Standards of Measurements The different types of standards of length are 1.

Material Standards (a) Line Standard – When length is measured as the distance between centers of two engraved lines. (b)End Standard – When length is measured as the distance between to flat parallel faces. 2. Wavelength Standard The wavelength of a selected orange radiation of Krtypton-86 isotope was measured and used as the basic unit of length. International Prototype Meter International Prototype meter is defined as the straight line distance, at 0’c between the engraved lines of a platinum irridium alloy of 1020 mm of total length and having a tresca cross-section as shown in the figure. The graduations are on the upper surface of the web, which coincides with the neutral axis of the section. The sectional shape gives better rigidity for the amount of metal involved and is therefore economic in use for an expensive metal. Line and End Standards and differentiate between them. Line Standards – When length is measured as the distance between centers of two engraved lines, it is called Line Standards. Both material Standards, yard and metre are line standards E.g. Scale, Rulers, Imperial Standard Yard. Characteristics of Line Standards : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Scale can be accurately emblemed, but the engraved lines posses thickness and it is not possible to accurately measure Scale is used over a wide range Scale markings are subjected to wear. However the ends are subjected to wear and this leads to undersize measurements Scale does not posses built in datum. Therefore it is not possible to align the scale with the axis of measurement Scales are subjected to parallax errors Assistance of magnifying glass or microscope is required.

End Standards – When length is expressed as the distance between centers of two flat parallel faces, it is called End Standards. Slip Gauges, End Bars, Ends of micrometer Anvils. Characteristics of End Standards (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Highly accurate and used for measurement of closed tolerances in precision engineering as well as standard laboratories, tool rooms, inspection departments. They require more time for measurement and measure only one dimension. They wear at their measuring faces They are not subjected to parallax error.

Differentiate between Line and End Standards
Sl no

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Characteristics Principle Accuracy Ease Effect of wear Allignment Cost Parallax Effect

Line Standard Length is expressed as distance between 2 lines Ltd. To ± 0.2mm. Quick and easy Wear at only the ends Cannot be easily aligned low cost Subjected parallax effect to

End Standard Length is expressed as distance between 2 ends Highly accurate of closed tolerances to ±0.001mm Time consuming and requires skill wear at measuring surfaces easily aligned high cost not subjected parallax effect to

Slip Gauges Slip Gauges are universally accepted end standards of Length in industry. Also known as Johnson gauges. Slip gauges are rectangular blocks of high grade steel with close tolerances. They are hardened throughout to ensure maximum resistance to wear. For successful use of slip gauges their working faces are truly flat and parallel. Most slip gauges are made from constant alloy which is extremely hard and wear resistance.

Wringing of slip gauges Wringing : Success of precision elements which can be made with slip gauges either by using it alone or in conjunction with other sample apparatus such as rollers, sine centers, sine bars, etc, depends on the phenomenon of wringing. The slip gauges are wrung together by hand by a combined sliding and twisting motion as shown. The gap between two wrung slip gauges is only of the order of 0.0065 microns, which is negligible. Procedure : (i) Before using, the slip gauges are cleaned (ii) One slip gauge is then oscillated slightly over the other slip gauge with a light pressure. (iii) One gauge is then raised at 90 degrees, to the other, and by using light pressure it is rotated until the blocks are in line. Principle of Interchangeability and selective assembly Interchangeability - It occurs when one part in an assembly can be substituted for a similar part which has been made to the same drawing. Interchangeability is possible only when certain standards are strictly followed. In universal interchangeability the mating parts are drawn from two different manufacturing sources. This is desirable. When all parts to be assembled are made in the same manufacturing unit, then local standards may be followed which is known as local interchangeability. Selective assembly - In selective assembly the parts are graded according to the size and only the matched grades of mating parts are assembled. The technique is most suitable where a close fit of two component assemblies is required. It results in complete protection against non-conforming assemblies and reduces machining costs since close tolerances are maintained. Different types of fits. When two parts are to be assembled, the relationship resulting from the difference between their sizes before assembly is called a fit. Clearance fit : In this type of fit, the largest permitted shaft diameter is smaller than the diameter of the smallest hole, so that

the shaft can rotate or slide through the different degrees of freedom according to the purpose of mating parts. Interference fit : It is defined as the fit established when a negative clearance exist between the sizes of the holes and the shaft. In this type of fit, the minimum permitted diameter of the shaft is larger than the maximum allowable diameter of the hole. In this case the hole members are intended to be attached permanently and used as a solid component Example : Bearing Bushes Transitional Fit : The diameter os the largest allowable hole is greater than that of the smallest shaft, but the smallest hole is smaller than the largest shaft and the hole. Example : Coupling Rings Wavelength standards and its advantages A major drawback wit the material standards, that their length changes with time. Secondly, considerable difficulty is expressed while comparing the sizes of the gauges by using material standards. Jacques Babinet suggested that wave length of a monochromatic light can be used as a natural and invariable unit of length. 7 th general Conference of Weights and Measures approved in 1927, approved the definition of standard of length relative to meter. Orange radiation of isotope Krypton-86 was chosen for the new definition of length in 1960, by the 11th General Conference of Weigths and Measures. The committee recommended Krypton-86 and that it should be used in hot cathode discharge lamp, maintained at a temperature of 63K. According to this standard metre was defined as equal to 165763.73 wavelengths of the red-orange radiation of Krypton-86 isotope. A standard can now be produced to an accuracy of about 1 part of 10^9. Advantages : (a)Not a material standard and hence it is not influeced by effects of variation of environmental conditions like temperature, pressure (b)It need not be preserved or stored under security and thus there is not fear of being destroyed. (c)It is subjected to destruction by wear and tear.

(d)It gives the unit of length which can be produced consistently at all times. (e)The standard facility can be easily available in all standard laboratories and industries (f) Can be used for making comparative measurements of very high accuracy.

FITS.000mm (dia.001 – 0. which represents the base size so that the deviation from the basic size is zero.000 + 0. Tolerance may be unilateral or bilateral. Ex. Hole above basic size. Human effect. Ex. of hole) 24. 50mm diameter hole and shaft. The tolerance is specified because it is impossible to have actual dimensions due to: • • • Variations in the properties of the material being machined. operator may do imperfect settings. Hole of basic size. of hole) 25. Actual size: It is the measured size of part.000mm.002 – 0. 24. Often. 25. . Zero line: It is the line. introduce errors. Nominal size: the normal size of a dimension of part is the size by which it is referred to as a matter of convenience (used for purposes of general identification). Primary purpose of tolerances is to permit variation in dimensions without degradation of the performance beyond the limits established by the specification of the design. basic and nominal sizes of a part of dimensions are used wish the same sense.999mm.000 mm Basic size: The basic size is the standard size for the part and is the same for both the hole and its shaft. TOLERANCES AND GAUGING Definitions: Tolerance: Tolerance is defined as the magnitude of permissible variation of dimension from the specified value.997mm (die of shaft) OR 25. The production machines have some inherence problems and limitations.002mm (dia. They constitute an engineering legality for deviation from ideal value.000 – 0.: Unilateral: 25.003mm (dia.CHAPTER – 2 SYSYTEM OF LIMITS. of shaft) Bilateral 25.

‘No Go’ Limit: It refers to the lower limit of the shaft and upper limit of the hole. Corresponds to min.Hole below basic size. Grades of tolerance: It is indication of degree of accuracy of manufacture and is designated by IT followed by a number. IT0. Fig. ‘Go’ Limit: It refers to upper limit of the shaft and upper limit of a hole. Tolerance: The difference between the maximum and minimum limit of size.2. ……… IT16 . Ex. IT01. material condition.1 Limits: These are the maximum and minimum permissible size of the part. IT1. Corresponds to minimum material condition.

Type of fit: Depending upon the actual limits of the hole or shaft.2. which the nearest one to the zero line (for both hole or a shaft). fig. 2 Allowances: An intentional difference between the hole dimension and shaft dimension for any type of fit is called allowance. before assembly.e. Interference: This is the arithmetic difference between the sizes of the hole and the shaft before assembly. shaft smaller than the hole). es for shaft) Lower deviation: Minimum limit size – basic size positive when minimum limit of size > basic size and vice versa (EI for hole ei for shaft) Fundamental deviation: this is the deviation either the upper or the lower deviation. fits may be classified into the following 3 categories. the relation resulting from the difference between the size before assembling is called fit. Basic size of a fit: It is that basic size which is common to the two parts of a fit.Fig.3 Upper deviation: Maximum limit of size – basic size.2. Fits: When two parts are to assemble. It is positive when maximum limit of size > basic size and vice versa. Deviation: Algebraic difference between a size and corresponding basic size. (ES for hole. Variation of a fit: This is arithmetical sum of tolerances of the two mating parts of fit. when the difference is negative. Clearance: This is the difference between the size of the hole and shaft. . when the difference is positive (i.

Maximum clearance: In a clearance or transition fit it is the difference between the maximum size of hole of the minimum size of the shaft.2. this type of fit can be varied. but the smallest hole is smaller than the largest shaft. the largest permitted shaft diameter is smaller than the diameter of the smallest hole. Bearing bushes. Ex. In this case the shaft and the hole members are intended to be attached permanent and used as a solid component but according to the application of this combination. The small end of the connecting rod in an engine. Interference fit: In this type of fit. Note: Minimum clearance: In the clearance fit it is the difference between the minimum size of the hole and the maximum size of the shaft. coupling rings and recesses are the examples of transition fit. Spigot in mating holes. which are in interference fit in their housing Ex. Transition fit: In this type of fit. so that the shaft can rotate or slide through the difference degrees according to purpose of mating members Ex.Clearance fit Interference fit Transition fit Fig. Bearing and shaft. Minimum interference: It is the difference between maximum size of hole and the minimum size of shaft in an interference fit prior to assembly. Location fits Ex. 4 Clearance fit: In this type of fit. the diameter of the largest allowable hole is greater than that of the smallest shaft. . the minimum permitted diameter of the shaft is larger than the maximum allowable diameter of the hole. so that small positive or negative clearance between the shaft and hole members employable.

Fig 2. 5 Maximum interference: In an interference fir or a transition fit it is the difference between the minimum size of hole and the maximum size of shaft prior assembly. Shaft (S1) of 28 mm – Clearance fit 2. Shaft (S2) of 28 mm – Transition fit fig. 6 Shaft (S3) of 28 mm – Interference fit Shaft based system: This is one which the limits on the shaft are kept constant and the variation necessary to obtain the classes of fit are arranged by varying the limits on the holes. . Hole based system: This is one which the limits one the hole or kept constant and the variations necessary to obtain the classes of fit are arranged by varying those on the shaft (Pl. note: Hole is kept constant) Ex.2. Assume a hole of dimensions 1.

e. Max.2. Thus hole based system results in considerable reduction in reamers and other previsions tools as compared to a shaft – based system. drills) those size not adjustable and shaft sizes are readily variable. Various mating components would undergo production on several machines. (Improves quality) . that too selected at random. Min. "Any one component selected at random should assemble correctly with any other mating component. lt. of size = Basic size) (3) Basic hole: A hole whose lower deviation is zero. Because holes are produced with standard tooling (reamers. Hence it is absolutely essential to have a precise control over the dimensions of portions. Advantages or characteristics An operator can easily specialize since he is concerned with only a limited portion of work.fig.7 Note: (1) From manufacturing point of view it is preferable to use hole-based system. which in term are specialized." When a system of this kind is ensured it is known as interchangeable system. (2) Basic shaft: A shaft whose upper deviations is zero.2. This approach led to breaking up of a complete process into several smaller activities. which have to match with other part. As a result none of the manufacturing activity is self reliant with respect to components. (I. (I. lt.e. of size = Basic size) Principles of inter-changeability: Today mass production techniques are adopted for economic production.

001mm limit for selective assembly. This is done both for hole and shaft and then the corresponding groups will match properly. international standards. the parts are manufactured to rather wide tolerances and function as though they were slowly manufactured in a precision laboratory to very close tolerance. thus reducing the loss.e. Assembly time is reduced considerably. Note: Interchangeability is followed only when certain standards are strictly followed. factories may be located suiting to availability of men. When universal interchangeability is desired. Ex.e.2. ball bedding industries. 2. Decentralized production depending on the resources available can be achieved. which serve to check the dimension of manufactured parts.Interchangeability ensures increased output with reduced production cost. machine and materials). Aircraft. Ex. Characteristics: The parts obtained can be served with both high quality and low cost using selective assembly. Limit gauge: gauge are inspection tools of rigid design. This type of interchangeability is not a must for interchangeable production and many times not feasible also as it requires machine capable of maintaining high process capability and very high accuracy and also very close supervision on production from time to time (± 3 σ -> process capability is to be observed. This concept overcomes the drawback of scraping the ‘bad’ components after inspection.e. Universal or full interchangeability: This indicates that any component will match with other mating component without classifying manufactured components in sub group or without carrying out any minor alterations for mating purpose. The two component parts to be assembled must be kept with in the normal distribution i. In selective assembly the components products by machined are classified into several groups according to size. If some parts are to assembled are manufactured to nominal tolerances of 0.18 Selective assembly: In this kind of production (assembly). without a scale. the common standards are to be followed by all and all standards used by various manufacturing units should be traceable to single i. mean value should be at desired calculated value and process capability of two machines producing shafts and holes must be identical otherwise for some components the mating components will not be available.01mm an automatic gauge can segregate them into ten different groups with 0. (i. Gauges do not indicate the . Best and cheapest method of assembly of widely used in industries.) For full interchangeability only such machine. whose process capability is equal to an or less than the manufacturing tolerance allowed for that part should be selected. automobile.

.actual value of the inspected dimension on the work. They can only be used for determining as to whether the inspected parts are made with the specified limits. Go – No go gauges: These are two gauges having basic size corresponding to the two limits of size for the component of used to check the dimensions of a component. The No-go gauge checks the minimum metal condition. whereas the other will not. If the size of the component is within the prescribed limits. The go gauge checks the maximum metal condition. The difference between the basic sizes of the two gauges is equal to the tolerances on the component. Note: In case of hole the maximum metal condition is when the hole is as small as possible. It for this reason the gauge made to the maximum metal limit is called the ‘Go’ gauge and that made to the minimum metal limit is called the ‘No Go’ gauge. Note: closer attention must be paid to ‘Go’ gauges than is necessary with ‘No Go’ gauges because a component might be accepted even though the No-Go gauge assembles. the gauge made to the maximum metal limit will assemble with it. under no circumstances should a component be accepted when the ‘Go’ gauge fails to assemble. In case of shafts the maximum metal condition is when the shaft is on the high limit of size.

Taylor’s principles may be stated as follows: The Go gauge should be as far as possible be the geometrical equivalent of the mating part and [(i.e. In other words no go gauge shall check only one dimension of the piece at the time for the minimum metal conditions. If the go gauge enters while the no go fails to enter the hole is considered to be with in the specified limits.e. No-Go gauge should check only one element of the dimension at a time.9 According to Taylor it is not adequate to use simple Go gauge on outer dimensions only but the shape is an important factor i. As regarding no go gauges. Fig. Taylor stated that it need not be of full form and each feature being dealt should be checked with a specific no go gauges.Taylor’s principle: Taylor postulated some rules for designing the form of gauges. the diameter of one. location etc)] Separate No-Go gauges should check the minimum metal condition of the dimensions of the component. . the Go confirming to the maximum metal limit of the hole and the diameter of the other the No-Go confirming to the minimum metal limit. size.2. Go gauge should be full form gauge and it should be constructed with reference to the geometrical form of the part being checked in addition to its size. This is because a No-Go gauge designed to check more than one dimension would fail to detect any dimension out side the minimum metal limit if one of the dimensions is being checked within the minimum metal limit as illustrated below. When gauging a plain cylindrical plug gauges. In other words go gauge should check all the dimensions of a work piece in the maximum metal condition. it should be able to check all the possible dimensions at a time (roundness.2.

For shafts (heavy) full form ring gauge need not be used. a hole should completely assemble with a go cylindrical plug gauge made to the length of engagement of the hole and shaft. which can be inscribed within the hole so that it just contacts the highest points of the surface. the hole is measured or gauged to check that its maximum diameter is not larger than the no go limit. The No Go gauge should contact the work piece surface only at two diametrically opposite points and have exactly No Go diameter at these two points. Further the minimum diameter At any position on the shaft should not be less than "No Go’ limit of size. The gauge should not be able to pass over in the work piece in any consecutive position in the various diametric directions on the work piece length. For shaft: The diameter of the smallest perfect imaginary cylindrical which can be circumscribed around the shaft so that it contacts the highest points of the surface. The diameter of cylinder should not be larger than go limit of size. The diameter of the cylinder should not be less than the go limit of size further the maximum diameter at any position in the hole should not exceed the no go limit. In many applications Taylor’s principle cannot be blindly followed. . Some of the deviations are allowed which basically do not deviate from the principles as such.Thus according to it. For Go limit: it is not advisable to use full form and full length gauges which are bulky when the manufacturing process assures that the error of straightness will not affect the character to fit. Variations from Taylor’s principle. The Taylor principle interprets the limit of size for gauging holes and shafts as follows: For holes: The diameter of the largest perfect imaginary cylinder. In addition. Only segmental cylindrical bar could be used when gauge happens to be too heavy and when manufacturing process assures that the error in roundness will not have any effect on the character of fit. The manufacturing process should take care of the error of roundness (especially lobbing) and error of straightness in such cases only gap gauges could be sufficient. Note: According the Taylor’s principle the ‘Go’ limit gauge should be a plug ring gauge with exactly ‘Go’ diameter and length equal to the engagement length of the fit to be made and this gauge must perfectly assemble with the work piece inspected.

invar steel. . For Gauging very small holes and in cases where work pieces may be deformed to an oral by a two point mechanical contact device.10 For No Go limit: only two point contact should be there according to Taylor but it is not feasible because these devices are subjected to rapid wear etc. High carbon steel. Merchantability for obtaining the required degree of accuracy Low co-efficient of linear expansion to avoid temperature effect. Ex.2. Corrosion resistance. Hence these can be safely replaced by small planes / cylindrical surfaces / spherical surfaces. Material for gauges: The material for gauges should fulfill most of the following requirements: Hardness to resist wearing. may have to be used. Stability to preserve size of form.Fig. the No Go gauge of full form. case hardened mild steel.

. rubs constantly against the surfaces of the work. This result in wearing of the surfaces of the gauges of a result this loses initial dimensions. Thus due to wear ‘Go’ plug gauges size is reduced. Hence a wear allowance is added to the Go gauge in a direction opposite toe wear. which frequently assemble with work. Thus for a Go plug gauge the wear allowance will be added while in a ring or gap gauge the allowance is subtracted.Wear Allowance: The measuring surfaces of ‘Go’ gauges.

while the inspection any tolerances fall outside the work tolerances. Fig.2.12 Disadvantages: The components may be rejected by workshop gauges by inspection gauges may accept them. . workshop and inspection gauges one made separately and their tolerance zones are different. This is known as gauge makers tolerance. the gauges are kept beyond work tolerance by 10% of its value. According to this system the tolerances on the workshop gauge are arranged to fall inside the work tolerances. The workshops of inspection gauges have to be made separately as their tolerances are different Second system: (revised gauge limits) Under this system reducing the tolerance zone of inspection gauge reduces the disadvantages of inspection gauges and the workshop gauge tolerance remains the same. There are 3 methods giving tolerances on gauges First system: (For workshop and inspection gauges) in this method. to compensate for imperfections in workman ship. In this system 110 of the range of work tolerance is covered instead of 120th as in the first system for inspection gauges. In workshop gauges Go gauge should eat away 10% of work tolerance and similarly No Go gauges tolerance is 1/10th of work tolerance. In respection gauges. require a manufacturing tolerance.Gauge tolerance or Gauge makers tolerance: Gauges like any other job.

No work should be accepted which lies outside the drawing specified limits. 13 Third system: (Present British System) In this system following principles are followed along with Taylor’s principle.Fig.2. Tolerance should be as wide as is consistent with satisfactory functioning economical production and inspection. .

Fig. The tolerance zone for the Go gauges should be placed inside the work limits and the tolerance for the No Go gauges outside the work limits.This system gives same tolerance limits on workshop and inspection gauges and the same gauge can be used for both purposes.2.15 Types of limit gauges: Limit gauges for internal diameters of holes .14 Fig. Provision for wear of Go gauges is made by the introduction of a margin between the tolerance zone for the gauge and maximum metal limit of the work.2.

The important thing in testing a tapered job is to check the diameter at bigger end and the change of diameter per unit length. 16 Full form spherical plug or disc gauge: Segmental cylindrical bar gauge: Fig.Full form cylindrical plug gauge: A small circumferential groove is cut near the leading end of the gauge and the remaining part of the cylinder is slightly reduced in order to act as a pilot. Fig 2.2.17 Gauges for tapers: A taper is tested by using taper plug a or ring gauge. .

18 .FIG:2.

Working gauges: they are also used as working gauges to prevent work spoilage and to maintain required tolerance at all-important stages of manufacture. High magnification resulting into great accuracy is possible.CHAPTER . Zero error existing in comparator also does not lead to any problem. Mechanical Comparator: . Used. Types of Comparators: The comparators differ principally in the method used for amplifying and recording the variation measured. Most commonly available comparators are of the following types: • • • • • • • • Mechanical comparators Optical comparators Electric and electronic comparator machines Pneumatic comparators Fluid displacement comparator machines Projection comparators Multi-check comparator Automatic gauging Application of Comparators: • • • • Used as laboratory standards from which working or inspections gauges are set and correlated. Used as final inspection gauges where selective assembly of production parts is necessary. as working gauges to prevent work spoilage and to maintain required tolerance at all-important stages of manufacture. Used as receiving inspection gauges for checking parts received from outside sources. The calibration of instrument over full range is not required since comparison is done with a standard end length. Advantages: • • • • Not much skill is required on the part of operation.3 Comparators Laboratory standards: comparators are used as laboratory standards from which Working or inspection gauges are set and co-related.

The magnification can be altered by tightening one end slackening the other screw attaching the knife-edge to the plunger and thus adjusting the distance ‘a’. A magnet plunger on the flame and keeper bar on the top of the plunger is used to have the constant pressure over the range of the instrument. Some features of this instrument: • • • • The shock will not be transmitted since the knife-edge moves away from the moving member of the hinge. If the distance of the hinge from the knife-edge be ‘a’ then the magnification of the first stages is I/a. Plunger mounted on a pair of slit diaphragms obtains the frictionless linear motion. Figure shows the details of the magnifying system of the comparator. Then total magnification is I/a x R/r. A knife-edge is mounted on it and bears upon the face of the moving member of a cross strip hinge. Mechanical Comparator: Sigma comparator is the most widely used for higher precision work. This hinge consists of the moving component and a fixed member.Mechanical comparators use mechanical methods of amplifying the movement of the contact plunger and their manufacture requires high degree of accuracy. which are connected by thin flexible strips alternately at right angles to each other. . The second stage magnification is R/r where R is the length of pointer.000. Magnification ranges from 300 to 5000. A non-ferrous disc is mounted on the pointer spindle and it is made to move in field of a permanent magnet to obtain deadbeat reading. A ‘Y’ arm is attached to the moving member which has an effective ‘I’. Parallax error is avoided by having a reflective strip on the scale. A phosphor – bronze strip is attached to the two extremities of the Y arm and is passed round a radius ‘r’ attached to the pointer spindle. Usual magnification of the mechanisms ranges from about 250 to 1.

The movement of the plunger displaces an armature thus causing a variation in the inductance in the coils. . The amount of unbalance caused by movement of measuring plunger is amplified and shown on a linear scale magnifications of about 30.2 Electrical Comparator The principle of electrical comparator (electrical limit gauge) is explained with reference to the above figure. The pair of coils forms a pair of inductance. electric gage and sigma electronic comparator.000 are possible with this system. Advantages of Electrical Comparators: • • • • • Remote indication is possible High magnification with smaller number of moving parts Insensitive to vibration and mechanism carrying the pointer is high The cyclic vibration reduces errors due to sliding friction on an AC supply Smaller measuring unit and several magnifications is possible with same instrument Optical comparators: All optical comparators involve some system of magnification.Electrical Comparators: Electrical and electronic comparators depend on wheat stone bridge circuit for their operations. the inductance and capacitance of the arms must also be accounted for along with resistance. generally through tilting of a mirror which provides an optical lever by reflecting a beam of light. Zero setting arrangement is provided. The Cooke comparator works on this principle. The degree of magnification is adjustable and other examples of electrical comparators are electricator. We know that for the bridge is to balance electrically the ratio of the resistance’s in each pair must be equal. If alternating current is applied to the bridge. Fig 3.

The mirror onto the scale accordingly reflects a beam of light coming through an electric bulb. Optical comparators are used in metrology labs and standard room. The unit incorporates a manometer A gauging head designed for the work to be checked. The optical system offers the advantage of lightness & simplicity in its indicating unit. but not in routine production checking. A circular scale is provided. . The pressure between the valve V and the control jet G is therefore always the same. Initially the tube is filled with liquid to the same level as that in the tank. Pneumatic comparators: A pneumatic gauge consists of 2 important Units: • • An air controller to regulate the pressure and the amount of airflow from the supply. irrespective of any variation in the air supply pressure.3 A plunger working in a head consists of a mechanical lever carrying two pivots at its ends. Any excess pressure than that necessary to clear the tube will escape into the tank as air bubbles. Air enters the tube extending downwards into a tank of liquid.Cooke’s Optical Comparator Fig 3. Air supply from the supply is fed into the instrument at pressure higher than the constant pressure required in the manometer. Entry of air into the top of the tube exerts pressure on the liquid to completely empty it. On one end a plunger actuates it and the other end actuates a mirror.

.1 The pneumatic method is easily adaptable for the examination of bores.The air will now pass through the control jet at the full controlled pressure and will reach the measuring jet S. which indicates the amount of back pressure built up. then a pressure will tend to develop between them. since the machining element can be housed inside the plug used for accommodating the component. If this jet S cannot pass the full volume of the air from the control jet.2.7. The back pressure is instantly released through the opening into the manometer tube where it will change the height of the liquid. but it requires a supply of air to provide the motive force. This method is very simple and minimum wear of working parts takes place. The back pressure is the result of restriction at the measuring jet due to the effect of variations in the dimension of the work being checked so that the variations in the height of the liquid of the manometer are a measure of the dimension variations. Pneumatic Comparator Fig 3.

Type D is graduated in degrees and is not provided with either Vernier or fine adjustment device or acute angle attachment. A. which is graduated in divisions of 10 minutes of arc. take reading upto an internal circular Readings are taken magnifying system. B. The provision is made for scale. They are 1.Angular measurements and Interferometer Bevel protractors as per Indian standard practice. The difference between types A and B is that type A is provided with fine adjustment device or acute angle attachment whereas type B is not. the scale is graduated to read in degrees and the bevel protractor is without Vernier or fine adjustment device or acute angle attachment. against a fixed index line or Vernier by means of an optical which is integral with the instrument. Optical bevel protractor. Mechanical bevel protractor.1 Optical bevel protractor: In case of an optical bevel protractor. Mechanical Bevel Protractor The mechanical bevel protractors are further classified into four types. The bevel protractors are of two types. Fig 4. the Vernier is graduated to read to 5 minutes of arc whereas in case of type C. in types A and B. C and D. and 2. . it is possible to approximately 2 minutes of arc. The scales of all types are graduated either as full circle marked 0-90-0-90 with one Vernier or as a semicircle marked 0-90-0 with two Verniers 1800 apart.

eye piece rotatable to most convenient viewing position.2 Clinometers : A Clinometer is a special case of application of spirit level. the instrument base is placed on one face & the rotary body adjusted till zero reading of the bubble is obtained. the apertures can be seen. Here the spirit level is mounted on a rotary member carried in a housing. Thus for this purpose. The special features of Precision Microptic Clinometer are direct reading over the range 00-3600. making it very easy to see when the bubble is exactly centered. These can also be used for setting inclinable table on jig boring machines & angular work on grinding machines etc. Precision Microptic Clinometer utilizes bubble unit with a prismatic coincidence reader. Precision Microptic Clinometer : These are also used for measuring angular displacements of small parts & setting out angles. One face of the housing forms the base of the instrument. & hardened ground steel base. The Clinometer is mainly used to determine the included angle of two adjacent faces of work piece. totally enclosed glass circles & easy to read scales . and relief angles on large cutting tools & milling cutter inserts. The circular scale can measure the angle of base. The included angle between the faces is the difference between the two readings. The upper aperture contains two pairs of double lines & two single lines. to set the micrometer the knob is turned until the single lines are brought exactly central . the two half images move into coincidence. A second reading is then taken in a similar manner on the second face of the work piece. there is a circular scale. main scale & micrometer scale visible simultaneously in the eyepiece external scale for rapid coarse setting. the bubble unit is levelled & scale is read. The angle of rotation is then noted on the circular scale against the index. slow motion screw for fine setting. On looking through the reader eyepiece. As the vial is leveled. Clinometers are also used for checking angular faces. To determine the inclination of the Clinometer. On the housing. which presents both ends of the bubble as adjacent images in a split field of view. optical reading system.. The most commonly used Clinometer is of the Hilger & Watts type.Fig 4. without reference to any graduation.

For small angular measurements. To measure the angle between two surfaces the Clinometer is placed on each surface in turn & the difference in angle can be calculated. the vial to which the circle is attached is turned until it is approximately level. The double lines are imaged from one side of circle & the single ones from a point diametrically opposite.3 Optical Instruments for Angular Measurement: Autocollimator: This is an optical instrument used for the measurement of small angular differences. An integral low voltage lamp illuminates the scales. The bubble unit is day light illuminated. but is also provided with a lamp for alternative illumination. In order to measure the inclination of a surface. by using the double lines as an index for the single line. The instrument is designed to measure small angular defection and may be used in conjuncture with a plane mirror or other reflecting device. any residual centering error of the circle is cancelled out.5. the required angle being the sum of the readings of the main scale & the micrometer scale.2 Principle of auto collimator: Auto collimator is an optical instrument of small angular differences. autocollimator provides a very sensitive & accurate approach. auto collimator provides a very sensitive and accurate approach. For small angular measurement. 4. The reference for inclination is the bubble vial. then the slow motion screw is used for a final adjustment to center the bubble. Fig 4. The scales can be read.between the double lines. It is essentially an infinite telescope & a collimator combined into one instrument. The Clinometer can be used as a precision setting tool to set a tool head or table at a specific angle also. Auto collimator is actually a infinity telescope and a collimator combined into one instrument.2. If a scale is provided on the graticule the tilt of the reflecting .

Fig4. If the mirror is deflected about ‘O’ through an angle θ to the position BB’ and therefore to be at right angles to the optical axis. then the light rays will be reflected back on their original paths and the returned image of the object will coincide with the object at G.surface. the graticule. so that a direct two to one reading is obtained. . If X distance traveled by the image from the initial position of the object. an image of the object. If a reflecting mirror AA is situated at right angle to the optical axis. the distance x is a measure of angle 2θ and which is twice the angle deflection of the mirror. The light rays thus reflected are linearly displaced from the target by a amount of 20f.4 Figure shows the diagrammatic representative principle of a autocollimator. The gratitude GH is focused in the principal focal plane of the objective lens is illuminated from a suitable light rays parallel to the optic axis. giving a displacement x from G.

for large value of X for smaller angular deviation a long focal length is required.e. In other words. This scale in normal position is outside the view of the microscope eye piece as shown in the fig: The illuminated scale is projected as a parallel beam by the collimating lens which after a striking the reflector below the instrument is re-focused by the lens in the field of view of the eye piece. Thus the reading on the illuminated scale measures angular deviation from one axis at 900 to the optical axis & the reading on the fixed datum scale measures the deviation about an axis mutually perpendicular to the other two. it has wide field of application for general angular measurement. 3. iv.F focal length of the lens. For high sensitivities i. In the field of view of the microscope there is another datum scale fixed across the center of screen & the reflected image of the illuminated scale is received at right angle to this fixed scale & the two scales. θ the angle of tilt of the reflecting mirror and considered to be small. It is mostly used as a Comparator. 2. Autocollimator Applications : i. iii. in this position intersect each other. It contains a small illuminated scale in the focal plane of the objective lens. Though this is not a precise instrument in comparison to autocollimator. the reflected rays will completely miss the lens and no image will be formed. The measurement of straightness & flatness Precise angular indexing in conjunction with polygons Comparative measurement using master angles Assessment of square ness & parallelism of components Measurement of small linear dimensions Angle Dekkor: This is also a type of an autocollimator. changes in angular position of the reflector in two planes are indicated by changes in the point of intersection of the two scales. . which is mounted on an adjustable bracket. Readings from scale are read direct to 1’ without the use of a micrometer. v. Then. a sine bar or combination of angular gauges with that from the work under test. as angular variations are read direct without the operation of a micrometer. 2θ = x/f where x = 2fθ . There is a lapped flat & reflective base on which all these things are placed. ii.e. if θ become gauge. The points to be noted are: 1. The instrument measures by comparing the readings obtained from a standard. The position of the final image does not depend upon the objective lens. If the reflector is completely moved back i. The whole of the optical system is enclosed in a tube.

5 .Fig 4.

Example: on bolts or studs etc. Axis of a thread: this is imaginary line running longitudinally through the center of the screw. Example: on a nut or female screw gauge. Hand (right or left hand thread): Suppose a screw is held such that the observer is looking along the axis. 1 Screw thread: a screw thread is the helical ridge produced by forming a continuous helical groove of uniform section on the external or internal surface of a cylinder or a cone. whether it is external or internal. This gives ‘quick traverse’ without sacrificing core length. if a point moves along the thread in clockwise direction and thus moves away from the observer. Multiple-start screw thread: forming two produces this or more helical grooves equally spaced and similarly formed in an axial section on a cylinder.5 Screw Thread and Gear Measurement Terminology: Fig 5. while the one formed on a cone is known as tapered threads. Crest of thread: this is defined as the prominent part of thread. Internal thread: a thread formed on inside of a work piece is known as internal thread. . External thread: a thread formed on outside of a work piece is known as external thread. A screw thread formed on a cylinder is known as straight or parallel screw thread.CHAPTER . the thread is right hand: and if it moves towards the observer the thread is left hand. Form of thread: this is the shape of the contour of one complete thread as seen in axial section.

between corresponding points on the adjacent forms in the same axial plane and on the same side of the axis. . Truncation at crest is the radial distance from the crest to nearest apex of the fundamental triangle. measured parallel to the axis of the thread. the pitch is shown as the distance from the center of one thread crest to the center of next. Similarly the truncation at the root is the radial distance from the root to the nearest apex. which connect the crest with the root. On drawings of thread sections. and this representation is correct for single start as well as multi-start threads. This could also be defined as the distance measured radially between the major and minor cylinders. whether it is external or internal. the angle is measured in an axial plane. the uniformity of pitch measurement does not necessarily assure uniformity of lead. Flanks of thread: these are straight edges. Thread per inch: this is the reciprocal of pitch in inches. Depth of thread: this is the distance from the crest or tip of the thread to the root of the thread-measured perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. The basic pitch is equal to the lead divided by the number of the thread starts. the helix angle is the angle made by the helix of the thread at the pitch line with the axis. Angle of thread (included angle): this is the angle between the flanks and slope of the thread measured in an axial plane.Root of thread: this is defined as bottom of the groove between the two flanks of the thread. Axially thickness: this is the distance between the opposite faces of the same thread measured on the pitch cylinder in the direction parallel to the axis of the thread. Truncation: a thread is sometimes truncated at the crest or at the root or at both crest and root. Pitch: the pitch of the thread is the distance. variations in either or pitch cause the functional or virtual diameter of thread to differ from the pitch diameter. lead angle is the angle made by the helix of the thread at the pitch line with plane perpendicular to the axis. Flank angle: the flank angles are angles between individual flanks and the perpendicular to the axis of the thread which passes through the vertex of the fundamental angle. The angle is measured in actual plane. The flank angle of a symmetrical thread is commonly termed as the half angle of thread. Lead: lead is the axial distance moved by the threaded part when it is given one complete revolution about it’s axis with respect to fixed mating thread. Helix angle: on a straight thread. Lead angle: on straight threads.

Dedendum: this is radial distance between the pitch and minor cylinder for an external thread and for internal thread. It is often referred to as root diameter or cone diameter of external threads. which just touches the roots of an internal thread). These two errors have a special significance as they can be precisely related to effective diameter. and error in any one of these can cause rejection of the thread. there is only one dimension. this is the diameter of the pitch cylinder (the imaginary cylinder which is coaxial with the axis of the screw and intersects the flank of the threads in such a way as to make the width of the threads and width of the spaces between the threads equal. and errors on this dimension if exceed the permissible tolerance. Due to errors in these elements. lead and flank angles having full depth of engagement but clear at crest and root. Major diameter: in case of a straight thread. pitch and angle of thread form) must be checked and method of gauging must be able to cover all these elements. For an internal thread this is the radial distance between the minor and pitch cylinders. Effective diameter or pitch diameter: in case of straight thread. this is the diameter of the major cylinder (imaginary cylinder. Along the pitch line the widths of the threads and the widths of the spaces are equal on a perfect thread. this is radial distance between the major and pitch cylinders. Functional (virtual) diameter: for an external or internal thread. Similarly pitch and angle errors are also not desirable as they cause progressive tightening and interference on assembly. minor dia. will justify the rejection of the part. This is defined over a specified length of thread. the root section and wall thickness will be less. this is defined as the radial distance between the major and pitch cylinders. also the flank contact will be reduced and ultimately the component will be weak in strength. for measurement of effective diameter and whether the pitch is measured along the axis or along the pitch code generator also needs to be specified. If the pitch cylinder were imagined as generated by the straight line parallel to the axis of the screw that straight line is referred to as pitch line. This is the most important dimension as it decides the quality of the fit between screw and nut. While in case of screw threads there are at least five important elements. The virtual diameter being the modified effective diameter by pitch and angle errors is the most important single dimension of a screw thread gauge. which require consideration. which has to be considered. coaxial with the cylinder.Addendum: for an external thread. Errors on the effective diameter will also result in weakening of the assembly due to interference between the flanks. Errors in threads: In case of plain shafts and holes. Pitch errors in screw threads: . this is the pitch diameter of the enveloping thread of perfect pitch. effective dia. This may be greater than the effective diameter by an amount due to errors in pitch and angle of thread. In routine production all of these elements (major dia.). Errors on the major and minor diameters will cause interference with the mating thread. the cone angle of taper. In case of a taper screw thread.

In this case. . the ratio of linear velocity of tool and angular velocity of work must be correct. the total pitch in overall length of the thread being called the cumulative pitch error. The helix will be a curve in the case of drunken thread and not a straight line as shown in the figure. the pitch measured parallel to the pitch measured parallel to the thread axis will always be correct.2. A graph between the cumulative pitch error and the length of thread is generally a straight line in case of progressive error. If there is any error in the pitch the total length of thread engaged would be either too great or too small. E. This ratio must be maintained constant. (that is development of the thread be taken) then the drunkenness can be visualized. the error being that the thread is not cut to the true helix. in which the advance of the helix is irregular in one complete revolution of the thread. otherwise pitch errors will occur. Fig 5. It can also be caused due to pitch errors in the lead screw of the lathe or other generating machine. Various pitch errors are: Progressive pitch error Periodic pitch error Drunken error Irregular errors Drunken error: this is the one having erratic pitch. The other possibility is by using an incorrect gear or an approximate gear train between the work and lead screw.A point cutting tool generates Generally screw threads. In such a thread. Thread drunkenness is a particular case of a periodic pitch error recurring at intervals of one pitch. If the screw thread be regarded as an inclined plane wound around the cylinder and if the thread be unwound from the cylinder. while metric threads are cut with an inch pitch lead screw and a translatory gear are not available. for pitch to be correct.g. though it may be constant. Progressive pitch error: this error occurs when the tool work velocity ratio is incorrect. It is very difficult to determine such errors and moreover they do not have any great effect on the working unless the thread is of very large size.

The back faces should be finished flat. To eliminate the effect of errors in the micrometer screw and the measuring faces. In this case. therefore. decreases to the mean and then to the minimum value and so on. Full diameter: for measuring the full diameter of a screw. but is shorter or longer than its nominal value. The graph between the cumulative pitch error and length of threads for this error will. If means . be of sinusoidal form. perpendicular with the axis of the vee and parallel with the edge of the radius. Periodic error: if the errors vary in magnitude and recur at regular intervals. The vee pieces used for this test are of hardened steel with an angle of about 45 0 finished with a radius less than that of the root of the thread.Periodic pitch error: this repeats itself at regular intervals along the thread. Screw threads measurements: There are a large number of different standard forms of screw threads in common use. which rest in the thread angle and make contact with the sloping sides. which lacks square ness in the abutment causing the leads crew to move back and forth in each revolution. Thus the errors due to these cases are cyclic in nature and so the pitch increases to a maximum value. sloping flanks of the threads. Effective diameter: the only reliable means of inspecting the effective diameter of a screw is to use some method. it is said to have progressive error. This type of error also results when the thread is cut from a leads crew. Progressive error: when the pitch of a screw is uniform. Core diameter: the diameter over the root of a thread may be checked by means of a special micrometer adapted with shaped anvils. when measured from thread to thread along the screw are referred to as periodic errors. Irregular errors: these arise from the disturbances in the machining setup. an ordinary micrometer with anvils of a diameter sufficient to span two threads may be used. thus they have no specific causes and correspondingly no specific characteristics also. A few important measuring types of screw thread elements are discussed here. it is advisable first to check the instrument on a cylindrical standard of about the same diameter as the screw. This is accomplished in a simple manner by using small cylindrical test wires. The second method is more universal in application. This type of error occurs when the tool work velocity ratio is not constant. or an ordinary micrometer may be used in conjunction with a pair of vee pieces. and a diagram showing the arrangement is given in the figure. which enables a reading to taken from the straight. variations in the cutting properties of material etc. successive portions of the thread are either shorter or longer than the mean. These errors could be summarized as follows: Erratic pitch: this is irregular error in pitch and varies irregularly in magnitude over different lengths of thread. It is important that while making the test the micrometer is positioned at right angles to the axis of the screw being measured. For such purposes a plug gauge is useful. Here the nomenclature of the screw threads is not discussed here.

two opposite wires may be used. The wires should be hardened and polished and their surfaces should be round. . and uniform to a high degree of accuracy. or else three wires are required to align the micrometer. straight. and this method is the rule when using an ordinary micrometer. parallel. a floating micrometer) for maintaining the micrometer at the right angles to the screw axis.g.are available (e.

4 . Fig 5. The wire is designated with radius r and diameter d. One side of the screw is shown in the figure.Three-wire method: checking the effective diameter when a screw is measured over wires is given below for general case. where w= distance over the wires and D E the effective diameter.From this general formula we may apply the special adaptation for common threads.

Observation and analysis of the micrometer reading obtained then enables the pitch of the thread to be determined.Pitch: An error in the pitch requires a compensating reduction in effective diameter of approximately twice the amount. When making a test. Thus in figure length AB is measured when pitch AC=AB/cosa . and the result divided by the cosine of half of the thread angle.e. pitch errors are to be reduced to absolute minimum. A pitch-measuring device consists of a bed with centers at each end to support the screw. Fig 5. A diagrammatic sketch of the stylus is shown in the figure. with alternative means for holding nuts and sleeves when internal threads are to be tested. the measurement is made perpendicular to the thread flanks (instead of measuring parallel to the screw axis). the head is moved along causing the stylus to seat itself successively in each of the threads over the length being examined. Greater accuracy is obtained if. Sliding along the bed and moved by an accurate micrometer is head which carries a feeler piece or stylus shaped to fit in the vee of the thread provided with an indicator which shows when it is bedded home centrally in the vee (i. in its lowest position). .5 With a good projection measuring the image and dividing by the magnification may determine the pitch of the portion of the thread.

Base pitch: .387m. The tooth Venire: Fig 5. figure is provided with two mutually perpendicular scales 1 and 5. Where m is module. And the constant chord tooth thickness is S=1. The nomenclature of a toothed is a prerequisite for the following section. the jaws are drawn closer together and brought into contact with the tooth flanks.7476m. Measurement at the constant. to measure the chordal tooth thickness. and after testing the instrument with the tongue on the tip circle of gear being measured. The values of the measured chordal thickness are directly read from Vernier 4. The nominal values of the constant chord height and tooth thickness are selected from the corresponding tables compiled or are calculated by the corresponding formulae.6 A gear tooth Vernier.Measurement of gear teeth elements: A few types of measuring gear teeth elements are discussed here.chord tooth thickness is preferable (the constant chord is the chord between the points of contact of the basic rack profile with the tooth flanks at a normal section). Before measurement. the first is used in adjusting for a chordal height and the second. For standard spur gears with a normal pressure angle of 20 0< the constant-chord height h equal to h=0. mm. The measuring jaws are moved apart. the adjustable tongue 3 is set by means of Vernier 2 to the height at which the chordal thickness is to be measured and locked in position.

The base pitch is the circular pitch of the teeth measures on the base circle. . The difference in measurement gives the base pitch t0 which is used for module by the formula m=t0/p cosf where f is the pressure angle. These micrometers are often used to determine an unknown gear module. It varies from the standard micrometers only with respect to the measuring anvils. The disk anvil frame may be partly cut away. The tooth span micrometer is used to check the mean value and variation in the base tangent length. To this end the base tangent length is measured first over n teeth then over n-1 teeth. Here disk type measuring anvils are used.

It is conical in form in operating and intersecting axes usually at angles. Gear Terminologies . Spiral gear: a gear whose tooth traces is curved line. The various types of commonly used gears are: Spur gear: it is a cycloid gear whose tooth traces is straight line. Helical gear: it is a cylindrical gear whose tooth traces is straight helices.Gear Measurements The most commonly used forms of gear teeth are involute & cycloid. or it could be defined as a locus of a point on a piece of string which is unwounded from a stationary cylinder. Worm gear pair: the worm and mating worm wheel have their axes non-parallel and non-intersecting. Straight bevel gear: a gear whose tooth traces is a straight-line generator of a cone. which is the base circle. which rolls without slipping around a circle. Here the addendum tooth is the trace of the point on a circle rolling outside of the pitch circle and this is an epicycloidal curve whereas the dedendum portion of the tooth is the trace of the point on a circle rolling on the inside of the pitch circle of the gear and is hypocycloidal gear. The involute tooth is derived from the trace of the point on a straight line. The cycloid tooth is derived from the curve. which is the locus of a point on a circle rolling on the pitch circle of the gear.

DEDENDUM It is the radial height of the tooth between the pitch circle and dedendum circle. DEDENDUM CIRCLE It is a circle.5. It is also the ratio of the circumference of the pitch circle to the number of teeth. Pc = π d/t Where t  number of teeth FACE WIDTH It is the length of the tooth measured parallel to the axis of the gear. which passes through the root of the tooth. These two rolling circles are called pitch circles. which passes through the tip of the tooth. ADDENDUM CIRCLE It is a circle. FACE It is the working area of the tooth between addendum circle and pitch circle. TOOTH THICKNESS It is the thickness of the tooth measured along the pitch circle. Diameter of the gear is represented by diameter of the pitch circles and is denoted by "d". FLANK . CIRCULAR PITCH (P or Pc) It is the distance from a point on one tooth to a similar point on the adjacent tooth measured along the pitch circle.7 PITCH CIRCLE When two gears are meshed and running there are two circles which appear to roll one on another. SPACE WIDTH It is the distance between two adjacent teeth measured along the pitch circle.FIG. ADDENDUM It is the radial height of the tooth between the pitch circle and addendum circle.

PRESSURE ANGLE It is the angle between the line of contact and the common tangent at the pitch point. GEAR RATIO (G) It is the ratio of the gear diameter to the pinion diameter or the ratio of the pinion speed to the gear speed or ratio of number of teeth on gear to that on pinion. LENGTH OF PATH OF CONTACT It is the distance measured along the line of contact from the point of engagement to the point of disengagement.It is the working area of the tooth between pitch circle and dedendum circle. MODULE (m) It is the diameter measured per tooth of the gear. It is always represented in mm only m= d/t But Pc = π d/t Pc = π m DIAMETRAL PITCH (Pd) It is a reciprocal of module of the number of teeth per mm of diameter. LINE OF CONTACT It is the line along which the points of contact between two pairs of teeth proceed. PITCH POINT It is the point of contact or tangency of two pitch circles. BACKLASH It is the difference between the space width and tooth thickness. CLEARANCE It is the difference between the dedendum and addendum. G = D/d = n/N = T/t Measurement of individual elements Measurement of tooth thickness .

the theoretical values of w & d can be found out which may be verified by the instrument. which is difficult to measure directly. Also the difference between chordal tooth thickness and circular tooth thickness is very small for gear of small pitch. Measurement by dimension over pins The tooth thickness can be very conveniently measured by a gear tooth vernier. Base tangent method. In the fig it may be noted that w is a . it is sufficient to measure the chordal thickness that is the cord joining the intersection of the tooth profile with the pitch circle. the pitch line thickness of the tooth. referred to as pitch line thickness of tooth. Constant chord method. at which w occurs. FIG. therefore. the instrument must be capable of measuring the tooth thickness at a specified position on the tooth.8 Considering one gear tooth. but thickness measurement is a must for all gears. The gear tooth in the vernier has two vernier scales & they are set for the width ‘w’ of the tooth & the depth ‘d’ from the top. Further this is possible only when there is some arrangement to fix that position where the measurement is to be taken. The thickness measurement is the most important measurement because most of the gears manufactured may not undergo checking of all other parameters. The tooth thickness is generally measured at pitch circle & is. Since the tooth thickness varies from the tip of the base circle of the tooth.The permissible error or the tolerance on thickness of tooth is the variation of actual thickness of tooth from its theoretical value the tooth thickness is generally measured at pitch circle and is therefore. There are various methods of measuring the gear tooth thickness: Measurement of tooth thickness by Gear tooth vernier caliper. It may be mentioned that the tooth thickness is defined as the length of an arc.5. In most of the cases.

From the fig. d= OC-OD OC = OE+ addendum = R+m = (N*m/2)+m OD = R * cosθ = N*m/2 cos(90/N) d = (N*m/2)+m-(N*m/2) cos(90/N) Any error in the outside diameter of the gear must be allowed for when measuring tooth thickness.C. Gear tooth Caliper . but tooth thickness specified as an arc distance AEB.D/number of teeth = 2R/N R=N*m/2 w=(N*m)*sin(360/4N) Also from fig. m= P. In case of helical gears the above expressions must have to be modified to take into account the change in curvature along the pitch line. w is therefore called chordal thickness & d is called the chordal addendum. Also the distance d adjusted on instrument is slightly greater than the addendum CE. These formulae apply when backlash is ignored. w=2AD=2*AO*sinθ = 2R sin (360/4N) (R=PITCH CIRCLE RADIUS) Module. w=AB=2AD. Now angle AOD = θ = 3600/4N Where N is the number of teeth.chord ADB.

to measure the chordal tooth thickness. This method is simple & inexpensive. The values of the measured chordal thickness are directly read from Vernier 4.9 It is used to measure the thickness of gear teeth at the pitch line or chordal thickness of teeth & the distance from the top of a tooth to the chord. An adjustable tongue. measures the thickness of the tooth at pitch line & the addendum.chord tooth thickness is preferable (the constant chord is the chord between the points of contact of the basic rack profile with the . Measurement at the constant. Fig 5. any instrument for measuring on a single tooth must. The effect of zero errors should be taken into consideration. Before measurement. As the tooth thickness varies from top to the bottom. the jaws are drawn closer together and brought into contact with the tooth flanks. the first is used in adjusting for a chordal height and the second. However it needs different setting for a variation in number of teeth for a given pitch & accuracy is limited by the least count of instrument. caliper has to be calibrated at regular intervals to maintain the accuracy of measurement.10 A gear tooth Vernier. figure is provided with two mutually perpendicular scales 1 and 5. Since the wear during use is concentrated on the two jaws. each of which is adjusted independently by adjusting the screw on graduated bars. the adjustable tongue 3 is set by means of Vernier 2 to the height at which the chordal thickness is to be measured and locked in position. The measuring jaws are moved apart. Gear tooth Vernier Most of the times a gear Vernier is used to measure the tooth thickness.FIG-5. and after testing the instrument with the tongue on the tip circle of gear being measured.

The tooth span micrometer is used to check the mean value and variation in the base tangent length.tooth flanks at a normal section). The disk anvil frame may be partly cut away. And the constant chord tooth thickness is S=1. mm.387m. Here disk type measuring anvils are used. The difference in measurement gives the base pitch t0 which is used for module by the formula m=t0/π cosφ where φ is the pressure angle. Base pitch The base pitch is the circular pitch of the teeth measures on the base circle. To this end the base tangent length is measured first over n teeth then over n-1 teeth.11 . The nominal values of the constant chord height and tooth thickness are selected from the corresponding tables compiled or are calculated by the corresponding formulae. It varies from the standard micrometers only with respect to the measuring anvils. For standard spur gears with a normal pressure angle of 20 0< the constant-chord height h equal to h=0. Where m is module. These micrometers are often used to determine an unknown gear module. FIG:5.7476m.

Error Classification 5.smallest difference between two indications.1 Definitions commonly used in Sensors and Instrument • Readability-. generally it is a result of friction. pressure. • Static Sensitivity-.fundamentals of sensors for mechanical and thermal quantities. frequency.velocity. scale in oscilloscope (cm/mV). time. Introduction Measurements are important for quality assurance and process control. Types of Input Quantities 4.displacement versus input.GENERAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM 1. Three aspects will be covered in the Experimental Engineering class: • Sensors-. Measurements 1. torque. and analysis. Introduction 2. Quantities of interest include displacement. • Precision-. . or thermal effects. moment.response and configuration. Experimental Test Plan 7. and to obtain process information. force. General Measurement System 3. acquisition.measured quantity which depends on the history to reach that particular condition. magnetic. • Accuracy-. volumetric flow rate. mass flow rate.. acceleration.g.related to reproducibility of measurement. • Experimental methods-.deviation of a reading from a known input. Calibration 6. • Hysteresis-. 1. heat flux. temperature. • Least Count-. elastic deformation. • Systems-. etc. etc.planning. e.scales in analog instrument. strain.

Above 1337.58 the 4 scale is based on Planck's law of radiant emissions. Time. or 1 Hz = 2π radian/second. temperature. time. The absolute temperature scale. and electrical quantities for the US.deviation from a known input. e. The details of the temperature standard are governed by the International Temperature Scale-1990. Calibration Calibration involves a comparison of a particular instrument with respect to a known Quantity provided from (1) a primary standard. Kelvin. • Uncertainty-.192.58 K). is based on the polynomial interpolation between th eequilibrium phase change points of a number of pure substances from the triple point of th eequilibrium hydrogen (13. The absolute practical scale is defined by the basic SI unit of a Kelvin. a measure of accuracy. Length.. . International Bureau of Weights and Measurements (Sevres. One meter is defined as the length traveled by light in 3.data scatter.335641 x 10-9 second (based on the speed of light in a vacuum). 1 Hz = 1 cycle/second.3. France) maintains several primary standards. 1. France maintains the primary standard for clock time.770 periods of the radiation emitted between two excitation levels of the fundamental state of cesiumThe Bureau International del' Hueure (BIH) in Paris. a measure of precision.• Error-. Mass. Standards The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has the primary responsibility to maintain standards for such quantities as length. or (3) a known input source. (2) a secondary standard with a higher accuracy than the instrument to be calibrated.2.81 K) to the freezing point of gold (1337.631. the kilogram is defined by the mass of a particular platinum iridium bar maintained at very specific conditions at the Bureau. 1. Temperature. The standard for cyclical frequency is based on the time standard.g. K. One second has been defined as the time elapsed during 9.

A terminating or read-out stage ( sometimes with feedback signal for control). and force.0144521 kg at 273. 1 in. (oC) = (K) . W/m2. W. and supplemental units are rad (radian. Stage II -. There are many derived SI units. and ohm ( Ω ) . Ω(V/A). etc. Hz. e. kg.g. Laboratory calibration is made with the aid of secondary standards.273.Electric Dimensions. plane angle) and sr (steradian. volt (V). (oF) = (K) -459. The practical potential standard makes use of a standard cell consisting of a saturated solution of cadmium sulfate. time. A. temperature. General Measurement System Most measurement systems can be divided into three parts: Stage I -.45359237 kg. = 0. luminous intensity).15. e. s. ampere (A). etc. N/m2 (Pa).67. One ampere absolute is defined by 1. The dynamic response of a generalized measurement system can be analyzed by a mechanical .15 K. C (Coulomb = A • s).A detector-transducer or sensor stage. for example. etc.g. solid angle). and Stage III-. Hz (1/s). V (W/A). K. mass.. N. J. cd (candela. Basic SI units are: m. One ohm absolute is defined by 0. 2.An intermediate stage (signal conditioning).9995 times the resistance to current flow of a column of mercury that is 1.118 x 10-5 kg/s.063 m in length and has a mass of 0. The potential difference of two conductors connected across such a solution is set at 1. 1 lbm =0.0183 V at 293 K.00165 times the current in a water-based solution of AuN2 that deposits Au at an electrode at a rate of 1. Conversion factors between the SI and US engineering units are fixed. 1. standard cells for Voltage sources and standard resistors.02540005 m.4. Dimensions and Units Fundamental dimensions are: length.

steady-state. or random). Systematic errors are not susceptible to statistical analysis. TTL signals. The time relationship is important in selecting an instrument adequate for the required time response. Digital-. uncorrected loading errors. Random or accidental errors are distinguished by lack of consistency. 4. continuing.quantities change in a stepwise manner between two distinct magnitudes. pressure. or transient (single pulse. Error Classification Three types of error can be identified: systematic. e.g.temperature. A schematic of the generalized measurement system is shown below. They involve errors stemming from environmental variations. and generally result from calibration Errors.System. strain. stress. errors of technique. and limits of system resolution. random and illegitimate errors. • Analog or digital Analog-. INDICATOR RECORDER PROCESSOR CONTROLLER TRANSDUCER SIGNAL SENSOR CONDITIONER CALIBRATION CONTROL STAGETO PROCESS STAGE I STAGE II STAGE III 3.not a function of time.. a periodic. certain type of human . and fluid flow quantities usually are analog (continuous in time). Dynamic-. periodic. certain type of consistently recurring human error. and proper but different signal conditioners are usually needed depending on the inputsignal is digital or analog. Types of Input Quantities • Time relationship Static-.

errors. 7.Experimental Test Plan A well thought-out experimental test plan includes (1) An identification of pertinent process variables and parameters. (4) A data analysis plan.blunders or mistakes.an independent duplication of a set of measurements under similar Controlled conditions. errors resulting from variations in definition. and errors derived from insufficient definition of the measuring system. each based on adifferent method. Calibration (Output versus Known Input) Static Calibrations Static ⇔ independent of time Only the magnitude of the known input is important in static calibrations. and chaotic errors.a random order set to the applied independent variables. 6. C a libration Curve Usually plotted in terms of output versus input of known values or standards. Illegitimate errors are those should not exist-.to achieve the objectives (3) Methodology (4) Uncertainty Analysis (5) Costs (6) Calibration (7) Data Acquisition (8) Data Analysis .two or more estimates for the result. • Replication-. (3) A selection of a measurement technique and required equipment. 5 . computational errors. D ynamic Calibrations Time dependent variables are measured in dynamic calibrations. Measurement Overview The overall planning of experiments should include (1) Objective (2) Plan -. Error analysis is necessary for measurements. • Concomitant Methods-. • Random tests-. (2) A measurement pattern.

UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS I.3 Test of Data Outliers I.5 Uncertainty Analysis : Error Propagation II.8 ASME/ANSI 1986 Procedure for Estimation of Overall Uncertainty Statistical Analysis I.4 Bias and Precision Errors II.1 Introduction I.4 Chi-squared Test I. Statistical Analysis I.5 Number of Measurements Required I.7 Least Squares Fit II.7 Multiple .1 Introduction Variations are usually observed in engineering measurements repeatedly taken under seemingly identical conditions. Introduction . (2) Some representative value that provides the variation of the data.1 Introduction II.6 Student's t distribution I. 1.Measurement Uncertainty Analysis II.3 Error Sources II.2 Measurement Errors II. Uncertainty Analysis II. Source of the variation can be identified as follows: M easurement System Resolution and Repeatability M easurement Procedure and Technique Repeatability M easured Variable Temporal variation and spatial variation Statistical analysis provides estimates of (1) Single representative value that best characterizes the data set.2 Statistical Properties of a Single Point Measurement I.6 Design-Stage Uncertainty Analysis II.

angles..000 in.. Some special potentiometers are designed with a resolution of 0. Capacitance. uncertainty as low as 0. piezoelectric elements.g.. etc. differential transformers. e. Metrology The science of weights and measures. in 0. 2 . The position of the magnetic core controls the mutual inductance between the center of the primary coil and the two outer of secondary coils. thermistors. e.1 Potentiometer Displacement can be measured from the above equation. 2. referring to the measurements of lengths. Potententiometers are generally used to measure large displacements. potentiometer. piezoresistive crystals. increments. including the establishment of a flat plane reference surface.g. Differential Transformer.Transducers . End Standard the length of end standards is the distance between the flat parallel end faces. Vernier Caliper Micrometer Tape Measure measuring tape up to 100 ft. The imbalance in mutual inductance .1 Linear Measurement Line Standard are defined by the two marks on a dimensionally stable material.electromechanical devices that convert a change in a mechanical quantity such as displacement or force into a change in electrical quantity. and weights. Many sensors are used in transducer design.001 in. > 10 mm of linear motion and > 15 degrees of angular motion. strain gages. Strain Gage.05%. hand measuring tools are commonly used for length measurements.001 mm. combination of gauge blocks yields a range of length from 0. Displacement Sensor Potentiometer. Different potentiometers are available to measure linear as well as angular displacement. Gauge Block length standards for machining purposes.100to 12. Federal Accuracy Grade. capacitor sensors. 3. Eddy Current 3. Differential Transformer LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) is a popular transducer which is based on a variable-inductance principle for displacement measurements.

highest sensitivities are attained at frequencies of 1 to 5 kHz. Consult Figs. If the LVDT is used to measure dynamic displacements.2 V/mm of displacement per volt of excitation applied to the primary coil.νεa = -ν dL L where εa = axial strain.12 for that of RVDT.between the center location.2 Resistance-type stain gage Lord Kelvin observed the strain sensitivity of metals (copper and iron) in 1856. Frequency applied to the primary coil can range from 50 to 25000 Hz. L = length of the conductor. In general. Sensitivities usually vary from 0.9 and 12.ν dL/L ). LVDT and RVDT are known for long lifetime of usage and no over travel damage. There are two other commonly used differential transformers: DCDT--Direct Current Differential Transformer and RVDT-. The stroke varies in a range of +150 mm (low sensitivity). . εt = transverse strain. The input voltages range from 5 to 15 V. and an output voltage develops. εt = . R =ρL A (uniform metal conduction) Where R = resistance. The actual sensitivity depends on the design of each LVDT. A = cross sectional area of the conductor dR R =dρρ+dL L –dA/A Consider a rod under a uniaxial tensile stress state: Lεa =dL L . The effect can be explained in the following analysis.11 of Textbook for typical schematic diagrams of LVDT and Fig. 3. 12. ρ = specific resistance.02 to 0. the carrier frequency should be 10 times greater than the highest frequency component in the dynamic signal. 12. ν = Poisson ratio df = do ( l .Rotary Variable Differential Transformer (range of linear operation is ± 40 degrees).

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