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No 1

English Words and Meanings
Word List - 1
abase lower degrade humiliate

2 3

abash abate moderate

embarrass subside or

4 5

abbreviate abdicate

shorten renounce give up (position, right, or responsibility)

6 7

aberrant deviant aberration the normal

abnormal or deviation from mental disorder

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

abet assist usually in doing something wrong abeyance suspended action abhor detest abide dwell abject (of a condition) wretched abjure renounce upon oath ablution washing abnegation renunciation abode dwelling place abolish cancel abominable detestable abominate loathe aboriginal being the first of its kind in a region abortive unsuccessful abrasive rubbing away abridge condense or shorten abrogate abolish


hate abide by: comply with as low as possible

put up with lacking pride

self-sacrifice home put an end to extremely unpleasant hate primitive fruitless tending to grind down



25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

abscission cutting off abscond depart secretly and hide absolute complete absolve pardon (an offense) abstain refrain abstemious sparing in eating and drinking abstinence restraint from pleasant things, esp. eating or drinking abstract theoretical abstruse obscure abusive coarsely insulting abut border upon abysmal bottomless abyss enormous chasm academic related to a school accede agree accelerate move faster accessible easy to approach accessory additional object acclaim applaud acclimate adjust to climate or environment acclivity sharp upslope of a hill


totally unlimited

having complete power

intentionally not use one's withhold from participation vote temperate CF. abstention: act of abstaining from vote not concrete profound physically harmful adjoin

nonrepresentational difficult to understand

vast bottomless pit not practical or directly useful

obtainable useful but not essential thing praise adapt

greet with great approval

OP. declivity strong praise and accolade award of merit approval accommodate oblige or adjust or bring into help someone harmony accomplice partner in crime accord agreement accost approach and speak first to a person accoutre equip N. accoutrement accretion growth or increase in size by gradual addition growth accrue come to one as a gain accumulate over time


increase come about by addition

54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83

acerbity bitterness of speech and temper acetic vinegary acidulous slightly sour (in taste or manner) acknowledge recognize acme peak acne skin disease (on the face) acoustics science of sound acquiesce assent acquittal deliverance from a charge acrid bitter (to the taste or smell) acrimonious stinging acrophobia fear of heights actuarial calculating actuary someone who advises insurance companies actuate motivate acuity sharpness (of mind or senses of sight or hearing) acumen mental keenness acute (of the senses) sharp adage wise saying adamant hard adapt make or become suitable for a specific use addendum addition addiction compulsive habitual need addle make or become confused address direct a speech to adept expert at adhere stick fast adherent supporter adjacent adjoining adjoin be next to

ADJ. acerbic: bitter

acrid (in taste, manner, or tone)

sharp admit pinnacle

caustic highest point

quality that makes a room easy or hard to hear in agree passively comply without protest V. acquit: free from a charge or accusation discharge from a duty sharp caustic pertaining to insurance statistics bitterly pungent bitter in words or manner


cause to act

sharpness of judgment quickly perceptive proverb inflexible alter appendix to book

ability to judge quickly and well keen

modify something that is added (as at the end of a speech or book)

muddle speak to very skilled be a devotd follower follower neighboring

drive crazy deal with or discuss N. adhesion: adhering close by

84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91

adjourn suspend until a move from one place to later time another adjunct something attached to but holding an inferior position V. adjure: entreat adjuration solemn urging earnestly adjutant staff officer assisting the commander assistant admonish warn or speak to with gentle disapproval reprove adore love deeply and respect highly adorn decorate adroit skillful (in using mind or hand)

enjoin solemnly

Word List - 2
92 adulation flattery adulterate make impure or of poorer quality by adding inferior or tainted(contaminated) substances Advent arrival adventitious accidental adversary opponent adverse going against adversity great hardship or affliction advert refer admiration that is more than is necessary or deserved

93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

casual enemy opposing misfortune

happening by chance unfavorable calamitous event

107 108

active pleading on behalf advocacy support of someone or something advocate speak in favor of support (an idea or plan) aegis shield protection aerie(aery,eyrie,eyry) nest of a large bird of prey dealing with or capable of appreciating the beautiful aesthetic artistic (of a person or building) affable easily approachable easy to talk to affected artificial pretended affidavit written statement made under oath (for use as proof in a court of law) affiliation joining associating with

urge defense

CF. aesthete warmly friendly

109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

affinity kinship affirmation assertion affliction affluence affront afterlife agape agenda business at

feeling of similarity positive confirmation state of distress trial abundance wealth insult offense life after death later part of one's life openmouthed items of a meeting collection Ex. strong affinity for her solemn pledge by one who refuses to take an oath cause of distress or suffering intentional act of disrespect

123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136

V. agglomerate: gather into a heap rounded mass increase in power, wealth, aggrandize make greater rank, or honor N. aggrandizement ADJ. V: gather into a mass or aggregate sum total whole aghast filled with great surprise or fear horrified agility nimbleness ability to move quickly agitate stir up disturb agnostic one who is skeptical of the existence or knowability of a god or any ultimate reality agog highly excited intensely curious agrarian pertaining to land or its cultivation Ex. agrarian reform airy of air high in the air lofty alacrity cheerful promptness without reluctance alchemy medieval chemistry alcove nook recess alias an assumed name esp. by a criminal (usually to mislead people) ADV. alias alienate make unfriendly or hostile estrange separate alimentary supplying nourishment alimony payments made regularly to an exspouse after divorce allay calm pacify allege state without proof allegiance loyalty agglomeration

137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156

allegory story, play, or picture in which characters are used as symbols alleviate relieve (pain) alliteration repetition of beginning sound in poetry allocate alloy metals assign mixture as of


set apart for a particular purpose something added that lowers in value or purity N. allusion: indirect allude refer indirectly reference allure entice alluvial pertaining to soil attract deposits left by running water alms money or goods given to the poor aloft upward high up in the air not open in one's relationship with other aloof apart people altercation noisy quarrel altruistic generous unselfishly

V: mix



amalgam combination of different things amalgamate (of societies or groups) combine unite in one body amass collect (gradually, in a very large amount) amazon female warrior ambidextrous capable of using either hand with equal ease

N. altiruism: unselfish concern concerned for others for the welfare of others mixture of metals (containing mercury) used for filling holes in teeth

157 158 159 160 161

Ex. restraurant with a ambience environment atmosphere pleasant ambience ambiguous unclear or having more than one doubtful in meaning possible interpretation ambivalence the state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes or opinions amble walking at an V: walk slowly and easy unhurried pace aimlessly ambrosia food of the gods ambulatory able to walk ambush act of lying in sudden attack made from wait to attack by surprise a concealed position Ex. lie in ambush

162 163 164

ameliorate amenable amend

improve obedient correct

compliant change

readily managed generally for the better

Word List - 3
165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 amenities convenient features that helps to make life pleasant amiable agreeable amicable peaceful amiss wrong social courtesies lovable politely friendly faulty peaceful relationship as between nations

warmly friendly not quarrelsome Ex. something amiss

amity friendship amnesia loss of memory amnesty pardon (allowed by government to political criminals) amok(amuck) in a state of rage Ex. run amok having no understanding amoral nonmoral of right and wrong amorous moved by sexual love loving amorphous formless amphibian able to live both on land and in water amphitheater oval building with tiers of seats ample enough amplify increase in size or effect amputate cut off part of body amulet charm anachronism an error involving time in a story analgesia condition of being unable to feel pain analgesic causing insensitivity to pain analogous comparable analogy similarity anarchist person who seeks to overturn the established government anarchy absence of governing body anathema lacking shape or definition N. CF. arena abundant expand prune (a limb) talisman something or someone misplaced in time

of sexual love

spacious broaden or clarify by expanding

an object worn believed to protect against evil, bad luck ADJ. anachronistic

N. similar parallelism advocate of abolishing authority

comparing two similar things

state of disorder someone or something solemn curse regarded as a curse

V. anathematize

190 191 192 193 194

195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202

203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217

ancestry family descent anchor secure or fasten firmly ancillary serving as an aid or accessory anecdote short story of an amusing or interesting event anemia condition in which blood lacks red corpuscles anesthetic substance that removes sensation with or without loss of consciousness anguish acute pain angular sharp-cornered animadversion critical remark animated lively animosity active enmity animus hostile feeling or intent annals records arranged in yearly parts anneal reduce brittleness and improve toughness by heating and cooling (metal or glass) annex attach annihilate destroy annotate comment annuity yearly allowance annul make void anodyne drug that relieves pain or trouble anoint anomalous anomaly anonymity nameless consecrate abnormal irregularity state of being

ADJ. ancestral be fixed in place auxiliary N. anchorage N.

ADJ. anemic

N. anesthesia extreme suffering having an angle V. animadvert: comment critically with disapproval spirited

not rounded (body)

animosity history


add to a large thing make explanatory notes

take possession of

opiate put oil on (in a religious ceremony) irregular

ADJ. Ex. anodyne statement

anonymousness active opposition

antagonism hostility antecede precede antecedents preceding events that influence what comes later antediluvian antiquated

ADJ. anonymous V. antagonize: cause to become an enemy

ancestors or early background extremely ancient

218 219 220 221 222

223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241

anthem song of praise or patriotism book of Ex. national anthem anthology literary selections by various authors CF. omnibus resembling a human anthropoid manlike being anthropologist student of the history and science of humankind anthropomorphic having human form or characteristics something unexciting, ordinary, or disappointing anticlimax letdown in coming after something thought or emotion important or exciting antidote remedy to counteract a poison or Ex. antidote to the disease economic troubles antipathy aversion dislike or opposition antiquated obsolete old-fashioned antique made in an N: object that was made earlier period and usu. in an earlier period and valuable that is rare or valuable antiquity quality of being very old ancient times antiseptic substance that prevents infection in a wound ADJ. antithesis contrast direct opposite of or to antler bony growth on the head of a deer anvil iron block used in hammering out metals apathy lack of caring indifference ape imitate or mimic (a person's behavior or manner) aperture opening apex tip aphasia loss of speech due to injury or illness aphorism pithy maxim or saying apiarist person who keeps bees apiary a place where bees are kept apiculture bee-keeping hole summit



ADJ. antithetic or antithetical

lack of concern or interest in important matters

adjustable opening in a camera that limits the amount of light climax

ADJ. aphoristic

242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250



apocalyptic prophetic apocryphal (of a story) widely believed but untrue

composure in difficult situations pertaining to revelations especially of disaster

assurance N. apocalypse

the point farthest from the apogee highest point earth OP. perigee apolitical having an aversion or lack of concern for political affairs apologist one who writes in defense of a cause or institution N. apologia loss of consciousness caused by too much blood apoplexy stroke in the brain apostate one who abandons his religious faith or political beliefs N. apostasy apothecary druggist pharmacist

Word List - 4
251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 apothegm(apophthegm) pithy, compact saying apotheosis elevation to godhood appall dismay apparent evident apparition ghost appease pacify or soothe appellation name append attach application diligent attention apposite appropriate appraise estimate value of appreciate be thankful for apprehend arrest (a criminal) apprehensive fearful apprise inform approbation approval an ideal example of something shock deeply easily seen or understood appearing as such phantom Ex. appease a crying baby N. appeasement title

diligence fitting N. appraisal increase in worth dread discerning

V. apply oneself

be thoroughly conscious of perceive

take possession of for one's own use without appropriate acquire permission appurtenances subordinate something added to a possessions more important thing

set aside for a particular purpose

269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296

apropos with reference to aptitude fitness aquiline curved arable fit for growing crops arbiter person with power to decide a matter in dispute arbitrary unreasonable or capricious arbitrate act as judge (at the request of both sides) arboreal of or living in trees arboretum place where different trees and shrubs are studied and exhibited arcade a covered passageway usually lined with shops arcane esoteric archchief archaeology study of artifacts and relics of early mankind archaic antiquated archetype prototype archipelago group of closely located islands archives ardor arduous

regarding talent hooked

Ex. remarks apropos (of) the present situation of or like an eagle

Ex. arable land judge who is in a position ot make influential Ex. supreme arbiter of fashion judgments in beachware random tyrannical

secret first

mysterious Ex. archbishop

no longer used primitive pattern

belonging to the past

place where public public records records are kept heat passion hard strenuous speech spoken by only a argot slang small group of people a song sung by one person in an opera or aria operatic solo oratorio arid (of land) dry barren aristocracy hereditary nobility privileged class armada fleet of warships aromatic arraign array arrears fragrant charge in court marshal being in debt having a sweet smell indict draw up in order money that should have been paid

zeal Ex. arduous work

unproductive government by nobility

N. aroma: strong pleasant smell arrange in order work that should have been done


arrhythmic lacking rhythm or regularity

N. arrhythmia ADJ. arrogant: unpleasantly self-important (with a strong confidence in one's own importance and a lack of respect for other people)

298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323



arroyo gully arsenal storage place for military equipment artery blood-vessel artful exhibiting art or skill articulate effective artifacts object made by human beings, either handmade or mass-produced artifice deception artisan a manually skilled worker artless without guile ascendancy controlling influence ascertain find out for certain ascetic practicing selfdenial ascribe refer aseptic preventing infection ashen ash-colored asinine stupid askance with a sideways or indirect look (with disapproval or distruct) askew crookedly asperity sharpness aspersion slanderous remark aspirant seeker after position or status aspire seek to attain (position or status) assail assault assay analyze (to discover what materials are present) assent agree

haughtiness narrow channel formed by rainwater

CF. vein deceitful distinct cunning expressing ideas clearly


open and honest position of controlling influence make certain avoiding physical pleasures and comforts attribute having a cleansing effect deadly pale Ex. asinine remarks Ex. look askance at slanted roughness Ex. cast aspersions on

CF. in the ascendant

austere assign

at an angle severity (of temper or weather)

long for

Ex. aspire to become president

evaluate (soil or ore) accept

N. assessment

324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331

assert positively assiduous

state strongly or demand recognition of (rights, claims, etc.) diligent take (food) into the body and digest it

make a claim to (by forceful action) understand (knowledge) completely and be able to use properly satisfy (hunger) Ex. her assumption of power certainty

assimilate absorb assuage mak less severe ease or lessen (pain) assumption something the taking over or taking taken for granted possession of assurance firm statement that something is certainly true promise or pledge asteroid small planet astigmatism eye defect which prevents proper focus OP. stigmatism

Word List - 5
332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 astral stars relating to the causing contraction (stopping bleeding)

astringent binding astronomical enormously large or extensive astute wise asunder into parts asylum place of refuge or shelter asymmetric not identical on both sides of a dividing central line atavism resemblance to remote ancestors rather than to parents atheistic denying the existence of God atone make amends for atrocity brutal deed atrophy attentive watchful attenuate attest attire attribute quality attrition friction atypical wasting away alert and

harsh or severe

shrewd apart protection (religious or political)

keen V. sunder

reversion to an earlier type N. atheism pay for ADJ. atrocious V: weaken and lose flesh and muscle (through lack of blood or lack of use)


Ex. atone for

listening carefully make thin weaken testify bear witness clothe N: clothing essential V: ascribe rubbing away by gradual decrease in numbers or strength not normal not typical

paying attention

array explain reduction in the work force without firing employees

351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368

audacious daring audit examination of accounts of a business augment increase augury omen august impressive aureole sun's corona auroral pertaining to the aurora borealis auspicious favoring success austere forbiddingly stern authenticate prove genuine authoritarian subordinating the individual to the state authoritative having the weight of authority autocratic having absolute unchecked power automaton mechanism that imitates actions of humans autonomous selfgoverning autopsy examination of a dead body auxiliary offering or providing help avalanche great mass of falling snow and ice avantgarde group of artists whose work is based on the newest ideas and methods avarice greediness for wealth avenge take vengence for something or on behalf of someone aver state confidently averse reluctant aversion firm dislike avert prevent aviary enclosure for birds avid greedy avocation secondary or minor occupation

bold official examination add to prophecy majestic halo CF. aurora australis giving signs of future success ascetic

N. audacity V. sign of coming events bright circle of light

Cf. auspices without comfort or enjoyment

completely dominating another's will regarded as providing knowledge that can be trusted dictatorial machine that works by itself N. autonomy postmortem additional or subsidiary

Ex. authoritarian regime/father reliable N. autocrat, autocracy

V. N: helper

369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378

CF. vanguard

Ex. They avenged his death by burning the village declare as true disinclined avoid large cage extremely eager for

Ex. He swore to avenge his brother not liking or opposed turn away (eyes or thought)

Ex. avid learner

379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406

avow avuncular uncle

declare openly of or like an

N. avowal

feeling of respect mixed awe solemn wonder with wonder and fear V: fill with awe awful terrible very bad awl pointed tool used for piercing awry distorted crooked bent axiom self-evident truth requiring no proof azure sky blue make continuous sounds babble chatter idly or like water running gently foolishly over rounded stone N. bacchanal noisy party with a lot of drinking bacchanalia the ancient Roman festival in honor of Bacchus bacchanalian drunken backslide revert (to bad habits) N. reverter Ex. reciprocate his N. reciprocity: reciprocal backwards and forwards invitation by inviting him relationship annoy continually with persuade by asking again and badger pester demands again badinage teasing conversation banter joking talk baffle frustrate perplex bait harass tease torment malignant in intent or baleful evil effect deadly balk stop short, as if faced with an obstacle, and refuse to continue foil stop or get in the way of ballast heavy substance used to add stability or weight V. supply with ballast balm something that oily liquid with a pleasant relieves pain smell from trees balmy soft and mild (of air) fragrant banal hackneyed commonplace trite bandy discuss lightly discuss in a frivolous or glibly manner exchange (words) heatedly bane posion cause of ruin ADJ. baneful: harmful bank heap piled-up mass embankment bantering joking talk good-naturedly ridiculing N.V. banter

407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435

bar railing in a courtroom legal profession barb sharp projection from fishhook, arrow, or other object openly cutting remark

vertical line dividing a staff into equal measures

Word List - 6
bard poet barefaced shameless and noticeable bargain agreement between two groups or people baroque highly ornate barrage barrier laid down by artillery fire barrister counselor-atlaw or lawyer in the higher court of law barterer base bask bastard child trader contemptible luxuriate illegitimate blatant something for sale at a price advantageous to the buyer bold V: negotiate large number of questions or statements

overwhelming profusion CF. bar V. barter: trade morally bad take pleasure in warmth something seen as a source of protection lessen the force of

exchange good for other goods rather than money inferior in value or quality

bastion stronghold bate let down battalion army unit made up of four or more companies bauble trinket bawdy indecent bearing deportment beatific giving or showing bliss beatitude blessedness bedizen dress with vulgar finery bedraggle wet thoroughly beeline direct quick route befuddle confuse thoroughly beget father begrudge envy beguile deceive behemoth huge creature beholden obligated

Ex. the last bastion of male chauvinism moderate

cheap jewel obscene connection blissful state of great happiness

trifle about sex in a rude funny way

ADJ. bedraggled: draggled

become the father of give or allow unwillingly mislead or delude something of monstrous size or power indebted

produce grudge cheat

owing thanks

436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465

behoove(behove) be suited to belabor harp on belated delayed beleaguer besiege or attack (with an army) belie contradict belittle disparage bellicose warlike belligerent quarrelsome bemoan bemused benediction lament confused blessing

be incumbent upon dwell on tediously

be right and necessary explain or go over excessively or to a ridiculous degree

harass give a false impression depreciate

beset disguise

moan for lost in thought

express sorrow or disapproval of preoccupied person who does good or who gives money for a good purpose advantageous

benefactor gift giver beneficent kindly beneficial helpful entitled to benefits or proceeds of an insurance policy or will benefit benevolent benign benison advantage generous kindly blessing

patron doing good useful

anything that brings helpl, money provided by the advantage, or profit government to the people charitable having a wish to do good favorable not malignant (disease) Ex. bent on advancing in the business hand down in his will

bent determined bequeath leave to someone by means of a will berate scold strongly bereaved deprived of (someone beloved through death) bereavement state of being deprived of something valuable or beloved bereft deprived of (something valuable) berserk mad with violent anger beseech beg beset harass or trouble from all directions besiege surround with armed forces besmirch soil

N: natural talent or inclination N. bequest

state of being bereaved or bereft lacking frenzied plead with hem in harass (with requests) defile annoy continually make dirty madly excited

466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495

bestial bestow betoken

beastlike confer signify

brutal indicate reveal (unconsciously or unwillingly)

inhuman be a sign of Ex. Her trembling hands betray her anxiety.

betray be unfaithful betroth become engaged to marry bevy large group Ex. a bevy of starlets beware be cautious (of) bewitch cast a spell over captivate completely bicameral twochambered as a legislative body bicker quarrel bid command utter (a greeting) biennial every two years bifurcated divided into two branches forked bigot one who is intolerant (in matters of religion or politics) bigotry stubborn intolerance bilious suffering from sick from having too much indigestion bile bilk swindle cheat billow large wave of a great swell or surge (of water smoke) billowing swelling out in waves surging biting sharply painful to the body or mind Ex. biting wind/remarks bitter having a sharp biting taste ¾´ bivouac temporary encampment camp without tents bizarre fantastic violently contrasting blackball vote against (an applicant) ostracize blanch bleach whiten bland soothing or mild (food) agreeable blandishment flattery blare loud or harsh roar or screech dazzling blaze of light blase bored with pleasure or dissipation uninterested or bored blasphemy irreverence sacrilege

offer as a price


V: surge, swell, roll in billows

causing sharp pain to the body or mind V. noticeably odd N: negative vote make white or pale causing no trouble or offence


496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507

blatant extremely (offensively) cold or obvious bleak cheerless blemish mar blight plant disease blighted suffering from a disease bliss complete happiness blithe(blithesome) gay bloated (unpleasantly) swollen or puffed as with water or air blotch spot blowhard talkative boaster bludgeon club blue gloomy blues state of depression or melancholy bluff pretense (of strength)

loudly offensive frigid spoil the beauty or perfection of V: infect with blight destroyed ADJ. blissful joyous

Ex. blatant lie unlikely to be favorable N: flaw or defect (that spoils perfection) ruin

blot braggart heavy-headed weapon depressed style of slow, mournful music (evolved from southern Black American songs) deception

CF. blot+botch


508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523

high cliff

Word List - 7
blunder error stupid mistake blunt having a dull abrupt and frank in edge speech or manner blurt utter impulsively from nervousness or excitement blush become red in the face (from embarrassment or shame) become red or rosy bluster blow in heavy gusts threaten emptily bode foreshadow portend bog soft wet land V: hinder or be hindered bogus counterfeit not authentic Bohemian unconventional (in an artistic way) boisterous violent rough bolster support reinforce bolt door bar fastening pin or screw bombardment attack (as with missiles or bombs) V. bombard bombast grandiloquent, pompous speech brusque

N. bully Ex. bogged down in the mud intentionally false

noisy length of fabric

524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556

bombastic pompous bookish fond of books and reading boon blessing boor rude, insensitive person boorish rude boost lift by pushing up from below botch mismanage bouillon clear beef (or meat) soup bound leap or spring bountiful generous bourgeois middle class

using inflated language


something very helpful

insensitive increase blow raise

limit or confine graciously generous selfishly materialistic short period of great activity placid and dull CF. Thomas Bowdler

constitute the limit of showing bounty too interested in material possessions Ex. wrestling bout slow-thinking

bout match bovine cowlike bowdlerize expurgate brackish somewhat saline brag boast braggadocio boasting braggart boaster braid plait

brand trademark brandish wave around (a weapon) bravado swagger brave face courageously brawl noisy quarrel brawn human muscle brawny muscular brazen insolent breach breaking of contract or duty breadth width breed produce young brevity conciseness bridle harness fitted about a horse's head (used to restrain) brim uppermost edge of a cup

bragger interweave strands or lengths of mark burned on the hide of an animal flourish assumed air of defiance Ex. brave the storm muscular strength having well-developed muscles without shame fissure or gap extent rear shortness of duration curb projecting rim (as on a hat)

make by weaving strands together mark burned into the flesh of criminals

false show of bravery


bold opening bring up

check Ex. The glass was full to the brim

557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586

brindled tawny or grayish with streaks or spots (of animals) brink edge (at the top Ex. on the brink of the of a cliff) Grand Canyon marked by liveliness and brisk quick and active vigor V: (hair or fur) stand up bristle short stiff hair stiffly bristling rising like bristles showing irritation brittle hard but easily broken difficult broach introduce as a subject moot brocade rich, figured(patterned) fabric brochure pamphlet broil cook by direct heat N. chemical compound used bromide platitude to calm excitement brooch ornamental clasp pin brood sit on in order think deeply or worry to hatch anxiously brook tolerate endure browbeat bully intimidate browse graze feed on growing grass bruise injure without breaking the skin N. brunt main impact or shock (of an attack or blow) Ex. brunt of the argument brusque blunt abrupt buccaneer pirate bucolic rustic pastoral buffet strike forcefully slap buffoon stupid person clown buffoonery clowning bugaboo bugbear object of baseless terror

unstable open up

N: the young of certain animals Ex. brook no interference skim or glance at casually



Ex. The apple made a bulge bulge protruding part swelling of a surface in his pocket bulk size or volume Ex. The bulk of the work has (esp. when very large) main part already been done bullion gold and silver in the form of bars bully one who is habitually cruel to weaker people V. bulwark strong wall earthwork or other strong built for defense defense person who defends

587 588 589 590 591 592 593

594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615

bump hit or knock against with force bungle mismanage buoyant able to float bureaucracy overregulated administrative system marked by red tape burgeon grow rapidly burlesque give an imitation that ridicules burnish make shiny by rubbing bust piece of sculpture showing a person's head, shoulders, and upper chest buttress support buxom full-bosomed cabal small group of persons secretly united to promote their own interests cache hiding place cacophonous discordant cadaver corpse cadaverous like a corpse cadence rhythmic rise and fall (of words or sounds) cadet student at a military school cajole persuade by praise or false promise calamity disaster calculated deliberately planned caldron(cauldron) large kettle caliber calligraphy writing ability beautiful

N. blunder cheerful and optimistic ADJ. bureaucratic grow forth imitate mockingly polish

botch N. buoyancy

send out buds

V: break up prop up plump

arrest N. stationary structure to support wall jolly

V. inharmonious dead human body pale beat N. cacophony: unpleasant mixture of loud sounds

regular beat of sound

coax misery likely


quality excellent penmanship unfeeling immature

diameter of the inside of a round cylinder without sympathy for the sufferings of others inexperienced

callous hardened callow youthful callus area of thick hard skin calorific heat-producing calumny malicious misrepresentation camaraderie goodfellowship

N. calorie slander CF. comrade

616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626

cameo shell or jewel carved in relief camp group sharing a common cause or opinion canard unfounded false rumor candor frankness canine related to dogs canker any ulcerous sore canny shrewd in money matters cant insincere speech or expression of piety cantankerous ill-humored cantata story set to music to be sung by a chorus (shorter than an oratorio) canter slow gallop

star's special appearance in a minor role in a film

exaggerated false report open honesty doglike ulcer thrifty jargon of thieves irritable

ADJ. candid

any evil

special words used by a particular group of people

V. CF. trot

Word List - 8
627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 canto division of a long poem canvass determine or seek opinions, votes, etc. capacious spacious capacity mental or physical ability capillary having a very fine bore capitulate surrender go through (a region) to solicit votes or orders

conduct a survey


position or duty fine and slender

caprice capricious capsize over caption title captious faultfinding carafe glass water bottle carapace shell covering the back (of a turtle, tortoise, crab, etc.) carat(karat) unit of weight for precious stones carcinogenic causing cancer cardinal chief

resembling a hair give up all resistance sudden change of mind whim without any real cause unpredictable fickle (of a boat) turn chapter heading too critical decanter

text under illustration

measure of the purity of gold N. carcinogen most important

N: priest

643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662

cardiologist doctor specializing in ailments of the heart careen lurch career rush wildly carefree free from worries caricature distortion carillon a set of bells (often in a tower) capable of being played carnage destruction of life carnal fleshly carnivorous meat-eating carousal drunken revel carping petty criticism carrion rotting flesh of a dead body cartographer map-maker cascade small waterfall caste one of the hereditary classes in Hindu society castigation punishment castrate remove the sex organs (of a male animal or person) casual happening by chance casualty serious or fatal accident cataclysm deluge catalyst agent which brings about a chemical change while it remains unaffected and unchanged catapult slingshot sway from side to side go at full speed having no problems burlesque move with irregular swinging movement

slaughter sensual N. carnivore V. carouse fault-finding CF. vulture

killing of large numbers of people or animals concerning the desires of the body CF. herbivore fretful complaining

social stratification severe criticism or disapproval


irregular person killed or wounded in an accident or battle upheaval



663 664 665 666

CF. catalysis hurling machine

V: fire from catapult


eye abnormality (causing cataract great waterfall a gradual loss of eyesight) catastrophe calamity disaster catcall shout of disapproval or displeasure (made at the theater or a sports match) boo V.

668 669 670

671 672 673

674 675 676 677

catechism book for religious instruction in religious instruction by question-and-answer form question and answer categorical without made without any doubt in exceptions mind cater provide food and cater to: try to satisfy drink (for) (desires of a bad kind) purging and weakening of catharsis purging or strong emotions as a result cleansing of any passage of of experiencing a dramatic the body work of art medicine that causes the cathartic purgative bowels to empty catholic (of likings and interests) universal general caucus private meeting of a group of people in a political party to select CF. the Caucus club of officers or determine policy Boston caulk(calk) make watertight (by blocking up cracks as in a ship) causal implying a cause-and-effect relationship N. causality caustic burning cauterize burn (a wound or snakebite, etc.) with hot iron or caustic substance to stop bleeding and prevent infection cavalcade procession of riders or horse-drawn carriages cavalier casual and offhand cavil quibble cede yield (title or territory) to (esp. after losing a war) celerity speed celestial heavenly celibate abstaining from sexual intercourse cemetery place for burying the dead censor (in ancient Rome) overseer of morals (also taking the census) censorious severely critical censure blame corrosive

V. catechize unqualified

ADJ. broad

able to burn by chemical action

678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689

parade arrogant make frivolous objections surrender formally rapidity

CF. cavalry N: knight find fault unnecessarily N. cession


N. celibacy

person who eliminates inappropriate matter



express strong disapproval


691 692 693 694

695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707

centaur mythical figure, half man and half horse centigrade denoting a widely used temperature scale (basically same as Celsius) centrifugal radiating departing from the center centrifuge machine that separates substances by whirling them centripetal tending toward the center centurion Roman army officer (commanding a company of about 100 soldiers) cerebral pertaining to intellectual rather than the brain or intellect emotional CF. cerebrum cerebration thought working of the brain ceremonious marked by extremely formal and CF. ceremony: conventional formality polite social courtesy certitude certainty cessation stoppage cession yielding to another ceding chafe warm by rubbing make sore by rubbing N. chaff worthless husk(outer seed cover) Ex. separate the wheat from products of an endeavor separated from grain the chaff chaffing bantering joking vexation (caused by chagrin annoyance and humiliation or injured disappointment pride) chalice goblet consecrated cup chameleon lizard that changes color in different situations

Word List -9
708 709 710 711 712 713 champion support militantly championship position of champion fight for N: person who fights for or supports strongly (a principle, movement, person, etc.) competition held to determine a champion

defense or support CF. chancellor legal official of chancellery(chancellory): high rank position of a chancellor chant tune(melody) in which a number of words are sung on the same note V: sing (a chant) chaotic in utter disorder chapel small church (in a prison, college, or hospital)

utter (a slogan) in the manner of a chant

714 715

chaperon older person who accompanies and supervises a young unmarried woman chaplain clergyman attached to a chapel reduce or be reduced to carbon or charcoal(black substance made by char make or become burning wood) by black by burning incomplete combustion great popular charm or charisma divine gift appeal pretender to knowledge charlatan quack (esp. in medicine) charm quality of pleasing amulet chary cautious chase ornament a metal surface by indenting chasm abyss chassis framework and working parts of an automobile chaste morally pure chasten discipline chastise punish as by beating chauvinist blindly devoted patriot check stop motion checkered(chequered) marked by great changes in fortune cherubic angelic chicanery trickery chide scold chimerical fantastically improbable lose a small chip piece from the surface or edge unwilling to take risks follow rapidly to catch very deep crack framework to which components are attached abstaining from illicit sexual virginal acts punish in order to correct CF. castigate criticize severely zealous adherent of a group, cause, or sex curb or restrain with many changes of fortuene innocent-looking deception rebuke (someone who has done wrong)

716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738


action or formula thought to have magical power sparing or restrained about giving

ADJ. chauvinistic

CF. checked: having a pattern of squares N. cherub

highly unrealistic N: small piece broken off something N: wedgelike tool for chisel swindle or cheat cutting chivalrous courteous faithful choice delicate of very fine quality choir group of people who sing together (esp. during religious services) place for choir

N. chimera: unreal fancy CF. French fry


739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749

choleric hot-tempered chore daily domestic task (such as cleaning, cooking, and shopping) choreography art of representing dances in written symbols chortle chuckle with delight chorus phrase repeated throughout a song or poem chronic long established as a disease chronicle chuckle churlish ciliated hairs cipher report laugh quietly boorish having minute nonentity

bad-tempered unpleasant task arrangement of dances N.


record (in chronological order) rude N. churl: boor

750 751 752

753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762

circlet small ring circuit closed circular line around an area circuitous roundabout circumlocution indirect or roundabout expression (by using an uncecessarily large number of words esp. when trying to avoid answering a difficult question directly) circumscribe limit circumspect prudent circumvent outwit cistern reservoir or water tank citadel fortress cite quote civil having to do with citizens clairvoyant having foresight clamber climb by crawling with difficulties

CF. cilium CF. cilia: eyelash worthless person or thing zero band of gold, silver, jewel, etc. (worn on the head, arms, or neck as decoration) regularly repeated journey circumference from place to place

confine cautious defeat by behaving more cleverly

draw a line around acting after careful thought outsmart

commend not military or religious fortuneteller scramble

Ex. cited for bravery in an official record courteous and polite N. clairvoyance

763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789

clamor loud continous noise clandestine secret clangor loud resounding noise clap strike the palms of the hands together with a sudden explosive sound clapper striker (tongue) of a bell clarion shrill, trumpetlike sound clasp hold firmly within arms claustrophobia fear of being locked in clavicle collarbone cleave split or sever cleft N: split clemency disposition to be lenient in deciding punishments clich\'e phrase dulled in meaning by repetition clientele body of customers climactic relating to the highest point clime climate clip cut off with shears clipper sailing vessel built for great speed clique small exclusive group of people cloister monastery or convent clot half-solid lump formed from a liquid (or blood) clout great influence (especially political or social) clown act stupidly cloying distasteful (because excessive) coagulate congeal coalesce combine coalition partnership

continuous demand or complaint made by a large number of people V: make a clamor sound of repeated clanging come together suddenly with a sharp sound put or send promptly

kind of trumpet used in former times

cling to

remain faithful to

mildness as of the weather platitude

ADJ. clement ADJ. clich\'ed

N. climax

CF. climatic N: something clipped off (as a short extract from film)


V. hard blow with fist play the fool excessively sweet or sentimental thicken fuse league

N. V. cloy: become unpleasant through too much sweetness or excess clot N. coalescence union of separate political parties

790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800

coax persuade by flattery coda concluding section of a musical or literary composition coddle treat gently codicil supplement to the body of a will codify arrange (laws or rules) as a code coercion use of force to get someone to object coeval living at the same time as cog tooth projecting from a wheel cogent convincing cogitate think over cognate having a common origin cognitive having to do with knowing or perceiving related to the mental processes cognizance knowledge cohabit live together cohere stick together cohesion tendency to keep together

indulge excessively later addition to a will classify compelling existing during the same period of time


N. code: system of words used instead of ordinary writing V. coerce contemporary

ponder related linguistically allied by blood

801 802 803 804 805

N. cognition: the mental process of knowing ADJ. cognizant

having knowledge

806 807 808

809 810

cohorts group of people who share some common quality armed band coiffure hairstyle invent or fabricate (a word coin make coins or phrase) coincidence the chance occurrence, at the same time, of two or more V. coincide: happen at the seemingly connected events same time colander utensil with perforated bottom used for straining

a group of between 300 and 600 soldiers under one commander (in the ancient Rome) N. coinage: word or phrase recently invented

be in agreement

Word List - 10
811 812 cooperate treasonably collaborate work together with the enemy collage work of art put together from fragments

813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821

collate examine and compare in order to verify authenticity collateral security given for loan collation a light meal collected composed colloquial pertaining to conversational or common speech colloquy informal discussion collusion conspiring in a fraudulent scheme to cheat or deceive others colossal huge colossus gigantic statue coma deep prolonged unconsciousness caused by disease, poison, or a severe blow comatose in a coma combustible easily burned comeback retort comely comestible to be eaten attractive something fit

arrange in order (the sheets of a book before they are bound) ADJ: secondary collating calm informal conversation V. collude person or thing of great size or importance descended from the same person but through different sons or daughters self-possessed N. colloquialism: colloquial expression

822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829

extremely sleepy N. CF. combustion quick clever reply agreeable

return to former status having a pleasing appearance

830 831 832 833 834 835 836

well-deserved punishment comeuppance deserts or misfortune rebuke comity courtesy civility Ex. comity of nations (private property) for military use without needing permission or giving payment draft for military purposes Ex. commemorate the 100th commemorate honor the anniversary/those who died in memory of serve as a memorial to the war commemorative remembering honoring the memory of Ex. commemorative stamp commensurate equal in extent of the same size commiserate feel or express pity or sympathy for commodious spacious and comfortable N: something ordinary or commonplace ordinary common trite remark

837 838

839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853

commonwealth nation governed by the people communal held in common commune small (often rural) community whose members share work and income compact agreement compartment one of the parts into which an enclosed space is divided compassion sympathy for the suffering of others compatible harmonious compelling overpowering compendium brief, comprehensive summary compensatory making up for compilation listing of information in tabular or book form compile assemble complacency selfsatisfaction complaisant trying to please complement complete complementary serving to complete something compliance conformity in fulfilling requirements

republic public

people of a nation of a group of people

V: exchange thoughts or feelings contract

Ex. commune with nature ADJ: tightly packed

ADJ. compassionate in harmony with irresistible in effect ADJ. compendious repaying compiling gather smugness obliging consummate

able to exist together holding one's attention

accumulate ADJ. complacent willing to please others make perfect

readiness to yield

disposition to yield to others

854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862

compliant readily acting in accordance with a rule, order, or the wishes or others yielding involvement (in a questionable act or a complicity participation crime) component element ingredient comport bear one's self behave compost mixture of decaying organic matter used as fertilizer V: put or make compost composure mental calmness compound combine produce by combining comprehend include understand including a lot or comprehensive broad everything

comforming to requirements

Ex. comport oneself



863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891

compress force into less space comprise include compromise adjust or settle by making mutual concessions compulsion compelling compulsive resulting from compulsion compulsory obligatory compunction remorse compute reckon concatenate link as in a chain concave hollow

squeeze consist of


endanger the interests or put into danger, disrepute, or reputation of a dishonorable position strong desire that is difficult to control irresistible impulse

that must be done strong uneasiness caused by guilt calculate

concede admit yield conceit vanity or selfextravagant metaphor (in love poetry) concentric having a common center conception beginning forming of an idea fertilization concerted mutually done together by agreed on agreement Ex. concerted effort concession an act of yielding conceding something conceded conciliatory reconciling soothing V. conciliate: reconcile concise brief and compact conclave private secret meeting conclusive decisive ending all debate concoct prepare by devise (something false) so mixing or combining make up in concert as to deceive concomitant that which Ex. Deafnes is a frequent ADJ: existing or happening accompanies concommitant of old age together with something else concord harmony accord concordat formal agreement concur agree coincide happen at the same time concurrent happening at the same time in agreement condescend (derog.) bestow courtesies with a descend to the level of superior air one considered inferior (of punishment) severe condign adequate and well deserved condiments seasonings spices

curved inwards acknowledge as being true (often reluctantly) too high opinion of one's own value

OP. convex

892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900

condole express condolences condone overlook conducive helpful conduit aqueduct confidant(confidante) trusted friend (to whom one tells one's secret) confide tell in confidence (to a person one trusts) confidence selfassurance confidential spoken or written in secret confine shut in an enclosed space

N. condolence: sympathy for someone who has experienced great sorrow forgive contributive passageway for fluids

give tacit approval V. conduce

be confident about calm unworried feeling based on a strong belief in strong belief in the ability of a one's abilities person or plan trusted with private matters Ex. confidential secretary restrict keep within limits take possession of (private property) by official order (usu. as a punishment) commandeer the place where two rivers flow together crowd OP. nonconformist: one who does not conform to accepted beliefs of norms agreement with established rules or customs similarity puzzle coagulate in agreement with one's friendly tastes and nature

901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909

confiscate seize conflagration great fire confluence flowing together conformist person who uncritically conforms to the customs of a group conformity confound congeal congenial congenital birth harmony confuse freeze pleasant existing at

Word List - 11
conglomerate corporation made up of several different companies in diversified mass of various material fields gathered together conglomeration mass of material sticking together congruence correspondence of parts harmonious relationship congruent in agreement harmonious conifer pine tree (usu. evergreen) cone-bearing tree conjecture surmise guess rock consisting of small stones held together by clay

910 911 912 913 914 915

CF. congruity corresponding ADJ. coniferous V.

916 917 918

conjugal marriage

pertaining to

919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939

conjure cause to appear by magic connivance pretense of ignorance of something wrong connoisseur person competent to act as a judge of art, etc. (whose judgments are respected) connotation suggested or implied meaning of an expression connubial pertaining to marriage or the matrimonial state

summon (a devil or a spirit) by magical power assistance

practice magic (esp. by very quick movement of the hands) permission to offend

a lover of an art V. connote

consanguineous(consanguine ) having a common ancestor consanguinity kinship relationship by birth conscientious scrupulous through and careful person forced into military conscript draftee service consecrate dedicate sanctify consensus general opinion reached by a agreement group consequential selfimportant significant conservatory(conservatoire) school of the fine arts (especially music or drama) glass-enclosed area consign send to a person or place for sale deliver officially consistency absence of contradictions uniformity console lessen sadness or disappointment give comfort process of becoming consolidation unification firmer or stronger consonance harmony agreement consonant harmonious in agreement consort associate with keep company secret plan against the law (by two or more people) (of events) work together dismay

Ex. conscientious worker V. declare as sacred

consequent CF. conservancy entrust degree of thickness or firmness allay the sorrow of V. consolidate: merge N. N: husband or wife (or a ruler)

conspiracy treacherous plot conspire take part in a conspiracy consternation great shock


940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969

constituency voters represented by an elected official constituent supporter constitution constituting constraint restraint construe explain consummate complete contagion infection (by contact) contaminate pollute contempt scorn contend struggle contention assertion contentious quarrelsome

district so represented voter system of laws compulsion interpret V. ADJ. contagious disdain compete claim controversial argue about the rightness of

group of supporters (or constituents) member of a constituency composition of something repression of feelings Ex. construe her silence as meaning that she agreed CF. infectious: that can be passed by infection in the air ADJ. contemptuous assert earnestly thesis likely to cause arguments compete for

contest dispute context writings preceding and following the circumstance in which an passage quoted event occurs contiguous adjacent to touching upon continence self-restraint sexual chastity contingent dependent on something uncertain or in the future conditional contortions contraband twistings illegal trade distortions smuggling oppose repentant machine or apparatus manage artificial attempt to refute resisting authority (esp. disobedient to an order made by a court)

sexual abstinence happening by chance V. contort: twist violently out of shape smuggled goods violate (a rule, law, or custom) N. contrition clever deceitful plan Ex. contrive to attract his attention not spontaneous contradict

contravene contradict contrite penitent contrivance something contrived contrive invent or fabricate in a clever way (by improvisation) contrived unnatural and forced controvert oppose with arguments

contumacious stubborn and disobedient contusion bruise conundrum riddle difficult problem convene come together assemble convention social or moral custom established practice

call to meet formal meeting

970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980

981 982 983 984 985 986

conventional ordinary converge approach conversant familiar with converse opposite convert one who has adopted a different religion or opinion convex curving outward conveyance vehicle conviction judgment that someone is guilty of a crime convivial pleasantly merry convoke call together convoluted coiled around convulsion violent uncontrollable shaking movement (caused by illness) copious plentiful coquette flirt cordial warmly friendly cordon extended line of men or fortifications to prevent access or egress cornice projecting molding on building (usually above columns or pillars) cornucopia horn (or hornshaped container) overflowing with fruit and grain corollary natural consequence (which naturally follows from something else) coroner public official who investigates any death thought to be of other than natural causes corporeal bodily (rather than spiritual) corpulent very fat corpus collection (of writings or information) corpuscle red or white cell in the blood correlate either of the correlated things

typical tend to meet having knowledge of ADJ. V: change into another form transfer strongly held belief festive Ex. convoke Parliament twisted

not nuclear come together

(persuade to) adopt a particular religion or belief act of conveying

joyous N. convocation involved

V. convulse

ADJ. convulsive woman who tries to attract the admiration of men without sincere feelings heartfelt

flirtatious woman gracious V.


symbol of abundance

horn of plenty


989 990 991 992 993 994

of a bodily form N. corpulence Ex. the corpus of Shakespear's works


Cf. corpse


995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003

correlation mutual relationship corroborate confirm wear away gradually by chemical action (over a long period) corrosive eating away by chemicals or disease corrugated wrinkled cosmic pertaining to the universe coterie group that meets socially countenance approve countermand cancel



(of language) fierce ridged vast select circle support revoke (an order) close group of people with shared interests tolerate

Word List - 12
1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 counterpart thing that completes another coup highly successful action or sudden attack couple join courier messenger court attempt to gain covenant binding agreement between two groups or people covert secret covetous avaricious cow terrorize cower shrink quivering as from fear things very much alike coup(s) d'\'etat unite seek compact hidden desirous of (someone else's possessions) intimidate thing that has the same purpose in a different system CF. coup de gr\^ace: deathblow or shot which kills OP. uncouple woo V: enter into a covenant implied V. covet: desire eagerly (someone else's possessions)

cringe showing a (pretended) coy shy (flirtatiously) lack of self-confidence cozen cheat hoodwink crabbed sour bad-tempered craft skill (esp. with one's hands) skill in deceiving people crass very unrefined grossly insensible crave desire want intensely craven cowardly credence belief credential evidence concerning one's authority credo creed

modest swindle peevish guile crude and undiscriminating

Ex. The new ambassador written proof of a person's presented his credentials to position the court.

1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050

credulity belief on slight evidence creed system of religious or ethical belief creep move with body close to the ground cremate incinerate (a corpse) crescendo increase in the volume or intensity as in a musical passage crest top (as of a hill or wave) crestfallen dejected crevice crack cringe shrink back as if in fear crinkle wrinkle criteria standards used in judging crochet make (a piece of needlework) by looping thread with a hooked needle crone hag cross bad-tempered crossbreed hybridize crotchety (of someone old) eccentric crust hard outer covering (as of earth or snow) crux essential or main point crypt secret recess or vault usually used for burial cryptic mysterious cubicle small chamber used for sleeping or work (as in a play to prompt another actor's speech or entrance) cuisine style of cooking culinary relating to cooking or kitchen cull pick out from others (to kill the weakest members) culmination culpable blame highest point deserving



move stealthily or slowly N. crematory, crematorium climax showy feathers on the head of a bird dispirited fissure cower


CF. crescent

CF. criterion N. CF. crotchet ugly old woman showing ill-humor N: hybrid odd

angry CF. interbreed whimsical

Ex. the crux of the ADJ. crucial: of deciding problem importance underground room (under a church) hidden secret

reminder or hint Ex. French cuisine

V: give a cue to

reject climax blameworthy

select V. culminate in: reach the highest point in

1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074

culprit one guilty of a crime culvert artificial channel for water cumbersome heavy and awkward to carry or wear cumulative growing by addition cunning clever in deceiving cupidity greed (for wealth)

drain crossing under a road burdensome accumulative sly N: cleverness in deceiving Ex. cumbersome parcel/uniform

CF. cupid CF. Cupid manager (in charge of a curator superintendent museum or a library) curb chain or strap used with a bit to restrain a horse something that checks V: check curfew regulation signal (as a bell) requiring all people to leave announcing the hour of a the streets at stated times curfew curmudgeon churlish, miserly individual bad-tempered old person cursive (of writing) having the successive letters flowing running joined hastily done with little cursory casual attention to detail curtail shorten reduce CF. cynic: person who cynical skeptical or believes all people are distrustful of human motives N. cynicism motivated by selfishness cynosure object of person or thing that is a general attention center of attention CF. Ursa Minor debacle sudden disastrous downfall or defeat complete disaster scattered remains of something broken or debris rubble wreckage destroyed decollete (of a dress) CF. d\'ecolletage: low having a low-cut neckline neckline (on a dress) final development of the denouement final plot of a play or other the end of a story when outcome literary work everything is explained dabble work at in a nonserious fashion splash around move noisily in a liquid dainty delicate delicately beautiful fastidious dais raised platform for speakers or other important people treat without the necessary dally trifle with toy with seriousness condemn to everlasting damn condemn criticize severely punishment

1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099



dapper neat and trim (in appearance) neat dappled spotted dart move or throw suddenly and quickly daub smear (as with cover with something Ex. daub one's clothes with paint) sticky mud/paint daunt intimidate frighten discourage dauntless bold fearless dawdle loiter hang around waste time doing nothing daze stun as with a blow or shock bemuse benumb dazzle make blind with a sudden intense light amaze fill with wonder deadlock standstill resulting from the opposition of two unrelenting forces stalemate deadpan wooden impassive with no show of feeling dearth scarcity debar bar forbid exclude debase degrade reduce in quality or value degenerate debauch corrupt N. debauchery: wild behavior morally seduce from virtue (with sex and alcohol) debilitate weaken (esp. through heat, hunger, illness) enfeeble debonair (of men) friendly, charming, and fashionably dressed aiming to please CF. of good disposition debunk expose as false, exaggerated, worthless, etc. ridicule formal presentation of a debut d\'ebut first public appearance young woman to society debutante young woman making formal entrance into society fall to a lower level (of decadence decay morality, civilization, or art) ADJ. decadent decant pour off gently (wine or liquid) decapitate behead decelerate slow down

unpleasantly wet (of small men) neat in appearance and quick in movements

Word List - 13
1100 deciduous falling off at a specific season or stage of growth as of leaves Ex. deciduous tree/teeth

1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126

decimate kill (usually one out of ten or every tenth destroy or kill a large part man) of decipher decode CF. indecipherable declivity downward slope decomposition decay decorous proper (in behavior, conduct, or appearance) V. decompose: decay break and separate into simple parts

orderliness and good appropriateness of behavior decorum propriety taste in manners or conduct decoy lure or bait V. decree authoritative order edict judgment of a court of law decrepit weak and in bad condition from old age or hard use Ex. decrepit old chair/man decrepitude state of collapse or weakness caused by illness or old age condemn openly decry express strong (something dangerous to disapproval of the public) disparage deducible derived by reasoning V. deduce: infer derive by reasoning deface mar disfigure defalcate embezzle defame harm someone's reputation malign speak evil of failure to perform a task or default failure to act be present V. defeatist resigned to defeat or failure defect shortcoming defection desertion defer give in respectfully accepting defeat or failure as a natural outcome N. CF. defeatism V: desert (in order to join the opposite one)

submit courteous yielding to deference courteous another's wish or opinion regard for another's wish (showing respect) defiance refusal to yield resistance defile pollute make filthy or dirty definitive most reliable authorative and complete turn away from a straight deflect turn aside course deprive of leaves (by the defoliate destroy leaves use of chemicals)

delay till later ADJ. deferential V. defy corrupt morally that cannot be improved

N. defoliant

1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159

defray provide for the payment of undertake the payment of defrock strip a priest or minister of church authority unfrock deft neat skillful no longer in use or defunct dead existence degenerate become worse in quality deteriorate degradation humiliation debasement dehydrate remove water from dry out deify turn into a god make a god of deign condescend stoop delete erase strike out deleterious harmful deliberate consider ponder delineate portray depict delirium mental disorder marked by confusion uncontrolled excitement delta flat plain of mud or sand between branches of a river delude deceive deluge flood rush delusion false belief hallucination delusive deceptive likely to delude delve dig search deeply demagogue person who appeals to people's prejudice false leader of people demean disgrace humiliate demeanor behavior bearing demented insane demerit fault bad quality demise death demographic related to population balance demolition destruction demoniac(demoniacal) fiendish demotic of or pertaining to the people demur object (because of doubts, scruples) demure (of a woman or child) grave denigrate blacken N. demography: statistical study of human population V. demolish cruel


ADJ: having become worse degeneration


ADJ: done on purpose sketch ADJ. delirious

V. deluding misleading investigate CF. demagoguery debase in dignity

N. demon: evil supernatural being

raise an objection (showing qualms) quiet and serious defame

hesitate coy

1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174

person, or plant) inhabitant or resident of a particular place denomination religious group denotation meaning denounce condemn depict portray deplete reduce deplore regret deploy spread out (troops) in an extended though shallow battle line deport send out of the country depose dethrone deposition testimony under oath depravity extreme corruption deprecate express disapproval of lessen in depreciate value depredation plundering deputize work or appoint as a deputy deranged insane derelict dereliction deride derision

regular visitor unit in a system distinguishing by name criticize exhaust express sorrow and severe disapproval for something bad distribute (persons or forces) systematically or strategically behave remove from office deposing wickedness deplore belittle destruction N. deputy: person who has the power to take charge when the leading person is away name or designation V. denote: indicate N. denunciation

Ex. deplore their violent behavior

N. deportation, deportment give a deposition dethroning V. deprave protest against represent as of little value

1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 1183

(of someone) neglectful of negligent duty neglect of duty abandonment ridicule treat with contempt ridicule ADJ. derisive origin or source of derivation deriving something obtained from another derivative unoriginal source dermatologist one who studies the skin and its diseases

(of something) deserted by an owner make fun of CF. derisory Ex. the derivation of the word Ex. derivative prose style

Word List - 14
1184 1185 1186 derogatory expressing a low opinion descry catch sight of (something distant) desecrate profane disparaging V. derogate: detract

violate the sanctity of

1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217

deserts what someone deserves desiccate dry up desolate make desolate desperado reckless, desperate outlaw desperate having lost all hope despise look on with scorn despoil plunder despondent without hope and courage despot tyrant


abandon and desert

despairing regard as worthless or distasteful sack

reckless and violent because of loss of hope or despair ADJ. despicable: contemptible Ex. despoil the village gloomy CF. despotism utterly lacking digressing at random calm and objective N. detention invariable measurement or calculation

depressed harsh, authoritarian ruler lacking means of destitute extremely poor subsistence desultory aimless haphazard detached emotionally free from emotional removed involvement prevent from leaving or detain keep waiting going determinate having a fixed order of procedure precisely defined determination resolve firmness of purpose deterrent something that discourages or deters detonation explosion detraction slandering aspersion detrimental harmful damaging deviate turn away from move away from an (a principle, norm) accepted standard devious devise devoid devolve devotee follower devout roundabout think up empty deputize enthusiastic pious erratic invent lacking pass or be passed to others (power, work, or property) enthusiast deeply religious skill in using hands or mind devilish

detracting N. detriment swerve deviating from the straight course plan

Ex. devolve on/upon/to Ex. devotee of Bach sincere N. dexterity fiendish

dexterous skillful diabolical diabolic diadem crown dialectical relating to the art of debate diaphanous sheer

mutual or reciprocal transparent

Ex. dialectical situation

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diatribe bitter scolding or denunciation dichotomy division into two opposite parts dictum authoritative and weighty statement (made by a judge in court) didactic (of speech or writing) intended to teach a moral lesson die metal block used for shaping metal or plastic diffidence shyness diffuse wordy dignitary person of high rank or position digression wandering away from the subject dilapidated falling to pieces dilate expand dilatory delaying dilemma situation that requires a choice between equally unfavorable options dilettante aimless follower of an art or a field of knowledge (not taking it seriously) diligence steadiness of effort dilute make (a liquid) less concentrated diminution lessening din continued loud noise dinghy small boat (often ship's boat) dingy (of things and place) dirty and dull dint means

invective split saying teaching device for stamping or impressing lack of self-confidence verbose

abuse branching into two parts (especially contradictory ones) maxim instructional mold timidity rambling

V. digress in a bad condition dilate on/upon: speak or write at length on (a subject) tending to delay problem ruined because of neglect

choice of two unsatisfactory alternatives

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amateur persistent hard work reduce in strength reduction in size V: make a din


Ex. dilute the influence of the president V. diminish instill by wearying repetition

1239 1240

Ex. dingy street/curtain effort three-dimensional scene diorama life-size, three- with modeled figures dimensional scene from against a painted nature or history background dire warning of disaster disastrous

Ex. by dint of hard work

(of needs and dangers) very great

1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267

dirge funeral song disabuse correct a false impression undeceive disaffected disloyal disapprobation disapproval disarray state of disorder disavowal denial disband dissolve disbar make (a lawyer) leave the bar or the legal profession disburse pay out (as from a fund) discernible distinguishable discerning mentally quick and observant disclaim disown disclose reveal discombobulated discomposed discomfit frustrate discompose disturb the composure of disconcert confuse disconsolate hopelessly sad (at the loss of something) discord conflict discordant not harmonious

slow mournful piece of music (sung over a dead person) free from a wrong belief V. disaffect: cause to lose affection or loyalty

lacking loyality condemnation

Ex. with her clothes in a disorderly or untidy state disarray disclaiming repudiating (of a group) break up and disperse separate

N. disbursement perceivable having insight renounce claim to N. disclosure confused put to rout confuse upset

CF. purse Ex. discernible improvement perceptive deny



lack of harmony conflicting regard (a story or news) as unimportant

dissonance (when musical notes are played)

discount disregard deduct from a cost discourse serious speech, writing, or formal discussion (either conversation written or spoken) conversation discredit defame disgrace destroy confidence in discrepancy lack of consistency or agreement as Ex. discrepancy between two between facts difference descriptions discrete separate unconnected ability to adjust actions to discretion prudence circumstances freedom of action or judgment make distinctions on the discriminate distinguish basis of preference

1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298

discriminating able to see differences discursive (of a person or writing) digressing disdain treat with scorn or contempt disembark debark disenfranchise disfranchise disengage uncouple disfigure mar the appearance of disgorge surrender something (stolen) disgruntle make discontented

discerning rambling (without any clear plan)


go ashore (from a ship) deprive of a civil right separate spoil eject

unload cargo from a ship OP. enfranchise disconnect


Word List - 15
dishearten discourage disheveled untidy (of hair or clothing) dishonor disgrace disinclination unwillingness disingenuous not naive disinter dig up V. dishevel N. ADJ. dishonorable sophisticated OP. inter objective V. disjoint: disconnect CF. disjunctive: expressing a choice between two ideas Ex. dislodge the food caught in his throat

not candid unearth free from bias and selfdisinterested unprejudiced interest disjointed disconnected lacking coherence disjunction act or state of separation disunity dislodge remove (forcibly) force out of a position dismantle take apart disassemble dismember cut into cut (a body) apart limb small parts from limb dismiss eliminate from consideration no longer consider disparage belittle disparate basically different impossible to compare disparity difference condition of inequality dispassionate dispatch dispel dispense disperse dispirited calm impartial prompt execution drive away prepare and give out (medicines) Ex. disperse the cloud/crowd

put out of court without further hearing

speediness scatter distribute scatter lacking in spirit

unrelated OP. parity not influenced by personal feelings message sent with all due speed cause to vanish N. dispensation: dispensing

1299 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328

disport amuse disproportion lack of proportion (between the parts) disputatious argumentative disquietude uneasiness disquisition formal systematic inquiry dissection analysis dissemble disguise disseminate distribute dissension disagreement of opinions causing strife within a group dissent disagree dissertation formal essay dissident dissenting (with an opinion, a group, or a government) dissimulate pretend dissipate squander dissolution disintegration dissonance discord dissuade persuade not to do distant reserved or aloof distend expand distill refine (a liquid by evaporating and subsequent condensation) distinct clearly different distinction honor distinctive clearly different from others of the same kind distort twist out of shape distract take (one's attention) off something distrait absentminded distraught diurnal diva diverge upset daily operatic singer vary

Ex. disport oneself

CF. divert

ADJ. disproportionate fond of argument anxiety V. disquiet: make anxious explanation of the results long formal speech or written of a formal inquiry report cutting apart in order to examine hide the real nature of pretend spread scatter (like seeds)

treatise rebellious conceal by feigning waste foolishly reduction to a liquid form N. dissemble scatter looseness in morals

discourage cold in manner swell out concentrate clearly noticed excellence

N. dissuasion Ex. distant greeting

separate the most important parts from difference

give a false account of upset emotionally distracted distracted by anxiety occurring during the daytime prima donna go in different directions from the same point

misrepresent make anxious

very anxious and troubled almost to the point of madness

ADJ. divergent: differing

1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355

diverse differing in some characteristics (from each other) various diversion act of turning aside pastime divest strip (as of clothes) deprive (as of rights) divine perceive intuitively (by or as if by magic) foresee the future divulge reveal docile obedient easily managed docket program as for book where such entries trial are made doctrinaire unable to compromise about points of doctrine dogmatic particular principle doctrine teachings in (religious, legal, etc.) general taught document provide written evidence (for a claim) record with documents doddering shaky infirm from old age doff take off OP. don dogged determined stubborn doggerel poor verse holding stubbornly to dogmatic opinionated one's opinion listlessness(lack of spirit doldrums blues or energy) dolorous sorrowful N. dolor dolt slow-thinking stupid person CF. dull V. ADJ. domiciled: having domicile home one's domicile dominant exercising the most influence high and easily seen dominate control domineer rule over tyrannically don put on doom condemnation to a severe penalty dormant sleeping dormer window projecting upright from roof dorsal relating to the back of an animal rule

N. diversity: | variety V. divert: turn aside from a course dispossess foretell submissive list of things to be done unyielding dogma N. V. dodder stubbornly persevering

arbitrary slack(inactive) period

Ex. He is domiciled in Britain. stronger than the other part of a system enjoy a commanding position in

OP. doff ruin temporarily inactive CF. sleeping room Ex. dorsal fin fate (esp. a tragic or ruinous one) lethargic

1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363

dossier file of documents on a subject or person dotage senility dote be excessively fond of dour sullen douse plunge into water or liquid dowdy untidy (of a woman or clothes) downcast disheartened dowry money or property brought by a bride to her husband at marriage dowse use a divining rod to search for underground water or minerals doze sleep lightly drab dull draconian extremely severe draft first rough form drama prose or verse composition to be performed by actors drastic strong

file feeblemindedness of old age show signs of mental decline gloomy dip slovenly dejected

CF. bundle of papers labeled on the back Ex. In one's dotage

stubborn immerse dressed in an unattractive way sad

1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 1381

nap lacking color


Ex. draconian punishment CF. Draco: Athenian politician conscription draught play violent and severe exciting and unusual situation Ex. drastic changes/measures act of swallowing liquid or amount of liquid swallowed at a time

draught current of air (through a room or to a fire) act of pulling roads draw choosing of a lot or card dregs sediment in a liquid lees dribble flow or fall in let saliva flow out slowly drops from the mouth drip fall or let fall in drops shed drops drivel nonsense foolishness droll queer and amusing drone droop downward dross drudge talk dully bend or hang waste matter do drudgery

worthless residue move a ball N: action or sound of falling in drops V: talk nonsense

buzz or murmur like a bee N. Ex. His shoulders drooped become weakened with tiredness worthless impurities N: person who drudges

1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390

drudgery hard unpleasant work dubious questionable

menial work (of something) causing doubt pliable pleasing to the ear cloudy ADJ. dumbfounded, dumfounded, dumbstruck effigy V: deceive hypocrisy

ductile malleable dulcet sweet sounding dull (of colors or surfaces) not bright dumbfound(dumfound) astonish (making dumb) dummy imitation of a real object used as a substitute dupe someone easily fooled or deceived duplicity double-dealing

(of someone) filled with doubt (of metals) easily pulled into shape melodious overcast

being dishonest and deceitful

Word List - 16
1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 duration length of time something lasts duress forcible restraint, especially unlawfully dutiful(duteous) (of people or their behavior) respectful dwindle shrink dynamic energetic dynamo generator for producing electricity dysabnormal dysentery inflammatory disorder of the lower intestinal tract

coercion by threat obedient (filled with a sense of duty) reduce gradually vigorously active energetic person impaired

illegal coercion

learning disorder marked by impairment of the ability dyslexia word blindness to read dyspeptic suffering from indigestion N. dyspepsia: indigestion earmark set aside (money or time) for a particular purpose earn gain for the performance of service or gain (something that one labor deserves) earthly of this earth terrestrial earthy unrefined coarse ebb (of the tide) recede lessen ebullient showing overflowing with excitement enthusiasm eccentric irregular odd

difficulty in digesting food

deserve worldly of earth diminish boiling unconventional

1408 1409 1410 1411 1412

eccentricity ecclesiastic

oddity ecclesiastical

1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1430 1431 1432

eclectic selective eclipse darken ecliptic path of the sun and the planets ecologist person concerned with the interrelationship between living organisms and their environment economy efficiency or conciseness in using something ecosystem ecological community together with its environment ecstasy rapture eddy swirling current of water, air, etc. edict decree (especially one issued by a sovereign) edifice building (of imposing size) edify instruct eerie efface weird rub out

idiosyncrasy pertaining to the church composed of elements drawn from disparate sources extinguish

N: minister selecting individual elements from a variety of sources outshine

person concerned with the detrimental effects of human civilization on the environment CF. ecology thrifty management of resources

very strong feeling of joy and happiness V. official command

any overpowering emotion

effective effectual effectual able to produce a desired effect effectuate effect effeminate having womanly traits effervescence inner excitement or exuberance effete having lost one's original power efficacy power to produce desired effect effigy dummy effluvium noxious(harmful) smell effrontery rudeness without any sense of shame

correct morally causing fear because strange remove the surface of producing a strong response valid produce



showing high spirits barren ADJ. efficacious: effectual

emitting bubbles forming inside worn out

likeness of a person made Ex. burn an effigy of the of wood, paper, or stone President

shameless boldness


1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449


1450 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456 1457

shining brightly brilliant unrestrained outpouring of effusion pouring forth feeling V. effuse: pour out ego one's opinion of oneself self-esteem belief that one should be egoism excessive interested in one's self interest in one's self rather than in others selfishness egotism tendency to speak or write of oneself excessively conceit self-importance excessively selfegotistical egotistic centered(egocentric) self-important conspicuously bad or egregious notorious shocking egress exit opening for going out act of going out abrupt ejection (to ejaculation exclamation discharge sperm) V. ejaculate elaborate work out add more detail or carefully information ADJ. elaboration addition of details intricacy elastic able to spring quick to recover (as from back into shape disappointment) able to adapt to change elated filled with excited joy and pride overjoyed in high spirits elegy poem or song expressing lamentation (for the dead) ADJ. elegiacal, elegiac elevation elevated position altitude height elicit draw out fact or information (by discussion or from someone) elixir cure-all panacea something invigorating mark used to indicate an omission (when the ellipsis omission of meaning can be words from a text understood without them) PL. ellipses elliptical elliptic oval of an ellipse elope run away secretly with the intention of getting married eloquence ADJ. eloquent: movingly expressiveness persuasive speech expressive elucidate explain make clear clarify elusive evasive not frank baffling elysian relating to paradise blissful Elysium place or condition of bliss

1458 1459 1460 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469 1470 1471 1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477 1478 1479 1480 1481 1482 1483

emaciated wasted (from illness) emanate emancipate emasculate embargo commerce or embark

thin and hunger or issue forth set free weaken ban on other activity commence enclose come out liberate castrate

go on board a boat place in something


embellish adorn ornament embezzlement taking for one's own use in violation of stealing (of money placed trust in one's care) fill with painful or bitter embitter make bitter feelings emblazon ornament richly (a shield or flag) N. emblazonment embody give a bodily form to incorporate emboss produce a decorate with a raised design in raised relief design embrace hug clasp with the arms embroider decorate with ornament (a story) with needlework fancy or fictitious details embroil throw into involve in strife, dispute, confusion or quarrel embryonic undeveloped emend correct (usually a text) emetic substance causing vomiting eminent rising above others emissary agent (sent on a mission to represent another) emollient soothing or softening remedy (for the skin) emolument salary empathy ability to identify with another's feelings, ideas, etc. empirical based on experience emulate imitate

begin a journey fix firmly in a surrounding mass enhance as a story (by adding fictitious details)

make sad and angry


adopt or espouse embellish entangle N. embryo: organism in the early stage of development

rudimentary N. emendation: correction of errors improvement ADJ. high messenger lofty

ADJ. payment for an office compensation identification with and understanding of another's feelings V. empathize


try to equal or excel (through imitation)

1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494

enact into law enamored

make (a bill) in love Ex. enamored of his own beauty convert a message into code

V. enamor: inspire with love put into cipher

encipher encode encircle surround enclave territory enclosed within an alien land encomiastic encompass encroachment intrusion encumber praising surround gradual

eulogistic include Ex. I resent all these encroachments on my valuable time N. encumbrance Ex. endear her to everyone

N. encomium: very high praise Ex. His activities encompass publishing and computers. V. encroach: take another's possessions or right gradually or stealthily

Word List - 17
burden endear make beloved endearment fond word or act expression of affection endemic prevailing among a specific group of people or in a specific area or peculiar to a particular country region or people endorse approve endue provide with some quality enduring lasting energize invigorate enervate weaken enfranchise admit to the rights of citizenship (especially the right to vote) engage attract engaged employed engaging charming engender cause engross occupy fully engulf surround and swallow up enhance enigma enjoin increase puzzle command support endow surviving give energy to take away energy from CF. franchise employ busy attractive produce absorb V. endure: bear (pain or suffering) for a long time make forceful and active ADJ. dear: loved

1495 1496 1497 1498 1499 1500 1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1509 1510

CF. pandemic write one's signature on the back of

hire betrothed give rise to

make greater (as in value, reputation, or usefulness) improve mystery ADJ. enigmatic: obscure order forbid

1511 1512 1513 1514 1515 1516 1517 1518 1519 1520 1521 1522 1523 1524 1525 1526 1527 1528 1529

enlist (cause to) join the armed forces enliven make lively or spirited enmity ill will ennui boredom enormity hugeness (in a bad sense) enrapture please intensely ensconce settle comfortably ensue follow (as a result) entail make necessary enterprise willingness to take new ventures of enterprising full initiative enthrall capture entice lure entity real being entomology study of insects entourage group of attendants entrance put under a spell(condition caused by magical power) entreat plead entree(entr\'ee) entrance entrepreneur businessperson (who assumes the risk of a business venture) enumerate list enunciate environ announce enclose

obtain (help, sympathy, or support) animate hatred listlessness and dissatisfaction resulting from lack of interest excessive wickedness fill with rapture and delight place comfortably (in a secure place)

hostility CF. annoy Ex. enormity of the crime

require initiative showing enterprise enslave persuade to do (something wrong)

necessitate business organization captivate attract

retinue carry away(fill with strong feeling) with emotion ask earnestly a way in

CF. surround put into a trance right to enter

1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536

contractor mention one by one proclaim surround

ADJ. entrepreneurial utter or speak, especially distinctly N. environs: surrounding area (as of a city) longest division of geologic time containing two or more eras

eon(aeon) long period of time an age epaulet(epaulette) ornament worn on the shoulder (of a uniform, etc.) ephemeral short-lived fleeting

1537 1538

1539 1540 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560

epic long heroic poem, novel, or similar work of art (celebrating the feats of a hero) epicure connoisseur of food and drink epicurean believing that pleasure is good and suffering is bad and should be avoided epigram witty thought or saying, usually short epilogue short speech at conclusion of dramatic work episodic (of a story or play) loosely connected epistemologist philosopher who studies the nature of knowledge epitaph inscription in memory of a dead person (as on a tombstone) epithet word or phrase characteristically used to describe a person or thing epitome perfect example or embodiment epoch period of time equable tranquil equanimity calmness of temperament equestrian rider on horseback equilibrium balance of opposing forces equine resembling a horse equinox period of equal days and nights equipoise balance equitable fair equity fairness equivocal (of words or statements) ambiguous equivocate use equivocal language to deceive people erode eat away erotic pertaining to passionate love or sexual love

ADJ: (of stories or events) resembling an epic grand gourmet ADJ. epicurean


made up of separate and N. episode: incident in the loosely connected parts course of an experience N. epistemology

descriptive phrase to characterize a person (often contemptous) brief summary of even calm temper composure ADJ. balance of the mind Ex. equine face the beginning of spring and autumn balancing force impartial justice intentionally misleading lie wear away gradually by abrasion equanimity Ex. epitome of good manners (of temperature) steady

Ex. vernal/autumnal equinox equilibrium OP. inequitable OP. inequity (of behavior) questionable mislead Ex. The sea erodes the rocks.

1561 1562 1563 1564 1565 1566 1567 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578 1579

errant wandering (esp. straying from proper moral in search of adventure) standards irregular in movement or erratic odd behavior erroneous mistaken wrong erudite (of a person or book) learned full of learning escapade prank eschew avoid habitually esoteric hard to understand espionage spying espouse adopt esteem respect estimable (of a person) worthy of esteem estranged ethereal fairy ethnic ethnology humankind ethos character of etc. etymology parts separated like a spirit or

Ex. knight-errant unpredictable incorrect scholarly reckless adventure that disobeys rules

flighty conduct Ex. eschew alcoholic drinks known only to the chosen few, esp. initiates N. esoterica support (an idea or aim) value admirable alienated unearthly light marry judge

deserving esteem V. estrange: alienate (people in a family) heavenly

relating to races study of study of the different races of human beings CF. anthropology underlying character or ideas a culture, group, peculiar to a specific person, group, or culture Ex. the company ethos study of word study of the origins of words N. eugenics: study of eugenic pertaining to hereditary improvement of the improvement of race the human race eulogistic praising full of eulogy

Word List - 18
1580 1581 1582 1583 1584 1585 1586 1587 eulogy expression of praise, often on the occasion of someone's death euphemism mild expression in place of an unpleasant one euphony sweet sound euphoria feeling of exaggerated or unfounded(ungrounded euthanasia mercy killing evanescent fleeting evasive not frank evenhanded impartial V. eulogize ADJ. euphemistic ADJ. euphonious baseless) well-being vanishing trying to hide the truth fair feeling of great happiness or well-being (when unreasonable) soon disappearing eluding

1588 1589 1590 1591 1592 1593 1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600 1601 1602 1603 1604 1605 1606 1607 1608 1609 1610 1611 1612 1613

eventual happening at last as a result evince show clearly evocative tending to call up (emotions, memories) evoke call forth (memory or feeling) ewe female sheep exacerbate worsen exact demand and obtain by force exacting extremely demanding exalt raise in rank or dignity exasperate vex except exclude exceptionable objectionable excerpt selected passage (written or musical) taken from a longer work exchequer treasury

Ex. eventual victory

Ex. That old film evoked memories of my childhood N. evocation aggravate Ex. exact a promise from him Ex. exacting standard of safety praise highly annoy or make angry (by testing the patience) N. exception: objection likely to cause dislike V. Ex. Chancellor of the exchequer cut out N. exclamation censure strongly N: government tax on good produced and used inside a country ADJ. exclamatory strip the skin off embitter N. exaction


exclusion offensive

excise cut away exclaim cry out suddenly excoriate scold with biting harshness exculpate clear from blame or guilt execrable very bad execrate curse execute put into effect executioner person administering capital punishment

detestable express abhorrence for carry out

detest kill as a lawful punishment

executive person having one branch of government administrative authority executing laws ADJ: relating to executing executor person designated to execute the terms of a will exegesis explanation, especially of biblical(of the bible) passages exemplary serving as a Ex. exemplary model outstanding punishment/behavior

1614 1615 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631

exemplify show by example exempt not subject to a duty or obligation exertion effort exhale breathe out exhilarating invigorating and refreshing exhort urge (by strong argument or advice) exhume dig out of the ground exigency urgent situation exiguous small in amount

furnish an example free from a duty expenditure of much physical work OP. inhale

serve as an example of V. V. exert oneself: make a great effort

V. exhilarate: make cheerful cheering and excited Ex. The general exhorted his men to fight bravely N. exhortation remove from a grave ADJ. exigent minute pertaining to the philosophy of existentialism

1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639

existential pertaining to existence exodus departure (of a large number of people) exonerate acquit exculpate exorbitant (of costs or exceeding reasonable demands) excessive bounds exorcise drive out evil spirits from another part of the exotic not native world expansive (of a person) outgoing and sociable broad and extensive expatiate talk at length speak or write in detail someone who has withdrawn from his native expatriate exile land expedient suitable (for a particular purpose although not necessarily morally correct) practical expedite hasten make go faster expeditious done with speed quick expenditure payment or expense expending expertise specialized knowledge (in a particular field) expert skill expiate make amends for (a sin) expletive meaningless word interjection explicate explain in detail interpret

free from blame or guilt

strange able to increase in size

V: exile


N. expedition something expended

profane oath clarify

1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646

explicit totally clear exploit make use of, sometimes unjustly expos\'e public revelation of something discreditable expository explanatory

definite N. exploitation


serving to explain

1647 1648 1649 1650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655 1656 1657 1658 1659 1660 1661 1662 1663 1664 1665

expostulation protest remonstrance exposure risk, particularly of being exposed to disease or to the elements unmasking expound explain expropriate take possession of (often for public use and without payment) remove a word or name expunge cancel (from a book or list) remove offensive parts of expurgate clean a book exquisite delicate very finely made extant (of something written or painted) still in existence extemporaneous not planned impromptu extenuate extirpate extol highly weaken root up praise very mitigate uproot glorify

N. exposition: explaining reasoning with someone to correct or dissuade act of laying something open


extremely beautiful

extempore lessen the seriousness of (bad behavior) destroy completely

extort wring from extradition surrender of prisoner by one state to another extraneous not essential extrapolation projection extricate free from an entanglement or difficulty extrinsic external extrovert person interested mostly in external objects and actions extrude force or push out exuberance overflowing abundance exude flow out slowly

get money by threats, etc. obtain by force or threats Ex. extradition treaty irrelevant conjecture disentangle not essential or inherent V. extradite superfluous V. extrapolate: infer (unknown information) from known information


thrust out joyful enthusiasm discharge (gradually)

shape (plastic or metal) by forcing through a die flamboyance give forth

1666 1667 1668 1669 1670 1671 1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678


rejoice make up (a story) in order to deceive

fabricate build lie facade(fa\c{c}ade) front or superficial or false face (of building) appearance facet small plane surface (of a gem(precious stone)) a side facetious joking (often inappropriately) unserious facile easily accomplished ready or fluent facilitate help bring about make less difficult facsimile copy clique (within a large faction party group) factious inclined to form factions causing dissension factitious artificial produced artificially person who does all kinds factotum handyman of work faculty mental or bodily powers teaching staff

humorous superficial


sham CF. do everything

Word List - 19
1679 1680 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1686 1687 1688 1689 1690 1691 1692 fake not genuine N: one that is not genuine fallacious false based on a fallacy fallible liable to err fallow (of land) plowed but not sowed (to improve the quality) make uncultivated falsify (something written) false by changing weaken in purpose or falter hesitate action extreme devotion to a fanaticism excessive zeal belief or cause fancied imagined unreal one who has a special fancier breeder or interest, as for raising dealer of animals specific plant or animal fanciful whimsical (of visionary fancy imagination a whimsical or fantastic nature) capricious liking fanfare call by bugles or trumpets showy display farce broad comedy far-fetched too improbable to be believed mockery implausible impostor misleading

walk or move unsteadily through weakness N. fanatic

imaginary V: imagine spectacular public display humorous play full of silly things happening Ex. far-fetched story

1693 1694

1695 1696 1697 1698 1699 1700 1701 1702 1703 1704 1705 1706 1707 1708 1709 1710 1711 1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 1718

fashion give shape to make fastidious difficult to please squeamish fatalism belief that events are determined by forces or fates beyond one's control ADJ. fatalistic fathom comprehend investigate fathomless too deep to be measured or understood unfathomable fatuous smugly and unconsciously foolish inane fauna animals of a period or region CF. flora favoritism display of partiality toward a favored person fawning courting favor V. fawn: exhibit affection by cringing and flattering as a dog faze disconcert dismay feasible practical able to be carried out feature distinctive part of the faces (as the eyes or features: overall mouth) appearance of the face febrile feverish fecundity fertility feebleminded deficient in intelligence feign pretend feint trick felicitous (of a word or remark) apt felicity happiness feline of a member of the cat family fell cut or knock down (a tree or a person) felon person convicted of a grave crime feral (of an animal) not domestic ferment agitation fermentation chemical reaction that splits complex organic compounds ferocious fierce fruitfulness very stupid shift suitably expressed appropriateness (of a remark, choice, etc.) N. bring down (with a missile) CF. felony: serious crime wild commotion(noisy and excited activity) unrest violent

Ex. fashion the pot out of clay fussy

CF. fatal: causing death determine the depth of


seek favor or attention by obsequiousness embarrass practicable prominent or distinctive quality ADJ. fecund: very productive of crops or young

sham blow well chosen quality of being felicitous

unrest (of a political kind) agitation N. ferocity

1719 1720 1721 1722 1723 1724 1725 1726 1727 1728 1729 1730 1731 1732 1733 1734 1735 1736 1737 1738 1739 1740 1741 1742

ferret drive or hunt out of hiding fertile producing many young, fruits, or seeds fervent ardent fervid ardent fervor glowing ardor

hunt with ferrets (of land) producing good crops zealous zealous intensity of feeling produce irritation or resentment celebratory celebrate or honor with a feast foul object of excessive attention or reverence restrict the freedom of V. CF. Romeo and Juliet CF. bottle arbitrary order faithless non-existent accuracy devil something invented using a figure(impression) of speech number

drive out (as from a hiding place) V. fertilize hot hot quality of being fervent or fervid (of a cut or wound) generate pus or rot relating to a feast or festival N. (outdoor) festival or feast

fester rankle festive joyous fete(f\^ete) honor at a festival fetid(foetid) object fetish(fetich) malodorous believed to have spiritual powers fetter shackle feud bitter prolonged quarrel (usually between two peoples or families) fiasco total failure fiat command fickle changeable (in affections or friendship) fictitious fidelity fiend figment imaginary loyalty evil spirit invention

CF. fetishism N. chain or shackle for the foot of a prisoner CF. feudal, feudalism Ex. presidential fiat

purposely invented to deceive

imaginary thing

figurative not literal but metaphorical figure written symbols figurine small ornamental statuette(very small statue) filch steal (things of small value) filial pertaining to or befitting a son or daughter filibuster block legislation or prevent action in a lawmaking body by making very slow long speeches filigree delicate ornamental lacelike metalwork filing particle removed by a file filth dirty matter

amount represented in numbers

Ex. filial respect

1743 1744 1745 1746



ADJ. filthy

1747 1748 1749 1750 1751 1752 1753 1754 1755 1756 1757 1758 1759 1760 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765 1766 1767 1768 1769 1770 1771 1772 1773 1774

finale conclusion concluding part finery beautiful clothes for a special occasion finesse delicate skill V: handle with finesse finicky too particular fussy completeness of finish surface texture execution finished properly made Ex. finished and complete product/performance finite limited firebrand piece of burning wood hothead fissure crevice crack fit sudden outburst convulsion caused by of an illness or feeling epilepsy fitful spasmodic intermittent flaccid flabby lacking firmness flag droop grow feeble flagrant conspicuously wicked, bad, or offensive blatant flail beat with or as if with a flail move wildly flair talent flamboyant ornate highly elaborate flashy showy gaudy flaunt display Ex. ``Honey, if you've got ostentatiously it, flaunt it !'' flay strip off skin plunder fleck spot mark with flecks N: young bird that has fledgling(fledgeling) acquired wing feathers and inexperienced is learning to fly fleece wool coat of a sheep V: shear the fleece from fleet fast flick light stroke as with a whip flicker burn unsteadily or fitfully flighty (esp. of a woman's behavior) capricious flinch hesitate

difficult to please


irregular weak decline in vigor or strength outrageous thresh grain by hand richly colored giving a momentary brilliance

remove the skin from N: small mark or spot inexperienced person

rob by a trick N. ADJ. fleeting: passing rapid quickly V: move with a light quick strike with a light quick blow blow (as from a whip) N: flickering movement or move waveringly light often changing, esp. from one lover to another impulsive shrink back (in fear of Ex. She did not flinch in the something unpleasant) face of danger.

Word List - 20
1775 1776 spinning, often into the air, by striking with a light quick blow turn over Ex. flip over flippant lacking proper Ex. flippant remarks about seriousness death N. flippancy

1777 1778 1779 1780 1781 1782 1783 1784 1785 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800 1801 1802 1803

flirt behave in a way that attracts (sexual) attention

flit fly floe flat mass of floating ice flora plants of a region or era florescence condition or period of flowering florid ruddy (of a complexion) reddish flotsam drifting wreckage proceed clumsily or falter flounder struggle and (as in water, mud, snow, thrash about etc.) flourish grow well prosper flout reject mock flowery full of flowers full of ornate expressions fluctuate waver shift fluency smoothness of speech ADJ. fluent fluke unlikely occurrence stroke of fortune flush redden blush make nervous and confused

deal triflingly with fly or move lightly or quickly

N: one (or woman) given to flirting dart lightly


proceed in confusion make sweeping gestures show contempt for rise and fall as if in waves

accidental stroke of good luck flow suddenly and abundantly N. N. flute: long rounded groove incised on the shaft of a column fly by waving quickly fluctuation CF. food CF. feeble prevent from being successful palm off instigate foolishly daring

fluster confuse fluted having vertical parallel grooves (as in a V. flute: make long pillar) parallel inward curves in large wings) wave (the wings) lightly, rapidly, and vibrate rapidly or irregularly erratically flux flowing series of changes fodder coarse food for cattle, horses, etc. feed for livestock foible small weakness of character slight fault foil frustrate impose upon another by foist insert improperly coercion foliage masses of leaves CF. defoliate foment stir up incite foolhardy rash reckless N. fop: man who takes too foppish vain about much interest in his dress and appearance clothes and appearance defeat

1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 1813



sudden raid or military advance forgiveness V.

forbearance patience ford place where a river can be crossed on foot

V. V. forbear: refrain from (in a generous and forgiving way)

1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829

forebears(forbears) ancestors foreboding premonition V. forebode: be a warning of of evil feeling of coming evil (something unpleasant) of or used in legal forensic suitable to proceedings and the debate or courts of law tracking of criminals Ex. forensic science/medicine one that comes before and indicates the approach forerunner predecessor of another foreshadow give an be a sign of (what is indication beforehand coming) portend foresight ability to prudence in providing for foresee future happenings the future forestall prevent by taking action in advance forfeit something surrendered as punishment for a crime or breach of contract V: lose as a forfeit N. forfeiture form by heating in a forge and forge counterfeit reproduce fraudulently hammering into shape forgo(forego) give up do without forlorn sad and lonely wretched desolate formality ceremonious ceremonious adherence something done just for form's quality to rules sake formidable menacing arousing fear threatening forsake desert abandon renounce forswear renounce make a solemn promise to under oath abandon give up forte strong point or special talent in a person's character forthcoming happening in the near future ready willing to help forthright straightforward direct frank fortitude bravery courage strength of mind fortuitous accidental by chance N. fortuity forum public square of public place for open an ancient Roman city discussion court of law forward presumptuous or bold bring up (for a certain foster rear period only) encourage

1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856

foul very bad or disagreeable founder person who establishes (an organization or business) fracas brawl(noisy quarrel or fight) in which a number of people take part fractious unruly frail franchise weak or right privilege granted by authority frantic wild fraudulent cheating fraught filled (with something unpleasant) fray brawl freebooter pirate or plunderer who makes war in order to grow rich frenetic(phrenetic) frenzied frenzied madly excited fresco painting on wet plaster (usually fresh) fret be annoyed or vexed friction clash or conflict in opinion frieze ornamental horizontal band on a wall frigid intensely cold fringe decorative edge of hanging threads frisk move about playfully fritter waste (time or money on unimportant things) frivolous lacking in seriousness frock long loose garment (worn by monks) frolic play and jump about happily frolicsome prankish frond fern leaf fructify bear fruit

very dirty

Ex. foul smell/flavor/temper/language/a ir/deed/weather/means

melee peevish N. frailty


license to sell a product in a right to vote particular territory distraught as from fear or worry Ex. frantic with fear deceitful Ex. fraudulent means Ex. fraught with danger and full difficulties V: wear away or unravel by fight rubbing

frantic N. frenzy: violent wild excitement

Ex. fret over your poor grades rubbing against

N: irritation of mind

cold in manner edge froric

Ex. frigid zone

ADJ. frisky: playful


self-indulgently carefree

frisk gay palm or banana leaf produce fruit

Ex. frolicking young lambs playful

1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883

frugality fruitful fruition

thrift economy producing results profitable bearing of fruit fulfillment defeat N. in a fuddle: confused lasting only a short time

frustrate thwart fuddle make stupid or confused as with alcholic drink fugitive fleeting or transitory fulcrum support on which a lever rests or pivots fulminate thunder fulsome disgustingly excessive fumble move the fingers and hands awkwardly (in search of something) functional made for practical use only (without decoration) functionary official (who performs a particular function) fundamental basic funereal sad furor frenzy furrow long shallow trench made by a plow furtive stealthy fusillade simultaneous firing or outburst (of missiles, questions, etc.) fusion union fuss: trouble or worry over trifles fussy fastidious futile useless gadfly animal-biting fly gaffe social blunder

ADJ. frugal: practicing economy prolific realization prevent from accomplishing a purpose


explode offensively flattering mishandle or drop a ball that is in play functioning

issue a severe denunciation Ex. fulsome praise/expressions of admire bungle Ex. functional modern furniture

primary solemn great anger and excitement

essential suitable for a funeral CF. fury

deep wrinkle in the skin V. quiet and secret (trying to escape notice) sneaky

coalition make nervous finicky hopeless irritating person

V. fuse pay too much attention to easily upset ineffectual

Word List - 21
gainsay deny gait manner of walking or running galaxy large isolated system of stars, such as the Milky Way speed collection of brilliant personalities

1884 1885 1886 1887


1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894

1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907

gale windstorm gall annoy galleon large threemasted sailing ship galley low ship with sails (rowed along by slaves) gallows framework from which a noose is suspended (used for execution by hanging) galvanic of the production of electricity by the action of an acid on a metal galvanize stimulate or shock by an electric current gambit opening in chess in which a piece is sacrificed gambol romp gamely in a spirited manner gamut entire range gangrene decay of body tissue caused by insufficient blood supply (usually following injury) gape open widely garbled mixed up gargantuan huge gargoyle waterspout carved in grotesque figures on a building garish overbright in color garner gather garnish decorate garrulous loquacious gastronomy art and science of preparing and serving good food gauche clumsy (in social behavior) gaudy flashy gaunt lean and angular

gust of wind exasperate

emotional outburst (laughters, tears) chafe

having the effect of an electric shock stimulate by shock

Ex. galvanic cell shock into action

action made to produce a future advantage skip about leap about playfully Ex. fight gamely against a with courage superior boxer

ADJ. gangrenous open the mouth wide jumbled enormous stare wonderingly with the mouth open distorted gigantic

unpleasantly bright store up add a garnish to wordy CF. gastronome coarse and uncouth showy thin and bony

gaudy amass decorate (food or drink) with small items such as lemon slices talkative


1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931


mallet(wooden hammer) used by a presiding officer hammerlike tool or an auctioneer V. look in open-mouthed awe newspaper lineage general statement which is not detailed produce of a genus origin kindliness ancestry quality of being general create

gawk stare foolishly gazette official periodical publication genealogy record of descent generality vague statement generate cause generic characteristic of an entire class or species genesis beginning geniality cheerfulness genre particular variety of art or literature genteel well-bred gentility those of gentle birth gentle kindly gentry people of standing(rank or position) genuflect bend the knee as in worship genus division of animals or plants, below a family and above a species geriatrics medical treatment and care of old age


elegant high social class soft people of good family or high social position

striving to convey an appearance of refinement refinement mild class of people just below nobility

something that may develop germ earliest form of into something larger or more an organism seed or bud important bearing upon(having connection with) the case germane pertinent at hand appropriate germinal pertaining to a germ creative Ex. germinal idea germinate cause to sprout sprout gerontocracy government ruled by old people gerontology study of the sociological phenomena associated with old age gerrymander change voting district lines in order N. CF. Elbridge Gerry + to favor a political party (sala)mander

1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956

gestate evolve as in prenatal growth gesticulation motion ghastly horrible gibberish nonsense gibe mock giddy light-hearted gild cover with a thin layer of gold gingerly very carefully girth distance around something gist essence glacial like a glacier glamor compelling charm glare shine intensely and blindingly glaring (of something bad) highly conspicuous glaze cover with a thin and shiny surface gleam brief flash of light

N. gestation: period of development from conception until birth gesture terrifying nonsensical or unintelligible talk or writing make jeering remarks not serious V. gesticulate: make gestures (while speaking) resembling ghosts babbling N: jeering remarks frivolous

ADJ. circumference main point of an ice age ADJ. glamorous stare fixedly and angrily harshly bright apply a glaze to glow N. shining intensely and blindingly N: thin, smooth, shiny coating (as for pottery)

substance extremely cold

V. gather bit by bit (facts or gather grain left behind by information) often with glean gather leavings reapers difficulty glib fluent (with insincerity or superficiality) facile slick glimmer shine erratically twinkle N: dim or unsteady light glitter shine brightly with flashing points of light Ex. glittering diamond ring N: sparkling light gloat express evil look at or think about with satisfaction evil satisfaction view malevolently gloss brief explanation note or translation of a difficult expression V. gloss_over explain away with the intention of deceiving or hiding faults glossary brief explanation of words used in the text glossy smooth and N. gloss: shiny brightness superficially attractive shining on a surface appearance

1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

glow shine brightly without a flame (as of eyes or metals) glower scowl glut overstock glutinous sticky glutton someone who eats too much gnarl protruding knot on a tree gnarled twisted gnome goad gobble quickly gorge (with food) gory gossamer dwarf urgevery eat on stuff oneself bloody sheer

show redness and heat (in the face) after hard work or N: light produced by a heated because of strong feelings body glare look or stare angrily fill beyond capacity (with food) fill to excess viscous gluey ADJ. gluttonous: given to gluttony greedy V. underground spirit who guards treasure hoards drive with a goad cause (someone) to do something by continued annoyance CF. gorgeous: dazzlingly beautiful

glut N. gore: blood (from a wound) very light

like cobwebs

Word List - 22
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 gouge overcharge (with high price) extort from Ex. gouge the public person who takes excessive pleasure in food and drink


gourmand epicure gourmet connoisseur of food and drink epicure gracious kind in a generous way (to someone less important) gradation series of degree in such a gradual stages progression divide into marked graduate arrange into intervals (for use in categories or grades measurement) graduated arranged by degrees (of height, difficulty, etc.) granary storehouse for grain grandeur impressiveness stateliness grandiloquent (of a person or speech) using high sounding or importantsounding language pompous

Ex. graduated ruler



1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

grandiose affectedly grand granulate form into grains or granules graphic pertaining to the art of delineating graphite black form of carbon used in lead pencils

pretentious N. granule: grain or particle vividly described


grapple wrestle come to grips with grate make a harsh noise have an unpleasant effect gratify please satisfy gratis free without charge gratuitous given freely unwarranted gratuity n. money given to sb who has done one a service tip gravity seriousness ADJ. grave graze (of an animal) cause (an animal) to feed feed on growing grass on grass (of an animal) tending to gregarious sociable form a group grievance cause of complaint complaint grill question severely cook on a grill grim causing great fear unrelenting grimace facial distortion to show feeling such as pain, disgust, etc V. grisly ghastly groom man employed to take care of horses groove long narrow channel made in a surface to guide the movement of something gross total grotesque grotto grouch complaint grouse grovel on ground fantastic small cavern bad-tempered complain crawl or creep horrifying V: make neat and trim

take hold of and struggle with shred by rubbing against a rough surface Ex. gratify a desire ADJ. uncalled for

scrape (esp. the skin) or touch lightly in passing

broil determined in spite of fear

Ex. grisly remains of the bodies clean and brush (an animal)

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Ex. groove of the record fragrant comically hideous person who keeps complaining fuss remain prostrate

clearly wrong strange and unnatural (causing fear or amusement)

V: complain grumble behave in a servile manner

growl low, guttural, menacing sound (as of a dog)

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025

grudge dislike grudging gruel porridge

deep feeling of unwilling thin liquid Ex. grudge fight reluctant V. stingy(giving reluctantly)

2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033

grueling exhausting gruesome grisly gruff rough-mannered grumble complain grunt utter a deep guttural sound (as a pig does) guffaw boisterous laughter guile deceit guileless without deceit guise outward appearance gull trick gullible easily deceived gush (of liquid) pour out in large quantities from a hole gust strong abrupt rush of wind gustatory affecting or relating to the sense of taste gusto eager enjoyment gusty windy guy cable or chain attached to something that needs to be braced or steadied gyroscope apparatus used to maintain balance, ascertain direction, etc. habitat natural home of a plant or animal habituate accustom or familiarize hackles hairs on back and neck, especially of a dog hackneyed commonplace haggard wasted away haggle argue about prices (in an attempt to bargain)

Ex. grueling marathon race horrible (of a voice) rough mutter discontentedly N. V. duplicity

hoarse grouch


costume deceive make an excessive display of feeling (without true feeling) V. CF. bluster

Ex. in a new guise hoodwink

Ex. Blood gushed from the wound.



CF. guide

CF. habitation addict Ex. make someone's hackles rise trite gaunt Ex. haggard faces of the rescued miners

2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 2048 2049 2050 2051 2052 2053 2054 2055 2056 2057 2058 2059 2060 2061 2062

hail frozen rain drop halcyon calm hale healthy halfhearted exhibiting little interest or enthusiasm hallowed blessed hallucination delusion halting hesitant hamper handsome quantity hap obstruct large in chance

V: salute or greet peaceful

precipitate hail Ex. halcyon days

consecrated false idea faltering prevent the free movement of generous luck by chance luckless V.

Ex. hallowed ground false perception of objects with a compelling sense of their reality not fluent

Ex. handsome reward happening in an unplanned manner

haphazard random hapless unfortunate harangue long, passionate, and vehement speech harass annoy by repeated attacks harbinger forerunner (which foreshadows what is to come) harbor give protection (by giving food and shelter) hardy (of people or animals) sturdy harping tiresome dwelling on a subject harrowing agonizing harry harass, annoy, torment (by repeated attacks) hatch deck opening haughtiness pride haunt (of a spirit) visit (a place) haven place of safety havoc widespread damage hazard venture hazardous dangerous hazy slightly obscure headfirst moving with the head leading

provide a refuge for robust V. harp: dwell on(think or speak a lot about) tediously distressing raid lid covering a deck opening arrogance come to mind continually refuge disorder put in danger misty headlong

hide (of plants) able to stand inclement(stormy) weather


V: emerge from an egg ADJ. haughty visit (a place) regularly harbor chaos risk unclear

2063 2064 2065 2066

headlong hasty headstrong willful healthful conducive to good health healthy possessing good health

rash stubborn Ex. healthful mountain air

headfirst unyielding

2067 2068 2069 2070 2071 2072 2073 2074 2075 2076 2077 2078 2079 2080 2081 2082 2083 2084 2085 2086 2087 2088

healthful V. heckle: verbally harass as with gibes (by heckler person who interrupting a speaker or verbally harasses others speech) hedonist one who CF. hedonism: practice of believes that pleasure is the living one's life purely for sole aim in life pleasure heed pay attention to N: close attention heedless not noticing disregarding hegemony dominance especially of one nation over others heinous atrocious wicked hatefully bad helm steering wheel of a ship position of control hem surround tightly so that movement is impossible Ex. hem in N. herald messenger sign of something to come herbivorous grain-eating CF. herbivore herd group of animals crowd hereafter life after death heresy opinion opinion contrary to contrary to popular belief accepted religion hermetic concerning alchemy or magic obscure and mysterious hermitage home of a hermit CF. herpetology: branch herpetologist one who of zoology that deals with studies reptiles reptiles and amphibians heterodox (of beliefs) against accepted opinion unorthodox heterogeneous dissimilar mixed hew cut to pieces with ax or sword chop heyday time of greatest success or power prime hiatus hibernal gap wintry pause wintery V: announce one who looks after a herd

ADJ. heretical occult

unconventional not homogeneous N.

gap or interruption in space or time of or like winter

Word List - 23

2089 2090 2091 2092 2093 2094 2095 2096 2097 2098 2099 2100 2101 2102 2103 2104 2105 2106 2107 2108 2109 2110 2111 2112

hibernate sleep throughout the winter N. hibernation hide skin of an animal hideous repulsive to the sight ugly hierarchy arrangement authoritarian body divided by rank or standing into ranks hieroglyphic picture writing ADJ. high-flown highly pretentious or inflated hilarity boisterous mirth(merriment laughter) hindmost furthest behind farthest to the rear hindrance block obstacle hindsight understanding the nature of an event after it has actually happened hinterlands back country inner part of a country hireling one who serves for hire (usually used one who works solely for contemptuously) compensation hirsute hairy having a lot of hair historic important in history Ex. historic battle based on events in history historical connected with (whether regarded as history important or not) excessively dramatic or histrionic theatrical emotional hive box for bees V: cause to go in a hive hoard stockpile hoary white with age hoax trick which makes someone take action holocaust destruction by fire holster leather pistol case (that hangs on a belt around the waist) homage honor homely not goodlooking homeostasis tendency of a system or organism to maintain relative stability or internal equilibrium homespun domestic homily sermon

repugnant body of persons having authority

ADJ. hilarious: full of laughter

V. hinder

OP. foreland Ex. hireling politician


N: supply stored for future accumulate for future use use

practical joke CF. burnt whole

Ex. hoax mail CF. Holocaust

tribute unattractive

great respect

2113 2114 2115

CF. homeo-: constant Ex. homeotherm made at home spun or woven at home tedious moralizing lecture serious warning

2116 2117 2118 2119

homogeneous same kind

2120 2121


2123 2124 2125 2126 2127 2128 2129 2130 2131 2132 2133 2134 2135 2136 2137 2138 2139 2140

uniform in composition throughout N: whetstone for hone sharpen (a tool) sharpening a tool hoodwink deceive delude horde crowd swarm horoscope diagram of the positions of stars at a given moment (eg. of a person's birth) used by astrologers hortatory encouraging exhortive N. horticulture: science or art of cultivating fruits, horticultural pertaining to vegetables, or ornamental cultivation of gardens plants hostage person who is kept as a prisoner by an enemy so that the other side will do what the enemy demands hostility unfriendliness hatred hothead person who does things too quickly without thinking ADJ. hotheaded hovel shack small wretched house (of birds or aircraft) stay in hover hang about the air in one place hubbub confused uproar loud noise hubris arrogance excessive self-conceit hue color aspect hue_and_cry outcry loud cry or clamor dry outer covering of a hull husk seed humane marked by kindness or consideration kind and compassionate humanitarian one devoted to the promotion of human welfare CF. humanism humble position humdrum humid humility spirit hummock humor of low rank or dull damp humbleness of small hill indulge modest monotonous N. humidity

of the

marked by exhortation

CF. agriculture: science or art of farming or growing crops


(of people) wait nearby din Ex. opinions of every hue strong protest frame or body of a ship humanitarian

having a low opinion of oneself and a high opinion of others

hillock N. quality that makes comply with the wishes of something amusing

2141 2142 2143 2144 2145 2146 2147 2148

humus substance or rich soil formed by decaying vegetable matter hurl throw forcefully hurtle crash husband use sparingly husbandry frugality hut crude dwelling hybrid mongrel hydrophobia fear of water hygiene science and practice of the promotion and preservation of health

2149 2150 2151 2152 2153 2154 2155 2156 2157 2158 2159 2160

CF. soil shout out violently rush conserve thrift shack mixed breed rabies ADJ. hygienic: showing careful attention to cleanness (to prevent disease)

move with great speed save economy V. hybridize

Ex. hygienic condition ADJ. hyperbolic: of hyperbole

2161 2162 2163 2164 2165 2166 2167

hyperbole exaggeration overstatement hypercritical excessively too critical (without exacting noticing good qualities) hypnosis induced sleeping state ADJ. hypnotic hypochondriac person unduly worried about his worrier without cause health about illness hypocritical pretending to be virtuous deceiving hypothetical based on assumptions or hypotheses supposed hysteria excessive or N. hysteric: person uncontrollable excitement suffering from hysteria ichthyology study of fish CF. ichthyo-: fish icon(ikon) religious image idol iconoclastic attacking N. iconoclast: one who cherished traditions attacks traditional ideas ideology system of ideas characteristic of a group or culture idiom expression whose meaning as a whole differs from the meanings of distinctive style (of its individual words expression) idiosyncrasy individual trait usually odd in nature behavioral peculiarity idle not working not employed or busy excessive admiration or idolatry worship of idols devotion idyll(idyl) short poem simple happy period of life idealizing rural life (in the country) idyllic charmingly carefree simple and happy igneous produced by fire of fire

V. hypnotize ADJ. CF. hypochondria: neurosis that one is or is becoming ill N. hypocrisy: profession of beliefs one does not possess N. hypothesis CF. hysterics: attack of hysteria image or representation one who destroys sacred images

Ex. idiom of the modern popular music eccentricity lazy ADJ. idolatrous scene from such a time Ex. idyllic scene volcanic

2168 2169 2170 2171 2172 2173 2174 2175 2176 2177 2178 2179 2180 2181 2182 2183 2184 2185 2186 2187 2188 2189 2190 2191 2192 2193 2194

ignite kindle ignoble unworthy ignominy deep disgrace illicit illegal illimitable infinite illuminate brighten illusion misleading vision or visual image illusive deceiving illusory illusive imbalance lack of balance or symmetry imbecility weakness of mind imbibe drink in imbroglio complicated situation (as in a play) imbue saturate(soak thoroughly)

light not noble shame or dishonor limitless clear up or make understandable false idea or belief based on illusion deceptive disproportion

catch fire or set fire to dishonorable ADJ. ignominious

enlighten CF. delusion causing illusion not real

state of being an imbecile N. imbecile: stupid person painful or complex misunderstanding (as in a play) fill

entanglement Ex. imbue someone with feelings absolutely clean

Word List - 24
immaculate spotless flawless imminent impending near at hand immobility state of being immovable immolate offer or kill as a sacrifice (by fire) immune resistant to free or exempt from immure imprison shut up in confinement immutable unchangeable impair injure hurt impale pierce (with a sharp point) Ex. impaled by the spear impalpable imperceptible(not easily understood) intangible impart grant a share of make known impartial not biased fair impassable not able to be traveled or crossed impasse predicament(dangerous condition) from which there situation allowing for no is no escape further progress impassioned (of speech) filled with passion fervent impassive without feeling expressionless

N. immunity CF. wall damage

OP. palpable: tangible Ex. news to impart N. impartiality

2195 2196 2197


2198 2199 2200 2201 2202 2203 2204 2205 2206 2207 2208 2209 2210 2211 2212 2213 2214 2215 2216 2217 2218 2219 2220 2221 2222 2223 2224 2225 2226 2227 2228

impeach charge (a public official) with crime in office impeccable faultless impecunious without money impede hide

raise doubts about


retard or obstruct the progress of stumbling-block drive to take action approaching beyond understanding

impediment hindrance impel drive or force onward impending nearing impenetrable not able to be pierced or entered impenitent not repentant imperative absolutely necessary imperceptible unnoticeable imperial like an emperor imperil put in danger imperious domineering impermeable impervious impersonal not being a person impertinent insolent imperturbable unshakably calm

block speech defect preventing clear articulation urge to action about to happen impossible to understand

that must be done impossible to perceive related to an empire too commanding not permitting passage through its substance not showing personal feelings rude

critically important undetectable CF. imperialism haughty impossible to permeate Ex. impersonal force/manner/organization not pertinent

placid incapable of being impervious impenetrable damaged or distressed impetuous violent hasty impetus moving force momentum lack of respect for God or impiety irreverence piety impinge infringe encroach impious irreverent implacable incapable of being pacified impossible to appease implausible unlikely (to be true) unbelievable implement put into effect enforce implicate incriminate implication something hinted at or suggested implicit understood but not stated implode burst inward involve incriminatingly implying implied CF. vaccum tube

incapable of being affected (in one's opinions) rash force of a moving body


Ex. implacable enemy Ex. implausible alibi carry out show to be involved (in a crime) implicating unquestioning and complete

2229 2230 2231 2232 2233 2234 2235 2236 2237 2238 2239 2240 2241 2242 2243 2244 2245 2246 2247 2248 2249 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2256 2257

implore v. ask or beg earnestly imply suggest a meaning not expressed impolitic not wise imponderable weightless import significance importunate importune persistently imposture false identity impotent impoverish imprecation urging beg assuming a

beseech signify not expedient that cannot undergo precise evaluation importance always demanding make repeated requests (in an annoying way) masquerade

not politic CF. pound meaning troublesomely urgent or persistent

weak make poor curse


CF. impostor lacking in physical strength or power

deprive of natural strength or something important Ex. impoverished soil swearword impossible to capture or Ex. impregnable impregnable invulnerable enter by force fort/argument impregnate make pregnant fill thoroughly saturate impromptu without off the cuff(end of a previous preparation sleeve) on the spur of the moment impropriety improperness unsuitableness improvident thriftless improvise compose on the spur of the moment imprudent lacking caution impudence impertinence impugn dispute or contradict (often in an insulting way) impuissance powerlessness impunity freedom from punishment or harm impute inadvertently attribute unintentionally inalienable not to be taken away inamorata woman whom a man loves inane silly inanimate lifeless inarticulate speechless not providing for the future

not prudent insolence attack as false or questionable feebleness CF. punish ascribe by oversight nontransferable



charge carelessly Ex. inalienable rights

senseless not animate producing indistinct speech

Ex. inane remarks

not articulate

2258 2259 2260 2261 2262 2263 2264 2265 2266 2267 2268 2269 2270



owing to the fact that induct into office by a formal ceremony emitting visible light when heated (the saying of) words used in magic

inaugurate begin formally install in office incandescent strikingly bright shining with intense heat incantation singing or chanting of magic spells magical formula N. incapacity: lack of incapacitate disable capacity incarcerate imprison incarnate endowed with flesh invested with bodily form incarnation act of assuming a human body and one who personifies human nature something incendiary arsonist ADJ: causing fire incense enrage infuriate(make furious) incentive inception incessant spur start uninterrupted motive beginning unceasing

personified personification of arson make extremely angry something which encourages one to greater activity

Word List - 25
2271 2272 2273 2274 2275 2276 2277 2278 2279 2280 2281 2282 2283 2284 2285 2286 2287 inchoate (of desire, wish, plan) recently begun incidence rate of occurrence incident event incidental not essential incinerate burn to ashes incipient beginning incisive (appreciatively) cutting incite arouse to action inclement stormy incline slope inclined tending or leaning toward inclusive tending to include all incognito with identity concealed incoherent unintelligible incommodious not spacious incompatible inharmonious incongruity lack of harmony not explicit particular occurrence event that causes a crisis minor in an early stage sharp goad unkind slant bent all-inclusive using an assumed name muddled inconvenient N. incompatibility absurdity ADJ. incongruous: lacking in harmony Ex. incisive remarks motivate unmerciful Ex. steep incline V. incline: slant Ex. inclusive charge ADJ. unable to express one's thoughts in an orderly manner at the beginning of development Ex. high incidence of infant mortality N: something incidental

2288 2289 2290 2291 2292 2293 2294 2295 2296 2297 2298 2299 2300 2301 2302 2303 2304 2305 2306 2307 2308 2309 2310 2311

inconsequential insignificant inconsistency state of being self-contradictory incontinent lacking selfrestraint incontrovertible indisputable incorporate introduce something into a larger whole incorporeal without a material body incorrigible uncorrectable incredulity tendency to disbelief incredulous withholding belief increment increase incriminate accuse of or implicate in a crime incrustation hard coating or crust

unimportant lack of uniformity or steadiness not continent impossible to dispute include insubstantial

ADJ. inconsistent: displaying a lack of consistency licentious not open to question embody


showing disbelief

cause to seem or make guilty serve as evidence against of a crime cover with a crust maintain at optimal warm (eggs) with the body environment conditions for to promote hatching development very worriying problem mental care V. incrust: encrust

incubate hatch incubus burden inculcate teach (ideas or principles) instill incumbent obligatory imposed as an obligation incur bring upon oneself incursion temporary CF. excursion: short invasion journey inability to make up one's indecision irresolution mind indecisive marked by indecision inconclusive indefatigable tireless indelible not able to be erased indemnify make secure against damage or loss indentation notch indenture bind as servant or apprentice to master indeterminate uncertain indicative suggestive indices signs untiring

currently holding an office

Ex. indecisive battle showing no sign of getting tired

compensate for damage or loss deep recess

CF. make uninjured V. indent N: contract binding one party into the service of another for a specified time (as between an apprentice and his master) indefinite serving to indicate Ex. indices of a student's potential

2312 2313 2314 2315

bind by indenture not clearly fixed implying indications

2316 2317 2318 2319 2320 2321 2322 2323 2324 2325 2326 2327 2328 2329 2330 2331 2332 2333 2334 2335 2336 2337 2338 2339 2340 2341 2342 2343 2344 2345 2346

indict charge indifferent unmoved or unconcerned by indigence poverty indigenous native indigent poor indignation anger at an injustice indignity treatment or situation that causes shame or loss of dignity, respect indiscriminate choosing at random indisputable too certain to be disputed indissoluble permanent indite write indoctrinate cause to accept a doctrine without questioning it indolent lazy indomitable unconquerable indubitable unable to be doubted induce persuade induct place formally in office inductive pertaining to induction or proceeding from the specific to the general indulge indulgent industrious inebriate inebriated intoxicated ineffable yield to humoring diligent make drunk habitually unutterable

N. indictment having no interest in Ex. plant indigenous to the New World destitute Ex. righteous indignation offensive or insulting treatment confused beyond doubt impossible to dissolve or disintegrate compose Ex. indoctrinated with mindless anti-communism ADJ. indignant humiliating or degrading treatment not based on careful distinctions mediocre

unyielding which cannot be doubted lead to do something install unquestionable bring about admit as a member

gratify yielding hard-working intoxicate drunk not to be uttered

allow oneself a special pleasure lenient N. industry N. intoxicated person N. inebriety taboo

ineffectual not effective ineluctable irresistible inept unsuited inequity unfairness inerrancy infallibility inert inactive inestimable impossible to estimate

not having a desired effect weak not to be escaped unavoidable inappropriate lacking skill ADJ. inequitable lacking power to move (apprec) invaluable unable to move or act of immeasurable worth

2347 2348 2349 2350 2351 2352 2353 2354 2355 2356 2357 2358 2359 2360 2361 2362

inevitable unavoidable inexorable relentless unyielding inextricable from which it is impossible to get free that cannot be untied infallible unerring never making mistakes infamous notoriously bad notorious infantile childish infantlike infer deduce conclude infernal pertaining to hell devilish infest inhabit in numbers large enough to be Ex. Mice infested the harmful house infidel unbeliever (with respect to a particular religion) infiltrate pass into or penetrate or enter (an through organization) sneakily infinitesimal very small infirmity weakness inflated exaggerated pompous influx flowing into infraction violation (of a rule or regulation) breach

implacable Ex. inextricable troubles

well known for being bad N. inference N. inferno: place of fiery heat or destruction Ex. shark-infested waters

Ex. infiltrate the troops into enemy territory

enlarged (with air or gas)

Word List - 26
2363 2364 2365 2366 2367 2368 2369 2370 2371 2372 2373 2374 infringe violate (a law) ingenious marked by inventive skill ingenue ing\'enue ingenuous naive and trusting ingrained deeply established ingrate ungrateful person (not expressing thanks) ingratiate become popular with inherent firmly established by nature or habit inhibit restrain inhibited (of a person) unable to express what one really feels inimical (of someone) unfriendly inimitable matchless encroach (the right of another person) clever young innocent girl young firmly rooted resourceful

unsophisticated Ex. ingrained dirt/prejudice

bring (oneself) in favor of Ex. ingratiate himself with the another boss intrinsic prohibit

retard or prevent

hostile not able to be imitated

(of something) harmful

2375 2376 2377 2378 2379 2380 2381 2382 2383 2384 2385 2386 2387 2388 2389 2390 2391 2392 2393 2394 2395 2396 2397 2398 2399 2400 2401 2402 2403 2404 2405 2406

iniquitous initiate injurious inkling innate innocuous

wicked begin harmful hint inborn harmless

immoral originate causing injury slight indication

unrighteous receive into a group

innovation change innuendo indirect or subtle (derogatory) hint inopportune untimely inordinate beyond reasonable limits inquisitive eager for knowledge inquisitor questioner (especially harsh)

something newly introduced insinuation inappropriate or ill-timed unrestrained unduly curious

introduction of something new Ex. sexual innuendo poorly chosen excessive

investigator person making an inquisition advance that lessens the quantity or difficulty of Ex. The long illness made inroad hostile invasion something serious inroads on his savings insalubrious unwholesome not healthful Ex. insalubrious place insatiable not easily satisfied unquenchable Ex. insatiable appetite inscrutable difficult to understand impenetrable not readily understood insensate without feeling lacking sense foolish insensible unconscious unresponsive insensitive insidious treacherous stealthy sly insightful discerning perceptive insinuate hint imply suggest indirectly insipid lacking in flavor lacking interest dull insolence impudent disrespect haughtiness ADJ. insolent insolvent bankrupt lacking money to pay N. insolvency insomnia wakefulness inability to sleep insouciant without concern or care unconcerned indifferent instigate start urge provoke institute organization for a special purpose V: establish (building for the) established custom, practice, institution instituting organization or relationship in a society institutionalize make into an put or confine in an institution institution insubordination disobedience rebelliousness ADJ. insubordinate insubstantial lacking substance insignificant frail

2407 2408 2409 2410 2411 2412 2413 2414 2415 2416 2417 2418 2419 2420 2421 2422 2423 2424 2425 2426 2427 2428 2429 2430 2431 2432 2433 2434 2435 2436

insularity narrowmindedness insuperable insurmountable insurgent rebellious insurmountable overwhelming insurrection rebellion intangible not able to be perceived by touch integral integrate integrity intellect powers complete make whole honesty higher mental

isolation unbeatable N. unbeatable uprising vague necessary for completeness combine uprightness person of great intellectual ability members of the educated elite (often used derogatorily) N. interment forbid Ex. in the interim Ex. ``Ouch'' one who interferes acting as a mediator

ADJ. insular: of an island Ex. insuperable difficulties


Ex. integral part make into one unit wholeness

intelligentsia intellectuals inter bury interdict prohibit interim meantime interjection exclamation interloper intruder intermediary intermediate interminable endless

N. ADJ. taking place during an interim

N: mediator stopping and starting at intervals

intermittent periodic on and off internecine mutually destructive interpolate insert between interregnum period between two successive reigns or governments interrogate question closely cross-examine interstice narrow space between things intervene come between intimate hint intimidate frighten intolerant not willing to accept ways of thinking different from one's own intoxicate intractable make drunk unruly interfere suggest N. intimidation CF. tolerant stimulate or excite difficult to manage


Ex. intervened to prevent a fight imply

CF. tolerate Ex. intoxicated by all the money he might win Ex. intractable problem/child

2437 2438 2439 2440 2441 2442 2443 2444 2445 2446 2447 2448 2449 2450 2451 2452 2453 2454 2455 2456 2457 2458 2459 2460 2461 2462 2463 2464 2465

intransigence refusal of any compromise intrepid fearless intrigue make secret plans intrinsic essential introspective looking within oneself introvert one who is introspective or inclined to think more about oneself intrude put or force in without being asked intuition immediate insight inundate flood


ADJ. intransigent: uncompromising

plot inherent N. introspection: selfexamination ADJ. introverted trespass power of knowing without reasoning overflow

arouse the curiosity of built-in

enter as an uninvited person ADJ. intuitive submerge Ex. inured to the Alaskan cold not valid make invalid

inured accustomed hardened invalid one incapacitated(disabled) by a ADJ: incapacitated by chronic illness illness invalidate weaken destroy invective abuse inveigh denounce inveigle deceive inverse opposite invert turn upside down or inside out

Ex. inveigh against the evils utter censure or invective of drink lead astray by deception wheedle(cajole) reverse the position or condition of CF. grow old Ex. invidious comparison

Word List - 27
inveterate deep-rooted habitual invidious designed to tending to rouse ill will or create ill will or envy envy invincible unconquerable inviolable secure from corruption, attack, or violation(or profanation) unassailable invocation prayer for help calling upon as a (used in invoking) reference or support invoke call and bring call on/upon (a higher into use (a right or law) power or god) for help invulnerable incapable of impossible to damage or injury injure iota very small quantity irascible irritable easily angered irate angry CF. ire: anger iridescent exhibiting rainbowlike colors Ex. iridescent oil slick irksome annoying tedious

Ex. inviolable oath/rights act of invoking ask for

wrath N. iridescence V. irk: annoy

2466 2467 2468 2469 2470 2471 2472 2473 2474 2475 2476 2477 2478 2479 2480 2481 2482 2483 2484 2485 2486


2488 2489 2490

occurring in an unexpected and contrary ironic expressing irony manner use of words that seem to use of words to convey the irony hidden sarcasm mean the opposite of what opposite of their literal or satire they actually mean meaning irreconcilable impossible to reconcile incompatible not able to be resolved irrefutable indisputable incontrovertible undeniable irrelevant not applicable unrelated irremediable incurable uncorrectable impossible to remedy irreparable not able to be corrected or repaired impossible to repair irrepressible unable to be restrained or held back impossible to hold back irreproachable beyond reproach blameless impeccable irresolute uncertain how to act weak lacking in resolution irretrievable impossible to recover or regain CF. retrieve irreverence lack of proper respect or reverence ADJ. irreverent irrevocable unalterable irreversible impossible to revoke isotope varying from of an element isthmus narrow neck of land connecting two larger bodies of land traveling from place to itinerant wandering place (to perform work) Ex. itinerant preacher itinerary plan of a trip record of a trip jab poke abruptly with something sharp punch with short blows jabber chatter rapidly or unintelligibly jaded tired or uninterested by surfeit fatigued surfeited jargon language used by special group technical terminology gibberish jaundice medical condition in which the skin, the white part of the eyes, affect with prejudice, envy, or etc. turn yellow V: affect with jaundice hostility prejudiced (envious, hostile, or resentful) from long and disappointing experience of human jaundiced yellowed affairs Ex. with a jaundiced eye jaunt trip short journey jaunty cheerful and pleased with life lighthearted animated

2491 2492 2493 2494 2495 2496 2497 2498 2499 2500 2501 2502 2503 2504 2505 2506 2507 2508 2509 2510 2511 2512 2513 2514 2515

jeopardize endanger jest playful remark or act jetsam things thrown from a ship (to lighten the ship) jettison throw overboard (from a ship or plane) jibe agree jingoist extremely aggressive and militant patriot jocose given to(having a tendency of) joking jocular said or done in jest or playfully jocund merry jollity gaiety jostle shove jovial good-natured jubilation rejoicing judiciary judicial branch of government judicious sound on judgment jug pitcher

imperil V. act or speak playfully

put at risk

be in harmony with warlike chauvinist

gibe N. jingoism: extreme nationalism

marked by joking cheerfulness bump merry great joy ADJ. jolly: merry push against (someone) rather roughly cheerful

juggernaut irresistible crushing force jumble mix in a confused way juncture crisis point in time junket trip especially one taken for pleasure by an official at public expense

wise container for holding liquids overwhelming advancing force that crushes everything in its path

joining point

junta group of persons joined in political intrigue cabal juridical of the law and CF. judicial: of courts of its administration law jurisdiction right and power to apply the law authority jurisprudence science of law juxtapose place side by side CF. next

group of military officers ruling a country after seizing power (by force) CF. judiciary

2516 2517 2518 2519 2520 2521 2522 2523 2524 2525 2526 2527 2528 2529 2530 2531 2532 2533 2534 2535 2536

kaleidoscope tube in which patterns made by the reflection in mirrors of colored pieces of glass, etc. produce interesting Ex. kaleidoscope of European symmetrical effects series of changing events history ken range of knowledge Ex. beyond one's ken kernel central or vital part core whole seed (as of corn) one who intentionally spoils killjoy grouch spoilsport the pleasure of others kindle start a fire ignite inspire belonging to the same kindred related group similar in nature or character kinetic producing motion of motion Ex. Kismet is the Arabic word kismet fate destiny for fate. kleptomaniac person who has a compulsive desire to steal knack special talent art knave untrustworthy person rogue scoundrel mix and work into a uniform knead mix work dough mass (with the hands) kneel go down on one's knee(s) knell tolling of a bell especially to indicate a funeral, disaster, etc. sound of the funeral bell V. knit contract into wrinkles grow together join together closely knoll little round hill hillock knotty intricate difficult tangled acclaim or praise for kudos honor glory exceptional achievement labile likely to change unstable Ex. emotionally labile laborious demanding much work or care tedious labyrinth maze lace cord used to draw and tie together two opposite edges (as of a shoe) laceration torn ragged wound lachrymose producing tears lackadaisical lacking interest or effort

2537 2538 2539 2540

delicate fabric made of V: draw together by tying a fine threads lace V. lacerate: tear (the skin as with broken glass) wound tearful lacking purpose or zest lazy

2541 2542 2543 2544

lackluster lacking luster(shine laconic brief and to the point lag move or develop more slowly laggard slow

gloss) using few words straggle sluggish

dull terse Ex. lag behind the rest N: one who lags

Word List - 28
2545 2546 2547 2548 2549 2550 2551 2552 2553 2554 2555 2556 2557 2558 2559 2560 2561 2562 2563 2564 2565 2566 lagoon shallow body of lake separated from a sea water or lake near a sea by sandbars or coral reefs laity lament laypersons grieve persons not connected with laymen the clergy express sorrow N. lamentation N: written attack ridiculing or satirizing a person, group, or institution N: spearlike weapon

lampoon ridicule lance pierce with a lance cut into lancet small surgical tool for making incisions languid lacking energy or vitality weary languish lose animation or strength languor lack of physical or mental energy lassitude Ex. Lank, gaunt, Abraham lank long and thin Lincoln lap take in food or drink with one's tongue splash gently larceny theft Ex. petit larceny larder pantry place where food is kept largess generous gift (given to people who do not have enough) lascivious lustful lassitude languor weariness latch fastening or lock consisting of a movable bar that fits into a notch V: close with a latch latent present but not yet noticeable or active dormant lateral of or coming from the side latitude freedom from narrow limitations N. ADJ. laudable: laud praise praiseworthy lavish liberal wasteful



Ex. waves lapping the shore



ADJ. laudatory: expressing praise generous or wasteful in giving or using

2567 2568 2569 2570 2571 2572 2573 2574 2575 2576 2577 2578 2579 2580 2581 2582 2583 2584 2585 2586 2587 2588 2589 2590 2591 2592 2593

lax careless negligent layman man who is not man who is a cleric nonprofessional leash restraining rope fastened to the collar of an animal (to control it) Ex. a dog on a leash cause to rise or grow leaven add leaven to lighter leave-taking farewell or departure lechery gross lewdness lustfulness lectern reading desk or stand for a public speaker leery (of someone) suspicious wary leeway room to move margin legacy gift made by a something handed down will from an ancestor legato (of music) played smoothly legend explanatory list of symbols on a map legerdemain sleight(dexterity) of hand CF. light of hand legislature legislating branch of government CF. legislate: make laws leniency leonine lethal mildness like a lion deadly permissiveness

not paying enough attention


ADJ. lecherous

cautious latitude

ADJ. lenient: not severe in judgment or punishment

lethargic drowsy levee earthen or stone embankment to prevent flooding levitate rise and float in the air (especially by magical means) levity lack of seriousness or steadiness levy impose (a fine) lewd lustful lexicographer compiler of a dictionary lexicon dictionary liability drawback liaison contact that keeps parties in communication

dull CF. raise CF. light frivolity collect (a payment) CF. lexicography: work of compiling a dictionary handicap communication between groups

N. lethargy: state of sluggishness and inactivity

lightness of manner impose or collect (a tax)

debts one that maintains communication

2594 2595 2596 2597 2598 2599 2600 2601 2602 2603 2604 2605 2606 2607 2608 2609 2610 2611 2612 2613 2614 2615 2616 2617 2618 2619 2620 2621

libel defamatory written statement libertine debauched person libidinous lustful libido psychic and emotional energy or urges behind human activity libretto text of an opera or oratorio license official or legal permission licentious amoral lien legal claim or right on a property ligneous like wood lilliputian extremely small limber flexible limbo region near heaven or hell where certain souls are kept limn draw limp walk lamely limpid crystal clear lineage descent lineaments features especially of the face linger loiter or dawdle linguistic pertaining to language lionize treat (a person) as a celebrity liquidate settle accounts list tilt (as of a ship) listless lacking in spirit or energy

act of writing something that smears a person's character dissolute or licentious person

V. ADJ. libelous rou\'e

sexual desire CF. book latitude of action or speech lewd and lascivious

excessive freedom that causes harm or damage unrestrained

CF. Lilliput in Gulliver's Travels supple prison (slang) outline ADJ: lacking firmness ancestry distinctive shape or contour of the face be slow in leaving

pliable Ex. Purgatory and Limbo describe weak

CF. line delay going

pay off (a debt) lean over (to one side)

clear up

languid prayer in which the priest litany supplicatory calls out and the people prayer replies in the same words lithe flexible supple N. litigant: one party in a litigation lawsuit lawsuit litotes understatement Ex. ``not bad(=pretty for emphasis good)'' litter waste material thrown away (as bits of V: cover untidily with paper scattered untidily) scattered litter

CF. limber V. litigate

2622 2623 2624 2625 2626 2627 2628 2629 2630 2631 2632

livid loath

lead-colored reluctant

loathe detest lode metal-bearing vein(long deposit of an ore) loft room or space under the roof lofty very high log record of a voyage or flight loiter hang about/around loll lounge about longevity long life lookout act of keeping watch loom appear or take shape (usually in an enlarged, indistinct, or distorted form) lope gallop slowly lopsided heavier or larger on one side than the other loquacious talkative lot object used in making a determination at random lottery contest in which winners are selected in a drawing of lots lounge stand, sit, or lie in a lazy, relaxed way

black and blue (as from a bruise) ashen unwilling disinclined ADJ. loathsome: arousing loathing offensive

attic record of day-to-day activities stand idly about

section of a trunk linger

2633 2634 2635 2636 2637 2638 2639 2640 2641 2642 2643 2644 2645 2646 2647 2648 2649

long duration high place commanding a wide view person who keeps watch Ex. The shadow of the gallows loomed threateningly. N: apparatus for making thread into cloth

Ex. lopsided way of walking N. loquacity fate piece of land

Word List - 29
lout clumsy person low moo lubricate apply a lubricant to easily lucid understood lucrative profitable lucre money ludicrous laughable lugubrious mournful lull moment of calm lumber move heavily or clumsily ADJ. loutish make the sound of a cow N. lubricant: substance that reduces friction clear producing wealth profit ridiculous sorrowful period of reduced activity Ex. The bear lumbered through the woods CF. from countrysides ?

intelligible Ex. filthy lucre trifling Ex. a lull in the rain N: timber

2650 2651 2652 2653 2654 2655 2656 2657 2658 2659 2660 2661 2662 2663 2664 2665 2666

lumen unit of light energy (one candle's worth) luminary celebrity (in a specific field) luminous shining (esp. in the dark) lunar pertaining to the moon lunatic insane lurid wild lurk stealthily lie in waiting luscious pleasing to taste or smell lush (of a plant or grass) growing very well lust intense sexual desire luster lustrous shine shining

dignitary issuing light

object that gives light (as a celestial body) Ex. luminous paint/road signs

Ex. lunatic asylum sensational slink delicious

graphic exist unperceived

luxuriant abundant luxuriate take pleasure in great comfort macabre gruesome mace ceremonial staff used as a symbol of authority macerate soften by soaking in liquid

intense eagerness gloss (of a polished surface) brilliant growing healthily and in large amounts


Ex. lustrous hair excessively ornate

grisly clublike medieval weapon waste away


2667 2668 2669 2670 2671 2672 2673 2674 2675 2676

Machiavellian machinations or plots maculated

crafty double-dealing evil schemes schemes or plots to achieve an evil end spotted stained song for several singers madrigal pastoral song without instruments maelstrom violent whirlpool violent or tublent situation magisterial authoritative imperious magistrate official with power to administer the law ADJ. magnanimous: magnanimity generosity generous powerful or influential magnate person of person (in business or prominence or influence industry) magniloquent boastful pompous

Ex. macerate powdered wood to make paper of the political doctrine of Machiavelli, which holds that craft and deceit are justified in pursuing political power V. machinate CF. immaculate

CF. stream commanding

Ex. oil magnate

2677 2678 2679 2680 2681

magnitude greatness (in size or extent) maim mutilate makeshift temporary expedient or substitute (in the case of urgent need) maladroit clumsy malady illness

extent injure lastingly Ex. makeshift shelter not skillful



2682 2683 2684 2685 2686 2687 2688 2689 2690 2691 2692 2693 2694 2695 2696 2697 2698 2699 2700 2701

malaise uneasiness malapropism comic misuse of a word malapropos inappropriate malcontent person dissatisfied with existing state of affairs malediction curse malefactor evildoer maleficient doing evil malevolent wishing evil

vague feeling of ill health (without any particular pain or appearance of disease) CF. Mrs. Malaprop ADV. discontented person ADJ: discontented

2702 2703

criminal N. maleficience exhibiting ill will misconduct (by a public malfeasance wrongdoing official) malicious hateful spiteful bad-mouth(criticize malign speak evil of spitefully) malignant tending to cause death highly injurious malingerer one who V. malinger: feign illness feigns illness to escape duty to avoid work malleable (of a metal) capable of being shaped by pounding(beating) pliable malodorous foul-smelling mammal vertebrate animal whose female suckles its young mammoth gigantic enormous manacle restrain handcuff mandate order charge mandatory obligatory compulsory maneuver(manoeuver) strategic military or naval movement (done for training purposes) carefully planned process mange skin disease (esp. of domestic animals) marked by loss of hair

N. malevolence

expressing malice defame aggressively malevolent

(of someone) impressionable(easily influenced)

N. authoritative command of a mandate


2704 2705 2706 2707 2708 2709 2710 2711 2712 2713 2714 2715 2716 2717 2718 2719 2720 2721 2722 2723 2724

mangle tear or cut to pieces mangy shabby maniacal raging mad manifest evident manifestation outward demonstration manifesto public declaration of principles manifold many in number or kind

mutilate or disfigure wretched insane visible manifesting statement of policy

Ex. badly mangled bodies suffering from mange N. maniac: insane person obvious indication of the presence of something

numerous control or play upon manipulate operate with (people, forces, etc.) one's hands artfully mannered affected not natural affected style in art mannerism distinctive (according to a set of behavioral trait styles) mantle loose sleeveless outer garment cloak free from slavery or manumit emancipate bondage mar spoil the appearance of maraud move in search of plunder Ex. marauding army margin border room barely within a limit

varied maneuver Ex. mannered way of speech

something that covers or envelops

marginal of a margin marital pertaining to marriage maritime bordering on(adjacent to) the sea

allowance beyond what is needed Ex. marginal effect/writing ability

2725 2726

2727 2728

marked noticeable maroon leave helpless on a deserted island or coast ADJ. red brown marred damaged disfigured marrow soft fatty tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of blood cells guide ceremoniously to marshal put in order the correct place family of mammals that nurse their offspring in a pouch(pocket of skin or CF. kangaroo, opossum, leather) wombat martial warlike of war

nautical of the ships or the sea targeted for vengeance or attack Ex. marked improvement/man

V. mar: spoil

Ex. marshal the children into the museum

Ex. martial art/law

2729 2730 2731 2732 2733 2734 2735 2736 2737 2738 2739 2740 2741 2742 2743 2744 2745 2746

martinet strict disciplinarian martyr one who voluntarily suffers death for his or her religion or cause

person who demands total obedience to rules and orders CF. Jean Martinet great sufferer Ex. martyr to his rheumatism N: mixture of ground grain and nutrients fed to livestock and fowl

mash crush into mash convert into mash masochist person who enjoys his own pain CF. masochism mason one who builds N. masonry: work of a or works with stone or brick mason stonework or brickwork masquerade wear a mask N: costume party or ball at or disguise pretend which masks are worn mass Christian CF. Mass: ceremony of religious ceremony the Eucharist masticate chew mat not shiny matte having a dull finish materialism excessive regard for preoccupation with physical worldly concerns (rather comforts and things than spiritual matters) maternal motherly N. maternity: motherhood matin\'ee(matinee) dramatic or musical performance given in the afternoon matriarch woman who rules a family or larger social group matriculate enroll (in college or graduate school) CF. matrix matrimony state of being married array of numbers or matrix point of origin algebraic symbols mold or die maudlin effusively sentimental maul handle roughly batter injure by beating

Word List - 30
2747 2748 2749 2750 2751 2752 2753 mausoleum tomb mauve monumental large stately tomb pale purple nonconformist (in a group) CF. Mausolos

maverick rebel mawkish mushy(sentimental) and gushy maxim proverb mayhem meager

excessively and objectionably icky-sticky sentimental sentimental truth pithily stated crime of willfully maiming injury to body or crippling a person violent disorder scanty inadequate

2754 2755 2756 2757 2758 2759 2760 2761 2762

mealymouthed indirect in speech (when something unpleasant must be said) hypocritical meander wind or turn follow a winding or turning in its course course meddlesome interfering V. meddle: interfere mediate settle a dispute through the services of an outsider act as an intermediary mediocre ordinary commonplace meditation reflection thought medium element that nutrient setting in which is a creature's natural microorganisms are environment cultivated medley mixture meek submissive

evasive move aimlessly and idly

produce by mediating neither good nor bad V. meditate appropriate occupation or means of expression

2763 2764 2765 2766 2767 2768

2769 2770 2771 2772 2773 2774 2775 2776 2777 2778 2779 2780

megalomania mania for doing grandiose things melancholy gloomy melee fight mellifluous (of words or a voice) sweetly or smoothly flowing memento token memoir memoirs memorial something, such as a monument or holiday, intended to honor the memory of a person or event memorialize commemorate menace threat menagerie collection of wild animals on exhibition mendacious lying mendicant beggar menial suitable for servants mentor counselor mercantile concerning trade or merchants mercenary motivated solely by money or gain mercurial capricious meretricious flashy

patient and long-suffering mental disorder characterized by delusions of wealth, power, or importance morose blue

melodious reminder of the past autobiography

having a pleasant tune keepsake biography

ADJ: commemorative

V: threaten zoo habitually dishonest ADJ: living as a beggar lowly teacher

N. mendacity


N. quick and changing tawdry

fickle attractive on the surface but of no real value

2781 2782 2783 2784 2785 2786 2787 2788 2789 2790 2791 2792 2793 2794 2795

merger combination (of two business corporations) merit deserve mesmerize hypnotize metallurgical pertaining to the art of removing metals from ores metamorphosis change of form metaphor implied comparison

act of merging ADJ. meritorious: deserving reward or praise N. mesmerism CF. Franz Mesmer N. metallurgy: science that deals with extracting metals from ores Ex. metamorphosis of V. metamorphose: change by caterpillar to butterfly metamorphosis CF. simile N. metaphysics: branch of philosophy that examines the nature of reality administer momentarily brilliant

2796 2797 2798 2799 2800 2801 2802 2803

metaphysical pertaining to speculative philosophy of metaphysics mete measure distribute meteoric like a meteor swift meter arrangement of words in the form of poetry (by accentual rhythm) N. method: systematic methodical systematic method of procedure meticulous excessively careful (with great attention to detail) painstaking written in the form of metrical metric poetry metropolis large city mettle courage (to continue bravely in spite of difficulties) spirit heavy vaporous atmosphere often emanating from decaying miasma swamp gas matter microcosm small representative world world in miniature migrant changing its habitat wandering V. migrate: move from one region and settle in migratory wandering another milieu social environment means of expression militant combative bellicose Ex. militate against the militate work against chances of promotion militia army composed of ordinary citizens rather than professional soldiers

scrupulous Ex. metrical translation of Homer

ADJ. mettlesome

pervasive corrupting influence Ex. microcosm of English society Ex. migrant birds/workers move periodically from one region to another Ex. feel out of one's milieu N. CF. serve as a soldier

2804 2805 2806 2807 2808 2809 2810 2811 2812 2813 2814 2815 2816 2817 2818 2819 2820 2821 2822 2823 2824 2825 2826 2827 2828 2829 2830 2831 2832

millennium thousandyear period (as in the New Testament) mime pantomime(act without dialogue) mimicry imitation minatory menacing mincing affectedly dainty(delicate) mingle mix together in close association miniature small model minion servile dependent minuscule(miniscule) extremely small

hoped-for period of happiness and prosperity mimicry mimer

threatening V. mince: cut (esp. meat) walk with exaggerated into very small pieces primness

small painting obsequious follower

ADJ: small

CF. minutes: official minute extremely record of the proceedings small at a meeting minutiae petty or trivial details CF. minutia mirage unreal reflection optical illusion mire entangle stick in swampy ground mirth merriment laughter misadventure mischance ill luck misanthrope one who hates mankind misanthropist misapprehension error misunderstanding miscellaneous made up of a variety of parts miscellany mixture of writings on various subjects collection of various items mischance ill luck mischief behavior (of children) causing trouble with no serious harm damage misconduct immoral behavior bad management misconstrue interpret incorrectly misinterpret miscreant wretch wrongdoer misdemeanor minor crime misdeed miserly stingy mean misgivings doubts mishap unfortunate accident misnomer wrong or improper name incorrect designation

stick or sink in mire Ex. death by misadventure

V. misapprehend

harm V. misjudge villain wrongdoing

Word List - 31

2833 2834 2835 2836 2837 2838 2839 2840 2841 2842 2843 2844 2845 2846

misogamy hatred of marriage misogynist hater of woman CF. misogyny missile object to be thrown or projected missive letter written statement mite very small object or insect-like creature small coin mitigate mnemonic memory mobile mock mode modicum quantity appease pertaining to moderate

CF. sent

2847 2848 2849

2850 2851 2852 2853 2854 2855 2856 2857 2858

assisting the memory movable not fixed ridicule deride prevailing style current fashion limited small amount conforming to the current modish fashionable fashion modulate tone down in change the intensity or intensity tone of mogul powerful person Ex. oil moguls molecule the smallest particle (one or more atoms) of a substance that has all the properties of that substance mollify soothe an angry person mollycoddle pamper coddle molt(moult) periodically shed or cast off hairs or feathers (for replacement by a new growth) molten melted Ex. molten lava momentous very important N. moment momentum quantity of motion of a moving body impetus monarchy government under a single ruler monastic related to removed from worldly monks or monasteries concerns monetary pertaining to money mongrel plant or animal (esp. a dog) of mixed breed ADJ. monochromatic having only one color

make or become less in force or intensity N: device, such as as formula or rhyme, used as a mnemonic aid N. mobility imitate often in derision manner Ex. He does not have a modicum of sense

regulate CF. Mogol, Moghul


CF. momentary moving force

2859 2860 2861 2862 2863 2864 2865 2866 2867 2868 2869 2870 2871 2872 2873 2874 2875 2876 2877 2878 2879 2880 2881 2882 2883 2884

monochrome painting in only one color ADJ. monogram design composed of one or more initials of a name V. monograph scholarly article monolithic solidly uniform unchangeable monotheism belief in one God monotony sameness leading to boredom monotonousness monumental massive impressively large moodiness fits of ADJ. moody: given to depression or gloom changeable moods moratorium legal delay of Ex. declare moratorium on payment or action the building of new houses morbid given to unwholesome or unhealthy thought moody mordant biting sarcastic mores conventions moral standards place where bodies are kept before burial or morgue mortuary cremation moribund dying at the point of death morose ill-humored sullen mortar vessel in which substances are crushed with a pestle mortician undertaker CF. death mortify humiliate by embarassing excessively shame mosaic picture made of small colorful inlaid tiles ADJ. mote small speck (esp. of dust) recurrent thematic element in a musical or motif theme literary work motility ability to move ADJ. motile: moving spontaneously spontaneously motley multi-colored (as of a garment worn by a jester) mixed mottled blotched in coloring spotted motto brief statement used to express a principle mountebank charlatan boastful pretender


ADJ. monotonous built as a monument subject to periods of depression

characteristic of disease stinging moral customs

CF. death sullenly melancholy

punish the flesh

single or repeated pattern

heterogeneous Ex. mottled face

2885 2886 2887 2888 2889 2890 2891 2892 2893 2894 2895 2896 2897 2898 2899 2900 2901 2902 2903 2904 2905 2906 2907 2908 2909 2910 2911 2912

muddle confuse muggy (of weather) warm and damp mulct defraud a person of something multifarious varied multiform having many forms multilingual having many languages multiplicity state of being numerous or multiple mundane worldly as opposed to spiritual munificent very generous in giving mural wall painting murky dark and gloomy murmur low, indistinct, continuous sound muse ponder at length musky having the odor of musk

mix up confusedly

N: state of confusion

swindle greatly diversified

Ex. mulct the boy of his legacy Ex. multifarious activities

fluent in several languages large number everyday Ex. munificent benefactor thick with fog V. CF. mumble N: source of inspiration (esp. of a poet) N. musk: odorous substance secreted by an Asian deer Ex. muster up one's strength for the ordeal CF. moist ADJ. mutable: able to change not pronounced toned down deprive of a limb or an essential part Ex. mutinous teenagers Ex. multiplicity of details of the ordinary N. munificience vague

muster gather assemble (troops) musty stale (in odor or taste) spoiled by age mutablility ability to change in form fickleness mute silent without speech muted silent muffled mutilate maim mutinous unruly mutter utter (complaining words) indistinctly in low tones myopic nearsighted myriad very large number mystic of hidden meaning and spiritual power nadir lowest point naivet\'e(naivety) quality of being unsophisticated narcissist conceited person injure lastingly rebellious

lacking foresight ADJ. CF. ten thousand Ex. mystic ceremonies point on the celestial sphere diametrically opposite the zenith simplicity N. narcissism

N. myopia

N. CF. mysticism

artlessness CF. narcissus

2913 2914 2915 2916 2917 2918 2919 2920 2921

narrative related to telling a story nascent natal birth incipient connected with

N: narrated account coming into being or existence CF. prenatal

story Ex. nascent ability in music CF. postnatal

Word List - 32
natation swimming natty neatly or smartly dressed dapper nausea feeling of sickness and desire to vomit disgust nauseate cause to become sick fill with disgust nauseous causing nausea feeling nausea nautical pertaining to ships or navigation navigable (of a body of water) wide and deep enough to allow ships to pass (of a ship or aircraft) able through to be steered nebula diffuse mass of interstellar dust or gas galaxy nebulous vague hazy necromancy black magic sorcery nectar drink of the sweet liquid collected by gods bees nefarious very wicked negate cancel out nullify failure to take reasonable negligence neglect care negligible so small, trifling, or unimportant as to be easily disregarded nemesis someone seeking revenge source of downfall or ruin neologism new or newly coined word or phrase neophyte recent new member of a religious convert group nepotism favoritism (to a relative) CF. nephew Ex. nether nether lower garments/regions nettle irritate annoy nexus connection nib beak(bill) pen point nicety precision accuracy smart CF. seasickness fill nausea

2922 2923 2924 2925 2926 2927 2928 2929 2930 2931 2932 2933 2934 2935 2936 2937 2938 2939

cloudy dealings with the dead

cause to have no effect ADJ. negligent: neglectful

CF. Nemesis



minute distinction or difference

2940 2941

2942 2943 2944

niggardly meanly stingy niggle spend too much time on minor points (esp. when finding fault) nihilist one who considers traditional beliefs to be groundless and existence meaningless nimble quick in movement

parsimonious find fault

N. niggard: stingy person Ex. niggle over details

absolute skeptic agile stop something's growth or development

revolutionary terrorist quick in understanding

2945 2946 2947 2948 2949 2950 2951 2952 2953 2954 2955 2956 2957 2958 2959 2960 2961 2962 2963

nip snip off bite nirvana in Buddhist teachings, the ideal state in which the individual loses himself in the attainment of an impersonal beatitude nocturnal done or active Ex. nocturnal at night animals/raids CF. nocturne noisome foul smelling very unpleasant unwholesome N. nomad: tribe who migrates from place to nomadic wandering place nomenclature terminology(system of system of names or specialized words) naming things nominal in name only of a name trifling nonchalance indifference lack of concern composure refusing commitment to a noncommittal neutral particular opinion unpledged nondescript undistinctive ordinary ordinary-looking nonentity person of no importance nonexistence bring to a halt by nonplus put at a loss confusion perplex nonsense speech or foolish behavior or Ex. make (a) nonsense of: writing with no meaning language spoil noose loop formed in a rope Ex. nostalgia for the clothes nostalgia homesickness longing for the past of 1920s nostrum questionable medicine quack medicine CF. our (remedy) notable conspicuous worthy of note remarkable notch V-shaped cut in a surface V. notoriety disrepute ill fame nourish provide with food necessary for life and growth


2965 2966 2967 2968 2969 2970 2971 2972 2973 2974 2975 2976 2977 2978 2979 2980 2981 2982 2983 2984

nourishment something that nourishes nova star that suddenly becomes much brighter and then returns to its original brightness novelty something new novice beginner noxious harmful nuance shade of slight difference in meaning or color nubile marriageable nugatory worthless nullify make invalid numismatist person who collects coins nuptial related to marriage or the wedding ceremony nurse suckle nurture nourish nutrient nourishing substance nutrition process of nourishing or being nourished nutritious providing nourishment oaf stupid awkward person


newness CF. obnoxious

ADJ. novel: new

subtle distinction of marriageable age CF. connubial futile make null invalidate N. numismatics: study or collection of money, coins, and medals N. nuptials: wedding ceremony take care of (as a nurse) feed ADJ: providing nourishment CF. malnutrition

bear in mind educate

2985 2986 2987 2988 2989

CF. elf blasphemous use of sacred words to express oath solemn promise strong feelings oatmeal crushed oats used for making porridge refusing to change one's obdurate stubborn belief obeisance bow (to show respect and obedience) obelisk tall column tapering(becoming gradually narrower toward the end) and ending in a pyramid obese excessively fat N. obesity obfuscate confuse muddle obituary death notice (esp. in a newspaper) ADJ. objective not influenced by emotions fair


cause confusion

N: goal

2990 2991 2992 2993 2994 2995 2996 2997 2998 2999 3000 3001 3002

obligatory oblique obliterate completely

binding indirect destroy

required compulsory slanting (deviating from the perpendicular or from a straight line) Ex. oblique reference wipe out condition of being completely forgotten unaware disgrace disagreeable vague servile Ex. obliterate the village forgetfulness wholly absorbed infamy Ex. obnoxious smell unclear full of servile compliance

oblivion obscurity oblivious inattentive or unmindful obloquy slander obnoxious offensive obscure dark obsequious slavishly attentive obsequy funeral ceremony obsessive related to thinking about something constantly obsidian black volcanic rock

of an obsession


Word List - 33
obsolete outmoded obstetrician physician specializing in delivery(assisting in giving birth) of babies obstinate stubborn obstreperous boisterous obtrude push (oneself or one's ideas) forward or intrude obtuse blunt obviate make unnecessary Occident the West occlude shut occult mysterious oculist physician who specializes in treatment of the eyes odds chances odious arousing strong dislike odium detestation odoriferous giving off an odor odorous having an odor no longer used

3003 3004 3005 3006 3007 3008 3009 3010 3011 3012 3013 3014 3015 3016 3017

N. obstetrics hard to control or treat noisy and uncontrollable impose (oneself or one's ideas) on others not sharp get rid of close secret

CF. midwife Ex. obstinate cough

butt in stupid Ex. obviate the need obstruct supernatural

probability hateful(causing hatred) quality of being odious

disagreement vile hatefulness

3018 3019 3020 3021 3022 3023 3024 3025 3026 3027 3028 3029 3030 3031 3032 3033 3034 3035 3036 3037 3038

odyssey long, eventful, adventurous journey offensive attacking insulting done without prior thought offhand casual or preparation excessively pushy in officious meddlesome offering one's services ogle look at amorously make eyes at olfactory concerning the sense of smell oligarchy government by a privileged few ominous threatening of an evil omen omnipotent all-powerful having unlimited power omnipresent universally present ubiquitous omniscient all-knowing omnivorous eating both plant and animal food devouring everything onerous burdensome onomatopoeia words formed in imitation of natural sounds onslaught vicious assault fierce attack onus burden responsibility ooze (of a thick N: mud or thick liquid as liquid) pass or flow slowly at the bottom of a river opalescent iridescent lustrous opaque dark not transparent something that relieves opiate medicine to emotions or causes induce sleep or deaden pain inaction opportune timely well-chosen opportunist individual who sacrifices principles for expediency by taking advantage of circumstances N. opportunism disgrace arising from opprobrium infamy shameful conduct optician maker and seller of eyeglasses optimist person who looks on the bright side N. optimism optimum most favorable optimal optional not compulsory left to one's choice optometrist one who fits glasses to remedy visual defects


overly eager in offering unwanted services or advices Ex. old men ogling young girls

Ex. unexpected onslaught of the enemy

like an opal N. opacity sleep-producing drug containing opium

3039 3040 3041 3042 3043 3044 3045


N: most favorable condition N. option: act of choosing

3046 3047 3048 3049 3050 3051 3052 3053 3054 3055 3056 3057 3058 3059 3060 3061 3062 3063 3064 3065 3066 3067 3068 3069 3070 3071 3072 3073

opulence extreme wealth opus work (esp. musical composition) oracular of an oracle orator public speaker oratorio dramatic poem set to music ordain decree or command ordeal severe trial or affliction ordinance decree ordination ceremony conferring holy orders orgy wild drunken revelry orient get one's bearings orientation act of finding oneself in society orifice mouthlike opening ornate excessively or elaborately decorated ornithologist scientific student of birds

luxuriousness Ex. magnum opus: masterpiece prophetic long musical work with singing but without acting grant holy orders

abundance CF. opera uttered as if with divine authority

CF. cantata predestine trial(test of patience or endurance)

difficult experience authoritative order ceremony of ordaining a priest unrestrained indulgence in an activity Ex. orgy of shopping adjust orienting small opening (esp. to a cavern or passage of the body)

make familiar with a situation

CF. mouth

orthodox traditional orthography correct spelling CF. ortho-: straight oscillate vibrate pendulumlike waver osseous made of bone bony ossify change or become hard and harden into bone unchanging in one's ideas ostensible apparent appearing as such ostentatious showy trying to attract attention ostracize banish from a group exclude from public favor oust expel drive out outcast one that has been excluded from a society ADJ. outfit clothing or equipment for a special purpose Ex. cowboy outfit eager to mix socially with outgoing sociable others outlandish bizzare peculiar

N. ornithology: scientific study of birds (of someone) conservative in belief

adhering to an established doctrine correct

professed(pretended) pretentious ban force out


3074 3075 3076 3077 3078 3079 3080 3081 3082 3083 3084 3085 3086 3087 3088 3089 3090 3091

outlaw fugitive from the law (excluded from legal V: declare (someone) to protection) be an outlaw view from a particular outlook point of view place outmoded no longer in fashion or use no longer stylish outrage act of extreme violence or viciousness resentful anger outskirts outspoken outstrip outwit ovation applause overbearing overblown fringes candid outrun outsmart enthusiastic bossy inflated

deprive of the protection of the law expectation for the future old-fashioned V: commit an outrage on

outer borders (as of a city) Ex. outskirts of Boston blunt surpass outdo defeat by behaving more cleverly

oversee watch over and direct overt open to view overthrow topple overture musical introduction to a long musical piece overturn turn over overweening arrogant overwhelm (of water) cover completely

domineering and arrogant decisively important exaggerated N. oversight: unintentional failure to notice or do supervise something public not secret N. first offer or proposal (to begin talks in the hope of reaching an agreement) Ex. overtures for peace capsize topple presumptuous defeat completely by much greater force Ex. overwhelmed by grief

Word List - 34
3092 3093 3094 3095 3096 3097 3098 3099 3100 3101 overwrought nervous or excited extremely agitated ovoid egg-shaped CF. ovum pachyderm thick-skinned animal pacifist one opposed to force pacify soothe padre chaplain (in the armed forces) paean song of praise or joy painstaking taking pains palatable agreeable palate roof of the mouth hysterical CF. ovulate

antimilitarist make calm or quiet

ADJ. N. pacifism: opposition to war as a means of resolving disputes subdue

Ex. paeans celebrating the victory showing hard work pleasing to the taste sense of the taste

taking great care

3102 3103 3104

3105 3106 3107 3108 3109 3110 3111 3112 3113 3114 3115 3116 3117 3118 3119 3120 3121 3122 3123 3124 3125 3126

palatial of or suitable for a palace magnificent paleontology study of CF. paleo-: ancient or prehistoric life or fossils prehistoric palette board on which painter mixes pigments(coloring matters) piece of writing material used for second time after original writing has been erased pall become boring grow tiresome pallet small poor bed Ex. straw pallet make less severe or palliate ease pain offensive (a crime or (without curing) illness) pallid pale wan palm conceal in the palm of the hand palpable palpitate paltry pan panacea panache tangible throb insignificant criticize harshly cure-all flair palm off: pass off (of something bad) easily perceptible beat rapidly petty remedy for all diseases manner of doing things without any difficulty (causing admiration) affecting the majority of people wild noisy disorder

Ex. paleography: study of ancient written documents

Ex. pallid complexion Ex. palm off some bad oranges onto the lady/the painting as a real Renoir obvious flutter trifling

flamboyance N: pandemic disease CF. Paradise Lost

pandemic widespread Pandemonium wild tumult(commotion) pander cater to (the low desires of others)

Ex. I don't deserve such panegyric formal praise encomium panegyrics. pang sudden sharp feeling of pain panoramic denoting an unobstructed and N. panorama: unbroken comprehensive view view of a wide area pantomime acting without dialogue V. papyrus ancient paper made from stem of papyrus plant parable short simple story teaching a moral example that serves as a paradigm model model pattern

3127 3128 3129 3130 3131 3132 3133 3134 3135

3136 3137 3138 3139 3140 3141 3142 3143 3144 3145 3146 3147 3148 3149

paradox something apparently contradictory in nature (that may nonetheless statement that looks false be true) but is actually correct paragon model of perfection Ex. paragon of virtue parallel similar analogous corresponding parallelism state of being parallel similarity analogy Ex. parameters of the parameter limit independent variable problem paramount foremost in importance supreme CF. para-: beyond paramour illicit lover paranoia psychosis marked by delusions of N: ADJ: paranoid, grandeur or persecution paranoiac odds and ends used in a paraphernalia equipment particular activity personal belongings paraphrase restate a passage in one's own words while retaining thought of N: restatement of a text in author other words parasite animal or plant living on another toady sycophant V. parch: make or become extremely dry (by exposure to parched extremely dry very thirsty heat) parchment writing material made from the skin of a sheep or goat pare cut away the outer covering or skin of (with a knife) trim Ex. pare apples/expenses pariah social outcast Ex. Mariah the pariah parish area in the care of a single priest and served by one main church parity equality close resemblance CF. disparate parlance language manner of speaking idiom parley conference (between opponents) CF. speak parochial narrow in scope or outlook provincial related to parishes parody humorous imitation spoof takeoff paroxysm fit or attack of pain, laughter, rage sudden outburst parquet floor made of wood strips inlaid in a mosaic CF. strip: long narrow like matter piece

3150 3151 3152 3153 3154 3155 3156 3157 3158 3159

parry parsimony partial partiality partial partisan partition parts parvenu pass\'e pass_off

ward off a blow stinginess incomplete state of being one-sided divide into upstart old-fashioned present falsely

deflect excessive frugality favoring one side over another inclination prejudiced newly rich person past the prime represent falsely to be acted upon

Ex. He parried the unwelcome question very skillfully ADJ. parsimonious having a liking for something favorable bias committed to a party (with dislike of any others)

3160 3161 3162 3163 3164 3165 3166 3167 3168 3169 3170 3171 3172 3173 3174 3175 3176

passive not active paste smooth viscous mixture as of flour(powder made by crushing grain) and water (used as an adhesive) pastiche imitation of another's style in musical composition or in writing pastoral rural pastry paste of flour and water (eaten when baked) patent obvious pathetic causing sadness, compassion, pity pathological pertaining to disease pathos tender sorrow patina green crust on old bronze works or copper patois local or provincial dialect patriarch father and ruler of a family or tribe patrician noble patrimony property inherited from a father patronize paucity pauper person peccadillo or fault support scarcity very poor slight offense

receiving an action without acting in return

V: cause to adhere by applying paste work of art openly imitating the works of other artists of rural life idyllic

easily seen touching N. pathology: study of disease pity tone slowly taken by varnished painting

open for the public to read

quality in art or literature that produces these feelings


N: person of high rank

act superior toward dearth

treat in a condescending manner

CF. sin

Word List - 35
3177 3178 3179 pecuniary pertaining to money pedagogue teacher pedagogy teaching pedant scholar who overemphasizes book learning, trivial details of learning, or technicalities pedantic bookish peddle travel about selling (wares) pedestal support or base as for a pillar or statue CF. child leader art of education

3180 3181 3182 3183 3184 3185 3186 3187 3188 3189 3190 3191 3192 3193 3194

showing off learning CF. foot

marked by an excessive ostentatious concern for book learning

3195 3196 3197 3198 3199 3200 3201

unimaginative(lacking in pedestrian ordinary dull imagination) pediatrician physician specializing in children's diseases N. pediatrics pedigree ancestry lineage peer one who has equal standing with another nobleman V: look intently peerless having no equal incomparable peevish bad-tempered irritable V. peeve: make angry pejorative (of a word or phrase) suggesting that someone is of little value negative in connotation having a belittling effect pell-mell in confusion disorderly Ex. dash pell-mell pellucid transparent limpid(crystal clear) clear in meaning pen fenced enclosure for animals confining space Ex. sheep pen penance self-imposed Ex. do penance for one's punishment for sin sins CF. penitent strong liking (esp. for something that is penchant strong disapproved of by other inclination people) Ex. penchant for fast cars pendant(pendent) hanging N: ornament (hanging from a down from something pending necklace etc.) pending not yet decided or settled impending Ex. pending decision pendulous hanging suspended penetrate enter into pierce permeate penitent repentant N. penology study of prison management and criminal rehabilitation

3202 3203 3204 3205 3206 3207 3208 3209 3210 3211 3212 3213 3214 3215 3216 3217 3218 3219 3220 3221 3222 3223 3224 3225 3226 3227 3228 3229

pensive dreamily or deeply thoughtful penumbra partial shadow (in anextreme eclipse) penury poverty peon landless agricultural worker perceptive insightful percussion striking one object against another sharply perdition damnation peregrination journey peremptory demanding and leaving no choice perennial something long-lasting perfidious treacherous perforate pierce perfunctory done routinely and with little care perigee point of moon's orbit when it is nearest the earth perimeter outer boundary peripatetic walking about from place to place (to work) peripheral of a periphery periphery outside edge especially of a round surface perjury false testimony while under oath permeable that can be permeated permissive allowing much freedom pernicious very harmful peroration conclusion of an oration perpetrate commit an offense perpetual everlasting perpetuate make perpetual perquisite(perk) any gain above stipulated salary persevere continue steadily in spite of difficulties

sadly thoughtful CF. almost shadow stinginess bond servant showing a good ability at perceiving and understanding

thoughtful with a hint of sadness

ADJ. penurious: very poor menial worker aware

N: striking together of two Ex. percussion instrument bodies complete ruin hell V. peregrinate imperative perennial plant disloyal put a hole through superficial CF. apogee length of the outer boundary moving marginal perimeter V. perjure oneself: testify falsely under oath penetrable lenient deadly perorating do (something wrong) make something last for a long time preserve from extinction Ex. perquisites such as free meals and a car Ex. peremptory decree/knock ADJ: lasting through the year or many years N. perfidy: treachery

not thorough

circumference Ex. peripatetic school of philosophy outer Ex. periphery of the town

porous Ex. permissive society very destructive V. perorate: conclude a speech

3230 3231 3232 3233 3234 3235 3236 3237 3238 3239 3240 3241 3242 3243 3244 3245 3246 3247 3248 3249 3250 3251

persist continue in existence personable attractive (in personality or represent (an appearance) personify inanimate object) as a person perspicacious (of someone) having insight perspicuity clearness of expression perspicuous (of something) plainly expressed pert (esp. of a girl or young woman) impertinent pertinacious holding tenaciously to an action pertinent suitable perturb disturb greatly peruse read through with care pervasive spread throughout perverse purposely continuing to do something wrong perversion pervert corruption corrupt


continue in a course of action in spite of opposition

be the embodiment or perfect example of penetrating freedom from ambiguity easy to understand forward stubborn to the point

Ex. She is evil/patience personified astute

Ex. perspicuous comments trim persistent relevant

N. perusal V. pervade: (of smells, ideas, feelings) spread throughout stubbornly wrongheaded

charge perverted


turning from right to wrong turn from right to wrong misuse tendency to take the pessimism belief that life gloomiest possible view of a is basically bad or evil gloominess situation pestilential(pestilent) causing plague tending to cause death baneful pestle tool for mashing or grinding substances in a hard bowl or mortar cause to become petrify turn to stone stonelike stun or paralyze petty trivial unimportant very small petulant touchy peevish ill-tempered phalanx formation of group of men packed infantry carrying overlapping together (for attack or shields and long spears defense) pharisaical pertaining to the Pharisees, who paid scrupulous attention to tradition self-righteous hypocritical

3253 3254 3255

pharisee Pharisee: member of an ancient Jewish group that emphasized strict observance of the Mosaic law (considering themselves very holy) phenomena observable facts philanderer faithless lover

hypocritical self-righteous person subjects of scientific SG. phenomenon: observable investigation fact flirt

Word List - 36
3256 3257 philanthropist lover of mankind doer of good N. philanthropy N. philately: stamp philatelist stamp-collector collecting Philistine narrow-minded person, uncultured and uncultured person who is exclusively interested in indifferent to artistic and member of an ancient people material gain cultural values in Palestine philology study of language or words CF. phlegm: sticky mucus phlegmatic calm and produced in the respiratory unexcitable not easily disturbed tract phobia morbid fear phoenix symbol of Ex. phoenix rising from its immortality or rebirth ashes phylum major classification, second to category ranking below a kingdom, of plants and kingdom and above a animals class division physiognomy face (as art of judging human showing the character and character from facial the mind) features physiological pertaining to the science of the function of living organisms N. physiology piebald of different spotted in different colors colors mottled (esp. in black and white) piecemeal one part at a time gradually in stages pied piebald piety devoutness pigment coloring matter (usually powder to be mixed with water or oil) pilfer steal things of small value pillage plunder pillory punish by placing in a wooden frame or pillory variegated(many-colored) multicolored reverence for God ADJ. pious

3258 3259 3260 3261 3262

3263 3264 3265 3266 3267 3268 3269 3270 3271 3272 3273

filch subject or expose to criticism and ridicule



3274 3275 3276 3277 3278 3279 3280 3281 3282 3283 3284 3285 3286 3287 3288 3289 3290 3291 3292 3293 3294 3295 3296 3297 3298 3299

pinch squeeze between the thumb and a finger, or other edges pine long for pinion restrain or immobilize by binding the wings or legs pinnace small boat pinnacle peak pious devout piquant pleasantly tarttasting pique irritation piscatorial pertaining to fishing pitfall hidden danger pith core or marrow pithy concise and meaningful pittance small amount (of money) pivotal of a pivot placate pacify placebo harmless substance prescribed as a dummy pill placid peaceful plagiarize steal another's ideas or writings and pass them off as one's own plaintive expressing sorrow plait braid plane carpenter's tool for smoothing and leveling wood plaster paste that hardens to a smooth solid and is used for coating walls plasticity ability to be molded platitude trite remark platonic purely spiritual plaudit praise

Ex. I had to pinch myself to make sure I wasn't dreaming. N: amount that can be held between the thumb and a finger yearn N: bird's wing highest point religious spicy

languish from longing or grief

acme N. piety pleasantly stimulating

resentment from wounded pride (eg. loss in a contest) V: provoke CF. Pisces concealed trap spongelike substance in the center of stems substantial small allowance or wage central bring peace to

essence meaty

critical conciliate


Ex. placid child/lake

Ex. ideas plagiarized from my article N. plagiarism mournful interwine V. CF. flat V. ADJ. plastic: capable of being shaped or molded commonplace statement theoretical enthusiastic approval Ex. plaintive song interweave strands or lengths of

Ex. plastic material such as clay ADJ. platitudinous without sensual desire round(succession or series) of applause

3300 3301 3302 3303 3304 3305 3306 3307 3308 3309 3310 3311 3312 3313 3314 3315 3316 3317 3318 3319 3320 3321 3322 3323 3324 3325

plausible true


plebeian common plebiscite direct vote by the entire electorate (on an important issue) plenary (of power) complete plenitude abundance plethora excess pliable flexible pliant flexible plight difficult condition ploy strategem to gain an advantage pluck plumage bird courage feathers of a

having a show of truth but open to doubt specious pertaining to the common vulgar people

full plenty overabundance easily influenced easily influenced condition or state (esp. a bad state or condition) tactic V: pull off or out

fully attended by all qualified members great amount Ex. a plethora of excuses yielding

predicament Ex. management ploy pull out the hair or feathers of

N: weight on the end of a plumb exactly vertical line plumber one who installs and repairs pipes and plumbing(pipes) something that rises into plume feather, esp. the air (like the shape of a large or showy one feather) plummet fall sharply fall straight down plump pleasantly fat nicely rounded plutocracy society ruled by the wealthy podiatrist doctor who treats ailments of the feet chiropodist podium pedestal raised platform poignancy quality of being deeply moving keenness of emotion poise good judgment with composure balance characterized by opposite polar of a pole extremes polarity state of having two opposite qualities polarize split into opposite extremes or camps polemic attack or defense of an opinion controversy or refutation

V: examine very carefully or critically in order to understand

Ex. plume of smoke: ¹ö¼¸ ±¸¸§ Ex. Stock prices plummeted.

N. podiatrics

ADJ. poignant: touching V: place in a carefully balanced position Ex. polar opposites

argument in support of point of view

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3340 3341

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disputatious (rather than polemical(polemic) simply expressing aggressive in verbal attack opinions) politic prudent judicious polity (particular form form of government of of) political organization nation or state polygamist one who has more than one spouse at a time CF. bigamy polyglot speaking several languages multilingual pomposity self-important acting like a stuffed behavior shirt(pompous person) ponderous having great weight weighty pontifical pertaining to a bishop or pope pompous or pretentious pore study industriously ponder porous full of pores like a sieve porridge soft food made by boiling oatmeal portend foretell presage portly stout corpulent pose assume a particular posture put forward poseur person who pretends to be sophisticated, elegant, etc., to impress others person who poses posterity descendants future generations (as of child born after father's death or book published after author's coming or occurring after death) one's death postmortem autopsy postulate self-evident truth posture assume an affected pose potable suitable for drinking potent powerful potentate monarch potential expressing possibility potion dose (of liquids) potpourri mixture heterogeneous medley

well judged Ex. student polity CF. polyandry Ex. polyglot person/society ADJ. pompous: self-important unwieldy CF. pontiff: pope scrutinize

be a sign or warning of


CF. pose Ex. go down to posterity

Ex. posthumous fame/novel

ADJ: occurring after death of a postmortem something assumed V: assume the truth of (as a without proof basis of an argument) act artificially drinkable convincing sovereign latent liquid dose N: pose


N: capacity for growth mixture of dried flower petals a pot (to give a pleasant smell to a room)

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poultice soothing application applied to sore and inflamed portions of the body pr\'ecis abstract practicable feasible practical experience based on concise summing up of main points concise summary of a text

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pragmatic practical (as opposed to idealistic) pragmatist practical person prance move about in a spirited manner (proudly and confidently) prank mischievous trick prate talk idly speak foolishly prattle talk idly babble preamble introductory statement precarious unsafe lacking in stability precedent preceding (in time, rank, etc.) Word List - 37 precept practical rule guiding conduct Ex. mother's precept precinct division of a city for election or police precincts: space that purposes surrounds a building precipice cliff precipitant something that causes a substance in a chemical solution to separate out in solid form precipitate hurl downward precipitous steep precise exact preclude make impossible precocious advanced in development precursor forerunner predator predatory animal or bird predecessor former occupant of a post dangerous position

of or acquired through practice (rather than theory) useful concerned with practical worth or impact of something Ex. pragmatic test of the skill N. pragmatism: pragmatic way of dealing with things

boast idly N. CF. prate


Ex. precincts of the college Ex. on the edge of the precipice

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OP. solvent throw headlong overhasty

hasten precipitate

prevent N. precocity predecessor predatory person


creature that seizes and devours another animal

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predetermine determine in advance predestine settle or decide beforehand predicament difficult tricky or dangerous situation situation dilemma predilection preference partiality predispose give an inclination toward (in Ex. predispose people to advance) make susceptible to certain cancer preeminent outstanding superior preempt prevent in advance head off(forestall) forestall by acting first preen make oneself feel self-satisfaction or (of a bird) smooth or clean tidy in appearance pride (feathers) with the beak prefatory introductory of a preface prefigure be a sign of foreshadow prehensile capable of grasping or holding (esp. by wrapping around) Ex. prehensile tails prelate church priest of high position in dignitary the church (esp. bishop) introductory performance prelude introduction or event forerunner premeditate plan in advance Ex. premeditated murder proposition upon which an premise assumption postulate argument is based premonition forewarning presentiment foreboding premonitory serving to warn V. preponderate: be preponderance superiority greater in power, weight, of power, quantity, etc. or importance ADJ. preponderant prepossessing attractive CF. preoccupying ? preposterous absurd completely unreasonable ridiculous prerogative privilege unquestionable right CF. ask before presage foretell be a warning or sign of N: presentiment prescience ability to knowledge of actions foretell the future before they occur ADJ. prescient presentiment premonition foreboding impression produced by achievements or reputation assume excessively forward pretend to: claim to possess feeling something will happen ADJ: causing admiration act overconfidently arrogant

prestige respect or admiration presume take for granted presumptuous going beyond what is right pretend feign pretension pretentiousness

make pretensions to Ex. I make no pretensions to claim (without foundation) skill as an artist.

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pretentious ostentatious preternatural beyond what is normal in nature pretext excuse prevail be widespread prevalent widespread

showy supernatural

pompous Ex. preternatural strength/forces gain victory

triumph over generally accepted hide the truth (by prevaricate lie equivocating) prey target of a hunt victim prim proper to the point of affectation very precise and formal primal first in rank or importance being first in time primary first in rank or importance principal primate group of mammals including humans prime period of ideal or peak condition earliest or beginning stage primogeniture seniority by birth primordial existing at the beginning (of time) primp groom oneself with care pristine unspoiled privation lack of the basic necessities or comforts of life privy secret prize pry probe explore with a probe or tools probity uprightness problematic causing a problem proclivity inclination procrastinate postpone procurement obtaining prod poke (with a pointed object) prodigal wasteful prodigious enormous prodigy highly gifted child profane violate state of being the firstborn child rudimentary adorn oneself remaining in a pure state hardship hidden move with a lever investigate honesty open to doubt natural tendency (esp. towards something bad) delay or put off V. procure: obtain by effort stir up reckless with money marvelous person with exceptional talents desecrate (something holy)

V: hunt and eat as prey exceedingly proper original earliest in time

Ex. in the prime of life right of the eldest child (to inherit the entire property of one or both parents)

characteristic of earlier times want not public value highly N: slender instrument used to explore a wound or body cavity incorruptibility doubtful

obtain (a prostitute) for another urge profuse extraordinary marvel treat unworthily

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profligate wasteful (of money) profound deep profusion great amount progenitor ancestor progeny children prognosis forecasted course of a disease prognosticate predict (according to present indications) prohibitive so high as to prohibit purchase or use projectile missile proletarian member of the working class proliferate grow rapidly (in numbers) prolific producing offspring or fruit in abundance prolixity tedious wordiness prologue introduction (to a poem or play) prolong lengthen prominent protruding(sticking out) promiscuous mixed indiscriminately promontory headland promote advance in rank prompt cause promulgate announce prone inclined to prong pointed projecting part pronounced distinct prop support placed under or against something propagate increase in number by producing young propellant(propellent) substance which propels or drives forward (such as an explosive charge or a rocket fuel)

dissipated not superficial plenty offspring prediction

wildly immoral complete overabundance descendants CF. prognostic

tending to prevent the purchase or use of something fired or thrown object (such as stone or bullet) blue collar guy spread fertile verbosity


N. proletariat: working class (who have to work for wages) multiply fecund ADJ. prolix: wordy

extend conspicuous indiscriminate

draw out notable not choosing carefully

advance urge

help to flourish provoke make known by official proclaim a doctrine or law publication likely to (suffer) prostrate

very noticeable V. multiply

Ex. pronounced limp



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propensity natural inclination prophetic of a prophet or prophecy prophylactic used to prevent disease propinquity nearness (in space or relationship) propitiate appease

having to do with predicting the future

N. prophecy

N: something prophylactic condom proximity conciliate auspicious backer set forth quality of being proper N. propulsion dull and unimaginative front arch of a stage ostracize N. proselyte: new convert to a doctrine or religion study of the metrical structure of verse thrive physical well-being rich make prostrate grow well kinship make peaceful advantageous opposite of opponent Ex. propound a problem/theory correct conduct matter-of-fact(concerned with facts, not imagination or feelings)

Word List - 38
propitious proponent propound consideration propriety propulsive forward favorable supporter put forth for or analysis fitness driving

prosaic lacking in imagination proscenium part of stage in front of curtain proscribe prohibit proselytize (induce someone to) convert to a religion or belief prosody art of versification prosper become successful (esp. financially) prosperity good fortune and financial success prosperous successful prostrate stretch out full on ground prot\'eg\'e person receiving protection and support from a patron protagonist leader or noticeable supporter of an idea protean able to take on many forms protocol diplomatic etiquette prototype original work used as a model by others protract prolong protrude stick out protuberance protrusion


affluent enervate

chief character in a play or story versatile ceremony and etiquette observed by diplomats CF. Proteus: sea god to change his shape at will first copy of a treaty before its ratification

lengthen in time jut swelling

draw out project bulge

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provenance origin provender livestock

place of dry food for

origin or source of something fodder someone or something well known for notoriety divine care displaying foresight limited in outlook something provided temporary

Ex. Gunpowder is of Chinese provenance

proverb adage providence quality of being provident provident providing for future needs provincial pertaining to a province provision act of providing provisional tentative proviso stipulation provocative arousing anger or sexual interest prowess extraordinary ability proximity nearness proxy authorized agent prude excessively modest or proper person (who is easily shocked by improper things, esp. of a sexual nature) prudent cautious prune cut away prurient having or causing lustful desires and thoughts pry inquire impertinently (someone else's private affairs) pseudonym pen name psyche soul psychiatrist doctor who treats mental diseases psychic of psyche

ADJ. proverbial: of a proverb god's care thrifty narrow preparatory measure

condition in an agreement provision annoying military bravery ADJ. proximate authority to act for another Ex. provocative in tight jeans Ex. prowess in battle

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N. prudery careful trim arousing immoderate sexual desire use leverage to raise or open something fictitious name assumed by an author mind

ADJ. prudish: excessively concerned with propriety prudential

prize ADJ. pseudonymous


mental N. psychopath: person psychopathic pertaining to with an antisocial mental dearrangement personality disorder psychosis mental disorder ADJ. N. psychotic psychosomatic of the influence of the mind on the body (esp. with respect to disease)

of or possessing extraordinary mental powers

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pterodactyl extinct flying reptile pucker gather into wrinkles or folds pudding hot sweet dish puerile childish pugilist boxer pugnacity combativeness puissant powerful pulchritude beauty pulmonary pertaining to the lungs pulpit raised platform used in preaching (in a church) pulsate throb pulse rhythmical throbbing of arteries pulverize crush or grind into very small particles pummel pommel punctilious minutely attentive (perhaps too much so) to fine points pundit authority on a subject pungent stinging punitive punishing puny tiny purchase secure grasp or hold

CF. wing+finger N: wrinkle or fold immature CF. pugilism: boxing disposition to fight strong comeliness CF. puer: boy ADJ. pugnacious: (of people) belligerent potent ADJ. pulchritudinous

beat regularly vibrate regularly brief sudden change in a normally constant quantity V: pulsate

beat or pound with fists stressing niceties of conduct or form expert acrid Ex. punitive measures weak firm grasp or footing temporary state or place in which the souls must expiate their sins free from blame or guilt meaning reputed or rumored N. punctilio, punctiliousness: careful attention payed to every small exact detail learned person sharp in taste or smell insignificant

purgatory place of spiritual expiation purge remove or get rid of something or someone unwanted eliminate purport intention purpose purported alleged claimed purse pucker purveyor furnisher of foodstuffs pushy disagreeably aggressive pusillanimous cowardly putative supposed putrefy make or become putrid

contract (lips) into wrinkles N: wallet caterer V. purvey: supply (eg. food)

lacking courage reputed N. putrefaction

fainthearted generally regarded as such

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putrescent becoming putrid putrefying putrid decayed and foul-smelling baffle or foul puzzle confuse by a difficult ponder over a problem in problem an effort to solve pyromaniac person with an insane desire to set things on fire quack charlatan impostor quadruped four-footed animal ADJ. CF. biped quaff drink with zest drink with relish(zest quagmire bog marsh quail cower shrink back in fear quaint odd in an oldfashioned way odd qualified limited qualify reach a necessary standard qualms uneasy feelings quandary dilemma quarantine isolation of a person, place, or ship to prevent spread of infection quarry dig into (to get stone) restricted limit the meaning of something stated misgivings state of uncertainty V: isolate in quarantine N: mine suppress wharf nauseated eccentric put an end to slake complaining question

rotten clarify or solve by reasoning

hearty enjoyment) soft, wet, boggy land lose heart old-fashioned V. qualify: limit the meaning of

uneasy fears especially about matters of conscience Ex. She is in a quandary about whether to go.

Word List - 39
quash crush quay dock queasy experiencing nausea queer strange quell suppress quench assuage or satisfy (thrust) querulous given to complaining query inquiry queue line (of waiting people or vehicles) quibble minor objection or complaint quicksilver mercury quiescent dormant quietude tranquillity squash pier easily nauseated deviating from the normal put down forcibly douse or extinguish fretful V.

V: raise minor objections temporarily inactive calmness

carp at rest

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quintessence purest and highest embodiment quip taunt quirk sudden sharp turn or twist quisling traitor who aids invaders quiver tremble quixotic idealistic but impractical quizzical curious quorum minimal number of members necessary to conduct a meeting quotidian daily rabble mob rabid of or suffering rabies rabies disease passed on by the bite of an infected animal (causing madness and death) raconteur raffle story-teller lottery

perfect example clever sarcastic remark startling twist CF. Vidkun Quisling shake CF. Don Quixote suggesting puzzlement (without saying)

apotheosis V. caprice



3580 3581 3582 3583

commonplace noisy crowd like a fanatic


extremely zealous

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Ex. raffle off a new car seeming unfinished and rag scrap of cloth ADJ. ragged: old and torn imperfect ragamuffin dirty child in person wearing tattered torn clothes clothes rail complain bitterly scold rant Ex. I have no raiment fit to raiment clothing garments wear. rake immoral or dissolute person rakish jaunty stylish sporty rally come or bring call up or summon revive or recuperate (after together (forces, vital powers, etc.) illness or difficulty) V. strike or drive against ram male sheep with a heavy impact ramble wander aimlessly (physically or mentally) digress ramification branching out subdivision one branch of a system divide into branches or ramify branch out subdivisions inclined plane or roadway ramp slope (connecting two levels)

one who tells stories with wit and skill V: award as a prize in a raffle

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rampant growing or spreading uncontrollably rampart defensive mound of earth ramshackle (of a building or vehicle) poorly constructed rancid having the odor of stale or decomposing fat rancor long-lasting hatred random without definite purpose, plan, or aim rank offensive in odor or flavor rankle irritate ransack search thoroughly rant speak violently or excitedly rapacious voracious rapport close relationship rapt engrossed rapture great joy and delight rare (of air) thin in density rarefied made less dense (of a gas) rasp (of a sound) grate on (eg. nerves) raspy making a harsh noise ratify approve formally ratiocination reasoning ration fixed portion rational (of a person) having reason rationale fundamental reason or principle (on which a system or principle is based) rationalize make rational raucous (of voice) harsh and unpleasant ravage devastate

growing in profusion


rickety rank bitterness haphazard

falling apart

Ex. negotiation without rancor Ex. random shots

fester pillage (going through a place) rave ravenous emotional closeness absorbed ecstasy rarefied V. rarefy: make less dense make a harsh noise grating confirm

annoy Ex. Enemy soldiers ransacked the town. talk excitedly showing anger taking everything one can harmony enchanted ADJ. rapturous Ex. rare air of the mountains N. rarefaction have an unpleasant effect harsh verify

act of drawing conclusions from premises V. ratiocinate: reason logically V: distribute as rations (of ideas) based on reason logical

3621 3622 3623 3624

fundamental reason or justification devise false reasons for (one's behavior) (of people) disorderly and boisterous plunder

grounds for an action offer an excuse Ex. raucous shouts despoil

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rave overwhelmingly favorable review V: talk wildly as if mad ravel fall apart into tangles entangle ravenous extremely hungry voracious ravine narrow valley with steep sides gorge raze destroy Ex. raze the city to the completely ground reactionary strongly opposed to social or political change opposing progress realm kingdom reaper one who harvests grain rebate return of part of a payment rebuff reject bluntly rebuke scold harshly rebus representation of words in the form of pictures or symbols field or sphere Ex. the Grim Reaper discount snub criticize severely

Ex. raving lunatic unravel or untwist

CF. gully, canyon

politically ultraconservative Ex. not within the realms of possibility V. reap: cut and gather (crop) V. beat back

rebuttal refutation recalcitrant disobedient or resisting authority even after being punished obstinately stubborn recant disclaim or retract a previous disavow statement recapitulate summarize recast reconstruct (a sentence, story, statue, etc.) fashion again receptive quick or willing to receive (ideas, Ex. receptive to the suggestions, etc.) proposal recess pause temporary cessation recession withdrawal retreat recidivism habitual return to crime (even after being punished) N. recidivist recipient receiver given and received in reciprocal mutual return reciprocate do or give something in return repay in kind recital act of reciting publicly detailed account recite repeat aloud (something learned) describe

puzzle in which pictures or Ex. ``R U 18'' is a rebus for letters stand for words ``Are you 18''. response with contrary evidence V. rebut: refute determined to resist authority openly confess error

alcove time of low economic activity

exchangeable give or take mutually performance of music or dance (by a solo performer) Ex. recite his complaints

3651 3652 3653 3654 3655

reckon count recline lie down recluse hermit reconcile make friendly again (after quarrel) recondite abstruse reconnaissance survey of enemy by soldiers recount narrate or tell (a story) recourse resorting to help when in trouble recreant disloyal recrimination countercharges rectify set right rectitude moral correctness recumbent reclining recuperate recover recurrent occurring again and again

calculate loner make consistent (two ideas in opposition) not easily understood

regard as ADJ. reclusive correct inconsistencies profound V. reconnoiter: make a preliminary inspection of (esp. to gather military information)

3656 3657 3658 3659 3660 3661 3662 3663 3664 3665 3666 3667 3668 3669 3670 3671 3672 3673 3674 3675 3676 3677 3678 3679

reconnoitering count over again Ex. without recourse to cowardly V. recriminate correct moral uprightness lying down completely or in part return to health

N: disloyal and cowardly person

CF. rect-: right moral virtue


Word List - 40
redolent odorous redoubtable formidable redress remedy fragrant causing fear compensation bring to a weaker or more difficult condition more than is necessary give off an unpleasant odor room where meals are served (in a school) suggestive (of an odor) Ex. seek redress for the damage to your car demote verbose give out smoke

reduce diminish redundant superfluous reek emit (an unpleasant odor or smoke)

refectory dining hall referendum direct vote by all the people refraction bending of a ray of light refractory unmanageable disobedient and stubborn refrain abstain from resist refulgent effulgent brilliant make clean, bright, or refurbish renovate fresh (make new) again refuse anything discarded or rejected as worthless trash

Ex. refractory horse forbear brightly shining make bright by polishing

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3685 3686 3687 3688 3689 3690 3691 3692 3693 3694 3695 3696 3697 3698 3699 3700 3701 3702 3703 3704 3705 3706 3707

refute disprove prove to be false regal royal of a monarch regale entertain regatta boat or yacht race regeneration spiritual Ex. regeneration of the rebirth prisoners regent a person who governs in place of a ruler who is ill, absent, or still a ADJ. Ex. the Prince child regent regicide murder of a king or queen regime method of system or government regimen prescribed course of diet or exercise prescribed diet and habits regiment military unit V: subject to strict order rehabilitate restore to proper condition (health or useful life) restore the former rank of reimburse repay pay back reinstate restore to a previous condition or position reiterate repeat rejoinder reply retort rejuvenate make young again relapse return to a former state (esp. after improvement) N. relegate put into a banish to an inferior lower or worse place position relent become less severe give in(surrender) relevant having importance surviving pertinent relic remnant (from an extinct culture) memento religious of religion (of a person) pious relinquish give up something (with reluctance) yield relish enjoy savor remediable reparable V. reminisce: recollect the reminiscence recollection past reminiscent suggestive of something (in the past) of reminiscence remiss negligent careless about a duty

N. refutation Ex. regal manner

V. regenerate: give or obtain new life

Ex. daily regimen of a dancer Ex. regimented society


delegate ADJ. relentless: unyielding referring to the case in hand keepsake having reverence for a deity release N: enjoyment

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remission temporary moderation (of disease symptoms) remit transmit (money) in payment remittance remitting of money remnant remainder remonstrate protest remorse deep regret for wrongdoing remunerative (of work) compensating rend split render give rendezvous meeting place rendition renegade renege promise rendering deserter break a

remitting of a debt or punishment cancelation of a debt free someone from a debt or punishment amount of money remitted

objection guilt rewarding tear apart deliver meeting at a set time or place translation traitor deny give up (by formal announcement) renew ADJ. renowned rip

V. remonstrate: say in protest self-reproach profitable N. rent provide V. artistic interpretation of a song, etc ADJ. go back on disown

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renounce abandon renovate restore to good condition renown fame rent tear made by rending reparable capable of being repaired reparation compensation (for loss or wrong) repartee quick clever reply repast meal repeal revoke repel drive away repellent driving away repercussion rebound repertoire list of works of music, drama, etc., a performer is prepared to present repine fret replenish fill up again replete replica fully filled copy



Ex. make reparation for the damage

feast annul disgust disgusting reaction

banquet Ex. repel the attack/moisture offensive reverberation

CF. repertory complain filled to the brim or to the point of being stuffed

be annoyed

abundantly supplied

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replicate reproduce duplicate repose resting state of being at rest repository storehouse reprehensible deserving blame blameworthy representational (of a style of art) showing things as they actually appear in real life repress hold back (the natural expression of) restrain reprieve postponement or cancelation of a punishment temporary stay reprimand reprove severely rebuke reprisal retaliation reprise musical repeating of a piece of repetition music reproach blame (not express disapproval or angrily but sadly) disappointment person hardened in sin, reprobate morally devoid of a sense of disapproved person decency reprobation severe disapproval CF. approbation reprove censure rebuke repudiate disown disavow repugnance disgust strong dislike repulse reject with rudeness or coldness (an drive back (an enemy offer or friendship) attack) repulsion distaste disgust reputable respectable having a good reputation Ex. reputed father of the reputed supposed child requiem mass for the dead dirge requisite necessary requirement something required requisition formal demand Ex. requisition for more or request computing equipment requite make return for repay


V. reprehend: blame

crush V: postpone or cancel the punishment of N.

repeat performance N. ADJ. reproachful CF. disapproved by God ?

N. reproof deny loathing CF. repulse $\neq$ cause repulsion act of driving back

V. repute: consider

ADJ: required V. reciprocate cancel (a law, decision, or agreement) displeasure formal but distant manner of a residue

Word List - 41
3762 3763 3764 3765 3766 rescind resentment reserve residual residue repeal indignation self-control remaining remainder annul bitterness self-restraint left over balance

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resign give up (a position, right, or claim) resignation patiently submissiveness

submit (oneself) passively statement that one is quitting a job ADJ. resigned: acquiescent having the power of able to recover quickly (as resilient elastic springing back from misfortune) ADJ. resolute: firm or resolution determination resoluteness determined in purpose resolve decide settle solve resonant (of a sound) resounding(sounding echoing loudly) deep and full in sound resort turn to for help Ex. resort to violence N. resound (of a place) be filled with sound (of a sound) sound loudly sound back resourceful clever and imaginative (in dealing with N. resource, difficult situations) resourcefulness respiration breathing exhalation ADJ. respiratory respite time for rest interval of relief delay in punishment resplendent brilliant splendid in appearance dazzling responsiveness state of reacting readily to appeals, ADJ. responsive: readily orders, etc. reacting Ex. responsive to treatment restitution returning something (lost or stolen) to the rightful owner reparation indemnification restive impatiently restless (induced by external coercion or restriction) restlessly impatient obstinately resisting control restraint moderation or self-control controlling force restriction resumption taking up V. resume: begin or take up again recommencement again resurge rise again flow to and fro N. resurgence resurrect revive bring back to life or Ex. resuscitate the drowned resuscitate revive consciousness child employ (esp. a lawyer or retain keep maintain possession of advisor) retaliate repay in kind (usually for bad treatment) V. retaliate ADJ. retarded: (as of a retard delay (in child) slower in development) development able to retain things (esp. retentive holding facts in the mind) having a good memory reticent inclined to silence uncommunicative reserved retinue following attendants retiring shy and reserved (of a person) modest Ex. her retiring personality

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retort quick sharp reply retract withdraw retrench cut down retribution deserved punishment for wrongdoing retrieve recover retroactive taking effect before its enactment (as a law) or imposition (as a tax) retrograde go backwards retrospective looking back on the past revelry boisterous merrymaking reverberate repeatedly reverend reverence echo

V. take back cut down expenses

draw back economize

punishment for offenses compensation put right find and bring in (of a law) having effect on the past as well as the future recede degenerate N. retrospection V. revel: engage boisterous festivities resound V. retrospect enjoy greatly Ex. The thunder reverberated across the valley.

deserving N: priest V. revere: regard with reverence turn back to

reverent respectful worshipful reverie daydream abstracted musing revert relapse backslide revile attack with abusive language vilify(slander) revoke cancel retract revulsion sudden strong sudden violent change of feeling of disgust feeling rhapsodize speak or write in an exaggeratedly Ex. rhapsodize over the enthusiastic manner beauty of the scenery rhapsody excessively musical composition of enthusiastic expression of irregular form (as if made feeling up as one plays it) art of using language rhetoric art of effective effectively and communication persuasively ribald marked by vulgar lewd humor wanton rickety (of buildings) likely to break or fall apart of rickets permeate or spread riddle pierce with holes throughout rider amendment or clause added to a legislative bill rife (of something bad) widespread abundant rift narrow opening in a large mass break in a friendly relation

CF. irrevocable negative reaction

style of speaking or writing profane CF. rickets Ex. The gunman riddled the car with bullets

current Ex. through a rift in the clouds

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rig arrangement of masts and sails righteous morally upright rightful legally correct rigid hard and unbending rigor severity rile irritate rip tear or be torn quickly and violently rivet metal pin used for fastening metal plates together riveting holding one's attention rivulet small stream robust strong rococo ornate roil make liquids murky by stirring up sediment rolling (of land) rising and falling in long gentle slopes romp play or frolic boisterously rooster cock roseate rosy roster list (of names) rostrum raised platform for speech-making

V: equip (a ship) with rigging just Ex. rightful owner stiff and unyielding Ex. rigors of the Russian winter vex Ex. The sail ripped under the force of the wind V: fasten with a rivet absorbing CF. rill < rivulet < river vigorous highly decorated disturb happening continuously by stages gambol adult male chicken optimistic

ADJ. rigging: ropes that hold up a ship's sails

fixed in behavior or views

muddy N. engross engrossing

N. CF. 18th century

Ex. rolling devolution of power to local governments N. Ex. roseate views

rote repetition rotund (of a person) fat and round rotunda circular building or hall covered with a dome rotundity roundness sonorousness of speech rou\'e lecherous man rousing lively inducing excitement rout put to rout stampede rubble fragments (esp. from a destroyed building) rubric title or heading directions for religious (in red print) ceremony (of the face) reddish and ruddy reddish healthy-looking rudimentary elementary not developed rue regret lament

pulpit memorization through repetition without understanding

Ex. learn poetry by rote

stirring drive out


crude mourn

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ruffian violent scoundrel rumble make or move with a deep rolling sound (as thunder or stomach) ruminant animal that ruminates ruminate chew over and over (mentally or, like cows, physically) rummage ransack run-down (of a place) dilapidated


ADJ. mull over(ponder) thoroughly search in a bad condition (of a person) weak or exhausted N. rune: one of the letters of an alphabet used by ancient Germanic peoples (cut on stone or wood)

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runic mysterious ruse trick to deceive rustic pertaining to country people rusticate banish to the country rustle make slight sounds like silk moving or being rubbed together ruthless pitiless saboteur one who commits sabotage saccharine sacrilegious sacrosanct sacred

set down in an ancient alphabet stratagem unsophisticated dwell in the country



destroyer of property characteristic of sugar or cloying sweet saccharin profane most sacred N. sadism: delight in cruelty any legend perceptive wise person lustful projecting beyond a line

cruel N. sabotage: destruction of property (usually carried out secretly)

desecrating invioably

N. sacrilege: desecration, misuse, or theft of something sacred inviolable

Word List - 42
3867 3868 3869 3870 3871 3872 3873 3874 3875 sadistic inclined to cruelty saga Scandinavian myth sagacious wise sage person celebrated for wisdom salacious lascivious salient prominent saline salty sallow (of the skin) yellowish and unhealthylooking salubrious healthful

long heroic narrative shrewd ADJ: wise Ex. salacious monk conspicuous

sickly in color conducive to health or well-being

Ex. sallow complexion due to jaundice socially desirable

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salutary tending to improve salvage rescue (goods or property) from loss sanctimonious displaying ostentatious or hypocritical devoutness sanction approve sanctuary place of refuge sanguinary bloody sanguine optimistic

beneficial N: saving N. sanctimony: hypocritical piety ratify shelter with much bloodshed cheerful

wholesome property saved

N: permission shrine hopeful undermine the foundations of (a fortification) stinging rebuke sarcastic CF. sartor: tailor cloy

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sap diminish weaken sarcasm cutting ironic remark scornful remarks sardonic scornfully mocking disdainful sartorial pertaining to Ex. a man of great tailors or tailoring sartorial elegance sate satisfy to the full satisfy to excess satellite small body revolving around a larger one satiate satisfy fully (physical needs such as hunger) sate literature in which irony, sarcasm, and ridicule are employed to attack human vice and folly satirical using satire mocking saturate soak thoroughly imbue saturnine morose satyr half-human, half-bestial being in the court of Dionysus (resembling a goat), portrayed as wanton(unrestrained) and cunning saunter stroll(go for a leisurely walk) slowly savant scholar gloomy

N. satiety: condition of being satiated

impregnate Ex. Do not be misled by his saturnine countenance.

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lecher N. learned person have a distinctive flavor, smell, or quality

CF. faun

CF. savoir: know N: taste or smell pleasing, attractive, or agreeable

savor enjoy savory pleasant in taste tasty scabbard case for a sword blade sheath scad a great quantity Ex. scads of clothes

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scaffold temporary platform for workers (to work at heights above the ground) scale climb up scanty meager scapegoat someone who bears the blame for others scavenge hunt through discarded materials for usable items or food

bracing framework ascend insufficient whipping boy

platform for execution remove or come off in scales

CF. escape+goat

scenario plot outline schematic of a schema or scheme scheme systematic plan plot clever dishonest plan schism division into factions (esp. within a religious body) split scholarly full of learning erudite like a scholar scintilla trace minute amount shred scintillate sparkle flash be animated scion detached plant shoot used in grafting descendant scoff laugh (at) mock ridicule scorch sear N. score number of written form of a musical points composition reason scotch stamp out(put an end to) thwart hinder whip (formerly used for scourge lash punishment) source of severe punishment scowl frown angrily N: angry frown scrap small bit or fragment discarded waste material fight scrappy quarrelsome scraps leftover food screech unpleasant high sharp sound shriek V. scrimmage disorderly fight between two or more people scruple hesitate for Ex. She did not scruple to ethical reasons fret about read his diary scrupulous conscientious extremely thorough Ex. scrupulous worker scrutinize examine closely and critically N. scrutiny scuffle struggle move off in a confused confusedly hurry N. CF. scuffling twins ? scurrilous abusive obscene indecent

N. scavenger: one who search, especially for food scavenges screenplay(script for a movie) opera libretto relating to an outline or diagram using a system of symbols

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move hastily

hurry despicable scrap base char or burn inure opportune Ex. seasonal rise in employment V. secede: withdraw formally from membership solitude hide away or cache faction narrow-minded not pertaining to church matters or religion

scurvy contemptible scuttle sink (a ship) by cutting holes in the hull seamy sordid sear burn the surface of season enhance the flavor of by adding a spice, etc. seasonable occurring at the proper time or season seasonal of a particular season seasoned experienced secession seclusion secrete withdrawal isolation conceal

move briskly N: disease caused by deficiency of Vitamin C discard filthy brand harden Ex. seasonable intervention in the dispute

V. seclude: set apart from others produce and release a substance into an organism group of people with common beliefs within a larger group parochial temporal V: administer a sedative to not moving from one place to another resistance to authority ADJ. seductive paying attention disreputable

sect separate religious body sectarian of a sect

secular worldly sedate composed (with no excitement) grave sedentary requiring sitting done while sitting sedition conduct or language inciting rebellion rebellion seduce lead away from proper conduct entice sedulous diligent assiduous seedy run-down decrepit seemly (of behavior) proper appropriate seep pass slowly through small openings ooze seethe be violently disturbed boil seine seine net net for catching fish seismic pertaining to earthquakes selective careful in having an effect only on choosing certain things

trickle (of a liquid) move about wildly as if boiling

not general

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self-indulgence excessive indulgence of one's own desire self-righteous sure of one's own righteousness semblance appearance seminal or semen outward

moralistic guise Ex. We called in the troops to bring a/some semblance of order to the city. creative

related to seed germinal secondary school, especially for young women feeblemindedness of old age

seminary school for training future ministers

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ADJ. senile: resulting from old senility old age age sensitization process of being made sensitive or acutely responsive to an V. sensitize: make or external agent or substance become sensitive sensual devoted to the pleasures of the sense carnal voluptuous sensuous giving pertaining to the physical pleasure to the senses senses operating through the senses sententious pithy terse concise sentient capable of sensation and conscious aware sensitive sentimental swayed by appealing to the sentiment sentiments sentinel sentry lookout septic of or causing sepsis putrid producing putrefaction sepulcher tomb V: place in a sepulcher ADJ. sepulchral

Word List - 43
sequester isolate sere sear serendipity gift for finding valuable things by accident serenity calmness serpentine winding serrated having a sawtoothed edge servile slavish servitude sever severity slavery separate harshness segregate parched accidental good fortune or luck placidity twisting seclude dry CF. The Three Princes of Serendip ADJ. serene of or like a serpent

Ex. serrated leaf cringing N. servility compulsory labor imposed as a punishment cut off (a part) from a whole break up (a relationship) intensity sternness

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sextant navigation tool used to determine a ship's latitude and longitude (by measuring the altitudes of stars) shack crude cabin shackle chain fetter confine with shackles shade slight difference in degree nuance degree of color sham pretend feign ADJ: not genuine shambles (place or scene of) complete disorder or ruin wreck mess Shangri-la imaginary remote paradise on earth CF. Lost Horizon shard fragment generally of broken pottery (glass, clay bowl, or cup) shaving very thin piece, usually of wood (cut from a surface with a sharp blade) sheaf bundle of stalks any bundle of things tied of grain together shear remove (fleece remove the hair or fleece or hair) by cutting from cut with or as if with shears sheathe place into a insert into or provide with case a sheath Ex. He sheathed his dagger shed small roofed structure for storage and shelter V: pour forth lose by natural process sheer pure thin and transparent very steep sherbet flavored dessert ice shift change position exchange (one thing) for or place another change in direction or position shimmer shine with a Ex. The moonlight shimmered flickering light glimmer intermittently on the water shirk avoid (responsibility, work, etc.) malinger shoddy made of inferior material sham not genuine shoot new growth from a plant Ex. pushing and shoving to shove push forward push roughly get on the bus shrew scolding very small mouselike woman animal shrewd clever astute shrivel make or become shrunken and wrinkled (often by drying)

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shudder shake uncontrollably shuffle mix together

tremble jumble

shun keep away from avoid deliberately shunt move (a railway train) from one track to another turn aside shyster lawyer using questionable methods unscrupulous practioner sibling brother or sister sibylline sidereal prophetic oracular relating to stars Ex. sidereal day

V. move (something) from one place to another Ex. She has been shunned by her neighbors. divert

N. sibyl: woman prophet (in the ancient world) N. CF. siding: short section of railroad track connected by switches with a main track

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sidetrack switch (a railroad car) to a siding divert from a main issue sift put through a sieve to separate fine from coarse particles sort or examine carefully significant expressing a meaning important silt sediment deposited by running water (at the entrance to a harbor or by a bend in a river) simian monkeylike N: ape or monkey simile comparison of one thing with another, using the word like or as simper smirk smile in a silly way simplistic oversimplified simulate feign imitate sinecure well-paid position with little CF. sine cure: without responsibility care sinewy (of meat) tough strong and firm singular being only one individual sinister evil ominous sinuous twisting winding siren apparatus for making sounds womanlike creature

Ex. significant smile

smile affectedly

CF. San Serif muscular unique bending in and out

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skeptic sceptic skiff small light sailboat or rowboat skim read or glance through quickly


person who suspends judgment until he has examined the evidence supporting a point of view

touch lightly in passing


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skimp provide or use scantily live very economically Ex. skimp on necessities skinflint miser stingy person skirmish minor fight minor battle in war V. skittish inconstant capricious frivolous skulduggery(skullduggery) Ex. skulduggery in the dishonest behavior or action election Ex. He skulked through skulk move furtively the less fashionable and secretly sections of the city. slack moving slowly sluggish inactive slacken slow up loosen make or become slack slag glassy residue from smelting metal dross waste matter slake satisfy (thirst) quench sate utterance of false and slander defamation malicious statements V. ADJ. slanderous slap hit quickly with the flat part of the hand N. CF. smack slapdash hasty and careless haphazard sloppy(carelessly done) slaughter killing of animals for food massacre V: butcher (animals) for food slavish of or like a slave servile showing no originality sleazy shabby and dirty flimsy insubstantial sledge large sled drawn by work animals sleek smooth and shining (as from good health) V. something originally of little value or importance sleeper one that that in time becomes very achieves unexpected success valuable sleigh large vehicle drawn by a horse over snow or ice CF. sleight of hand: quickness of the hands in sleight dexterity legerdemain doing tricks slew large quantity or number Ex. slew of errands left slick make smooth or glossy N: smooth surface Ex. oil slick slight insult to one's V: treat as if of small dignity snub importance slink move furtively ADJ. slinky: stealthy furtive slipshod slovenly careless sloppy slither slip or slide sloth slow moving tree-dwelling mammal laziness ADJ. slothful: lazy

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4064 4065 4066 4067 4068 4069 4070 4071 4072 4073 4074 4075 4076 4077 4078 4079 4080 4081 4082 4083 4084

slough (of a snake) shed or cast off (dead outer skin) slovenly untidy sluggard lazy person sluggish lazy sluice artificial channel for directing or controlling the flow of water (with a gate to regulate the flow) slur pronounce indistinctly clever in sly deceiving smart intelligent smattering slight knowledge smear spread or cover with a sticky substance smelt melt (ore) for separating and removing the metal smirk

N: outer layer that is shed careless in work habits slipshod slow inactive

speak indistinctly secretive quick and energetic small scattered number or amount N: mark made by smearing melt or blend ores changing their chemical composition offensively self-satisfied smile (often at someone conceited smile else's misfortune)

mumble not telling one's intentions fashionable Ex. smattering of German

smolder smoulder smother kill from lack of air suppress smudge dirty mark with unclear edges made by rubbing V. smug self-satisfied complacent sneak move, give, or take in a quiet, stealthy way N: one who sneaks snicker halfstifled(suppressed) laugh V. snip short quick cut with scissors V: cut with scissors snivel complain or whine tearfully run at the nose snub ignore or Ex. I made a suggestion behave coldly toward but she snubbed me sniff repeatedly (in order to keep liquid from running snuffle sniffle out of the nose) soar rise or fly high in Ex. The rocket soared into the air the sky. sober serious solemn sobriety moderation (especially regarding indulgence in alcohol) seriousness

V. be liable to break out at any burn slowly without flame moment cover thickly

ADJ. sneaky

snuffle N.

not drunken

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sodden thoroughly soaked sojourn temporary stay solace comfort in sorrow or trouble

dull or stupid as if from drink V: stay for a time

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V: comfort or console in time consolation of sorrow or trouble N: metal alloy (usually tin and lead) used in the solder repair or make molten state to join whole by using a metal alloy metallic parts construction that is solecism nonstandard flagrantly incorrect grammatical construction grammatically violation of social etiquette solemnity seriousness gravity solicit entreat request earnestly seek to obtain solicitor lawyer in the lower court of law solicitous anxious worried concerned long speech by one person soliloquy talking to (often monopolizing a oneself (esp. in a play) CF. monologue: soliloquy conversation) solitude state of being ADJ. solitary: existing or living alone seclusion alone (esp. by choice) solstice point or time at which the sun is farthest from the equator soluble able to be able to be worked out or dissolved in a liquid solved solvent substance that ADJ: capable of dissolving dissolves another another substance somatic pertaining to the body bodily physical

Word List - 44
somber dark somnambulist sleepwalker somnolent half asleep sonic of sound or its speed in air sonnet 14-line poetic verse form with a fixed rhyme pattern sonorous resonant soothsayer one who foretells the future sophist teacher of philosophy sophisticated worldly wise and urbane gloomy V. somnambulate drowsy CF. subsonic, supersonic melancholy N. somnambulism N. somnolence

producing a full deep sound

producing sound

quibbler refined

employer of fallacious reasoning complex

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sophistry seemingly plausible but fallacious reasoning sophomoric immature soporific sleep-causing sordid filthy sound in good condition sour having a sharp or acid taste sovereign ruler in a monarchy sovereignty complete independence and selfgovernment (of a country) sow plant or scatter seed spangle small shiny metallic piece sewn to clothing for ornamentation spare give sparse not thick Spartan without attention to comfort spasmodic fitful spat squabble spate sudden flood or rush spatial relating to space spatula broad-bladed instrument used for spreading or mixing spawn lay eggs (in large numbers) specious seemingly reasonable but incorrect speck small piece or mark spectral ghostly spectrum colored band produced when a beam of light passes through a prism speechless unable for the moment to speak (because of strong feeling) spendthrift someone who wastes money sphinx-like enigmatic spin rotate swiftly

sophism half-baked marked by sleepiness foul showing good judgment or good sense acid ADJ: (of a country) independent and selfgoverning supremacy of authority

like a sophomore drowsy base thorough tart having supreme power power to govern

use thinly scattered

refrain from harming scanty

lacking luxury and comfort sternly disciplined periodic of or like a spasm minor dispute minor quarrel Ex. spate of accidents

produce offspring (in large numbers) N: eggs of aquatic animals misleading (often intentionally) Ex. speck of dust in the eye N. specter: spectre ghost broad and continuous range Ex. whole spectrum of modern thoughts

Ex. speechless with anger CF. thrift: accumulated wealth mysterious make (thread) by twisting (cotton, wool, etc.) N.

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splice join together end to end to make one continuous length spoilsport one who spoils the pleasure of others spontaneity lack of premeditation spoof parody spoonerism accidental transposition of sounds in successive words sporadic occurring irregularly sportive playful sprout begin to grow spruce neat and trim in appearance spry (esp. of older people) vigorously active spurious false spurn reject disdainfully squabble minor quarrel squalor condition of being squalid squander waste squash crush squat short and thick squeamish easily shocked or sickened by unpleasant things squelch produce a splashing sound (when stepping through mud) staccato played in an abrupt manner stagnant (of water) not flowing (often bad-smelling) staid serious and sedate

fasten together


naturalness Ex. ``Let me sew you to your sheet'' for ``Let me show you to your seat'' intermittent frolicsome give off shoots or buds smart nimble counterfeit scorn bickering filth spend foolishly quash stocky fastidious crush marked by abrupt sharp sound motionless sober situation in which further action is blocked brawny

freedom from constraint

CF. William Spooner

merry N: new growth on a plant Ex. Be spruce for your job interview

forged Ex. She spurned all offers of help. V: engage in a minor quarrel degradation suppress Ex. ugly squat tower Ex. A nurse should not be squeamish. squash Ex. staccato applause stale Ex. staid during the funeral ceremony

stalemate deadlock stalwart physically strong stamina power of endurance strength stammer speak with involuntarily pauses or repetitions stamp step on heavily (so as to crush or extinguish) put an end to

steadfast staying power

imprint or impress with a mark, design, or seal

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stampede sudden frenzied rush (of panicV: participate in or cause Ex. stampede before the price stricken animals or people) stampede rises stanch stop or check Ex. stanch the gushing flow of blood wound standstill condition of no movement or activity stop stanza division of a poem (composed of two or more lines) start move suddenly Ex. start at the sight of a or involuntarily snake stately formal ceremonious grand in style or size static having no motion unchanging lacking development statute law enacted by the legislature statutory created by statute or legislative action regulated by statute Ex. statutory age limit steadfast steadily loyal unswerving steady stealth action of moving secretly or unseen slyness sneakiness Ex. steep the fabric in the dye steep soak saturate bath stellar pertaining to the stars of a star performer outstanding stem stop or check Ex. stem the bleeding (the flow of) from the slashed artery N: main axis of a plant stem_from arise from originate from stench strong foul odor reek stink stentorian (of the voice) CF. Stentor: a loud herald extremely loud in the Iliad stereotype one regarded as embodying a set image or fixed and unvarying standardized mental picture type representation often reflecting prejudice sterile incapable of producing young free from microorganism V. sterilize person who insists things stickler perfectionist be exactly right stifle suppress extinguish inhibit stigma token of V. stigmatize: mark with a disgrace brand stigma stilted bombastic stiffly pompous Ex. stilted rhetoric stink stench V: emit a strong foul odor stint supply allotted amount of work assigned portion of work stipend pay for services stipple paint or draw with dots or short strokes stipulate state as a necessary condition (of an agreement) make express conditions specify

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stock standard stockade wooden enclosure or pen stodgy dull stoic stoical stoke stir up a fire or furnace stolid dull stoop bend forward and down stout rather fat straggle stray or fall behind (a main group) strangle kill by choking or suffocating stratagem deceptive scheme stratified divided into classes stratum layer of earth's surface strew spread randomly striated marked with parallel bands stricture severe and adverse criticism strident loud and harsh stringent (of rules) binding strut supporting bar studied carefully contrived studious given to diligent study

kept regularly in stock or supply typical fixed line of posts used as defensive barrier stuffy boringly conservative impassive unmoved by joy or grief feed plentifully impassive lower or debase oneself strong in body spread out in a scattered group suppress clever trick arranged into strata layer of society sprinkle striped critical comments insistent V. stratify PL. strata scatter grooved limit or restriction N. stridency showing little emotion when strong feelings are expected fall to a lower standard of behavior by doing something sturdy Ex. straggling marathon racer

rigid marked by scarcity of money CF. airplane wing building support calculated unspontaneous

cause to appear or stultify make stupid in become stupid or mind inconsistent stumble trip and almost fall proceed unsteadily stump base of a tree trunk left after the rest has been cut down V: walk in a heavy manner stun make unconscious or numb as by a blow amaze make numb (as with a stupefy stun drug) stupor state of being stupefied state of apathy

suppress act falteringly baffle astound amaze daze

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sturdy strong and firm (in the body) stygian unpleasantly dark gloomy stymie thwart present an obstacle suavity urbanity subaltern subordinate subdue less intense subjective influenced by personal feelings subjugate conquer sublimate refine sublime causing deep feelings of wonder, joy, respect, etc. polish quieter occurring or taking place within the mind bring under control purify exalted

hellish stump ADJ. suave: smooth and courteous Ex. subdued lighting unreal replace (natural urges) with socially acceptable activities noble and uplifting

Word List - 45
4228 4229 4230 4231 4232 subliminal below the threshold of conscious perception submerge place under water submissive willing to obey orders subordinate occupying a lower rank suborn persuade to act unlawfully (especially to commit perjury) subpoena writ(written command issued by a court) summoning a witness to appear in court subsequent following in time or order subservient behaving like a slave subside sink to a lower level subsidiary serving to assist subsidy direct financial aid by government, etc. subsistence existence substantial of substance substantiate support (a claim) with evidence substantive substantial subsume include (as a member of a group) Ex. subliminal advertisement dip yielding inferior N. subornation go under water timid submissive

4233 4234 4235 4236 4237 4238 4239 4240 4241 4242 4243

V: summon with a subpoena later servile settle down obsequious sink to the bottom (as a sediment)

subordinate secondary V. subsidize: assist with a subsidy means of subsisting means of support material solid establish with evidence essential encompass verify pertaining to the substance

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subterfuge stratagem(deceptive scheme) pretense subtlety perceptiveness ingenuity V. subvert: overthrow subversive tending to completely (an established overthrow or ruin system) succor assist (someone in difficulty) aid succulent juicy full of juice or sap succumb yield (to something overwhelming) give in suckle give or take milk at the breast or udder suffocate die or kill from lack of air suppress suffragist advocate of the extension of voting rights (for women) CF. suffrage suffuse spread through or over (with a color or liquid) charge suitor man who is courting a woman sullen silently showing ill humor or resentment dark sully defile soil sultry (of weather) hot sweltering summation act of finding the total summing-up sumptuous grand suggesting great expense lavish sunder separate part sundry miscellaneous various superannuated retired or disqualified because of age outmoded supercilious haughty arrogant more than needed or supererogatory superfluous demanded superficial of the surface not deep superfluous excessive overabundant superimpose place over something else supernumerary person or thing excess of what is necessary extra supersede replace cause to be set aside supine lying on back passive supplant take the place of unfairly usurp supple flexible limber

evasion delicacy destroy completely comfort full of richness die

Ex. A blush suffused her cheeks.

gloomy tarnish sensual summary (esp. one given by the judge at the end of a trial) rich CF. asunder several obsolete condescending

shallow unnecessary

ADJ: additional to the usual or necessary number make obsolete inactive replace pliant

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suppliant entreating supplicant one who supplicates supplicate petition humbly supposition assumption supposititious assumed suppress put an end to forcibly surfeit satiate surge powerful movement of or like a wave surly bad-tempered surmise guess surmount overcome surpass exceed surreptitious done secretly surrogate substitute surveillance close observation of a person (esp. one under suspicion) susceptible impressionable suspend cause to stop for a period suspense state of being undecided sustain suffer (harm or loss)

beseeching ADJ. pray to grant a favor hypothesis counterfeit subdue feed or supply to excess V. rude N.


surmise hypothetical stifle stuff


secret person or thing used in place of another watching easily influenced interrupt anxiety or apprehension resulting from uncertainty experience

furtive Ex. surrogate mother guarding sensitive hold in abeyance

support something that maintains life V: sew together a wound

means of livelihood, sustenance sustaining support, food, nourishment suture stitches sewn to hold the cut edges of a wound or incision material used in sewing swagger walk or behave with an overconfident manner swamp wetland marsh swarm large group of crowd of people or insects moving in a mass animals swarthy (of a skin or complexion) dark dusky swathe swath wrap around sway swing from side influence (someone) to to side change one's opinion swear vow promise swear-word word considered offensive Ex. ``bloody''

V: flood V: move in a crowd or mass Ex. swarthy Italian ? bandage N. use profane oaths

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swell long wave of water that moves continuously without breaking swelter (of a person) suffer from oppressive heat swerve deviate swill drink greedily swindler cheater swipe hit with a sweeping motion

V. be oppressed by heat turn aside sharply from a straight course

Ex. swerve from the principle

4310 4311

4312 4313 4314 4315 4316 4317 4318 4319 4320 4321 4322 4323

N. person devoted to sybarite lover of luxury pleasure and luxury sycophant servile flatterer bootlicker syllogism logical formula consisting of a major premise, a minor premise deceptive or specious and a conclusion argument sylvan pertaining to the woods or the country symbiosis interdependent relationship (between groups, species) often mutually beneficial ADJ. symbiotic symmetry arrangement of parts so that balance is obtained congruity synchronous similarly timed simultaneous with synoptic providing a general overview summary synthesis combining parts or separate things into a whole the whole so formed synthetic not natural artificial flat piece of stone or tablet small round metal bearing an piece of medicine inscription tacit understood (without actually being expressed) not put into words taciturn habitually silent talking little tact skill or sensitivity in dealing with people without causing offence tactful careful no to cause offence OP. tactless tactile pertaining to the organs or sense of touch

CF. Sybaris: an ancient Greek city in Italy yes man

CF. together + life ADJ. symmetrical occurring at the same time N. synopsis PL. syntheses resulting from synthesis Ex. stone tablet on the wall Ex. tacit agreement

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taint takeoff

contaminate burlesque

talisman charm talon claw of bird tan convert (hide) into leather tangential only slightly connected tangible able to be touched tanner person who turns animal hides into leather

modify with a trace of cause to lose purity something bad act of leaving the ground object believed to give supernatural powers to or protect its bearer make brown by exposure to the sun not central real peripheral concrete

excite by exposing something desirable while tantalize tease keeping it out of reach Ex. This invasion is tantamount equivalent in tantamount to a effect or value declaration of war

torture with disappointment CF. amount

Word List - 46
4334 4335 4336 4337 4338 4339 4340 4341 4342 4343 4344 4345 4346 4347 4348 4349 tantrum temper fit of bad fit of petulance gradual decrease in the very thin candle width of a long object venomous caprice V. make or become gradually narrower toward one end

taper tarantula spider tardy slow sluggish tarnish make or become dull or discolored N. tarry linger delay in starting or going tart sharp to the taste acid-tasting tatter torn piece of ADJ. tattered: (of clothes) cloth old and torn taunt deride or provoke challenge in derision taut tight strained tautological needlessly Ex. ``It was visible to the repetitious eye'' tawdry cheap and gaudy Ex. tawdry jewelry tawny brownish yellow taxonomist specialist in CF. taxonomy: science of classifying (animals, etc.) classification tedium boredom weariness teetotalism practice of abstaining totally from alcoholic drinks N. teetotaler

not on time

dawdle caustic (of a person) dressed in old torn clothes N. tense N. tautology: needless repetition of the same sense

ADJ. tedious

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temerity boldness temper moderate temperament characteristic frame of mind temperate moderate tempestuous stormy tempo speed of music temporal of time temporize gain time as by postponing an action tenacious holding fast (as to a belief) tenacity firmness tenancy possession of land or building by rent tenant one that pays rent to use property owned by another tend have a tendency tendentious promoting a particular point of view tender tenet tensile stretched

nerve make less severe disposition restrained violent not lasting forever avoid committing oneself persistent persistence period of a tenant's occupancy

rashness tone down or restrain emotional excess self-controlled impassioned limited by time

take care of biased

minister having an aim Ex. tender one's resignation/the exact fare

offer formally extend doctrine dogma capable of being of tension condition of being tension stretching stretched tentative not fully worked out or developed provisional tenuous thin slim tenure holding of an time during which such an office or real estate office is held tepid lukewarm slightly warm terminal part that forms the end railroad or bus station termination end V. terminate terminology terms used in a science or art study of nomenclature terminus last stop of railroad end terrestrial on or relating to the earth terse concise abrupt tertiary third in order or rank tessellated mosaic inlaid testator maker of a will CF. testatrix

Ex. tensile rubber mental strain experimental rare

half-hearted ADJ. forming an end


Ex. tessellated pattern

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testy irritable tether tie (an animal) with a rope or tether

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thematic of a theme theocracy government run by religious leaders theoretical based on theory not practical or applied therapeutic curative N. therapy thermal pertaining to heat producing heat thesis opinion put forward and supported by reasoned arguments thespian pertaining to drama N: actor or actress thrall slave bondage thrash beat with a whip or flail defeat utterly threadbare worn through till the threads show shabby and poor threat sign or warning (of coming danger) Ex. threat of rain thresh beat (cereal plants) with a machine or flail to separate the grains from the straw thrifty careful about money economical thrive prosper flourish throb (of a heart or machine) beat rapidly or N. Ex. hearthrob: violently heartbeat throes violent anguish throng crowd (of people or things) V. regulate the speed of with throttle strangle a throttle thwart block or hinder baffle tickle touch (the body) lightly so as to cause laughter please tightwad miser excessively frugal person tiller handle used to move boat's rudder (to steer) timbre quality of a musical tone produced by a musical instrument (which distinguishes it from others of the same pitch)

impatient and badtempered short-tempered N: rope or chain to which an animal is tied limit of one's endurance relating to a unifying motif or idea



slavery talk about thoroughly in order to find the answer hackneyed V: express a threat

N. thrift


N: valve that regulates the flow frustrate

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timidity lack of selfconfidence or courage timorous fearful timid demonstrating fear tinge give a slight degree of a color or quality N: slight degree of a color to or quality Ex. tinged with grey/jealousy tint slight degree of color V: give a tint to tipple drink (alcoholic beverages) frequently N: alcoholic drink tirade long angry denunciatory speech diatribe harangue titanic gigantic N. titan tithe tax of one-tenth (contributed to a church) V: pay a tithe Ex. not to titillate the audience titillate tickle excite pleasantly but to enlighten it formal appellation as of rank title name (of a book, or office (such as Lord or film, etc.) mark of rank General) titter nervous giggle nervous laugh V. titular of a title in name only nominal toady servile flatterer yes man sycophant toga Roman outer robe Ex. a token of our token outward sign gratitude toll sound (a large bell) slowly at regular intervals N: sound of a bell fixed tax or charge tome large volume book

Word List - 47
4423 4424 4425 4426 4427 4428 4429 4430 4431 4432 4433 tonsure shaving of the head especially by person entering religious orders topography physical features of a region (such as the shape and height) topple become unsteady and fall down torpedo underwater explosive apparatus torpor lethargy torque twisting force torrent rushing stream torrid (of weather) hot or scorching torso trunk of statue with head and limbs missing tortuous winding toss throw lightly V. CF. topo-: place

V. sluggishness force producing rotation flood passionate human trunk full of curves move or lift (the head) with a sudden motion

dormancy Ex. The rain fell in torrents. Ex. torrid love affairs

Ex. tortuous mountain road flip (a coin) to decide something

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totem animal, plant, or natural object serving as a symbol of a clan or family totter shake or move unsteadily touching causing a feeling of pity or sympathy touchstone stone used to test the fineness of gold alloys touchy oversensitive tout promote or publicize (one's goods or service) toxic poisonous tract propaganda pamphlet (esp. by a religious or political group) tractable traduce slander trajectory a projectile tramp heavy step trample with the feet docile expose to path taken by

representation of this sway as if about to fall pathetic criterion easily offended praise excessively (as a form of advertisement) N. toxicity expanse of land easily managed

Ex. totem pole

V. touch: cause to feel pity or sympathy standard irasible CF. advertise

region of indefinite size (of something) easily changed or molded

Ex. trajectory of a bullet walk with a travel on foot step heavily crush under the feet detachment from one's physical surrounding (as in contemplation or daydreaming) N: vagrant

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trance hypnotic state tranquillity calmness transcendent exceeding ordinary limits transcendental going beyond common thought or ideas transcribe copy transgression violation of a law transient staying for a short time transition going from one state of action to another transitory transient translucent partly transparent transmute transform transparent permitting light to pass through freely

ecstatic state peace superior impossible to understand by practical experiences or practices write a copy of sin momentary

surpassing known only by studying thoughts or intuition N. transcription V. transgress: go beyond (a limit) temporary



change easily detected

convert to something different obvious

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transpire (of a fact) become known transport strong emotion transpose reverse the order or position of trappings outward decorations traumatic (of an experience) deeply shocking travail strenuous work traverse go through or across example of something that completely misrepresents the true nature of the real thing tread walk treasure keep as precious treatise article treating a subject systematically and thoroughly trek travel

be revealed rapture

happen Ex. in a transport/transports of

ornaments (as an outward sign of rank) pertaining to an injury caused by violence N. trauma: serious wound toil painful labor

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comical parody or imitation trample cherish

treatment aimed at making something appear ridiculous N: grooved face of a tire


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tremor trembling tremulous trembling trenchant cutting trepidation fear tribulation suffering tribunal court of justice tribune official of ancient Rome elected by the plebians to protect their rights protector of the people payment made by one nation to another in tribute tax levied by a acknowledgment of ruler submission trickle flow in drops or in a thin stream N. trickster person who cheats people trident three-pronged spear trifle something of little importance or value small amount trifling trivial unimportant trigger set off start

journey slight quiver (as of the earth or from nervous agitation) wavering incisive nervous apprehension ordeal

V: make a long difficult journey

keen distress

mark of respect (such as praise or gift)

Ex. a trifle

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trilogy group of three related works (connected by a shared subject but each complete in itself) trim make neat or tidy by clipping trinket knickknack trite hackneyed trivia trifles troth pledge of good faith especially in betrothal trough long narrow container for feeding farm animals truculence aggressiveness truism self-evident truth truncate cut the top off trunk main wooden stem of a tree tryst meeting arranged by lovers tumid (of a part of the body) swollen tumult commotion of a great crowd tundra rolling treeless plain in Siberia and arctic North America turbid (of a liquid) having the sediment disturbed turbulence state of violent agitation tureen deep dish for serving soup turgid swollen turmoil extreme confusion turncoat traitor turpitude depravity tutelage guardianship tutelary protective tycoon wealthy and powerful businessperson typhoon tropical hurricane or cyclone tyranny tyro oppression beginner

reduce by removing what is unnecessary bauble commonplace unimportant matters betrothal lowest point (of a wave, business cycle, etc.) ferocity

ornament cheap jewelry

Ex. by my troth long narrow depression as between waves ADJ. truculent: aggressive

shorten human body excluding the head and limbs torso arrangement between lovers to meet distended riot bombastic noise

muddy ADJ. turbulent: violently agitated or disturbed


distended (as from liquid) great commotion and Ex. throw the country into confusion turmoil baseness training pertaining to a guardianship wealthy leader Ex. moral turpitude function of a tutor Ex. tutelary deities magnate

cruel government novice

ADJ. tyrannical: of a tyrant or tyranny

4513 4514

ubiquitous being everywhere ulcer sore place appearing on the skin inside or outside the body

omnipresent Ex. stomach ulcer

N. ubiquity ADJ. ulcerous

Word List - 48
4515 4516 4517 4518 4519 4520 4521 4522 4523 4524 4525 4526 4527 4528 4529 4530 4531 4532 4533 4534 4535 4536 4537 4538 4539 ulterior hidden ultimate intentionally final beyond what is evident not susceptible to further analysis last warning anger impossible to account for ADJ. unanimous impregnable not soothed Ex. the champion's unassuming manner uncontrolled mysterious not subject to question situated beyond fundamental last statement of conditions that must be met sense of injury or insult unreasonable or mysterious

ultimatum last demand umbrage resentment unaccountable unexplicable unanimity complete agreement unassailable not open to attack unassuaged unsatisfied unassuming modest unbridled violent uncanny strange unceremonious not done politely without due formalities unconscionable unscrupulous

Ex. unbridled rage/greed Ex. uncanny knack

uncouth boorish unction the act of anointing with oil Ex. extreme unction unctuous oily bland underhand(underhanded) done slyly and secretly (being dishonest) underlying lying below fundamental undermine weaken gradually sap underscore underline emphasize understate state with less truth than seems Ex. He understated the warranted by the facts seriousness of the crime undertaker funeral one whose business is to director arrange burials undulating moving with a wavelike motion V. undulate discover (facts) by careful unearth dig up searching unearthly not earthly supernatural

not guided by conscience clumsy in speech or behavior

excessive outlandish

insincerely suave

dig a mine beneath

N. understatement

CF. und: wave Ex. He unearthed some secrets about her weird

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unerringly infallibly unexceptionable entirely acceptable unfaltering steadfast unfeigned genuine unfetter liberate unfledged immature

unfrock defrock ungainly (of someone) awkward in movement unguent ointment uniformity sameness

clear ADJ. unerring: making no mistakes not offering any basis for criticism firm real free from chains not having the feathers necessary to fly strip a priest or minister of church authority clumsy


not changing V. unfetter CF. fledgling

(of something) unwieldy

unilateral one-sided unimpeachable that cannot be impeached beyond doubt or question free in behavior and uninhibited unrepressed feelings unintimating unfrightening unique without an equal single in kind unison unity of pitch (in musical performance) complete accord universal characterizing or affecting all general unkempt disheveled unmitigated (of something bad) not moderated unobtrusive inconspicuous unprecedented having no previous example unprepossessing unattractive unravel disentangle unregenerate making no attempt to change one's bad practices unrequited not requited unruly disobedient unsavory distasteful unscathed unseemly unharmed unbecoming

ADJ. uniform: the same all monotony over involving or affecting only one side Ex. unilateral declaration blameless and exemplary

Ex. The choir sang in unison. present everywhere

uncared for in appearance not combed unrelieved or immoderate without qualification not blatant novel unparalleled


not reciprocated lawless disagreeable Ex. escape the accident unscathed not proper in behavior

Ex. unrequited love difficult to control morally offensive


4570 4571 4572 4573 4574 4575 4576 4577 4578 4579 4580 4581 4582 4583 4584 4585 4586 4587 4588 4589 4590 4591 4592 4593 4594 4595 4596 4597

unsightly ugly unsullied untarnished untenable (of a position, esp. in an argument) indefensible untoward unexpected and adverse unwarranted unjustified unwieldy awkward (to carry or move) unwitting not knowing unwonted unaccustomed upbraid reprimand upright (sitting or standing) straight up uproar noisy confusion uproarious marked by commotion or uproar upshot outcome urbane suave urchin mischievous child (usually a boy) urge drive or force forward (by causing impulses) urgent compelling immediate action ursine bearlike usage act or manner of using usurp seize another's power or rank (without legal authority) usury lending money at illegal high rates of interest utopia ideal place, state, or society uxorious excessively submissive or devoted to one's wife vacillate waver (in opinion) vacuous empty vagabond wanderer (without a permanent home) vagary capricious happening vagrant homeless wanderer

unpleasant to look at CF. sully not able to be maintained unfortunate or unlucky having no justification cumbersome unaware unusual severely scold honest very noisy (esp. with laughter) final result refined in manner CF. urchin: hedgehog drive to take action pressing pertaining to a bear accepted practice supplant Ex. untoward encounter groundless unmanageable unintentional Ex. He arrived with unwonted punctuality.


hilarious elegant CF. porcupine: pig with spikes ? impel persistent way in which words are actually used appropriate

ADJ. utopian CF. uxor: wife fluctuate lacking in ideas tramp caprice whim sway to and fro inane

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vain full of selfadmiration vainglorious boastful valediction saying farewell valedictory pertaining to farewell valid logically convincing validate make valid valor bravery vampire ghostly being that sucks the blood of the living vanguard forerunners vantage position giving an advantage (such as a strategic point) vapid lacking liveliness vaporize turn into vapor (steam, gas, fog, etc.) variegate change the appearance of (by marking with different colors) variegated (esp. of a flower or leaf) many-colored varnish paint used to coat a surface with a glossy film vassal in feudalism, one who held land of a superior lord vaunted boasted veer change in direction vegetate live in a monotonous way (without interests or activity) vehement forceful

conceited excessively conceited expression of leave-taking N: farewell address (esp. at graduation exercises) sound confirm ADJ. valiant: possessing valor

without result N. vainglory: great vanity

legally acceptable ratify brave

foremost position of an army CF. vantagepoint dull and unimaginative

advance forces

insipid and flavorless

glossy coating produced by using this substance

Ex. nail varnish

subordinate or dependent bragged highly publicized swerve CF. vegetation: plants of an area intensely emotional CF. vegetarian with marked vigor

Word List - 49
velocity speed venal capable of being bribed corrupt vendetta blood feud (esp. between two families) CF. Nina Williams vendor seller CF. vernal

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veneer thin surface layer (of good quality wood, glued to a base of inferior material) cover venerable deserving high respect commanding respect venerate revere treat with great respect venial (of a fault or sin) forgivable trivial venison meat of a deer CF. cow: beef venom poison (of an animal) hatred vent release or discharge through a vent express (esp. unfairly) ventilate admit fresh air into to replace stale air ventral abdominal ventriloquist someone who can make his or her voice seem to come from another person or thing (without N. ventriloquism, moving lips or jaws) ventriloquy venture risk expose to risk venturesome (of a person) bold adventurous place (of a crime, trial, venue location gathering, etc.) veracious (of a person) truthful veracity truthfulness adherence to the truth verbalize put into words ADJ. verbal: of words verbatim verbiage of words verbose

surface show CF. command: deserve and get

CF. pig: pork, ham, bacon Ex. remarks full of venom utter

dare daring CF. come

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word for word in the same words pompous array too many unnecessary words wordiness wordy N. verbosity covered with green plants verdant green or grass lush in vegetation verdigris green coating or patina on copper which has been exposed to the weather Ex. on the verge of: very near verge border edge, rim, or margin to verisimilar having the probable or likely to be appearance of truth or reality true plausible verisimilitude appearance quality of appearing to be of truth true or real likelihood veritable being truly so real or genuine actual verity quality of being true lasting truth or principle Ex. the verity of his testimony

spoken rather than written repeating the actual words exactly

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vernacular living language (as compared to the official language) vernal pertaining to spring versatile having many talents vertebrate having a backbone or spinal column vertex summit vertigo severe dizziness verve enthusiasm (as in artistic performance or composition) vestige trace veto vested power to reject a bill vex annoy viable capable of maintaining life viand food vibrant full of vigor or energy vicar parish priest vicarious experienced as if one were taking part in the experience of another vicissitude change (esp. from good to bad) victuals food vie contend vigil keeping watch (during normal sleeping hours) vigilant watchful vigilante one who without authority assumes law enforcement powers vignette small drawing placed at the beginning or end of a chapter vigor active strength vile despicable vilify slander vindicate blame vindictive revenge clear from disposed to

language spoken in a country or region

natural style

capable of working in having many uses or many fields functions N: group of animals having a segmented spinal column highest point PL. vertices giddiness liveliness remains exercise of this right distress feasible CF. live vibrating representative done by a deputy for other people acting as a substitute change of fortune provisions compete Ex. all-night vigil on the alert CF. the last emperor of China V. victual: provide with food vigor Ex. vestiges of some ancient religion V: prevent or forbid by exercising the power of veto

practical or workable

watchfully awake

picture energy unpleasant speak evil of free from blame or accusation (with supporting proof) vengeful

short literary sketch enthusiasm disgusting N. vilification exonerate out for revenge

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vintner violate viper

wine merchant winemaker break (a law) defile poisonous snake having masculine spirit or virile manly strength existing in essence virtual in essence though not in actual form virtue goodness moral excellence virtuoso highly skilled artist (esp. in music) Ex. piano virtuoso virulent (of a disease or poison) extremely harmful or poisonous (of a feeling) hostile virus disease communicator visage face appearance visceral felt in one's N. viscera: internal body inner organs organs viscid adhesive gluey viscous (of a liquid) thick and sticky gluey tool for holding work in vise vice place vision eyesight visionary produced by imagination vital full of the effect vitiate spoil life of vitreous of glass vitriolic causing sharp pain to the mind vituperative abusive vivacious lively or animated vivid (of light or color) bright and distinct vivisection act of dissecting living animals vixen female fox vociferous vogue clamorous foresight fanciful animated make inoperative pertaining to or resembling glass caustic scolding sprightl sprightly/lively evoking lifelike mental images

seller of wine desecrate

full of strength for practical purposes good quality


CF. eviscerate

viscid clamping device mental image produced by the imagination mystical vibrant and lively corrupt morally V. vitrify: change into glass corrosive V. vituperate: berate

Ex. vivid red hair/description

ill-tempered woman

noisy Ex. Jeans became the popular fashion vogue.

CF. shrew V. vociferate: cry out loudly (when complaining)

Word List - 50
4702 4703 volatile volition one's will changeable act of using of a quickly changing nature (as of temper) mercurial act of making a conscious Ex. She selected this dress of choice her own volition.

4704 4705 4706 4707 4708 4709 4710 4711 4712

volley simultaneous discharge of a number of shots voluble fluent voluminous having great volume (as of a garment or container) voluptuous sensual voodoo religion practiced chiefly in Haiti voracious ravenous vortex whirlwind vouch give a personal guarantee vouchsafe grant condescendingly

V. talkative bulky of or giving sensual pleasure

glib large indulging in sensual pleasures

eating large quantities of food whirlpool Ex. I can vouch for his integrity guarantee person who derives sexual gratification from observing the sexual acts of others deficient in refinement N. vulnerability crafty

exceedingly eager center of turbulence N. voucher Ex. vouchsafe your fair return on your investment

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voyeur Peeping Tom vulgar of the common people vulnerable susceptible to wounds or attack vulpine like a fox vulture carrion-eating birds vying contending wade walk through a substance, such as water, that impedes movement waffle speak equivocally about an issue waft move gently (in air or in seas) by wind or waves wag shake repeatedly from side to side wage begin and continue (a war) waggish humorous waif homeless child or animal waive give up temporarily wake trail of ship or other object through water wallow roll in mud wan having a pale or sickly color

not refined

CF. vie

N. Ex. leaves wafting past the window Ex. The dog wagged its tail

N: humorous person

mischievous Ex. waifs and strays yield path of something that has gone before indulge in pallid


N. waiver: waiving a right or claim Ex. hunger followed in the wake of the war (of a ship) roll in a rough sea

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wanderlust strong longing to travel wane decrease in size or strength (after being full) wangle achieve by cleverness or trick wanton unrestrained warble (of a bird) sing ward administrative division of a city warp twist out of shape

grow gradually to an end wiggle out gratuitously cruel babble division in a hospital or prison N. written order that serves as authorization (esp. a judicial writ) authorized assurance by seller

Ex. The moon waxes and wanes every month fake willfully malicious N. incompetent person placed under the protection of a guardian

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warrant justification warranted justified warranty guarantee warren tunnels in which rabbits live overcrowded living area wary very cautious watchful wastrel waster profligate waver move or swing be uncertain or unsteady back and forth in decision or movement wax increase gradually (as the moon) grow waylay ambush lie in wait for and attack accustom (the young of a mammal) to take wean accustom a nourishment other than by baby not to nurse suckling weary tired after long work V. weather pass safely through (a storm or difficult endure the effects of period) weather or other forces weird eerie strange well-bred of good well-mannered and upbringing refined welt raised mark from a beating or whipping welter wallow (as in mud or high seas) lie soaked (as in blood) wheedle deceive, persuade, or obtain by flattery cajole whelp young animal (esp. of the dog or cat family) young wolf, dog, tiger, etc. whet sharpen stimulate whiff puff or gust (of air, scent, etc.) short-lasting smell

Ex. search/death warrant

crowded conditions in which people live

Ex. wavering between accepting and refusing

give up a cherished activity


Ex. The victims weltered in their blood. coax

Ex. whet someone's appetite hint

4757 4758 4759 4760 4761 4762 4763 4764 4765 4766 4767 4768 4769 4770 4771 4772 4773 4774 4775 4776 4777 4778 4779 4780 4781 4782 4783 4784 4785

whim sudden capricious idea whimsical capricious whimsy whine sad voice) whinny horse whit whim complain (in a neigh like a small amount

fancy fanciful tendency to behave amusingly strangely

amusingly strange Ex. story full of whimsy

whittle pare wholesome conducive to mental or physical health healthful whorl ring of leaves around stem ring move from side to side with irregular twisting wiggle wriggle motions willful wilful intentional willowy flexible pliant wilt loose freshness droop wily crafty cunning wince move back suddenly shrink back windfall fallen fruit unexpected lucky event separate the chaff from winnow sift grain by blowing winsome charming (in a childlike way) agreeable wisp small bunch (of hair) faint streak (of smoke) wispy thin slight wistful sadly thoughtful (because of desires or memories) sadly pensive withdrawn introverted wither (of a plant) dry up from loss of moisture withhold refuse to give withstand stand up against witless lacking intelligence or wit witticism wizardry wizened witty saying sorcery shriveled retiring lose freshness hold back resist successfully foolish wisecrack(clever joking remark) magic withered

make a high sad sound (as in pain or supplication) CF. neigh: make the sound which horses make smallest speck Ex. not a whit of cut away thin bits (from wood) fashion in this way

circular arrangement

headstrong slender artful flinch

separate good parts from bad gracious

barely discernible vaguely longing remote remote/distant in manner shrivel Ex. withholding tax


Ex. wizened apple/old lady

4786 4787 4788 4789 4790 4791 4792 4793 4794 4795 4796 4797


great sorrow

woeful sad wont (the stated person's) habit or custom worldly engrossed in matters of this earth wrangle quarrel noisily wrath anger

deep inconsolable grief (of something bad) deplorable habitual procedure not spiritual obtain through arguing fury Ex. wreak one's vengeance on pull

affliction deplorably bad ADJ. wonted: customary of the material world herd cattle

4798 4799 4800 4801 4802 4803 4804 4805 4806 4807 4808 4809 4810 4811 4812 4813

wreak inflict wrench twist strain wrest obtain by pulling violently pull away take by violence wretch miserable person bad or despicable person ADJ. wretched: miserable wring twist (to extract wrench painfully (necks or liquid) extract by twisting hands) wrinkle small ridge on a smooth surface (face or cloth) V. writ written command issued by a court (telling someone to do or not to do something) writhe twist in coils contort in pain wrongheaded stubbornly wrong wry (esp. of an expression of the face) with a humorous twist twisted (expressing displeasure) xenophobia fear or hatred of foreigners N. xenophobe yen strong desire longing urge yeoman man or farmer owning small estate middle-class farmer yield amount produced crop income on investment N: crossbar used to joining yoke join together unite two draft animals yokel rustic country bumpkin yore time long past Ex. in the days of yore zany comic crazy N: clown zeal eager enthusiasm (to a cause or ideal) ADJ. zealous zealot one who is person who shows excessive zealous fanatic zeal zenith point directly overhead in the sky summit acme zephyr gentle breeze west wind


zest outer skin of an orange used for giving a special taste to food



Barron's Word List - Short Description

Barron's Words Short List.pdf

Barron's Word List - Long Description

Barron's Words Long List.pdf

Additional Dictionary Words

Additional Dictionary Words.pdf

Big Book Additional Words

Big Book Additional Words.pdf

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