tree (60) VOACANGA Voacanga spp. Their use goes back to early periods. (5—9cm) long and in. 3/$_3/4 in. but recent critical evaluation indicates that the most appropriate binomial is Turbina corymbosa. Latex runs in the bark.5cm). shorter than the leaves. and potent aphrodisiac. The male inflores- cences are many-flowered. Unfortunately the details are not yet uncovered. native to the forests of the western Amazon basin. better known as Rivea corymbosa. roundish. The fruit is subglobose. and bears a single hard. Legendrea. 1½—4½ in. V/rota theiodora (Spr. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . indehiscent. mostly Mexico and Cuba 96 America and South America 97 The seeds of Turbina corymbosa.(. The resin from a number of species is prepared as a hallucinogenic snuff or small pellets. The seeds contain lysergic acid amide. and Turbina. Supposedly the seeds are used by African magicians in order to produce visions. The bark and seeds of the African Voacanga africana Stapf. a slender tree 25-75 ft (7. 60 PDF compression. (2 . The species are similar to one another. Ololiuqui (10) VIROLAAUbI. are valued as one of the major sacred hallucinogens of numerous Indian groups in southern Mexico. the very small flowers. analogous to LSD. There are two symmetrical fruits. This species has at one time or another been assigned to the genera Convolvu/us. are white with greenish stripes.5cm) wide. Turbina corymbosa is a large woody vine with heart-shaped leaves 2—3½ in. species of Virola have a copious red 'resin" in the inner bark. Probably the most important species is Viro/a theiodora. brown. as the knowledge of the magicians is a closely guarded secret. Voacanga (10—20) Convolvulaceae (Morning Glory Family) Tropical zones of the Myristicaceae (Nutmeg Family) Tropical zones of Central Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family) Tropical Africa 95 Americas. (2—4cm) long. the seed is covered for half its length by a membranaceous. usually brown. OCR. ibogaine) and should be simulating and hallucinogenic.TURBINA Rat. evergreen shrubs or small trees. The flowers are mostly yellow or white with five united petals. contain upto 10% indole alkaloids of the iboga type (voacamine is the primary alkaloid. Ipomoea.5—4. if not all. enlarged sepals.

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medical. Highland Maya cultures in Guatemala apparently had. Soma." and participants see "all the tribal divinities. among the Huichol of Mexico. communing with the ancestors and forces of the spirit world. may be the most outstanding example. the creation of the universe. The general There are many examples—and more will be discussed in the following pages—of plants that are sacred and even severed as gods. Most hallucinogens are holy mediators between man and the supernatural. HALLUCINOGENIC PLANTS? Notwithstanding the recent upsurge in the use of psychoactive plants in modern Western societies. the original shaman. more than three thousand years ago. The first Peyotecollecting expedition was led by Tatewari. while daily living is an illusion. Probably the most famous sacred hallucinogen of the New World. OCR. So holy was Soma that it has population—usually the adult male portion— often shares in the use of hallucinogens. which. The sacred Mexican mushrooms have a long history that is closely linked to shamanism and religion. the ancient god-narcotic of India. original paradisiacal home of the ancestors. a sophisticated religion utilizing mushrooms. Ayahuasca means "tendril of the soul" in Kechwa and comes from the frequent experience that the soul separates from the body during the intoxication. is identified with the deer (their sacred animal) and maize (their sacred vegetal staff of life). if not the gods themselves. the first human beings and animals and even the establishment of the social order" (Reichel-Dolmatoff). It is obvious that our culture does not view hallucinogenic plants in this light. It is not always the shaman or medicine man who administers these sacred plants. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . but Soma was deified. to the source and origin of all things. The outstanding difference between the use of hallucinogens in our culture and their use in preindustrial societies is precisely the difference in the belief concerning their purpose and origin: all aboriginal societies have considered—and still do—that these plants are the gifts of the gods. Ayahuasca reveals the real world. South America. and they were ceremonially in- gested. is Peyote. however.WHO USES Page 61:The Fly Agaric is used for shamanic purposes worldwide. The drinking of Caapi is a return "to the maternal womb. Under been suggested that even the idea of deity may have arisen from experiences with its unearthly effects. In 62 PDF compression. The Aztecs called them Teonanácatl ("divine flesh"). and subsequent annual trips to ' collect the plant are holy pilgrimages to Wirikuta. or religious purposes. It has even been linked to the ancient Indian Soma. the thrust of this book emphasizes almost exclusively the employment of hallucinogens among aboriginal peoples who have restricted the use of these plants mostly to magic.

the staff of life germinating below him. the orange figure below. Also in Wirikuta is Kauyumari's nierika and the temple of Elder Brother Deer Tail. found the nierika. the glyphs represent: mushroom cap. Blue Deer (left center) enlivens all sacred offerings. Through it all life came into being. Our Elder Brother Deer. a serpent. and. first shaman and Spirit of Fire (top center right). lower center. OCR. the ecstatic Prince of Flowers. gives life to the gods. stylized caps of Psilocybe aztecOrum. bud of Sinicuiche. or portway. Our Mother Eagle (center) lowers her head to listen to Kauyumari. Behind Deer Tail is Our Mother the Sea. First Man faces a sacrificed sheep. which binds them together as shamanic allies. is connected with the Spirit of Dawn. Above Blue Deer is the First Man. the Spirit of Rain. tendril of the Morning Glory. Below Kauyumari's nierika. A crane brings her a prayer gourd containing the words of Kauyumari. This was possible because Kauyumari. Deer Tail. seen op- 63 PDF compression. Above Kauyumari. From left to right. who sits on a rock. was unearthed in Tlamanalco on the slopes of the volcano Popocatepetl. The gods emerged from the Underworld to Mother Earth. is a chronicle of the creation of the world. he also offers his blood to the growing corn. with red antlers. bottom right. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . The nierika of Kauyumari (top center) unifies the spirit of all things and all worlds. who invented cultivation. Page 62: This early-sixteenth-century Aztec statue of Xochipilli.Above: The symbols in Huichol mythology are vividly depicted in their popular sacred art. A stream of energy goes from him toourMother Sea's prayergourd. The temple is the black field. flower of the sacred Morning Glory. Both are connected to a medicine basket (center right). The yarn painting above. posite Tatewari on the left. the Sacred Land of Peyote. like an Aztec Codex. Our Father Sun. The Sun and Spirit of Dawn are both found in Wirlkuta. The beauty of the forms has as a basis the ceremonial use of Peyote. His sacred words travel down a thread to a prayer bowl and are transformed into life energy. on the pedestal. flower of Tobacco. The stylized glyphs depict various hallucinogenic plants. is seen with his human manifestation above him. depicted as a white blossom. Tatewari. is bending down toward Kauyumarl listening to his chant.

Anianita may be used by both sexes. however. OCR. There is hardly an aboriginal culture without at Mexico. are visions. furthermore. Sometimes hallucinogens are administered to children. Asia. the use of hallucinogenic drugs is ance against abortions—even though this reason has been forgotten. use is often strictly controlled by taboos or ceremonial circumscriptions. or shaman and communicants.these circumstances. Many hallucinogens are possibly sufficiently toxic to have abortifacient effects. who use the exclusion of women from ingesting narcotic preparations." —Weston La Barre 64 PDF compression. possible to assert that there are few parts of the continent where at least one such plant is not now utilized or was not employed at some time in the past. striking exceptions. the first use of a hallucinogen occurs in puberty rituals. Similarly. who are then admonished by the ancestors during the intoxication. Brugmansia may be restricted to adult males. for all practical purposes. In almost all instances. be employed for the induction of visions. male or female.. the "Whether shaman alone. a vast continent. in fact. Among the Koryak of Siberia. there may be a basic reason for least one psychoactive plant: even Tobacco and Coca may.. in the Old World. use of them is extremely ancient. but they seem never to have had a true hallucinogen in use: Kava-kava is classed as a hypnotic. Datura infusions. however. has produced relatively few major hallucinogenic varieties but their use has been widespread and extremely significant from a cultural point of view. and religion in the use of psychoactive or hallucinogenic plants. the Inuit have only one psychoactive plant. Frequently. While purely speculative. shamanism. or communicants alone imbibe or ingest flex drinks. Many researchers see the roots of culture. Ololiuqui seeds. web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor . Numerous sources describe the use of hallucinogenic and other intoxicating plants in ancient Europe. the Polynesian Islanders of the Pacific had Kava-kava (Piper niethysticum). These plants contain spirit power. Peyote cactus. Although the New World has many more species of plants purposefully employed as hallucinogens than does the Old World. narcotic Mint leaves or Ayahuasca the ethnographic principle is the same. It is. and may have hallucinogenic species that have not yet been introduced to the scientific world. There are. So far as we know. in both the Old and the New World. in large doses.. the fundamental reason may be purely an insur- it to induce a trancelike state accompanied by what. An example is the smoking of Tobacco among the Warao of Venezuela. the sacred mushrooms can be taken by both men and women. both hemispheres have very limited areas where at least one hallucinogen is not known or used. the shaman is usual- ly a woman. Since women in aboriginal societies are freque