[naoeÔ>

|
AZwH´$_oUH$m
A.H´$

‡H$aUmM{ Zmd

[•> H´$.

[naoeÔ> EH$ ï

ÒdmJVm‹`jr` ^mfU

587 V{ 597

[naoeÔ> Xm{Z ï

A‹`jr` ^mfU

598 V{ 617

[naoeÔ> VrZ ï

VmÀ`mgmh{] H$m{ÎhQ>H$amß¿`m AmR>dUr

618 V{ 622

[naoeÔ> Mma ï

Hw$gw_mJ´OmßMr H$Î[Zm

623 V{ 628

[naoeÔ> [mßM ï

‡[yaH|

629

‡[yaH$ [ohb| ï H$mht KQ>Zm H$mht [°bw

630 V{ 639

‡[yaH$ Xwga| ï Q>r[m

640 V{ 660

‡[yaH$ oVga| ï Am{iI

661 V{ 699

‡[yaH$ Mm°W| ï b˙_rZmam`Umßgß]ßYr
AmUIr Wm|S>{g|

700 V{ 733

[naoeÔ> ghm ï

H$Yt ? ... H$m` KS>b| ?... H$m` H{$b| ?...

734 V{ 739

[naoeÔ> AmR> ï

b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$ ï Ï`o∫$ AmoU gmohÀ` ñ
oZdS>H$ gßX^©

740 V{ 752

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 586$&&

[naoeÔ>-1
ZmerH$ `{W| 16 gflQ>|]a 1933 am{Ot S>m∞. _mYdamd [Q>dY©Z
`mß¿`m A‹`jV{Imcr H$odgß_{cZ Pmc|, À`m ‡gßJtM| c˙_r]mB™M{

ÒdmJVm‹`jr` ^mfU
o‡` ]›Yw^oJZtZm{,
AmO Am[U `{W| H$emgmR>t O_cm| Amhm| h{ gdm™Zm odoXV Amh{M. AmO `{W| H$od d
aogH$ `mßMm Jm{S> gßJ_ Pmcm Amh{. ¯m [w `[d©UrH$aVmß Am[U `{W| EH$Ã O_cm| Amhm|.
[wÓH$imßZm hm cm^ [ydv o_imcm Ag{c. [U _mPm hm [ohcmM ‡gßJ Amh{. ¯m [d©UtV
`{Wrc H$mßht dmç`‡{_r H$od d aogH$OZ `ßmZrß _cm o]Jmar Ynac| Amh|. o]JmË`mM{
H$m_ H$m` AgUma ? _mcmM{ ]m{O{ AÒVmÏ`ÒV Q>mH$md`mM{. V{ ]m{O{ Ï`dpÒWV[U| cmdU|
MVwa H$mamoJamM| H$m_ Amh{. ¯m _ßS>irZ| _cm H$mß oZdS>c| `mM| H$maU _cm H$iV Zmht.
`{W| _m¬`mhˇZ l{> Ag{ ]ßYw^oJZrdJm™V kmV{ AmoU d∫{$ oH$VrVar Amh{V. _cm dmQ>V|,
À`mßZt _m¬`m hmcÀ`m _mZ{H$S>{ [mhˇZ _cm hm PwcVm _mZ oXcm Ag{c.
H$odaogH$mßM| ÒdmJV H$aU`mM| H$m_ H$cm oXc| Amh{, ÂhUyZ Am[Umß gdm™M| ¯m
_ßS>ir¿`m dVtZ| _r _Zï[yd©H$ ÒdmJV H$naV|ó
Am[U Amcmß ]a| Ohmc|, _›_Z [mhwoZ Ymc| !
H$odaogH$mßM| ÒdmJV H$a `m gagmdwoZ _r Amc| !
Ia| gmßJV|, _cm ¯mßVc| kmZ _wir V| Zmht;
MwH{$Z V{W| j_moh H$naoVc ^oJZr _mP{ ^mB© $&&
c{IH$ Agm{ qH$dm H$od Agm{, Vm{ g•oÔ>gm¢X`© d _mZdr OrodV `mßM| [yU©[U| oZarjU
H$naVm|. À`m¿`m g^m|dma O{ dmVmdaU AgV| V| Vm{ Am[Î`m ˆX`mßV gmßR>odVm{ d À`met Vm{
g_ag hm{Vm{. ZßVa odMma, H$b[Zm d ^mdZm ht [na[∑d hm{D$Z e„XÍ$[mZ| ‡oVq]o]V
hm{VmV À`mcm Am[U H$mÏ` ÂhUVm|.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 587$&&

H$mÏ` Xm{Z ‡H$maM| Amh{. EH$ AÎ[m`w d Xwga| oMam`w. EImXr Ï`pŒH$ O›_mcm `{V{,
ZrQ>Z{Q>H$m gßgma WmQ>V{ d EH$ oXdg Vr _Í$Z OmV{. Vg|M h| _•V H$mÏ` hm{`. ¯mßV Jm`Z,
dmXZ, ZV©Z ¯m H$cm Oar Am{V‡m{V ^aÎ`m AgÎ`m Var À`mßV Am{OpÒdVm ZgV{. ¡`mßV
‡mU Zmht Ag| H$mÏ` AÎ[m`w.
H$drMm ÒdmZw^d d À`m¿`m ^m|dVmcMr [napÒWoV À`m¿`m H$mÏ`mMm [na[m{f
H$naVmV. À`m¿`m dmVmdaUmßV Amd{e Ag{c. V| [odà Ag{c Va Vt H$dret gßcΩZ
hmD$Z H$mÏ`Í$[mZ| ‡oVq]o]V hm{VmV. dmVmdaUmßV [odÕ`, em°`© Zg{c Va V| H$mÏ`mßV
H$g| `{Uma ? dmVmdaUmßV B©úar gmp›Z‹`, Y_©MMm©, H$mÏ`mMm D$hm[m{h, X{emMr H$iH$i,
]ßYw‡{_, H$m`© H$a `mMm CÀgmh, og’mßVmßda MMm©, em°`© Ag{c Va h{ JwU Aem
dmVmdaUmßVrc H$dt¿`m H$mÏ`mßV ‡oVq]o]V hm{VmV d À`mcmM Am[U oMam`w H$mÏ`
ÂhUVm|. H$mÏ` ÂhUO{ g^m|dVmcMm OrdZH´$_ hm{`. H$od H$mim‡_mU| O›_mg `{Vm{.
gw]Œm{¿`m d emßVr¿`m H$mimßV H$od Vg{M oZ_m©U Pmc{. ^∫$s¿`m H$mimßV H$od-^∫$
oZ_m©U Pmc{. À`m ^∫$_ßS>irMm d{T>m W{Q> [ßT>a[ya¿`m X{dimcm [S>cm. em°`m©¿`m H$mimßV
em°`m©Mt H$mÏ`| oZ_m©U Pmct. hÑt ‡JVrMm H$mi Amh{. À`m‡_mU| gwYmaU{Mt H$mÏ`| hm{V
Amh{V. AmO À`mM H$dtM| gß_{cZ Amh{.
H{$di H$dtM| h| gß_{cZ ZÏh{, Va H$od d aogH$ `mßM{ h| gß_{cZ hm{`. H$maUó
—Ô>rodZm —Ì` H$arc H$m` ?
M°V›` O| À`modU aÂ` H$m`
agkhm{ H$m` VwÂhmßodZm _r
H$Íß$ OJt K{CZ H$mÏ` Zm_r ?
—oÔ> Zmht Va —Ì` Zmht. M°V›` Zgc| Va gwßXa eara H$m` H$m_mM| ? agk Zgc{ Va
H$od Am[cr gwßXa H$mÏ`| K{D$Z H$m` H$aUma ? [a_{úamZ| H$dr¿`m [wT>| hró
"g•oÔ>gwßXar H$mÏ`Í$o[Ur H$od¿`m [wT>Vr R>{cr'
H$dr[wT>| h| YmXmßV H$mÏ` oZ_m©U H{$c| Amh{. ZrcdU© AmH$me, M_H$Uma{ Vma{, oX[odUma{
Mß–-gy`©, YmßdUmam dmam, JS>JS>Umam _{K, M_H$Umar M[cm, df©Umam [O©›`, gflVaßJr
YZwÓ`, Am[Î`m d°^dmZ| ZQy>Z JJZmcm ^{Xyß [mhUma{ oJna-_hmoJna, À`mß¿`m MaUmßOdi
cm{iUmË`m Agߪ` Xar, À`mßMm [nadma ÂhUO{ chmZ _m{R>Ám Q>{H$S>Ám, À`m_YyZ
gigiUmar Om˘`mPwS>[| d JdV, À`mßV Òd°aJVrZ| gßMma H$aUma{ Agߪ` d ZmZmodY
dZ[ew, PwiPwi dmhUma{ Pa{, dH´$JVrZ| dmhUmË`m Z⁄m, Ym| Ym| AmdmO H$aUma{ Y]Y]{,

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 588$&&

JO©Zm H$aUmam gmJa, À`m¿`m AßV^m©Jr amhUma{ Agߪ` OcMa, dmË`mda VaßJUma{
qdhJ, ZmMUma{ _m{a, Sw>cUmam ZmJ, PwcUmam JO, _{hZVr _wßJr, Jm{S> JmUmam H$m{H$si,
\w$cmß\$imßZr Z_´ Pmc{Î`m dZcVm, C_cUmat \w$c| d H$_i|, JwßOmad H$aUmam ^´_a...
H$dr¿`m —oÔ>j{[mßVyZ d c{IUr¿`m Q>m{H$mßVyZ H$m{UVm [XmW© _{Í$[d©Vm[mgyZ gmJam¿`m
a{Vr[`™V-MwHy$Z amohcm Amh{ ? oZOudmcm gOrd H$aUma{ d gOrdmcm oZOud H$aUma{
Ag{ O{ V{ H$od hm{V.

Am_M{ ‡mMrZ H$od
Am[Î`m g•oÔ>gm¢X`m©Mm C[^m{J K{Uma{, Hß$X_wi| ImD$Z [U©Hw$Q>tV amhUma{,X{dmM{
gmp›Z‹` H$Í$Z X{Uma{, AmoU Am[Î`m hmVmßV H$mÏ`^mßS>ma X{Uma{ h{ F$of, _hmF$of, h{
Am[c{ ‡mMrZ H$od hm{V. Ï`mg, dmoÎ_H$s, ewH$ BÀ`moXH$mßZt AR>am [wamU{ d BVa Y_©J´ßW
oZ_m©U H{$c{. À`m H$mir gßÒH•$V ‡MocV AgÎ`m_wi| À`mßZr gßÒH•$VmßV J´ßWaMZm H{$cr.
[wT>| ]h˛OZg_mOmMr ^mfm o^›Z PmÎ`m_wi{ ‡À`{H$mg `m J´ßWmßMm \$magm \$m`Xm hm{B©Zmgm
Pmcm. ZßVa ^o∫$_mJ© oZ_m©U Pmcm. gßÒH•$VmßVyZ ‡mH•$VmßV AmUUma{ lr kmZ{úamßZ|
]wo’gm_œ`© gdm™Zm gmaI|M oXc| Amh{. [a_{úam¿`m oR>H$mUt OmVJm{V Zmht, AR>am[JS>
OmVtVrc pÒÃ`m d [wÍ$f `mßZr ^o∫$[a H$mÏ`| oZ_m©U H{$ct, [a_{úamZ| ]wo’ dmQ>cr V{Ïhmß
hm CÉ hm ZrM Agm ^{X À`mZ| H{$cm Zmht. VwH$mam_, am_Xmg, Zm_X{d, Jm{am Hwß$^ma,
gmdVm _mir, gyaXmg, Mm{Im _{im, am{ohXmg Mmß^ma, BÀ`moX AZ{H$ OmVt¿`m [wÈf
H$dtZr d H$do`oà OZm]mB©, _w∫$m]mB©, ]ohUm]mB© AmoU amOKam `mßVrc _ram]mB© `m
pÒÃ`mßZr Agߪ` cm{H$ ^pŒH$_mJm©cm cmodc{.
H$dr_‹`| VrZ JwU AgVmV. Vm{ kmVm, XmVm d Z{Vm AgVm{. `m gßV_ßS>irZ{ H$mÏ`
oZ_m©U H$Í$Z (XmVm) cm{H$mßZm ^o∫$_mJm©H$S>{ diodc| (Z{Vm).
À`mZßVaM{ H$od lrYa, dm_Z[ßoS>V, _m{am{[ßV AmoU A_•Vam` `m H$dtZr gßÒH•$VmßVyZ
_amR>tV H$mÏ` AmUyZ gm{oS>c| d H$mßht ÒdVßà _amR>r H$mÏ`|oh ocohct. À`m_wi| _amR>rMm
]amM \$m`Xm Pmcm. VwH$mam_ d am_Xmg h{ EH$mM d{ir oedmOt¿`m H$mimßV hm{D$Z J{c{.
VwH$m{]mßMr dmUr ‡gmX[yU© d ‡oV^memcr Amh{. am_Xmg h{ _•Àg‘r d Y_m©o^_mZr hm{V{.
[{edmB©V d [{edmB©¿`m AI{arg H$mßhr emhraó‡^mH$a, hm{ZmOr, gJZ^mD$, am_Om{er
dJ°a{ oZ_m©U Pmc{. À`mßZr Am[cr H$m_oJar ]Omodcr. H$m]mS>H$Ô> H$aUmË`m d e{VH$m_mßV
oXdg^a I[UmË`m cm{H$mß¿`m _Zmcm odlmßoV o_imdr, amÃr Xm{Z KQ>H$m H$a_UyH$ Ïhmdr
hm ¯mß¿`m H$mÏ`mMm _yc C[`m{J hm{`. H$Q>md, cmd `m, Rw>ß]Ë`m AgÎ`m ‡H$maM{ H$mÏ`
_ZwÓ`m¿`m _mZogH$ d emarnaH$ d WH$Ï`mMm [nahma H$naV|. H$mÏ`m¿`m `m C[`m{JmßM{
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 589$&&

`edßV H$dtZr Am[Î`m "[mU[m{B©'V ""lm›V [m›Wm! ]mßYcr hr VyoP`mgmR>r gamB©'' Ag{
dU©Z H{$c{ Amh{. Am[Umßg ‡À`{H$mg _mhrV Amh{ H$s® _mZdr ‡mUr oH$Vroh XwïIr Agcm
Var Vm{ H$mßhr JwUJwU H$arV AgVm{. _J JwUJwUcr OmUmar H$odVm ÒdVïMr Agm{ AJa
XwgË`mMr Agm{.
‡À`{H$ _ZwÓ` H$od Amh{. Vm{ H$gm V{ Am[U [mhˇß. amdm[mgyZ Vm| aßH$m[`™V Wm{a-[m{a,
ÒÃr[wÈf,ÂhUO{ AdKr _mZdOmV H$od Amh{. ¡`mMr Oer oZarjUeo∫$ Ag{c,
À`m‡_mU{ À`mM{ H$mÏ` gag ]ZV{ß; _J Vm{ gmja Agm{ qH$dm oZaja Agm{. CXmhaUmW©
H$mßht H$mÏ`‡H$ma Am[U [mhˇß ïó
_m{Q>dmcm _m{Q> MmcodVmßZm Or JmUt JmVm{ Vt oH$Vr H$U©_Ywa dmQ>VmVmV ! AmoU Vr
d{ioh oH$Vr ‡g›Z AgV{! ‡^mVH$mir ohadtJma e{V| gigiV AgVmßZm, MmH$mMm d
H$ `mMm AmdmO E{Hyß$ `{V AgVmß, _m{Q>dmcm Am[Î`m ]°cmßg Wm{[odVm{ Vm{ ‡gßJ oH$Vr
AÎhmXXm`H$ d V{ß H$mÏ`oh oH$Vr aÂ` Ag{c!
KwßJyamMr Hß$R>r amOm-[aYmZm¿`m Jimß $&&
o[H$dm VwÂht e{V|, [mIa| hm{Vr Jm{imß $&&
h{ _m{Q>dmÎ`mM| JmU| ! oH$Vr amOm H$Um©gmaI| Am°Xm`© h| ! "VwÂhr _im o[H$dm, [mIa|
Jm{im hm{Vrc' Ag| Vm{ ÂhUVm{. _mPmM Wmim ^Íß$ ⁄m Ag{ Vm{ ÂhUV Zmht. `m¿`m CcQ>
h| JmU| ]Km "^cß a{ XmXm, C[Q> Om|Yim' V{ h| H$mÏ` Pmc| ! hr Am{i l_odZm{XZmgmR>t
ÂhQ>c{cr Ag{c Ag| ÂhUm [mohO{ Va. AmVmß pÒÃ`m d H$mßht H$od `mßMt JmUt [mhˇ. _r
_mJ| gmßoJVc|M Amh{ H$s® H$od kmVm, XmVm d Z{Vm AgVm{ ÂhUyZ. nÒÃ`mßMr JmUt [hmïó
_mir hmßH$s _m{Q> _mirU Yar Xma $&
Xm{Kmß¿`m odMmamZ| _im oXg{ ohadmJma $&&
¯m_‹`| oH$Vr CŒm_ oeH$dUyH$ Amh{ ! Vm{ _mir Am[Î`m _˘`mgmR>r X{hmMr [dm© Z
H$aVmß C›hmßV I[Vm{. _mirU Xma| YaV{ d oVcm H$mßQ>ÁmoMIcmMr XmX ZgV{. Vr BH$S>Mm
oMIc oVH$S>{ cmdV{. `mM{ß H$maU H$m` ? Am[cm _im dmT>mdm; `mdÍ$Z pÒÃ`mßgmR>t
Agm ]m{Y oZKVm{ H$s® "]mB© VwPm Zdam [°g{ o_iodVm{. Vyß gßgmamcm O[. Am[Î`m ]mimßM{
gßJm{[Z H$a.' AmVmß da¿`mgmaI{ H$drM{ H$mÏ` [hm ïó
o^›Z _yVu_oY oMŒm EH$ O{W| $&
^m{oJ XwïImV| AZw^dr gwImV| !
ÒdmW©H$[Q>mßMm c{e Zg{ O{W| $&
OJr C[_m H$m{UVr À`m J•hmV| $?
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 590$&&

h{ pÒÃ`mßM{ OmÀ`mdaM{ Xwga{ JmU{ [hm ïó
C›hm˘`mM{ C›h g[© VU{ VUm_‹`| $&
c{H$sM| Zmht ]a| _m` Oi{ _Zm_‹`| !
`m Am{itet OwiUmË`m Jm{odXmJ´Omß¿`m Am{ir [hm ïó
V| ˆX` H$g| AmB™M{ _r CJmM gmßJV Zmht $&
O| AmZßX|hr aS>V| XwïImßV H$g| V| hm{B© $&&
_t _mJ| gmßoJVc| Amh{M H$s® H$mÏ`Í$o[Ur g•oÔ> H$dr[wT>| C^r Amh{.
Imcrc Am{ir _amR>m pÒÃ`m XiVmßZm Jm `mß_Yrc A∑H$S>H$S>d| ÂhUyZ ÂhUVmV.
¡`m‡_mU| H$dt¿`m H$mÏ`mßV Y´wd[X AgV| Vg|M gm‹`m ]m`mß¿`m Jm `mßV h| A∑H$S>H$S>d|
AgV|.
Amcm J Amcm ]mB© È_mc CS>drVm{
Amcm J Amcm ]mB© JJqZ JO©Vm{ $&
AmVmß h| H$dtM| [mhmïó
d{S>m Ohmcm dmam _{Km o]cm{Hy$Zr
W`W` W`W` ZmMV gwQ>cm
Yy_ YS> YS> Yy_ YS> YS> ^rfU _{K Z^t Amc{
JoO©V E{Hw$Z ˆX` Cc{ h|
AmVmß _wctM| Pm{[m˘`mdarc JmU| [hm.
]m[mOr hm{ ]m[m, \$ma c{H$s ÂhUyß ZH$m $&
OUwß oM_ `mßMm Vm\$m CSw>Zr OmB© $&&
Pm|[m˘`mda _wcr ]gÎ`m AgVmßZm oM_ `m CS>mÎ`m AgVrc Vm{M h| JmU| gwMc|.
]m[ OdiM Agcm Va À`m¿`m AßVïH$aUmcm oH$Vr Pm{H$m ]gcm Ag{c.
`mM AWm©M| EH$m ‡m°T> Ï`ŒH$sM| JmU| [hmïó
AmpÂh H$›`H$m AgwoZ cmS>∑`m H$mß _J dXVm \$ma ?
‡{_i VmVm, dgßV `{Vmß `m oM_ `m CS>Uma $&&
A_yH$ H$od A_yH$ H$dr¿`m Vmc_rVcm Amh{, d A_wH$mM| oeÓ`Àd A_wH$mZ| [ÀH$ac|
hm{V| Aer ^mfm [wÓH$iXmß E{Hy$ `{V{. `{W| ¯m AS>mUr _mUgmß[mgyZ od¤mZ H$dtZm Ò\y$oV©
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 591$&&

Pmcr oH$ßdm od¤mZmß[mgyZ e{VH$Ë`mßZt d ]m`m]m[S>ÁmßZt Ò\y$oV© K{Vcr ?
Aem oH$VrVar H$od H$odo`Ãr qhXwÒWmZ¿`m H$mZmH$m{[Ë`mßVyZ aogH$mßZm gmßJV Amh{V
H$s®,
__ gIr H$odVm Vw_Mr o‡`m $&
À`oOV Vr A[wÎ`m [ohÎ`m d`m; $&
[na AOyoZ oVcm ^` dmQ>V|; $&
AZwaVr Ona V›_qZ XmQ>V| &&
qhXwÒWmZ amhm{ [U AmO ZmerH$j{ÃmßV H$od d H$do`Ãr e|H$S>m| Amh{V. "[na AOyoZ
oVcm ^` dmQ>V|.' ‡À`{H$ H$od-H$odo`Ãrcm ^` Amh{M. [°emM|, ocohVmß Z `{ `mM|,
gmgwadmgmM| d OZqZX{M|, ‡À`{H$mM{ _mJ| ^` h| Amh{M. AgÎ`m AZ{H$ AS>MUt_wi|
Am_¿`m ]wo’gm_œ`m©Mm Zme hm{V Amh{.
_t _mJ|M gmßoJVb| Amh{ H$s® _mP| H$m_ ]m{O{ Q>mH$ `mM| Amh{. _m¬`m ^mfUmßV
odgßJV[Um Agbm Var ]ßYw^oJZr _mP| ^mfU gwgßJV H$Í$Z K{Vrb Aer Amem Amh{.
lr.ZmW oZ\$mS>H$a `mßZt _mJ| H$od[arjUmgmR>t OmJOmJt Am[b{ H$mJXr Òdma
[mR>odb{ hm{V{. V{ _m¬`mH$S>{ Amb{ d _bmoh V|M H$m_ gmßJy bmJb{. _t V| ZmH$mnab|. _bm
d{i Zmht ÂhUyZ gmßoJVb|. AmoU V| Ia| hm{V|. [U _wª` H$maU oZami|M hm{V|. _r [arjm
oXÎ`m ZmhtV d H$m{Um¿`m K{VÎ`moh ZmhtV. V{Ïhmß _r H$dtMr [arjm H$er K{Uma? [U
À`mß¿`m gwMZ{dÍ$Z _t _m¬`m AÎ[_Vr‡_mU| H$dtM{ VrZ dJ© H{$b{ Amh{V. ¡`mMr dmUr
‡gmX[yU© Amh{. ¡`m¿`m H$mÏ`mßV ‡oV^m Amh{. ¡`m¿`m H$mÏ`mMm Am{K Obm°Km‡_mU|
gVV dmhV Amh{. ¡`m‡_mU| ZXrMm Am{K Wmß]odVmß `{V Zmht. V¤VM ‡[ßMmMm Yy_YS>mH$m
MmbV Agbm Var ¡`mMr gmnaH$m JmVM amhV{ Agm EH$ dJ©. ¯m dJm™oVb H$od
[napÒWVrMm Òdm_r hm{`. [napÒWoV À`mMr Òdmo_Zr ZÏh{.
XwgË`m dJm™Vrb H$od dmÒVodH$ H$od ZgVm{. Va À`m¿`m AßVïH$aUmßVrb gßd{XZm
À`mbm H$od ]ZodVmV. EIm⁄m ^mßS>Ámbm Y∏$m bmJVmßM À`mMm AmdmO hm{Vm{.
KS>m˘`mbm oH$Ñr oXbr ÂhUO{ V| Mmbyß bmJV| Vg|M `m H$drM| hm{V|. À`m¿`m XwïImMm
AoVa{H$ Pmb{bm AgVm|. À`mMt H$mÏ`| H$T>À`m AßVïH$aUmßVrb dm\$m hm{V. [w›hmß Vm{
gwIm{[^m{JmßV [S>bm H$s® JmU| ]ßX. _r _mJ| gmßoJVb|M Amh{ H$s® [roS>VmßMr gßOrdZr d
lo_VmßMm odgmdm ÂhUO{ H$mÏ`X{dr! hm H$od Òd`ß^y ZgVm{ Va ÒWmo[d AgVm{. À`mbm
[w›hmß Y∏$m bmJbm H$s® AmdmO gwÍ$ hm{Vm{. Y∏{$ ]gb{ ZmhtV Va À`mß¿`mVyZ ZmX oZKm`Mm
Zmht.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 592$&&

AmVmß oVgË`m dJm©¿`m H$dtodf`r Am[U odMma H$Íß$. _r H$m{UmMr qZXm AJa
ÒVwoV H$a `mgmR>t `{W| C^r amohb| Zmht. O| _bm gÀ` oXgV| V| _r gmßJUma. À`m]‘b
H$m{UtM amJ _mZyß Z`{. _r Oar od¤mZ Zgb| Var _m¬`m d`m¿`m _mZmZ| bhmZ o[T>rbm
gmßJ `mMm _mPm AoYH$ma Amh{. oVgam H$od Òd`ßg{dH$ hm{`. Ò\y$oV©X{dr À`mOH$S>{ `{V
ZgVmß, Vm{ oV¿`mH$S>{ OmV AgVm{. À`mbm oVMr AmdS> d ^o∫$ AgyZ, V{ oVMr _Zm{^mdmZ|
g{dm H$a `mg og’ hm{Vm{. oV¿`mH$naVmß Vm{ amÃt¿`m amÃt OmJaU| H$naVm|. _bm _mhrV
Amh{ H$s®, oH$À`{H$ `m H$maUmZ| AmOmar [S>VmV. Aem hm{VH$Í$ H$dtZm hmV Om{Sy>Z _mPr
odZßVr Amh{ H$s®, VwÂhr `m ^mZJS>tV _wit [Sy>ßM ZH$m. odMmagmJambm ^aVr `{Dß$ ⁄m, _J
VwÂhr _m{À`mßM{ hma Jwß\$m. Ag| Z Pmb| Va VwÂhr H{$di `_H{$ ]Zmb. _mgÎ`mH$naVmß
Imbrb Mma e„XmßMr H$odVm [hm,
_mir bmdrV hm{Vm H{$it $& Ahm{ H{$it $&&
YZJa MmarV hm{Vm e{ir $& Ahm{ e{ir $&&
qe[r oedrV hm{Vm Mm{ir $& Ahm{ Mm{ir $&&
gmir KmbrV hm{Vr ]mir $& Ahm{ ]mir $&&
(gmir ÂhUO{ H$m{Ô>r ZÏh{. gmir ZmßdmMr _wbJr)
Mma e„X AoZdma $& VwP| _r E{Hw$oZ Pmbm| Jma $&
h| H$m` H$mÏ` Amh{?
[ohÎ`m dJm™Vrb H$drMt H$odVm ÂhUO{ H$mÏ`, XwgË`m dJm™Vrb H$drMr H$odVm
ÂhUO{ H$odVmM d oVgË`m dJm™Vrb H$odVm ÂhUO{ _bm dmQ>V| "H$o[Vm'. _r Va ¯m
H$mÏ`mbm H$o[Vm Ag|M g_OV|.
^ßS>rMm X{d gmMm, V{W| EH$ _m{S>H|$ Vm{S>H|$ X{D$i hm{V|
À`mß_‹`| ZßoX ]wÉm $&&
X{dim¿`m AdqV^dVt H$mßqh ]m{na H$mßqh ]m^ir
À`mß_‹`| XmQ> qMMm $&&
X{dim¿`m [moR>_mJ| V{W| EH$ ^gmoS>er odhra hm{Vr
Vr_Y| Òd¿N> [mUr $&&
Agbt H$mÏ`| H$am`m, BH$Sw>Z oVH$Sw>Z AmUb{br
]wo’ X{ MH´$[mUr$&&
[.dm.JS>H$Ë`mßZt dU©Z H{$Î`m‡_mU| da dU©Z H{$b{Î`m oVgË`m dJm™Vrb H$dt¿`m
H$odVm ÂhUO{ _m{ao[gmM{ S>m{i{ hm{V. ¯m S>m{˘`mßV ‡{_mMr M_H$ Zmht. ¯m S>m{˘`mßV
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 593$&&

XwïImM{ Alw ZmhtV. Agb{ S>m{i{ _wbm]mimß¿`m I{i `mßV em{^yZ OmVmV. H$odV{]‘bMr
_mPr g_OyV Aer Amh{ H$s®, O| H$mÏ` _Zmbm hbdrV Zmht V| H$mÏ` ZÏh{. O| _Zmbm
hbodV| V|M H$mÏ` hm{`.
[a_{ ú a _w ∑ `mß Z m ]m{ b md`mg bmdVm{ , [mß J ˘`mß Z m Mmbmd`mg bmdVm{ .
[.dm.Jm{qdXH$dtM| CXmhaU Am[Î`m[wT>| Amh{M. V{ \$mag{ oeH$b{b{ ZgyZ earamZ| [ßJw
hm{V{. V{ Hw$Um¿`m \$mag{ Am{iIrM{ hm{V{ H$s® Zmht _bm gmßJVmß `{Uma Zmht. [aßVw _bm V{
AZm{iIr hm{V{ h| _r ‡mßOi[U{ H$]yb H$naV|. À`mß¿`m H$odVm _bm EH$m H$drZ| dmMyZ
XmIodÎ`m.
Wmß] MmßXm{]m, MmßXm{] ]m[m $&
harMm K{CZ Om [m[m $&&
Wmß] MmßXm{]m, MmßXm{]m X{dm, $&
harMm E{Hw$oZ Om [mdm $&&
oH$Vr gmY{, gai d ‡MmamßVrb e„X h{ ! _Zmbm AmZßX X{Uma| ‡oV^membr H$mÏ` h|
hm{`. Aem H$mÏ`mg Zmßd| R>{dUmamßZt gm{[mZX{d Mm°Yar `mßM| Imbrb CŒma ‹`mZt
AmU `mgmaI| Amh{. V{ ÂhUVmVó
Í$[ Zmht, aßJ Zmht, JßY Zmht Hw$oU ÂhU{ $&&
oZo_©Umam Vm{ odYmVm Ak R>abm H$m OZt?
H$maUï
ht oZïÌdogV| $& H$m{U gm{oS>V| $& H$odˆX`t V| $&
odMmÈZr o^CZr À`mbm $& [wT>| H$am _J H$a Am[wbm $&
[ohÎ`m dJm™Vrb H$dtMt H$mÏ`| Oa _Zmg hbdrV ZgVrb Va _r g_O{Z H$s®ó
H$mÏ`m_•V[mÃmßVwZ ¡`m¿`m X°dmßV EH$ `{ H$Mam $&

‡mMrZ d Adm©MrZ H$mÏ`mßVrb \$aH$
Am_¿`m ‡mMrZ H$dtZr Am_¿`m hmVt H$mÏ`^mßS>ma oXb|. À`mMr dmT> Ïhmdr `mH$naVmß
Q>rH$mH$mamßZt À`mdÍ$Z H$mÏ`JwUXm{fmßM| emÛ ]Zodb| d H$mÏ`m¿`m earamMroh EH$ È[a{fm
AmßIyZ R>{odbr Amh{. Vr È[a{fm _amR>tV "d•ŒmX[©U' `m ZmßdmZ| ‡og’ Amh{. À`mßV
JU_mÃmßMr gߪ`m, _mßS>Ur dJ°a{]‘b oZ`_ oXb{b{ Amh{V. dmÒVodH$ [mhVmß O{Ïhmß
H$Î[Zm d ^mdZm Vrd´ AgVmV V{Ïhmß JU_mÃm _m{OrV ]gU| Ae∑` AgV|. JU_mÃmßZt
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 594$&&

Ò\y$oV© odViyZ OmD$Z À`m OmJt XwgarM aMZm `{V{. _mPm Agm g_O Amh{ H$s®,
AbrH$S>rb H$od d•ŒmX[©UmMm C[`m{J H$_t H$arV Agmd{. hm _mPm g_O H$XmoMV≤
MwH$sMm Ag{b. [ßoS>VH$dt¿`m H$odVm g_OyZ K{ `mg _|XyMm C[`m{J H$adm bmJVm{.
`mM| H$maU V{ Oar d•ŒmX[©UmM{ oZ`_ VßVm{VßV [mirV Agb{ Var À`mßM| H$mÏ` _wª`Vï
]wo’‡YmZ AgV|. AmYwoZH$ H$mÏ` ˆX`mbm hbodV| Va [ßoS>Vr H$mÏ` _|Xybm erU
X{V|.Adm©MrZ H$dtM{ H$mÏ` ˆX`mbm hbodV| Va [ßoS>Vr H$mÏ` _wª`Vï ]wo’‡YmZ AgV|.
AmYwoZH$ H$mÏ` ‡m`ï ^mdZm‡YmZ AgV|. Agb{ AmYwoZH$ H$od Am[Umß gdm™Zm _mhrV
AgyZ, À`mßM| H$mÏ`oh Am[Î`m S>m{˘`mg_m{a Amh{M. hÑt gw]Œm{Mm H$mi Zmht. V{Ïhmß
H$odaogH$mßZm d{i o_iV Zmht. H$od ]m{bVmß ]m{bVmß H$odVm H$aVm{ d aogH$ MmbVmß
MmbVmßM Vr dmMyZ H$mT>Vm{.
_r Oa AmYwoZH$ H$od-H$do`ÃtMt Zmßd| X{B©Z Va JßJm[wÃmMr EH$ dhr-Zm_mdirM
hm{B©b.

Jm{XmVQ>rMm JwßOmad
Jm{X{Mm CJ_ hm{Vm{ V{W| Oar Vm{ bhmZ Agbm Var Vm{ [wT>| [wT>| odÒV•V hm{V OmVm{. AmO
Am[U `m oR>H$mUt Jm{XmVQ>rMm JwßOmad E{H$ `mgmR>t O_bm| Amhm|. hm _wª` _w‘m ]mOybmM
amohbm. hm _w‘m e{dQ>t K{ `mM| H$maU Vm{ gdm™¿`m b˙`mßV ahmdm h| hm{`. JwßOmad
H$aUmamß[°H$s® Am⁄ H$od Am_M{ _woZ dmÎ_roH$ h{ hm{V.
ZmerH$ h{ [ydu [Ÿ[ya ÂhUyZ ‡og’ hm{V|. [U [wT>| am_mZ| ey[©UI{M| ZmH$ `{W|
H$m[Î`m[mgyZ ZmerH$ h| Zmßd ‡m· Pmb|. À`mdÍ$Z `{Wrb Am⁄ H$od dmpÎ_oH$ hm{V,
Ag| ÂhUmd`mg haH$V Zmht. AWm©V≤ dmX H$arV Zgmb VaM _r _mP| _V gmßJUma.
H$mÏ`m_wi| _yi¿`m ZmßdmßV oH$VrVar \$aH$ KSy>Z Ambm. oedmOr¿`m H$mit hm{D$Z J{b{b{
am_Xmg `mßMm Zm_oZX}e H$aU| AmdÌ`H$ oXgV|. À`mZßVaMr _bm [mohO{ Ver _mohVr
Zmht. Jm{XmVQ>t O{ ‡mMrZ H$od hm{D$Z J{b{ V{ emÛr, [ßoS>V, X{d^∫$, oZaßOZ_mYd d
X{d_m_b{Xma Ag{ hm{V{. ¯mßMm CÑ{I H{$bm [mohO{. Vg|M AmOoh `{W| od¤mZ, X{d^∫$ d
[ßoS>V H$od Am{hV. `mßZt H$mÏ`X{drMr AZ{H$ ‡H$ma| g{dm H$Í$Z _hmamÔ≠>-H$od_ßS>imßV
ÒWmZ o_iodb| Amh{.
_amR>r ^mf{Mr d H$odV{Mr g{dm H$a `mgmR>r ZmerH$_‹`| H$mßht dmç`_ßS>i| ÒWm[Z
Pmbt Amh{V. AmOM| g_{bZ `eÒdr hm{ `mgmR>t `{Wrb Xhm ]mam dmç`gßÒWmßZt _XV
H{$br Amh{. H$mßht _ßS>imßV\}$ H$mÏ`mMt H$mßht [wÒVH{$ ‡og’ Pmbt Amh{V. [ŸXb (22
H$od d 2 H$do`Ãr), _mYdr (26 H$od d 2 H$do`Ãr) JwßOmad (31 H$od d 5 H$do`Ãr)
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 595$&&

AmoU [mnaOmV (14 H$od d 4 H$do`Ãr) ht [wÒVH|$ aogH$OZmßZm _mhrV AgVrbM.
lr.od.Zm.dmS> `mßZt Am[Î`m H$odV{Mt H$mßht [wÒVH|$ ÒdßVÃ[U| ‡og’ H{$Î`mM| E{H$V|.
lr.Mm°Yar `mßM| "H$mÏ`H{$VH$s', lr. oeadmS>H$a (Hw$gw_mJ´O) `mßM| "OrdZbhar' d
Jm{qdX emohamß¿`m H$odVm Aet VrZ [wÒVH|$ ÒdVßÃ[U{ ‡og’ Pmbt Amh{V. hr Jm{Ô>
darb H$dtg ^yfUmdh Amh{.
amd]hmXya [m‹`{ d lr.ZmW oZ\$mS>H$a ¯mß¿`m [nal_mZ| ‡og’ Pmb{b| Jm{XmVQ>rMm
JwßOmad h| [wÒVH$ Va E_≤.E.¿`m [arj{bmoh Z{_ `mßV Amb{b| Amh{. ‡m{.[m‹`{ d•’ Amh{V
Var À`mßMr H$V©]Jmar Ao^ZßXZr` Amh{. ‡m°T> d ‡og’ H$dt]am{]a ¯mßZt hm{VH$Í$ H$dtZmoh
Am[Î`m dOZmZ| E_≤.E ¿`m od⁄mœ`m™[wT>{ [arj{g Z{D$Z ]godb|. H$mÏ`g{d{gmR>t À`mßZt
Am[b| VZ, _Z d YZoh IMu KmVb| Amh{.
ZmeH$mg 1928 gmbt EH$Xm H$od H{$edamd gm{ZmiH$a ¯mß¿`m A‹`jV{Imbt
Mma oOίmßM{ H$odgß_{bZ ^ab| hm{V| À`m d{it `{Wrb H$dtMr H$mÏ`mgß]ßYt AmÒWm
oXgyZ AmbrM Amh{.
`mdÍ$Z Am[Umßg Ag| oXgyZ `{B©b, H$s® ZmerH$¿`m H$dtZt H$mÏ`m¿`m ]m]VtV
Ò[•hUr` H$m_oJar ]Omodbr Amh{ d `{WyZ [wT>|oh AoYH$moYH$ g{dm À`mß¿`m hmVyZ hm{B©b
Aer Amem H$aU| dmdJ| hm{Uma Zmht.
Am_¿`m odZßVrg _mZ X{D$Z Amb{Î`m [mh˛U{_ßS>irM| _r _Zï[yd©H$ Am^ma _moZV|.
o^fi^md ^md gma| odgÍß$ $&
[aÒ[amßMm hmV YÍß$ $&
Ò\y$oV©X{odbm OqJ odVÍß$ $&
gß_{bZ h| [yU© H$Íß$ $&
AmVmß AmOM{ oZ`m{oOV A‹`j ‡m{. _mYdamd [Q>dY©Z `mßMr _r Am[Umßg Am{iI
H$Í$Z X{V|. h| EH$ Amß„`mM| PmS> Amh{. À`mMr N>m`m XmQ> Amh{. C›hm¿`m Vm[mZ| gßÃÒV
Pmb{b{ oH$À`{H$ bm{H$ À`m¿`m N>m`{bm ]gVmV. dgßVF$VyßV À`mbm _m{hm{a `{Vm{, À`mda
H$m{oH$im JmVmV, À`mbm _Ywa \$i| `{VmV, À`m \$imßH$naVmß Wm{a, [m{a, d•’, VÈU À`mda
XJS> \|$H$VmV, h| Oa _t Am[Umßg gmßoJVb|ß Va Am[U _bm _yIm™V H$mT>mb. H$maU À`m
PmS>mßM{ JwUY_© gdm™g _mhrVM Amh{V. Vg{M AmO¿`m A‹`jmßMr Am{iI Am[Umßbm
H$Í$Z ⁄md`mbm hdr Ag| Zmht. od¤Vm, aogH$Vm, AmoU ‡oV^m `m oV›hr JwUmßMm gwßXa

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 596$&&

gßJ_ À`mM| oR>H$mUt Pmb{bm Amh{. N>›Xm{aMZm AmoU \$magr _amR>r H$m{f ht [wÒVH|$
À`mß¿`m od¤Œm{Mr gmj [Q>dUmat Amh{V. odahVaßJ, gwYmaH$ AmoU JÇmbmßOob ht [wÒVH|$
Va aogH$mßg gw[naoMVM Amh{V. _amR>r H$odV{bm H$mßht Var ZdrZ diU bmd `mgmR>t
À`mßZt _Zm[mgyZ ‡`ÀZ H{$b{ Amh{V. À`mß¿`mßV \$∫$ H$m` Zmht h| Am[Umßg [hmd`mM|
Amh{. _ZwÓ`mßVrb _wª` XwJw©U Om{ Amig Vm{ À`mß¿`mßV Zmht V{ Amier Ag{V Va ‡m{\{$ga
Pmb{ ZgV{; V{ Amier AgV{ À`mßZm AmÂht `{W| ]m{bmodb| ZgV|. V{ H$g{ Amh{V, Va
Mm°H$m{Zr oMË`mgmaI{ Amh{V. [U À`mßZm XJS>mMr C[_m H$m{Ut ⁄mdr? AmÂht À`mßZm
fQ≤>H$m{Zr ohamM g_OVm|. Ag| od¤mZ aogH$ d ‡oV^membr A‹`j Am[Umßg bm^b{ hm
Am[bm gw`m{JM hm{` ! BVH|$ ]m{byZ _r Am[br aOm K{V|.*

*EH$ZmW `mXd oZ\$mS>H$a gß[moXV "dmL≤>_`' _mogH$mdÍ$Z
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 597$&&

[naoeÔ>-2
ZmJ[ya `{W| 28 oS>g|]a 1933 am{Ot Pmb{Î`m
_amR>r oºÒVr gmohÀ`gß_{bZmßVrb b˙_r]mB™M|

A‹`jr` ^mfU
o‡` ]ßYw^oJZtZm{ !
Am[U _bm A‹`j[X X{D$Z _mPm Om{ g›_mZ H{$bm, À`mbm _r _witM [mà Zmht, h|
_bm AJm{Xa gmßoJVb{ [mohO{. _m¬`m dmç`g{d{]‘b Am[br \$ma _m{R>r H$Î[Zm Pmb{br
oXgV{. [aßVw _bm h| H$]yb H$a `mßV H$mßht H$_r[Um dmQ>V Zmht, H$s® _mPr dmç`g{dm
Hy$[_ßSw>H$m‡_mU| Amh{. Am[Î`m g_mOmßV O{ kmV{ d d∫{$ Amh{V À`mß¿`m[wT>| _r EIm⁄m
aOïH$Um‡_mU| Amh{.
_bm ¯m d{ir EH$m H$hmUrMr AmR>dU hm{V{. amOmMr EH$ amUr hm{Vr. oVMm H$hmUr
gmßJ `mMm oZ`_ hm{Vm. H$hmUr gmßoJVÎ`mdmßMyZ oVbm O{dmd`mM| Zg{. EH$ oXdg
oVMm oZ`_ AJXt _m{S>m`¿`m ]{VmßV Ambm. MwHy$Z odgÍ$Z Vr H$hmUr Z gmßJVmß [mQ>mda
OmD$Z ]gbr. [U ]gÎ`mda Am[b| H$hmUr gmßJ `mM| d´V amohb| h| oV¿`m b˙`mßV
Amb|. H$hmUr gmßJUmar C[mer Agmdr bmJ{ Ver Vr E{H$Umaroh C[mer Agmdr bmJ{.
oVZ| OmgyXmßZm h˛Hy$_ H{$bm, hmßH$m a{ S>mßJm{am, o[Q>m a{ ZJmam, H$hmUr E{H$ `mH$naVmß H$m{Ur
O{dbr Zg{b Aer ]mB© em{YyZ AmUm. AmVmß gmË`m am¡`mßV C[mer ]mB© À`mßZm o_i{Zm.
e{dQ>t EH$m Im{[Q>ÁmßV EH$ am{Jr H$Ô>r o_Mo_M —oÔ> Aer C[mer ÂhmVmar IwS>IwS>V
[S>br hm{Vr. ø`m a{ ø`m ÂhU{ ohbm AmoU R>{dm amUr¿`m g_m{a. AmUbr oVbm [H$Sy>Z
AmoU R>{dbr amUr[wT>| Z{D$Z. amOmMr amUr H$hmUr gmßJVr Pmbr d ZßVa [m{Q>^a O{dbr.
_mP| Vg|M Pmb| Amh{. Am[b| h| gß_{bZ amOmMr amUr Amh{ d _bm ÂhmVmarbm
C[mer ÂhUyZ _m¬`m ImQ>Î`mdÍ$Z `{W| oºÒVr gmohÀ`mMr am_H$hmUr E{H$ `mg AmUyZ
]godb| Amh{. hr H$_©H$hmUr _mà amUrZ| ÂhmVmarbm gmßJm`Mr ZgyZ oºÒVr gmohÀ`mMm
BoVhmgM Vr Am[Umß gdm™Zm gmßJUma Amh{. Am[Umß Xm{KmßZmoh Vr E{H$md`mMr Amh{
EdT>|M.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 598$&&

Mmirg dfm™[yduMr Jm{Ô>. oQ>iH$ oºÒVr hm{ `mgmR>t ZmJ[ya gm{Sy>Z _wß]B©bm J{b{. _t
_m¬`m _wbmbm H$mßIm{Q>rbm _mÍ$Z ZmJ[wamhˇZ oZKyZ ZmerH$Mm aÒVm Yabm. ¯m XrK©
H$mbmZßVa AmO À`mM _wbmZ| _bm hmV YÍ$Z ZmerH$hˇZ ZmJ[wamg AmUb| Amh{! ZmJ[ya
gm{S>VmßZm [w›hmß ZmJ[yabm Aer arVrZ| _r `{B©Z Ag| ÒdflZoh À`m d{it [S>b| ZÏhV|.
À`m_wi| _bm ZmJ[wamg `{VmßZm \$ma AmZßX dmQ>bm.
À`mßVÎ`m À`mßV AmUIr EH$m Jm{Ô>rMm _bm ode{f AmZßX dmQ>V Amh{. Vr Jm{Ô> ÂhUO{,
AR>amd| _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ`gß_{bZ d Am[b| h| Mm°W{ oºÒVr _amR>r gmohÀ` gß_{bZ ht ¡`m
dfu EH$Ã Ambt À`mM dfu _bm `{W| `{ `mMr gßoY o_imbr ¯mM|.
ht Xm{›hr gß_{bZ| EH$m d{i{g d EH$m Jmßdt ^amdt ¯m]‘b ‡ÒVmdZm J{Î`m dfu
oZ[mUr `{W|M Pmbr hm{Vr. À`m ‡ÒVmdZ{ZßVa J´ßWaMZ{bm BV∑`m Vm]S>Vm{] gwÈdmV hm{B©b
Ag| _mà _bm dmQ>b| ZÏhV|. Am[Î`m ¯m J´ßWmM| AmOM| [ohb| ‡H$aU, qH$]h˛Zm [ohb|
[mZ, CKS> `mM| ^mΩ` _bm bm^b| ¯m]‘b _bm H$mß AmZßX hm{Uma Zmht?
Aem arVrZ| oºÒVr gmohpÀ`H$mßM{ h| Oar MdW| gß_{bZ Agb|, Var `{W| ^a `mßV
Amb{Î`m Xm{Z gß_{bZmßM| ¯m —Ô>rZ| h| [ohb|M gß_{bZ Amh{ d À`m —Ô>rZ|M ¯mbm _hŒdoh
[ohÎ`m ‡VrM| Amh{.
H$m{UÀ`mem EH$m ‡og’ g{ZmZm`H$mZ| Am[Î`m dna>mMr Amkm Z _m{S>Vmß Am[bm
H$m`©^mJ CaHy$Z K{ `mgmR>t, \w$Q>∑`m S>m{˘`m[wT>| Xw]uU YÍ$Z À`m S>m{˘`mZ| [mohb| d h|
[mhU| À`m¿`m [œ`mda [S>b| Aer Jm{Ô> _t E{H$br Amh{. VerM AmO EH$ bhmZer MyH$
Pmb{br Amh{. Vr [œ`mda [S>{b Ag| _bm dmQ>V|. AmO[`™VMr VrZ gß_{bZ| "_hmamÔ≠>
oºÒVr gmohÀ` gß_{bZ' ¯m ZmßdmZ| Am{iIbt J{bt. AmoU h| "_amR>r oºÒVr gmohÀ`
gß_{bZ' ÂhUyZ Am{iIb| OmUma Amh{. "_hmamÔ≠>' hm X{edmMH$ e„X OmD$Z À`mMr OmJm
"_amR>r' ¯m ^mfmdmMH$ e„XmZ| K{Vbr hroh EH$ [œ`mda [S>b{br Jm{Ô> KS>br Amh{.
_amR>r ¯m C[[Xm_wi| ¯mbm [ohb| _amR>r gmohÀ` gß_{bZ ÂhUmd`mM| Agb| Varoh
haH$V Zmht. _hŒdm¿`m —Ô>rZ|oh [ohb|M R>a{b ! AmO[`™V _amR>r ^mf{Mm AmÒWm[yd©H$
A‰`mg [w `m-_wß]B©¿`m d ZJa-ZmerH$¿`m oºÒVr bm{H$mßZt H{$b{bm Amh{. ZmJ[yaH$S>{
Vgm A‰`mg \$magm H$m{Ut H{$Î`mM| E{oH$dmßV Zmht. Ag| AgyZ BH$S>¿`m bm{H$mßZt Om{
A[yd© CÀgmh ¯m ]m]VtV XmIod `m¿`m —Ô>rZ{|oh h| gß_{bZ _hŒdmM| R>aV|.
ZmJ[ya-dËhmS>H$S>M{ oºÒVr bm{H$ dmç`m¿`m j{ÃmßV AmVmß [mD$b Q>mH$Uma ¯mM|oh
h| EH$ [yd©oM›h Zg{b Ag| Zmht d À`moh —Ô>rZ| ¯m gß_{bZmbm _hŒd Amh{.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 599$&&

ZmJ[ya od⁄m[rR> _wß]B©¿`m [wT>| ]mi Amh{. [aßVw _wß]B© od⁄m[rR>mZ| _amR>r¿`m ]m]VtV
Jm{JbJm` JVrMr ‡JoV Mmbodbr Amh{. ZmJ[yaZ| _mà À`m ]m]VtV [wT>mab{Î`m _wß]B©bm
[wÓH$i _mJ| Q>mH$b| Amh{. V|M ZmJ[ya¿`m oºÒVr dmç`m¿`moh ]m]VtV hm{Uma Ag{b.
`{Wrb oºÒVr bm{H$mßgß]ßYmZ| _bm \$maer _mohVr Zmht, À`m_wi| darb odYmZmßV _mPr
MyH$ Ag `mMm [wÓH$i gß^d Amh{. d _r AmOr]mB© ÂhUyZ VwÂhr À`m]‘b _bm _m\$s
H$amb Aet _bm ImÃr ZgVr, Va _t V{ odYmZ H{$b|oh ZgV|. `{WÎ`m ¡`m oºÒVr
b{IH$mßMt Zmßd| _m¬`m H$mZmßda Amb{bt Amh{V À`mßMm CÑ{I _mà _r H•$VkVm[yd©H$
H$aV|.
*****
H$mßht H$mßht Zmßd|M _m¬`m Ò_aUmßV amohbt Amh{V. AmUIr H$mßht CX`m{›_wI H$od
d b{IH$ ZmJ[ya-dËhmS>mßVrb oºÒVr bm{H$mßV ZgVrb Ag| _witM Zmht. dmç`mßV
‡À`j ^mJ Z K{Vmß, dmç`m{[mgH$mßZm gm¯ H$a `mM| Am[b| d´V Am[b{ ÒdmJVm‹`j am.
gmid{ h{oh H$m`_ R>{dVrb h| À`mß¿`m AmO¿`m A‡oV_ CÀgmhmdÍ$Z oXgyZ `{V|.
Agm{. ¯m gß_{bZmbm _hŒdm¿`m —Ô>rZ| [ohb| ÒWmZ H$mß ⁄md`mM| ¯mMr _t Wm{S>∑`mßV
H$maU_r_mßgm da H{$br Amh{. À`mßVrb [ohb| d _hŒdmM| H$maU h| H$s®, gß_{bZ ZmJ[wamg
^aUmË`m Xm{Z gß_{bZmM| EH$ KQ>H$ Amh{.
`{Wrb "_hmamÔ≠>' [ÃmßV EH$m b{IH$mZ| H$mßht oXdgm[ydv H{$b{br EH$ gyMZm À`m
d{i{g _bm AmR>dV{ Vr Aer H$s®, oºÒVr bm{H$mßM| ÒdVßà gmohÀ`gß_{bZ H$embm?
gmohÀ`gß_{bZmßV ^mJ K{ `mg oºÒVr bm{H$mßZm H$m` haH$V Amh{?
¯m eßH{$bm CŒma J{Î`m d{i¿`m A‹`jmßZt oZ[mUr `{W|M X{D$Z R>{db| Amh{. À`mMrM
[Zwamd•oŒm H$aU| A[nahm`© AgÎ`mZ| _r Vr H$arV Amh{. À`m gß_{bZmM{ A‹`j oM.
X{dXŒm ¯mßZt ¯m ]m]VtV Ag| ÂhQ>b| hm{V| H$s®,
(1) AmÂhr oºÒVr bm{H$ dmç`—ÓQ>Ám \$ma _mJ| Amhm|;
(2) dmç`—ÓQ>Ám AmÂhr _mJ| AgÎ`m_wi| À`m gß_{bZmßV Am_M| [wa{g| H$m°VwH$
hm{ `mMm gß^d H$_r;
darb VrZ H$maUmß_wi{ d ode{fVï oVgË`m H$maUmß_wi{ AmÂhmßbm AOyZ oH$À`{H$ df~
Var hr Am_Mr Midi _m{Sy>Z Q>mHy$Z [yU©[U| _hmamÔ≠> gß_{bZmßV gm_rb hm{Vmß `{Uma
Zmht. eß^a df~ AoVe` [nal_ H$Í$Z AOyZ ]m`]bMr _amR>r ^mfm [mohO{ Ver H$aVmß
Ambr Zmht. À`m [wÒVH$mbm dmç`mßV ÒWmZ o_idyZ X{ `mgmR>t Am_¿`m b{IH$mßZm
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 600$&&

oZXmZ AmUIr 25 df~ Var I[md| bmJ{b. ]m`]b ÂhUO{ gß›`memMm gßgma Zmht h|
oM.X{dXŒmmZ| J{Î`m gß_{bZmßV AmßH$S>{dmar X{D$Z og’ H{$b{ Amh{. Vg|M Am_Mt JmUt,
Am_¿`m C[mgZm[’oV dJ°a{ Jm{Ô>tMm D$hm[m{h _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ` gß_{bZmßV hm{U| e∑`oh
Zmht d `w∫$oh Zmht.
[aßVw Xm{›hr gß_{bZ| EH$m Jmßdt EH$m d{i{g ^aod `mMm Om{ ZmJ[yaH$a oºÒVr
* ‡`ÀZ H{$bm, Vm{M ‡KmV [S>U| _mà AÀ`ßV BÔ> Amh{.
[wT>mË`mßZr*
Y_m©›Va ÂhUO{ X{em›Va Aer AJXt AobH$S>¿`m H$mim[`™V Am[Î`m [wÓH$iem
oºÒVrVa _hmamÔ≠>r` gmohÀ`^∫$mßMr H$Î[Zm Amh{. À`m ]m]VtV V{M V{dT>{ Xm{fr Amh{V d
Am[Î`mH$S>{ Xm{fmMm H$mhtM dmßQ>m Zmht Ag| _mà _r H$Xmo[ ÂhUUma Zmht. EH$m g_mOmZ|
oVaÒH$mamZ| XwgË`mMm À`mJ H{$bm Agbm Va XwgË`mZ|{ gße`r d•ŒmrZ| [ohÎ`mMm À`mJ
H{$bm. EH$mbm dmQ>b| H$s®, hm ^´Ô> Pmbm-]mQ>bm-AmVmß ¯m¿`met H$m{UVmoh gß]ßY R>{dbm
Va Am[Î`m JmßR>M| [w ` gwQy>Z [S>m`M| Va XwgË`mbm dmQ>b| _r AoYH$ ew’ ! AmoU _r Oa
gm{S>b{Î`m Am·{Ô>mßH$S>{ o\$Í$Z [mhˇß bmJbm| Va bm{Q>m¿`m ]m`H$m{‡_mU| o_R>mMm Imß]
]ZyZ OmUma. Xm{K|oh [yd©O qhXrM, Xm{KmßMm BoVhmg qhXrM, Xm{KmßZmoh EH$mM ^y_rZ|
Vm{byZ Yab| Amh{. Xm{K{oh EH$M erVb OrdZXm`r dm`w Am[Î`m [m{Q>mßV K{D$Z ‡mUajU
H$arV Amh{V. Xm{K{oh Am[Î`m _m`^y_rZ| [°Xm H{$b{b{ Afi ImV Amh{V. EH$M gŒmm
Xm{Kmßdaoh gmaIm AoYH$ma JmOdrV Amh{. Xm{Kmß[wT>{ oejUm¿`m AS>MUr gmaª`m Amh{V.
g‹`mß¿`m ]{H$mar¿`m H$mbmßV Xm{KmßM{hr [wà d H$›`m gmaª`mM Vm[mZ| dUdU o\$aV
Amh{V. Xm{K{oh EH$mM XwïImZ{ aS>Uma, EH$mM AmZßXmZ| Xm{K{oh hgUma, EH$mM VËh{Z|
Xm{K{oh _aUma d EH$mM oR>H$mUt À`mßMt hmS>| H$mim¿`m AßVm[`™V [Sy>Z ahmUma. ‡À`j
¤{f^md qH$dm hmS>d°a [wadb|, [aßVw ¯mMr [wT>Mr, Or H$mbmßVamZ| pÒWoV ‡m· hm{V{ Vr \$ma
^`ßH$a AgV{. hr pÒWoV ]{[dm©B©Mr AgV{, OS>[UmMr AgV{. Ver pÒWoV ¯m g_mOmß¿`m
EH$_{H$mßH$S>{ [mh `mMr Pmbr hm{Vr. Am_MtM [ohbt Xm{Z gß_{bZ| ø`m. _hmamÔ≠>
gmohÀ`gß_{bZ [w `mg ^ab|. Va Am_M| gß_{bZ ZmeH$mg ^ab|; [wT>M| gß_{bZ Jm{Ï`mg
^ab| Va Am_M| gß_{bZ _wß]B©g ^ab|. oVgË`m gß_{bZm¿`m d{ir _mà V| gVamÏ`m _hmamÔ≠>
gß_{bZmOdi ^ab|, Xm{›htV drg _°bmßM|M AßVa hm{V|.
[U ¯m ‡À`{H$ gß_{bZm¿`m d{it AmÂhmßbm _hmamÔ≠> gß_{bZmOdi AmH$fy©Z Z{UmË`m
Jm{Ô>r KS>Î`m. [ohÎ`m gß_{bZm¿`m d{it lr. lr[mX H•$ÓU H$m{ÎhQ>H$a ¯mßZt Am_¿`m
gß_{bZmMm Am[Î`m ^mfUmßV Jm°ad[yd©H$ CÑ{I H{$bm. XwgË`m gß_{bZm¿`m d{it Jm{Ï`mg
lr. dm_Z _Îhma Om{er AmÂhmßbm odgab{ ZmhtV AmoU oVgË`m gß_{bZmßV Va Vmß]{,
* `mßV [wT>mH$ma _wª`Vï [r.H{$. C\©$ amdgmh{] gmid{ `mßMm. ÒdmJVm‹`joh V{M hm{V{.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 601$&&

oJare, `edßV, _m`X{d, Mm°Yar d _mYd ¡`wob`Z ¯mßZt Am_¿`m gß_{bZmßV `{D$Z
‡À`jM ^mJ K{Vbm. AmOM| gß_{bZ ZmJ[wamg ^a `mM| H$mßht l{` Var ¯m ghm l{>
H$dtZm X{ `mg haH$V Zmht.
[aßVw V{dT>ÁmdÍ$Z gd© oºÒVrVa oºÒVr bm{H$mßet dmç`j{ÃmßV ghH$m`© H$a `mg
CÀgwH$ Pmb{ Amh{V qH$dm gd© oºÒVr gmohÀ`g{dH$ À`mß¿`met I{ir_{irZ| dmJ `mg
hm[m[b{ Amh{V. Agm _mà H$m{Ut g_O H$Í$Z K{Dß$ Z`{. CbQ>, Xm{›hr oR>H$mUt Aer
CÀgwH$Vm oXgyZ `{V Amh{ Vr \$maM Wm{S>Ám ‡_mUmßV Amh{ Ag|M oXgyZ `{B©b. _mà EH$m
BßpΩbe b{IH$mZ| ÂhQ>Î`m‡_mU| AmO Oar Ver B¿N>m AgUmam _mUyg oZ_m©U Pmbm d
Vm{ Vr B¿N>m _Zm[mgyZ H$Íß$ bmJbm. Var drg dfm™¿`m AmßV À`m¿`m B¿N>{bm _yV© ÒdÍ$[
‡m· hm{B©b. AmO dmç`j{ÃmßVrb OmoV^{X ZÔ> Ïhmdm Ag| ÂhUUmat _yR>^a _mUg| Oar
Xm{›htH$S>{ oXgyß bmJbt Var V| H$m`© Xhmdrg dfm™V [yU©[U| og’rg OmB©b ¯mßV gße`
Zmht.
oºÒVr d oºÒVrVa dmç`g{dH$mß¿`m AmS> H$m` H$m` Jm{Ô>r `{VmV ¯mMm Am[U
AmVmß Wm{S>mgm odMma H$Íß$.
H$_©R> hm e„X qhXw _mUgmbm Z{h_t bmJy H$a `mßV `{Vm{. [U _m¬`m Xm{›hr g_mOmß¿`m
AZw^dmdÍ$Z _bm Ag| ImÃrZ| ÂhUVmß `{B©b H$s®, e|H$S>Ámdmar ohem{] ]godbm Va
qhXy[{jmß H$_©R>mßMr gߪ`m Am_¿`mßVM AoYH$ ^a{b d oH$À`{H$ d{imß ¯m H$_©R>[UmMr
Aer [a_mdoY hm{V{ H$s®, À`mbm H$_©R>[Um[{jmß AmMaQ>[Um h| Zmßd AoYH$ em{^{b.
H$_©R>[Um Am_¿`m AmHwß$oMV d•Œmrbm ]Ïhßer H$maUr^yV Amh{. Hwß$Hy$ bmdb| ÂhUyZ Y_©]m¯
dV©Z Pmb|, H$mgm{Q>ÁmM| bwJS>| Z{gb| ÂhUyZ oºÒVr Y_m©bm H$moi_m bmdbm, _hmÀ_m
JmßYrH$naVmß ‡mW©Zm H{$br ÂhUyZ Y_© ]wS>mbm, BVH{$ H$embm qhXw ImUmditV O{dyß bmJbm
ÂhUyZ qhXy Pmbm Ag| ÂhUUma{ harM{ bmbóMwH$b| harM{ bmb ÂhQ>b| Var [mVH$
KS>m`M|!óAm_¿`mßV Amh{V. Am_M| kmZm{X` [Ã JwÈdmat oZKV|. À`mda [ydv
]•hÒ[oVdma Ag| obohb{b| Ag{. JwÈ hm qhXyMm X{d Amh{ d À`mß¿`m X{dmMm dma ÂhUyZ Om{
dma Am{iI `mßV `{Vm{ Vm{ ZH$m{, ]•hÒ[oVdmaM ]am Ag| H$m{Um EH$m ]•hÒ[VrZ| ÂhQ>Î`mM|
EH$m qhXw dV©_mZ[ÃH$À`m©Z| gmßoJVÎ`mM| AmR>dV|. AWm©V≤ _OOdi ImÃrbm`H$ [wamdm
Zmht. [aßVw hr Jm{Ô> Ae∑` H$m{Q>tVrb Zmht EdT>|M _bm gmßJmd`mM|. oºÒVr PmÎ`mda
[wÓH$i df~ _r Hwß$Hy$ bmdrV Ag| d À`m]‘b _bm H$m{Ut o_eZatZ{ H$Yt hQ>H$b| Zmht.
[aßVw EH$Xm EH$m od¤mZ qhXr oºÒVr ^oJZrZ| Hwß$H$dmMm gß]ßY em∫$[ßWmet bmdyZ _mPm
À`m ]m]VtV J°ag_O H$adyZ _r Hwß$Hy$ bmdUma Zmht Ag| dMZ _OH$Sy>Z K{Vb|. [wT>|
oQ>iH$mßZr _bm Hwß$H$dmMm AW© g_OyZ gmßoJVbm. [aßVw EH$Xm dMZ oXb| ÂhUyZ _t [w›hm
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 602$&&

Hwß$Hy$ bmdb| Zmht d oQ>iH$mßZtoh AmJ´h H{$bm Zmht.
_wbmßZm qhXr Zmßd| ⁄md`mMt ZmhtV, H$maU Vt qhXw X{dVmßMt Zmßd| AgVmV. _bm
Am¸`© Ag| dmQ>V| H$s® Om∞Ou, Mmbu, oO_r ¯m ZmßdmßZm Var H$m{R>| AW© AgVm{? Om∞O© d
Mmb©g≤ ht Zmßd| Var _t oºÒVr emÛmßV dmMb{bt AmR>dV ZmhtV. _J ¯m Zmßdmßda EdT>|
‡{_ H$m? H$m Vt AqhXw Amh{V EdT>|M À`mß¿`m odf`t¿`m ‡{_mM| H$maU? Zmßdmodf`t Pmb|
V|M MmbrarVtodf`t. V|M qhXwÒWmZ¿`m gUmßodf`t. qhXwÒWmZmßVrb [yU© amÔ≠>r` Aem
gUmßMm Am[U À`mJ H$mß H$amdm h| _bm g_OV Zmht. Xgam, [m{im, df©‡oV[Xm, gßH´$mßV
dJ°a{ Y_©^{XmVrV R>{dVmß `{ `mgmaI{ gU oºÒVr bm{H$mßZm CMb `mg H$m` haH$V Amh{?
Agm{. _bm `{W| gm_moOH$ odf`mßda Ï`mª`mZ X{ `mM| ZgÎ`m_wi{ Am[U Y_m©›Vam_wi{
amÔ≠>r` ]m]VtV Am[Î`m X{embm H$g{ [aH{$ ]ZV Mmbbm| Amhm|óhm{Vm| ÂhUm [mohO{
VaóV{dT>|M XmIod `m[waVm da oXb{bm CÑ{I Ambm.
oedm` Am_¿`m H$_©R>mßZm qhXwÒWmZmßVrb gd©M Jm{Ô>tZm qhXw Y_m©Mm dmg `{V AgVm{.
Vg| [mohb| Va Am[Î`m gm{B©gmR>r Am[Î`mbm qhXw d qhXr dmç` Ag| ¯m dmç`mM{ ^mJ
[mS>Vmß `{Vrb. oºÒVr dm∂S>≤_` hmoh EH$ ‡˝ darb EH$ ‡˝ gm{S>odVmßZm odMmamdm
bmJ{b. oºÒVr Y_m©gß]ßYr O| dmç` V| oºÒVr dmç` H$m oºÒVr b{IH$mZ| obohb{b| O|
V| oºÒVr dmç`? [.dm.a{. ]´yg ¯mßZt earaemÛmda EH$ CŒm_ J´ßW obohbm hm{Vm; AmoU
_m{ÎÒdW© d H±$S>r ¯mßZt e„XH$m{e obohb{. S>m∞.o]gb ¯mßZt ZjÃ_ßS>i obohb|. ht gmat
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"Am_Mr o_Ã_ßS>ir' ht [wÒVH|$ oºÒVr dmç` ÂhUVmß `{Vrb H$m?
Vg{M qhXw dmç` Var H$embm ÂhUm`M|? lwoV, Ò_•oV, [wamU| BÀ`moX qhXwY_©odf`H$
J´ßW ÂhUO{ qhXw dmç` H$m ¡`mßMm odf` qhXw Y_© Zmht Ag| qhXw Ï`∫$s®Zr obohb{b{ gma{M
J´ßW qhXw dmç`? ¯m XwgË`m ‡H$ma¿`m dmç`mbm Am[U gm{B©gmR>t qhXr dmç` ÂhUyß. h|
gm{S>Î`mg amohb{b| qhXw dmç` À`m¡` Amh{ H$m? H$_©R> ÂhUVrb AmÂhr qhXr
dmç`mgß]ßYt ]m{bV Zmht. [U h{ Xwga| dmç` VwÂhr Xya R>{dm. dmç`mßV hm H$_©R>[Um
H{$Î`m_wi| Am[U Am[Î`m amÔ≠>r` dmç`mbm _wHyß$ bmJbm| hm{Vm| d Am[br ^mfm
o]KS>md`mM|oh V|M ‡_wI H$maU Amh{.
[.dm.a{ bm{Q>brH$a ¯mßZt ]mam-[ßYam dfm™[ydv EH$ oZ]ßY obohbm Amh{. À`mßV
Am[Î`mbm qhXw dmç`mMm A‰`mg H{$Î`moedm` H$mßht dm∑‡Mma gw’mß H$iU| Ae∑`
Amh{ Ag| ÂhQ>b| Amh{ V| AJXt ]am{]a Amh{. CXmhaUmW© h| dm∑‡Mma ø`mó
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 603$&&

am_ ÂhUU|, hbdm`m¿`m Kamda Vwier[Ã, ^rÓ_‡oVkm, am_am¡`, hm gy`© d hm
O`–W, [mUr gm{S>U|{, EH$mXer¿`m Kat oedamà Ambr, ]irM|{ am¡`, gwßXm{[gwßX, KQ>m{ÀH$M
_m`m, _`mgwamMm ]mOma, AohamdU-_ohamdU, gmS>{gmVr, eHw$Zr_m_m,`mXdr _mOU|,
Hwß$^H$Um©Mr Pm|[, ^JraW-‡`ÀZ, H$irMm ZmaX, dJ°a{ e„X d e„Xg_wÉ` CŒm_ arVrZ|
g_Om`bm d dm[am`bm Am[Umßg qhXyßM| XwgË`moh ‡H$maM| dmç` _mhrV Agm`bm
[mohO{.
J´rH$ d b∞Q>rZ [wamUmßVrb H$Wm Am_¿`m bm{H$mßZm MmbVmV. [U Vt [wamU|M hm{V h|
AmÂhr odgaVm|. h∑`y©brgMr O›_[oÃH$m AmÂhmßbm [mR> Ag{b [U ^r_mM| Zmd E{H$VmßM
Am_¿`m H$mZmßV H$m{Ut V· oeg| Am{VVm{ Amh{ Agm AmÂhmßbm ^mg hm{Vm{. Vm{ H$mß?
[m`WmJm∞ag, am{_{bm{, S>m`Zm, O{gZ dJ°a{ J´rH$ [wamUmßVrb Ï`o∫$ Am_¿`m MmßJÎ`m
[naM`mß¿`m; [U ``moV, eo_©ÓR>m, o]^rfU, gmßXr[Zr dJ°a{ Am[Î`m X{emßVÎ`m
[wamUmßVrb Zmßd{ Am[U H$Yt EH$b{btoh AmR>dUma ZmhtV.
Am_¿`mßVrb gm|d˘`m bm{H$mßZm _mPm hmM gdmb Amh{, H$s® ]m]mßZm{ VwÂhmßbm Am[Î`m
_wbmßMr Zmßd| R>{dVmßZm gm|di|[Um AmR>dVm{. qhXr Zmßd| X{dmoXH$mßMt AgVmV ÂhUyZ Vt
À`m¡` dmQ>VmV, _J Vt R>{dVmßZm Om∞O©, h{Zar, Mmb©g Aet ]m`]b_‹`| Z gmß[S>Umat
Zmßd| VwÂhmßbm H$et MmbVmV? [wamU| ÂhUO{ ^mH$S>H$Wm, À`m VwÂhmßbm MmbV ZmhtV, Va
hm XßS>H$ H{$di qhXwÒWmZmßVrb [wamUmßZmM H$mß bmdVm? J´rH$ d b∞Q>rZ [wamU| H$et
AmdS>VmV?
J´rH$ d b∞Q>rZ [wamU| dmMyß Z`{V qH$dm À`mßVrb gwßXa gwßXa Jm{Ô>tMm C[`m{J H$Íß$ Z`{ Ag|
_mP| _witM ÂhUU| Zmht. _mPm Amj{[ EdT>mM Amh{, H$s® À`m [wamUmßZm Y_m©Ï`oVna∫$
dmL≤>_` ÂhUyZ oOVH|$ _hŒd X{ `mßV `{V| oVVH|$M qH$dm Am[b{ ÂhUyZ À`mhˇZoh AoYH$
_hŒd qhXw [wamUmßZm X{ `mßV Amb| [mohO{. Ag| dmMÎ`mM| AmR>dV| H$s®, `wam{[_‹`{ J´rH$
d b∞Q>rZ [wamU| Amaß^t AJXt _mJ| [S>bt hm{Vt. Var oMÃH$mamßZr À`m [wamUmßVrb Jm{Ô>tda
oMÃ| H$mT> `mM{ gm{S>b| Zmht d H$dtZt H$odVm aM `mM| gm{S>b| Zmht.
Am[Î`m ‡^yZ| gmßoJVb| Amh{ H$s®,"" _r (H$m{UmM|) ^odÓ`emÛ qH$dm oZ`_emÛ a‘
H$a `mg Ambm{ Zmht. _r V|{ [yU© H$a `mg Ambm| Amh|.'' `wam{[_Yrb oºÒVr oMÃH$mamßZt
d oºÒVr H$dtZr Am[Î`m JwÈMr hr dmUr Iar H$Í$Z XmIodbr Amh{.
J´rg X{e oºÒVr hm{ `m[ydu [∏$m _yoV©[yOH$ hm{Vm. oºÒVr Pmb{Î`m J´rg X{embm
À`mß¿`m [yd©OmßMr [wamU H$mÏ`| À`m¡` dmQ>V hm{Vt. [aßVw J´rgMr ÒdX{e^o∫$, BVa `wam{o[`Z

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 604$&&

amÔ≠>mßMr JwUJ´mhH$Vm d ‡^w `{eyM|{ da oXb{b| dMZ ¯mß_wi| J´rH$ [wamUmßVrb Jm{Ô>r hiyß hiyß
`wam{o[`Z dmç`mV ÒWmZ o_idyZ ]gÎ`m.
_m`H{$b _YwgyXZ XŒm d Vm{Í$ XŒm ¯m ]ßJmbr oºÒVr H$dtZt d oJ´o\$W ¯m AmßΩbmZ{
Am[Î`m X{emßVrb [wamUmßZm `wam{o[`Z ^mf|V ^mfmßVa H$Í$Z ZdrZ OJ _m{H$i| H$Í$Z oXb|
d ¯m oºÒVr ]mßYdmßZt qhXw [wamUmßMr qH$_V `wam{[bm [Q>odbr hr Jm{Ô> oºÒVrVa
gmohpÀ`H$mß¿`m Ò_aUmßVyZ J{br Agbr Var gÀ` Amh{. Am[bm g_mO Oar qhXw [wamUmßZm
[wÓH$igm [maIm Pmbm Agbm Var Am[Î`mM oºÒVr X{e]ßYyßZt Am[Î`m `wam{o[`Z
Y_©]ßYyßZm X{emßVrb EH$m CŒm_ dmç`mMr Am{iI H$Í$Z oXbr Amh{ hr Ao^_mZmMr Jm{Ô>
[a_{úar `m{OZ{Z| KS>br h| b˙`mßV R>{d `mgmaI| Amh{.
qhXw [wamUmßVrb [wÓH$iem Jm{Ô>r Aem Amh{V H$s® À`m oZdS> H$Í$Z Am[Î`m _wbmß_wbtZm
gmßJVmß `{Vrb. [oVoZ>{gß]ßYt JmßYmarM| CXmhaU oH$Vr gwßXa Amh{. Y•VamÔ≠> O›_m›Y hm{Vm.
JmßYmarM| bæ PmÎ`mZßVa oVZ| Am[Î`m [Vrbm oXgV Zmht ÂhUyZ, O›_^a Am[Î`moh
S>m{˘`mßbm [≈>m ]mßYyZ K{Vbm. ‹`{`oZ>{gß]ßYmZ| Y´wdmMr Jm{Ô> oH$Vr CŒm_ Amh{! ]m[mZ|
hmH$byZ oXÎ`mZßVa Y´wd[X o_iod `mMm oZ¸` H$Í$Z Vm{ ]mi oZKmbm, ZßVa H$m{UVmoh
_m{h À`mZ| AmS> `{Dß$ oXbm Zmht, d e{dQ>r Y´wd[X ÂhUO{ AT>i[X o_iodb|. H$m{UV|oh
gßH$Q> Amb|, Var Am[b{ dMZ _m{S>md`mM| Zmht. ""VwP| ÂhUU| hm{` Va hm{` d Zmht Va
Zmht,'' Aer d•oŒm ]miJm`Mr. ¯mgß]ßYt hnaÌMß–mMr Jm{Ô>. amI{gmaª`m À`m¡`
[XmWm©H$Sy>Z CÀ[fi H{$b{Î`m _mUgmbm AoYH$ma oXbm d À`m]am{]aM _ZmMm CXma[Um
`{Umar gßÒH•$oV Zgbr, Va À`m AoYH$mamMm Vm{ H$gm XwÈ[`m{J H$aVm{ h| XmIodUmar
^Ò_mgwamMr Jm{Ô>. gÀ`mJ´hr ‡ÎhmXMr Jm{Ô>; EH$[pÀZd´V am_mMr Jm{Ô> ¯m Jm{Ô>tMm Am[U
Am[Î`m dmç`mV C[`m{J H{$bm, Va Am[bm Y_© H$m{R>| ]wS>{b, h| _bm g_OV Zmht.
odÌd‡{_ d À`mgmR>r AmÀ`ßoVH$ ÒdmW©À`mJ hr Am[Î`m Y_m©Mt erS> d gwH$mUyß
Amh{V.Am[Î`m ‡^w oºÒVmZ| Am[Î`m d°Ë`mßgmR>tgw’mß ÒdVïM{ ‡mUm[©U H{$b|. ¯mgß]ßYt
Am[Î`m qhXr [wamUmßV Xm{Z BV∑`m gwßXa Jm{Ô>r Amh{V H$s®, Vem _bm dmQ>V| H$m{UÀ`moh
`wam{o[`Z [wamUmßV gmß[S>Uma ZmhtV.
EH$ XYroM F$frMr Jm{Ô> d Xwgar H$[m{V [˙`mMr Jm{Ô>. ¯m Jm{Ô>r _bm BV∑`m ]m{Y‡X
dmQ>VmV, H$s® À`m gmßJ `mM _m{h _bm AmdaVmß `{V Zmht.
d•Ãmgwa ZmßdmMm EH$ amjg \$ma _mObm hm{Vm. À`mMm Ãmg bm{H$mßZm hm{Dß$ bmJbm. Vm{
oOdßV amohÎ`mg [•œdrMm b` hm{B©b Aer oM›h| oXgyß bmJbt. [aßVw Vm{ H$emZ|oh _mabm
OmB©Zm. e{dQ>t XYroM F$fr¿`m hmS>mßM| dO´ ]ZdyZ Oa À`m amjgmbm _mab| VaM Vm{
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 605$&&

_a `mgmaIm Amh{ Ag| oXgyZ AmÎ`m_wi| XYrMrH$S>{ `mMZm H$a `mßV Ambr. Am[Î`m
hmS>mßZt bm{H$mßM| Oa H$Î`mU hm{V Ag{b Va Am[U Vt _m{R>Ám AmZßXmZ| X{Dß$ Ag| XYroM
F$frZ| gmßJyZ Am[bm X{h R>{dbm. XYroM F$frMt hmS>{| H$mTy>Z ZßVa À`mßM| dO´ ]Zod `mßV
Amb| d À`m dO´mZ| d•ÃmgwamMm gßhma H$a `mßV Ambm. Xwgar Jm{Ô> oe]r amOm d H$[m{V
[˙`mMr Amh{, EH$Xm EH$m H$[m{Vm¿`m ([maÏ`m¿`m) _mJ| EH$ Ì`{Z [jr (ggmUm)
bmJbm. [U Vm{ bhmZgm Ord Ì`{Z [˙`m[wT>| oH$Vrgm oQ>H$md YaUma? Vm{ X_yZ J{bm.
V{Ïhmß Aml`mgmR>t oe]r amOmH$S>{ À`mZ| Ymßd K{Vbr. oe]r amOm À`m d{it Xa]mamßV
]gbm hm{Vm. H$[m{V `{D$Z À`m¿`m _mßS>rda ]gbm. _mJm{_mJ Ì`{Zoh Xa]mamßV oeabm d
oe]r amOmOdi Am[b| ^˙` _mJyß bmJbm. _m¬`m Vm|S>Mm J´mg H$mTy>Z Vyß _bm C[mer
_maUma H$s® H$m`? Ag| Vm{ amOmbm ÂhUyß bmJbm. amOmbm _m{R>m [|M [S>bm. H$[m{V [jr
Ì`{Z [˙`m¿`m hdmbt H$amdm Va À`mMm ‡mU OmVm{. ]a| Z H$amdm Va Ì`{Z ^wH{$Z| _aVm{.
V{Ïhm oe]r amOmZ| H$[m{Vm¿`m ^maß^ma Am[Î`m _mßS>rM| _mßg H$mTy>Z X{ `mM| R>aodb|.
H$[m{Vmbm EH$m VmJS>tV Kmb `mßV Amb| d amOm¿`m _mßS>rM{ _mßg XwgË`m VmJS>rV KmVb|.
[aßVw H$mßht C[`m{J hm{B©Zm. H$[m{VmM| dOZ dmT>b| d amOm¿`m AßJM| _mßg H$mT>md| bmJb|
Aem arVrZ| Am[Î`m AßJmda{Mß gd© _mßg À`mZ| H$[m{VmMm ‡mU dmßMod `mgmR>t oXb|.
Am[Î`m qhXr [wamUmßH$S>{ [mh `mMm AmUIr EH$ —oÔ>H$m{U Amh{. ¯m —Ô>rZ| [mhVmß,
YwH|$ hiyß hiyß odÍ$Z OmDß$ bmJb| ÂhUO{ g•Ô>rM| ÒdÍ$[ Og| ^mgV|, Vg| ¯m Jm{Ô>rM| ÒdÍ$[
^mgy bmJV|.
a{. oQ>iH$mßZt ]S>m{⁄m¿`m gmohÀ`gß_{bZmßV "[wamUm›VJ©V H$mÏ`' ZmßdmMm EH$ oZ]ßY
dmMbm hm{Vm. [wT>| À`mßVrb ]amMgm ^mJ À`mßZt kmZm{X`mßV N>m[bm hm{Vm. [wamUmßVrb
[wÓH$iem Jm{Ô>r ht Í$[H|$ Amh{V, H$mÏ`| Amh{V Ag| À`mßZr XmIodb| hm{V|. À`mßZr
gmßoJVb{br H$mßht CXmhaU{ [wT>| X{V|.
1-XŒmO›_mMr H$Wm ø`m. Aoà F$of d AZgy`m hr À`mMr [ÀZr. AZgy`{M| gŒd
[mh `mgmR>t ]´˜m, odÓUw, _h{e h{ oVK{ X{d oV¿`m Kat o^jm _mJ `mg J{b{. À`mßZr oVbm
gmßoJVb| H$s®, Vy Zæ hm{D$Z AmÂhmßbm o^jm Kmbm. oVZ| V| H$]yb H{$b|; [U À`m oVKmßMr
VrZ ]mi| Pmbt !
AmVmß ¯m H$W{Vrb AW© [hm. Aoà ÂhUO{ AoÃ. A ÂhUO{ Zmht. ÂhUO{ ¯m¿`m R>m`t
ðJw ` Zmht Agm gÀ[wÈf. AgÎ`m gÀ[wÈfmMr [ÀZr AZgy`mM Agm`Mr. ÂhUO{ ¡`m
oR>H$mUt ðJw `m Zmht d Agy`moh Zmqh, d ¡`m oR>H$mUt Zæ d•oŒm Amh{óoZïÒ[•hVm
Amh{óÀ`m oR>H$mUt _r _r ÂhUUmË`m ]´˜m, odÓUw, _h{emßM| Z{UV| ]mi Pmb| Va À`mßV
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 606$&&

Zdb H$m`? Aoà AmoU AZgy`m ¯mß¿`m ‡^mdmM| [wamUH$dtZt H{$b{b|{ EHß$Xa dU©Z ¯m
—Ô>rZ| [hmd| ÂhUO{ EH$ ‡H$maMm odbjU AmZßX dmQ>{b d Agb| gwßXa H$mÏ` aMUma{ H$od
Am_¿`m X{emßV hm{D$Z J{b{ ÂhUyZ Ao^_mZoh dmQ>{b.
2. Y´wdmª`mZ ø`m. ¯m H$mÏ`mßVbm CŒmmZ[mX hm _Zw[wà ÂhUO{ó_ZwOóÂhUO{
_mZd Amh{. hm _ZwÓ` CŒmmZ[mX ÂhUO{ [m` [gÍ$Z ]gUmam, AWm©V≤ ]{[dm© Amh{.
gwZroV ÂhUO{ CŒm_ ‡H$maMr ZroV hr À`mMr [ohbr dS>rb ghYo_©Ur Amh{, [U [wT>|
¯mM| gwÈoM ÂhUO{ AÀ`ßV CÀH$Q> odf`mo^bmfm-odf`mg∫$set gmhM`© KS>Î`m_wi|
hm gwZrVrMm À`mJ H$aVm{ d Am{KmZ|M oVM| \$i O| Y´wd À`mbm _wH$Vm{. AY´wdm¿`m ZmXmZ|
À`m¿`m hmVM| Y´wd, _wo∫$gwI OmV|.
3- AmVmß XemdVmamgß]ßYt H$mÏ` [hmï
J^©gß^dt _ÀÒ`, [wT>| Xm{Z VrZ _oh›`mßZt H$¿N>, _J damh, O›_H$mit ÒVß^^{X
H$aUmam Zaqgh, [wT>| dm_Z, ]Qw>-]mb, À`mZßVa Imß⁄mda [aew ÂhUO{ Hw$ËhmS> K{D$Z
JwÈJ•ht go_Ym dJ°a{ Jm{im H$a `mgmR>t qhS>Umam [aewam_, [wT>| J•hÒWml_r PmÎ`mda
gmam odf`[gmam AmH$fy© [mhUmam H•$ÓU, ZßVa AZw^dmZ| pÒWaVm [mdb{bm, ‡m· pÒWVtV
a_b{bm am_, ZßVa d•’[Ut gd©k ]w’ d H$ÎH$ ÂhUO{ [m[ K{D$Z J{b{bm d [wZï V|M K{D$Z
`{Umam H$ÎH$s Aem _ZwÓ`m¿`mM Xhm AdÒWmßM{ h| Í$[H$ Zmht Ag| H$g| ÂhUVmß `{B©b?
4-eßH$am¿`m H$Î[Z|Vrb H$mÏ`oh \$ma Jm{S> Amh{.
¡`m¿`m[wT>| gX°d a_UmË`m ZßXrMr ÂhUO{ Jm{YZmMr AmYt [yOm H$amdr bmJV Amh{,
¡`m¿`m _ÒVH$mdÍ$Z ÂhUO{ oh_mb`mdÍ$Z JßJ{Mm ‡dmh bm{Q>mßJU| K{V EH$gmaIm Imbt
CS>Ám Q>mH$V Amh{. ¡`m¿`m AßH$‡X{et qd‹`mo– [d©VmMr lr, ÂhUO{ [md©Vr odbgV
Amh{, Vm{ eßH$a ÂhUO{ Am[bm qhXwÒVmZ X{e H$mß Zmht?
5-H•$ÓUï H•$ÓU ÂhUO{ odÓUyMm AdVma. odÓUw ÂhUO{ gy`©. AoY^m°oVH$ gŒm|Vb|
—Ì` _hmgÀd-gd©Jm_r Jm{[m (OJmM| [mbZ H$aUmam). [•œdrbm H$Yt ]m{bm`bm
bmdm`M| Pmb| Va oVbm JmB©M| ÒdÍ$[ X{ `mMr gmË`m [wamU-H$dtMr [’V Amh{. Jm{
ÂhUO{ Jm`. oVM| [mbZ H$aUmam Vm{ Jm{[m qH$dm Jm{[mb. ¯m Jm{[m e„XmZ| CÀ[fi hm{UmË`m
Ìb{fmMm [yU©[U| C[`m{J H$Í$Z K{D$Z H$od H•$ÓUbrb{M| Í$[H$ ]ZdrV Amh{. Vm{ ¯m
Jm{[mbm¿`m hmVmßV _wabr X{D$Z oV¿`m _Ywa ZmXmda Jm{[Jm{[tZm Am[Î`mH$S>{ AmH$f©yZ
K{V Amh{. EH$m JmßdMm AoYH$mar Vm{ ÒWm`wH$ qH$dm [mQ>rb d [wÓH$i JmßdmßMm AoYH$mar
Jm{[ qH$dm X{e_wI. ¯m Jm{[m¿`m _wabradmZ| Xwga{ Jm{[ gma{ À`mbm de Pmb{ Amh{V.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 607$&&

H$m{UÀ`moh Jm{bm¿`m H$bm gm{im, qH$dm H´$_mZ| gm{ime| gm{im hOma! ¯m
odÌdJm{bm¿`m H$bmoh VemM gm{im qH$dm ghÛdoY gm{im AmoU ¯m odÌdH$bmßMm
[oV Vm{ gH$b odÌdmMm [oV! H$drZ| H$pÎ[b{Î`m H•$ÓUm¿`m gd© H$bmß¿`m gm{im hOma
]m`H$m ÂhUO{ ¯m AZßV odÌdH$bm qH$dm g_wÉ`{H$Í$Z gH$b odÌd H$mß ZÏh{?
am{_Z AmoU J´rH$ OJ h∑`©ybrg AmoU hm`S≠>m (EH$ ‡H$maMm AOg≥ g[©) `mß¿`m
`w’mbm X°ohH$ `w’ g_OV Amh{V. VWmo[, gd© Í$[H$mßda [yU©[U| gŒmm Amh{, À`m
ÏhOubbm À`mMm Iam AW© g_OyZ Vm{ À`mbm AmpÀ_H$ `w’ g_OV Amh{. Am_¿`m
[wamU-H$dtZt oZo_©b{Î`m H$mob`m-_X©ZmMm Iam AW© H$m` Ag{b ]a|? OJmßVÎ`m
]h˛V{H$ gd© ‡og’ [wamUmßZt gm[ hm _yV© qH$dm A_yV© Vm_gmMm ‡oVoZoY H$pÎ[bm Amh{.
Am_¿`moh [wamUmßMr H$Î[Zm VrM Agbr [mohO{. À`mdmßMyZ Vt Jm{[m ÂhUO{ OJmM|
[mbZ H$aUmam `mOH$Sy>Z H$mob`mM| _X©Z H$adrV ZmhtV.
oºÒVrVa b{IH$mßMm AbrH$S>{ oºÒVr Y_m©H$S>{ [mh `mMm —oÔ>H$m{Z ]Xbyß bmJbm
Amh{ d O| Am[U À`mßZm gmßJ `mMm oH$Vroh ‡`ÀZ H{$bm AgVmß V{ E{H$ `mg V`ma Pmb{
ZgV{ V| V{M ÒdVï gmßJy bmJb{ Amh{V. J{Î`mM _oh›`mßV _m¬`m [mh `mßV H$_tV H$_t
Aet [mßM-gmV Var CXmhaU| Ambt Amh{V. am. VidbH$amßZr "Amoe`mM{ Y_©Xr[' ¯m
*
[wÒVH$mßV AJXt g_Vm{b _ZmZ| oºÒVr Y_m©M| dU©Z H{$b{bß gmß[S>{b, oH$bm}ÒH$a*
_mogH$mßV ZwH$VrM _mPr oºÒVO›_mdarb EH$ H$odVm AJXt [ohÎ`m [mZmda N>m[br
Amh{. Ûr _mogH$m¿`m ¯mM _oh›`m¿`m AßH$mßV ]m`]b AmoU oÛ`m hm b{I EIm⁄m
oºÒVr _mUgmZ| obhˇZ oºÒVrM _mogH$mßV N>m[Î`mgmaIm oXg{b, BV∑`m AmÀ_r`V{Z|
obohb{bm AmT>i{b. "R>m{R>mdm ÂhUO{ CKS>{b' ¯m oºÒVr erf©H$mImbt [admß¿`mM
EH$m gZmVZr [ÃmßV AJ´b{I Amb{bm Amh{. Hw$_mar _Zm{a_m Im]S>{, ]r.E.¯m oºÒVr
Hw$_mnaH{$bm EH$m oºÒVrVa [ÃmZ| Am[br Ûr-gß[moXH$m ÂhUyZ Z{_b| Amh{. H$mßht dfm™[ydu
aÀZmH$amßV ^JdX≤JrVm d ]m`]b ¯mß¿`mVrb oeH$dUtVrb V\$mdV XmIodUmar EH$
b{I_mbm dmMÎ`mM| AmR>dV|. À`m b{I_mb{Mm b{IH$ oºÒVrVa AgyZoh À`mZ|
]m`]b¿`m oeH$dUrMr ]mOy Am{Ty>Z YaÎ`mgmaI| À`m b{ImdÍ$Z dmQ>b|.
Am[Î`m dmç`mMr dmT> H$Í$Z ø`md`mMr Ag{b Va qhXw dm∑‡MmamßodÈ’ qH$dm
[wamU-dmç`modÈ’ d•oŒm R>{dyZ MmbUma Zmht d _bm gmßJm`bm AmZßX d Ao^_mZ
dmQ>Vm| H$s®, od¤mZ o_eZatZtoh Vg| H{$b| Zmht. a{. O{. E\≤$. ES≤>dS>©g, a{. S>m∞.S>{q_J,
o[Vm[wà S>m∞.¯z_, S>m∞. _∞p∑ZH$b, a{.\$mXa od›Òbm{ d gdm™M{ _wHw$Q>_oU [.dm.S>m∞.A∞]Q>
ht Ot AJXt Wm{S>tet CXmhaU| S>m{˘`mß[wT>| Ambt V{dT>t gmßoJVbt Varoh _m¬`m da¿`m
* Ûr _mogH$ ï Am∞JÒQ> 1933
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 608$&&

odYmZmbm ]iH$Q>r AmU `mg Vt [wa{et Amh{V.
[ydv¿`m o_eZatZm qhXr MM©gmR>t JmUt [mohO{ hm{Vt. Vt Vm]S>Vm{] o_iU| e∑`
ZÏhV|, V{Ïhmß À`mßZr Vt BßJ´Or Mmbr H$m`_ R>{dyZ _amR>rV CVabt. [U V|M Am[br MyH$
‹`mZmßV `{VmßM À`mß¿`m[°H$s® ¡`mßZm e∑` hm{V| À`mßZt ÒdVï OmVrZ| qhXr MmbtdaMt JmUt
ÂhU `mg d oeH$od `mg gwÈdmV J{br. _bm `{W| [.dm.a{.o]gbgmh{]mßM{ CXmhaU
AmR>dV|. o]gbgmh{]mßMr ^OZ-H$sV©Zmda \$ma ^o∫$ hm{Vr. V{ ^OZmßV VÑrZ hm{D$Z
PmßO oM[˘`m K{D$Z VmgM| Vmg qhXr Mmbtda oºÒVr [X| ÂhUV d À`mßM| [mhˇZ À`mßM{
H$m_Jma bm{H$ À`mßM| AZwH$aU H$Íß$ bmJb{! ZJaH$S>{ o_eZatZt gßJrVmM| qhXrH$aU
H$a `mßV [wT>mH$ma K{Vbm ZgVm Va AmO oVH$S>{ ¯m —Ô>rZ| gwYmaUm Pmb{br oXgV{ Vr
oXgbr ZgVr.
H$mßht amÔ≠>r` d•Œmr¿`m oºÒVr bm{H$mßZm o_eZatM| F$U AJXt H$]yb ZgV|. AmVmßM
_t a{. h∞ar o]gb ¯mßMm CÑ{I H{$bm Amh{. Ag{ AmUIroh [wÓH$i o_eZar hm{D$Z J{b{
H$s®, À`mßZt dmç`mgmR>t AoVe` [nal_ H{$b{ Amh{V. À`mß¿`modf`t Am[U H•$VkVm hr
XmIodbrM [mohO{ d d{i‡gßJt À`mßMm ¯m F$Um]‘b `m{Ω` g›_mZoh H{$bm [mohO{.
qhXr gßÒH•$Vrodf`t Ao^_mZ ]miJU| ÂhUO{ [mÌMmÀ`mßMm d À`mß¿`m ‡À`{H$ H•$VrMm
oVaÒH$ma H$aU| ZÏh{. Am[U OmDß$ Z`{ Aem EIm⁄m AdKS> oR>H$mUt [m{hm|Mbm|, Va V{WyZ
[aVVmßZm KgaVmß C[`m{Jt Zmht. [aVVmßZm Am[b| ‡À`{H$ [mD$b odMma[yd©H$ [S>b| [mohO{.
ZmhtVa AmUIr oVgË`mM oR>H$mUt OmD$Z Am[U AmXim`M{. Am[Î`m AßJt _wab{br
[mÌMmÀ`Vm Kmbod `m¿`m ZmXmßV Oa Am[U gd©M [mÌMmÀ` gßÒH•$VrMm d [mÌMmÀ`mßMm
oVaÒH$ma H$Íß$ bmJbm|, Va V| _witM CoMV hm{Uma Zmht.
Vg| [mohb| Va [wÓH$iM o_eZatZt ZwgÀ`m oºÒVrM ZÏh|, Va oºÒVrVa dmç`mda
Am[b{ C[H$ma H$Í$Z R>{odb{ Amh{V.
¯m [aX{er`mßM| _amR>rdarb ‡{_ BVH|$ CÀH$Q> hm{V| H$s® À`m ‡{_m_wi|M _amR>rMr H$soV©
oXJßVt [m{hm|Mbr. [mÌMmÀ`mßZm _amR>rMr `m{Ω`Vm ¯mß¿`mM [nal_mß_wi| H$ibr. \$mXa
ÒQ>r\$ZZ| Am[Î`m oºÒV[wamUmßV "O°er haimß_mOr aÀZoH$im $& H$s® aÀZm_mOr oham
oZim $& V°er ^mfm_mOr Mm{Iim $& ^mfm _amR>r $&&'' Aem VËh{M| Am[Î`m ¯m _m`]m{brM|
dU©Z H{$b{b| Amh{.
a{.S>m∞._a{ o_Mb≤ ¯m BßJ´O J•hÒWmZ{ _amR>rgß]ßYt Am[Î`m X{e]mßYdmßZm _mohVr Ïhmdr,
ÂhUyZ BßJOtV EH$ oZ]ßY obohbm. À`mdÍ$Z À`mM| _amR>r ^mf{darb ‡{_ d _amR>r ^mf{Mm
A‰`mg hr ‡H$Q> hm{VmV. 1843 gmbMr hr Jm{Ô> Amh{. Am[U ¡`m oR>H$mUr g‹`mß
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 609$&&

O_bm| Amhm|, Vm{ hm∞b ]mßYÎ`mda VrZM dfm™Zt h| obohb| Amh{. o_Mb≤ ÂhUVm{,""_amR>r
dmL>≤_` gOrd Amh{ Ag{ ÂhQ>Î`mg V| `WmW© hm{B©b.''
S>m∞. o_Mb≤ ¯mßZt _amR>tV ]mam [wÒVH|$ obohbt Amh{V. À`mßVrb gw]m{Y gßÒH•$V
Ìbm{H$ó¯mßV gßÒH•$V Ìbm{H$ X{D$Z Imbt À`mßMr _amR>r d BßJ´Or ^mfmßVa{ oXbt Amh{V.
S>m∞.odÎgZ h{ AmUIr EH$ Zmßd K{ `mOm{J{ [aX{er` o_eZar hm{D$Z J{b{. ‡mMrZ dmç`,
H$m{ard b{Ut, OwZt ZmUt, OwZm BoVhmg, ¯mgß]ßYt À`mßZr AÀ`ßV AmÒWm[yd©H$ A‰`mg
H{$bm hm{Vm. Z{g]rQ>, ‡mBg, ÌdmQ>©, \$ama, S>m∞.pÒQ>Ïh›g≤ dJ°a{ oH$VrVar Aet Zmßd| gmßJVmß
`{Vrb H$s®, ¯mß¿`m _amR>rdarb ‡{_m¿`m eVmßemZ|oh Am_¿`m [wÓH$iem qhXr oºÒVr
bm{H$mßM{ ‡{_ Vr Am_Mr _m`]m{br AgyZoh oVOda Zg{b. ¯m bm{H$mß[°H$s® H$m{Uroh,
qH$dm AmO _hmamÔ≠>mßV H$m_ H$arV Agb{b{ oH$À`{H$ o_eZar, _m¬`m OmJt `{W| h|
A‹`j[UmM| H$m_ H$a `mg H$Ytoh AoYH$ `m{Ω` R>ab{ AgV{.
[ohbm _amR>r Q>mB[ o_eZatZt [mS>bm, [ohbm N>m[ImZm À`mßZtM _mßS>bm d
[ohÎ`mßXm _amR>tV [wÒVH|$ À`mßZtM H$mT>bt. O{Ïhmß Am[U Am[Î`m dmç`mMm [aH$s[Um
Kmbod `mgmR>t H$_am ]mßYyß bmJyß V{Ïhmß dmç`mMm [aH$s[Um Kmbmd`mM|M \$∫$ Am[b|
H$m_ Amh{. À`m dmç`mda ‡{_ H$aUmË`m d À`mMr g{dm H$aUmË`m [aH$s`mßZm AY©Mß–
X{ `mM| Zmht, h| odgaVmß H$m_mß Z`{. [.dm.S>m∞.A∞]Q>gmaª`m _mUgmbm Oa Am[U Xya
R>{dyß ÂhQ>b| Va Vm{ Am[bmM _yI©[Um R>a{b. ohQ>ba O_©Z Zmht, VgmM Z{[m{ob`Z \´|$M
ZÏhVm; Var O_©Zr d \´$m›g ¯m X{emßZt ¯m Xm{KmßM| F$U \|$S> `mgmR>r Am[b| Z{V•Àd
À`m¿`m hdmbt H{$b|. À`mßZr Vg| H{$b| ZgV|, Va ¯m O]aXÒV _mUgmßZt V{ß ohamdyZ K{Vb|
AgV|. BVH$m O]aXÒV [aH$s` _amR>r dmç`mßV AOyZ [wT>| Amb{bm Zmht, Vr Jm{Ô> d{Jir;
[aßVw [wT>| Oa H$Yt Vm{ CÀ[fi Pmbm Va À`mM| `m{Ω` ÒWmZ À`mbm X{ `mßV oZXmZ _r Var OJb|
dmMb| Va [wT>mH$ma K{B©Z.
BVH$m d{i[`™V Am[U gmYmaUVï oºÒVr dmç`mMm qhXw dmç`met H$m` gß]ßY
Agmdm ¯m odf`t odMma H{$bm. AmVmß oºÒVr C[mgZm[’VtV qhXr gßJrV d qhXr H$mÏ`
¯mMm oH$Vr d H$gm C[`m{J H$naVmß `{B©b, ¯mgß]ßYr Wm{S>m odMma H$Íß$.
Am[Î`m C[mgZm[’VtV J{Î`m drg dfm™V H$mßhtgm BÔ> [naUm_ Pmbm Agbm, Var
AOyZ Ïhmdm oVVH$m ]Xb Pmb{bm Zmht h| Am[U À`m odf`mM| ]maH$mB©Z|{ oZarjU
H{$Î`mg Am[Î`mbm oXgyZ `{B©b.
gmYmaUVï C[mgZm[’oV Xm{Z ‡H$maMr AgV{. EH$ MM© Am∞\$ BßΩbßS>¿`m gmYmaU
‡mW©Z{V oXb{br d EH$ Zm∞ZH$›\$m∞o_©ÒQ> MM©¿`m bm{H$mßMr.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 610$&&

¯mßV gmYmaU ‡mW©Z|V H$mßht ]Xb hm{V Ag{b Va Vm{ AJXt _wßJr¿`m [m`mZ| hm{V Amh{.
]mH$s®¿`m MM©_‹`|oh \$aH$ Pmbm Ag{b Va Vm{ qhXr [’Vr¿`m Jm `mßgß]ßYtM. ]mH$s®
]h˛V{H$ [’oV [mÌMmÀ` YVr©da [ydm©[ma MmbV Amb{br Amh{ Vr Amh{.
[admß ZmVmi Pmbm. Am_¿`m ZmeH$mg [mÌMmÀ` [’VrMr "oºÒV_g H∞$ab' oZKmbr
hm{Vr. Xm{ZMma [m{amßZt EH$Ã O_md|, hmVmßV "ode `y h∞[r oºÒV_g≤'¿`m ]{JS>r [mQ>Ám
ø`mÏ`m d Jmßd^a ^rH$ _mJV o\$amd|. hr [’V Amh{ Ver [wÓH$i df~[`™V Mmby oXÎ`mZ|
oV¿`mßVrb _yiM| [mÌMmÀ` ÒdmaÒ` Zmhtg| hm{D$Z V| EH$ d{i ^rH$ _mJ `mM| gmYZ
hm{D$Z ]gb| Amh|. H$maU H∞$ab hr qhXr _Zm{aMZ{Mm odMma H$Í$Z À`mß¿`mda bmX `mßV
Amb{br Zmht.
Am[Î`mbm Am[Î`m C[mgZm[’VtV qH$dm Aem H$mßht MmbrarVtV ]Xb hm{ `mg
hdm Ag{b Va Am[U qhXr _Zm{d•ŒmrMm A‰`mg H{$bm [mohO{. hOmam| dfm™¿`m EH$m
odoeÔ> oejUmZ| qhXr _ZmMr R>{dU Aer Pmb{br Amh{ H$s®, À`m_wi| [mÌMmÀ`mßZm qhXr
bm{H$mß¿`m [wÓH$iem dV©ZmMm CÑ{I H$aU| H$R>rU hm{V|, CXmhaUmW© e{H$S>m| _°bmdÍ$Z
EH$gmaI| gmÔ>mßJ Z_ÒH$ma KmbrV EImXr ]mB© [ßT>a[yabm OmV{. oV¿`m _ZmMr AmÀ`ßoVH$
CÀH$Q>Vm oVbm h| H•$À` H$a `mg ‡d•Œm H$aV{. [aßVw [mÌMmÀ`mbm oVMm Vm{ _yI©[Um dmQ>Vm{.
V|M ^OZmgß]ßYr ÂhUVmß `{B©b. ^OZ, H$sV©Z ¯m ^∫$s¿`m ‡H$mamßZm Vm{ Hß$Q>miyZ OmB©b,
[U qhXr _mUyg Vmg¿`m Vmg amÃt¿`m amÃt À`mßV OmJyZ KmbodVm{.
"oºÒVXmg Pmbm|, o^jm dmT>m _mB©' hr Am{i Vmg¿`m Vmg ÂhUVmßZm _t E{H$br
Amh{. À`mßV _t ÒdVï ^mJoh K{Vb{bm Amh{.
Jm `mMm C[`m{J H$m`? V|M V|M ÂhUyZ VwÂhmßbm \$m`Xm H$m` hm{Vm{ d X{dmbm Vw_M|
ÂhUU| EH$XmM gmßoJVb| V| E{Hyß$ `{V Zmht H$m`? Agm ‡˝ [mÌMmÀ` bm{H$ H$naVmV.
À`mßZm CŒma h|M H$s® ohË`mbm V{OÒdr H$am`M| Agb| ÂhUO{ Og| À`mbm À`mM À`m
oR>H$mUt Kmgmd{ bmJV|, V¤V≤ _ZmMm [a_{úamM{ oR>H$mUt b` bmd `mgmR>t hr ^∫$sMr
JwßJr À`mbm C[`m{Jr [S>V{.
Am[Î`m _amR>r Mmbrda¿`m JrVmßZm Y´wd[X AgV| d Km{iyZ Km{iyZ ÂhU `mMm ‡KmV
Amh{. ht JrV| ÂhUO| "Ïh{Z na[roQ>eZ' Amh{V Ag| BßJ´OtV gmßJyZ, EH$ [miH$ V{dT>Ámda
Am[Î`m C[mgZ{¿`m d{it BßJ´Or Mmbrdarb JrV|M [gßV H$arV AgVmV. ¯m qhXr
oºÒVr _mUgm¿`mM _Zm{aMZ{Mm Wm{S>m d{i odMma H{$bm Va Am[Î`mbm Ag| oXgyZ
`{B©b H$s®, Vr [mÌMmÀ` [’VrMr ]Zbr Amh{.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 611$&&

qH$dmó

e{dQ>t ‡^wam`m $& o]bJb| VwoP`m [m`mß $&
J{b| a{ J{b| _mP| $& AmOdat O›_ dm`mß $&
drUm _›_Zm{d•oŒm $& ^mdgya _Ywa oH$Vr $&
oºÒVm `{ ]g [wT>Vt $& VyßM gIm lm{Vm $&

¯m ^mdZmß¿`m JrVmßMm darb _Zm{d•Œmr¿`m _mUgmda H$Yt [naUm_ hm{Uma Zmht.
Am[bm ‡^w d Am[U! ]g≤! ¯m[wT>| À`m d{i[waV| Var Xwga| OJ Zmht, Aer VÑrZVm hm{V{
Vr qhXr _ZmMr. gmd©OoZH$ C[mgZ{Mm [naUm_ Ïhm`Mm À`m[{jmß EH$mßoVH$ C[mgZ{Mm
AoYH$ hm{Vm{. ‡^w `{eyZ| ‡mW©Z{gß]ßYt gmßoJVb| Amh{ H$s®,"Vy Va ‡mW©Zm H$aVm{g V{Ïhmß
Am[Î`m Im{btV Om, d Xma bmdyZ Am[Î`m Jw·dmgr o[À`mMr ‡mW©Zm H$a ÂhUO{
Jw·Xeu o[Vm Vwbm \$i X{B©b.' ^OZmßV Or VÑrZVm `{V{ Vr V{dT>Ám JXuV qhXr _Z
Am[Î`m ^m|dVmbMr [napÒWoV odgaV| ÂhUyZ. [ßMrdg _mUg| Oar ^OZ H$arV Agbt
Var Vr ^m{dVmc¿`m Mm{drg _mUgmßZm odgÍ$Z H{$di [a_{úamerM VmXmÀ` [mdc{crß
AgVmV. "]´˜mZßXr cmJcr Q>mir & H$m{U X{hmV{ß gm^mßir$&' hr Vr _ZïnÒWoV. V{dT>Ám_wi{ß
IË`m IË`m ÂhUyZ nhßXr C[mgZ{cm q^Vrda dm∞c ∑cm∞H$ cmdmd{ cmJV Zmhrß, d Cera
Pmcm Var ^∑VmM{ S>m{i{ oVH$S>{ diV ZmhrßV. Va À`m¿`m ^ŒH$rMm ‡m{Jm_ R>ac{cm ZgVm{
H$t Jm`ZmM{ ∑dm`g© ZgVmV. H$maU _Z ]m¯ C[mYtH$S>{ c˙`M X{V Zmht.
¯m _Zm{d•Œmtet Owi{c Aem VËh{Mr Am[cr C[mgZm [mohO{. Am[Î`m g‹`mß¿`m
C[mgZ|V ^∫$s[{jßm C[X{emßV AoYH$, qH$]h߲Zm ]h˛V{H$ d{i IM© hm{Vm{ d C[X{e
gß[Î`m]am{]a X{D$i gwQ>VmßM cm{H$ ]mh{a `{D$Z EH$_{H$mß¿`m ^{Q>t K{VmV d Hw$ec ‡˝
odMmaVmV! IË`m ^∫$s^mdmZ| ‡mW©Zm PmÎ`mda Vm]S>Vm{] BV∑`m PQ>[Q>, _ZmMr pÒWoV
hd{M{ d [m `m[mdgmM{ ‡˝ odMma `mg V`ma hm{Uma Zmht.
CŒm_ gßJrV, ^∫$H$dtZr IË`m ^∫$s¿`m CÂhm˘`mZ| ÂhQ>c{cr JrV{ d g^m{dVmcM|
Ymo_©H$ dmVmdaU ht AgÎ`mda oI´ÒVr ^∫$ ^∫$s¿`m CÂhm˘`mZ| À`m H$dr]am{]a S>m{cyß
cmJ `mg oH$Vrgm d{i cmJVm{ ? oQ>iH$ ^OZgßJ´hm¿`m ‡ÒVmdZ|V ÂhUVmV, ""^OZ,
H$sV©Z, [wamU h| qhXwÒWmZmßVrc Y_©‡gmamM{ d Y_©gßOrdZmM{ [ydm©[ma MmcV Amc{c{
cm{H$_m›` _mJ© Amh{V. Xm{Z AS>rMe| dfm©[ydv qhXwÒWmZmßV ^∫$s_mJm©Z| odcjU Cgir
ImD$Z, AZ{H$ gmYwgßV [wT>| AmUc{ d À`mßZt H$mßht Aßet cyWaM| d [wÓH$i Aßet ]mpflVÒ_m
H$aUmË`m `m{hmZmM| H$m`© H{$c|. h| H$m`© H$arV AgVmß À`mßZr ^OZ, H$sV©Z d [wamU ¯m
gmYZmßdmßMyZ XwgË`m H$m{UÀ`moh gmYZmMm C[`m{J H{$cm Zmht. gm߇VH$mitgw’mß
H$_©H$mßS>m]mh{a¿`m qhXw Y_m©M| OrodV ¯m VrZ gmYZmßda [wÓH$iM Adcß]yZ Amh{. VÀdk
cm{H$mß¿`m H$H©$e VH$m©Z| ZÏh|. ZroVkmß¿`m gÀ`ß dX Y_© Ma AgÎ`m Zrag gyÃmßZt ZÏh|,
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 612$&&

Va À`m H$H©$e VH$m©g d Zrag gyÃmßg A_•VVwÎ` H$Í$Z gm{S>UmË`m H$dtZr, V{ A_•V
ZrQ>Z{Q>∑`m arVrZ| cm{H$mßg dmT>UmË`m H$sV©ZH$mamßZt, [m°amoUH$mßZt, ^OZt ]wdmßZr
qhXwY_m©cm gmdÍ$Z Ynac| Amh{. gmaßme, Y_©oejUm¿`m, Y_©gßOrdZm¿`m d
Y_m}[mgZ{¿`m H$m_t qhXwÒVmZm_Y`| ¯m VrZ gmYZmßBVH$m XwgË`m H$m{UÀ`moh gmYZmßMm
C[`m{J hm{ `mgmaIm Zmht. BVa gmYZ| H$_r `m{Ω`V{Mr, Ag| Am_M| ÂhUU| Zmht; [U Vr
qhXwÒWmZmßcm oOV[V _mZdmdt oVV[V _mZdV ZmhtV qH$dm À`mßZm qhXwÒWmZ oOV[V
_mZdmdm oVV[V _mZdV Zmht, Agm AZw^d Amh{.
Am[Î`mcm qhXw cm{H$mßM{ AZwH$aU H$amd`mMß{ Zmht V| lwVß haoV [m[mZ| ¯m g_OwVrZ|
[wamU| gm{S>VmV. VrM AmÂhmcm ""odÌdmg gßX{e E{H$ `mdÍ$Z hm{Vm{'' (am{_H$amßg [Ã
10ï17) ¯m g_OwVrZ| gm{S>md`mMt Amh{V d [wamU [R>U-ldUmMr aroV "a‘' Z H$aVmß
oV¿`mda oºÒVr[UmMr N>m[ X{D$Z Vr "[yU©' H$amd`mMr Amh{.''
oQ>iH$mßMr hr ^odÓ`dmUr Iar Pmc{cr oH$À`{H$ oR>H$mUt AZw^dmg `{V Agcr,
Var Vr [napÒWoV gmd©oÃH$ Zmht. Vr gmd©oÃH$ hm{ `mg _Zm[mgyZ ‡`ÀZ H{$c{ [mohO{V d
V{ ‹`{` [wT>| R>{dc| [mohO{.
qhXr gßJrVm¿`m Mmcr \$ma dmB©Q> AgVmV. À`mda V_memßVrc d ZmQ>H$mßVrc [X|
aMc{ct AgVmV. ÂhUyZ oH$À`{H$mßZr À`m Mmcr À`m¡` R>aodÎ`m Amh{V. [U À`m À`m¡`
Agm ZwgVm N>m[ _mÍ$Z R>{dÎ`m]am{]a À`m oºÒVr cm{H$mß¿`m X{dimßV oeaH$md H$Íß$
eH$Î`m ZmhtV; Var Kam|Ka À`m E{Hyß$ `{Dß$ cmJÎ`m. Aem d{irß À`m a‘ Z H$aVmß À`mßda
oºÒVr Y_m©Mm N>m[ _mÍ$Z [yU© H$Í$Z K{VÎ`m [mohO{V. Ah_XZJamg _wct¿`m emi|V
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CXmhaUmW©ïó ""_m`m Oicr H$m oVOcm [oVgwI ZcJ{ H$m'' ]‘c ""oºÒVr Pmcm H$m
[mVH$^mam odQ>cm H$m;'' ""hmß a{ g°Ê`m,'' ]‘c ""qhoXÒVmZm CXmam `em{YZm;'' ""H$qY
H$naVr cΩZ _mP|'' ]‘c ""‡^wam`m Ymßd _m¬`m JwÈam`m Ymßd a{'' ""o]Nw>dm ]mO{ _m{na _m''
""aI`m `{B© `{B© a{'' ""AmoO _r ]˜ [mohc|'' ]‘c ""AmO _r oºÒVr Omhcm|;'' dJ°a{
oH$VrVar [⁄| oQ>iH$mßZr ]Xcr X{D$Z ZH$m{ Agc{Î`m [⁄mßZm AY©Mß– oXcm.
Am[Î`m[wT>| AmO O| _m{R>| _hŒdmM{ H$m_ Amh{ V{ Am[Î`m gd© OrdZmcm _amR>r
]Zdm`M| h| Amh{. V| H$arV AgVmß O{ Am[c{ odam{Yr ZmhtV V{ Am[c{M Amh{V h| Am[Î`m
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 613$&&

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H$amd`mM| Amh{. H$iV dm ZH$iV Am[Î`mcm _amR>r[Um[mgyZ Xya R>{dUma{ O| H$m{Ur
o_eZar qH$dm qhXr oºÒVr Amh{V À`mßMm VQ>H$Z cMH$m Vm{Sy>Z Z Q>mH$Vmß, À`mßMr _Z|
Am[U diodct [mohO{V. gmohÀ`g{dH$ oºÒVr cm{H$mßZm Am[cm EH$ oZamim [ßW
]Zdm`Mm Zmht. "Io_am' gmaI| À`mßM| H$m_ Amh{. V{ H$aVmßZm EH$sH$Sy>Z da gmßoJVc{cm
oºÒVr ]ßYyßMm dJ© Am[Î`mcm Am{T>rc Va XwgarH$Sy>Z Am[c| oºÒVrVa ]ßYy Am[Î`mcm
Am{T>Vrc. ¯m MT>mAm{T>tV Am[U I]aXmar ø`md`mMr Vr ¯m Xm{KmßM{oh hmV Z
gm{S> `mMr. À`m [m`t Am[Î`mcm AmÀ`ßoVH$ ÒdmW©À`mJ H$amdm cmJcm Var ]{hŒma,
[aßVw Am[U H$mhtoh Pmc| Var VwQy>ß ⁄md`mM| Zmht, H$s® \w$Qy>ß ⁄md`mM| Zmht.
AmO MM©^{Xm_wi| oºÒVr cm{H$mßVrc EH$oOZgr[Um AmYr|M [wÓH$i H$_t Pmc{cm
Amh{. À`mßV Am[Î`m ‡`ÀZmß_wi| _amR>r ^mfmo^_mZr oºÒVr cm{H$mßMm AmUIr EH$ JQ>
hm{ `mMm gß^d oXgyß cmJVmßM, Am[U ha‡`ÀZ H$Í$Z Vgc{ JQ> hm{Dß$ X{Vmß C[`m{Jt Zmht.
gßKeoŒH$¿`m ^wB©V IßXH$ & ÈßX [Sw>oZ e| VwH$S>{ Pmc{
ÒdmW©Z[{j Ordt Am[wc| $& [mohO{V V{ gÀda ^ac{
ø`m À`mßV CS>Ám Va ]{cmeH$
h| H$od H{$edgwVmßM{ ÂhUU| À`m [napÒWVtV AJXt ‹`mZmßV K{ `mgmaI| Amh{.
[admß `{W| ^ac{Î`m _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ`gß_{cZmM| A‹`j am. H$•ÓUmOr[ßV ImoS>cH$a
¯mßZr _amR>r ^mf{cm Am[Î`m ^mfUmßV "AmB©' ÂhQ>c| Amh{. AmB©Odi O_Î`mZßVa Wm{S>Ám
d{im[ydu ^mßS>V Agc{cr ^mdßS>| ¡`m‡_mU| [wZï Jw `mJm{qdXmZ| dmJyß cmJVmV, V¤VM
_cm Aer ImÃr Amh{ H$s®, Am[Î`mgß]ßYt J°ag_O Pmc{ct H$m{Ut oºÒVr _mUg| AgVrc
Va, Vt d Am[c{ oºÒVrVa ]mßYd Am[Î`m ¯m AmB©Odi ]gÎ`mda gd© ^{X^md
odgaVrc. ^` Amh{ V| V{ Xya Xya Amh{V Vm{[`™VM d AmB©¿`m [m`mOdi Aem arVrZ| EH$Ã
`{ `mMr gdm™Mr B¿N>m Amh{ Ù`mßV gße` Zmht. ZmhtVa À`m gß_{cZm¿`m ÒdmJVm‹`jmßZr
Am[Î`m gß_{cZmgß]ßYt Am[Î`m ^mfUmßV O{ CX≤Jma H$mT>c{ V H$mT>c|M ZgV|.
ÒdmJVm‹`j Hw$cJwÍ$ lr`wV ^dmZreßH$a oZ`m{Jr Am[Î`m ^mfUmßV ÂhUmc{ ""_hmamÔ≠>
hm ]ßJmcgmaIm gcJ ‡mßV ZgyZ À`mMrß AZ{H$ H$maUmß_wi| od^mJc{Î`m _hmamÔ≠>mßVrc
OZV|V E{∑`mMr AmoU amÓQ≠>r`ÀdmMr ^mdZm CÀ[›Z H$amd`mcm Xwga| A_m{K gmYZM
Zmht; À`m —Ô>rZ| `m _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ`gß_{cZm]am{]aM oºÒVr ]mßYdmßZr ÒdVïM| gß_{cZoh
`{W|M ^aod `mM| R>aodc|, hr Jm{Ô> AÀ`ßV Ao^ZßXZr` Amh{ d _cm Aer Amem Amh{
H$s®, Wm{S>ÁmM oXdgmßZt V{ ÒdVïM| d{Ji| gß_{cZ Z ^aodVmß Am[Î`m `m AoIc
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 614$&&

_hmamÓQ≠>m¿`m gß_{cZmßVM gm_rc hmD$Z OmVrc. ^mfm d dmç` ht Y_m©Vrc AgVmV hr
Jm{Ô> Am[Î`m oºÒVr ]mßYdmßZr gm{XmhaU og’ H$Í$Z XmIodcr Amh{.''
h{ EH$m O]m]Xma oºÒVrVamM| ÂhUU|, À`m ]mOyZ| ¯m ]m]VtV H$gm dmam dmhV Amh{
h| XmIod `mßg [wa| Amh{ Ag| _cm dmQ>V|. oºÒVr cm{H$mß¿`m ]m]VtV eaU[ya `{W| ^ac{Î`m
[ohÎ`m oºÒVr gmohÀ` gß_{cZmßV O| ‡oVoZoY Amc{ hm{V{ À`mß¿`mdÍ$Z Vm{ H$gm dmhVm{
h{ H$i{c. V| Am_M| [ohc|M gß_{cZ hm{V|. Am_M{ gß_{cZ ^ac{ À`m d{it lr[mX H•$ÓU
H$m{ÎhQ>H$a ZmeH$mg hm{V{. À`mßZt gmßoJVc| H$s®, [ohÎ`m _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ`gß_{cZmV ¡`m
gmohÀ`^∫$mßZr ^mJ K{Vcm À`m¿`m _mZmZ| oH$VrVar AoYH$ oºÒVr gmohpÀ`H$mßZr [ohÎ`m
oºÒVr gmohÀ` gß_{cZmßV ^mJ K{Vcm. h| Pmc| gߪ`{gß]ßYt. ¯moedm` Xwgar g_mYmZmMr
Jm{Ô> ÂhUO{ hr H$s®, À`m d{it oZaoZam˘`m gmV MM©M{ AZw`m`r Agc{c{ qhXr oI´ÒVr
gmohÀ`g{dH$ d Xm{Z A_{naH$Z, Xm{Z ÒH$m∞M d Mma BßpΩce cm{H$oh hOa hm{V|. _cm dmQ>V|.
AmO[`™V AgÎ`m VËh{Mr _ßS>ir qhXr oºÒVr BoVhmgmßV H$m{R>| O_cr Zg{c. V{Ïhmß
am.ImoS>cH$amßM{ ÂhUU| H$s®, EH$m ‡{_N>ÃmImct Am[Î`mcm O_m H$aUmar Aer _amR>r
hr Am[cr AmB© Amh{. óV| Ajaeï Ia| Amh{. h| ‹`mZmßV YÍ$Z, Am[U ¯m Am[Î`m
AmB©Mr g{dm AoYH$ CÀgmhmZ| H$a `mg gwÈdmV H{$cr [mohO{.
lr oZ`m{Jr ¯mß¿`m darc Jm°ad`w∫$$ ^mfUmßV EH$m Jm{Ô>rMm CÑ{I Amh{ À`mgß]ßYt
Amaß^t _cm H$m` gmßJmd`mM| hm{V| V| gmßJyZ Q>mH$c{ hm{V|. `{W| AmÎ`mda Vm{ ‡˝ ]amM
Vrd´V{Z| D$hm[m{hmcm oZKmcm Amh{ Ag| AmT>iyZ Amc| d V{dT>ÁmgmR>t _cm dmQ>V|, Amaß^r
_t O| Wm{S>∑`mßV gmßoJVc| V{ `{W| AoYH$ odÒVmamZ| gmßoJVÎ`moedm` _mP| ^mfU [wa|
H$aU|, ÂhUO{ Wm{S>rer J°ag_Omcm OmJm R>{dÎ`mgmaI| hm{B©c. am.oZ`m{Jr ÂhUVmV H$s®,
""Wm{S>ÁmM oXdgmßZt V| ÒdVïM| d{Ji| gß_{cZ Z ^aodVmß Am[Î`m `m AoIc _hmamÔ≠>m¿`m
gß_{cZmßVM gm_rc hm{D$Z OmVrc Aer _cm Amem Amh{.''
Am_¿`m oZam˘`m gß_{cZmda [ohcm d ‡_wI Amj{[ Amh{ Vm{ OmVdmarMm. _cm `{W|
AJXt Ò[Ô> gmßJm`cm [mohO{ H$s®, ¡`m AWu AmÂht Am_¿`m gd©M OrdZmM| _amR>rH$aU
H$amd`mM| ÂhUV Amhm| À`m AWu V| OmVdmarcm ]iH$Q>r AmU `mgmR>t _witM Zmht.
_amR>rH$S>{ Z [mhVmß AmÂhmßcm OmVdmarH$S>{ [hmd`mM| AgV|, Va AmÂht oºÒVr diUm¿`m
_amR>r ^mf{cm CŒm{OZ X{ `mMm ‡`ÀZ H$Í$Z, ^mf{¿`m ‡X{emßV Am_Mr EH$ d{Jir _amR>r
^mfm V`ma H$a `m¿`m ^mZJS>rV [S>cm| AgVm|; [U ¡`m AWu Am_M{ gma{ ‡`ÀZ Am_¿`m
_amR>rcm gd©_m›` ÒdÍ$[ X{ `mM{ Amh{V. BVH|$M Zmht, Va ^mf{cm l{> diU cmd `mgoh
hmV^ma cmd `mMr Am_Mr B¿N>m Amh{, À`m AWu Am_¿`m ¯m ‡`ÀZmß]‘c H$m{Umcm
^` dmQ> `mM| qH$dm gße` `{ `mM| H$mßht H$maU Zmht. lr oZ`m{Jr ÂhUVmV Ver [napÒWoV
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 615$&&

CÀ[›Z hm{ `mcm, ÂhUO{ gß_{cZmßV AmÂht [yU©[U| gm_rc hm{D$Z Am_Mr ‡Wm _m{Sy>Z
Q>mH$ `mg, AOyZ [wÓH$i AdoY Amh{. Ver d{i `{Uma Zmht qH$dm `{Dß$ Z`{ Ag{ß Am_M|
_witM ÂhUU{ Zmht. Ver d{i `{B©c d `mdr Ag|M Am_M| ÂhUU| Amh{, d oZ[mUr¿`m
gß_{cZmßV À`m d{i¿`m A‹`jmßZt Vg{ Ò[Ô>[U| gmßoJVc| hm{V|.
VwÂhr ht OmVrMt gß_{cZ| ^aodVmß ÂhUyZ _hmamÔ≠> gß_{cZmßV oºÒVr cm{H$ ^mJ K{V
ZmhtV Agm Am_¿`mda Xwgam Amj{[ Amh{. _mP| ÂhUU| Ag| Amh{ H$s®, Am_M| gß_{cZ
^aod `mg Amaß^ PmÎ`m[mgyZM Am_¿`m cm{H$mßM{ _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ` gß_{cZmH$S>{ c˙`
OmDß$ cmJc| d oºÒVrVa gmohÀ`^∫$mßM{ Am_¿`mH$S>{ c˙` OmDß$ cmJc|. Am_¿`m ‡À`{H$
gß_{cZmMm CÑ{I À`m À`m d{it ^ac{Î`m _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ`gß_{cZmßV Pmc{cm Amh{. Am_Mt
gß_{cZ| ^Íß$ cmJ `m¿`m AmYt oI´ÒVr dmç`mMm _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ`gß_{cZmßV H$m{R>| H$Yt
CÑ{Ioh Pmc{cm _m¬`m E{oH$dmßV Zmht. _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ`[nafX|V g‹`m O{ VrZ oºÒVr
g^mgX Amh{V V| Am_Mt gß_{cZ| ^Íß$ cmJÎ`mZßVaM{M Amh{V Ag| _cm dmQ>V|. EH$ Va
Am_¿`m g_|cZmßZt Am_¿`m ¯m gmohpÀ`H$mßZm _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ` [nafX{H$S>{ [mh `mg
cmdc{ Ag{ c . Zmht Va Am_¿`m gß _ { c Zmß _ w i | [nafX{ ¿ `m _VXmamß M | Am_¿`m
gmohpÀ`H$mßH$S>{ c˙` d{Yc| Ag{c.
Agm ‡˝ odMma `mßV `{B©c H$s®, VwÂhmßcm Vw_Mr _amR>r ^mfm [yU©[U| gwYma `mMr
CÀH$Q> B¿N>m Amh{. [wT>| _mJ| Vw_Mt gß_{cZ| AoO]mV Wmß]dyZ _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ`gß_{cZmßV
[yU©[U| ^mJ K{ `mMr Vw_Mr V`mar Ïhmdr Ag|M Am_¿`m‡_mU| VwÂhmßcmoh dmQ>V Amh{.
_J AmOM, Vw_Mm oZam˘`m gß_{cZmMm h≈> H$mß?
¯mcm CŒma Ag| H$s®, Am_M| h{ gß_{cZ ZÏhV| V{Ïhmß oH$Vrem oºÒVr cm{H$mßZt _hmamÔ≠>
gmohÀ` gß_{cZmßV ^mJ K{Vcm ? ]a|, AmO h| ]m{cU{ oZKmÎ`mda Var ZmJ[wamßVÎ`m
ZmJ[wamßV ^ac{Î`m gß_{cZmg oH$Vr oºÒVr cm{H$ hOa hm{V{ ? V{ßM AmO oºÒVr
gmohÀ`gß_{cZmg oH$VrVar oºÒVr cm{H$ hOa Amh{V [hm. ¯mMr H$maU| Ò[Ô> Amh{V.
[ohcr B`Œmm PmÎ`moedm` _yc XwgatV MmcV Zmht. Am_Mr hr gß_{cZ| ÂhUO{ o]Jmar
qH$dm [ohcrM{ dJ© Amh{V. da¿`m dJm©V Om `mMr V`mar hm{VmßM AmÂhr _m{R>Ám AmZßXmZ{
da¿`m dJm©V OmDß$ H$s®.
_ZwÓ` CÀgdo‡` AgVm{. Am_¿`m gß_{cZm¿`m oZo_ŒmmZ| dfm©VyZ H$mßht oXdg H$mß
hm{B©Zm, À`m odf`mgß]ßYmZ| AmÂhmßcm EH$ CÀgmh oZ_m©U H$aVmß `{Vm{. dmç`, gmohÀ`
dJ°a| e„X À`m Jmßdt gmaI{ H$mZt H$[mit Am{aS>Vmß `{VmV. ¡`mZm _amR>rMr AJXt Jm{S>r
Zmht Aem Am_¿`mßVrc [wÓH$i cm{H$mßet AmÂhmßcm _m{H$i{[UmZ| À`m odf`mda ]m{cVmß
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 616$&&

`{V|. V| Zmht Va oZXmZ À`mßMt _wc|]mi| Var Am_¿`m ]mOyMt hm{Vrc.
AmUIr EH$ \$m`Xm ÒdVßà gß_{cZmMm hm{Vm{, Vm{ Am_¿`m CX`m{›_wI H$od-c{IH$mßg
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CaHy$Z K{Vmß `{B©c. Am_Mt gßß_{cZ| hr EH$ ‡H$maMr aßJrV Vmcr_M g_Omdr. `m Vmc_tV
H$m_ H{$c| ÂhUO{ [wT>| aßJ^y_rda `{ `mg ^`oh dmQ>Uma Zmht d V{W| AmÎ`mda \$oOVroh
hm{Uma Zmht. Aem ¯m [napÒWVtV Am_Mm H$m{Ur CÀgmh^ßJ H$Íß$ Z`{ Aer Am_Mr hmV
Om{Sy>Z odZßVr Amh{.
oedm`, Am_¿`m gß_{cZmZ| Agm oZ]™Yoh KmVc{cm Zmht, H$s® ¯m gß_{cZmß¿`m
‡oVoZYtZt _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ`gß_{cZmßV ^mJ K{Dß$ Z`|. CcQ>, AmÂhr Am_¿`m g^mgXmßZm
À`m gß_{cZmßV ^mJ ø`m, AgmM AmJ´h H$arV AgVm{.
gmd©OoZH$ JU[oV Agcm ÂhUO{ KamßVc{ JU[oV H$m{Ur CMbyZ \{$Hy$Z X{V Zmht,
qH$dm oOV∑`mß¿`m KamßV JU[Vr Amh{V V{dT>{ gmd©OoZH$ JU[Vr¿`m odÈ’ _m{hr_
H$a `mg H$_am ]mßYyZ C^{ Amh{V Ag|oh H$m{Ur ÂhUUma Zmht. CcQ>, JU{e^∫$ Am[Î`m
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K{B©c.
darc C[_m _r Am_¿`m oºÒVrVa ]mßYdmßZm [Q>{c ÂhUyZ K{Vcr Amh{. oºÒVr
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ZgVmV hr C[_m [Q>{c. Vg|M Am_M| h{ gß_{cZ H$m{UÀ`moh VËh|Z| _hmamÔ≠> gß_{cZmet
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R>{dmd|.
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K{Vc| À`m]‘c _r Vw_Mr \$ma Am^mar Amh|. [a_{úamcm odJ´h AmdS>V Zmht.
AmH$memßVrc J´hJm{c EH$_{H$mß¿`m AmH$f©UmZ| EH$_{H$mßMm Vm{c gmß^miyZ Am[cm gßgma
WmQy>Z ]gc{ Amh{V. Vg{M _hmamÔ≠>mßVrc gd© g_mOmßM{ cm{H$ Am[Î`m h`m _m`^mf{¿`m
AmH$f©UmZ| Am[c{ gßgma WmQy>Z EH$_{H$mßet Jw `mJm{qdXmZ| ZmßXm{Vß, Aer À`m
OJp›Z`ßÀ`mOdi ‡mW©Zm H$Í$Z, _r Am[c| ^mfU [wa| H$aV|.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 617$&&

[naoeÔ>-3
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VmÀ`mgmh{] H$m{ÎhQ>H$amß¿`m AmR>dUr *
1. _mPr d VmÀ`mgmh{]mßMr [ohcr ^|Q>
_r H$m{UmM| H$mßht dmMc| H$s® À`m Ï`∫$scm [mh `mMr _cm B¿Nm hm{V{. _cmM Zmht
[U ]h˛V{H$mßZmM Aer B¿N>m hm{V Ag{c. _t VmÀ`mgmh{]mßM{ gwXmÂ`mM{ [m{h| dmMÎ`m[mgyZ
_cm À`mßZm ^{Q>md|g| dmQy>ß cmJc|. [U `m ^{ßQ>rMm `m{J H$gm `mdm ? [wÈfmßZm dmQ>{c V{Ïhmß
^{ßQ>Vmß `{V| Vg| AmÂhm pÒÃ`mßM| Zmht. VmÀ`mgmh{] ‡og’ J•hÒW; V{ H$m _OgmaIrcm
^|Q>Uma ! [U AZw^dmdmßMyZ H$iV Zmht. À`mß¿`m ^|Q>rMm `m{J AMmZH$ KSy>Z Amcm Vm{
Zdc H$a `mOm{Jm >Amh{.
oM. gm° H$_cm [mQ>UH$a hr VmÀ`mgmh{]mßMr EHw$cVr EH$ _wcJr. V{ Am[Î`m _wcr¿`m
cΩZmH$naVmß ZmerH$ _w∑H$m_r Amc{. À`mßM{ Om_mV ‡m{\{$ga [mQ>UH$a ÂhUO{ _mPm ]m]y.
_mPm _wcJm d ]m]y `mßMr ]mi[Um[mgyZMr _°Ãr. ÂhUyZ AmÂhmßcm À`m¿`modf`t [aH{$[Um
dmQ>cm Zmht d dmQ>V Zmht. _r cΩZm¿`m AmYt À`m¿`m Kat amh `mg J{c| hm{V|. ]m]yMr
Wm{acr ]hrU oM.gm°._mB© d oVM{ [oV lr ]m[yamd A‰`ßH$a `mßZr KamßV H$m{UrVar _m{R>|
_mUygAgmd| ÂhUyZ _cm AmYt[mgyZM ahmd`mg Z{c| hm{V|. H$m`m™V H$mßhtVar H$m_ H{$c|
[mohO{. [U _r H$m` H$aUma ? gm°._mB©Z| _m¬`mOm{J| H$m_ _cm oXc|. VrZ| _cm H$m{R>r
oXcr d _r H$m{R>rdmcr Pmc|.
]m]y¿`m cΩZmM| YwarUÀd lr ]m[yamd A‰`ßH$a `mßOH$S>{ hm{V{. cΩZm¿`m AmYÎ`m
oXdet VmÀ`mgmh{] ]m[yamd `mßOH$S>{ Amc{. [wÈf_ßS>ir ]mh{a¿`m XmcZmßV ]gcr hm{Vr.
V{W|M Am_¿`m KamßVrc gd© _ßS>itMm \$m{Q>m{ Q>mßJc{cm hm{Vm. _r Am[Î`m _ZmetM odMma
H$arV hm{V| H$s®, AmVmß H$m` ? Am[cr H$Yt Var VmÀ`mgmh{]mßMr ^|Q> hm{UmaM. ]mh{a
]m{cVmß ]m{cVmß VmÀ`mgmh{]mßMr ZOa Am_¿`m \$m{Q>m{da J{cr. À`mßZt ]m]ycm odMmac|
H$s®, hm \$m{Q>m{ H$m{UmMm ? "Vmam BßΩcßS>cm J{cr, À`m d{it K{Vc{cm hm \$m{Q>m{ oQ>iH$mß¿`m
`m AmR>dUr [ohÎ`m Amd•ŒmtV Ò_•oVoMÃmßV g_modÔ> Pmc{Î`m hm{À`m.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 618$&&

Hw$Qw>ß]mMm Amh{' Ag| gmßJyZ ]m]yZ| À`mßZm À`mßVrc gd© _ßS>irMr _mohVr H$Í$Z oXcr.
À`mda VmÀ`mgmh{]mßZr odMmac|, ""hÑt c˙_r]mB© H$m{R>| Amh{V ?''
""`{W|M Amh{V.''
""_J, À`mßMm [Œmm H$m` ?''
""[Œmm ? _mJ¿`m _mS>tV H$m{R>rMr Im{cr''
""Iaß ? _J À`m ^|Q>Vrc H$m ?''
""hm{, Z ^|Q>m`cm H$m` Pmcß ?''
BVH|$ PmÎ`mda _cm ]m]yZ| ""H$mHy$'' ÂhUyZ hmßH$ _macr. ]m]y _cm H$emcm hmßH$
_maVm{ Amh{ h| _cm _mhrV ZÏhV|. _r Am{ßMm [Xa ]mßYyZ [rR> _m{OrV hm{V|. VerM ]mh{a
Amc|. _r VmÀ`mgmh{]mßZm H$YtM [mohc| ZÏhV| AmoU _mPr H$Î[Zmoh ZÏhVr H$s® h{M lr
H$m{ÎhQH$a AgVrc ÂhUyZ. hmßH$ E{H$VmM _r VerM ]mh{a J{c|. _mPm hm Agm AdVma
[mhˇZ VmÀ`mgmh{]mßZt VmS>c| d Z_ÒH$ma H{$cm. _toh Vg|M o[R>mM{ hmV Om{S>c{. À`m
d{iMm _mPm \$m{Q>m{ K{ `mgmaIm hm{Vm. lr ]m[wamd A‰`ßH$a `mßZt Am{iI H$ÈZ oXcr
H$s®, "h{ VmÀ`mgmh{].' AmÂhmßcm À`m d{it hÒVrXßVr Z_ÒH$mamdmßMyZ ]m{c `mg d{iM
ZÏhVm. Og| À`mß¿`m H$_iM| cΩZ C⁄mßda Amc| hm{V|. Vg|M _m¬`m ]m]yM|oh hm{V|.
2. _wß]B©¿`m gmohÀ`gß_{cZm¿`m d{it
lr_ßV gaXma _mYdamd oH$]{ `mß¿`m A‹`jV{Imct _wß]B© gmohÀ`gß_{cZ ^ac| hm{V|.
V{Ïhmß _r d XŒmy _wß]B©gM hm{Vm|. AmÂhmßcm oZ_ßÃU| Amct hm{Vt. AmÂhr gß_{cZm¿`m
XwgË`m oXdgm¿`m H$m`©H´$_mg hOa hm{Vm|. _cm gm°.H$_cm]mB© oH$]{ `mßM{Odi ]godc{
hm{V|. gß_{cZmgmR>t VmÀ`mgmh{] OiJmßdhˇZ [aÒ[a _wß]B©g Amc| hm{V{. _r _wß]B©g AmÎ`mM|
À`mßZm _mhrV ZÏhV| d V{ AmÎ`mM| _cm _mhrV ZÏhV|. V{ `{VmßM _r À`mßZm oXgc{. Am_M{
Z_ÒH$ma dJ°a{ Pmc{. VmÀ`mgmh{] A‹`jmß¿`m ‡^mditV OmD$Z ]gc{. V{ V{WyZM H$mßht
H$mßhr _O]am{]a ]m{cV hm{V{. g^{cm gwÈdmV Pmcr V{Ïhmß Am_M| ]m{cU| Wmß]c|. "C[a Vm{
]h˛ ]Z{ AßXaH$s am_ OmZ{' Aer Am_Mr pÒWoV Pmcr hm{Vr. À`mßZm _OOdi O| H$mßht
]m{cm`cm hd| hm{V| V| ]m{cVmß Amc{ß Zmht d _cmoh Vg|M. À`mM d{it AmUIroh EH$m
J•hÒWmg ^{Q> `mMr _cm \$ma B¿N>m hm{Vr. À`m¿`m H$odVm _t dmMÎ`m hm{À`m. À`mMt
EH$Xm{Z [Ã|oh _cm Amct hm{Vt; [U _t À`mßZm qH$dm À`mßZr _cm ‡À`j [mohc| ZÏhV|.
g^|V À`mßM| Zmßd E{H$VmßM _cm AmZßX dmQ>cm. À`m¿`m ^mfUmßV À`mZ| Am[Î`m H$qdVm
ÂhUyZ XmIodÎ`m. À`mcm _r H{$Ïhmß ^{Q>{Z Ag| _cm Pmc|. _t À`mcm Am{iIc| Zmht.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 619$&&

AmVmß g^m gß[Î`mda À`m J•hÒWmet Am{iI H$Í$Z ø`m`Mr d VmÀ`mgmh{]mßet _m{H$˘`m
_ZmZ| ]m{cm`M| Agm odMma _r Am[Î`m _Zmet H$arV hm{V| Vm|M H$m`©H´$_ AmQ>m{[cm.
VmÀ`mgmh{]mßZmoh _m¬`met ]m{cm`M| hm{V| ÂhUyZ g^m gß[VmßM V{ _m¬`mH$S>{ Amc{. [U
_r _m¬`m J•hÒWm¿`m ^|Q>rgmR>t [wT>| Mmcc|, H$maU Vm{ OmB©c _J _mPr ^|Q> H$er hm{Uma ?
BV∑`mßV H°$.AZßVVZ` À`m J•hÒWmßZm _OH$S>{ K{D$Z Amc{ d ÂhUmc{, "‡´m{._m`X{d, ¯mM
c˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$.'' V{ Z_ÒH$ma H$Í$Z ]m{c `mg gwÍ$dmV H$aUma Vm| VmÀ`mgmh{] _m¬`m
_mJ| C^{. À`mßZm _m¬`met H$mßht ode{f ]m{cm`M| hm{V|. [U VmÀ`mgmh{]mßet ]m{c `mH$naVmß
À`mßM{oh _mJ| ]amM Km{iH$m hm{Vm. `m JXvV À`mßZm d _cm H$mßhtM ]m{cVmß Amc| Zmht.
AI{a À`mßZt XŒmycm Am_Mm [Œmm odMmÍ$Z K{Vcm. `m ^|Q>r¿`m d{it ]h˛V{H$mßMm Agm
g_O Pmcm Agmdm H$s® hr EH$ \$ma OmS>r odXwfr ]mB© Amh{. H$maU VmÀ`mgmh{]mßgmaI{
gw‡og’ J•hÒW _m¬`met ]m{c `mH$naVmß Amc{ AgyZ À`mßZm d _cm ]m{c `mcm d{i Z
o_imÎ`m_wi| À`mßZr Am_¿`m KaMm [Œmm odMmÍ$Z K{Vcm. "`{Z H{$Z ‡H$ma{U' ¯m‡_mU|
_mPr À`mß¿`met ^|Q> d OJmMm g_O Pmcm.
À`mßMm _m¬`met emßV[U| ]m{c `mMm h{Vw Agm H$s® _r Amc{cr ZmerH$hˇZ. V{Ïhmß
À`mßZm _wcrMr d Omd`mMr I]a ø`md`mMr B¿N>m. Vet À`mßZm [Ã| OmV AgVM. [U _r
ZmerH$Mr, AmoU À`mßVyZ Am[Î`m Omd`mMr H$mHy$. Am[Î`m o‡` _mUgm¿`m JmßdM|
Hw$Ã|X{Irc o‡` dmQ>V|. _J _r Va ]m{cyZ MmcyZ _mUyg. _mP| _mà ^|Q> `mM| H$maU Xwga|M
hm{V{.`m ^|Q>r¿`m AmYt¿`m C›hm˘`mßV _mà VmÀ`mgmh{] ZmeH$mg Amc{ hm{V| V{Ïhmß À`mß¿`m
S>m{˘`mßV _m{oVq]Xw [S>Î`mM| _cm H$ic|. _m¬`moh S>m{˘`mßV EH$Xm _m{oV]nßXw [S>cm hm{Vm
d Vm{ lr.H$a_aH$a `mß¿`m "gwcm{MZm' Jm{irZ| Zmhtgm Pmcm hm{Vm. _r Pmc| cmJctM
S>m∞∑Q>a, d VmÀ`mgmh{]mßZm H{$c| [{eßQ>; À`mßZm gwcm{MZm Jm{ir H$er dm[am`Mr, [œ`[mUr
H$amd`mM| h| gd© gmßoJVc|. VmÀ`mgmh{]mßZr OmdB©]m[yßMr H$mHy$ gmßJV{ ÂhUyZ Jm{ir _mJdyZ
K{Vcr hm{Vr. _m¬`m gwcm{MZmZ| À`mß¿`m cm{MZmßV H$mßht \$aH$ Pmcm H$s® Zmht h|
odMma `mMr _cm CÀHß$R>m cmJyZ amohcr hm{Vr. Xwga{ oXdet VmÀ`mgmh{] Amc{ d AmÂhr
À`modf`t ]a|M ]m{ccm|.
3. _mPr Ò_•oVoMÃ| ï À`mßZm [ßI H$g{ \w$Q>c{
_m¬`m oeamdarb ‡[ßMmM| Am{P| ¡`m d{i{g gwZ{Z| Am[Î`m oeamda K{Vb|, V{Ïhmß _r
BVa H$m_| H$a `mg _m{H$ir Pmb|. ÒdVï¿`m H$a_UwH$sH$aVmß _r _m¬`m AmR>dUr obhˇß
bmJb|. XŒmybm oQ>iH$mßM{ EH$ _m{R>| Mnaà obhmd`mM| hm{V| V{Ïhmß Vm{ ÂhUmbm,"AmB© Vyß
AmVmß Am[Î`m AmR>dUr obhˇZ H$mT> H$er, _bm À`mßMm C[`m{J hm{B©b.' _t obhmd`mg
Om{amZ| gwÈdmV H{$br. XŒmy d ]m]y EImX| [mZ dmMrV d \$maM MmßJb| Amh|; hß [wT>| Mmbyß X{'
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 620$&&

Ag| _bm AYyZ _YyZ CŒm{OZ X{V. VmÀ`mßMr H$_bm doS>bmßgmaIrM odZm{Xr Amh{. Vroh
_m¬`m AmR>dUr dmMr. oVbm À`m \$ma AmdS>V. Vr [m{amßgmaIr Q>rH$m H$arV Zg{. [U
ÂhU{ "Am_¿`m gmgy]mB™M| obohU| H$g| [mZ ^Í$Z AgV| H$maU _r obohVmßZm _moO©Z
gm{S>rV Zmht. _r oVbm ÂhUm`Mr,""_r [mZ ^Í$Z O{dV|, [mZ ^Í$Z obohV| d Vm|S> ^Í$Z
]m{bV|.'' `m gdm™¿`m CŒm{OZmMr ^a [S>Î`m_wi| _r AmVmß gmaª`m AmR>dUr obhˇZ H$mTy>ß
bmJb|. À`m N>m[ `mMm _yiMm h{Vw ZÏhVm, [U À`m N>m[ `mg VmÀ`mgmh{]mßMr gyMZm
H$maU Pmbr.
_‹`ßVat _r ]{]rH$S>{ (_m¬`m _wbrH$S>{) _wß]B©g ahmd`mg J{b| hm{V|. C›hm˘`mMr
gwQ>r gwÍ$ Pmbr V{Ïhmß Í$W AmOmar AgÎ`m_wi| XŒmy _wb| _mUg| K{D$Z _hm]i{Ìdamg
J{bm. ]{]rM| H$bH$Œ`mg Omd`mM| EH$mEH$s® R>ab|. AmVmß amhVmß amohb| _rM. BV∑`mßV
]m]yM| ]{]rbm [Ã Amb| H$s® Vyß d H$mHy$ `m gwQ>tV _m¬`mH$S>{ `m. _r [S>À`m \$imMr Amkm
_mZyZ À`m¿`m Kat ahmd`mg J{b|. À`m gwQ>tV VmÀ`mgmh{] d ]m[yamd H$m{ÎhQ>H$a ]m]yH$S>{
Amb{ hm{V{. _r _m¬`m AmR>dUr obhrV Amh| h| VmÀ`mgmh{]mßZm ]m]y d H$_bm `mßOH$Sy>Z
H$ib| hm{V|. À`m d{it VmÀ`mßZm dmM `mBVH|$ oXgV ZÏhV|. EH$ oXdg V{ ]m]ybm
ÂhUmb{,"]m]yamd H$mHyß$¿`m AmR>dUr dmMyZ XmIdm.' ]m]ybmoh À`mßZm À`m dmMyZ
XmIdmd`mMr B¿N>m hm{VrM. V{Ïhmß À`mZ| À`m oOV∑`m obhˇZ PmÎ`m hm{À`m oVV∑`m
dmMyZ XmIodÎ`m. VmÀ`mgmh{]mßZm À`m \$ma AmdS>Î`m d À`mßZt _bm odMmab| H$s®,"H$mHy$
h| O| VwÂht obohbß V| gd© IßaM Amh{, H$m H$Î[Zm Amh{V?'' _r ÂhUmb|,"Am[Umßg Agß
dmQ>Vß H$m H$s® _r H$Î[Z{Z| V| obhrZ BVH$s h˛fma Amh{? O| H$mßht obohbß V| AJXt Iaß
Amh{.'' ""V| Va _bm EIm⁄m H$mXß]ar‡_mU| dmQ>Vß. `m AmR>dUr AdÌ` N>m[m. \$maM
gwßXa Amh{V.'' ]m]y O{Ïhmß VmÀ`mgmh{]mßZm AmR>dUr dmMyZ XmIdr V{Ïhm ]m[yamd H$m{ÎhQ>H$a
V{W|M AgÎ`m_wi| À`mßZtoh À`m Am{PaÀ`m E{H$Î`m hm{À`m. [wT>| VmÀ`mgmh{]mßMr O{Ïhmß
O{Ïhmß XŒmyet JmßR> [S>{ V{Ïhmß V{Ïhmß V{ À`mbm gmßJV,""XŒmm{[ßV, H$mHyß$¿`m AmR>dUr N>m[m ]aß
H$mß.'' [wT>| ]m[yamd H$m{ÎhQ>H$amßZt "gßOrdZt [Ã gwÍ$ H{$b| V{Ïhmß À`mßM| XŒmybm EH$ [Ã
Amb| H$s® _m¬`m gßOrdZtV _r H$mHyß$Mr Ò_•oVoMÃ| N>m[Vm|. XŒmyZ| h| _bm gmßoJVb| hm{V|.
EH$ oXdg gß‹`mH$mit ]m[yamd H$m{ÎhQ>H$a Amb{. À`m d{it _r Am_¿`m ]mJ{¿`m
Pm|[m˘`mda ]ßgb| hm{V|. _t ]m[yamdmßZm Z Am{iIÎ`m_wi| odMmab|,""H$m{U VwÂhr?'' V{
ÂhUmb{,"" _r Vw_Mm ‡H$meH$ AmoU VwÂhr _bm Am{iIrV Zmht?''_r ÂhUmb|,"IaßM
]m]m, o]oP _∞Z' * Ag| `m ]m[b{H$mßZr _m¬`m Ò_•oVoMÃmßZm [ßI bmdb|.
*]m[yamd AYyZ _YyZ ZmoeH$bm `{VmV [U gXm H$m_m¿`m JS>]S>tV V{Ïhmß _r À`mßZm o]oP _∞Z
ÂhUV|.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 621$&&

4. H°$.lr[mX H•$ÓU H$m{ÎhQ>H$a
AbrH$S>{ lr.VmÀ`mgmh{] H$m{ÎhQ>H$a H$m{Ur [aH{$ ZgyZ AJXt Am_¿`m Am·m‡_mU|{
Pmb{ hm{V{. ]m]y d V{ AJXt EIm⁄m ]m[_wbm‡_mU| dmJV. VmÀ`mgmh{]mßZt OUyß Am[Î`m
H$_bmbm X{D$Z oV¿`m ]Xbt À`mbm K{Vb| hm{V|. ÂhUO{ À`mbm KaOmdB© H{$b| ZÏhV| hß.
[aßVw À`mMm Òd^md d À`mM| erb À`mßZt [yU© OmUb| hm{V|. Vm{ Ogm Xagmb oXdmir¿`m
gwQ>tV À`mß¿`mH$S>{ OmV Ag{ Vg{ V{oh Xa C›hm˘`mßV H$mßht oXdgmßH$naVmß Var Am[Î`m
Omßd`mH$S>{ `{V.
_m¬`m gwbm{MZmZ| VmÀ`mgmh{]mßM{ bm{MZ ]a{ Pmb{ ZmhtV d À`mßZm Ia|M AJXt
oXg{Zmg| Pmb|; [U V{ \$ma AmemdmXr hm{V{. Am∞[a{eZ H{$Î`mda V{ ÂhUV,"_bm AmVmß
oXgV|. _mPr —oÔ> Xaam{O gwYmaV Amh{ H$m{Ur ]mh{Í$Z Amb| H$s® À`mßZm odMmamd| "H$m{U
Amb| Amh{? ÂhUO{ V{ MQ>H$Z≤ CŒma X{V H$s® "hm A_yH$ Amh{.' À`mßM| ÂhUU| Ia| Agb| H$s®
À`mßZm AmZßX dmQ>{ d V| Im{Q>| R>ab| H$s® À`mßZm oVVH|$M dmB©Q> dmQ>{. À`mßMm ]h˛V{H$ H$mi
od⁄mÏ`mgßJmV J{bm hm{Vm. [U AmVmß —oÔ> jrU PmÎ`m_wi| V| [aÒdmYrZ Pmb{ hm{V{. BVH|$
AgyZoh V{ AmZßXr amhV. ZmerH$bm Amb{ ÂhUO{ Am{iIr¿`m gd© _ßS>itZm ^{Q>md`mbm
OmV. Am_¿`m Kat Va V{ `md`mM{M. EH$Xm Ag{M V{ Am_¿`m Kat Amb{ AgVmß ]m{bVmß
]m{bVmß [wT>rb J_VrMr Jm{Ô> À`mßZt _bm gmßoJVbr. V{ ÂhUmb{, _bm Wm{a g_O `mMr
EH$m J•hÒWmMr H$Î[Zm [hm. À`mZ| _bm [Ã [mR>odb| À`mda [Œmm obohbm "H°$bmgdmgr
lr[mX H•$ÓU H$m{ÎhQ>H$a `mßg X{U|, Im_Jmßd.'' h| E{Hy$Z AmÂhmßbm V{Ïhmß \$ma hgyß Amb|.
H°$bmgdmgr oboh `mZ| Am[U À`mßZm \$ma _mZ X{V Amhm| Agm À`m J•hÒWmMm g_O
hm{Vm. [U AmO V|M dm∑` Am_¿`m S>m{˘`mM{ Alw [wgmd`mg bmdrV Amh{.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 622$&&

[naoeÔ>-4
Mm°œ`m ^mJm¿`m XwgË`m Amd•Œmrg Om{S>b{br

Hw$gw_mJ´OmßMr ‡ÒVmdZm*
"gmohÀ`b˙_r' ¯m `WmW© [XdrZ| ¡`m b{oIH{$Mm _hmamÔ≠>mß_Yrb od¤mZmßZt Jm°ad
H{$bm À`m b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$mß¿`m oZYZmZßVa AmVmß Xm{Z XeH$mßMm H$mi bm{Qy>Z J{bm Amh{.
¯m H$mbmdYrZßVa b˙_r]mB™¿`m Ò_•oVoMÃmßM{ AZ›`gmYmaU _mYw`© AmoU _hŒd _amR>r
aogH$mß¿`m —Ô>rZ| A]moYV amohb| Amh{. l{> gmohÀ` h| H$mbmda _mV H$Í$Z, `wJm`wJmß¿`m
gah‘r Am{bmßSy>Z A‡oVhV [wT>| ‡dmg H$arV AgV|. VwH$mam_mM{ A^ßJ À`m¿`m odam{YH$mßZt
Bß–m`UtV ]wS>odb{, [aßVw À`m agk ZXrZ| V{ OZ{Vbm [w›hmß [aV H{$b{, Aer Amª`mo`H$m
Amh{. g_H$mbrZ bm{H$mßH$Sy>Z Xwb©ojb{b| AWdm oY∏$mnab| OmUma| l{> dmç` AemM
‡H$ma| H$mimH$Sy>Z _mZg›_mZmZ| g_mOmH$S>{ [m{hm|MV| H{$b| OmV|. [aßVw Ò_•oVoMÃmß¿`m
]m]VtV Agm H$mßht ‡H$ma Pmb{bm Zmht. ¯m J´ßWmM| _hmamÔ≠>mßV oOV∑`m CÀgmhmZ| AmoU
oOÏhm˘`mZ| ÒdmJV Pmb| oVVH|$ A›` H$m{UÀ`m J´ßWmM| Pmb| Ag{b H$s® Zmht ¯mMr
eßH$mM Amh{. g_H$mobZmßM| H$m°VwH$ oH$À`{H$Xmß H$mßht VmÀH$mobH$ H$maUmßda d [napÒWVrda
AmYmab{b| AgV|. hr [napÒWoV Am{gabr H$s® V| H$m°VwH$oh Am{gÍß$ bmJV| AmoU J´rÓ_mßV
CKS>Ám [S>b{Î`m ZXr[mÃmßVrb IS>H$m߇_mU| V| gmohÀ` Èj d Am{H|$]m{H|$ oXgyß bmJV|.
gwX°dmZ| b˙_r]mB™¿`m ]m]VtV h|oh KS>b{b| Zmht. À`mß¿`m Ò_•oVoMÃmßMm Jm°ad Pmbm Vm{
H$mßht VmÀH$mobH$ qH$dm AmJßVwH$ H$maUmß_wi| ZÏh{. À`mßVrb AßJ^yV JwUmßZm d ‡oV^{bm
aogH$mßZt H{$b{b| V| CÒ\y$V© Ao^dmXZ hm{V|. ÂhUyZM H$mim¿`m ‡dmhm]am{]a ¯m
Jm°ad^mdmbm Am{hm{Q>r bmJb{br Zmht. Ao^OmV dm Aja dmç` ¯m [Xdrbm V| AmVmß
[mhm|Mb| Amh{. _‹`dVu gaH$ma¿`m Z{V•ÀdmImbt BVa ^maVr` ^mfmß_YyZoh À`mßMt
^mfmßVa| hm{ `mM| oZoÌMV Pmb| Amh{. O{_V{_ gmja Agb{Î`m EH$m Ûrbm gmohÀ`g•Ô>tV
‡m· Pmb{b| h| _mhmÀÂ` H{$di oQ>iH$Hw$Qw>ßo]`mßZmM ZÏh{ Va gd© _amR>r^mofH$mßZm Ao^_mZ
dmQ>mdm Ag|M Amh{.
Ò_•oVoMÃmß¿`m Mm°œ`m ^mJmMr ZdrZ AmoU H$mßht ‡_mUmßV gßj{[ H{$b{br hr Amd•oŒm
* Ò_•oVoMÃ|, ^mJ 4, Amd•Œmr Xwgar, gZ 1956.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 623$&&

‡H$moeV hm{V Amh{. [ohb{ oV›hr IßS> H{$di b˙_r]mB™¿`m b{IUr_YyZ CVab{b{ hm{V{.
¯m Mm°œ`m IßS>m¿`m _wI[•>mda _mà b˙_r]mB™]am{]aM lr.X{dXŒm Zmam`U oQ>iH$ ¯mßM|oh
Zmßd Amh{. b˙_r]mB™Zt Am[Î`m OrdZH$hmUrM| gyà O{W| Imbt R>{db| V|W|M lr. X{dXŒm
oQ>iH$mßZt V{ß CMb{b| AmoU Am[Î`m AmB©¿`m X{hmdgZm[`™V V| [wT>| Z{b| Amh{. VrZ
^mJmßVyZ ‡dmohV Pmb{Î`m OrdZMnaÃmMr, lr. X{dXŒm oQ>iH$ ¯mßZt Am[Î`m ‡mgmoXH$
AmoU g_W© b{IUrZ| gmßJVm H{$br Amh{. ""AmB©¿`m embOm{S>rbm _t ]a|M _m{R>| Ym]irM|
oR>Ji Om{S>rV Amh|'' Ag| V{ ÂhUVmV. [aßVw oQ>iH$ Kam `mMr dmç`rZ lr_ßVr Iam{Ia
Aer Amh{ H$s® À`mß¿`m KamßV Ym]˘`m oeÑH$M Cab{Î`m ZmhtV, ¡`m Amh{V À`m gmË`m
embOm{S>ÁmM! [U oQ>iH$mßZt O| obohb| Amh{ À`mM| dmç`rZ _yÎ`_m[Z H$a `mM| `{W|
‡`m{OZM Zmht. g^m{dma AmZßXmMr, CÎhmgmMr [IaU H$arV, ZmZmodY Am[Œmtet
hgV_wImZ| PwßO X{V AmoU Am[Î`m AßVïH$aUmßVrb A[ma _mV•ÀdmM| gd©Ã qgMZ H$arV
À`m Wm{a ÛrZ| Om{ E{ohH$mßVrb ‡dmg H{$bm À`mMr AI{a H$er ¬mmbr h| _amR>r dmMH$mßg
g_OU| AmdÌ`H$ hm{V|. V| g_Ob| ZgV| Va ¯m [wÒVH$m[mgyZ o_iUmË`m agmZw^dmßV
A[yU©Vm amohbr AgVr. b˙_r]mB™¿`m AmÀ_MnaÃmbm MnaÃmMr [wadUr Om{Sy>Z
lr.oQ>iH$mßZt H{$di Am[Î`m AmB©gß]ßYtM|M ZÏh{ Va dmMH$mßgß]ßYrM| H$V©Ï` CÀH•$Ô>
arVrZ| [ma [mS>b| Amh{.
¯m [wÒVH$m_Yrb [ohbt AH$am ‡H$aU| b˙_r]mB™Zt obohb{bt Amh{V. Wm{aÎ`m
oQ>iH$mß¿`m _•À`yZ| Ò_•oVoMÃmß¿`m oVgË`m IßS>mMm e{dQ> Pmbm. [aßVw Vm{ b˙_r]mB™¿`m
OrdZmMm AWdm À`mß¿`m OrdZe∫$sMm e{dQ> ZÏhVm. Am^mi H$m{giyZ `md| Vgm Vm{
‡gßJ hm{Vm. dmXim_‹`| d•j C›_iyZ [S>b{bm AmoU ^y_rda [S>b{Î`m C‹dÒV KaQ>Ám_‹`|
EH$ [jrU Am[Î`m qMdqMdÀ`m o[bmßZm [ßImImbr K{D$Z ]gb{br! ¯m AJoVH$
[napÒWVrM| ˆX`Ò[eu dU©Z b˙_r]mB™Zt EH$m H$odV|V H{$b| Amh{ï
"lr_Vr' Zmßd _O Amb| $& gm°^mΩ` b`mbm J{b|$&&
`m _m¬`m XwX°dmZ| $& hm H$gm gmoYbm Xmdm $&&
hm Am{K H$mÏ`JßJ{Mm $& oZo_fmßV H$m{aS>m Ïhmdm$&&
V| OrdZ J_ OrdmM{ $& _r _ÀÒ`r À`mßoVb X{dm $&&
OrdZodU| hr, ]mB©ó
OrdmMr Pmbr bmhr
OrdmßV Ordhr Zmht
oXZ _mP{ gß[V Amb{ $& gm°^mΩ` b`mbm J{b| $&
[aßVw ¯m AJoVH$V|Voh \$ma H$mi JwßVyZ amhmd| Aer b˙_r]mB™Mr _Zï‡d•oŒm ZÏhVr.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 624$&&

AZmg∫$ ]w’rZ| H$V©Ï` H$arV amh `mMr oZ>m AmoU XmQ>> H$mim{Imgoh gm{Z{ar oH$Zma
bmdUmar odZm{Xd•oŒm À`mß¿`m oR>H$mUt hm{Vt. ""oQ>iH$mß¿`m ApÒW [{Q>tV OmVmßM _mP|
ApÒVÀd _bm OmUdyß bmJb|' Ag| AW©[yU© dm∑` À`mßZt ¯m [wÒVH$m¿`m ‡maß^t obohb|
Amh{. ApÒVÀdmMr hr Zdr OmUrd ÂhUO{ Iam{Ia ÒdVï¿`m gm_œ`m™Mroh OmUrd
hm{Vr. oQ>iH$mß¿`m MnaÃmßV À`mßMm H$m`©^mJ _hŒdmMm hm{Vm ¯mßV eßH$mM Zmht. [aßVw
H$mßht Pmb| Var À`mßMr ^yo_H$m XwÊ`_ XOm©Mr, d•jm¿`m Vimet dmT>UmË`m d{brgmaIr
hm{Vr. _m{R>Ám _mUgm¿`m gmofi‹`mßV amhUmË`m H$oZ>mßZm À`m¿`m _m{R>{[UmM{ H$mßht
AmZwfßoJH$ \$m`X{ o_iVmV À`m‡_mU|M oH$À`{H$Xmß H$mßht A›`m`oh [ÀH$amd{ bmJVmV.
b˙_r]mB™Zt obohb{Î`m H$odVm ¯m À`mßZt ÒdVï obohb{Î`m ZÏh{VM, À`mß¿`m gw‡og’
[VtZt À`m obohÎ`m AgÎ`m [mohO{V. Agm XmQ> ‡dmX V{Ïhmß hm{VmM. AWm©V≤ b˙_r]mB™Zm
¯m [napÒWVr]‘b oVi_mà odfmX ZÏhVm. H$maU [Vr¿`m OrdZmet À`m gß[yU©V`m
EH$Í$[ hm{D$Z J{Î`m hm{À`m. X{dm¿`m _yVug_m{a V{dV d OiV amhUmË`m oXÏ`mMr ^yo_H$m
hm{Vr À`mßMr! À`mßM| d{Ji|[U oeÑH$ amohb{b| ZÏhV|. ¯m ^yo_H{$M| À`mßZr ÒdVïM g_[©H$
dU©Z H{$b| Amh{.
""d`m¿`m AH$amÏ`m dfm™[mgyZ ÂhUO{ AJXt ]mi[Um[mgyZ _mP| Am`wÓ` EH$gmaI{
oQ>iH$mß¿`m ]am{]a d ]am{]arZ| Mmbb| hm{V|. _‹`| [mßM df~ AmÂhr od^∫$ hm{Vm|. [U À`m
[mßM dfm™V EH$oh jU oQ>iH$ _m¬`m [wTy>Z hbb{ ZmhtV H$s® _r À`mß¿`m [wTy>Z hbb| Zmht,
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A_bmßV AmUmdt; À`mßZr H$odVm aMmÏ`m, _t À`m JmÏ`m; À`mßZt ^rH$ _mJmdr d _t
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hm{V Ag{. À`mßMm d{J _bm _mZd{b BV[V Agbm d _bm À`mßMt ‹`{`| [Q>dyZ K{ `mg
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EH$Xm Èimda _mPr JmS>r bmJbr H$s® _J _mà Vr H$m{Umbm Wmß]dVmß `m`Mr Zmht.
[U AmVmß _mPm gyÃYma J{bm. AmVmß ZdrZM OJ _m¬`m ^m|dVt CÀ[fi Pmb|. ZdrZM
Am`wÓ`mbm gwÈdmVß Pmbr.''
b˙_r]mB™Zr "ZÏ`m OJmßV H{$c{c| h| _mJ©H´$_U \$mag| gwImdh hm{V| Ag| Zmht.
oQ>iH$mßMm hmV hmVmßVyZ gwQ>Î`m]am{]a Xmna⁄´mMm X°À` CJ´ ÒdÍ$[ YmaU H$Í$Z g_m{a C^m
amohcm. a{.oQ>iH$ h{ oda∫$ d•ŒmrM{ hm{V{. YZgßM`mcm À`mß¿`m OrdZgmYZ|V AdgaM
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 625$&&

ZÏhVm. Am[Î`m oZYZmZßVa EH$ _ohZm^a gdm™Mm IM©d|M ^mJmdm EdT>r Ï`dÒWm
À`mßZr H$Í$Z R>{dcr hm{Vr. ZßVa ¡`mZ| À`mßZ| Am[Î`m [m`mßda C^| amhmd| Aer À`mßMr
B¿N>m hm{Vr. ‡maß^tMm H$mi Va XwïIm¿`m ‡dmhmßV JwX_a `mßVM J{cm. [aßVw À`mßVyZ Y°`m©Z|
]mh{a [S>U|, g^m|dma C_cUmË`m ZÏ`m gßgmamH$S>{ ZOa X{D$Z À`mßVrc Am[c| ¡`{>
ÒWmZ O]m]XmatZ| ÒdrH$maU| AmdÌ`H$ hm{V|. À`mßZt V| ÒdrH$mac| d "lr_Vr' cm `m{Ω`
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Z{h_t¿`m ag[yU©, ‡g›Z d odZm{Xr e°crZ|, gwÈdmVr¿`m ZD$ ‡H$aUmßV gmßoJVc{ Amh{V.
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od[arV]wo’', "[mh˛U{' ht ‡H$aU| À`mß¿`m c{IZe∫$sM{ CÀH•$Ô> Z_wZ{ ÂhUyZ gßÒ_aUr`
Amh{V. "odZmeH$mc{ od[arV]wo’' ¯m ‡H$aUmßVrc ‡gßJ AÀ`ßV __©^{XH$ Amh{. c˙_r]mB©
¡`m ]m{oS>©JmßV _{Q≠>Z ÂhUyZ Zm{H$arg hm{À`m À`mßVrc AH$am _wctM| ]ocXmZ OwhˇOdi¿`m
g_w–mZ|, À`mß¿`m S>m{˘`mßg_m{a K{Vc| hm{V|. [mfmUˆX`r _mUgmMroh N>mVr \$mQy>Z Omdr
Aer d{i hm{Vr Vr! "[m`mßV JimR>m, CamßV YS>YS>, _ZmßV qMVm' Aer c˙_r]mB™Mr
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Jm{a{[Um_wi| Am[m[Î`m OmJt gwaojV hm{Vt. cm{H$mß¿`m am{fmMr dmXir cmQ> `{D$Z AmXicr
Vr c˙_r]mB™da! À`mßZt oVcm X{Vmß `{B©c V{dT>Ám Y°`m©Z| Vm|S> oXc| d e{dQ>t À`m O]mZrgmR>t
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À`m ocohVmVï
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hm{V|. AmYtM _mPr _mZ hcV{ À`mßV h| dma|. _J H$m` gma|M eara VmOmMm H$ig ]Zc|.
_t VmßΩ`mVyZ CVac| d oMH$s¿`m ]m[mZ| _cm CMcyZ AmßV ¡`war[wT>| C^| H{$c|. À`m JXuV
_cm _m¬`m oOdm^mdmMr EH$ Ï`pŒH$ oXgcr. Vr ÂhUO{ S>m∞. JwÍ$]mB© H$a_aH$a !
À`mß¿`mOdi _r OmD$Z ]gc|. _mP| Zmßd [wH$maVmßM hr WaWaUmar _°Zm q[OË`mßV
AS>H$cr. AmVmß O]mZrcm gwÈdmV Pmcr. V|M cwJS>| d Vm{M [Xa. Xm{›hr hmV H$R>S>Ámda
Q>{H$c{c{. OUwß H$m` cjwß]mB© S>{amM Kwgi `mg C‰`m Amh{V. gd© AßJ hcV| Amh{. AmVm
D$X-H$m[amMmM Cera, H$s® h| dma| cmJUma ]m{cm`cm ! O]mZrcm gwadmV Pmcr, [U À`m
WmQ>mßV Vm|S>mVyZ e„XM oZK{Zm.''
aIaIrV dmidßQ>mßVcr hr dmQ>Mmc [wT>| gß[cr AmoU gmßdcr¿`m ‡X{emcm gwÈdmV
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 626$&&

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ZmerH$¿`m [w `j{Ãt AmÎ`m. V|Ïhmß À`mßZm [mR> Q>|H$ `m[waVm H$m|[amoh JmßdmßV o_imcm
Zmht. _wcmß]mimßgh a∫$o[À`mß¿`m XdmIm›`mßV* Aml` ø`mdm cmJcm. À`mM ehamßV
lr X{dXŒm oQ>iH$mßZt AÎ[mdYtV ÒdVïM| emßoVgXZ ]mßYc|. c˙_r]mB© emßoVgXZmßV
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ZÏhV|. eara am]d `mMr AmdÌ`H$Vm ZÏhVr. _Z AgßVwÔ> Agmd| Aer [napÒWoV ZÏhVr.
oXÏ`mMm ‡H$me À`m¿`mdarc H•$ÓUmdaU H$mT>VmßM gd©Ã [gacm. KQ>m_Yrc hdm,
Am¿N>mXZ oZKVmßM ]mh{arc hd{et EH$Í$[ Pmcr. ¯m H$mimßVrc c˙_r]mB™M| O| oMÃ
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AoYH$ aÂ` Amh{. KamßVrc ZmVdßS>mß¿`m ]mccrcmßV d oejUmßV Va À`m Jwa\$Qy>Z OmV
AgVM; [aßVw À`mßM| dmÀgÎ` V{W|M Wmß]yZ amhV ZÏhV|. H$m{Uroh Am{iIr[miIrM|
_mUyg AmOmar [S>c| H$s À`m [naMmnaH$m hm{D$Z À`m¿`m ewlyf{gmR>rß À`m¿`m Kat [Wmar
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CMcrV, XocVmß¿`m dÒVr_‹`| OmD$Z À`mßZm Am[c{[UmZ| dmQ>{c V| gmhmÊ` H$arV.
Hw$Õ`m_mßOamßgmaI{ _wH{$ Ordoh À`mß¿`m ‡{_mcm [maI{ hm{V ZgV. EH$ gß]ßY amà ]›`m
Zmßdm¿`m ]m{∑`mcm _mßS>rda K{D$Z À`mßZt Am°fY[mUr H{$Î`mMr AmR>dU lr gm{[mZX{d
Mm°YatZt gmßoJVc{cr Amh{. lr. X{dXŒm oQ>iH$mßZt gmßoJVc{cr EH$ hH$sJV Va ode{fM
CÑ{IZr` Amh{.
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oVH$Sy>Z `{UmË`m J•hÒWmß¿`m —Ô>rg [S>cr. Am|M{ Im|dc{c{, [m`mßV dhmUm, Imß⁄mda
[Xa, hmVmßV EH$ ohaÏ`m H$mJXmMr KS>r Aer AmB© V{W| gmdcrcm C^r amohcr hm{Vr.
J•hÒWmßZt odMmac|, "AmOr]mB©, VwÂhr BV∑`m C›hm¿`m Hw$R>| oZKmcmß?'
"¯m oh¿`mH$S>{ OmD$Z `{V|. oVcm ogZ{_mMr OmohamV o_iV Zmht Am_¿`mH$S>{ h{
cm{H$ AmUyZ Q>mH$VmV. oVH$S>{ Z{D$Z Q>mH$ ÂhQ>c| Va Ai_≤Q>i_≤ H$aVmV.'
J•hÒWmßZt OmVmß OmVmß _cm hr Jm{Ô> `{D$Z gmßoJVcr d _t AmB©cm N>Ãr [mR>odcr.''
EIm⁄m chmZ _wcmcm ogZ{_mMr OmohamV o_iV{ H$s® Zmht `{W[mgyZ, ÈΩUmßZm
Am°fU[mUr AmoU XocVmßZm A›ZdÒÃ o_iV| H$s® Zmht h| [mh `m[`™V À`mß¿`m
ghmZw^yVrMm d dmÀgÎ`mMm Ï`m[ hm{Vm. "O{ H$m aßOc{ JmßOc{ $& À`mßgr ÂhU{ Om{ Am[wc| &&'
* XdmIm›`mßV ZÏh{óa∫$o[À`mß¿`mM [U oZam{Jr _ßwct¿`m dgoVJ•hmßV
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 627$&&

h| gmYwÀdmM| ]´rX À`mßZr AßoJH$mac| hm{V|. X{dim¿`m odÒV•V ]mßYH$m_mda PJPJUmË`m
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À`m¿`m VmÈ `mdÒW|VM d [´m°T>mdÒW|VM oXgyZ `{Vm{ Ag| ÂhUVmV. [aßVw c˙_r]mB© ¯m
oZ`_mg A[dmX R>aÎ`m. À`mß¿`m c{IZmcm, Ï`mgßJmcm AmoU dH•$Àdmcm AI{a¿`m
Mma-[mßM dfm™VM ode{f ^a Amcm hm{Vm. [Vr¿`m hmVyZ A[yU© amohc{Î`m oI´ÒVm`ZmM|
c{IZ À`mßZt ¯m H$mimßVM [wa| H{$c|. ¯m H$mÏ`mßVrc gw_ma| AmR> hOma Am{Ï`m À`mßZt
ocohÎ`m Amh{V. Ò_•oVoMÃmß¿`m VrZ IßS>mßM| AmoU Mm°œ`m ^mJmßVrc AH$am ‡H$aUmßM|
c{IZoh ¯mM Mma dfm©V Pmc|. VrZ ^mJmß¿`m ‡H$meZmZßVa ZmerH$ `{Wrc ZmJnaH$mßZt
AmMm`© AÃ{ ¯mß¿`m A‹`jV{Imcr c˙_r]mB™Mm gÀH$ma H{$cm hm{Vm. AmVm AoYH$
c{IZ Z H$aVmß, d•’m[H$mimg AmdÌ`H$ Aer odlmßoV Am[U ø`mdr Aer odZßVr
AmMm`© AÃ{ ¯mßZt c˙_r]mB™Zm H{$cr hm{Vr. oVcm CŒma X{VmßZm À`m ÂhUmÎ`m, ""¡`m
oXdet _cm [yU©odam_ o_i{c À`mM oXdet _m¬`m Ò_•oVoMÃmßZm [yU©odam_ o_i{c. _mP|
^mD$, ZmVr, ZmVdßS>|, BÀ`moXH$mßM| h| gma| Jm{V `{W| O_c| Amh{. À`m¿`m _m\©$V _r _m¬`m
‡H$meH$mcm gmßJV| H$s®, c˙_r]mB™Mm \w$cÒQ>m∞[ AOyZ Pmc{cm Zmht!'' H$m{Ry>Z Var H$mZm{gm
K{V Agc{Î`m H$mimZ| h| E{H$c| Agmd|. gÀH$mag_maß^mZßVa VrZ _ohZ{ CcQ> `m¿`m
AmßV À`mßZ| Ò_•oVoMÃmß¿`m Zmo`H{$H$S>{ Am[cr ZOa diodcr. ""OJ `mgmaI| H$mßht
Odi Amh{ Vm|[`™VM _a `mßV _m°O Amh{.'' h| JS>H$Ë`mßM| gw^mofV gmW© Pmc|. AÀ`ßV
‡g›Z, oZam_` AmoU gßVwÔ> _ZpÒWVtV d ÒdVïcm o‡` Agc{c| c{IZH$m`© H$arV
AgVmßZmM c˙_r]mB™Zt Vm. 24 \{$]´wdmar 1936 am{Ot Am[cr OrdZ`mÃm gß[odcr.
EH$ `mÃm gß[cr AmoU XwgË`m `mÃ{g Amaß^ Pmcm. ¯m `mÃ|V H$mim¿`m AmH´$_UmM| ^`
Zmht. _•À`ycm [mXmH´$mßV H$aUmË`m ag[yU©, ‡oV^memcr Ajamß¿`m gßJVtV hr `mÃm Mmcy
AgV{. Am[Î`m ˆX`ßJ_ e°crZß gm_m›`mßVrc Agm_m›`mM| Xe©Z KS>odUmË`m c˙_r]mB©
AmVmß À`m _hm`mÃ|V ‡odÔ> PmÎ`m Amh{V.
óod.dm.oeadmS>H$a

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 628$&&

[naoeÔ>-5
‡[yaH|$
Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$mßM| gmßJm{[mßJ MnaÃ, KQ>ZmßMr H$mcmZwH´$_| hH$sJV, gß]ßoYV
Ï`∫$sMr _mohVr B. V[erc X{V ]gU| hm c{oIH{$Mm C‘{e ZÏhVm. hr _mohVr Agc{Î`m
c{IH$mcmM AmUIr H$¿Mm _mc [waod `mMm _mà oVMm ‡`ÀZ hm{Vm. AWm©V≤ Ò_•oVoMÃ|
dmMyZ H$od oQ>iH$ d c˙_r]mB© `mß¿`m MmnaÕ`mßodf`tMr oOkmgyßMr VhmZ [waVr ^mJUmar
Zmht. `mgmR>t AZ{H$ dfm™¿`m ‡`ÀZmßZt _cm C[c„Y Pmc{Î`m _mohVr¿`m AmYma| (1)
H$mßht KQ>Zmßodf`t d odYmZmßodf`t Ò[Ô>rH$aU|, (2) H$mßht CÑ{oIV Jm{Ô>t]m]V Q>r[m,
(3) H$mßht oZdS>H$ Ï`ŒH$s®Mr Wm{S>∑`mV Am{iI, AmoU (4) c˙_rZmam`Umßodf`t
AmUIr Wm{S>r _mohVr, Aem ‡H$maMt Mma ‡[yaHß$ oOkmgyß¿`m C[`m{JmW© `{W| X{V Amh|.
`W| _mßS>c{Î`m ‡À`{H$ Jm{Ô>r¿`m gÀ`V{]‘c _t ImÃr H$Í$Z K{Vc{cr Amh{. ]h˛V{H$
gd© Jm{Ô>tMm c{Ir [wamdmoh _OOdi O_c{cm Amh{. oVWmo[ O{Wß| EImXr odúgZr`M
[U E{H$sd Jm{Ô> ⁄mdr cmJcr V{W| Vg| Ò[Ô> ÂhQ>c{c| Amh{.
óA.X{. oQ>iH$.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 629$&&

‡[yaH$ [ohb|

H$mßht KQ>Zm, H$mßht [¢cw
_mÒVamßMr IQ>[Q>
29 Owc° 1900 ¿`m _amR>m [ÃmßV An Invitation to Conversion hm oQ>iH$mßda
c{I Amh{. À`mßV Ag| dm∑` AmT>iV|óIf we are correctly informed, a few

days ago Mr. N. V. Tilak wanted to be a Hindu again and
arrangements were made at the request of his family to give
him a Prayaschitta at Pandharpur. Ò_•oVoMÃmßVrc hH$sJVtdÍ$Z Va Ag|

oXgV| H$s® `m ‡m`o¸Œmmcm oQ>iH$mßMr gß_oV ZÏhVr. _t _m¬`m [arZß{ em{Y gwÍ$ H{$cm.
gm{cm[wamg lr. ]m]yamd Kigmgr `mß¿`mH$Sy>Z H°.d•ßXmdZmMm`© Q>m{U[{ `mßM| Zmßd H$ic|.
[ßT>a[ßwamg OmD$Z À`mßMr ^|Q> K{Vcr. AoVd•’mdÒW{_wi| V{ V{Ïhmß odH$c Pmc{c{ hm{V{.
Ò_aUeo∫$ jrU Pmc{cr hm{Vr. Var[U c˙_r]mB™M{ ""h{S>_mÒVa'' ÂhUO{ Òdm_r
`m{J{úamZßX VrW©, [war [rR>mM{ eßH$amMm`©, [ydm©l_tM{ Õ`ß]H$emÒÃr Ia{, Zm_Xma S>m∞.
Zmam`U ^mÒH$a `mßM{ Wm{ac{ ]ßYw BVH$s _mohVr À`mß¿`mH$Sy>Z o_iyß eH$cr.
H$mimam_ _ßoXamßV am__yVu¿`m dO´c{[ ‡H$aUt Òdm_rOr ZmeH$mg Amc{ hm{V{. Vr
gßoY gmYyZ _t Ah_XZJahˇZ `{D$Z À`mßMr ^{Q> K{Vcr. 60 dfm™[ydvMr Jm{Ô> Òdm_tZt
H$mc KS>Î`mgmaIr YS>mYS> gmßoJVcr. (Ò_•oVoMÃ| ó^mJ 2, [•. 13-19) À`mßZr
oXc{Î`m dfm™V _mà Wm{S>r MyH$ oXgV{. hrM hH$sJV c{Ir X{ `modf`t odZßVr H$aVmßM
À`mßM{ godÒVa [Ã Amc|. AmoU _m¬`m _ZmßVrc eßH{$M| oZdmaU Pmc|.
`m Xm{Km o[Vm_hVwÎ` gmhmÊ`H$mßM| F$U _r odgaUma Zmht. Òdm_r `m{J{úamZXOtM|
[Ã Ag|ó
<
Office of His Holiness
SHRI JAGADGURU SHRI SHANKARACHARYA
Swami Shri Yogeshwaranand Teerthaji Maharaj

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 630$&&

Shri Goverdhan Mutt, Puri.

President
Akhil Bharateeya
Dharma Peeth Association

Camp e{R> Zmam`UXmg
Vwcmam_ Y_©emcm,
j{Ã [ßMdQ>r, ZmogH$,
Date 23-4-1958

oM.am.am.Aem{H$amd X{dXŒm oQ>iH$ E_≤.E.
Ah_XZJa `mßgAZß V ew ^ meradmX, od. Am[c{ H $S>rc oX.21 Eo‡c¿`m [ÃmdÍ$Z Imct
ocohÎ`m‡_mU| _mohVr X{ `mßV `{V Amh{.
[ydm©l_t gZ 1897 * _‹`| _r [ßT>a[wamg EH$m emi{Mm gw[na®Q>|S>|Q> hm{Vm|. Zmam`Uamd
oQ>iH$mßM{ ]ßYw V{Ïhmß V{Wrc hm`ÒHy$c_‹`| oejH$ hm{V{. À`mßMm _mPm ÒZ{h hm{Vm. _r _∞oQ≠>H$
hm{D$Z d H$m∞c{O_‹`| H$mßht oXdg oejU K{D$Z Oar oejH$ ]Zcm| Agcm| Var _mPm
gßÒH•$V ^mf|Vrc emÒÃr` J´ßWmßMm A‰`mg À`m[yduM emÒÃr` [’VtZ| MmßJcm Pmc{cm
Agc{_wi| d oedm` À`m d{it emÒÃr [XdtgmR>t H$mßht [arjm dJ°a{ ZÏhÀ`m. [U _m¬`m
Pmc{Î`m emÒÃm‹``Zm_wi| d gßÒH•$V g_Ò`m[yVu_wi| _mP| Zmßd emÒÃr_ßS>imßV ‡g•V
hm{D$Z À`m_wßi| _cm emÒÃr_ßS>imßV ÒWmZ hm{V|.
Zmam`Uamd [ßT>a[wamg Amc{ V| d{it À`mßZr ZwH$VmM oºÒVr Y_© ÒdrH$mnacm hm{Vm. V{
\$ma CŒm_ H$od hm{V{. À`m¿`m H$odVm AmÂht Am_M{ emi|VyZ oeH$odÎ`moh Amh{V.
Ia| ÂhQ>c| Va V{Ïhmß _r AJXt gZmVZr hm{Vm|. [wZod©dmhmgmaª`m gwYmaUmßZm _mPm
odam{Y Agmd`mMm. Var[U Zmam`Uamdmßgmaª`m gwH$drZ| gZmVZ gwgßÒH•$V qhXwY_©
gm{Sy>Z oºÒVr Ïhmd| `mM| _cm dmB©Q> dmQ>{ d À`mßZm gemÒÃ ‡m`o¸V X{D$Z [w›hmß ÒdOmVtV
ø`md| `mMr _t IQ>[Q> gwÍ$ H{$cr. hr 60 dfm©[yduMr hH$sJV Amh{. À`m H$mit Aem
gwYmaUmßZm H{$dT>m odam{Y Ag{ À`mMr AmO H$Î[Zmgw’mß H$aVmß `{Uma Zmht. am.gImam_[ßV
oQ>iH$ d emÒÃr _ßS>ir[°H$s® _r AmoU lr. d•ßXmdZmMm`© Q>m{U[{ `m oVKmßMrM H$m` Vr
`mcm AZw_oV hm{Vr. Q>m{U[{emÒÃr h{ [ßT>a[ya¿`m d°ÓUd _ßS>imßVc{ EH$ ‡_wI hm{V{. AmÂht
oVKmßZr [wÓH$i ‡`ÀZ H{$c{ [U BVa emÒÃr_ßS>ir _witM E{H{$ZmV d À`mM‡_mU|
Zmam`Uamdoh `m Am_¿`m ‡`ÀZmg gß_oV Xe©dyZ Vg| H$a `mg V`ma hm{B©ZmV. AI{a `m
H$m_mV AmÂhmcm `e Amc| Zmht.
* hr Jm{Ô> 1895 _Ycr
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 631$&&

AmVm H$mi ]amM ]Xcc{cm Amh{ oºÒVr Y_© ÒdrH$mÍ$Z ¡`mß¿`m VrZMma o[T>Ám
cm{Q>c{Î`m Amh{V AemZmoh AmÂhr ‡m`o¸Œm X{D$Z qhXwY_m™V [aV K{Vm|. H$imd|.
Òdm_r `m{J{úamZßX VrW©
lr. OJ“xÍ$ lr. eßH$amMm`© Òdm_r,
lr. Jm{dY©Z[rR>, [war.
00000

V{ od¤mZ _r odZm{Xr
Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 1, V{ od¤mZ _r odZm{Xr. [U À`mßMr od¤Œmm _m¬`m odZm{Xm¿`m
AmS> `{V Zg{ d _mPm odZm{X À`mßZm Ãmg X{V Zg{.
Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ-2, _t oQ>iH$mßZm odMmac{, h{ H$m{U ]´m˜U Amh{V hm{ ? oQ>iH$mßZt
gmßoJVc| h{ JwS>eÒV ]´m˜U Amh{V.
^mcMß– em. _m{S>H$ gmßJVmVóEH$Xm _m¬`m gmgË`mß¿`m (a{.B_m_]j ]mdm
`mß¿`m) Kat oQ>iH$mßZm O{dmd`mg ]m{cmdc| hm{V| gß‹`mH$mit 8 Mt d{i R>acr hm{Vr. BVa
_ßS>ir d{i{da Amcr. oQ>iH$ _mà 9 dmOÎ`mZßVa Amc|. ]am{]a ^¡`mßMm EH$ [wS>m K{D$Z
Amc{, d ÂhUmc{, ""Vw_¿`mH$S>{ 8 dmOVmßO{dU| Agct ÂhUO{ ]am{]a gmV dmOyZ
EH$m{UgmR> o_oZQ>| PmÎ`mda AmR> dmOm`M{. Am_¿`mH$S>{ Vg| Zmht ÂhUyZ _r Am[cm hm
[wS>m K{D$Z Amcm|. H$maU Am_M{ AmR> gmS>{ZD$cm dmOm`M{ AZ≤ O{dm`cm H$mßhtM oeÑH$
Zgm`M|. _mPr C[mg_ma hm{Dß$ Z`{ ÂhUyZ hr gm{` H{$cr.''
`{gy]mB© ^Q> gmßJVmV ï EH$ \$ma OwZr Jm{Ô>. ÂhUO{ À`mß¿`m cΩZmZßVa Mma dfm©ZßVaMr.
À`mßZr KamßV Xm{Z _mH$S>Ám AmUyZ R>{odÎ`m hm{À`m. À`m Xm{KtZm V{ am{O AßKwir KmcrVÀ`mß¿`m hmVmßV ]mßJS>Ám, H$[mimcm Hwß$Hy$ À`mßZm IUm¿`m [aH$a Mm{˘`m oedÎ`m hm{À`m.
EImX{ d{it V{ _mdetZm AmoU À`m _mH$S>ÁmßZmM KamßV R>{dyZ Hw$cy[ cmdyZ ø`m`M{.
oH$Ñr [waMwßS>r H$Í$Z AmßV Q>mH$m`M{. AmßV À`m _mH$S>Ám _mdetZm Ãmg ⁄m`¿`m.
oQ>iH$ H{$Ïhmß H{$Ïhmß H$S>w>qZ]mMm [mcmM Im`M{. _mdercm ÂhUm`M{,"" AmO Òd¢[mH$
H$Íß$ ZH$m{. AmO Am[U À`m [mÎ`mdaM amhˇß.'' AmoU hßgm`M{. _mdetZm Aem
]m{c `mMm \$ma amJ `m`Mm. À`m gßJV, ""_cm À`mß¿`m AgÎ`m hßg `mMmoh amJ `{Vm{.''
[wT>| oQ>iH$ [ßT>a[yacm Amc{ ÂhUO{ AmÂhmß _wcmß_‹`| [wÓH$i J_Vr H$am`M{. EH$Xm
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 632$&&

À`mßZr EH$ chmZ Jwcm]r dS>r _cm AmUyZ oXcr. AmoU ÂhQ>c|, "Im. hr lrIßS>mMr dS>r
Amh{.' _mB©gmh{]mßZr gmßJyZ R>{dc| hm{V| À`mß¿`m hmVM| H$mßht ImDß$ ZH$m{ ÂhUyZ. _r ZH$m{
ZH$m{ ÂhUyß cmJc|. V{ ÂhUmc{, ""_r EdT>m _m{R>m _mUyg Vwcm gmßJVm| Amh| V| H$m` Im{Q>ß ? Im
V{dT>r.'' AmoU Iar Vr dS>r hm{Vr gm]UmMr.
S>r.S>r. MmßX{H$a ocohVmVó (JdË`m Mm{arg OmV AgV V{Ïhmß) AmVmß H$m{UVm
C[m` `m{Omdm ÂhUyZ KamßVrc _ßS>itV Ic Mmcy hm{Vm. oQ>iH$mßZt EH$ C[m` gwModcm.
À`mßZt hgyZ gmßoJVc| H$s®, ""AmVmß Agß H$am, [agmßV EH$ MwcßJU ]mßYm. À`mgmR>t EH$
JmS>r^a cmßH$S>ß d EH$ ^cm Wm{acm Vdm odH$V AmUm. AmoU À`mda Jm{dË`m Wm[yZ
^mH$ar ^mOVmV Vem ^mOyZ H$mT>m AmoU JwXm_mßV R>{dyZ ⁄m. ÂhUO{ Mm{ar hm{Uma Zmht.''
V{Ïhmß À`mß¿`m Zm_r `wŒH$scm oMaßOrd d _wcJr [m{Q> YÍ$Z hmgcr.
_ram]mB© am_Xmg ocohVmV ï I remember one night we were all sitting
out in the moonlight having fun. All of a sudden Uncle (oQ>iH$)
started groaning with stomach ache. It grew so bad that he
doubled himself and started rolling on the floor with pain. We all
were so alarmed. Somebody was rushing for a hot water bottle,
another was trying to stroke him and we were about to send for
a doctor when all of a sudden he jumped up and laughed and
laughed till we all laughed so much that our stomach started to
pain. Then we knew what a wonderful actor Uncle was.

am.gm._wHwß$Xamd [mQ>rc gmßJVmV ï oQ>iH$mß¿`m Kat AmÂht O_cm| AgVmß [wÓH$i
W≈>m_ÒH$ar MmcV Ag{. odZm`H$amd _m{S>H$ Z{h_t a{er_H$mR>t Ym{Va d a{e_r gXam
KmcrV. oQ>iH$ ÂhUV ""hm gXmMm Zdam_wcJm C^m Amh{.''
X{.Zm.oQ>. gmßJVmV ï EH$m d•’ [miH$mßMm cΩZ H$am`Mm ]{V hm{Vm. V{ oQ>iH$mßH$S>{
Amc{. Hw$Ur _wcJr cΩZmMr Amh{ H$m, ÂhUyZ Mm°H$er H$Íß$ cmJc{. oQ>iH$mßZr EH$m _wcmcmM
gmS>r Mm{ir c{ddyZ À`mß¿`m[wT>{ C^| H{$c|. [miH$mßZmoh "_wcJr' [gßV [S>cr. ZßVa gmam
‡H$ma g_OÎ`mda [miH$mßZt Am{emi{ hm{D$Z H$mT>Vm [m` K{Vcm.
EH$ XyYdmcr ]mB© XwYmßV \$ma [mUr KmcrV Ag{, AmoU da AmUme[Wm K{D$Z V|
ZmH$marV Ag{. EH$Xm oQ>iH$mßZr ÂhQ>c|, ""]K, _m¬`mH$S>{ hr [mUr _m{Om`Mr Zir
Amh{. [hm XyY V[mgyZ.'' hr Zir ÂhUO{ emB© ^am`M| S≠>m∞[a hm{V|. À`mßV XyY MT>c{c|
oXgVmßM ]mB©Z{ V{WyZ [i H$mT>cm.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 633$&&

oQ>iH$ EH$m [ÃmßV ocohVmV ï Kalyani gave us a calf last night-a male

calf. Yesterday was Sunday so the calf is named Bhaskar. But
after Bhaskar Uzagare is informed of the christianing the name
shall be changed. (14 Dec. 1914).

(H$mc H$Î`mUrZ| EH$ [maSy>ß oXc|ó Q>m{UJm. H$mc aodma hm{Vm ÂhUyZ À`mM| Zmßd
R>{dc| ^mÒH$a. Zm_H$aUmMr hH$sJV ^mÒH$a COJa{ `mßg gmßoJVÎ`mda h| Zmßd ]Xc `mßV
`{B©c.)
H$od oQ>iH$mßZm odZm{XmM| dmdS>| hm{V| Agm EH$ cm{H$o‡` J°ag_O ‡g•V Pmc{cm
Amh{. À`mMr gÀ`Vm [maI `m[waVt ht CXmhaU| `{W| oXc{cr Amh{V.
00000

""Am[Î`mgmaI{ Ï`dhmak H$m{Ur Zmht.''
Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ, ó Am[Î`mgmaI{ Ï`dhmak H$m{Ur Zmht Ag| À`mßZm dmQ>{. d
À`mßZm H$m{Utoh \$gdmd| BVH$m Ï`dhmakmZmMm À`mßM{ R>m`t A^md Amh{ Ag| _cm dmQ>{.
Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 1 ó ZW|Vc{ gJi{M _m{Vr Im{Q>{ oZKmc{ h|{ À`mßZt [wT>| [wÓH$i
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_m{Vt Am[Î`m ]m`H$m{¿`m ZW|V KmcyZ oXcrß. Agm À`mßMm AJXt ‡m_moUH$ g_O hm{Vm.
`{ g y ] mB© ^Q> gmß J VmV ï oQ>iH$ Ï`dhmaMVwa Zgc{ Var EImX{ d{it V{ MmßJc{
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È[`{ [JmamM{ oXc{. hm AÊ`m _m{R>Ám E{Q>tV ahm`Mm. hr E{Q> H$am`cm [°gm H$m{Ry>Z `{Vm{
ÂhUyZ oQ>iH$ À`m¿`m [miVrda ahm`M{. V{ ÂhUV, ""hm \$ma c]mS> _mUyg Amh{.''
Ò_• o VoMÃ| ^mJ 2, [• . 132-133
132-133óEH$ ÏhmcßoQ>`a oQ>iH$mßMr hOm_V H$ar.
À`m]‘c oQ>iH$ À`mcm Mma AmU{ X{V. [wT>| [wT>| Vm{ Am[Î`m ÒdVï¿`m _wcmß¿`m hOm_VrM{oh
[°g{ oQ>iH$mßOdi _mJyß cmJcm AmoU oQ>iH$ V{ À`mcm X{Dß$oh cmJc{.
VŒdmßZm YÍ$Z dmJUmam _mUyg AmoU gm_m›` _Vc]r Ï`dhmarOZ `mßVcr hr
V\$mdV. ""H$m_H$ar Am[Î`m _Owarcm `m{Ω` Amh{'' `m oQ>iH$mß¿`m AmdS>À`m ]m`]c‡UrV VŒdmcm Am[Î`m _Vc]m[waVr _waS> KmcyZ Zmd]mßZt hm ]Zmd KS>odc{cm Amh{.
‡W_ Zmd]m oQ>iH$mßH$S>{ amohc{. _J Am[Î`m OÈar[waVr _Owar o_iod `mgmR>t
hOm_VrM| H$m_ H$Íß$ cmJc{. Vr _Owar [wa{er o_i{Zm ÂhUyZ Am[Î`m KaMtM AmUIr
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 634$&&

ghm S>m{H$s® AmUyZ À`mßZt V`ma R>{dct; H$m_ dmT>c| Ver _Owar dmT>cr. (hm Iwcmgm _cm
X{dXŒmmßZr gmßoJVcm. _mà V{Ïhmß `mM| \$mag| _hŒd Z dmQ>Î`mZ| _t Vm{ c{Ir _mJyZ K{Vcm
Zmht.)
`m \$gd{oJarMr oQ>iH$mßZm OmUrd ZÏhVt Ag|oh Zmht. Am[Î`m AJXt chmZ
]mcH$mZ{ß Aer H$mßht `wo∫$ H$Í$Z EH$sE{dOt Mma Jm{˘`m Am[Î`mH$Sy>Z cmQ>Î`m Va
Am[U "c]mS>m' ÂhUyZ À`mM|{ H$m°VwH$M H$aVm|{. `mM —oÔ>H$m{ZmßVyZ OJmH$S>{ [mh `mBVH{$
oQ>iH$ _m{R>{ ZÏhV{ H$m` ?
aßJamd am_Ê`m ]ßS>{bw `mßZr oQ>iH$ d S>m∞. ¯z_ `mß¿`m EH$m gßdmXmMr hH$sJV oXc{cr
Amh{ ï oQ>iH$mßZm ]S>m{⁄mg amOH$od[X X{ `mM|{ KmQ>V hm{V|. oQ>iH$mßZt ZmH$maÎ`mZßVa V|
[X H$od Mß–e{IamßH$S>{ J{c|. oQ>iH$mßZt ]S>m{⁄mg OmDß$ Z`{ Aer S>m∞.¯z_Mr B¿N>m hm{Vr.
À`m d{it oQ>iH$ ÂhUmc{, "Why shouldn't I go ? H$mß OmDß$ Z`| ? V{W| J{Î`mZ|{ _mP{
oH$VrVar \$m`X{ hm{Vrc. EH$ ÂhUO{ V{W| amÃßoXdg _r ZwgV| H$mÏ`M H$arV amhrZ. Xwga|
Ag| H$s _mPr gmß[oŒmH$ pÒWoV Wm{S>r\$ma gwYma{c AmoU oVgar Jm{Ô> ÂhUO{ `{W| cm{H$
_mPm \$ma J°a\$m`Xm K{VmV V| ]ßX hm{B©c. cm{H$ _cm \$godVmV h| Ia| ÂhUO| _cm g_OV|.
[U À`mßMt À`mM d{it _cm H$s®doh `{V AgV{. À`mßZm dmQ>V| _cm h| H$iV Zmht.''
Ò_•oVoMÃ| ^mJ 4 ó _mP{ H$[S>{ MmßJc{ Zgc{ Var _OOdi (oQ>iH$mß¿`m) odÂ`mM{
AS>rM hOma È[`{ Amc{c{ hm{V{.
odÂ`mM{ h·{ dŒH$era[U| ^a `mBVH$m Ï`dhmar[Um AJt ZgÎ`mg [m∞ocgr ]wS>V{
Agm oQ>iH$mß¿`m ZmVdmMmoh AZw^d Amh{.
_hmamÔ≠>^a H$od oQ>iH$mß¿`m Ï`dhmaey›`V{Mm ]^´m ]{gw_ma Pmc{cm Amh{. [U darc
CXmhaUmßdÍ$Z oXgyZ `{B©c H$s® oQ>iH$ _m{R>{ Ï`dhmaMVwa Zgc{ Var Mma gm_m›`OZmßBVH|$
Ï`dhmakmZ À`mß¿`mOdi hm{V| AmoU À`mß¿`m "aßH$m¿`m gßgmamcm' V{dT>| [wa{g|{oh hm{V|.
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gm`H$m∞cm{Or
gm`H$m∞cm{Or `m e„XmMr emÒÃew’ Ï`mª`m A[{ojV Zmht. _ZwÓ`Òd^mdmM| gÂ`H$
kmZ BVH$mM AW© `{W| Ao^[´{V Amh{. AmoU V{dT>ÁmM AWm©Z| dZdmgr \y$c H$mÏ`mßV
oQ>iH$mßMm Xmdm Amh{ó
""_mZgemÛt [yU© odemaX ghO H$dtMr OmoV'
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 635$&&

AmoU EdT>ÁmM AWm©Z| oQ>iH$mß¿`m _mZgemÛ-odemaXV{M{ _mgb{ ]K `mOm{J{
Amh{V.
Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 1 ó _mPm [ohbm _wbJm dmabm.. _wbmMr _bm \$ma AmR>dU
`{V Ag{ d Z{h_t aS>m`bm `{V Ag{. V{Ïhmß oQ>iH$mßZt _bm EH$ amKyM| o[Ñzß AmUyZ oXb{
hm{V|.
Ò_•oVoMÃ| ^mJ 3 ó amh˛arM| Ka odH$b|. [°g{ Hw$Um JaOdßVmbm oXb|. V{ [wT>| ]wS>mb{
h| gma| Ia|... AmoU H$O©am{Im obhˇZ K{ `mM| H$m_ b˙_r]mB™¿`mM hmVmZ| H$adyZ K{Vb|.
""¯z_ gmh{]mßM{ [°g{ o_g{g ¯y_¿`m ZH$iV ⁄m`M{ Amh{V'' hr XwoZ`|V EH$Q>Ám b˙_r]mB™Zm
[Qy>ß eH{$b Aer Wm[ oQ>iH$mßZm gwMbr h|oh Ia|.
Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 2 ó oºÒVr Y_m©odf`t ]mB™Zm H$Yt H$mht gmßoJVb| Zmht, AmJ´h
H{$bm Zmht, dmXoddmX H{$bm Zmht, ]mB™¿`m _yoV©[yO{bmoh H$Yt haH$V H{$br Zmht. [U
bm{IßS> [waV| Vm[b{b| Am{iIyZ EH$M YU hmUbm. \$∫$ Xm{ZM dm∑`| `m{Ω` d{it, `m{Ω`
arVrZ|, `m{Ω` e„XmßVñE{H$odbt. AmoU ]mo·Ò_m K{ `mMm ]mB™Mm VÀjUt oZYm©a Pmbm.
X{ Z moQ> obohVmVï _m¬`m bhmZ[Ut [[mßMm EH$ I{i AmR>dVm{. _wbmßZm ^m{dVt
O_dyZ V{ À`mßZm S>m{i{ PmßH$m`bm gmßJV. ZßVa V{ EImXr Jm{Ô> gmßJyZ AmÂhmßbm ÒdflZX{embm K{D$Z OmV. V{ gmßJV Agb{b{ ‡gßJ Am_¿`m S>m{˘`mß[wT>| C^{ amhV. d I{imßV oMÃ|
[mhUma{ d Vt XmIodUma{ [yU©[U| aßJyZ OmV.
JU[Vamd gmidr gmßJVmVï EH$Xm EH$m Om{S>fl`mM| ^mßS>U o_Q>od `mMr H$m_oJar
JwÈOtda (oQ>iH$mßda) Ambr. g_{Q> H$am`bm JwÈOr oZKmb{ V{ ^OZmM| gmohÀ` d gmWr
`m gJ˘`m gaßOm_moZetM oZKmb{. V{W| [m|MÎ`mda À`mßZt À`m Zdam-]m`H$m{bm H$mßht
‡˝ odMmnab{ ZmhtV qH$dm H$mßht Ia| Im{Q>| H{$b| Zmht. gai ^OZ H$a `mg gwÈdmV
H{$br. `m ^OZmßV Zdam d Zdar `mßMt JmËhmUt [⁄mß_YyZ Jm|odb{bt hm{Vt. EH$m_mJyZ
EH$ [X oZKyß bmJb|. Xm{KmßZmoh \$ma bmO dmQy>ß bmJbr. AI{a ZdË`mZ| hmV Om{Sy>Z
gmßoJVb| ""AmVmß j_m H$am. Am_Mm g_{Q> Pmbm.'' ZdarZ|oh hmV Om{Sy>Z _m\$s _moJVbr.
Pmbm hmM g_{Q>. Xwgar H$gbroh _Ibmer Z H$naVmß JwÈOr AmÂhmßbm K{D$Z [aV oZKmb{.
oQ>iH$mßZm _ZwÓ`Òd^mdmMr [maI ZÏhVr, hm Amj{[ `mda oQ>H{$b H$m? AmVmß g_mO_mZgemÛmM{ gm{eb gm`H$m∞bm{OrM{óXm{Z _mgb{ ]Km.
(1) kmZm{X`, 20 _{ 1915
1915ó"[w `mMr ‡mßoVH$ [nafX' `m gß[mXH$s` Ò\w$Q>mßV
oQ>iH$ ÂhUVmV.. hr dÒVwpÒWoV AgVmß ¯m Xm{›hr [jmßZt ^mßSy>Z, ¡`m Ï`o∫$ qH$dm
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 636$&&

g_mO h{ ^mßS>VmV ÂhUyZ `mß¿`m[mgyZ \$Q>Hy$Z amhV Amh{V, À`mßZm odøZ H$mß H$amd| h|
AmÂhmßbm g_OV Zmht. [w `mMr [nafX≤ ^aodUmamßZt H$m±J´{g¿`m oZ`o_V ‡mßoVH$ H$o_Q>rMr
[admZJr K{Dß$ Z`{, AmoU Vr K{Vbr Zmht ÂhUyZ XwgË`m [jmZ| À`mßMm odam{Y H$amdm, ¯m
Xm{›hr Jm{Ô>r AoZÔ> AgyZ Xm{›hr [jmßZm gmaI{M h≈>r R>aodUmË`m Amh{V. Agbm h≈>
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Amem Zmht...
....¯m [nafX{¿`m AmoX_‹`mdgmZm[`™V ¡`mßMr gŒmm Agb{br —Ô>rg [S>V{, ¡`mßZm
ÒdVmbmM EH$ odoeÔ> gŒmm Ag| Zmßd ⁄m`bm haH$V Zmht. Ag{ ¯m [nafX{M{ d oh¿`met
gß]’ Aem gd© bm{H$mßM{ Z{V{ ÂhUO{ am.am.]mi JßJmYa oQ>iH$ Oa _ZmßV AmUVrb Va hm
g_{Q> EH$ jUmßV hm{B©b Aer Am_Mr ImVar Amh{. ÒdX{em‡rÀ`W© `mß¿`m g_OwVr‡_mU|
`mßZt [wÓH$i À`mJ H{$bm Amh{, Var AmÂhr `mßMr j_m _mJyZ ¯mßZm Ò[Ô> arVtZ| gmßJVm|,
H$s® Am[Umßg ÒdX{em‡rÀ`W© Xwgam EH$ À`mJ H$am`mMm Amh{... Xw\$ir Pmbr Var haH$V
Zmht, [U Am[b| ÂhUU| gm{S>m`mM| Zmht `m VŒdmMm À`mJ H$am. [w `m¿`m ‡mßoVH$
[nafX{Z| H$m±J´{g ‡mßoVH$ H$o_Q>rbm gd©Òdr Ym„`mda ]godU| ÂhUO{ H$m` h| Am[Umßg
[yU©[U| H$iV Amh{. Am[br —oÔ> Ï`m[H$ Amh{. [U oV¿`m AmS> H$mßhtVar `{V AgV|. h|
H$m` `{V| h| Am[Umßg _mhrV Amh{. V{dT>| Xya H$am....''
(2) 1915 gmb¿`m gmohÀ` gß_{bZmbm oºÒVr g_mOmV\}$ gßX{e X{VmßZm oQ>iH$
ÂhUVmVó Am[Î`m _ZmßV Am_Mm AS>Vrg bmI qhXr oºÒVr g_mO qhoXÒVmZmßV
[aH$m H$Í$Z R>{dm`Mm Amh{ H$m? IoMV Zmht. [U Am[Î`m d Am_¿`m H$m{Q>ÁdoY
AY©oeojV d AoeojV X{e]mßYdmßZm Am[U H$m` H$arV Amhm| `mMm AW© g_OV Zmht.
AmoU Am[U hm AW© d{i{da À`mßZm g_OyZ Z oXbm Va H$mbmßVamZ| AZ{H$ gßKmßZr gßKqQ>V
Aem Am[Î`m amÔ≠>mM EH$ dY©_mZ KQ>H$ qH$dm Ad`d od`w∫$ PmÎ`mdmßMyZ amhUma
Zmht. `m‡_mU{ EIm⁄m amÔ≠>mM{ od`w∫$ Pmb{b{ gma{M Ad`d _aV ZgVmV. À`mßVb{ H$mht
ÒdVßÃ[U{ H$mTy>Z À`mßMt [aÒ[aodam{Yr amÔ≠>mßVJ©V amÔ≠>| ]ZV AgVmVß h| Am[Umßg _mhrV
Amh{M.''
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]imdaM `m H$drbm 32 dfm©ZßVa¿`m AoZÔ>mMr Mmhˇb bmJb{br AgUma. H$maU
BoVhmg, amOH$maU qH$dm ¡`m{oVf `mßMm À`mßZt A‰`mg H{$Î`mM| E{oH$dmßV Zmht.)
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&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 637$&&

gaH$maXa]maMm YmßH$
(Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 2)
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b˙_r]mB™Zm gmßoJVb| Zgmd|. oQ>iH$mßZr doH$bm_m\©$V YmS>b{br Zm{Q>rg _bm C[b„Y
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Vw_¿`m Vm„`mßV d gßajUmImbt gXah˛ Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$ `mßZt Y_m™Va H{$Î`m[mgyZ
Amh{. AmVmß gXah˛ Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$ `mßMr B¿N>m Aer Amh{ H$s® Am[bm _wbJm
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H$iod `mßV `{V| H$s® Zm{Q>rg o_imÎ`m[mgyZ AmR> oXdgmß¿`m AmßV gXah˛ Zmam`U dm_Z
oQ>iH$ h{ Am[bm AkmZ _wbJm Am[Î`m Vm„`mßV d gßajUmImbt K{ `mg `{Vrb À`mßg
VwÂht H$m{UÀ`moh VËh{Mr haH$V H$Íß$ Z`{. Oa haH$V Ag{b Va Zm{Q>rg o_imÎ`m[mgyZ
VrZ oXdgmß¿`m AmßV Vr aoOÔ>a [ÃmZ| _bm H$idmdr. oXb{Î`m _wXVtV haH$V Z
H$iodÎ`mg gXah˛ Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$ `mßg _wbJm Z{ `mg haH$V H{$br AgVmß qH$dm
_wbmbm b[dyZ R>{odÎ`mg H$m`⁄m‡_mU| VOdrO H$a `mßV `{B©b d o\$`m©XrMm IM© dJ°a{
VwÂhmß[°H$s H{$ed Zmam`U Jm{Ib{ `mßg ^Í$Z ⁄mdm bmJ{b. H$imd| Vm. 3 _mh{ oS>g|]a gZ
1898 Bgdr
[Œmmï Z{g]ra b{Z, _mOJmßd
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oe∏$m

B.N.Athavle
Vakil HIgh Court.

`m Zm{Q>rgr_wi{ H$mßhr Jm{Ô>tda ‡H$me [S>Vm{.
(1) 15 oS>g|]a, 1898 am{Ot oQ>iH$ o_g hmd} `mß¿`m]am{]a Obmb[wamg Amb{ V{
_wbmbm K{D$Z Om `m¿`m Bam⁄mZ| [U b˙_r]mB™Mr ^{Q> PmÎ`mda H$XmoMV≤ o_g≤ hmd}¿`m
gÎÎ`mZ| À`mßZt odMma ]Xbbm Agmdm.
(2) _wbm¿`m oejUmMr MmßJbr Ï`dÒWm Ïhm`bm hdr h| `m ^{Q>rZ|M b˙_r]mB™¿`m
‹`mZmßV Amb| Agmd|.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 638$&&

(3) [ßT>a[wamg oXamH$S>{ Om`M| b˙_r]mB™¿`m _ZmZ| H$mß ø`md| d À`mgmR>t ^mdmß¿`m
ZH$iV À`mßZt oQ>iH$mßH$S>{ [°g{ H$mß _mJmd{ `mMmoh CbJS>m hm{Vm{.
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[S>Î`m[S>Î`m A^ßJmßObrMt ‡w\|$ V{ V[merV. am{O gß‹`mH$mit Ka¿`m _ßS>ir ‡_mU|M
H°$.H$moeZmW aKwZmW o_Ã, a{. _Zm{haamd COJa{oh OmV.
EH{$ oXdet AMmZH$[U| À`mß¿`m AßJmbm cold perspiration gwÍ$ Pmb|. S>m{˘`mßZm
Pmß[S> Ambr. H$maU H$mßht H$i{Zm. Mm°H$er H$Í$Zoh [Œmm bmJ{Zm. hmD$g gO©Z
S>m∞._∞H≤$J´{Ja ÂhUmb{,""H{$g ogar`g Amh{. amÃt EH$m _mUgmbm amh `mMr [admZJr
X{Dß$.'' XŒmm{[ßV AmOmar, Í$W]mB© Jam{Xa, Vmam]mB© 16-17 dfm™Mr _wbJr. V{Ïhmß Vr amÃ
_t À`mß¿`m Im{btV EH$m ÒQw>bmda o_Uo_UÀ`m oXÏ`m¿`m CO{S>mßV OmJyZ H$moT>br.
oQ>iH$mßZm ]m{b `mBVH$s ewo’ Ambr Zmht. 4-5¿`m gw_mamg X{dXŒm oQ>iH$, am.o_Ã
dJ°a{ _ßS>ir XdmIm›`mßV O_br AgVmß Am[Î`m oMaßoOdm¿`m gmofi‹`mßV À`mßMr
‡mU¡`m{oV odPbr. À`mß¿`m _•À`yM| JyT> H$m{UtM CH$bb| Zmht. Oa V{ VS>H$ XdmIm›`mßV
Z OmVmß _wbmH$S>{ Kar J{b{ AgV{ Va H$XmoMV≤ Vm{ ‡gßJ À`m d{it Am{T>dbm ZgVm. hmD$g
gO©Z _∞H$J´{Jaoh H$maU X{Dß$ eH$b{ ZmhtV.

* Ò_•oVM{Ã|ó^mJ 3
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 639$&&

‡[yaH$ Xwga|

Q>r[m
A^ßJmßObr
kmZm{X`mßVyZ 1917 \{$]´wdmar [mgyZ 1919 [`™V oQ>iH$mß¿`m oZYZmZßVaoh A^ßJmßOob
h| gXa `{V hm{V|. h{ gma{M A^ßJ À`m H$mimßVb{ ZÏhV{. H$YtH$Yt À`mßM{ H$mßht OwZ{M
A^ßJoh `mßV `{D$Z Om`M{. [wT>|oh Am∞JÒQ> 1921 [`™V X{dXŒm d b˙_r]mB© `mßZt h| gXa
[wT>| Mmbodb| hm{V|. oQ>iH$mßM{ EH$ Xa]mar oeÓ` gmYw ^maeßH$a `mßMmoh EH$ A^ßJ `mßV
`{D$Z J{bm.
1920 _‹`| a{. ^mÒH$aamd COJa{ `mßZt `mßVrb VrZe{ A^ßJmßMm ""A^ßJmßOob''
(oQ>iH$mßMr H$odVm ^mJ 2) [wÒVH$Í$[mZ| ‡og’ H{$bm. ^o∫$H$mÏ`mßVb| oQ>iH$mßM| odoeÔ>
ÒWmZ A^ßJmßObr_wi|M ‡ÒWmo[V Pmb|, Ag| ÂhUmd`mg haH$V Zmht. ›`m. ga Zmam`U
MßXmdaH$a H$m°VwH$mZ| A^ßJmßObrbm "Am_Mm Zdm H$ama' (]m`]bMm CŒmamY©) ÂhUV
AgV.
1959 _‹`| _yi kmZm{X`mßVrb H´$_mZwgma A^ßJmßObrMr gQ>r[ Amd•Œmr ‡og’ Pmbr.
(gß[mXH$ A.X{.oQ>iH$)

AÈUm{X` d AZw^dgßJ´h
‡og’ oºÒVr b{IH$ d Y_©‡gmaH$ a{. ]m]m [X_ZOr `mßM| AÈUm{X` h| AmÀ_d•Œm
Adm©MrZ _amR>tVb{ Am⁄ AmÀ_d•Œm ÂhUyZ _m›`Vm [mdb{b| Amh{. `m¿`m EH$m Amd•Œmrbm
oQ>iH$mßMr ‡ÒVmdZm Om{S>b{br Amh{.
`mMmM CŒmamY© ÂhUO{ AZw^dgßJ´h. `mßV MnaÃmßVrb KQ>Zmß[{jmß a{. ]m]mßZr Am[Î`m
Am‹`mpÀ_H$ AZw^dmßM| dU©Z H{$b{b| Amh{.

C[mgZmgßJrV
AZ{H$ H$dt¿`m ^o∫$[a H$dZmßMm MM©¿`m C[`m{JmgmR>t H{$c{cm gßJ´h. `mMr 11dt
Amd•Œmr 1912V oQ>iH$mßZr gß[mXZ H{$cr hm{Vr. C[mgZmgßJrV h| Zmßdoh oQ>iH$mßZtM
oXc{c| Amh{. AOyZoh `m [wÒVH$mM| [wZï [wZï gßÒH$aU H$a `mßV `{V AgV|. g‹`mß¿`m
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 640$&&

Amd•ŒmtV 682 JrVß{ AgyZ À`mßV oQ>iH$mßMt 244 Amh{V. e{dQ>r ZÏ`mZ| oXc{b`m 16
JrVmß¿`m [wadUtVoh oQ>iH$mßMr 10 JrV| Amh{VM.

F$of
1893 _‹`{ am`]hmXwa ]wQ>r `mß¿`m [‡aU{Z| oQ>iH$mßZr F$of h| Y_©emÒÃodf`H$
_mogH$ H$mT>c| hm{V|. `modf`t Ãm{Q>H$ _mohVr (^mJ 1) Ò_•oVoMÃmßV Amc{cr Amh{.

E{∑`g^m
Jm{Ë`m o_eZatZt EV‘{er` oºÒVrOZmßgmR>t H{$c{cr EH$ AÀ`ßV ohVH$maH$ Jm{Ô> Ag|
`m g^{M| dU©Z H$aVmß `{B©c.
""gZ 1964 ¿`m A∑Q>m{]amßV EW| (Âh. Ah_XZJamßV) A_{naH$Z _amR>r o_eZMr
dmof©H$ g^m ^acr. VtV Agm EH$ R>amd H{$cm H$s®, Am[U Am[Î`m EV‘{er` oºÒVr
_ßS>˘`m d À`mßM{ [miH `mßg À`mßM| Y_©gß]ßYt E{∑` ÒWm[m`Mr oe\$mag H$amdr; AmoU
`modf`t gß^mfU H$Í$Z R>amd H$a `mgmR>t EV‘{er` [miH$mßg EH$à o_i `mM| Am_ßÃU
H$amd|.''
`m R>amdmg AZwgÍ$Z 1-11-1864 am{Or ""E{∑`'' `m g^{Mr ÒWm[Zm Pmcr. a{.
odÓUw ^mÒH$a H$a_aH$a E{∑`mM{ [ohc{ A‹`j Pmc{.
E{∑`m¿`m ]°R>H$mßZm [aX{er` o_eZar hOa ahmV. gÑm_gcV X{V, _mJ©Xe©Z H$arV.
_mà _wR>Î`moh R>amdmda _V X{ `mMm À`mßZm AoYH$ma Zg{.
E{∑`mM{ 1909 [`™VM{ Ahdmc _t [mohc{c{ Amh{V.
1896 gmct oQ>iH$ `m g^{M{ "g›_m›` d H$m`_ g^mgX Pmc{ (AWm©V≤ \$s dJ°a{
^Í$Z) À`m g^|V À`mßZt VrZ gyMZm _mßS>Î`m d À`m g^{Z| ÒdrH$maÎ`m. oVgË`m
gyMZ{odf`t g^{¿`m o_oZQ>mßV ÂhQ>c| Amh{ñ''3. X{dmMr B¿N>m Aer Amh{ H$s® o_.
Zmam`Uamd oQ>iH$ `mßZt Am[Umßg AZmW _wcmßg dhmd|. hr B¿N>m [war H$a `mg X{dmZ|
À`mßg odúmg d ‡mW©Zm `m AVwc gß[oŒm oXÎ`m Amh{V. À`mßMr odZßVr Aer Amh{ H$s®,
oOVH$s AZmW [m{a{ H$m{Umcm gmß[S>Vrc À`mßZt Vt _OH$S>{ [mR>dmdt. X{d À`mßMm gmß^mi
H$arc.''
b˙_r]mB™M| "AodÒ_aUr`' ^mfU h| 1900 gmcr 23 V{ 29 A∑Q>m{]a _‹`| ZJamg
^ac{Î`m E{∑`g^|V Pmc| Agmd|.
X{ZmoQ> `m E{∑`g^{Mm AmUIr EH$ ode{f gmßJV. Jmßdm{JmßdMr oºÒVr _ßS>ir EH$Ã
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 641$&&

O_{. AmoU `mßVyZ AZ{H$ oddmh OwiyZ `{V. EH$mM d{it 5-6 cΩZ| cmd `mMr S>m∞. ¯z_
`mßZmoh AmdS> hm{Vr.

H$mÏ`Hw$gw_mƒOoc
1989 _‹`| ZmJ[wamg oQ>iH$mßZt h| oZÏdi H$odVmßM| _mogH$ H$mT>c| hm{V|.
""ÒÃrOZ‡eßgm'' ""ag^mOZ'' dJ°a{ À`mß¿`m ‡maßo^H$ H$odVm `mßVyZ ‡og’ PmÎ`m. gd©
_mogH$ [⁄mßVM Agm`M|. dJ©UrXmamßZm dJ©UrgmR>t VJmXm H$am`Mm Vm{oh H$odV|V. Ag|
`mM{ß ÒdÍ$[ hm{V|. `mM{ O{_V{_ [mßM AßH$ oZKmc{.
[wT>| 1893 _‹`| ZmJ[wamg [aV ÒWmo`H$ PmÎ`mda À`mßZr H$mÏ`Hw$gw_mßOoc d
ododYodf`VaßoJUr Ag{ [⁄ Om{S> _mogH$ H$mT>c|. [U cm°H$aM V|oh [°em¿`m A^mdr
]ßX H$amd| cmJc|.

oºÒVm`Z
oºÒVr C[mgZ{cm [m°dm©À` Í$[ X{ `m¿`m oQ>iH$mß¿`m AZ{H$odY ‡`ÀZmßVrc oºÒVm`Z
_hmH$mÏ` hm EH$ _m{R>m ‡`m{J ÂhUVmß `{B©c. ^OZH$sV©Zm‡_mU|M [wamU gmßJU| h|oh oºÒVr
g_mOmßV Í$T> Ïhmd| `mgmR>t oQ>iH$mßZr 1910 gmct oºÒVm`Z ocoh `mg gwÈdmV H{$cr.
`m¿`m [yVugmR>t oH$À`{H$Xmß Ka gm{Sy>Z À`mßZr [mßMJUr, ^wBßO Aem oR>H$mUt Aem oR>H$mUt
dÒVr H{$cr [U À`mß¿`m Òd^mdm‡_mU| EH$m oR>H$mUt Wmß]yZ EH$mM H$m_mMm [mR>[wamdm
H$aU| À`mß¿`mZ{ Pmc| Zmht. d h| _hmH$mÏ` A[wa|M amohc|. 10 A‹`m` [yU© d 11Ï`m¿`m
106 Am{Ï`m À`mßZt ocohc{Î`m Amh{V. À`mßVoh ‡À`j oºÒV-MnaÃmMm \$maM Wm{S>m
Amc{cm Amh{. oQ>iH$mß¿`m ZßVa 10-12 dfm™Zt 1931 _‹`| oºÒVm`Z [yU© H$a `mMm
oZYm©a H$Í$Z c˙_r]mB™Zt gw_ma| [mßM dfm©¿`m H$mimßV `mßV 64 A‹`m`mßMr ^a KmVcr d
h{ Odi Odi [yU© H{$c|. ]mB™¿`m _•À`yZßVa X{dXŒmmßZt g_mam{[mÀ_H$ 76 dm A‹`m`
ocohcm. 1938 V H$od oJare-gß[moXV gß[yU© oºÒVm`Z _hmH$mÏ` [wÒVH$Í$[mZ| ‡H$moeV
Pmc|.
oQ>iH$mß¿`m oºÒVm`ZmßVrc 9dm A‹`m` "g_rjH$' `mcm _m¬`m _V| oZami|M _hŒd
Amh{. H$maU "g_rjH$m' ¿`m o_fmZ| H$drZ| Am[c| ÒdVïM|M `moÃH$ H´$_U doU©c{c|
Amh|. `m gmR>t 1961 _‹`|, oQ>iH$mß¿`m O›_eVmp„Xdfm©V _t EdT>m EH$M A‹`m`
AZ{H$ Q>r[m d Ò[Ô>rH$aU| X{D$Z gß[moXV H{$cm hm{Vm.

oºÒVr
h| _mogH$ 1900 gmct oQ>iH$mßZr Am[Î`m O]m]Xmarda H$mT>c|. [°em¿`m
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 642$&&

Am{T>mVmUr_wi| À`mßZm V| dfm©XrS>dfm™VM ]ßX H$amd| cmJc|. _mogH$ H$mT> `mMr À`mßMr
hm°g OwZrM. 1895-99 `m H$mimßV oQ>iH$mßZt ZJa oOίmßV ^´_ßVr [wÓH$i H{$c{cr
hm{Vr. I{S>Ám[mS>ÁmßVrc Jar] oºÒVr "_ßS>˘`mßZm'Zm d AÎ[oeojV Ï`q∫$Zm Y_©odf`H$
AmoU ÒdX{eodf`H$ _mJ©Xe©ZmMr OÍ$ar Amh{ h| À`mßZm OmUdc{c| hm{V|. ÂhUyZM `m
_mogH$mM| ‹`{`-Ym{aU oQ>iH$mßZr Am[Î`m AmYt¿`m _mogH$mßhˇZ AJXt d{Ji| R>{odc|
hm{V|.
"oºÒVr' _mogH$mMm EH$oh AßH$ _cm o_imcm Zmht. EH$m AßH$mMt EH$Xm{Z OrU©
[mZ| _mà hmVt cmJct. À`mßV c˙_r]mB™Mr EH$ H$odVmoh AYu_wYu dmMm`cm o_imcr.
"oºÒVr' _mogH$mgß]ßYt Xm{Z dmMZr` CÑ{I _mà X{Vm{.
1. X{ Z moQ> ocohVmV ï `m [ÃmM| gma|M oQ>˘H$mßZm H$amd| cmJ|. c{IZ, ‡y\$arqS>J,
gß[mXZ, Ï`dÒWm gma| À`mß¿`mH$S>{M. AßH$m¿`m KS>Ám KmcU|, oMQ>H$dU|, [m{ÒQ>mßV Z{D$Z
Q>mH$U| `m H$m_mßV c˙_r]mB™Mr _XV hm{B©. IMm©Mm gd© ^ma oQ>iH$mßda. À`m d{iM| À`mßM|
CÀ[›Z O{_V{_ È[`{ [›Zmg. À`mßVyZ gmar o]c| ^mJdm`Mt. ÂhUO{ H$YtH$Yt À`mßZm
C[mgoh H$mT>md{ cmJV h| CKS> Amh{.''
2. 1901 ¿`m o_eZ na[m{Q>©mßV ÂhQ>c| Amh{ ó" The Christi is a monthly

Anglo-vernacular paper edited and managed by Mr. N. V. Tilak
of Ahmednagar as an independent Christian service. It seeks
especially to supply suggestive Christian knowledge to simple
Christians but also partly reaching non-Christians"

c˙_r]mB© gmßJVmV, ""À`m [ÃmßV oºÒVr Y_m©Mm C[X{e oºÒVrVamßZm d qhXr gßÒH•$VrMm
C[X{e oºÒVr cm{H$mßZm Ag{.''

oºÒVr ZmJnaH$
15 oS>g|]a 1904 am{Ot oºÒVr ZmJnaH$mMm O›_ Pmcm. ^mÒH$aamd H$m{VH$ `m
[ÃmßM{ _∞Z{qOJ ‡m{‡m`Q>a Pmc{. a{. JU[Vamd cdcH$a BßJ´Or ^mJmM{ gß[mXH$ Pmc{. ht
oV›ht S>m{H$s® _m{R>r oZ^uS> d ˆX`| _m{R>t gS>{Vm{S>. `m oVKmß]am{]a AmUIr EH$ Zmßd
kmZm{X`mßVrc OmohamVtV AmT>iV|. ]m.Zm.AmR>dc{. [U [wT>| À`mßMm H$mßht gß]ßY oXgV
Zmht. ""[ÃmZ| VrZ df~ MmcyZ oºÒVr g_mOmßV _m{R>r OmJ•oV H$Í$Z d ^mÒH$aamd H$m{Q>H$mß¿`m
S>m{∑`mda _m{R>| H$O© R>{dyZ Am[cr AdVmag_mpflV H{$cr. 1906 _‹`| oºÒVr ZmJnaH$ ]ßX
[S>c| Ia|, [U [°emMr AS>MU EdT>Ám EH$mM H$maUmZ| Zgmd|. oQ>iH$-H$m{Q>H$ `m Xm{Kmß_‹`|
]{]Zmd Oar Zmht Var Òd^mdo^›ZVm h|oh EH$ H$maU Agc| [mohO{. `m oºÒVr
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 643$&&

ZmJnaH$[ÃmßVyZM ""AmQ>[cm Am_Mm gßgma'', ""hm ]m{Om ZÏh{ h| N>Ã Amh{'', ""BH$S>Mt
[Ã|oVH$S>Mt [Ã|'' BÀ`moX AZ{H$ H$Wm, ""ZdrZ Bgm[ZroV'' `m ]m{YH$WmdJ°a{ J⁄
cocVc{IZ oQ>iH$mßZr H{$c|.
[wT>| 1938-39 V X{dXŒmmßZt oºÒVr ZmJnaH$ [w›hmß gwÍ$ H{$c|, "ZmJnaH$ N>m[ImZm' h|
Zmßdoh `m [ÃmdÍ$Z oXc{c| Amh{. oºÒVr ZmJnaH$mcm hiyhi y secular ÒdÍ$[ X{D$Z
À`mM| "ZmJnaH$' ]Zdm`Mm À`mßMm _Zgw]m hm{Vm. oºÒVr ZmJnaH$m¿`m 2500 da ‡Vr
oZKm`¿`m. ÂhUO{ VÀH$mcrZ oºÒVr [ÃmßV h|M gdm™V _m{R>| ÂhUmd| cmJV|.

oºÒVr odoY d gßÒH$ma
Ò_•oVoMÃmßV ]mpflVÒ_m, Xrßjm, ‡^w^m{OZ Ag{ H$mßht e„X Amc{c{ Amh{V. ]h˛gߪ`
dmMH$mßZm `mßMm oZn¸V≤ AW© g_OyZ `{V Zmht. `mgmR>r Wm{S>∑`mßV Iwcmgm H$arV Amh|.
1. ]mpflVÒ_m (Baptism ) `m e„XmMm oQ>iH$mßZr oXc{cm AW© oZImcg
H$[m{cH$oÎ[V Amh{. (Ò_•oVoMÃ| ^mJ 2. [•.71) [U Vm{oh Iam _mZUma{ H$mßht ‡m_moUH$
dmMH$ _cm ^{Q>c{c{ Amh{V.
]mpflVÒ_m hm oºÒVmMm ‡H$Q>[U| ÒdrH$ma H$a `mMm odoY. e„XmMm _yi AW© ""ew’
hm|U|.'' _wcm¿`m AJXt ]mi[UmßV À`mg ]mpflVÒ_m X{ `mV `{Vm{. Agm XßS>H$ _mà Zmht.
‡m°T> Ï`ŒH$sMmoh `mM odYtZ| oºÒVr Y_m©V ‡d{e hm{Vm{. [m `mßV ]wMH$iyZ H$mT>U| qH$dm
_ÒVH$mßda [m `mMm A‰`ßJ H$aU| h| ]mpflVÒÂ`mM| ]m¯ oM›h. _wcmM| Zmßd `m ‡gßJtM
R>{odc| OmV{.
2. —T>rH$aU (Confirmation)
_wcmcm g_O Amb`mZßVa d Wm{S>m\$ma Y_m©‰`mg PmÎ`mZßVa À`mM| —T>rH$aU H$a `mßV
`{V{ß. `mcmM "_ßS>itV o_iU|' Ag|oh ÂhUVmV. —T>rH$aUmZßVaM _wcmcm "‡^w^m{OZ'
K{Vmß `{V|.
3. ‡^w^m{OZ qH$dm [odà gh^moJVm (Holy Communion)
`{ey oºÒVmg ]ßoXdmZ H$Í$Z Z{ `mßV Amc| À`mM amÃt À`mZ| Am[Î`m ]mam oeÔ>mßg_d{V
e{dQ>c| ^m{OZ H{$c{ hm{V|. ^m{OZg_`t À`mZ| hmVmßV ^mH$a K{D$Z, C[H$maÒ_aU H$Í$Z Vr
_m{S>cr d gd© oeÓ`mßg dmßQy>Z oXcr. ZßVa –mjagmMm fl`mcm hmVmßV K{D$Z, C[H$maÒVwoV
H$Í$Z À`mZ{ß ÒdVï EH$ Km|Q> K{Vcm d oeÓ`mßgoh À`mVyZ o[ `mg gmßoJVcß{. À`m d{ir
À`mZ| ^mH$arcm "h| _mP| eara' d –mjagmcm "h| _mP| ZÏ`m H$amamM| a∫$ ÂhQ>c| AmoU
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 644$&&

"_m¬`m Ò_aUmW© h| H$am' Agm oeÓ`mßZm AmX{e oXcm. ÂhUyZ À`m¿`m Ò_aUmW© ‡mW©Z{¿`m
d{ir "_ßS>ir'cm cmjoUH$ ^m{OZ (]{I_ra ^mH$arMm VwH$S>m d –mjagmMm Km|Q>) X{ `mßV
`{V|. `mcm "‡^w^m{OZ' qH$dm [odà gh^moJVm' hr gßkm Amh{. ‡^w^m{OZ h| EH$ [odÃ
gmH´$_|V (gßÒH$ma) AgyZ —oT>H$aU [mdc{b`mßZmM V| K{Vmß `{V|.
4. Xrjm (Ordination)
Y_©JwÍ$M| [X X{ `mMm odoY. Xrjm [mdc{Î`m Y_©JwÍ$cm a{Ïha|S> ÂhUVmV, AmoU
À`mßg H$mßht ode{f AoYH$ma AgVmV. C[mgZmg_`t Amerdm©X X{U|, ]mpflVÒ_m X{U|,
oddmhmM| [m°am{ohÀ`, _•VmMr CŒmaoH´$`m Aet H$mßhrß H$m_| "XrojV' Y_©HJwÍ$Z|M H$am`Mrß
AgVmV.

oQ>iH$-Ò_maH -_ßoXa
Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 3, [•. 142 ï ¡`m gmVma¿`m _ßS>ircm C[X{emgmR>t emi|V O_md|
cmJ{ À`mM gmVma¿`m _ßS>ircm oQ>iH$mß¿`m _•À`yZßVa EH$ ZdrZ gwßXa _ßoXa o_imc| d
À`m _ßoXamM| Zmßd oQ>iH$ Ò_maH$ _ßoXaR>{d `mßV Amc|.
`m _ßoXamMr hH$sJV gmVmË`m¿`m Ow›`m o_eZar o_g ococ`Z o[oH$Z Aer
gmßJVmVó ""_ßoXa ]mßY `mgmR>t a∑H$_ O_od `mM| H$m_ gmVmaMr _ßS>ir AZ{H$
dfm©[mgyZ H$arVM hm{Vr. oH$À`{H$mßZr Am[Î`m EH$ _oh›`m¿`m [JmamBVH$s a∑H$_ oXcr.
_cm dmQ>V| o_g{g gwßXam]mB© [mißX{ `mßZt Xm{Z _oh›`mßMm [yU© [Jma oXcm. EHy$U gw_ma|
12000 È[`{ O_c{ hm{V{. AmUIr 6000 È[`mßMr OÈar hm{Vr. _ßoXamgmR>t _ßS>irZ{ß
OmJm [gßV H{$cr hm{Vr. Vr odH$V K{VmßZm o_g ›`yO|Q> * `mßMm [wT>mH$ma hm{Vm.
_r \$cm}gmR>t A_{naH{$g J{c| AgVmß naOd© H$m±oJ´J{eZc MM©, ÏhmB©Q> c{Z, ›`y`m∞H©$
`mß¿`met `m]m]V _mP| ]m{cU| Pmc| hm{V|. `m _ßS>itZ| 1904 [mgyZ gmVmË`mg EH$m
o_eZarMr Ï`dÒWm H{$c{cr hm{Vr. _r [°emMr _mJUr H{$c|cr ZÏhVr. o_. d o_g{g
\´±$p∑cZ dm∞Z©a `mßZr _cm O{dmd`mg ]m{codc| hm{V|. O{dVmßZm À`mßZr _cm odMmnac|, ""`m
_ßoXamgmR>t AmUIr oH$Vr [°emMr OÈar Amh{ ?'' À`m d{iMr S>m∞caMr qH$_V cjmßV
K{D$Z _t ÂhQ>c|, ""Xm{Z hOma S>m∞cg©Mr.'' "_J EdT>{ [°g{ AmÂht oXc{ Va Mmc{c H$m?''
_cm \$ma AmZßX Pmcm. _r _m{R>Ám AmZßXmZ| À`m aH$_{Mm ÒdrH$ma H{$cm. [°g{ X{VmßZm À`mßZt
ÂhQ>c|, "Am_Mr AQ> Aer H$mßhtoh Zmht. [U `m _ßoXamcm "oQ>iH$-Ò_maH$-_ßoXa' h|
Zmßd oXc| Va AmÂhmßcm \$ma AmZßX dmQ>{c. H$maU AmÂht qhXwÒVmZmßV ‡dmg H{$cm V{Ïhmß
oQ>iH$mßMm Am_¿`mda Om{ ‡^md [S>cm oVVH$m XwgË`m H$m{UmMmoh [S>cm Zmht.''

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 645$&&

h{ o_.dm∞Z©a n_eZar ZÏhV{.V{ amgm`oZH$ [XmWm™M{ H$maImZXma hm{V{. À`mß¿`m B¿N{cm
gmVma¿`m _ßS>irZ| _m{R>Ám AmZßXmZ| _mZ oXcm d _ßoXamM| Zmßd oQ>iH$ Ò_maH$ _ßoXa
R>{odc|.''

oQ>iH$mßMr H$odVm
oQ>iH$mß¿`m 84 Ò\w$Q> H$odVmßMm ""oQ>iH$mßMr H$odVm ^mJ 1''hm gßJ´h a{. ^mÒH$aamd
COJa| `mßZr 1914 V gß[moXV H{$cm. h{ H$m_ X{dXŒmmßZt H$amd| Aer oQ>iH$mßMr B¿N>m
hm{Vr. [U Am[Î`m doS>cmßM| [wÒVH$ Am[UM H$mT>md| hr H Î[Zm X{dXŒmmßZm Z [Q>Î`m_wi|
oQ>iH$mßZr V| ^mÒH$aamdmßda gm|[odc|. `m [wÒVH$mcm Zaqgh qMVm_U H{$iH$amßMr ‡ÒVmdZm
Om{S>c{cr Amh{. EH{$H$Q>Ám H$drM{ gßJ´h `{WyZM gwÍ$ Pmc{ ÂhQ>c| Var Mmc{c.
oQ>iH$mß¿`m _cm C[c„Y Pmc{Î`m gw_ma| 2000 da [⁄mßVyZ EdT>m EH$M gßJ´h H°$H$
df~ cm{H$mß¿`m S>m{˘`m[wT>| Amh{. EdT>ÁmdÍ$ZM oQ>iH$mßM{ H$od_ßS>imßVrc ÒWmZ d_mZ[mZ
R>adyZ Q>mH$ `mMm IQ>mQ>m{[ AZ{H$mßZr H{$c{cm Amh{, AmoU EdT>t 84 [⁄| _wIm{÷V PmÎ`mZ|,
oQ>iH$mßMr gd© H$odVm _cm [mR> Amh{. Aem Jm{S> gß^´_mßV dmdaUma{ ‡m_moUH$ aogH$oh
_cm ^{Q>c{c{ Amh{V.
oQ>iH$mßMr H$odVm ^mJ 2 ó A^ßJmßOob
oQ>iH$mßMr H$odVm ^mJ 3 ó oQ>iH$mßM| ]mcm{⁄mZ
oQ>iH$mßMr H$odVm ^mJ 4 ó oQ>iH$mß¿`m EHy$U H$odV|VyZ oZdS>c{c{ 139 d|M{. h{
[wÒVH$ 1961 V ‡og’ Pmc|. (gß[mXH$ ï A.X{.oQ>iH$)
oQ>iH$mßM| ]mcm{⁄mZ
(oQ>iH$mßMr H$odVm ^mJ 3)
oQ>iH$mß¿`m oeewH$mÏ`mßMrñ_wcmßgmR>t AmoU _wcmßodf`t H$odVmßMm EH$ ^mJ d AJXt
chmZ _wcmßgmR>r ocohÎ`m 20 H$odVmßM{ [naoeÔ> Om{S>c{c{ Amh{. AmMm`© AÃ{ `mßZt `m
gßJ´hmcm ‡ÒVmdZm ocohc{cr Amh{.

]mc]m{Y_{dm
A_{naH$Z _amR>r o_eZmZ| gZ 1876 (1873 ?), [mgyZ Mmcodc{c| _mogH$. h{
_amR>tVc| [ohc|M _wcmßgmR>r _mogH . S>m∞. Eo_cr o]gc AZ{H$ df} `m¿`m gß[mXH$
hm{À`m. 1895 [mgyZ Xa AßH$mVyZ oQ>iH$mßMr \w$cm_wcmßMr H$odVm ‡og’ hm{V J{cr.
oQ>iH$mß_wi|M H$od XŒm, H{$edgwV, c˙_r]mB© d [wT>| ]mcH$od R>m{_a{ `ßm¿`m H$odVmßMm
`mg cm^ Pmcm. 1910 _‹`| h| _mogH$ ]ßX [S>c|. 1924 _‹`| V| [wZï gwÍ$ hm{D$Z [wT>|
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 646$&&

À`mM| gß[mXH$Àd X{dXŒmmßH$S>{ Amc|. À`mßZt V{ [wÓH$i df}ß Mmcodc|. _mogH$ "oºÒVr'
AgyZoh X{dXŒmmßZr À`mcm Y_©^{XmVrV ÒdÍ$[ oXc|. gm°.dÀgcm]mB© KmQ>{ AmoU$‡m{.
a.lr.Om{Ji{H$a `m Xm{Km oºÒVrVamßZm À`mßZr Am[Î`m Om{S>rcm ghgß[mXH$ H$Í$Z K{Vc|
hm{V|. H$odHw$gw_mJ´O d ‡m. oZHwß$] `mßMr ‡maß^tMr H$odVm _{Ï`mßVyZM ‡og’ Pmcr.

^OZgßJ´h
1904-05 ¿`m gw_mamg [ß.a_m]mB™Zr ]m`]c ^mfmßVam¿`m H$m_mßV gm¯
H$a `mgmR>t (H$XmoMV ^mÒH$aamd H$m{VH$mß¿`m [ÃmdÍ$Z) oQ>iH$mßZm ]m{cmdyZ K{Vc| hm{V|.
^mfmßVam]m]V `m Xm{KmßM{ odMma EH$_{H$mßZm [Q> `mOm{J{ ZgÎ`mZ| oQ>iH$ \$ma oXdg V{W|
amohc{ ZmhtV. À`m AÎ[H$mimßV oQ>iH$mß¿`m 108 ^OZmMm hm gßJ´h [ßoS>Vm]mB™Zt N>mo[cm.
[wT>| `m¿`m H°$H$ Amd•Œ`m oZKmÎ`m. oºÒVr ^o∫$H$mÏ`mßV h| EH$ AÀ`ßV cm{H$o‡` Pmc{c|
[wÒVH$ hm{`.

_m`dma qH$dm _mV•oXZ
oQ>iH$mßM{ _mV•‡{_ hm À`mß¿`m Òd^mdmßVcm EH$ [odÃV_ [°cw Amh{. AmXe© Aer
_mVm À`mßZm cm^cr hm{Vr. Am[Î`m AmB©gmaIr _mV•[Um¿`m H$V©Ï`mßV [na[yU© ÒÃr
Am[U Xwgar [mohcr Zmht Aet gmj À`mßZt Zm|Xodc{cr Amh{. [U h| _mV•gm°ª` À`mßZm
\$maM AÎ[H$mi cm^c|. oedm` _mV{Mm AßV hr À`mß¿`m Am`wÓ`mßVrc AÀ`ßV XmÈU
Aer KQ>Zm hm{D$Z J{cr. Am[cr A[war amohc{cr _mV•‡{_mMr VhmZ ^mJod `mgmR>t
À`mßZt AZ{H$ _mVm Am[Î`m [nagamßVyZ em{YyZ H$moT>Î`m. H$mßhtZt À`mßMr oZamemoh
H{$cr. `{gw]mB© _m`c{ (1ï28-29), H$mHy$-cw¿¿`mßMr amUr (1ï127-130) AmoU
AmeÂ_m]mB© e{I C_a hr VrZ CXmhaU| Am[U [mohc{cr Amh{V. oQ>iH$mß¿`m AV•flV
_mV•‡{_mßVyZ _hmamÔ≠>r` oºÒVr OZmßZm o_imc{cm A[yd© cm^ ÂhUO{ _m`dma qH$dm
_mV•oXZ. A_{naH|$V "_Xg© S>{' AmoU "\$mXg© S>{' Xm{›ht gmOa{ hm{V. À`mßVyZ oQ>iH$mßZt
Z{_H$m _mV•oXZ oZdSy>Z, À`mcm [m°dm©À` ÒdÍ$[ X{D$Z Vm{ _hmamÔ≠>mßV ‡g•V H{$cm. "\$mXg©
S>{' gmR>t kmZm{X`m¿`m dmMH$mßH$Sy>Z Amc{Î`m gyMZm À`mßZt Hw$Umcmoh Z XwIodVm AcJX
]mOycm gmaÎ`m. Xadfv _| _oh›`m¿`m gwÈdmVrcm kmZm{X`mßVyZ d ]mc]m{Y_{Î`mVyZ
_m`dmam]m]V gyMZm d c{I Jm{Ô>r dJ°a{ `{Dß$ cmJV. _| ¿`m XwgË`maoddmat hm oXZ
[micm OmB©. AmOoh [micm OmVm{. _mà À`mgmR>t oZaoZam˘`m _ßS>˘`mßZt Am[m[Î`m
gm{B©M{ oXdg _wH´$a H{$c{c{ Amh{V. 1914 gmct oQ>iH$mßZt c˙_r]mB™Zm Am[Î`m _wcmßMr
_mVm ÂhUyZ Jm°adyZ ocohc{c| [Ã ‡og’ Amh{.* oºÒVrVa g_mOmßVoh hm oXZ [micm
* odl„Y emaXm, ^mJ 1 : [ÃmßH$ 153
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 647$&&

Omdm Aer oQ>iH$mßMr B¿N>m d IQ>[Q> hm{VrM. lr[mX H{$ed ZmB©H$ `mßZm hr H$Î[Zm\$maM
[Qy>Z À`mßZrßnh ode{fVï oºÒVrVamßgmR>t [ÃmßVyZ c{I ochˇZ _mV•oXZmMm ‡gma H$a `mMm
C⁄m{J [wÓH$i df~ Mmcodcm hm{Vm.

oddmh[’oV
(oºÒVr C[mgZ{cm [m°dm©À` Í$[ AmUyZ X{ `mgmR>t oQ>iH$mßZr AZ{H$ ‡`ÀZ d ‡`m{J
H{$c{. À`mVrc EH$ ode{f ‡^mdr R>ac{cm ‡H$ma ÂhUO{ À`mßZr gwÍ$ H{$c{cr Zdr
oddmh[’oV. 1918 gmcr X{dXŒm-Í$W oddmhmgmR>t À`mßZt ht ‡W_ V`ma H{$cr.* [wT>|
1929 _‹`| a{. _c{cyßMr H$›`m S>m∞. J{´g oh¿`m oddmhmM{ d{it X{dXŒmmßZt hr [’oV [w›hmß
N>m[yZ ‡og’ H{$cr.
AmO H$mßht Hw$Qw>ß]| `m [’VrZ|M oddmh Ïhmdm Agm AmJ´h YaVmV Va H$mßht Vr H$Q>mjmZ|
Q>miVmV. oOkmgw dmMH$mßgmR>t oºÒVr oddmhmMr hr oQ>iH$-[’oV `{W| gß[yU© X{c{cr
Amh{.)

AmMm`m©Z| H$amd`mMr ‡mW©Zmó
h{ B©úam ]m[m, ¡`m Vyß Am[Î`m ‡oV¿N>m`{‡_mU| _ZwÓ`mcm CÀ[›Z H{$c|, [wÈf d ÒÃr
Ag| À`mßg CÀ[›Z H{$c|, ¡`m Vw¬`m ‡{__` _Zmcm dmQ>c|, H$s® _ZwÓ` EH$Q>m Agmdm h| ]a|
Zmht _r À`mgmR>t À`mOm{JVr ghH$mnaUr H$arZ À`m Vwcm dßXZ Agm{.
[wÈf Am[Î`m AmB©]m[mßMm Aml` gm{Sy>Z Am[Î`m [ÀZrMm ghOrdr hm{B©b d Xm{KmßMr
o_iyZ EH$M Ï`o∫$ hm{rb. h| VwP| dMZ Amh{. Vyß oddmhmMm gßÒWm[H$ Amh{g. Vwbm dßXZ
Agm{.
h{ ]m[m, Vw¬`m g_j, Vwbm gmj R>{dyZ, VwP| gm¯ d VwP{ Amerdm©X K{D$Z AmÂhr `m
Ûr-[wÈfmßMm oddmhodoY H$arV Amhm|. `m _ßJbodYrbm Vyß `eï‡X H$a.
AZw Ô w > ^
[a_{em VwPr Amem, VwPr, ‡rVr, VwP| ^` $&
g_jVm VwPr hmM, Am_wMm gd© Aml` $&&
Vw¬`m [m`mßdar AmYt KmobVm| `m dYydamß $&
ÒdrH$mat `mßObm ]m[m ‡{_Í$[m [amÀ[am $&&
H$m`m©aß^r H$m`©_‹`t H$m`m™Vt Vyß oZaßVa $&
_ßJbmÀ_Z≤ H•$[m VyPr gd©Xm ‡UVmßda $&&
* Ò_•oVoMÃ|- ^mJ 3
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 648$&&

(_ßS>irgh) Am[U JrV JmDß$
Z_ï [a__ßJbm, Jm°adyß Vwbm [a_dÀgbm $&&Y•$&&
‹`mDß$ JmDß$ [yOyß dmh˛oZ ‡{_mlyß¿`m \w$bmß-Jm°adyß $&&1$&&
OJÀH$maUm ]m[m* Z Hw$R>| Vd dmÀgÎ`m Vwbm-Jm°adyß $&&2$&&
OJŒmmaUm [wÃm* AZw[_ VwPr H•$[m oZ_©bm-Jm°adyß $&&2$&&
OJÉmbZm [odà AmÀ_Z≤* hm{ __ OrdZH$bm-Jm°adyß $&&3$&&
AJm A¤`m, gXm AZw^dyß Vw¡`m oÃodY ^yoVbm-Jm°adyß $&&4$&&
Am[Umßg _mPr EH$ odZßVr Amh{.
o‡` ]ßYw^oJZtZm{, `m [wÈfm¿`m d `m Ûr¿`m oddmhm¿`m _ßJb H$m`m©W© Am[U gd©
`{W| O_bm| Amhm|. Am[Umß_‹`| Am[bm X{d]m[ odamO_mZ Amh{. oddmhodoY h|
J•hÒWml_mM| ¤ma AgyZ J•hÒWml_ g›_mZZr` Amh{. _ZwÓ`mbm CÀ[fi H{$Î`mda [wT>|
À`mM| [VZ hm{ `m[ydv _ZwÓ` ew’mdÒW|V AgVmßZmM X{dmZ| oddmhodYrM| gßÒWm[Z H{$b|
Amh|. hm [wÈf d hr Ûr oddmhodYrZ| gß`w∫$ hm{D$Z AZwH´$_| Am[U ghOrdr d ghOrodZr,
ghY_u d ghYo_©Ur Ïhmd| ÂhUyZ `m ÒWit C[pÒWV Pmbt Amh{V. Var Am[Umß gdm™g
d Am[UmßVyZ ‡À`{H$mg Aer gwMZm X{Vm| H$s®, `m‡_mU| hm [wwÈf d hr Ûr gß`w∫$ Z hm{ `mM|
`m{Ω` H$maU Oa H$m{Umbm XmIdm`M| Ag{b, Va V| À`mZ| qH$dm oVZ| AmVmßM XmIdmd|, hm
oddmh PmÎ`mda _J H$Ytoh H$m{Ut ]m{byß Z`{. H$maU O| X{dmZ| Om{oS>b| V| _mUgmZ| Vm{Sy>ß
Z`{. Aer X{dmMr Amkm Amh{.
(H$m{Ur H$maU Z XmIodÎ`mg AmMm`m©Z| dYwdamß¿`m Am·mßZm [wT>| ]m{bmdyZ `m‡_mU|
C[mgZm H$amdr.)
emÛ[mR>-CÀ[oŒm 24ï48-6; 28$&2-4
gwdß⁄ X{d [amÀ[a
ÒVdm hm{ À`mbm Imbt da
Vm{ ]m[, [wÃ, AmÀ_m OmU
ðH$mbm ⁄m AZßV _mZ.**
‡mW© Z mmó h{ ‡{_ÒdÍ$[m X{dm, Vw¬`m `m{OZ{‡_mU|, Am_¿`m [yU© gß_VrZ| hm{UmË`m
`m oddmhmZ| Am_Mt Xm{Z o^fi Hw$i| `m[wT>| Ao^fi hm{Uma Amh{V. ÂhUyZ AmÂhr VwP{
* o[Vm, [wà d [odà AmÀ_m h| [a_{úamM| ododY Í$[ _mZb{b| Amh{.
** C[mgZmgßJrV- 39, ]∞bßQ>mB©Z odaoMV
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 649$&&

C[H$ma _mZVm|. h{ ]m[m, Am_Mm hm gß]ßY —T>Va hm{V Omdm{ d À`m¿`m `m{JmZ| VwP| Jm°ad
hm{dm{. AmÂht ‡À`{H$mZ| d ‡À`{H$sZ| `m dYwdamß¿`m H$Î`mUmbmM Am[bm _mZ AoYmH$ma,
gwI g_Omd| Aer Am_Mr oMŒmd•oŒm Agyß X{. h{ ]m[m, hm da d hr dYw ht Am_¿`m
Hw$imßZm Vyß oXb{bt H•$[mXmZ| Amh{V. `mßMm Aml` VyßM Amh{g VwPr H•$[m `mß¿`mda oZaßVa
Agm{. oºÒVm‡rÀ`W© Am_{Z.
(dYwdamß¿`m _mVmo[VamßZr [aÒ[amM| hÒVmßXm{bZ H$Í$Z ÂhUmd|) h{ ‡{_, gßoY, emßoV
`mß¿`m XmÀ`m X{dm, Am_Mm hm Zdm OS>b{bm Am·[Um Am_¿`m C^`Vmß¿`m Hw$bmß¿`m
CfiÀ`W©,`m dYwdamß¿`m H$Î`mUmW© d Vw¬`m Jm°admW© hm{dm{. oºÒVm‡rÀ`W© Am_{Z.)
`m oddmhmg `{W| O_b{Î`m Am]mbd•’mßMr [yU© gß_oV Amh{ ÂhUyZ _bm AmZßX
dmQ>Vm{. Am[U ‡mW©Zm H$Íß$ó
h{ X`mgmJam X{dm, `{W| EH$Ã Pmb{Î`m AmÂhmß gd© ]ßYw^oJZtMr `m oddmhmbm gß_oV
Amh{ ÂhUyZ AmÂhr VwP{ C[H$ma _moZVm|. Iam bm{H$mYre Vyß Amh{g. bm{H$mß¿`m AßVïH$aUmßda
g_wÉ`{H$Í$Z d Ï`o∫$eï VwPr gŒmm Amh{. Var Vyß Am_M| gdm™M| Ag| gm¯ H$a, H$s®
AmÂht `m _ßJboddmhmbm gd©Xm _ßJb R>{d `mM{ ‡`ÀZ H$amd{. Am_Mm VmaH$ ‡^w `{ew
oºÒV `m¿`m ZmßdmZ| Am_{Z.
(dYwdamßg)
(dYwdamßMt Zmd| K{D$Z) _ZwÓ`mZ| EImXr Jm{Ô> Am[Î`m _ZmßV Jw· R>{odbr Var Vr
›`m`m¿`m oXdet CKS> hm{Uma d oV¿`m]‘b À`mbm Om] ⁄mdm bmJUma Agm Vw_Mm
odúmg Amh{ Ag| _r g_OVm|. Va _J VwÂhmßbm Am[bm [aÒ[amßer oddmh hm{Dß$ Z`{ Ag|
dmQ> `mbm H$mßht H$maU Amh{ H$m? Ag{b Va V| AmVmßM ‡H$Q> H$am Aer _r VwÂhmßbm
Amkm H$naV|. H$maU VwÂhr (dYyg)
qH$dm VwÂhr (damg) Oa AßVïH$aUmßV ¯m oddmhmg ‡oVHy$b Agmb, Va hm oddmh
X{dm¿`m oZ`_modÈ’ AgyZ À`m¿`m `m{JmZ| VwÂhr X{dmH$Sy>Z gß`w∫$ Pmbmß Ag| hm{Uma
Zmht.
da
daó _r ¯m oddmhmg AZwHy$b Amh|.*
dYwó _r ¯m oddmhmg AZwHy$b Amh|.*
AmMm`
AmMm`©ó VwÂhr C^`Vmß [aÒ[amß¿`m oddmhmg AZwHy$b Amhmß ÂhUyZ AmÂhr AmVmß
* ‡oVHy$b AgÎ`mg Vg| dmJmd|
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 650$&&

oddmhodYrg Amaß^ H$naVm|.
Am[U ÒVm{Û 117 d| ÂhUyß.
AmMm`©ó h{ gd©X{oeZm{ `y`ß Y›`ß ]´yV [a_{úa_≤ $&
_ß S >ir
>iró Ahm{ gd© bm{H$mßZm{, VwÂhr [a_{úambm ÒVdm.
AmMm`
AmMm`©ó h{ gd©_mZdm `y`ß Hw$È‹dß VÀ‡eßgZ_≤ $&
_ß S >ir
>iró gd© g_wXm`mßZm{ À`mMr ‡eßgm H$am.
AmMm`
AmMm`©ó AÒ_m›‡oV VXr`m{ZwJ´hÒVw [a_m{ ^d{V≤ $&
_ß S >ir
>iró H$maU À`mMr X`m AmÂhmßda od[wb Amh{. *
Am[U ‡mW©Zm H$Íß$.
AJm ‡UVdÀgbm [a__ßJbm ‡{_bm $&
odamO ˆX`mgZt H$a gZmW `{ Xw]©bmß $&&
oddmhodoY hm H$am{ Vd g_jVm gmOam $&
‡^m{ gX` Vyß gXm daX Vyß Vw¬`m b|H$amß $&&
h{ X{dm Vyß O{ Z_´ Pmb{ À`mßZm _mP{ ÂhUyZ AßoJH$mnaVm{g. Vyß [a__ßJb Amh{g. Vyß
‡{_ÒdÍ$[ Amh{g. Vwbm Y›`dmX Agm{. Vyß Am_¿`m ˆX`Í$[t AmgZt odamO_mZ hm{,
AmoU AmÂhmß AZmWmßZm gZmW H$a. h{ ]m[m, Vw¬`m g_jV{Z| hm oddmhodoY gmOam hm{Dß$
X{. Vyß Am[Î`m b|H$amßda gXm X`m H$aUmam Amh{g. Vyß À`mßZm gXm daX Amh{g. Vwbm dßXZ
Agm{.
_ß S >ir ï o[Vm, [wà d [odà AmÀ_m `m oÃodY EH$M [a_{úambm Jm°ad Agm{. Am_{Z.
(damg)
AmMm`©ï oddmhm¿`m [odà pÒWVr_‹`| ÂhUO{ J•hÒWml_m_‹`| hr Ûr VwPr ghYo_©Ur
d ghOrodZr Ïhmdr Aer VwPr B¿N>m Amh{ H$m`?
da
daï hm{`; Aer _mPr B¿N>m Amh{.
AmMm`
AmMm`©ï [a_{úa E{H$V Amh{. AmÂhtoh E{oH$b| Amh{.
* ¡`mßZm gßÒH•$V dmMVm `{Uma Zmhr V{ gm{Sy>Z gdm™Zr o_iyZ ZwgV| _amR>r dmMmd|.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 651$&&

am{J, Amam{Ω`, gwI, XwïI Aem g_odf` AdÒWmß_‹`| ohOda ‡{_ H$Í$Z ohM|
gßajU H$amd|; ohbm _mZ ⁄mdm d Om{[`™V X{d VwÂhmßbm ¯m OJmßV R>{drb, Vm| [`™V BVa
oÛ`m gm{Sy>Z EH$[pÀZd´VmZ| ohO[metM ahmd| Agm VwPm oZ¸` Amh{ H$m?
da
daï hm{`; Agm _mPm oZ¸` Amh{.
AmMm`
AmMm`©ï [a_{úa E{H$V Amh{. AmÂhtoh E{oH$b{ Amh{. (damZ| JwS>K{ Q>{Hy$Z [wT>| oXb{br
‡mW©Zm H$amdr.)
AmMm`©ï h{ X{d]m[m, _mPm hm oZ¸` [yU©[U| VS>rg Omdm ÂhUyZ Vyß _bmda
daï h{ X{d]m[m, _mPm oZ¸` [yU©[U| VS>rg Omdm ÂhUyZ Vyß _bmAmMm`
AmMm`©ï gm_œ`© X{. _O b|H$amH$Sy>Z Vyß hm oZ¸` [wam H$Í$Z K{.
da
daï gm_œ`© X{. _O b|H$amH$Sy>Z Vyß hm oZ¸` [wam H$Í$Z K{.
AmMm`
AmMm`©ï ‡^w `{ew oºÒVm‡rÀ`W©, Am_{Z.
da
daï ‡^w `{ew oºÒV‡rÀ`W©, Am_{Z
(damZ| C^{ amhˇZ hmV Om{Sy>Z ÂhUmd|)
am¡`, gm_œ`© AmoU Jm°ad gd©Xm VwP| Amh{.
AmMm`
AmMm`©ï (dYybm) oddmhm¿`m [odà pÒWVr_‹`| ÂhUO{ J•hÒWml_m_‹`| hm [wÈf
VwPm ghY_u d ghOrdr Ïhmdm Aer VwPr B¿N>m Amh{ H$m`?
dY
dYyï hm{`; Aer _mPr B¿N>m Amh{.
AmMm`
AmMm`©ï [a_{úa E{H$V Amh{, AmÂhtoh E{oH$b| Amh{.
am{J,Amam{Ω`, gwI, XwïI Ag g_odf` AdÒWmß_‹`| `m¿`m Amk|V amhˇZ `mMr
g{dm H$amdr, `mOda ‡roV H$amdr, `mMm _mZ amImdm, `mM| gßajU H$amd| d Am_aU
[yU© [moVd´À`mZ| dmJyZ Am[b| J•ohUr[X Y›` H$amd| Agm VwPm oZ¸` Amh{ H$m`?
dY
dYwï hm{`; Agm _mPm oZ¸` Amh{.
AmMm`©ï X{d E{H$V Amh{. AmÂhtoh E{oH$b| Amh{.
(daVr damMr Or ‡mW©Zm oXbr Amh{ VrM dYyH$Sy>Z JwS>K{ Q>{H$md`mbm bmdyZ H$admdr.)
damZ| Am[Î`m COÏ`m hmVmZ| dYyMm COdm hmV YÍ$Z [wT>| oXÎ`m‡_mU| dYybm dMZ
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 652$&&

⁄md|.
_r------ AmO[mgyZ Am_aU VwP| [moUJ´hU H{$b| Amh{. hm VwPm _mPm gß]ßY
_aUmZ| VwQ>{b Vm|[md|Vm| _r H$m`_ R>{drZ d AoYH$moYH$ —T> H$a `mM{ ‡`ÀZ H$arZ. gwI,
XwïI, Amam{Ω`, am{J, lr_ßVr, Xmna–`, BÀ`moX AdÒWmß_‹`| _r Vwbm Am[br O›_mMr
gm{]VrU g_OyZ _mZ X{B©Z d Vwbm Am[Î`m J•hmMr Òdmo_Zr d ÒdVïMr ghYo_©Ur
g_OyZ gßgma H$arZ. X{dmg_j d `{W| C[pÒWV Agb{Î`m ]ßYw^oJZmßg_j Vwbm `m‡_mU|
dMZ X{D$Z V| [yU© H$amd| ÂhUyZ Vr Vwbm Am[br Y_©[ÀZr ÂhUyZ ÒdrH$maVm|.
AmMm`© ï h{ [a_{úam, `m damZ| `m dYybm oXb{b| h| dMZ Vyß E{oH$b| Amh{g d AmÂhrqh
E{oH$b| Amh{.
(dYwdamßZt [aÒ[amßM{ hmV gm{S>md{ d [wZï dYyZ| Am[Î`m COÏ`m hmVmZ| damMm COdm
hmV YÍ$Z À`mbm `m‡_mU| dMZ ⁄md|.)
dYwï _r ----- Am[U oXb{b| dMZ ÒdrH$mÍ$Z Am[Umßbm dMZ X{V| H$s®, AmO[mgyZ
_aUmZ| Am[U Xm{K{ od`w∫$ Pmbm| Zmht Vm|[md{Vm| _r gwIm¿`m, XwïIm¿`m, am{Jm¿`m,
Amam{Ω`m¿`m, lr_ßVr¿`m d Xmna⁄´m¿`m AdÒW|V Am[br gh^m{Jr amhˇZ Am[Umßg gmßdÍ$Z
YarZ, Am[b| gm¯ H$arZ, Am[b| gßajU H$arZ. _r Am[Î`m Amk|V amhrZ, Am[br
g{dm H$arZ, ‡{_ AmoU [moVd´À` `mßMm [yU©[U| Aml` H$Í$Z Am[b| Cab{b| Am`wÓ`
AmZßX_` H$am`mbm PQ>{Z. `m _m¬`m dMZm¿`m [yU©V{ÒVd _r Am[Umßg _mPm oddmohV
[oV ÂhUyZ AßoJH$mnaV|.
AmMm`
AmMm`©ï h{ [a_{úam, `m dYyZ| `m dambm oXb{b| h| dMZ Vyß E{oH$b| Amh{g d AmÂhtoh
E{oH$b| Amßh{.
(dYydamßZt [aÒ[amßM{ hmV gm{Sy>Z JwS>K{ Q>{|H$md{ d [wT>| oXÎ`m‡_mU| ‡mW©Zm H$amdr.)
AmMm`
AmMm`©ï h{ Am_¿`m ÒdJu` o[À`m, AmÂhr C^`VmßZt [aÒ[amßZm oXb{br dMZ|ó
dYwdaï h{ Am_¿`m ÒdJu` o[À`m, AmÂht C^`VmßZt [aÒ[amßZm oXb{bt dMZ|ó
AmMm`
AmMm`©ï Vyß E{oH$bt Amh{g. h| Am_¿`m oZaßVa bjmßV amhm{. ht dMZ{ó
dYw d aaï Vyß E{oH$bt Amh{g h| Am_¿`m oZaßVa bjmßV amhm{. hr dMZ|ó
AmMm`©ï [mi `mH$naVmß bmJUma{ oZ¸`, ‡{_, ÒdmW©À`mJ, _ZmM| Am°Xm`©, Z_´Vmó
dYw d aaï [mi `mH$naVmß bmJUma{ oZ¸`, ‡{_, ÒdmW©À`mJ, _ZmM| Am°Xm`©, Z_´Vmó
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 653$&&

AmMm`
AmMm`©ï VwP| ^`, odd{H$ BÀ`moX JwU Vw¬`m [odà AmÀÂ`m¿`m gm¯mZ|ó
dYw d aaï VwP| ^`, odd{H$ BÀ`moX JwU Vw¬`m [odà AmÀÂ`m¿`m gm¯mZ|
AmMm`©ï AmÂhmß_‹`{ oZaßVa dgm{V. ‡^w oºÒVm‡rÀ`W©, Am_{Z
dYw d aaï AmÂhmß_‹`| nZaßVa ]gm{V, ‡^w oºÒVm‡rÀ`W©, Am_{Z.
(damZ| [wT>| oXb{bm õm{H$ ÂhUV ÂhUV dYy¿`m S>mÏ`m hmVm¿`m H$aßJirOdi¿`m
]m{Q>mßV AßJR>r Kmbmdr.)
Omhbm| _r VwPm Vyßhr _mPr Pmbrg `{WwZr $&
_wo–H$m IyU hr `mMr aj hrbm oOdmh˛Zr $&&
(_ßJigyà Ag{b Va hm õm{H$ ÂhUmdm.)
Vwbm _ßJbgyÃmßMt g_[uVm| C[m`Z$&
gm°^mΩ`mM|, gwoZ>{M| _mßJÎ`mM| oZXe©Z $&&
AmMm`
AmMm`©ï (dYwdamßM{ COd{ hmV EH$Ã YÍ$Z)
(bm{H$mßg) ¡`m AWu `m [wÈfmZ| d `m ÛrZ| X{dmg_m{a d `{W| O_b{Î`m _ßS>irg_m{a
[aÒ[amßg AZwH´$_| [ÀZr d [oV ÂhUyZ dMZ]’ hm{D$Z AßoJH$mnab| Amh{, À`m AWu o[Vm,
[wà d [odà AmÀ_m Om{ EH$M _ßJb_` [a_{úa À`m¿`m [odà ZmßdmZ| _r ‡og’ H$naVm|
H$s®, ---------- hm [wÈf d ------ hr Ûr [oV[ÀZr Pmbt Amh{V. ¡`mßZm X{dmZ|
Om{oS>b| À`mßg H$m{UÀ`moh _ZwÓ`mZ| od`w∫$ H$Íß$ Z`{. Am[U _ßJbmÔ>H{|$ ÂhUyZ X{dmMm
Amerdm©X _mJßy.
(dYydamßZt JwS>K{ Q>|H$md{ d hmV Om{S>md{. AmMm`m©Z| Xm{KmßOdi C^| amhmd|, Jm`H$
_ßS>i Ag{b Va AY~ dam¿`m d AY~ dYy¿`m ]mOyH$S>{ C^| amhmd|. _ßJbmÔ>H|$ ÂhUV
AgVmß H$m{Umbm AjVm Q>mH$U| Ag{b, Va e{dQ>b| _ßJbmÔ>H$ PmÎ`mda Q>mH$mÏ`m. AjVm
VrZ VmßXwimß[{jm AoYH$ ZgmÏ`m.
_ß J bmÔ>H| $
odú{em gX`m oddmhodoY hm À`mß b{qH$ gßÒWmo[bm $&
Amerdm©X Zd{ Zd{ odVÈZr g‡{_ gßJm{o[bm $&&
h{Vy oXÏ` ``m [odà odoYMm hm{B©b O{{U| [wam $&
E{g| dmJd ¯m ZdrZ gX`m ]m[m dYybm dam $&&1$&&
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 654$&&

em{^{ hr J•ohUr J•hmßV A[wÎ`m X{hmßV ]w’r Ver $&
X{ht ‡mU Vgm [Vroh odbgm{, AmYma hm{ `mßOet $&&
em{^m{ X{Ci B©úam J•h gXm `mßM| VwP| [mdZ $&
`{W| oZÀ` C[mgZm Vd KS>m{ VyP| gXm qMVZ $&&2$&&
AmVmß emßV oXg{ AVmß Idibm gßgmaqgYy AVr $&
`mM| Í$[ H$Yt H$gß{ ]XbV| R>md| Z H$m{Um‡Vr $&&
hr Vm| hmßgV AmO `mßV oeabt ]m[m VwPt b|H$a| $&
`mßZm XmId [ma VyßM YÍ$r g‡{_ X{dm H$a| $&&3$&&
¯m d•jmda hr bVm MT>odbr X{dm Vwdmß ‡roVZ| $&
¯mbm gm{Sw>ß Z`{ oZXmKag_`t qH$dm dgßVt ohZ| $&&
hm{dm{ JßoYV h| J•hm{[dZ gÀgß[fi `mß¿`m_wi| $&
]m[m, A[w©V ht AZø`© VwObm gmZßX [wÓ[| \$i| $&&4$&&
]mB©, ‡{_, gohÓUwVm, gabVm, ^∫$s, X`m, Z_´Vm $&&
E{g{ gwßXa XmoJZ{ Vd, VwPr hr Y›` gß[fiVm $&
o_Ãm, C⁄_, Y°`© oZ¸` [wam odúmg oºÒVmdat $&
ÒdmW©À`mJ, odew’ Yr, O` VwPm gd©Ã ]ßYr Var $&&5$&&
X{dm, XmId Xß[Vr‡oV od^m{, `mß¿`m _wbmßMt _wb| $&
X{ Amam{Ω` H$ar J•hm{[dqZMr O| Jm{S> gmat \$b| $&&
H$m{UmMt Z H$at F$Ur VwOodZm `mßZm H$Yr B©úam $&
O| O| `m{Ω` AdÌ` V|M [wadt ]m[m Òd`| b|H$amß $&&6$&&
"`{W| X{d dg{, "[odà J•h h|', "_mh{a h| ‡roVM|, $&
"`{W| hf© I∂S>m', "oZYmZ odbg| h| ZroVM| emßoVM| $&&
Eg| odú ÂhU{b [mhˇZ J•hm `mß¿`m Ag| hm{Cß X{$&
]m[m gmW©H$Vm oddmhodoYMr Pmbr OJm [mh˛ß X{ $&&7$&&
V| gm°ª`, V| _ßJb, VrM ^w∫$s,$&
Vm{ Y_©, V| OrdZ, VrM _w∫$s, $&&
oºÒVm VwP| qMVZ oZÀ` Ïhmd| $&
VyV| H$am{Zr oZO oMŒm ø`md| $&&8$&&
gdm™Zrró O`O`H$ma Agm{ ! ‡^m{ Vd O`O`H$ma Agm{ !
gd
gd©ï ew^bæ gmdYmZ
AmMm`©ó (A^ßJ)
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 655$&&

"ew^ bæ gmdYmZ'$& [S>{ H$Uv ‡]m{YZ $&&1$&&
X{dmOrMr oXÏ` dmUr $& hm Vm| VrMm ‡oV‹dZr $&&2$&&
H$ar ¡`mMm À`mMm dße $& H$ar Y_© AmoU X{e $&&3$&&
dYwda A›`m{›`mV| $& `mM X{Vr gyMZ{V|Z| $&&4$&&
ew^ bæ gmdYmZ $& H$ar gßgma JO©Z $&&5$&&
[wT>| `{Umar gßVVr $& h|M JO©V [wT>| hm{Vr $&&6$&&
Xmg ÂhU| "gmdYmZ $& ew^ V`mM|M bæ $&&7$&&
AmÂht "ew^bæ gmdYmZ' ÂhQ>b|, hm X{dm¿`m dmUrMm ‡oV‹doZ hm{`. X{d
ÂhUVm{,"dYwdamßZm{ ew^ bæ ! gmdYmZ! gmdY amhm! _m¬`m B¿N>{bm _m›` Agm AmoU
h| Vw_M| bæ oZaßVa ew^ R>{dm. Vw_Mt Hw$i| ÂhUV Amh{V, "ew^bæ gmdYmZ! gmdY amhm.
Am_Mr B^´V H$m`_ amIm.' Vw_Mm Y_© ÂhUV Amh{. "ew^bæ gmdYmZ ! gmdY amhm!
_mPm CŒm_ ‡H$ma| ‡oV[mb Ïhmdm ÂhUyZ VwÂhr ghY_u d ghYo_©Ur Pmbmß Amhmß.'
Vw_Mm X{e ÂhUV Amh{,"ew^bæ gmdYmZ! gmdY amhm! VwÂhr C^`Vmß `w∫$ Pmbmß Amhmß Vt
VwÂht _mP| F$U \{$S>md| ÂhUyZ.' dYw dambm ÂhUV{,"ew^bæ gmdYmZ! gmdY Agmß!
Vw_¿`m_wi| _m¬`m O›_mM| gmW©∑` hm{Uma Amh{. da dYybm ÂhUVm{,"ew^bæ gmdYmZ!
gmdY Ag! _m¬`moh O›_mM| gmW©∑` hm{U| VwOda Adbß]yZ Amh{.' [wT>| `m Xß[Vrbm
gßVoV hm{B©b, Vr gw’m "ew^bæ gmdYmZ' ÂhUV ÂhUV OJmßV `{B©b. Vr ÂhU{b H$s®,"gmdY
Agm. _m¬`m O›_m[mgyZ OJmßV _r Vw_Mm Aml` gm{S>m`mbm `m{Ω` hm{B©Z. Vm|[md{Vm|
_m¬`m gd© ]Ë`mdmB©Q>mMm VwÂhmßbm Odm] ⁄mdm bmJ{b.' gmamße, h| ew^ bæ oZaßVa ew^
amhU| h| ZdXß[Vr¿`m oZaßVa gmdY Ag `mda Adbß]yZ Amh{.
(_ßJbmÔ>H|$ PmÎ`mda [wT>| oXb{bm õm{H$ ÂhUyZ AmYt damZ| d _J dYyZ| [aÒ[amßg
[wÓ[_mbm KmbmÏ`m.)
‡{_, embrZVm, ew’r `mßMr gyMH$ _ßJbm $&
[wÓ[_mbm oMaßOrdr H$am{ gß`m{J Am[wbm $&&
_mim KmVÎ`mda dYwdamßZt AmMm`©[rR>m[mgyZ gmV [mdb| Xya Omd| d damZ| [wT>|
oXb{bm EH$ EH$ õm{H$ ÂhUmdm. ‡À`{H$ õm{H$mM{ e{dQ>r dYwdamßZt [aÒ[amM| hmV Yab{b{
AgVmß EH$ [mD$b [wT>| `md|. `m‡_mU| gmV [mdb| Pmbt ÂhUO{ Wmß]md|. hr g·[Xr
hm{`.
‡W_ [X
‡W_m [Xod›`mgm H$at _m¬`mgd| Mb $&
J•hamkr, VwPr gŒmm J•ht amhm{ gwoZ¸b $&&1$&&
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 656$&&

o¤Vr` [X
o¤Vr`m [Xod›`mgm H$at _m¬`mgd| Mb $&
gß[mXyß Y_© H$Î`mUr, gd| À`m¿`m `em{]b $&&2$&&
V•Vr` [X
V•Vr`m [Xod›`mgm H$at _m¬`mgd| Mb $&
H$Íß$ Y›`ß MnaÃmZ| Am[wÎ`m A[wb| Hw$b $&&3$&&
MVwW© [X
MVwWm© [Xod›`mgm H$at _m¬`mgd| Mb $&
AoVWtZm, AZmWmßZm gßV[y™ Aml`mMb $&&4$&&
[ß M _ [X
[ßM_m [Xod›`mgm H$at _m¬`mgd| Mc $&
ZaaÀZ| OJm A[y™ ¡`m߇Vr OJ dmoZc $&& 5 $&&
f> [X
f>H$m [Xod›`mgm H$ar _m¬`mgd| Mc $&
Mc gm‹dr oÃdJm©Mm MTy>ß gm{[mZ _ßJc $&& 6 $&&
gflV_ [X
gflV_m [Xod›`mgm H$at _m¬`mgd| Mc $&
Bhm_wà gXm hm{dm{ Am[wcm ^∫$dÀgc $&& 7 $&&
AmMm`
AmMm`© ï (dYwdamß¿`m _ÒVH$mßda hmV R>{dyZ) X{d]m[ Vw_Mm J•hÒWml_ [yU© "H$am{. d
Vw_Mr _°Ãr A]moYV amIyZ Vw_¿`m O›_mM| gmW©∑` H$am{ß.
(dYwdamßZt Am[m[Î`m ÒWit OmD$Z ]gmd|.)
AmMm`©ï Am[U 128 d| ÒÃm{Ã dmMyß.
""Om{ H$m{Ur [a_{úamg o^Vm{, Om{ À`m¿`m _mJm™V MmcVm{ Vm{ Y›`.''
_ß S >ir
>irï Vyß Va Am[Î`mß hmVmM| l_\$i Imerc. Vyß gwIr hm{erc d VwßP| ohV hm{B©c.
AmMm`
AmMm`©ï VwPr [ÀZr Vw¬`m Kam¿`m q^Vret cmdc{Î`m g\$c –mjrgmaIt hm{B©c.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 657$&&

VwPt c|H$a| OmBVm¿`m am{fl`mgmaIt Vw¬`m _{Om^m{dVt hm{Vrc.
_ß S >ir
>irï [mhm, Om{ [wÈf [a_{úamcm o^Vm{ Vm{ VgmM Amerdm©oXV hm{B©c.
AmMm`
AmMm`©ï [a_{úa og`m{ZmßVyZ Vwcm Amerdm©X X{B©c. Va Vyßy Am[Î`m Am`wÓ`m¿`m gd©
oXdgmßV `Èec{_mM| ohV [mhm.
_ß S >ir
>irï Vyß Am[Î`m c|H$amßMt c|H$a| [mhm, BÒÃm`cmM| H$Î`mU Agm{.
AmMm`
AmMm`©ï Am[U ‡mW©Zm H$Íß$.
h{ [odà ]m[m, Vyß `m [oV[ÀZtMm gmß^mi H$a. h| [odà [wÃmß, Vyß `ßmZm _m{hm[mgyZ d
[VZm[mgyZ Vma. h| [odà AmÀÂ`m, Vyß `mßMm ‡{aH$ d MmcH$ hm|. h{ [a_[odà [a_{úam, Vyß
`m Am[Î`m c|H$amßZm Amerdm©X X|. `mßOda oZaßVa VwPm AZwJ´h Agm{.
(gdm™Zr "‡^yMr ‡mW©Zm' ÂhUmdr)
h{ Am_¿`m ÒdJm©Vrc o[À`m, VwP| Zm_ [odà _moZc| Omdm{. VwP| am¡` `{dm{. Og|
ÒdJm™V Vg| [•œdrdaoh Vw¬`m B¿N>{‡_mU| hm{dm{. Am_Mr am{OMr ^mH$a AmO AmÂhmßg X{.
Og{ AmÂht Am_¿`m A[am‹`mßg F$U gm{oS>c| Amh{ Vet Am_Mt F$U| Vyß AmÂhmßg gm{S>.
AmoU AmÂhmßg [arj|V AmUyß ZH$m{. Va AmÂhmßg dmB©Q>m[mgyZ gm{S>rd. H$maU H$s® am¡`,
gm_œ`© AmoU Jm°ad ht gd©H$mi VwPtM Amh{V. Am_{Z.
AmMm`©ï Am[U [odà emÒà dmMyß. Bo\$gg 5ï22-23; H$cÒg°-3ï18, 19
1 [{Ãg 3ï1-7; ZroV-31ï10-31.
(`mZßVa C[X{e H$amdm)
Am[U JrV ÂhUyßó
B©úam $& Xm`mgmJam $& X{ dYydamß $& dam OJXrem $&
dam OJXrem $& Vd [war hm{Cß X{ `modf`tMr Amem $&&
Xß[Vr $& AOwZ Z{UVr$& oeaqV ^d[Wt $& `mßg gmß^mqi $&
`mßg gmß^mir $& `{Vrc [Wt gßH$Q>| ‡^m| Vr Q>mit $&&
gm{[mZ _wpŒH$Mm gmYm $& hm Iam gßgma `mßOcm hm{dm{ $& B©úam
ht H$am{V h{Vy ]m[m $& Vd [wam
[mohO{ $& ‡^m{ `mßg O| $& c|H$amß VwP| $& VyßM V| [waod $&
VyßM V| [wadt $& O| ZH$m{ `mßg V| VyßM Xya R>{dt $&& 1 $&&
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 658$&&

AßVar $& `mßoM`m Kat $& Vgm ]mohat $& oZYr gm°ª`mMm $&
oZYt gm°ª`mMm $& ghdmg KS>m{ `m߇Vr oºÒV `{eyMm $&&
ht Xm{Z _Z| [naU`| $& Om{oS>ct,
Vd [m`mßdaVr _wXm $& KmVct
hr VwPt, gd©Wm VwPt $& Omhct
dmJdt $& `mßg dmT>dt $& _Ywa ZqdZdt $& \$i| X{ `mßZm $&
\$i| X| `mßZm $& ht H$am{V VwoP`m gX°d JwUJmZm $&& 2 $&&
AmMm`©ïAm[U ‡mW©Zm H$Í$Z Amerdm©X _mJyß.
h{ [a_[odÃm. [´{_ÒdÍ$[m ]m[m, h| _ßJc H$m`© Vw¬`m g_jV{¿`m `m{JmZ| d Vw¬`m
AZwghmZ| og’rg J{c| ÂhUyZ AmÂhr VwP{ C[H$ma _moZVm|. AmÂhr gdm™Zr Ù`m ZdrZ
Xß[VtM{ A^rÔ> qMVmd{ d À`mßZm O{U|H$Í$Z gm¯ hm{B©c Ag| À`mß¿`met Am_M{ ‡À`{H$mM{
dV©Z Agmd{ Ag{ hm{D$ X{. h{ ]m[m, Vyß ¯m oddmohV [wÈfm¿`m d ¯m oddmohV ÒÃr¿`m
_mVmo[Vamßg d BVa AmflVmßg Amerdm©X X| d À`mß¿`mH$Sy>Z `mßMm J•hÒWml_ Vwcm AmdS>{c,
Aem arVrZ{ß [ma [S>mdm ÂhUyZ ¯mßM| gm¯ hm{Dß$ X{. h{ X`miy ]m[m, ¯m ZdrZ Xß[Vr¿`m
AßVïH$aUmßV Vy dgoV H$a. `mßM{ Bh[aà H$Î`mU hm{B©c Aem _mJm©M| Adcß]Z H$Í$Z
`mßZt gßgma H$amdm ÂhUyZ `mßM{ gm¯ H$a. hm oddmhodoY, hm oddmohV [waÈf, hr oddmohV
ÒÃr, `mßMm gßgma, `mßM| oOU| gd© Vwcm g_o[©V Agm{. Am_Mm VmaH$ ‡^w `{ew oºÒV
`mß¿`m ZmßdmZ|. Am_{Z.
Amerdm©X ï X{d]m[mMr ‡roV, ‡^w `{ew oºÒVmMr H•$[m, d [odà AmÀÂ`mMr gh^moJVm
VwÂhmßg d X{dm¿`m gd© c{H$amßg AmVmß AmoU gd©H$mi Agm{. Am_{Z.
`m oddmh[’Vrodf`r ÒdVï oQ>iH$ ococVmV.
""H$m{Uroh ohMm C[`m{J ]m]mdm∑`ß ‡_mUß ÂhUyZ H$amdm Aer Am_Mr B¿N>m Zmht.
hr oddmh[’oV ÂhUO{ EH$ Z_wZm Amh{. hm Amh{ VgmM C[`m{JmßV AmUU{ qH$dm ¯mßV
\{$a]Xc H$aU| h| ¡`m¿`m-À`m¿`m _OudaAdcß]yZ Amh{.
""Y_©odYtV H$mÏ`JmZ H$m` H$am`mM{ Ag{ H$m{Ur ÂhU{c,Va À`mcmoh, AmÂhr gmßJVm{
H$sß, VwÂht dmQ>{c Va `m oddmh[’VrVc| gma{ H$mÏ`JmZ VwÂht dJim. ÒdVï AmÂhr _mÃ
Vg| H$Xmo[ H$aUma Zmht H$maU AmÂht qhXr Amhm{. Am_Mm Ymo_©H$[Um H$mÏ`JmZmZ|
oOVH$m CŒm{oOV hm{Vm{, oVVH$m XwgË`m H$emZ{oh hm{U| e∑` Zmht. AmÂhmßcm dmQ>V| Am_¿`m
X{emMr d•oŒm AOyZ[md{Vm{ hrM Amh{. ode{fVï ¡`mßV E{ohH$ [ma_moW©H$ Ao^›Z hm{V
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 659$&&

Amh{V,Aem _Ywa _ßJc oddmhodYtV Va H$mÏ`JmZmcm ‡mYm›`M oXc| [mohO{....''
"O{ Zmht BßpΩce, V| AdK| hrXoZe!' ÂhUUmat Wm{S>ter qhXr oºÒVr _mUg| AmÂhmßcm
^{Q>cr Amh{V, À`mß¿`mH$naVmß AmÂht H$mßhtM H$arV ZgVm|, \$∫$ "XwO©Zß ‡W_ dßX{ !'

hna am_Mß– oºÒVr `mßM| MnaÃ
a{. har[ßV oºÒVr (1820-1863) h{ Ah_XZJa `{Wrc [ohÎ`m _ßS>irM{ [miH$.
[ohc{ EV‘{er` [miH$. `mßM{ Om_mV a{. Am[mOr ]m[wOr `mXu(?) `mßZr 1883 gmcr h|
Mnaà ocohc|. oºÒVr PmÎ`mZßVa À`m H$mi¿`m oeaÒÀ`m‡_mU| har[ßVmZm \$ma N>i
gm{gmdm cmJcm. _mà cm°H$aM À`mß¿`m [ÀZr amYm]mB© gmga-_mh{a¿`m odam{Ymcm Z
Oy_mZVmß À`mß¿`mH$S>{ `{D$Z amohÎ`m d H$mcmßVamZ{ oºÒVr PmÎ`m. [wT>| [oVoZYZmßZßVaoh
amYm]mB™Zt e{dQ>[`™V oºÒVr cm{H$mßMr d oºÒVr Y_m©Mr g{dm H{$cr. (_cm dmQ>V| `m_wi|M
oQ>iH$mßZm`m MnaÃmMr ode{fJm{S>r cmJcr Agmdr.) har[ßVmßZrß _wß]B© ehamßV d Ah_XZJa
oOίmßVÎ`m I{S>Ám[mS>ÁmßVyZ Y_©‡MmamM| H$m_ H{$c|. À`mßM| C[X{e AÀ`ßV [naUm_H$maH$
hm{V AgV. À`mßM| H$odÀdoh À`m H$mit cm{H$o‡` Pmc| hm{V|.

kmZm{X`
1942 [mgyZ MmcV Agc{c| oºÒVr [Ã, h| Xa JwÍ$dmar oZK|. `mM| gß[mXH$Àd
oQ>iH$mßH$S>{ gw_ma| 8 df}, 1912 V| 1919 [`™V hm{V|. [wT>| X{dXŒmmßZtoh h| H$m_ gw_ma| ]mam
df~ H{$c|. AmO h| [Ã _mogH$m¿`m Í$[mßV oZKV AgV{.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 660$&&

‡[yaH$ oVga|

Am{iI
AZßVVZ`
*
VZ`*
oQ>iH$Xß[VrM{ H$odo_Ã 1907 _‹`| OiJmßd¿`m H$odgß_{cZm[mgyZ `mßMm ÒZ{h^md
—T>Va Pmcm d Vm{ AI{a[md{Vm| H$m`_ amohcm.
H$od AZßVVZ`mßM| Ia| Zmßd XŒmmÃ` AZßV Am[Q>{. (1879-1929) _hmamÔ≠>JrV,
]miJrVm, Pm{[m˘`mdaMr JrVm, lremaXmXyoVH$m, AßVod©’ H$ocH$m,lr Òdm_r
MßS>ram_MnaÃ, oVcH$odO` B. À`mßMr 12-13 [⁄ [wÒVH|$ AmoU ˆX`VaßJñ ^mJ 1, 2,
3 h{ Ò\w$Q> H$odVmßM{ gßJ´h ‡og’ Pmc{c{ Amh{V. `mßZt J⁄c{IZoh od[wc H{$c{c{ß Amh{.
gQ>r[ gmW© F$Vwgßhma, ^mo_ZrodcmgmM| _⁄ _amR>r ^mfmßVa. gZmVZ Y_m©M| ÒdÍ$[
Aet AZ{H$ [wÒVH|$ À`mß¿`m O_{g Amh{V.
OiJmßd¿`m H$odgß_{cZmßV h.^.[. [mßJmaH$a]m{dmßZr "]mQ>Ω`m' ÂhUyZ oQ>iH$mßMm
H{$c{cm AoYj{[ d AZßVVZ`mßZrß À`mßZm oXc{cm M[Ic CÀÒ\y$V© H$odVm]’ Odm] Xm{›ht
\$ma JmOc{. c˙_r]mB™Zt `m gß_{cZmg YmS>c{cm gßX{e ""H$od VwÂht, o^H$mnaU _r hm{
Vw_¿`mXmar'' `mdÍ$Z oºÒVr ZmJnaH$mßVyZ `mßMm d c˙_r]mB™Mm H$odVm]’ [ÃÏ`dhma
AZ{H$ _ohZ{ Mmccm hm{Vm.

A∞]Q> a{.S>m∞. OpÒQ>Z B©.**
A_{naH|$VyZ _hmamÔ≠>mßV `{UmË`m od¤mZ o_eZatM{ _wHw$Q>_oU ÂhUO{ S>m∞. OpÒQ>Z A∞]Q>.
`mßZt 1860 [mgyZ 1910 [`™V gw_ma{ Mmirg df~ _hmamÔ≠>m¿`m g{d|V Ï`VrV H{$ct. [°H$s®
25 df~ V{ kmZm{X` [Ãm¿`m BßJ´Or od^mJmM{ gß[mXH$ hm{V{. ^m`I˘`mßV ∑cmH©$ A∞]Q>
hm`ÒHy$c d ocQ>c ]m∞BO hm{_ S>m∞. d o_g{g A∞]Q> `mßZt gwÍ$ H{$c| d Mmcodc|. ]m`]c
napÏhOZ H$o_Q>r¿`m H$m_mßV A∞]Q> gmh{]mßMm dmQ>m qghmMm Agm`Mm. _amR>r ^mf{da d
ode{fVï gßVdmç`mda `mßM| \$ma [´{_ Ag{. VwH$mam_, am_Xmg, kmZX{d, Zm_X{d, EH$ZmW,
^mZwXmg, Xmgm{ oXJß]a, ]ohUm]mB©, ÒVm{ÃgßJ´h Ag{ oH$VroVar H$mÏ`J´ßW À`mßZt BßJ´Or_‹`|
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 3
** Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 2
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 661$&&

AZwdmoXV H{$c{ Amh{V.
S>m∞. A∞]Q> ÒdVïodf`t ocohVmV, ""_t qhXwÒVmZmßV [wÓH$i df~ H$moT>ct. VŒdkmZmMm,
d{XmßVmMm gßÒH•$V_YyZ A‰`mg H{$cm oH$À`{H$ Y_©[a g_Ò`mßda od¤mZ [ßoS>Vmßer AmoU
gm_m›` e{VH$Ë`mßer MMm© H{$Î`m. qhXw Y_m©¿`m _ycVŒdmßMr MmßJcr OmUrd _cm
od¤mZmßH$Sy>Z AmoU gd©gm_m›`mßH$Sy>Z ‡mflV Pmc{cr Amh{.''
Am[Î`m e{dQ>Î`m H°$o\$`VtVyZ (Testament ) AmoU _•À`w[Ãm¤ma| À`mßZr 343
hOma S>m∞cg©¿`m ‡MßS> X{UΩ`m oH$À`{H$ gßÒWmßZm d H$m`©H$À`m™Zm oXÎ`m. dmB©¿`m o_eZ
hm∞pÒ[Q>ccm 50 hOma, c{[g© o_eZcm 20 hOma, ^maV BoVhmg gßem{YZ _ßS>imcm 30
hOma, Jm{Ic{ hm∞c J´ßWmc`mcm 5 hOma, gm{ec gpÏh©g crJ, _wß]B© `ßmg EH$ hOma,
oS>Ò‡{ÒS> ∑cmg o_eZcm EH$ hOma, qhJ `m¿`m odYdm dgoVJ•hmcm EH$ hOma, gÏh™Q>g≤
Am∞\$ BßoS>`m gm{gm`Q>rcm EH$ hOma, g{dmgXZ gßÒW{cm EH$ hOma À`mßZt oXc{ d Am[Î`m
[wÒVH$mß¿`m ‡og’rgmR>t a{. O{.E\$. ES>dS>©g≤ `mßOH$S>{ Xhm hOma d ZmJ[mS>m Z{]ahˇS>
hmD$g (AmoU A_{naH{$Vrc BVa gßÒWm) `mßOH$S>{ Xhm hOma S>m∞cg© gw[yX© H{$c{.
Am∞∑Q>m{]a 1898 _‹`| A_{naH$Z _amR>r o_eZ H$m∞›\$a›g[wT>| dmMc{Î`m oZ]ßYmßV V{
ÂhUVmV ""^maVr` gmohÀ`mM| kmZ h| ‡^mdr Am`wY o_eZar]ßYyßZm C[c„Y Pmc{c| Amh{.
AmoU _cm dmQ>V| À`mß¿`m eÒÃmJmamßVc| h| A_m{Y AÒÃ Xwc©ojV amhˇZ JßOyZ Mmcc|
Amh{.... _m¬`m o_eZat]ßYßyZm _mP| AmJ´hmM| gmßJU| Amh{ H$s® À`mßZt gßÒH•$V ^mf{Mm
A‰`mg H$amdm. gßÒH•$V gmohÀ`met Am{iI hrM _amR>r gmohÀ`m¿`m _ycÚm{Vmet Am{iI
hm{`.''
19 OyZ 1932 am{Ot d`m¿`m 79 Ï`m dfu go_Q> `{W| S>m∞. OpÒQ>Z A∞]Q> `mßMm AßV
Pmcm. c˙_r]mB™Zt A∞]Q>gmh{]mßMm CÑ{I ""oQ>iH$mßM{ Y_©JwÍ$'' ÂhUyZ H{$c{cm Amh{.
(Ò_oVoMÃ|-^mJ 2,) óÌ`m._. AmT>md

AmOm{]m (dmgwX{d ^JdßV Om{Ji{H$a cZmoQ> M{ _mVm_h)
""gŒmmdZ gmc¿`m ]ßS>m¿`m Ym_Yw_rMm \$m`Xm AmOm{]mß¿`m d°Ë`mßZr K{Vcm d gaH$mar
AoYH$mË`mß¿`m _ZmßV AmOm{]mß¿`m odÍ$’ H$mßht oH$pÎ_f CÀ[›Z H{$c|..... AmOm{]mßZm
YÍ$Z Z{ `mV Amc| d Õ`ß]H{$ÌdatM Vm]S>Vm{] \$mßet X{ `mßV Amc|''
dmgwX{d ^JdßV `mßM{ EH$ [UVw ^mÒH$a JU{e `mßZt Aer _mohVr o_iodcr Amh{ H$s®
h| oH$pÎ_f oZamYma ZÏhV|. Am[Î`m o^Ñ d H$m{ir Hw$imßMr gßKQ>Zm H$Í$Z dmgwX{d
^JdßV `mßZt ""oe[m`mß¿`m ]ßS>mg'' Iam{IaM `Wmeo∫$ hmV^ma cmodcm hm{Vm.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 662$&&

AmR>dc{ am.].]m[yamd Zmam`U *
‡W_ _wß]B™V hm`H$m{Q>© dH$sc. [wT>| H°$H$ df~ _wß]B©M{ H$m∞am{Za. oQ>iH$mßMm `mßMm ÒZ{h
gw_ma| 1896 [mgyZMm. 1898 V H{$edamd Jm{Ic{ d c˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$ `mßZm
gaH$maXa]maMm YmH$ XmIodUma{ dH$sc h{M. 1904 _‹`| oQ>iH$mßZt oºÒVr ZmJnaH$
gwÍ$ H{$c|. V| ZdcH$a-H$m{VH$-AmR>dc{ `m Ã`r¿`m ghH$mamZ|. ‡À`j [Ãmda _mÃ
AmR>dc{ `mßM{ Zmßd Zmht.
oQ>iH$mß¿`m _•À`yZßVa À`mß¿`m XhZmMr Ï`dÒWm dair¿`m O[mZr (oMZr ?)
Ò_emZ^y_rda Pmcr Vr `mß¿`m ‡`ÀZmZ|.
am.]. AmR>dc{ `mßMr _m{R>r H$m_oJar ÂhUO{ À`mßZt ÒdVßÃ[U| H{$c{cm ]m`]cMm
_amR>r AZwdmX""aÀZ_ßOyfm AWdm gßojflV [odà emÒÃ'' AmO[`™V Pmc{Î`m gd© _amR>r
^mfm›Vamß_‹`| AmR>dc{ `mßM| ^mfm›Va ^mf{¿`m —Ô>tZ| COd| R>aV|.
óÌ`m._. AmT>md

AmT>md a{. ]m[y Zm_mOr **
AmT>md Kam `mßVrc _yc oºÒVr [wÈf. gwoeojV, gwgßÒH•$V, Jm°adU©, Hw$Umdaoh N>m[
[S>{c Ag{ Ï`pŒH$_Œd, Ji{]ßX H$m{Q>, a{e_r [mßT>a| Òd¿N> Ym{Va, OarH$mßR>r oZ˘`mOmß^˘`m
aßJmMm S>m{H$scm Í$_mc. [m`mßV [wU{ar Om{S>m, [wUVmß]| _{WoS>ÒQ> MM©M{ [miH$; [wT>| Vi{Jmßdmg
]Xcr d V{WyZM g{dmoZd•Œm. VÀ[ydv A_{naH$Z _amR>r o_eZ_‹`| oeHy$Z XrojV [miH$
Pmc{c{. oQ>iH$mßet [naM` V{WcmM. [ÀZr gmodÃr]mB©, [wà _Zm{haamd, H$›`m gm{Zw]mB©
AmßJ´{, gÍ$]mB© AmS>mßJi{ d dmÍ$dm]B© Am{hm{i `mßMm oQ>iH$ Kam `mßet oOÏhm˘`mMm
ÒZ{hgß]ßY.
AmTmd Kam `mZ| oºÒVr gmohÀ`mßV _m{cmMr H$m_oJar H{$c{cr Amh{. ]m[yOtM{ ""[yU©
Pmc|'' h{ EH$ [wÒVH$ ‡og’ Pmc{c| AgyZ ""gßV AmJpÒVZ `mßM| MnaÃ'' d ""AmZßXmMr
Jm{Ô>'' hr Xm{Z hÒVocoIV| C[c„Y Amh{V. gmodÃr]mB™M| ""pÒÃ`mßg ]m{Y'' h| [wÒVH$
‡og’ Amh{. _Zm{haamd h{ oºÒVr g_mOmßVc{ EH$ Zm_mßoH$V c{IH$ d H$od hm{D$Z J{c{.
kmZm{X`mßVyZ À`mßM{ 100-125 A^ßJ ‡og’ Pmc{c{ AgyZ ""CY˘`m [wÃ'' d ""H∞$c|S>a
M_ÀH$ma' hr À`mßMr Xm{Z [wÒVH|$ ‡og’ Amh{V.
AmT>md Kam `mM| gmohÀ`g{d{M| d´V ]m[yOt¿`m Mm°œ`m o[T>tZ|oh Mmcy amoIc{c{ß
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 4
** Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 2
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 663$&&

Amh{.

AmeÂ_m]mB© e{I C_a *
""dmB©g AmeÂ_m]mB© e{I C_a Zmßdm¿`m EH$ AÀ`ßV gmcg, X{d^rÍ$ d ‡{_i oI´ÒVr
]mB© ahmV AgV. oQ>iH$ À`mßZm AmB© ÂhUV.
cZmoQ> ¿`m _ZmßVcm OmoV^{X g_yi J{cm À`m ‡gßJr¿`m AmeÂ_m]mB© `m EH$
g_jgmjr hm{À`mM. 1933-34 gmct cZmoQ>Mt Ò_•oVoMÃ| H´$_eï ‡og’ hm{V AgÎ`mM|
`mßZm H$ic| hm{V| d À`m]‘c À`mßZm _m{R>r Y›`Vm dmQ>{.
]mB™M| _mh{aM| Zmßd AmeÂ_m ]ßS>{cw. `mßM{ [oV e{I C_a [°emZ| Jar] [U d•ŒmrZ|
AÀ`ßV À`mJr, A‰`mgr, Ymo_©H$ d ‡`ÀZerc hm{V{. Hw$amUmM{ Ï`mgßJr d Amd{er
_wgc_mZ. 1865 _‹`| ]m`]cMm ]maH$mB©Z| A‰`mg H$Í$Z V{ oºÒVr Pmc{. [wT>rc gma|
Am`wÓ` Ah_XZJa¿`m [ßMH´$m{etV À`mßZt Ï`VrV H{$c|. OdiOdi ÒdIMm©Z| À`mßZt
""_m›Zm'' ZmßdmM| _mogH$ Mmcdc|, ]m`]c¿`m ‡Vt oH$À`{H$ oOkmgyßZm odZm_yÎ` oXÎ`m.
[wT>| dmH$m{S>r d q^Jma `{W| emimoh MmcodÎ`m. gd© oejU CXy©_YyZ Pmc{c| AgVmßZmoh
À`mßZr _amR>tV ^p∫$[a [⁄| ocohct. 1881 V V| oXdßJV Pmc{. À`mß¿`m_mJ| AmeÂ_m]mB©
gw_ma{ 55 df~ h`mV hm{À`m.
oQ>iH$ ocohVmV, ""g‹`mß À`mßMr [ÀZr AmeÂ_m]mB© ¯m dmB©g X{dmMr d _ZwÓ`mßMr
g{dm H$arV Amh{V. XwïImMm Agcm _hm[d©V H$m{gicm, (Ò_•oVoMÃ|- ^mJ 2, [•. 45)
Var ¯m ]mB© X{dm¿`m B¿N>{cm _m›` amhˇZ Jß^ra d emßV arVrZ| Am[c| H$V©Ï` H$arV Amh{V.
ÒdVï AmÂhmßcm AmpÀ_H$ Jm{Ô>tV À`mß¿`mH$Sy>Z BVH|$ gm¯ hm{V Amh{ H$s® `m Ï`∫$scm _mÃ
AmÂhr Am[cr AmB© g_OV Amhm|. ¡`mcm XwïImMm ^ma gm{gdV Zmht À`mßZ| ¯m ]mB™¿`m
ghdmgmcm X{mZ oXdg OmD$Z amhmd|.'' (o_. e{I C_a-kmZm{X` 1900)

COJa{ a{. ^mÒH$a H•$ÓU ** (1887-1935)
^mÒH$aamdmßda oQ>iH$Xß[VrM| [wÃdV≤ ‡{_ hm{V|. Ò_•oVoMÃmßV À`mßMm CÑ{I ^mÒH$a `m
EH{$ar ZmßdmZ|M Pmc{cm Amh{. ^mÒH$aamd h{ EH$ A‰`mgy d MVwaÒÃ oºÒVr gmohpÀ`H$
hm{D$Z J{c{. oQ>iH$mßMr H$odVm (^mJ 1 d ^mJ 2-A^ßJmßOoc) gß[moXV H{$Î`mZ| À`mßM|
Zmßd gd©[naoMV Pmc|.
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 2
** Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 3 d 4
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 664$&&

^mÒH$aamdmßZt À`mß¿`m h`mVtV Mma oºÒVr gmohÀ`gß_{cZ| KS>dyZ AmoUct. 1927
¿`m gß_{cZmßV dmMc{Î`m oZ]ßYmßMm gßJ´h À`mßZrß ]ßYw a{. _Zm{haamd COJa{ `mß¿`m gm¯mZ|,
""oºÒVr _amR>r dmç`mMm BoVhmg'' `m ZmßdmZ| gß[moXV H{$cm. À`mßVrc À`mßMm ÒdVïMm
oZ]ßY ""_amR>r oºÒVr gmohÀ`mM| gm_m›` g_mcm{MZ'' hm A‰`mg[yU© d _m°ocH$
odMmamßZr gß[›Z Amh{.
^mÒH$aamd MmßJc{ H$od hm{V{. C[mgZmgßJrVmßV À`mßMr 10 H$dZ| AgyZ Vt cm{H$o‡`
R>ac{ct Amh{V.
_hmamÔ≠> e„XH$m{e _ßS>imcm ^mÒH$aamdmßM| ghH$m`© d gmhmÊ` od[wc cm^c{c| Amh{.
_.gm.[. ¿`m H$m`©H$mnaUrda gaoMQ>Urg ÂhUyZ À`mßMr oZdS> Pmcrß hm{Vr. À`mß¿`m
oZYZmZßVa H{$c{Î`m XwIdQ>Ám¿`m R>amdmßV [nafX{Z| À`mßMm ""^mfm‡^w'' ÂhUyZ Jm°ad H{$c{cm
Amh{. À`mß¿`m AH$mcr oZYZm_wi| À`mß¿`m AZ{H gßH$pÎ[V `m{OZm A[wË`m amohÎ`m
AmoU oºÒVr gmohÀ`mM| A[ma ZwH$gmZ Pmc| Ag{ ÂhUmd| cmJV{.
(lr. odO`mZßX ^mÒH$a COJa{ `mßZt oXc{Î`m _mohVr¿`m AmYma|)

ES>dS>©g≤ a{. O{. E\$.*
A_{naH$Z _amR>r o_eZ_Yrc AoYH$mar, [w `mg d _wß]B©g g{dm H{$cr.oQ>iH$mßM| d
[wT>{ X{dXŒmmßM{ gp›_Ã, kmZm{X` [Ãm¿`m BßJ´Or od^mJmM{ AZ{H$ df~ gß[mXH$. `wZm`Q>{S>
oWAm∞cm{oOH$c H$m∞c{O_‹`| A‹`m[Z, _amR>tV AZ{H$ [wÒVH|$ ocohct. À`mßVrc
""VwH$mam_mMm g{Vw'' ode{f ‡og’. ]m∞Â]{ na‡{O|Q>{oQ>Ïh oº¸Z H$m°p›gc, ]m∞Â]{ Q>≠>∑Q> A∞›S>
]wH$ gm{gm`Q>r, kmZm{X` ]m{S>© BÀ`moX AZ{H$ gßÒWm_‹`| AoYH$mam¿`m OmJm ^yfodÎ`m.
- Ì`m. _. AmT>md

(1879-1972)
H$m_V ]m[yOr ]miH•$ÓU **
**(1879-1972)
1922-24 gmct H$amMr `{Wrc dmÒVÏ`mßVc{ oQ>iH$ Hw$Qw>ß]mM{ EH$ gp›_Ã. _wß]B©
BcmIr oejUImÀ`mßV Zm{H$ar. lr H$m_V B.A., B.Sc., B.T., T.D.
(London) Aem AZ{H$ [XÏ`mßZt od^yofV AgyZ ^mfm d odkmZ Xm{htVc{ V¡k
A‹`m[H$ hm{V{. h°Xam]mX (qgY) d H$amMr `{W| AZ{H$ df~ A‹`m[Z H{$Î`mZ| qgYr
_wcmßMr gßÒH•$V¿`m A‰`mgmMr J°agm{` À`mßZm OmUdcr d AZ{H$ ‡`m{J H$Í$Z À`mßZt
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 3
** Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 4
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 665$&&

""gw]m{YgßÒH•$V_≤'' hr S>m`a{∑Q> _{WS>Mr [wÒVH$_mcm V`ma H{$cr. Vr MmßJcrM `eÒdr
R>acr. 1935V h{ gm{cm[wamg g{dmoZd•Œm Pmc{.
ó O`dßV ]m. H$m_V

H$sVuH$a H$Z©c H$m›hm{]m aUN>m{S>Xmg I.M.S. (1849-1917)*
oQ>iH$mßM{ ¡`{> H$odo_Ã, H$od, S>m∞∑Q>a, emÒÃk Aem AZ{H$odY j{Ãmß_‹`| H$Z©c
H$m›hm{]mßZt Zmßd H{$c{c| Amh{. _wß]B©g J´mßQ> _{oS>H$c H$m∞c{O_‹`| V{ ‡m{\{$ga hm{V{. [aX{erß
OmD$Z À`mßZr cÓH$ar d°⁄H$mM{ d eÎ`od⁄{M| Img oejU K{Vc| d 1880 ¿`m 2Ë`m
A\$JmU `w’mßV ‡À`j ^mJ K{Vcm.
_amR>r, qhXr, BßJ´Or ]am{]aM À`mßM{ gßÒH•$V, c∞oQ>Z, J´rH$ ^mfmßda ‡^wÀd hm{V|. AZ{H$
^mfmßVrc BoVhmg, VŒdkmZ, gmohÀ` `mßMm À`mßZt Ï`mgßJ H{$c{cm hm{Vm. ]´˜Y_©‡oV[mXH$
dm∑`gßJ´h, S>mod©ZMnaÃ, kmZ{úadMZm_•V, am_XmgdMZm_•V Ag{ AZ{H$ od¤Œmm‡Mwa
J´ßW À`mßZt ocohc{ AgyZ À`mßMr ^o∫$gwYm, odcm[char, BßoXam, Am`©gßJrV_mcm B.
H$mÏ`|oh ‡og’r [mdc{crß hm{Vrß. R>m{_Ë`mßZm ]mcH$od oH$Vm] o_imcm Vm{ OiJmßd¿`m
H$odgß_{cZmßV A‹`j H$. H$sVuH$a `mßM{ hÒV|. ]mcH$dtZt ZJamg oQ>iH$mß¿`m
oZJamUrImct ahmd| hr `m{OZm H$sVuH$amßMrM. À`mgmR>t À`mßZr R>m{_a{ `mßZm Xa_hm Xhm
È[`{ ""ÒH$m∞caoe['' oXcr hm{Vr.
1909 gmct gmohÀ`gß_{cZmM| A‹`j[Xoh `mßZt ^yfodc| hm{V|. oQ>iH$mß¿`m o]´Q>∞oZ`m
`m H$mÏ`mcm H$Z©c H$sVuH$amßMr BßpΩce ‡ÒVmdZm Om{S>c{cr Amh{.

Hw$cH$Uu eßH$a ]idßV **
dUr `{W| 1890-91 gmcr oQ>iH$mßZt Mmcodc{Î`m emi|Vc| od⁄mWu dUrg
oQ>iH$mßMr H$›`m Z_©Xm C\©$ _mB© oZdV©cr. oQ>iH$mß¿`m gwYmaH$s dV©Zm_wi| oVMr oH´$`m
H$a `mg ]´m˜U `{B©ZmV. V{Ïhmß eßH$aamdmßZr [wT>| hm{D$Z V| H$m_ H{$c{ß d À`mdÍ$Z ]amM
Ãmgoh gm{gcm.
10-2-1895 am{Ot, oQ>iH$mß¿`m ]mpflVÒÂ`m¿`m oXderM, eßH$aamd d À`mßM{ Xm{K{
_m_{^mD$ ([mR>H$) `mßMm ]mpflVÒ_m Pmcm. [wT>| eßH$aamd H{$S>Jmßdmg [ß.a_m]mB™M{ gmhmÊ`H$
Pmc{. 1904 V _Zm{haamd VI©S> `mß¿`m Om{S>rZ| eßH$aamdmßZt ""oºÒVml_'' h| H$odV{M|
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 3
** Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 1
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 666$&&

_mogH$ H$mT>c| hm{V|. 1936 V ""g¿N>mÒÇXr[H$'' `m _mogH$mßM{ V{ C[gß[mXH$ ÂhUyZ
H$m_ [mhˇß cmJc|. oºÒVml_ÒW `m Q>m{[UZmßdmZ{ À`mßZt od[wc J⁄ d [⁄ c{IZ H{$c{c|
Amh{.

H$m{Q>H$ (H$m{VH$) ^mÒH$a ZmZOr
H$m{Q>H$mßZm _amR>r H$odVm \$ma g_O{ d ode{fVï da gmßoJVÎ`m Vem VËh{¿`m H$odVm
(C[am{Y[yU©) V{ o_Q>∑`m _mÍ$Z dmMrV. d Am[Î`m g_mOmßVrc Ahß_›` [wT>mË`mßZm
oQ>iH$M dR>Urcm AmUVrc Aer À`mßMr ‡m_moUH$ g_OyV hm{Vr. V{ oQ>iH$mßM{ o_Ãoh
hm{V{.
ZmZOr Jm{H$c H$m{VH$ h{ JwOamWr J•hÒW oºÒVr Pmc{ hm{V{. À`mß¿`m [ÀZt `_wZm]mB©
_hmamÓQ≠>r` hm{À`m. À`mßM| EH$ ^p∫$JrV C[mgZmgßJrVmßV Amh{. ^mÒH$aamd h| À`mßM{ o¤Vr`
oMaßOrd. `mßZm _amR>r ^mf{Mm AÀ`ßV Ao^_mZ hm{Vm. _amR>rda À`mßM| ‡^wÀdoh MmßJc|
hm{V|. N>m[Im›`mM| H$m_ À`mßZm \$ma o‡` Ag{. H$XmoMV≤ V{ß EÒÃmEcmBQ> N>m[Im›`mßV
H$m_ H$arV Agmd{V. oQ>iH$ ÂhUVmV, ""‡y\$arS>a ÂhUyZ À`mßMr ª`moV gmVmg_w–mß[ocH$S>{
J{c{cr hm{Vr. ''
EH{$H$m Ï`ŒH$sda qH$dm ‡gßJmda ^mÒH$aamd hÒV[ÃH|$ H$mTy>Z dmQ>rV. À`m_wi| À`mßM|
gVV Hw$Umet Zm Hw$Umet PJS>{ Mmcy Agm`M{. ht [ÃH|$ ""Ò[Ô>d∫$m'' `m ghrMt AgV.
o_eZar [XmoYH$mË`mßer `mßMt gVV ^mßS>U| MmcV. EH$m [ÃH$mßV À`mßZt oQ>iH$mßZt
[w `mg `{D$Z `m oe>mßMr IaS> H$mT>mdr ÂhUyZ AmdmhZ H{$c| hm{V|. oQ>iH$mß¿`m C[am{Y[a
H$odVm Wm{S>∑`mM Amh{V. `m H$odVmßM{ ^mÒH$aamd h{ Img ^m{∫{$ Agm`M|. À`mßM| ÒdVïM|
c{IZoh I_ßJ Ag{. "Thank you for your silence" `m gwÈdmVrM| À`mßM| EH$
[Ã _t [mohc{c| Amh{.
oQ>iH$mßMm À`mßMm ÒZ{h KoZÔ> Agm`Mm. _wcmcm [w `mg ZyVZ _amR>r od⁄mc`mßV
KmVc| V{Ïhmß À`mMr amh `mMr Ï`dÒWm H$m{VH$mß¿`m Kat H{$cr hm{Vr. X{ZmoQ> ÂhUVmV,
""^mÒH$aamd _mP{ MmßJc{ JmoS>©`Z hm{V{. _cm YmH$mßV R>{drV [U H$Yt _marV o]arV ZgV.''
oºÒVr ZmJnaH$ [Ã oQ>iH$-ZdcH$a-H$m{VH$ `m oVKmßZt o_iyZ H$moT>c| hm{V|.
o_eZatet \$maH$V hm{Vmß hm{Vmß ^mÒH$aamd Y_m©[mgyZoh Xwamdyß cmJc{. H$mßht H$mi V{ [∑H{$
ZmpÒVH$ ]Zc{ hm{V{. `mM H$mimßV oQ>iH$mßMr ^o∫$_Œmm ode{f \$m{\$mdyß cmJc{cr hm{Vr.
oºÒVr ZmJnaH$ ]ßX hm{ `mM| h{oh EH$ H$maU Agc| [mohO{. oQ>iH$ ^mÒH$aamdmßZm ocohVmV,
""_V ]XcU| `mMm AW© VwÂhmßcm g_OV Zmht. XwamJ´hmcm VwÂhr _V ÂhUVmß. _r ÂhUV

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 667$&&

Zmht..... Vw_¿`mB¿N>{‡_mU| W{Q> dmJm`M| _m¬`m¿`mZ| hm{Uma Zmht. À`m[{jmß _cm Var
¯m [ÃmMr aOm K{Dß$ ⁄m. Vw_Mm _mPm ÒZ{h Amh{ [U Òd^md gmaIm Zmht. Vw_¿`m —Ô>rZ|
_r _yI©, MßMc, o^Ãm Amh{. _m¬`m —Ô>rZ| VwÂhr h≈>r. EH$dÑr d erK´H$m{[r Amhmß.
AmUIr Am[cr EH$_{H$mßodf`t Aet _V| AgÎ`mda Xm{KmßZt o_iyZ EImX| H$m_ H$a `mg
Am[U `m{Ω` Zmht. O{ hm{Uma Zmht V| H$emcm [wT>| MmcdmßM| ? [Ã Mmcyß ⁄m [U Vr gd©
O]m]Xmar VwÂhr Var Am[Î`mda ø`m qH$dm _cm Var K{Dß$ ⁄m.''
[wT>| ^mÒH$aamd H$cH$À`mg J{c{. V{Wrc gaH$mar N>m[Im›`mßV À`mßZm Zm{H$ar hm{Vr.
1916 _‹`| V{ Mmoier¿`m d`mßVM oZYZ [mdc{. À`mß¿`m _•À`wc{ImßV oQ>iH$ ÂhUVmV,
""^mÒH$aamd AJXt [admß[md{Vm| [∑H{$ ZmpÒVH$ hm{V{. EH$m H$mit oZÒgr_ oºÒV^∫$
Agc{cm hm VÈU ZmpÒVH$ H$gm ]Zcm h| gmßJ `mMm hm g_` Zmht. AmÂhmßcm BVH$mM
AmZßX dmQ>Vm{ H$s® _aUm[ydv hm CY˘`m [wà [yU©[U| AZwVflV hm{D$Z Am[Î`m ]m[mH$S>{
Amc{cm AgyZ [¸mVm[m_wi| À`mMr o[V•^o∫$ AÀ`ßV Vrd´ Pmc{cr hm{Vr. ‡^yZ| h| hadc{c|
H$m{H$Íß$ h˛S>Hy$Z AmoUc| ÂhUyZ AmÂht À`mM{ AÀ`ßV F$Ur Amhmß{.'' (kmZm{X` 4, OmZ{dmar
1917)

H$m{R>mar dmcMßX am_MßX (1892-1978)
X°oZH$ "‡^mV' AmoU [w `mßVrc [ohc| BßJ´Or X°oZH$ "[yZm S>{cr ›`yO' `m [ÃmßM{ gß[mXH$
d _mcH$ H°$. dm.am.H$m{R>mar `mß¿`mgmaIm Ï`mgßJr, ]h˛lwV AmoU gÏ`gmMr gß[mXH$
_m¬`m AmT>imßV Xwgam Amc{cm Zmht. [a_gohÓUwVm H$er Agmdr `mM| H$m{R>mar ÂhUO{
EH$ oOdßV CXmhaUM hm{`.
lr. H$m{R>mar h{ ‡W_ gÀ`em{YH$, ZßVa cm{H$emhr Òdam¡` [jmM{ d e{dQ>t ÒdVßÃ
]m `mM{ hm{V{. Hw$R>Î`moh [jmcm odH$c{ Z J{c{c{ Ag{ V{ EH$mßS>{ oec{XmaM amohc{.
Hw$R>Î`moh [jmMm MmßJwc[Um Z{_H$m h{Í$Z V{ À`mMm [waÒH$ma H$arV AmoU À`mß¿`m
AoZÔ>[Umda H$S>mSy>Z hÑm MT>drV. _mà À`mßZr Hw$Umoh Z{À`mMm H$Yt AoYj{[ H{$c{cm
Zmht. À`mßM| C[am{YmM| XwYmar eÒÃ AmoU À`m]am{]aM À`mßMr odZm{Xr d oIcmSy> d•Œm
¯m_wi| À`mßZr H$Yr eÃw oZ_m©U H{$c{ ZmhtV.
1923V ""Òdam¡` [jmM{'' C_{Xdma ÂhUyZ V{ _wß]B© Ag|„ctV oZdSy>Z Amc{. 1936
_‹`| À`mßMm cm{.Òd. [jmMm ‡Mma ""amÔ≠>_V'' [ÃmßVyZ Mmc{. 1938 _‹`| od.[w.
^mJdVmßH$Sy>Z À`mßZr ""‡^mV'' X°oZH$ Mmcdmd`mg K{Vc|. AmoU ZßVa 1950 _‹`{ ""[yZm
S>{cr ›`yO'' gwÍ$ H{$c|. gß`w∫$ _hmamÔ≠> [ßMH$mßVc{ EH$ PwßOma g{ZmZr ÂhUyZ À`mßM| H$m`©
AodÒ_aUr` Amh{.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 668$&&

oedMnaÃ, JrVahÒ`gma, Xm{Z H$mXß]Ë`m AmoU H$m`⁄mMr AZ{H$ [wÒVH|$ Agm À`mßMm
od[wc gmohÀ`gß^ma Amh{. lr. H$m{R>mar ÒdVï gßÒH•$V[´{_r AmoU _r OJ›ZmW eßH$ae{Q>
ÒH$m∞ca AgÎ`m_wi| À`mßM{ d _mP{ gß]ßY oOÏhm˘`mM{ hm{V{. À`mßZt gmßoJVc{c{ oH$À`{H$
odZm{Xr oH$Òg| _r _m¬`m _Zm¿`m ]ßoXÒV [{Q>tV O[yZ R>{odc{c{ Amh{V. ‡gßJ gwImMm
`{dm{, XwïImMm `{dm{ À`mßMr oMŒmd•oV H$Yt T>ic{cr Am_¿`m AZwß^dmg Amc{cr Zmht.
lr H$m{R>mar `mßMm Ï`dhma _m{R>m Mm{I Ag{. Am[Î`m Zm{H$adJm©Mmoh À`mßZt H$Yt
AoYj{[H{$c{cm Zmht. À`mß¿`m AS>MUr OmUyZ K{D$Z V{ À`mßZm Z{h_t _XV H$arV. [U
À`mßVoh ohe{]r[Um Agm`MmM.
H°$. H$m{R>matMm Zm{H$a, ghH$mar AmoU MmhVm `m oV›hr ZmÀ`m_wi| _cm _m{R>m Ao^_mZ
d Y›`Vm dmQ>V{.
óX`mZßX oOdmOramd [Q>dY©Z,
_mOr ghgß[mXH$ X°. ‡^mV d [yZm S>{cr ›`yO

Ia{H$mH$m (aKwZmW [mßSw>aßJ Ia{)
ÂhmVmam \$ma \$Q>H$i hm{Vm. [´{_i \$ma [U A^–oh \$ma ]m{cm`Mm. À`mßZr _mPr
g_OyV H{$cr. ""h{ [hm, _r gmßJVm| Vwcm, oQ>iH$ H$mßhr _aV Zmht Vyß EH$ oXdg `{W|
amohcrg Va''
Ia{H$mH$m h{ gImam_ oQ>iH$mßM{ Ìdewa. aI_mB©M{ dS>rc. ^wgmdicm `mßZt ÒdIMm©Z|
[am{[H$mamgmR>t odohar ]mßYodÎ`m hm{À`m. À`m AOyZ Amh{V Ag{ aI_mB™Zt (1936
_‹`|) gmßoJVc|.

Jm`H$dmS> qMVm_U gImam_ *
c˙_r]mB™Zt doU©c{Î`m flc{J H±$[ _Yrc Zg© OmB©]mB© `mßM{ h{ oMaßOrd. 1916 gmct
ZJa¿`m B©Ìdaod⁄m[nakmZemi|V h{ od⁄mWu ÂhUyZ Amc{. _Ywa AmdmOmMr `mßZm X{UJrM
hm{Vr. ""X{dm¿`m Xa]mamßV'' qMVm_U]wdmßMm ^mJ \$ma _m{R>m hm{Vm. c˙_r]mB© `mßZm ""Wm{acm
qMVy'' `m ZmßdmZ| gß]m{YrV (H$maU À`m d{it À`mß¿`mH$S>{ AmUIr EH$ qMVm_Uamd
Jm`H$dmS> hm{V{. V{oh MmßJc{ Jm`H$ hm{V{. À`mßM| C[Zmßd hm{V| ""YmH$Q>m qMVy'')ß kmZm{X`mßVyZ
oQ>iH$mßMm A^ßJmßOoc H´$_eï `{V hm{Vm. Xa AmR>dS>ÁmßV `{UmË`m ZdrZ A^ßJmßZm ZdrZ
Mmcr cmdyZ V{ X{dm¿`m Xa]mamßV gmXa H$a `mM| H$m_ Wm{aÎ`m qMVyM| Ag{. ‡ª`mV
Jm`H$ Im±gmh{] A„Xwc H$ar_ Im± d Jm`ZmMm`© AmMa{H$a]wdm `mß¿`met oQ>iH$mßZrß
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 3
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 669$&&

qMVy]wdmßMt Am{iI H$Í$Z oXcr. d `m Xm{Z Wm{a JwÍß$M{ oeÓ`Àd `mßZm cm^c|. [wT>| À`mßZt
ÒdVï Jm`ZmM{ dJ© MmcdyZ I{S>Ám[mS>ÁmVrc oºÒVr _ßS>˘`mßg ^OZmMr Jm{S>r cmodcr.
AZ{H$ o_eZgßÒWm, [ß. a_m]mB© d gwßXam]mB© [dma `ßm¿`m emim, [w `mßVrc gaH$mar d
Â`woZog[c emim `mßV ]wdmßZt AZ{H$ df}ß gßJrV-oejH$mM| H$m_ H{$c|. ""^p∫$gwYm''
ZmßdmM| EH$ [wÒVH$ À`mßZt ocohc|. À`mV Vmc, Òda, oc[r `mßgh ‡og’ JrV| gßJ´ohV
H{$ct. [wU|, _hm]i{úa dJ°a{ oR>H$mUt ^aod `mßV `{UmË`m gßJrV g_aÒHy$bgM{ ]wdm
Z{ h _rß oejH$ Agm`M{ . 1961V AmH$medmUrV\} $ gmXa Pmc{ Î `m
oQ>iH$O›_eVm„Xr_‹`| `mßZt ^mJ K{Vcm hm{Vm. h|M À`mßM| e{dQ>c| H$m`©. À`mM dfu 15
oS>g|]a am{Ot À`mßMm AßV Pmcm.
óHw$.lr_oV qMVm_U Jm`H$dmS>

Jm{Ic{ _YwgyXZ odÓUw C\©$ Am]m*
b˙_r]mB™M{ ]ßYw odÓUwH$mH$m `mßM{ h{ oMaßOrd. ZmerH$ Â`woZog[mobQ>tV Zm{H$ar.
¡`m{oVïemÛmMr AmdS> d A‰`mg ÒdVï¿`m _•À`yMr VmarI d d{i À`mßZt AmYtM
dV©dyZ R>{dbr hm{Vr. ]mb]m{Y_{dm _mogH$m¿`m gß[mXZmßV X{dXŒmmßM{ d oºÒVm`Z
_hmH$mÏ`m¿`m b{IZmßV b˙_r]mB™M{ gmhmÊ`H$. _YwgyXZ `m ZmßdmZ| _wbmßgmR>t H$odVm
Jm{Ô>r dJ°a{ obhrV. H´$o_H$ [wÒVH$mßVyZ `mß¿`m H$odVm AmOoh AmT>iVmV. _bm ÒdVïbm
bhmZ[Ut b{IZm¿`m H$m_t `mßM{ MmßJb{ _mJ©Xe©Z d gmhmÊ` Pmb{b{ Amh{.

Jm{Ib{ dmgwX{d odÓUw C\©$ XmXm (1902-1969)
bZmoQ> M{ ^mM{. _YwgyXZmßM{ Wm{ab{ ]ßYw. 1916 _‹`| X{dXŒm ZmJ[wamg ohÒbm∞[
H$m∞b{OmßV E_≤.E.M{ od⁄mWu d hm∞ÒQ>{bM{ a{∑Q>a hm{V{. À`mßZt dmgwX{dmg Am[Î`m]am{]a
ZmJ[yabm Z{b|. AmoU À`m¿`m oejUmMr d [wT>| À`m¿`m MnaVmWm©Mroh O]m]Xmar
CMbbr. ZmeH$mg X{dXŒmmßZt doH$br gwÍ$ H{$br V{Ïhmß dmgwX{d À`mßM{ H$maHy$Z d ZßVa
ZmJnaH$ N>m[ImZm H$mT>Î`mda À`mM{ Ï`dÒWm[H$ hm{V{.
dmgwX{d obohVmV,""Var À`mßMm AmV{^mD$** XyY^mD$, od⁄mWu AmoU e{dQ>t g{dH$
`m ZmÀ`mßZt 1916 [mgyZ 1961 [`™V¿`m XrK©H$mimßV ^mDß$Zm _t OdiyZ [mohbß Amh{.''
oQ>iH$mß¿`m Ka¿`m OdiOdi gmË`mM Jm{Ô>tV `mßMm dmßQ>m Agm`Mm. 1918V X{dXŒmÍ$W oddmhmßV _ßJbmÔ>H|$ ÂhUUmË`mßV `mßMm g_md{e hm{VmM. (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 1,2,3)
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 4
** _m_{^mD$
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 670$&&

X{dXŒmmß¿`m oZYZmZßVa AmÂhm _wbmßM{ V{ EH$ odÌdmgmh© gÑmJma hm{V{. Ò_•oVoMÃmß¿`m
Ao^Zd Amd•ŒmrgmR>t _mohVr Jm{imß H$aVmßZm _bm dmgwX{dH$mH$mßM{ ]h˛_m{b gm¯ Pmb{b|
Amh{.

Jm{[mOr (Jm{[mi gmR>{)*
Jm{[mOr gmR>{ `m J•hÒWmZ| Hw $ ∏$S>d{ S >{ Jmßdt ÒdVï emim H$mT>b{br hm{Vr. `mßZm
OS>r]wQ>r¿`m Am°fYmßMr MmßJbr _mohVr hm{Vr. `m Xm{Z Jm{Ô>r oQ>iH$mß¿`m d b˙_r]mB™¿`m
oboh `mdÍ$Z _bm g_OÎ`m. [U AmUIr H$mß h t _mhrVJmamß H $Sy > Z À`mß ¿ `m
H$odÀ`m]‘boh E{H$b|.
^mbMß– em._m{S>H$ gmßJVmV,""Jm{[mOr gmR>{ ZmßdmMm EH$ _ZwÓ` oQ>iH$mß¿`mH$S>{ Ag{.
Vm{ S>m{∑`mZ| Oamgm odoj·M hm{Vm. Vm{ H$odVm H$ar. À`mbm S>m∞. ¯z_Z| H$m_mdÍ$Z
H$mT>b|. Vm{ gH$mi gß‹`mH$mi oQ>iH$mßH$S>{ [S>{ d À`mß¿`mH$S>{ O{dr. Zm{H$ar gwQ>Î`mbd
À`mZ| oQ>iH$mßZm C‘{eyZ EH$ H$odVm H{$br hm{Vr.
""bmß]S>m{∑`m, bmß]XmT>Ám, Vwbm _r odgaZ H$m?
EH$Q>Ám h˛_mZß gm{S>bß ÂhUyZ Jm{fl`m C[met _ab H$m?''
AmoU Iam{IaM oQ>iH$ hm{V{ Vm{[`™V H$m{UmbmM C[mer _a `mM| H$maU ZÏhV|.''
MmßX{H$a amOmam_Or Aß]mOr
amh˛arg d ZJamg XŒmy¿`m oejUmodf`t b˙_r]mB™M{ ]{V amOmam_Ot¿`m gÎÎ`mZ|
Mmbm`M|. [wT>| ZJa¿`m o_eZ ]m∞BM hm`ÒHy$bM{ h{ h{S>_mÒVa hm{V{. X{dXŒmmßZm `mß¿`m
odf`t _m{R>r H•$VkVm dmQ>{. ""OmVH$H$Wm'' h| [wÒVH$ X{dXŒmmßZt amOmam_OtZm A[©U H{$b{b{
Amh{.

Om{er amdgmh{] aJwd{b bwH$g (1857-1858)
am.gm.a.bw (C\©$ VmÀ`m) `mßM{ Wm{ab{ ]ßYw H∞$ZZ S>∞oZ`b bwH$g Om{er h{ oQ>iH$mßM{
g_d`ÒH$. VWmo[ oQ>iH$mßMmóAmoU À`mß¿`m [wT>Î`m Xm{Z o[T>ÁmßMmohó—T> ÒZ{h
amdgmh{]mßetM AoYH$ hm{Vm. oQ>iH$-Om{er [naM` Vgm \$maM OwZm. 1880-82 _‹`|
amdgmh{]mßM{ dS>rb a{Ïh.bwH$g ([ydm©l_tM{ odR>m{]m _bm{]m) Om{er ZmeH$mg ZXroH$Zmat
Y_©‡Mmam¿`m g^m Mmbdm`M{ AmoU oder]modetM{ Zm.dm.oQ>iH$ AmS>d{ oVS>d{ ‡˝
odMmÍ$Z À`mßZm AmS>dm`M{.
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 3
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 671$&&

amdgmh{]mßZm _amR>r ^mf{Mm AmoU Ow›`m gßVdmL≤>_`mMm _m{R>m Ao^_mZ. bhmZ[Ut
emi{V Wm{ab{ ]ßYw S>r.Eb.Om{er h{ À`mßM{ oejH$ hm{V{. AmoU `m Ao^_mZmbm IV[mUr
À`mßZtM KmVb|.
amdgmh{]mßMr Zm{H$ar [m{ÒQ>ImÀ`mßV Pmbr. _m{R>Ám h˛⁄m[`™V ]T>Vroh Pmbr. Amaß^t
Amaß^t AmS>ZmßdmZ| Om{er AmoU Y_m©Z| oºÒVr ÂhUyZ À`mßMr h{Q>miUr Ïhm`Mr. [U hiyß
hiyß À`mßZt ¯m Q>dmir H$aUmË`mßMr _Z| Iam{IarM qOHy$Z K{Vbr. g{dmoZd•Œmr¿`m ‡gßJt
¯mM À`mß¿`m ghH$mË`mßZt OßJr oZam{[ g_maß^ H$Í$Z À`mßZm ZOa H{$b{br gm{›`mMr
AßJR>r amdgmh{]mßZt AI{a[`™V OVZ H$Í$Z R>{odbr hm{Vr.
Am[U H$YtH$mir H$mÏ`aMZm H$Íß$ Ag| amdgmh{]mßZm H$Yt dmQ>b{b| Zmht. Var
Am[Î`m [arZ| À`mßZt _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ`mMr AmZy[ g{dm H{$br. h°Xam]mX `{W| kmZH$m{eH$ma
H{$VH$amß¿`m A‹`jV|Imbt Pmb{b| 16 d| _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ` gß_{bZ BVH|$ `eÒdr AmoU
gßÒ_aUr` R>ab|. `mM| ]h˛Vmßet l{` amdgmh{]mßM| Amh{, Ag| ÂhQ>b| Var Mmb{b.
amdgmh{]mß¿`m AmUIr EH$ bm{H$m{[`m{Jr N>ßX ÂhUO{ oZgJm}[Mma. `m emÛmVb{ V{
XXu hm{V{. Am[Î`m [{›eZMm ]amM ^mJ odHy$Z À`mßZt gwaV{g oZgJm}[Mma H|$– C^| H{$b|._mÃ
Ï`mdhmnaH$ —ÓQ>Ám V| `eÒdr Pmb| Zmht. amdgmh{]mß¿`m C[Mma[’Vrda b˙_r]mB©,
X{ZmoQ> d Í$W]mB© `mßMm [yU© odúmg hm{Vm. (^mJ 4, [•.59-62)
gwaV{g _hmamÔ≠> _ßS>i AmoU JU{em{Àgd Mmbod `mMm C[H´$_ amdgmh{]mßMmM. [wT>|
YZßO`amd JmS>Jri d BVa H$mßht ÒZ{hr `mß¿`m AmJ´hmdÍ$Z amdgmh{]mßZt _hmamÔ≠> gmohÀ`
[nafX{Mr Ywam CMMbr, AmoU g^mgX gߪ`m 250 dÍ$Z 1000 da Z{br. Z.qM.H{$iH$a,
_mYdamd [Q>dY©Z, od«>bamd KmQ>{, ]m.gr._T>}H$a Aem oH$VrVar gmohpÀ`H$mßM{ À`mßM{
—T> ÒZ{hgß]ßY hm{V{. [w `mßV _mYdamd [Q>dY©ZmßM| Ò_maH$ C^ma `mßVoh amdgmh{]mßMm
_m{R>mM l{`m{^mJ Amh{.
oºÒVm`ZmMm H$mßht ^mJ b˙_r]mB™Zt amdgmh{]mß¿`m Kat ]gyZ obohb{bm Amh{.
AmoU amdgmh{]mßMr À`m H$m_t gÑm_gbVoh À`mßZm o_imb{br Amh{. ""_t gmohpÀ`H$
Zmht'' Ag| AmJ´hmZ| gmßJUma{ amdgmh{] d`mMr gŒmar CbQ>Î`mda, gw]m{Y, Ame`KZ
AmoU ‡mgmoXH$ H$odVm obhˇß bmJb{. [wT>| 1961 gmbt _amR>dmS>m gmohÀ` [nafX{Z|
amdgmh{]mßMr H$odVm
""amdgmh{
H$odVm'' [wÒVH$È[mZ| ‡H$moeV H{$br.
amdgmh{] obohVmVó""H$odVm H$aVmß `{B©b Ag| _bm ÒdflZmßVX{Irb dmQ>b| ZÏhV|.
gŒmarZßVa EH$mEH$s H$odVm ]mh{a [Sy>ß bmJbr `mM| _mP| _bmM Am¸`© dmQ>b|. e„X

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 672$&&

H$m{Ry>Z `{VmV d H$g{ M[Ib ]gVmV `mMm odMma H$Íß$ bmJb| ÂhUO{ hm M_ÀH$ma Amh{
Agm ^mg hm{Vm{. B©úar ‡gmX AmoU oQ>iH$mß¿`m H$odV{Mm ‡^md h{ `m M_ÀH$mambm
H$maUr^yV Pmb{ Amh{V Ag| oZo¸V dmQ>V|.''.......""_m¬`m H$mÏ`mM| Ò\y$oV©ÒWmZ EH$M
d V| ÂhUO{ oQ>iH$mßMr H$odVm. oQ>iH$mßM{M gya _m¬`m H$odVmßVyZ _YyZ _YyZ E{Hyß$ `{VmV.''

Om{er odZm`H$ odÓUw *
odZm`H$amdmßMr oQ>iH$mßMr [ohbr ^{Q> ^m`I˘`m¿`m ÒQ>{eZda Pmbr. ""VwÂhmbm
^JdX≤JrVm YS> g_Obr Zmht, À`m_wi| VwÂhr oºÒVr PmbmßV'' Ag| `mßZt ÂhQ>Î`mdÍ$Z
oQ>iH$mßZt `mßZm amh˛arg Am[Î`m Kat AmUyZ R>{odb|. JrVm g_OmdyZ X{ `mgmR>t oQ>iH$mßet
am{Oam{O MMm© H$aVmß H$aVmß h{ ÒdVïM oºÒVr Pmb{. oQ>iH$ JwÈ ÂhUyZ `mßZt À`mß¿`mM
hmVyZ ]mo·Ò_m K{Vbm. ZßVa oQ>iH$mßZt À`mßZm SDA o_eZ_‹`| ^mfmßVamM| H$m_ o_idyZ
oXb|.
odZm`H$amdmßZm gßÒH•$V MmßJb| `{V Ag{. ""_amR>r ^mf|V `{UmË`m H$mßht gßÒH•$V ÂhUr''
h| ]mb]m{Y_{Ï`mßVb| gXa H$Yt H$Yt oQ>iH$ odZm`H$amdmßZm obhm`bm gmßJV.
Am¢Y `{Wrb EH$m oºÒVr oeojH{$et (?) [wT>| odZm`H$amdmßMm oddmh Pmbm. Am¢Y
am¡`mßVbr Vr EH$_{d oºÒVr ZmJnaH$. ÂhUyZ `m oddmhmßV [ßV‡oVoZYtZt ÒdVï [wT>mH$ma
K{Vbm. [m°am{ohÀ` H$a `mgmR>t oQ>iH$mßZm [mMmaU H{$b|. oQ>iH$mßM| ‡og’ _ßJbmÔ>H$
""¡`mZ| qgYwgoaV≤ aod⁄woV eoe¡`m{ÀÒZm Aem `wΩ_H$mß'' h| `m d{iM| Amh{.
`m ‡gßJt Am¢YH$amßZt oQ>iH$mßMm g›_mZ H$Í$Z À`mßZm EH$ AßJR>r ZOa H{$br. `mM
d{it Home, Sweet Home M| [⁄_` ^mfmßVa H$Í$Z oQ>iH$mßZt erK´ H$odÀdmM|
‡mÀ`ojH$ XmIodb|.
amO{gmh{]mßZt Am[bm oMÃgßJ´h AJÀ`mZ| oQ>iH$mßZm XmIodbm d H$mßht oMÃmßgmR>t
H$odVm aMyZ X{ `mMr odZßVr H{$br. [U [wT>| V| oVVH|$M amohb|.
odZm`H$amdmßZm XrK© Am`wÓ` bm^b| Zmht. 1914 _‹`| d`m¿`m 32Ï`m dfu V{
AH$Ò_mV oZYZ [mdb{.

Vmam (Vmam Zmam`U oQ>iH$ ó h{_mßoJZr h{_Mß– Om{er)
1900 (1901 (?) gmbt 10-12 oXdgmßM| h| A^©H$ oQ>iH$mßZm Hw$UtVar AmUyZ
oXb|. b˙_r]mB© AmoU oQ>iH$ Xm{KmßZmoh oh¿`m AmB©]m[mßMr _mohVr H$ib{br hm{Vr.
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 3
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 673$&&

[U À`mßZt Vr Hw$Umbm H$Yt gmßoJVbr Zmht. hr _wbJr oQ>iH$mßMr ÒdVïMr ZgyZ À`mßZt
gmß^mib{{br EH$ [m{aH$s [m{a Amh{ h|oh À`m H$mit Jwo[V ZÏhV|. _mà `mMr Hw$Ut CJmM
dm¿`Vm H{$br Va oQ>iH$ \$ma gßVm[V AgV. ^mÒH$aamd H$m{VH$ oQ>iH$mßZm oMS>od `mgmR>t
_w‘m_ hr dm¿`Vm H$arV.
VmamM| AmJ_Z Pmb| V{Ïhmß oQ>iH$mßZt obohb{b{ Xm{Z A^ßJ ‡og’ Amh{V.
A^ßJmßObtVoh V{ J´ßoWV Pmb{b{ Amh{Vó
‡gmX [ŸmMm Mm[Î` _rZmM| $& V{OpÒdVm ZmM{ ZjÃmMr $&&
oH$Vr oH$Vr oH$Vr _m{hH$ ht Z{Ã| $& _yoV©_ßV d{Ã| gm¢X`m©Mt $&&
dmßH$S>t oVH$S>t hdt Ver H$at $& M_ÀH$ma Var EH$ `mßMm $&&
Ò[e©_mÃ| `mß¿`m C[O{ _ZmßV $& dmÀgÎ` oZVmßV ew’ aÂ` $&&
Ag H$m{R>brhr H$m{Urhr H$erhr $& hm{B™ _mPr ]mB© Y_©H$›`m $&&
Zmht ÂhUyß ZH$m{ E{H$ hr odZßVr $& EH$Xm ‡VrVr K{B™ [mhˇß $&&
Xmg ÂhU{ Vwbm gm°ª`mM| AJma $& Aj` _mh{a X{Vm| Mb $&&
EH$mEH$s H°$er H$ir C_bbr $& jU| Cfm Pmbr aOZrMr $&&
CKit CKit gwY{M{ Vwfma $& H$at [nahma Vm_gmMm $&&
IarM Cfm Vyß Vwbm [mhVmßZm $& AmR>dU _Zm B©úamMr $&&
gpÒ_V dXZ Ag|M ‡gfi $& gßVm{f{ [mhˇZ X{d]m[ $&&
Ag H$m{R>brhr H$m{Urhr H$erhr $& hm{B™ _mPr ]mB© Y_©H$›`m $&&
Zmht ÂhUyß ZH$m{ E{H$ hr odZßVr $& EH$Xm ‡VrVr K{B™ [mßhˇ $&&
Xmg ÂhU| Vwbm gm°ª`mM| AJma $& Aj` _mh{a X{Vm| Mb $&&
""_mPr VmB©'', ""_yb H$s \y$b'', "Mwß]ZmgmaI| Am°fY Zmhr'' Aem AZ{H$ H$odVmßMr
Vmam hrM Zmo`H$m. AmR>Ï`m ZdÏ`m dfu Vmam H$odVm H$Íß$ bmJbr. ]mb]m{Y_{Ï`mßV
oV¿`m H$odVm ""am{ohUr'' `m ZmßdmZ| `m`¿`m. AmZßXH$V} dmgwX{d Jm{qdX Am[Q>{ `mßZm oVM|
_m{R>| H$m°VwH$ dmQ>{. AmZßXm_‹`| À`mßZr EH$Xm oVMm \$m{Q>m{ d [naM` oXbm hm{Vm.
Vmam]mB© \$ma MmßJÎ`m oeH$Î`m. oQ>iH$mß¿`m ZßVa À`m oejUmgmR>t BßΩbßS>bm J{Î`m
hm{À`m. [wT>| ‡og’ odXwfr o[am{O]mB© AmZßXH$a `mß¿`m gm¯mZ| Vmam]mB™Zt """J•hb˙_r''
_mogH$ Mmbodb| hm{V|. qhXr [ÃH$ma h{_Mß– Om{er `mß¿`met À`mßMm oddmh Pmbm d
[`m©`mZ| b˙_r]mB™¿`m oºÒVm`Z[yVubm À`m H$em H$maU PmÎ`m h| Ò_•oVoMÃmßV Amb|b|
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 674$&&

Amh{M. (Ò_n•VoMÃ|-^mJ 4).
_mà oQ>iH$Xß[VrZ| Aj` _mh{a oXÎ`mM| Vmam h| EH$_{d CXmhaU ZÏh{. X`m, hm°er,
oMH$s, Mß[m Aet AZ{H$ CXmhaU| Ò_•oVoMÃmßV Amb{bt Amh{V AmoU Ò_•oVoMÃmßV Z
Amb{btoh oVVH$s®M _bm _mhrV Amh{V.

oÃ^wdZ A_•V ^mJmOr *(1897-1949)
‡og’ dH$sb d g_mOg{dH$. ]mb[U d oejU amh˛ar d ZJa `{W|. odÎgZ
H$m∞b{O_‹`{ Xm{Z df~, [ohÎ`m _hm`w’mßV _‹`[yd}V _{gm{[m{Q>{o_`m `{W| H$mßht H$mi Zm{H$ar
H{$br. ¯mZßVa gmVmam `{W| oejH$, [w `mßV H$o_eZa Am∞o\$g_‹`| d _wß]B©g YMCA
M{ [ohb{ ^maVr` g{H´{$Q>ar ÂhUyZ H$m_ H{$b|. 1925 [mgyZ ZJa_‹`| dH$sbrMm Ï`dgm`
gwÍ$ H{$bm d \$m°OXmar ]mOyMm CÀH•$Ô> dH$sb ÂhUyZ bm°oH$H$ o_iodbm. CŒm_ d∫{$ d
^mfmßVaH$ma. 70-80 H$odVm obohÎ`m, gwodMmagßJ´h, _oh›`mMr gm_J´r (^mJ 1 d
2), JwS> \´$m`S>{ B. [wÒVH|$ obohbt. Vg|M Iar lr_ßVr, EÒV{a, od_b`w’ B. ZmQ>H|$
obohbt. À`mß¿`m H$mÏ`mßVyZ d [wÒVH$mßVyZ oºÒVmdarb AT>i l’m, g_mO‡]m{YZ,
amÔ≠>mo^_mZ `m Jm{Ô>r ‡m_wª`mZ| AZw^dmbm `{VmV. oVbH$mZwJ´h `m H$mÏ`gßJ´hmV À`mß¿`m
H$odVm Amh{V. (h| [wÒVH$ oQ>iH$oeÓ`_ßS>imZ| H$mT>b| hm{V|. _ßS>imM{ A‹`j A_•VamdM
hm{V{.)
"oºÒVr d oºÒVrVa g_mOmßVrb Xwdm ha[bm' Ag| À`mß¿`m _•À`wg_`t oOÎhmoYH$mar
ÂhUmb{. Am∞b BßoS>`m oºÌMZ H$m°p›gb, _hmamÔ≠> ogZS>, OZab Ag|„br, MM© H$m°p›gb
Aem ododY _m‹`_mßVyZ À`mßZt oºÒVr g_mOmMr g{dm H{$br. 1940 _‹`| [ohbr
_hmamÔ≠> oºÒVr [nafX ZJabm ^aodbr. _•À`w 23 OyZ 1949.
ó A∞S>. ¡`m{ÀÒZm oÃ^wdZ
A_•Vamd oÃ^wdZ `mß¿`m g›_mZmW© Ah_XZJamßVrb EH$m aÒÀ`mbm À`mßM| Zmßd X{ `mßV
Amb{b| Amh{.
ñAX{.

Wm{amV a{. gwo_Ã Zmam`U (1888-1957)
a{. gwo_ÃamdmßM| ]mi[U gmVmË`mßV J{b|. doS>bmß¿`m _•À`y_wi| AÎ[ d`mßVM
Hw$Qw>ß][m{fUmMr O]m]Xmar À`mß¿`mda [S>br, AmoU À`mßZt Vr CŒm_ ‡H$ma| [ma [moS>br.
[wT>| H$mßht H$mi V{ gaH$mar Zm{H$atV hm{V{. [U ‡^wg{dm d OZg{dm H$a `mM| d´V K{D$Z
À`mßZt VÈU[UtM Vr Zm{H$ar gm{S>br.
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 3
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 675$&&

[w `mg g|Q> ES>dS>© d `woZ`Z hm`ÒHy$b_YyZ À`mßZt H$mßht oXdg oejH$ ÂhUyZ H$m_
H{$b|. [wT>| B©úa [nakmZmMm (oWAm∞bm∞Or) A‰`mg H$Í$Z V{ _wß]B©g Aß]m{br MM©M{ [mbH$
Pmb{. ]ßJbm{a `{W| À`mßZt ]r.S>r.[Xdr o_iodbr. gmgdS>, Abr]mJ d [wU| `{W| À`mßZt
o_eZar ÂhUyZ g{dm H{$bt. Xm[m{S>r MM© gwo_ÃamdmßZtM ÒWm[Z H{$b{b| Amh{. 1950
_‹`| V{ [w `mg H´$mBÒQ> MM©M{ _m∞S>a{Q>a hm{V{.
gwo_ÃamdmßM| H$m`©j{Ã odÒV•V hm{V|. Z∞eZb oH´$¸Z H$m°p›gb, ]m±]{ na‡{P|Q>{oQ>Ïh MM©
H$m°p›gb, _hmamÔ≠> ogZS>, `woZ`Z oWAm∞bm∞oOH$b H$m∞b{O, ]m±]{ Q≠>∞∑Q> A±S> ]wH$ gm{gm`Q>r,
MM© Am∞\$ ÒH$m∞Q>bßS> o_eZ, o_aO _{oS>H$b g|Q>a, ga dwBÎ`_ dm∞›b{g g∞Z{Q>m{na`_ Aem
oH$VrVar gßÒWmßet À`mßMm oZH$Q>Mm g]ßY hm{Vm. CŒm_ C[X{eH$, d∫{$ d b{IH$ ÂhUyZoh
a{. gwo_ÃamdmßMr ‡og’r hm{Vr. "‡{ofVmßMt H•$À`|, "C[mgZm[’oV', "ZÏ`m H$amamMm gmWt
B. [wÒVH|$ À`mß¿`m Ï`mgßJmMr gmj X{VmV.

XŒmy (X{dXŒm Zmam`U oQ>iH$)
Ò_•oVoMÃmß¿`m b˙_r]mB©-oboIV gmS>{VrZ ^mJmßV X{dXŒm oQ>iH$mß¿`m d`m¿`m ]Œmrer
[`™VMr _mà hH$sJV Amb{br Amh{. X{dXŒmmßZt obohb{Î`m [wT>Î`m 15 dfm™¿`m d•ŒmmßVmVoh
ÒdVï odf`t \$maM Wm{S>| gmßoJVb{b| Amh{. `m_wi| X{ZmoQ>M{| MnaÃ, H$V•©Àd d gmohÀ`
`mßMr \$maM [wgQ> H$Î[Zm dmMH$mbm `{Dß$ eH$V{. `mgmR>t h{ Ãm{Q>H$ oQ>[U.
MnaÃmßVrb H$mßht KQ>Zm
1891 Owb° 16

ï O›_ Obmb[ya `{W| AmOm{it.

1900 Owb° 8

ï ]mo·Ò_m. bZmoQ>g_d{V. amh˛ar.

1916

ï ZmJ[ya ohÒbm∞[ H$m∞b{OmßVyZ ]r.E.

1916-17

ï ohÒbm∞[ H$m∞b{O_‹`| E_.E.M{ od⁄mWu, hm∞ÒQ>{b
gw[naQ>|S>ßQ> d o_S>b ÒHy$b oejH$

1918 Eo‡b 30

ï oddmh (dYw-ÈW H•$ÓUamd gam{{X{)

1925 OyZ 1

ï _wß]B©g YMCA _‹`| gm{eb dH©$ g{H´{$Q>ar

1925 oS>g|]a 17

ï kmZm{X`, _amR>r ]mOyM{ gß[mXH$ (1937 [`™V)

1927 OyZ

ï ZmerH$ `{W{ ÒWmo`H$, dH$sbrg gwÈdmV

1932 _{ 29

ï emßoVgXZ
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 676$&&

1933 oS>g|]a 27

ï A‹`jï _hmamÔ≠> oºÒVr gmohÀ` gß_{bZ, oZ[mUr

1935 _{

ï ogÎÏha ¡`wo]br _{S>b

1937 _{ 12

ï H$m∞am{Z{eZ _{S>b

1937 gflQ>|]a 15

ï "oºÒVr ZmJnaH$' [Ã gwÈ

1938 _{ 12

ï H°$ga-B-qhX _{S>b

1938 _{ 29

ï ZmJnaH$ N>m[ImZm gwÈ

1939-1940

ï _mb{Jmßdt [m{brg ‡m∞og∑`yQ>aß

1941 Zm{Ïh|]a 13

ï [pÀZod`m{J

1961 Zm{Ïh|]a

ï ZmerH$H$amßV\}$ gÀH$ma

1965 oS>g|]a 27

ï oZYZ.

bm{H$g{dm
1924 V{ 1927ï YMCA gm{eb dH©$ g{H´{$Q>ar ÂhUyZ H$m`©. [a{b, XmXa B. oR>H$mUt
gm{eb A[ob‚Q> ¿`m H$m_mg Amaß^ H$Í$Z oXbm.
ZmerH$ ZJa[mobH{$V g^mgX d [wT>{ ÏhmBg ‡{ogS>|Q> (ghm df~)
ZmerH$ ZJa[mobH$m ÒHy$b ]m{S>© g^mgX
ZmerH$ oOÎhm bm{H$b]m{S>© g^mgX (ghm df~)
Ïh{Q>naZar hm∞pÒ[Q>b-g{H´{$Q>ar
na_mßS> hm{_-EH$ CÀ[mXH$ d g{H´{$Q>ar
[wU{ AmH$medmUr gÑmJma _ßS>i-g^mgX.

dmL≤>_`g{dm
H$mXß]arï Vrd´ OmUrd, N>m{Q>m gßÒWmoZH$, H•$ÓUm
H$Wmï [mD$bdmQ>, odZm{X_yVuMr [w `mda Òdmar, AZ{H$ oH$aH$m{i.
ZmoQ>H$mï oºÒVO`ßVrgmR>t [mßM> ZmoQ>H$m, oºÒVO`ßVrgmR>t AmUIr Mma ZmoQ>H$m,
g{Vw]ßYZ, oR>UΩ`m, amO|–mMm em{Y (_yH$ZmQ>Á) B.B.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 677$&&

MnaÃmÀ_H$ï VrZ ‡H$mePm{V, AmUIr EH$ ‡H$mePm{V, Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$ï
Ï`o∫$Xe©Z d H$mÏ`odd{MZ. Ò_•oVoMÃ| (^mJ 4 CŒmamY©), _hmamÔ≠>mMr V{OpÒdZr [ßoS>Vm
a_m]mB©.
H$mÏ`ï X{dXŒmmßMr H$odVm, A^ßJmßOob (CŒmamY©) oºÒVm`Z (76dm A‹`m`)
Ï`mª`mZ|ï _hmamÔ≠> oºÒVr gmohÀ` gß_{bZ oZ[mUr-A‹`jr` ^mfU [ßMdrg df}
Wmß]yZ. (25dr oQ>iH$ [w `oVoW-A‹`jr` ^mfU)
]mbdmL≤>_`ï ]m{YgwYm (b{. X{dXŒm d _Zm{a_m), OmVH$ H$Wm, ]m]y ]mimMm J´ßWamO,
d{Uw d{S>JmdmßV, Am[b{ _wH{$ o_Ã, ]mJbmUmßVrb H$maÒWmZ, B.B.
BVaï oºÒVmZwdV©Z (^mJ 3 d 4)
]m`]bMr Vm|S>Am{iI
]m`]b¿`m _amR>r ^mfmßVamM| odhßJ_mdbm{H$Z.
gß[mXZï kmZm{X` (gw_ma| 12 df~), ]mb]m{Y_{dm (17 df~), oºÒVr ZmJnaH$ (7
df~), Legal Aid Quarterly. `moedm` ZmdmoQ> d b˙_r]mB© `mßMr gw_ma| [ßYam
bhmZ_m{R>t [wÒVH|$ X{dXŒmmßZr gß[moXV H{$b{bt Amh{V.

X{R>{ gXmoed Zmam`U
1908-09 gmct ZJamg od⁄mWv AgVmßZm gXmoedamd oQ>iH$mßH$S>{ OmDß$ `{Dß$
cmJc{ À`mßZm Jm `mM| AßJ AgÎ`mZ| oQ>iH$mß¿`m ^OZH$sV©ZmßV `mßMm ^mJ Agm`Mm.
H$mht df~ V{ ZJamg oMÃH$cm oejH$ hm{V{. oQ>iH$mß¿`m oZYZg_`t V{ oQ>iH$mß¿`m Odi
hm{V{. oQ>iH$mßZm JwÍ$ ÂhUyZ V{ \$ma _mZrV. ""AmVmß `m[wT>| VwÂhr H$mÏ` ochmc'' Agm
JwÈOtZt Am[Î`mcm OmVmß OmVmß Amerdm©X oXcm Amh{. Vet À`mßMr AI{a[`™V l’m
hm{Vr. À`mM oXdgm[mgyZ V{ H$odVm ochˇß cmJc{. ]mc]m{Y_{Ï`mßVyZ À`mß¿`m AZ{H$ H$odVm
‡og’ PmÎ`m. oI´ÒVr H$sV©ZH$ma ÂhUyZoh À`mßZt Zmßd H$mT>c|.
gXmoedamd oMÃH$ma hm{V{. oQ>iH$mß¿`m oZYZmZßVa ""JwÈOtM| ÒdJm©am{hU''
H$mXß]atVrc oMÃ| gXmoedamdmß¿`mM hmVMt Amh{V.

ZdcH$a a{. JU[Vamd aKwZmW (1887-1912)
_hmamÔ≠> oºÒVr g_mOmßV a{. JU[Vamd ZdcH$a h{ EH$ AÀ`ßV H$V©]Jma H$m`©H$V} d
od¤mZ c{IH$ hm{D$Z J{c{. o_eZar `m ZmÀ`mßZ| À`mßZt od[wc g{dm H{$cr d AZ{H$ oR>H$mUt
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 678$&&

o_eZR>mUt C^r H{$ct. JU[Vamd od¤mZ, ]h˛^mofH$ d dmX[Qw> hm{V{. À`mßM{ C[X{e d
dmXoddmX E{H$ `mgmR>t o^›Z o^›Z Y_m©Mt od¤mZ _ßS>ir O_V Ag{. À`mß¿`m ]mU{Xma
Òd^mdm_wi| V{ o_eZ¿`m MmH$atV \$ma H$mi oQ>H$c{ ZmhtV. À`mßZt BßpΩce_‹`| odÒV•V
AmÀ_Mnaà ocohc| hm{V|. V| ‡H$moeV PmÎ`mM| E{oH$dmßV Zmht. _mà À`mßVrc oZdS>H$
‡H$aU| À`mßZt [wpÒVH$mß¿`m ÒdÍ$[mßV ‡og’ H{$ct. À`m_wi| V{ o_eZardJm™V AoYH$M
Ao‡` Pmc{.
lrI•Ô>odO` d gXy H$m{ir ht IßS>H$mÏ`| e_em{Z _Ñ ZmQ>H$ B. 30-32 [wÒVH|$
À`mßZt ocohct. _amR>r Ï`mH$aUmda À`mßMt Xm{Z BßpΩce d VrZ _amR>r Aet [mßM [wÒVH|$
Amh{V. oºÒVr ZmJnaH$ [Ãm¿`m BßJ´Or od^mJmM{ a{. ZdcH$a gß[mXH$ hm{V{.

[dma gwßXam]mB© *
gmgdS> Jmßdt a{. am_Mß– [dma d À`mß¿`m [ÀZr `mßZt gd© ‡H$ma¿`m odam{Ymg Vm|S> X{V
14 df~ gwdmoV©H$mM| H$m`© Mmcodc| hm{V|. À`mß¿`m VrZ H$›`m[°H$s® Wm{acrZ| chmZ[UtM
oZYm©a H{$cm hm{Vm H$s AmO›_ AoddmohV amhˇZ Y_©H$m`m™V Am`ßwÓ` Ï`VrV H$am`M|. hr
H$›`m ÂhUO{ ‡og’ H$m`©H$À`m© gwßXam]mB© am_Mß– [dma.
_wß]B©V o_g{g ]´yAa `m o_eZar]mB™Zt _wctgmR>t ]m{oS>™Jemim H$moT>cr AmoU À`m
H$m_t gmhm`H$ ÂhUyZ gwßXam]mB™Zm ]m{cmdyZ K{Vc|. V{W| A‹`m[Z H$arV AgVmZmßM C¿M
oejU gß[mXZ H$a `mMr gwßXam]mB™Zm gßoY o_imcr.
À`m H$mit _amR>m g_mOmßVrc C¿MHw$crZ pÒÃ`m Jm{fm [mirV AgV. `m oÒÃ`mß_‹`|
o_giyZ gwßXam]mB™Zt À`mßZm Y_©oejU X{ `mg gwÍ$dmV H{$cr, AmoU ""PZmZm o_eZ''
¿`m H$m`m©Mr _whˇV©_{T> am{odßcr. _Ywa d AmO©dr ^mfm AmoU Vr]am{]aM hOaO]m]r[UmMr
X{UJr `mß_wi| ]mB™Mr ^mfU| AÀ`ßV ‡^mdr hm{V. À`mßMr oH$oV© `wam{[mßVoh [gaV J{cr.
o]´oQ>e qhXwÒVmZmßVyZ MrZ X{emßV d `wam{[mßVoh A\y$Mr oZ`m©V _m{R>Ám ‡_mUmda hm{V
Ag{. Vr Wmß]od `mgmR>t `wam{[mßV Midir gwÍ$ PmÎ`m AmoU À`mßV ^mJ K{ `mgmR>t
gwßXam]mB™Zm [mMmaU Pmc|.
OdiOdi g]ßY `wam{[^a gwßXam]mB™Zt Xm°am H{$cm. À`m]am{]aM qhXwÒVmZmßV ÒÃroejU-gßÒWm Mmcod `mgmR>t À`mßZt ]Ë`mM X{UΩ`moh o_iodÎ`m.
ÒdX{er [aVÎ`mda À`mßZt H$mßht H$mi [ß. a_m]mB™¿`m emaXmgXZmßV H$m_ H{$c|. [wT>|
_wß]B©¿`m emaXmgXZmM| H{$S>Jmßd¿`m _wo∫$gXZmßV Í$[mßVa d ÒWcmßVa Pmc| V{Ïhmß
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 3
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 679$&&

gwßXam]mB™Zt [wU| h|M Am[c| H$m`©j{Ã R>aodc|. V{W| À`mßZt _wctgmR>t dgoVJ•h, emim d
gwdmoV©H$mdJ© Mmcodc{. ""PZmZm o_eZ gßÒWm'' ""gwßXam]mB™Mr emim'' ÂhUyZM
Am{iIcr OmDß$ cmJcr. [w `mßV [ßMhm°X [nagamßV `m gßÒW{Mr B_maV C^r amohcr.
]mB™¿`m oZYZmZßVa ]arM df~ IS>H$dmgcm `{W| d VXZßVa gm∞ocÒ]ar [mH©$ `{W| hr
gßÒWm H$m`©aV hm{Vr.
óÌ`m._. AmT>md

[mQ>UH$a ‡mMm`© ^mcMß– c˙_U (1894-1973)
X{ZmoQ>M{ ]mco_Ã, oQ>iH$mßZm d c˙_r]mB™Zm [wÃdV≤ o‡`. À`mßZm ]m]y ÂhUyZ gß]m{oYV.
BVaà V{ _m_m `m ZmßdmZ| Am{iIc{ OmV.
O›_ [w `mßV. ]mc[U Ah_XZJacm. V{W| oQ>iH$ Kam `met oOÏhm˘`mM{ gß]ßY oZ_m©U
Pmc{. X{dXŒm Zmam`U oQ>iH$ ZmerH$cm ÒWmo`H$ PmÎ`mZ| h{ gß]ßY AI{a[`™V oQ>H$c{.
H$m∞c{OoejU _wß]B©g g|Q> P{od`g© H$m∞c{O_‹`|. ZdrZ ÒWm[Z Pmc{Î`m Jm{Ic{ E¡`wH{$eZ
gm{gm`Q>rM{ AmOrd gXÒ`. 1924 _‹`| gm{gm`Q>tZ| H$mT>c{Î`m h߇mR>m H$m∞c{O_‹`|
ÏhmBg-o‡p›g[m∞c ÂhUyZ ‡W_[mgyZ ZmerH$cm e°joUH$ H$m`©. gmd©OoZH$ H$m`m©Mr
[ohÎ`m[mgyZ AmdS>. Vr e{dQ>[`™V oQ>H$cr. gmohpÀ`H$ d gmßÒH•$oVH$ H$m`©ó CXm.
dgßV Ï`mª`mZ_mcm, gmd©OoZH$ dmMZmc`, ZJaZmogH$ gmohÀ`gß_{cZmM| Am`m{OH$,
ZmerH$cm ^ac{Î`m H$odgß_{cZmM{ H$m`m©‹`jó`mM gß_{cZmßV c˙_r]mB™ ÒdmJVm‹j
hm{À`m, d d∑À`m ÂhUyZ ‡og’rg AmÎ`m. _m_mß¿`m n¤Vr` [ÀZr H$_cm]mB© lr[mX
H•$ÓU H$m{bhQ>H$amß¿`m H$›`m. `m_wi| cj_r]mB™Mm À`mßM{ [ohc{ ‡H$meH$ ‡. lr.
H$m{bhQ>H$a d lr[mX H•$ÓU H$m{bhQ>H$a `mß¿`met —T>[naM`. oQ>iH$[nadmamßVrc ¡`{>
ÒZ{ht ]mcH$dr `mß¿`m g_J´ dmç`mM| gß[mXH$ d ‡H$meZ (1942). 1947-54 h߇mR>m
H$m∞c{OmV ‡mMm`©. V{W| odkmZemI{Mr ÒWm[Zm 1954 _‹`| oZd•Œm PmÎ`mda pÒÃ`mß¿`m
oejUmMr gm{` d dmT> Ïhmdr ÂhUyZ oOkmgm H$m∞c{O `m d{J˘`m gßÒW{Mr ÒWm[Zm. Vr
ZmßdmÍ$[mcm AmÎ`mda 1968 [mgyZ _wß]B©g _wcmH$S>{ dmÒVÏ`. 1973 _‹`| _•À`w.
óS>m∞.am.^m.[mQ>UH$a

[mQ>UH$a _mYdamd (1869-1916)
‡og’ ZmQ>H$H$ma d [mQ>UH$a gßJrV _ßS>irM{ _mcH$. `mßMr EHy$U 24 ZmQ>H|$ aßJ^y_rda
Amct. ""odH´$_-eoeH$cm'' ode{f JmOc|. À`m¿`m gmV Amd•Œ`m oZKmÎ`m. AI{aM|
ZmQ>H$ ""^Ò_mgwa'' h| ImS>rcH$amß¿`m H$sMH$dYm‡_mU| cm∞S>© H$P©Z `mß¿`m Owc_r
H$ma^mamdarc Í$[H$ hm{V|. V| gaH$maO_m Pmc|.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 680$&&

[mQ>UH$a oQ>iH$mßM{ ÒZ{hr hm{V{. ""ercß [aß ^yfU_≤ (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 3, [•.34-35)
C^| H$a `mßV oQ>iH$mßZm `mM| goH´$` gm¯ hm{V{. h|M ZmQ>H$ À`mßV EH$Xm{Z ÒÃr ^yo_H$m
KmcyZ _m{R>| H$Í$Z ⁄md| Aer À`mßZt oQ>iH$mßH$S>{ _mJUroh H{$cr hm{Vr.
1915 gmct oQ>iH$mßZm ZmQ>Ágß_{cZmM| A‹`jÒWmZ X{ `mßV Amc|. À`mßVcm ]amM
l{`m{^mJ [mQ>UH$amßMm Agmdm.

[maZmB©H$ eßH$a [ßT>arZmW *
X{dXŒmmßM{ d ]mcH$dtM{ oZH$Q>M{ o_Ã. oMÃH$c{Mr `mßZm ode{f AmdS> hm{Vr. oQ>iH$mßZt
ocohcßÎ`m d ]gdyZ K{Vc{Î`m ""ercß [aß ^yfU_≤'' ZmQ>H$mßVc| h{ JwÈOr. [wT>| AZ{H$ df~ h|
Ah_XZJamg oMÃH$cm oejH$ hm{V{. e{dQ>t V{ [ßoS>V (`wam{o[`ZmßM{ _amR>r oejH$) ÂhUyZ
H$m_ H$arV AgV.
hm°er ZQ>mßMt ZmQ>H|$ ]god `mßV `mßMm hmVIßS>m Ag{. Ah_XZJa¿`m ZmQ>Á‡{_m¿`m
[aß[a|Vcm [maZmB©H$ _mÒVa hm EH$ _hŒmdmMm Xwdm ÂhUmdm cmJVm{.

[|S>g{ am.gm.Zmam`U C\©$ ZmZmgmh{] 1838 (1848 (?)-1930)
a{od›`w ImÀ`mßV Imc¿`m OmJ{[mgyZ MT>V MT>V ZmZmgmh{] [|S>g{ S>{fl`woQ> H{$c{∑Q>a¿`m
h˛⁄m[`™V J{c{ hm{V{. À`mAmYt H$mßht H$mi V{ ZmerH$ hm`ÒHy$c_‹`| oejH$ hm{V{. 187879 ¯m H$mimßV ›`m. amZS>{ d gaXma Jm{[mi hna X{e_wI (cm{H$ohVdmXr) `mß¿`m g_d{V
H$m_ H$a `mMr À`mßZm gßoY cm^cr hm{Vr. oQ>iH$mßMr `mßMr Am{iI `mßM gw_mamMr.
hm{VH$Í$ od⁄mWu d CJdVm H$od ÂhUyZ ›`. amZS>{ `mßZm oQ>iH$mßM| H$m°VwH$ dmQ>{. H$XmoMV≤
`m_wi|M ZmZmgmh{]mßM| oQ>iH$mßH$S>{ cj d{Yc| Agmd|.
ÒdVï _mJ| amhˇZ odYm`H$ gwYmaUm KS>dyZ AmUU| h| Vßà H$XmoMV≤ À`mßZt
›`m`_yVuH$Sy>Z CMcc| Agmd|. oQ>iH$mßZm OmVtV K{ `mMm ‡`ÀZ (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 2,[•.
17-18) h| `mßM| R>iH$ CXmhaU. H$mßht gaH$mar cmIcIm{Q>Ám_wi| ]ßX Pmc{cr odR>m{]mMr
[mcIr _m{R>Ám ‡`ÀZmZ| [w›hmß _mJu cmdyZ X{D$Z ZmZmgmh{]mßZt [ßT>a[ya ]´˜d•ßXmMm ‡{_mXa
o_iodc{cm hm{Vm. À`mMm À`mßZm `m H$m_mgmR>t C[`m{J Pmcm. hm{o_`m{[Wr C[MmamßMr
ZmZmgmh{]mßZm MmßJcr _mohVr hm{Vr. Am°fYm{[Mmam¤ma| [am{[H$mamM| d cm{H$mßMm odúmg
gß[mXZ H$a `mM| Vßà À`mßZt cm{H$ohVdmXtH$Sy>Z CMcc| AgU|oh Ae∑` Zmht.
X{dXŒm ÂhUVmVó""_r [mohc{Î`m cm{H$mßV AÀ`ßV ‡{_i, CXma, _mUgmMr [maI
AgUmam d _mUgmMr H$Xa H$aUmam XwX}dr lr_ßV _mUyg ÂhUO{ ZmZmgmh{] [|S>g{.
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 3
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 681$&&

_m¬`m chmZ[Um[mgyZ À`mßZt _cm \$ma [´{_mZ| dmJodc|, _mP{ cmS> H{$c{. _cm V{
oQ>iH$ ÂhUV. [[m J{c{ hm{V{. _r d AmB© [|S>emßda AmolVmßgmaI| Adcß]yZ hm{Vm|. [U
Am_¿`m À`m [napÒWVrMr `pÀH®$oMVoh OmUrd hm{Dß$ Z X{ `mMr ZmZmgmh{] IQ>[Q> H$arV.
Xw[ma¿`m À`mß¿`m \$amim¿`m d{i{g _mder _w‘m_ _cm ]mh{a I{im`cm [mR>dm`Mr. Vr
AÀ`ßV Ao^_mZr ]m`H$m{ hm{Vr. Am[Î`m ]ohUr¿`m _wcmZ| AmolVmgmaI| dmJyß Z`{
Ag{ oVcm dmQ>{. [U ZmZmgmh{]mß¿`m ‹`mZmßV V| `{B©. d ""oQ>iH$ H$m{R>| J{cm ? À`mcm
]m{cdm \$amimcm'' Ag{ ÂhUyZ V{ ImVmß ImVmß Wmß]V.
[[mß¿`mda À`mßM| \$ma ‡{_ Ag{. À`mß¿`m]‘c AmXa Ag{. d À`mß¿`m H$mÏ`e∫$sMr V{
H$Xa H$aUma{ hm{V{. V{ H$od ZÏhV{. [U À`mßZm H$odVm ImÃrZ| MmßJcr g_O{. _cm dmQ>V|
[[mßZt À`mßZm Am[c| H$m{UV| Var [wÒVH$ A[©U H{$c{c| Amh{.*
[[moh À`mß¿`mH$Sy>Z AJXt h∑H$mZ| dmQ>{c V{ A[{jrV. gdm™V Jß_V ÂhUO{ ZmerH$cm
[|S>emß¿`m KamMm EH$ ^mJ Am[Î`mcm ahm`cm ⁄m AmoU gßgma _mßSy>Z ⁄m. Ag|oh
À`mßZt gmßoJVc| Agmd{. d [|S>emßZt V| AmZßXmZ| H$]yc H{$c| Agmd| Ag{ dmQ>V|. [U Vg|
Pmc| Zmht. H$maU À`mß¿`m KamßV _ohZ{¿`m _ohZ{ AmÂht ahmV hm{Vm|. Var À`mßZm H$YrM
Hß$Q>mim `{V Zg{. AmÂhr À`mßM{M hm{Vm{ d V{ Am_M{M hm{V{. AJXt [wT>| [wT>| oºÒVr PmÎ`mda
_cm H$Yt ImD$cm H$mßht ⁄m`M{ Pmc| Va Xhm È[`mImct V{ X{V ZgV. oXdmircm [mQ>r^a
Iam{IaM _m{R>m hmam^a \$Q>mH$S>{ `{V. \$amimM|oh Vg|M. Oer H$mßht Am_¿`mM Kat
oXdmir Amh{.
oºÒVr PmÎ`mda S>m∞. ˜z_Z| Og| [[mßZm gmß^mic| (Ò_•oVoMÃ{- ^mJ 1) Vg| oºÒVr
hm{ `m[ydu [|S>emßZt gmß^mic| Ag| ÂhUVmß `{B©c. \$aH$ EdT>mM hm{Vm H$s® S>m∞. ¯z_
practical hm{ `mMm ‡`ÀZ H$arV [|S>g{ oQ>iH$mßMm H$c gmß^mirV. oQ>iH$mß¿`m gmË`m
CUrdm [|S>emßZm R>mD$H$ hm{À`m. [U À`mß¿`mH$S>{ V{ S>m{i{PmßH$ H$am`M{. oQ>iH$mß¿`m AmB©M|
‡{_ [|S>emßZt ^Í$Z H$mT>c| Ag| Wm{S>∑`mßV ÂhUVmß `{B©c.
AmVmß h| ochrV AgVmßZm [|S>g{ ¯m Ï`ŒH$s¿`m CXma d ‡{_i _ZmMr cmß]rÈßXr _m{OU|
oH$Vr H$R>rU Amh{ h| ‹`mZmßV `{V|.
[U ZmZmgmh{]mß¿`m XwXd£ mMr H$Wm \$maM ˆX`–mdH$ Amh{. À`mßZm EH$M _wcJr KmÈ_mB©.
KmÈ_mB©cm oVMm Zdam AÀ`ßV N>ir. Vm{ ^`ßH$a XmÈ]mO hm{Vm. _cm AmR>dV| V{Ïhmß[mgyZ
_t À`mcm H$mßht H$m_ H$aVmßZm [mohc| Zmht. ¯mMm gmam d{i AmigmßV, XmÍ$ o[ `mßV,
oeÏ`m X{ `mßV d ]m`H$m{cm N>i `mßV OmB©. KmÈ_mB©¿`m Am{Q>tV e{OmaUrZß _aVmß _aVmß
Am[cm _wcJm Q>mH$cm. (`mßM| AmS>Zmßd Ia{.) Vm{ oVZ|gmß^micm. [U Vm{ oVcm cm^cm
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 682$&&

Zmht. H$maU À`mcm [|S>emß¿`m _mßS>rda XŒmH$ oXcm. [yT>{ ¯m _wcmcmoh H$mßht _yc]mi
Pmc| Zmht. [|S>emß¿`m ^mdmMm _wcJm ]mimgmh{] ¯mßZmoh _yc]mi H$mßht Pmc| Zmht.
AmoU Aem arVrZ| gd© ]mOyßZt À`mßMm oZd™e Pmcm.''
ZmZmgmh{]mßZt ZÏdXr Am{cmßS>cr hm{Vr. e{dQ>t e{dQ>t À`mßMr AdÒWm H$R>rU Pmcr.
À`mßM| dV©Z \$maM o]KS>Î`m_wi| odQy>Z J{c{c{ À`mM{ ZmV{dmB©H$óV{oh Wm{S>H{$M hm{V{ó
À`mß¿`mH$S>{ [mhrZmV. À`mß¿`m AI{a¿`m XwI `mßV À`mßMr e{dQ>cr ewlyfm H$Í$Z
c˙_r]mB™Zt _mà À`mß¿`m F$UmMr OmUrd amIcr Ag|M ÂhQ>c| [mohO{.
hr hH$sJV À`mß¿`m gd© [naoMVmßZm _mhrV Amh{. oH$À`{H$mßZt _cm Vr gmßoJVcr.
ocoIV _mà H$m{UtM oXc| Zmht. Hw$UmM{oh Xm{f XmIodVmßZm Z H$MaUmË`m c˙_r]mB™Zt
ZmZmgmh{]mß¿`m ]m]VtV V{dT>m A[dmX H{$cm. ZmZmgmh{]mß¿`m _m{R>{[UmMtM ht ‡VrH|$
R>amdt.
Ò_•oVoMÃmß_‹`| ZmZmgmh{]mß¿`m l{`m{^mJ _m{R>mM Amh{ó
1. c˙_r.Zmam`UmßMr `woV ZmZmgmh{]mßMr [maI, ‡`ÀZ d [wT>mH$ma `mßZtM KSy>Z Amcr.
2. Ò_•oVoMÃmßV c˙_r]mB™Zt MhˇHß $S>{ ""oQ>iH$'' h|M Zmßd dm[ac{c| Amh{. V| ]h˛Ym [|S>emß¿`m
Ka¿`m [na[mR>m_wi|.
3. oQ>iH$mß_Ycm H$sV©ZH$ma ZmZmgmh{]mß¿`m _wi|M ‡H$Q> Pmcm. (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 1)
4. oQ>iH$mßZt oºÒVr hmDß$ Z`{ `mgmR>t ZmZmgmh{]mßZr ododY ‡H$ma| ‡`ÀZ H{$c{. [wT>|oh
oQ>iH$mßZm OmVtV K{ `m¿`m `ÀZmcm ‡{aUm d _XV ZmZmgmh{]mßZtM oXcr.
5. ZmZmgmh{]mß¿`m ‡^mdm_wi|M c˙_r]mB™Zt AmÀ_hÀ`{Mm odMma Xya gmacm.
(Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 2)
6. oQ>iH$mß¿`m Y_m™VamZßVa OdiOdi [mßM df~ c˙_r]mB© [oVJ•ht J{Î`m ZmhtV. `mcm
_wª` H$maU ÂhUO{ ZmZmgmh{]. ZmZmgmh{]mß¿`m [m`mßda hmV R>{dyZ K{Vc{cr e[W
(Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 2) hr c˙_r]mB™¿`m _mJm©ßVcr EH$ H$R>rU AS>MU hm{Vr.
7. oQ>iH$mß¿`m oZYZmZßVa c˙_r]mB™Zm d X{dXŒmmßZm ZmeH$mg ÒWmo`H$ hm{ `mgmR>t Yra
d CŒm{OZ ZmZmgmh{]mßZr oXc|.

\{$Aa]±H$ S>m∞. h{›ar (1862-1926) *
J{Î`m e|XrS>e| dfm™V ]∞cßQ>mBZ, o]gc, ¯z_,\{$Aa]±H$ Aem AZ{H$ A_{naH$Z o_eZar
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 2
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 683$&&

Kam `mßZt _hmamÔ≠>mMr o[T>ÁZ≤o[T>Ám g{dm ]Omdc{cr Amh{. a{.g∞Â`wAc \{$Aa]±H$ h{
ZJa oOίmßVrc dS>mi| ‡mßVm¿`m o_eZH$m`m©M| CÀ[mXH$ hm{V. S>m∞. h{›ar h| À`mßM{ oMaßOrd.
`mßMm O›_ dS>m˘`mMmM. V{WÎ`mM dmVmdaUmßV I{S>H$ar _wcmß]am{]a cJm{Ë`m gya[maß„`m
I{i `mßV ]mi[U H{$Î`mZ| _hmamÔ≠>mda ‡{_ d _amR>r ^mf{da ‡^wÀd h| À`mß¿`m a∫$mßVM
o^ZyZ J{c{c| hm{V|.
d`m¿`m 14Ï`m dfv oejUmgmR>t À`mßMr A_{naH{$g admZJr Pmcr. 1881 _‹`|
A∞S>m{Ïha `{Wrc A∞ÂhÒQ>© H$m∞c{OmßVyZ V{ [ohÎ`m H´$_mßH$mZ| ]r.E.[mg Pmc{ AmoU À`mM
H$m∞c{OmVyZ E_.E. d `{c g{o_ZatVyZ ]r.S>r. `m [XÏ`m gß[mXZ H$Í$Z V{ ^maVmßV [aV
Amc{. ([wT>{ 1923 V `mßM `{c g{o_ZarZ| S>m∞∑Q>a Am∞\$ oS>pÏhoZQ>r [Xdr X{D$Z À`mßMm
g›_mZ H{$cm.)
chmZ[Um[mgyZ À`mßZm I{im]am{]aM oeH$marMm d [jr ^m{V ^Í$Z R>{d `mMm ZmX
hm{Vm. _hm]i{Ìda `{W| oZaoZam˘`m [˙`mMß{ oZarjU H$Í$Z À`mßZr ""_hm]i{úamßVrc
[ojJU'' h| _mohVr[yU© [wÒVH$ ocohc{c| Amh{.
dS>mi| ‡mßVmda Z{_UyH$ PmÎ`mda À`mßZr doS>cmßZt ÒWmo[c{Î`m 14 emimßV 18
emimßMr ^a KmcyZ Om{_mZ| oejU‡gma H{$cm. [´m°T> od⁄mœ`m™gmR>t EH$ ZmB©Q>ÒHy$coh
Mmcodc|. 1896 ¿`m XwÓH$mimßV À`mßZt H{$c{cr cm{H$g{dm oMaÒ_aUr` ÂhUmdr cmJV{.
H°$H$ I{Sw>VmßM{ H$m{c_S>c{c{ gßgma À`mßZt [w›hmß C^{ H$Í$Z oXc{. À`mß¿`m [am{[H$mar
Òd^mdm_wi| d X{d^rÈ d•Œmr_wi| ""gmYw \{$Aa]±H$'' `m ZmßdmZ| V{ Am{iIc{ OmV.
dS>mim, Ah_XZJa, amh˛ar, gmVmam Aem AZ{H$ oR>H$mUt À`mßZr g{dm H{$c{cr Amh{.

o]gc S>m∞. o_g Eo_cr d S>m∞. o_g ¡`woc`m
c˙_r]mB© ocohVmV, ""ZJamg Agc{Î`m o_eZatV o]gc KamU| \$ma ‡og’ hm{V|.
a{. EM.o]gc d À`mß¿`m Xm{Kr ]ohUr S>m∞. ¡`woc`m d S>m∞.Eo_cr ¯mßMm cm°H$sH$ \$maM
_m{R>m Amh{. ¯mßM| _amR>r ^mf{da BVH|$ ‡^wÀd hm{V| H$s® [S>⁄mAmSy>Z À`mßM{ ]m{cU| E{H$c| Va
H$m{Uroh ÂhU{c H$s® hr [w `mßVrc H$m{Ur C¿MdUu` _ßS>ir ]m{cV{ Amh{.'' (Ò_•oVoMÃ|^mJ 3, [•. 72)
Eo_cr]mB© ¯m ]mc]m{Y_{dm ¯m [ohÎ`m _amR>r ]mc_mogH$m¿`m Am⁄ gß[moXH$m.
AmÀ`m]mB© `m Q>m{[UZmßdmZ| À`m ]mc]m{Y_{Ï`mßVyZ d kmZm{X`mßVyZ ochrV. cKwoZ]ßY hm
dmç`‡H$ma _amR>tV `mß¿`m[mgyZM gwÍ$ Pmcm ÂhQ>c| Va gß`wpŒH$H$ hm{B©c. H$W{H$ar _mB©,
ZjÃ_ßS>i, OßJcmßVrc emim d OßJcr OZmda|, AmB©M| Zd| cwJS>|, AmH$meJßJm Aet
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 684$&&

oH$VrVar [wÒVH|$ `mßZrß ocohc{ct Amh{V. ""H$drMr odZdUr'' hr oQ>iH$mßMr ‡ª`mV
H$odVm `mßZmM C‘{eyZ ocohc{cr Amh{. (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 3, [•. 73).
¡`woc`m]mB™Mm c˙_r]mB™et ode{f ÒZ{h hm{Vm. À`m \$ma ‡{_i S>m∞∑Q>arU hm{À`m.
c˙_r]mB™Zt Zog™J oejU ø`m`M| R>aodc| V{Ïhmß `mßZt À`mßZm ode{f gm¯ d CŒm{OZ oXc|
hm{V|.

^m|S>{ H•$ÓUamd Xm_m{XaemÒÃr
oQ>iH$mßM{ VÈU[UM{ ghH$mar d gp›_Ã oQ>iH$mß]am{]a h{oh JU{eemÒÃr c{c{ `mßM{
M{c{ hm{V{. dŒH•$Àdg_maß^mVyZ `mßZmoh Z{h_t ]ojg| o_iV. 1882 V oQ>iH$mßZt [ßMdQ>tV
emim gwÍ$ H{$cr Vr `mß¿`m ghH$m`m©Z|. H•$ÓUamd MmßJc{ oeH$c{. doH$crMr [arjm [mg
Pmc{. [U À`m [arj{Mm oZH$mc E{H$ `mBVH|$oh Am`wÓ` À`mßZm cm^c| Zmht.
À`mß¿`m oZYZmZßVa À`mßM| Mnaà ocohUmamg 25 È[`mßM| ]jrg oQ>iH$mßZt Omhra
H{$c| hm{V| (ZmogH$ d•Œm. 20 _mM© 1887). [U V| H$m{Ut ocohÎ`mM| E{oH$dmßV Zmht.

_ßOwim]mB© Ohmc d _mdmi
""oQ>iH$mßZt _mà À`m[wT>| KamßV _hma _mßJ dJ°a{ gd© OmVrM{ H$m_Jma R>{d `mg gwÈdmV
H{$cr.'' (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 2, [•. 95) `mM| CXmhaU._ßOwim]mB© `mM Zmßdm¿`m Xm{Kr
]m`m À`mßZt H$m_mcm R>{dÎ`m hm{À`m. EH$ _hma d EH$ _mßJ. X{dXŒmmßZt Xm{KtZm AZwßH´$_|
Ohmc _ßOwim]mB© d _dmi _ßOwim]mB© Aet Zmßd| oXct hm{Vr. [wT>| ]Ë`mM dfm™Zt Xm{Kroh
oºÒVr PmÎ`m. Zmßd{ H$m`_ amohct. _dmi _ßOwim]mB©_wi| c˙_r]mB™Mr _mZ VÈU[UtM
hmcm`cm cmJcr hm{Vr. (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 3, [•. 80) amUy aIdmcXma (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ
3, [•. 46) hm _dmi _ßOwim]mB™Mm _wcJm.
Ohmc _ßOwim]mB© (_ßOwim]mB© o^_mOr Jm`H$dmS>) `mßMm Am_Mm gß]ßY AoYH$
KoZÔ>. [wT>| 1923-24 V Ohmc _ßOwim]mB© Am_¿`mH$S>{ H$amMrcm `{D$Z amohÎ`m hm{À`m.
AmÂhmß _wcmß_‹`| À`mßM| Zmßd __mAmOr Ag| hm{V|.
c˙_r]mB™¿`m AI{a¿`m AmOmamßV __mAmOt¿`m H$›`m Vwigm]mB© gy`©dßer `m
À`mß¿`m g{d{gmR>t _w‘m_ ZmerH$cm AmÎ`m hm{À`m. À`mßMt _wc| ZmVdßS>| AOyZ AmÂhmodf`t
ÒZ{h^md ]miJyZ Amh{V.

_c{cw a{.Om∞Z (25-9-1872ó25-9-1962)
h{ gßV[wÈf oQ>iH$mßM{ gp›_Ã d [wT>| AmflV Pmc{ hm{V{ (gwZ{¿`m AmV{M{ `O_mZ).
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 685$&&

^m`I˘`m¿`m o_eZ hm`ÒHy$c_‹`| oejUK{D$Z d`m¿`m 18Ï`m dfu V{ A∞H$m°›Q>›Q>
OZac¿`m Am∞o\$g_‹`| Zm{H$arg cmJc{. [U Xm{Z dfm™VM Zm{H$ar gm{Sy>Z À`mßZt AmO›_
Y_©g{dH$mMr d C[X{eH$mMr d•oŒm ÒdrH$macr. 1895 _‹`| oºÒVr PmÎ`m]am{]a oQ>iH$
dgB©g J{c{ V{Ïhmß V{W| `m Xm{KmßMm ÒZ{h OwiyZ Amcm. 1896 _‹`| V{ oQ>iH$mß]am{]a
Ah_XZJamg B©úaod⁄m-[nakmZemi|V hm{V{. dgB©, am{hm, cocV[ya dJ°a{ oR>H$mUt À`mßZt
g{dm H{$cr. dgB©g À`mßMr _m_m da{aH$amßet _°Ãr O_cr. gß›`memMm gßgma _Yc| Jwc{cw
h| [mà _m_mßZt a{. Om∞Z _c{cw d À`mßM{ gmSy> o_. JßJmam_Or Hw$H$mg `m X{mKmßMm o_cm[
H$Í$Z aßJodc{c| Amh{. ZßVa gw_ma| drg ]mdrg df~ a{. _c{cw ^m`I˘`mg ¯z_ _{_m{na`c
MM©M{ [miH$ hm{V{. Ymo_©H$ d•oŒm, B©úamdarc AT>i l’m, ew^dV©_mZ‡gmamMr AmdS>,
_Zo_imdy Òd^md, chmZ _wcmßda __Vm AmoU H´$sS>m‡{_ `m JwUmß_wi| Om∞Zgmh{] AÀ`ßV
cm{H$o‡` d AmXaUr` R>ac{. 1930 _‹`| o_eZMr Zm{H$ar gm{Sy>Z V{ CÒ_mZm]mX `{W|
ÒdVßÃ[U| Y_©g{dm d OZg{dm H$arV AI{a[`™V amohc{. V{W| À`mßZt AZmW _wcmßgmR>t
dgoVJ•h Mmcodc| hm{V|. CÒ_mZm]mXM{ MM© a{. _c{cw `mßZtM ]mßYc{c| Amh{.
oQ>iH$ [nadmamet À`mßMm —T> ÒZ{hgß]ßY hm{Vm. oQ>iH$mßMr CŒmaoH´$`m a{. _c{cyZt
H{$cr. [wT>| 1932 _‹`| emßoVgXZmMm [m`m d A[©UodoY (Ka^aUr) Xm{›ht À`mß¿`m hÒV|
Pmc|. AmOoh À`mß¿`m _wcmßZmVdßS>mßet d [VdßS>met Am_M{ oOÏhm˘`mM{ gß]ßY Amh{V.

_∞H≤$oZH$c a{. S>m∞. oZH$m{c
MM© Am∞\$ ÒH$m∞Q>cßS>M{ o_eZar _amR>r d gßÒH•$V ^mfmßM{ JmT>{ A‰`mgH$, dmÒVÏ`
[w `mg. Jm{Ic{ hm∞c, Q>m{a{›g _{_m{naAc hm∞c. Aem g^mJ•hmßVyZ kmZ{úa, VwH$mam_,
am_Xmg, EH$ZmW, Aem odf`mßda od¤Œmm‡Mßwa _amR>r Ï`mª`mZ|.
Indian Thesim. Psalms of Maratha Saints. The Making of
Modern India. Pandita Ramabai (Builders of Modern India `m

_mocH|$V) B. AZ{H$ [wÒVH$mßM{ H$V}.
1924-30 M| XaÂ`mZ `mßMt AZ{H$ Ï`mª`mZ| d ZmZm [{R> MM©_Yrc ‡dMZ| _t
E{H$c{ct Amh{V AmoU À`mß¿`m _amR>r d∫•$ÀdmZ| _r ‡^modV Pmc{cm Amh{.
óÌ`m. _. AmT>md

_m_ßOr (dm_Z gImam_ oQ>iH$)
""_{h˛ `mß¿`m ÒdmYrZ _wc{]mi| H$Í$Z Am[Uß _m{H$i| Ïhmd| Agm _m_ßOtMm ]{V hm{Vm.
gIyd›gß gmßJVmV H$s® _wcmß¿`m od⁄{gmR>t dm_ZamdmßZt ]Xcm[yaM| e{V odHy$Z Q>mH$c|
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 686$&&

AmoU oMIcJmßdMr dmS>r OJy oQ>iH$mcm oXcr.
(Aer _m{H$i{ hm `mMr Am{T> oQ>iH$dßemßV AZ{H$mßZm cmJc{cr oXgV{. dm_Zamdmß¿`m
d`m¿`m XwgË`m dfv À`mßM{ dS>rc gImam_ [mßSw>aßJ gßgmamMm À`mJ H$Í$Z oZKyZ J{c{. V{
[aV Amc{M ZmhtV Aer lwoV c˙_r]mB™Zt H$¿¿`m ocImUmßV oXc{cr hm{Vr. dm_Zamdmß¿`m
]m]VtV h| H$XmoMV Ò_emZd°amΩ` Agyß eH{$c. H$maU _{h˛ `mß¿`m ÒdmYrZ _wc|]mi|
H$amdt hr ‡oVoH´$`m [pÀZoZYZm¿`m d{iMr Amh{.)
""c˙_r]mB©, VwÂhmcm cwJS>t [mohO{V Zm ?... EH$ [mohO{ Ag{c Va Mma È[`mßM|
K{Vm|. Xm{Z [mohO{ AgVrc Va Xm{Z È[`mßMt Xm{Z o_iVrc.''
(_mà À`m H$miM{ ]mOma^md cjmßV K{Vmß Xm{Z È[`{ hr a∑H$_ chmZ ZÏh|. oedm`
gIyd›gß¿`m gmßJ `m‡_mU| À`m H$mit dm_ZamdmßMm [Jma H{$di AR>am È[`{ hm{Vm.)
""_mP{ _m_ßOr ÂhUO{ AoVe` Q>m[oQ>[rM{ J•hÒW hm{V{. gmgy]mB© dmaÎ`mZßVa À`mßZr
Xwga|ß cΩZ H{$c| Zmht H$s® BVa H$mßht ^mZJS>r H{$Î`m ZmhtV. À`mßM| dV©Z \$ma ew’ Ag{
[aÒÃr V{ _mV{g_mZ _mZrV.''
_m_ßOr e{Oma[mOmaMt _wc{]mi| Jm{im H$Í$Z À`mßZm gß‹`mH$mi¿`m Jm{Ô>r gmßJV.''
""\w$cm_wcmßM{ H$od Zm.dm.oQ>iH$ `mßM{ oeew‡{_ doS>cm{[moO©V ÂhUmd| H$m` ?
""_m_ßOr _cm da oXÎ`m‡_mU{ N>irV. [U Xm{Z Jm{Ô>t]‘c À`mßM{ JwU ø`md{g{ dmQ>VmV.
EH$ ÂhUO| À`mßZt H$Yt A[e„X dm[ac{ ZmhtV d H$Yt AßJmcm ]m{Q> cmdc| Zmht.''
hr hH$sJV gw_ma{ 1884 _Ycr. À`m H$mit Kam{Ka gwZmßZm H$gcr dmJUyH$ o_iV
Ag{ oV¿`mer `mMr VwcZm hm{B©c H$m ?
AmZßXamd AWm©V≤ [me]’ ÒdX{emo^_mZr hr ZmoQ>H$m oQ>iH$mßZt VrW©Í$[ dm_ZamdmßZm
A[©U H{$c{cr Amh{. (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 1, [•. 55)
H$XmoMV≤ `m A[©Um_mJ| C[am{YmMroh Wm{S>r\$ma _mÃm Agyß eH{$c. H$maU dm_ZamdmßZr
oQ>iH$mßH$Sy>Z 40 È[`{ Z{c{ AmoU À`m_wi| Amc{Î`m [mh˛UMmam¿`m AdYtV oQ>iH$mßZt
hr ZmoQ>H$m ocohc{cr hm{Vr.
oQ>iH$ X{dXŒmmßZm ocohVmVó"I know a particular man who rarely
spoke of his own departed father and if he occasionally alluded
to him, it was to illustrate how a generation ago it was thought
below the dignity of a man that he should show himself attached
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 687$&&

to his own wife or to his own offspring. He had as a child reason
to dislike his father, may even to feel hatted towards him which
hatred duty and any goodness in the fellow had softened into a
sort of indifference which almost reached oblivion. But the man
became a Christian afterwards and began to grow in the grace
and wisdom that comes from Christ. One morning he was thinking of his own son and wondered how he the son of a hardhearted man loved his son so much.....The man at once remembered how once he was very dangerously ill and how when
his father realized his state, approached his pillow, caressed
him, and wept. Only once in all his life time the man had found
his father weeping, only once near his pillow only once carressing
him, but that did not move him at all then. Now after nearly a
generation with Jesus, he knew the meaning of those tears shed
only once on his account, and found out that they were far much
more worth than the tears of his father if he were to shed them
a thousand times. The father of the man died when he was
young and now when he is almost as old as him, he loves him
and cries for him and feels full of appreciation of him

(4 IV 1916)
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H$Yt H$mT>rV Zg{. H$Yt À`mMm CÎc{I H{$cmM Va _mJÎ`m o[T>tVÎ`m [wÈfmcm
]m`H$m{_wcmß]‘c ‡{_ XmIodU| H$g| H$_r[UmM| dmQ>{ h| XmIod `m[waVmM H$ar.
]mc[Um[mgyZ `m _mUgmcm Am[Î`m ]m[m]‘c ZmdS>. ZÏh| ¤{f^mdZm, ]miJm`cm
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cmJc| H$s® BV∑`m H$R>m{aˆX`r ]m[mMm _wcJm _r, AmoU _mPr _m¬`m _wcmda BVH$s
_m`m H$er ? ... AmoU À`mcm EH$mEH$s AmR>dU Pmcr. ]mi[Ut Vm{ EH$Xm AoVe`
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gma{ À`mcm AmR>dc|. Am[cm ]m[ Alw T>mirV Amh{, Am[Î`m BVH$m oZH$Q> Amcm
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&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 688$&&

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AlyßMm AW© À`mcm C_JV Amh{. ]m[ Oa hOma ]ma aS>Umam AgVm, Var À`m gmË`m
Alyß[{jmß `m AlyßM{ _m{c oH$VrVar AoYH$ Amh{ h| À`mcm OmUdV Amh{. À`m _ZwÓ`mMm
]m[ À`m¿`m VÈU[UtM _aU [mdcm. [U AmO OdiOdi À`m¿`m d`mMm PmÎ`mZßVa
À`mcm hr OmUrd hm{V Amh{. ‡{_mMm C_mim `{V Amh{, Alw XmQ>V Amh{V, AmoU
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_wi{ am.]. odZm`H$ H$mH$mOr *
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H$Í$Z oXdmUr d \$m°OXmarIQ>Î`mßV [maßJV dH$sc ÂhUyZ Zmßd H$_odc|. Xwga| _hm`w’mM{
d{it gaH$mar amÔ≠>r` `w’ AmKmS>rM{ g{H{´$Q>ar ÂhUyZ oH$À`{H$ df~ H$m_ [mohc|. Ah_XZJa
ZJa[mocH{$M{ V{ ]arM df} g^mgX hm{V{. d H$mht H$mi V{ oejU[ßS>rV hm{V|. ]mcgwYma
J•h, a{S> H´$m∞g AmoX AZ{H$ gm_moOH$ H$m`m©Vrc À`mßM{ H$m_oJar]‘c gaH$maZ| À`mßZm
‡W_ amdgmh{] d ZßVa amd]hmXwa Ag{ oH$Vm] X{D$Z À`mßMm Jm°ad H{$cm. oS>pÒQ≠>∑Q> JÏhZ©_|Q>
flcrS>a d [p„cH$ ‡m∞og∑`yQ>a ÂhUyZoh À`mßZt VrZ df} H$m_ [mohc|. X{dXŒmamd oQ>iH$
Oar [wT>{ ZmoeH$cm ÒWmo`H$ Pmc{ Var AS>rAS>MUtM{ ‡gßJt À`mßMr d odZm`H$amd _wi{
`mßMr gÑm_gcV hm{V Ag{. odZm`H$amd _wi{ Vm. 1.4.1970 am{Ot Ah_XZJa `{W|
H$mcde Pmc{.
ó_mYd odZm`H$ _wi

`m{J{ldamZßXVrW© Òdm_r (1868-1961)
Òdm_r `m{J{úamZßXVrW© `mßM| [ydm©l_rM| Zmßd Õ`ß]H$ ^mÒH$a Ia{, `mßMm O›_ aÀZmoJar
oOίmßVrc JwhmJa Jmßdt 1868 gmct Pmcm. Ia{ KamU| AÀ`ßV H$_©R> d AmMmagß[›Z
hm{V|. ¯m_wi| Ymo_©H$ odoY, X{dVmM©Z, Ymo_©H$ J´ßWmßM| dmMZ BÀ`moX gßÒH$ma À`mß¿`mda
]mc[UtM Pmc{.
Õ`ß]H$emÒÃtM{ dS>rc o^dßS>rg dH$sc hm{V{. À`mß¿`mH$S>{ AZ{H$ gÀ[wÈf `{V AgV.
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 3
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 689$&&

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o_imc| d JmdmßV Om{ H$m{Ur `m{Jr `{B©c À`mßMr ^{Q> K{D$Z d À`m¿`m ghdmgmßV amhˇZ
Am[cr Am‹`mpÀ_H$ ‡JoV H$amd`mMr hm À`mßMm C[H´$_ gwÍ$ Pmcm. ¯m_wi| À`mßZm gßV
_mYdZmW _hmamO, Jwcm]amd _hmamO, lr Jm|Xdc{H$a _hmamO, a_U _hof©, `m{Jr
AaqdX BÀ`moX AZ{H$ gßV_hmÀÂ`mßM{ gmp›Z‹` cm^c|.
d`m¿`m 17Ï`m dfv doS>cmß¿`m _•À`y_wi| gßgmamMr O]m]Xmar `mß¿`mda [S>cr.
À`m_wi| gd© Hw$Qw>ß] [Zd{c `{W| gm{Sy>Z V{ oejUmgmR>t [w `mg J{c{ d 1891 _‹`| _∞oQ≠>H$
[arjm CŒmrU© Pmc{. [w `mg V{ amÔ≠>r` MiditV e∑` V{dT>m ^mJ K{V AgÎ`m_wi| À`mß¿`m
hmcMmcrda JwflV [m{ocgmßMr ZOa Ag{.
1892 _‹`| V{ _wß]B©g Amc{. V{W| À`mßZr VrZ df~ Zm{H$ar H{$cr. V{W| dO´{Ìdar `{W|
AZwÓR>mZ H$arV AgVmß EH$m d•’ J•hÒWmZ| À`mßZm [ßT>a[wacm Om `mg gmßoJVc|. [ßT>a[wamg
1897 * _‹`| _m{\$V BßJO
´ r emi|V gw[naQ>S| >Q| > ÂhUyZ V{ Í$Oy Pmc{. À`m d{it a{. Zm.dm.oQ>iH$
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Zmht. (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 2)
Õ`ß]H$emÒÃr Ia{ `mßZr _wcmßZm Ï`m[mar oejU ⁄md| Ag| [ßT>aro_Ã d•Œm[ÃmßVyZ
AmJ´hmZ| ‡oV[mXZ H{$b|. V{Ïhmß gm{bm[ya¿`m Ï`m[mar _ßS>irZ| Aem ‡H$maMr emim
H$moT>br d À`m emi{M{ _wª`m‹`m[H$ ÂhUyZ À`mßMr Z{_UyH$ H{$br. gm{bm[yabm À`mßMm
_w∏$m_ gmV df~ hm{Vm. V{W| À`mßZm odOm[yaM{ ^mD$_hmamO C_arH$a `mß¿`m ghdmgmßV
‡H$me-gmjmÀH$ma Pmbm.
[wT>| _wß]B©g `{D$Z À`mZt Xmda H$m∞b{O Am∞\$ H$m∞_g© _‹`| Zmßd KmbyZ Xm{Z dfm™V
gßÒW|¿`m gd© [arjm oXÎ`m. À`mM dfv Agm{oeEQ>{S> AH$mCßQ>g≤ `m gßÒW{Z| À`mßZm Am∞oS>Q>g©
[Xdr oXbr. À`mM dfv À`mßZt Ia{ AmoU Hß$[Zr Am∞oS>Q>g© Aer gßÒWm ÒWm[Z H{$br.
1922 V À`mß¿`m [ÀZtM| oZYZ Pmb|. 1925 V{ 40 `m H$mimßV. BßXyaM{ _mYdZmW
_hmamO `mß¿`met À`mßMm g]ßY Ambm. h{M Ia{emÛrM{ `m{JJwÈ.
1943 _‹`| ^maVr H•$ÓUVrW© `mßZt À`mßZm ¤maH$m[rR>mM{ eßH$amMm`© [XmH$naVmß gß›`mg
K{ `mgmR>t ]m{bmodb| d gß›`mgJ´hUmZßVa ^yO `{W| À`mßZm ¤maH$m[rR>mM{ eßH$amMm`© ÂhUyZ
Ao^f{H$ H$a `mßV Ambm. `m [rR>mßVrb H$m{Q>m™V Mmby Agb{Î`m ^mßS>Um_wi| `mßZr
eßH$amMm`©[XmMm À`mJ H{$bm. [wT>| [war¿`m Jm{dY©Z[rR>mM{ eßH$amMm`© ÂhUyZ À`mßZm Ao^f{H$
H$a `mßV Ambm. 1961 V À`mM| oZdm©U Pmb{. AßÀ`odoY ZmJ[wamg Pmbm. XhZ H$a `mßV
*gZmß¿`m ]m]VrV MyH$ PmÎ`mM{ oXgV{. oQ>iH$mßZm ‡m`o¸V X{ `mMm ‡`ÀZ 1895 gmcr Pmcm.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 690$&&

Amb|.
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[wÒVH|$ A‡H$moeV Amh{V.
ñ eßH$a Jm{qdX M≈>{

aßJw]mB© bm{hmarU
aßJamd ]ßS>{b gmßJVmVó""\$Ω`w©gZ J{Q>bm JwÈOt¿`m KamOdi EH$ bm{hmarU ahmV
Ag{. Vr _m{R>r H$amar ]mB© hm{Vr. oVMm Zdam dmabm hm{Vm Var Vr gd© bm{hmaH$m_ hmVmZ|
H$am`Mr. H$m{UmH$S>{ oVZ| Vm|S> d|JmS>b{b| Zmht. oQ>iH$mßZm oV¿`m `m ]m `mM| H$m°VwH$
dmQ>{. À`mß¿`mH$S>{ H$Yt H$m{Ur odYdm ]m`m `{D$Z Am[b| X°›` gmßJyß bmJÎ`m Va V{
ÂhUV,""R>rH$ Amh{ AmVmß AmbßV Va _m¬`mH$S>{ O{dyZ Om, [U À`m g_m{a¿`m bm{hmarU
]mB©H$S>{ Oam ]Jm. oV¿`mH$Sy>Z H$mßht oeH$m.''
^mbMß– em. _m{S>H$ gmßJVmVñ""ZJamg \$Ω`w©gZ J{Q>bm oQ>iH$mß¿`m KamOdi EH$
bm{hmarU ahmV Ag{. oVM| V{W|M bm{hmaH$m_mM| XwH$mZ hm{V|. Vr oQ>iH$mßZm ^mD$ ÂhU{.
oXdmir¿`m oXdgmßV oQ>iH$ Kat `{V hm{V{. À`mß¿`m oIemßVM gmam [Jma hm{Vm. bm{hmarU
ÂhUmbr,""^mD$, ]ohUrbm H$mßht oXdmirMr Am{dmiUr Va Iar?'' oQ>iH$mßZt MQ>H$Z
Am[bm gmam [JmaM oV¿`m hmVt X{D$Z Q>mH$bm.''
X{dXŒm `mda obohVmVñ""aßJy]mB© bm{hmarU ohZ| oQ>iH$mßH$Sy>Z Aem arVrZ| [°gm H$mT>bm
Ag{b h| e∑` Zmht. H$XmoMV≤ b˙_r]mB™ZtM oVbm h| H$m_ gmßoJVb| Ag{b d oVZ|
gma{¿`m gma{ [°g{ b˙_r]mB™H$S>{ oXb{ AgVrb.''

amZS>{ dm_Z ]miH•$ÓU (1854-1899)*
ZmeH$mg [ßMdQ>tV ]miH•$ÓUemÛr amZS>{ ÂhUyZ od¤mZ emÛr hm{V{. À`mßM{ dm_Zamd
h{ oMaßOrd. `mßMm O›_ 1854 _‹`| Pmbm. Ka¿`m Jna]r_wi| À`mßZm emi|Vrb A‰`mgH´$_
[wam H$aVmß Ambm Zmht. Var gßÒH•$V hr KaMrM od⁄m AgÎ`mZ{ oVM| kmZ À`mßZm MmßJb|
Pmb| hm{V|. d`m¿`m 14Ï`m dfvM V{ dV©_mZ[ÃmßV b{I obhߡ bmJb{. ‡W_ BßXw‡H$meM{
]mV_rXma ÂhUyZ V{ [Ã| [mR>drV; Vg|M od⁄moW©Xe|VM V{ ZmogH$d•ŒmmM{oh gß[mXH$ Pmb{.
1879 _‹`{ V{ bm{H$ohVdmXr ÂhUyZ ‡og’ Agb{Î`m Jm{[miamd X{e_wImßOdi amohb{.
bm{H$ohVdmXr `mß¿`m J´ßWmßMt oQ>[U| `mß¿`m hmVmMtM AgV. À`mM H$mimßV R>mU| `{Wrb
ohXw[ßMmM| gß[mXH$Àdoh À`mß¿`mH$S>{ Amb{. V| À`mß¿`m _•À`y[`™V À`mß¿`mH$S>{M hm{V|.
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 1
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 691$&&

gy`m}X`oh À`mßZt ]a{M oXdg Mmbodbm. am.].X{e_wI `mßM|H$S>rb H$m_ gß[Î`mda
1884 [mgyZ À`mßZr kmZMjyM{ gß[mXH$Àd [ÀH$nab| d 1899 _‹`| V{ flb{JZ| dmab{ À`m
d{itoh V{ kmZMjyM{ gß[mXH$ hm{V|M. qhXw[ßMmßVrb H$mßht ‡H$maU| \$ma _Zm{a_ Amh{V.
VetM kmZMjyßV VÀH$mbrZ [wÈfmßMr À`mßZt obohb{br MnaÃ_mbmoh \$ma bm{H$o‡` Pmbr
hm{Vr. V{ amÔ≠>r` g^{M| _m{R>{ ^∫$ AgyZ Vr dmar V{ MwH$drV ZgV. g_mOgwYmaUmdmXr
gßKmZ| V`ma H{$b{Î`m ‡oVkm[ÃH$mßV dm_ZamdmßMr ghr [mßMdr oXgV{. bm{. oQ>iH$mßMroh
ghr ¯m [ÃH$mda Amh{. odZm{Xr d _Zo_imdy Òd^mdm_wi| À`mßMm o_Ã[nadma \$ma _m{R>m
hm{Vm. a{. Zmam`Uamd oQ>iH$ h{ À`mßM| [ohÎ`m[mgyZ o_Ã hm{V| d ZßVa À`mßMr _m_{]hrU
(MwbVrMr ^mMr) oXÎ`mZ| ¯m Hw$Qw>ß]met À`mßMm oZH$Q> gß]ßY hm{Vm. dm_Zamd h{ _m{R>{
_mo_©H$ d gßJ´hr AgV. b{I, oQ>[U|, H$odVm, \$m{Q>m{, [wÒVH|$ dJ°a|Mm À`mßMm gßJ´h À`mß¿`m
o_Ã_ßS>itV _m{R>m H$m°VwH$mMm odf` Ag{. óeaÉß– dm_Z amZS>{

am_^mD$ (am_Mß– ]m[yamd Y_m©oYH$mar)
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[U Vr AoVe` WH$br hm{Vr. OdiOdi AmOmarM hm{Vr. am_^mD$Z| EIm⁄m AmB©‡_mU|
oQ>iH$mßMr H{$b{br g{dm _t [mohbr. Vr _m¬`m Ò_aUmßVyZ OmUma Zmht. am_^mD$Z|
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odZm{Xr hm{Vm. [U ]T>mB©Im{a d b]mS> \$ma. À`m_wi|ß H$m{R>|oh H$m_mbm oQ>H$V Zg{ d
MwH$bm \$H$sa _erXtV gmß[S>m`Mm Vgm H$m_ J{b| H$s® Am_¿`mH$S>{ `{D$Z _w∏$m_
R>m{H$m`mM... ^mÒH$aamd COJa{, _r d R>m|]a{ dJ°a|Zt À`m¿`m ZmßdmßM| Y_©o^H$mar d
Y_©oY∏$mar Ag| odS>ß]Z H{$b| hm{V| d À`mß[°H$s® EImX| Zmßd AmÂhr dm[arV hm{Vm|.''
_m¬`m _mohVr‡_mU| [wT>| am_^mD$H$mH$m H$mßht oXdg S>m∞.lr.Ï`ß.H{$VH$amßH$S>{ hm{V|.
kmZH$m{em¿`m ‡Vr I[od `mßV am_^mD$H$mH$mßMmoh ImarMm dmßQ>m Amh{.

am_^mD$ ggmU{*
H$mimHw$≈> IS>]S>rV _mUyg. [U [[mßZm AmdS>m`Mm. Vm{ H$odVm H$ar ÂhUyZ H$s®
H$m` gmßJVmß `{V Zmht. Vm{ oºÒVr hm{Vm Var _mßJdmS>ÁmßV ahmV Ag{. EH$ oXdg ggmU{
Am[br EH$ H$odVm K{D$Z Amb{. ]h˛V{H$ M|Ô>m ÂhUyZ H$m{UtVar _mßJ hm _ham[{jm ZrM
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 3
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 692$&&

Amh{ Ag| ÂhQ>b| Agmd|. hm oMS>Vm{ ÂhUyZ À`mbm AoYH$ oMS>drV Agmd{. Vr H$odVm
Aeró
_hmam a{ ZrM H$gm hm _mßJ $&&Y´w$&&
CV[Vr gmar AmXm_Ëhd{Mr À`mMß VyPß `{H$M AmßJ....1
_hmamMt [m{aß _mßJmMt [m{aß `{H$mM ]m{oS>™Jm›V...2
_hmamß¿`m [m{ar _mßJm¿`m [m{ar `{H$mM ]m{oS>™Jm›V....3
e{dQ>br Am{i ‡^w `{ey¿`m [m`m[met _hmam VwPr H$m` qH$_V Amh{ Am_¿`m[wT>|
oH$Vroh \w$ema∑`m _maÎ`m VaróAer H$mßht hm{Vr.
ggm `mbm oH$À`{H$ df~ oQ>iH$ Xa_hm Xm{Z È[`mßMr _XV H$arV.ó X{.Zm.oQ>iH$

b˙_rVZ`m (gm°.Aß]yVmB© C\©$ gÀ`^m_m]mB© oOdmOramd [Q>dY©Z)
[ßT>a[wamg gImam_[ßV oQ>iH$mßM| o]ËhmS> gm°. Aß]yVmB© oOdmOramd [Q>dY©Z `mß¿`m
dmS>ÁmßV hm{V|. XŒmy¿`m oejUmgmR>t ÂhUyZ b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$ gImam_^mdm{Ot¿`m Kat
`{D$Z amohÎ`m V{Ïhmß gm°. Aß]yVmB© [Q>dY©Z `mßMr d À`mßMr _°Ãr O_yZ Ambr. oQ>iH$
À`mßZm ›`m`bm Amb{ V{Ïhmß (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 2, [•.43-45) gm°. Aß]yVmB™Zt b˙_r]mB™Zm
AmJ´hmZ| gmßoJVb| H$s® À`mßZt [Vrgh Omd| AmoU [VrMm Y_© ÒdrH$mamdm. Vg| H$a `mg
oQ>iH$ Hw$Qw>ßo]`mßMm odam{Y hm{Vm.
gm°. Aß]yVmB© ÒdVï H$do`Ãr hm{À`m. À`m H$mit oÛ`mßM{ ZmßdmZ| À`mßM{ [VrM b{IZ
H$arV AgV. AmoU hr Jm{Ô> gd©lwV hm{Vr. EH$Xm ""H$aß¡`mßVrb _m{XH$'' `m erf©H$mImbr
EH$ gwßXa H$odVm ‡og’ Pmbr. Vr H$odVm b˙_r]mB© `m ZmßdmZ| ‡og’ Pmbr hm{Vr. Vr
b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$mßMr Agmdr `m g_OwVrZ| gm°.Aß]yVmB© [Q>dY©ZmßZt [wT>rb Am`m© H$Í$Z
b˙_r]mB™H$S>{ [mR>dyZ oXbr, d ‡og’oh H{$br. Vr Am`m© Aeró
_m{XH$ ]h˛ Jm{S> Ag{ AmH$maoh gw]H$ gmYbm ]mB© $&
Vd ^À`m©M| À`mbm gm¯ Zg{ H$m H$Yt _bm VmB© $&&
AWm©V hr Am`m© gm°. Aß]yVmB™M{ [oV oOdmOramd [Q>dY©ZmßZtM obhˇZ oXbr hm{Vr h|
gmßJU| ZbJ{.ó X`mZßX oOdmOramd [Q>dY©Z

qb]mOr ]m{ÈS>{
oQ>iH$mßM{ EH$ oZH$Q>dVu d "Xa]mar'. h{ AßY hm{V{. H$od, Jm`H$ d gßJrVoejH$
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 693$&&

ÂhUyZ h{ oºÒVr g_mOmßV gd©[naoMV hm{V{. C[mgZmgßJrVmßV `mßMt [⁄| Amh{V. [wT>|
S>m∞.^m.[mß.ohdmi{ kmZm{X`mM{ gß[mXH$ AgVmß qb]mOtM| À`mßZm `Wmeo∫$ gm¯ hm{V
Ag{.
oQ>iH$mßodf`t¿`m d Xa]mamodf`t¿`m ]h˛_m{b AmR>dUr qb]mOtZt _bm oXÎ`m
Amh{V.

gßV ]idßV `edßV C\©$ H$mH$m*
H$mH$m _yiM{ gm{bm[yaH$S>b{. 1904¿`m gw_mamg h{ OmbZm `{W| [ßoS>V (`wam{o[`ZmßM{
_amR>r oejH$) hm{V{. [wT>| H$mßht H$mi V{ EH$m A±Ωbm{ÏhaZ∞∑`wba emi{M{ h{S>_mÒVa hm{V{. V{
AÀ`ßV ohe{]r, Ï`dhmar AmoU [°emßZm d H$[S>ÁmßZm O[Uma{ J•hÒW hm{V{.
X{ZmoQ> gmßJVmV,""H$mH$m oºÒVr Pmb{ V{Ïhmß À`mß¿`m]am{]a EH$ ]mB©oh oºÒVr PmÎ`m.
À`m _m{R>Ám CÉ Hw$imßVÎ`m hm{À`m. [U [wT>| À`m Xm{KmßMm oddmh hm{Dß$ eH$bm Zmht. H$mH$m
oºÒVr Pmb{ Var À`mßMm OmÀ`o^_mZ H$m`_ hm{Vm. À`mßZr bæ H{$b| V| dYw [yd©OmVrMr
CÉHw$brZ _amR>m hm{Vr `mMr ImÃr H$Í$Z K{D$ZM.''
gßVH$mH$mßMt Xm{Z _wb| ^mÒH$a d _Zm{a_m _bm AmR>dVmV. _ZwVmB© ZmJ[wamg ]Ë`mM
oeH$Î`m. [U À`m bm°H$aM dmaÎ`m. ^mÒH$aamdmßZm Hß$[m¢S>aM| H$m_ oeH$dyZ X{ZmoQ> Zt
À`mßg ZmoeH$bm OZmdamß¿`m XdmIm›`mßV Zm{H$arda K{Vb| hm{V|.

gmR>{ am.gm. odZm`H$amd
am.gm.gmR>{ H$od hm{ V { . À`mß ¿ `m H$odVm H$od goÉXmZß X `m Zmß d mZ|
ododYkmZodÒVmamßV `{V AgV. X{ZmoQ> obohVmVó""amdgmh{] ÂhUO{ o[R>m¿`m
oJaUrgmaIr H$mÏ`mMr oJaUr hm{Vr. dmç`met gß]ßY Z `{UmË`m H$m{UÀ`mVar gaH$mar
ImÀ`mßV V{ H$mßhtVar hm{V{. [{›eZ K{VÎ`mZßVa V{ ZJamg ÒWmo`H$ Pmb{. H$mÏ`mM{ V{ _m{R>{
em°oH$Z hm{V{. ode{fVï À`mßZm [[mß¿`m H$odVm \$ma AmdS>V. À`mß¿`m ghdmgmZ| V{M _J
H$odVm H$Íß$ bmJb{,""Aa{ Ambm H$dr Ambm [im [im'' Aer pÒWoV hm{B©. EH$m
[maem¿`m XwH$mZmßV oeÍ$Zoh À`mßZm H$odVm JmVmßZm _t E{H$b| Amh{. Xwga| ""]m[mM{ Alw''
h| H$mÏ` À`mß¿`mM oMÃH$ma _wbm¿`m _•À`yZßVa [[mßZt obohb|.''

gmid{ S>m∞. lr[Vamd
S>m∞. ]∞bßQ>mB©Z h{ E_.S>r. hm{V{. EH$m{oUgmÏ`m eVH$m¿`m CŒmamYm©V [m¸mÀ` d°⁄H$s`
oejU X{ `mMr BH$S>{ gm{` ZÏhVr. À`m d{it S>m∞. ]∞bßQ>mBZ ¯mßZt C_amd ohdmi{, lr[Vamd
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 2
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 694$&&

gmid{ AmUIr EH$ Aem oVKmßZm S>m∞∑Q>a ]Zodb|. lr[Vamd gmiÏ`mßZm amh˛ar `m
XdmIm›`mßV Z{_b|. _wª` S>m∞∑Q>a ]∞b|Q>mBZ. [U À`mßM| gma| bj e{VH$s®V Ag{. V{Ïhmß
oS>Ò[{›garM| gma| H$m_ lr[Vamdmßda [S>{.
À`mß¿`mda [[mßMm d AmB©Mm \$ma odúmg hm{Vm. 1901 gmbt ]{]rbm flb{J Pmbm
V{Ïhmß _bm amh˛arg lr[VramdmßM{ Kat R>{d `mM{ R>ab{ d VrZ _ohZ{ _r À`mß¿`m Kat hm{Vm|.
ó X{.Zm.oQ>iH$

hmd} o_g≤ am{Pmbr C\©$ AmB© *
PZmZm ]m`]b A∞›S> _{oS>H$b o_eZ (ZBMM) ¿`m o_eZar ÂhUyZ ZmerH$ ‡mßVmV
""AmB™'' Zt AY©eVH$mhˇZ AoYH$ H$mi g{dm H{$br. 1932 V d`m¿`m 81Ï`m dfu
À`mßZt ZmeH$mßVM X{h R>{odbm.
1896 ¿`m XwÓH$mimßV A_m[ bm{H$g{dm [wT>| ZmeH$mßVrb ""]mb[ya'' (hmd} ]{]rO
hm{_) h| AZmWA^©H$mb`, Hw$>am{Ω`mßgmR>t C[MmaH|$– d dgoVJ•h, À`mß¿`m oZam{Jr
_wbtgmR>r [m{bdW© hm{_, OZmdamßMm XdmImZm, AZ{H$ emim d gßÒWm Aem À`mß¿`m
]h˛odY [am{[H$mamß_wi| ZmerH$ [nagamßV o_g≤ hmd} ""AmB©'' `m ZmßdmZ|M Am{iIÎ`m
OmV.
`mßMm oQ>iH$mßMm ÒZ{h gw_ma| 1896-97 [mgyZMm. Obmb[wamg oQ>iH$mß]am{]a
b˙_r]mB™Zm ^{Q>m`bm Amb{br _S>_ (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-2, [•. 31-32) ÂhUO{ `m hmd} AmB©M.
oQ>iH$mß¿`m oZYZmZßVa X{dXŒm ZmeH$mg ÒWmo`H$ PmÎ`mda ""AmB©'' ¿`m ‡`ÀZmßZtM
À`mßZm Â`woZog[mobQ>r, bm{H$b ]m{S>©, ÒHy$b ]m{S>©, Ïh{Q>naZar hm∞pÒ[Q>b Aet AZ{H$
g{dmj{Ã| C[b„Y Pmbt.
X{dXŒm obohVmVó
gÀ‡{__yoV© ‡^wMr OUw XyoVH$m hr
J{br Var dgVg{ ˆX`mßVathr
]mi| ÒdH$s` J_Vr ohO J{qhJ{ht
hrbmM `m{Ω` Ao^YmZ OJmßV ""AmB©''

ohdmi{ a{. AmZßXamd (1878-1922)
_hmamÔ≠r` oºÒVr g_mOmßVb{ EH$ AÀ`ßV H$iH$irM{ d VS>\$Xma g_mOg{dH$.
bhmZ[Ut [napÒWoV hbmIrMr. Amaß^rMt OdiOdi Xhm df~ oZÏdi Jwa| amI `mßV d
* Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 4
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 695$&&

CZmS>∑`m H$a `mßV Kmbodbt.[U [wT>| h≈> YÍ$Z emi|V ‡d{e. dS>mi|, amh˛ar, Ah_XZJa
o_eZemimßVyZ _amR>r 6dr [`™V oejU. ZJamßVrb o_eZatMt H$m_| d H$m`©[’oV [mhˇZ
B©fm©; A_{naH|$V OmD$Z `m{Ω`Vm o_idm`Mr AmoU ÒdX{et `{D$Z g{dm H$am`Mr Agm
oZYm©a. emim PmS>U{, ]mJ{bm [mUr KmbU| dJ°a{ H$m_| H$Í$Z ^m`I˘`m¿`m o_eZ
hm`ÒHy$bM| oejU [wa| H{$b|. `{W| AgVmßZm oQ>iH$mßMr [ohbr ^{Q> (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 2,
[•.1).
A_{naH|$Vrb A‰`mgmMr [yd©V`mar ÂhUyZ Ah_XZJa¿`m B©úaod⁄m-[nakmZ emi|V
Mma df} A‹``Z. Xa dfm™V ghm _ohZ{ _wß]B©g amhˇZ o_iVrb Vt H$m_| H$Í$Z A_{naH$m`mÃ{gmR>t –Ï`gßM`. 1901¿`m XwÓH$mimßV [roS>Vmß¿`m gm¯mgmR>t oOdmM| amZ H{$b|.
Xmam{Xma o\$Í$Z VrZ hOma Í$[`{ O_dyZ o‡p›g[m∞b ¯z_ `mßOH$S>{ AmUyZ oXb{. hr VS>\$
[mhˇZ ¯z_Zt `mßZm bhmZghmZ H$m±Q≠>m∑Q>| ⁄m`bm gwÈdmV H{$br. À`m]am{]a ew^d•Œm‡gmamM|
AmdS>V| H$m_ ÒdVßÃ[U| Mmbodb|. flb{Jam{Ω`mßMr g{dm H$aVmßZm EH$Xm ÒdVïM flb{J¿`m
O]S>ÁmßV gmß[S>b{ hm{V{.
Mma df~ I[yZ O_odb{br [wßOr, H$mßht o_eZar o_ÃmßMr AÎ[ÒdÎ[ _XV d ]ßYw S>m∞.
C_amd `mßZt oXb{br Wm{S>r\$ma a∏$_ `m AmYmamda AmZßXamd A_{naH{$bm oZKmb{.
H$·mZmMr ^{Q> K{D$Z À`mßZt ]m{Q>rdaoh H$mßht H$m_ o_iodb|M.
A_{naH{$V ]|Jma g{o_ZatV ]r.S>r.Mm A‰`mgH´$_ [yU© H{$bm. V{ J´∞¡`wEQ> ZgÎ`mZ|
oS>J´r o_i{Zm. ÂhUyZ AmUIr Xm{Z df~ V{W|M amhˇZ ]r.E.d ]r.S>r. Xm{›hr [XÏ`m gß[mXZ
H$Í$Z _m`X{et [aVb{. gmVmam `{W| H$mßht oXdg o_eZar ÂhUyZ H$m_ H{$b|. oedm`
I{S>Ám[mS>Ámß_YyZ ew^d•Œm‡gmamgmR>t \{$Ë`m Mmby R>{odÎ`m. oeÈa ‡mßVmßV ]Xbr PmÎ`mda
gmV AZmW _wbmßZm Am[Î`m KamßV Aml` X{D$Z ZdrZ g{dmH$m`m©g gwÈdmV H{$br.
À`mgmR>t ÒWmoZH$ d _wß]B©H$a YoZH$mßH$Sy>Z X{UΩ`m o_iodÎ`m. (‡og’ Jmo`H$m Jm{haOmZ
`mßOH$Sy>Zoh È. 1000 o_imb{) ]meubm ]XbyZ OmVmßZm ]am{]a 300 AZmW _wbmßM{
""Hw$Qw>ß]''oh Z{b|. ]meu Â`woZog[mobQ>rM{ A‹`j[X o_imb|. H$ma^mamßV AZ{H$ gwYmaUm
H{$Î`m.
1921V O›_Jmßdt ZJabm ]Xbr _mJyZ K{Vbr. 500 _wbm_wbtM{ ""Hw$Qw>ß]'' ZJamg
ÒWmo`H$ H{$b|. `m H$m_t o_eZM| gm¯ ZÏhV|. aVZ Q>mQ>m `mßMr X._.2000 È. H$m`_
_XV o_iodbr. AZ{H$ o^fiY_u YoZH$ ohVqMVH$mßH$Sy>Z –Ï`ghmÊ` o_iodb|.
28 \{$]´wdmar 1922 am{Ot ZJa `{W| oZYZ. [ÀZr lr_Vr VmB©]mB© `mßZt 500 OUmßM|
Hw$Qw>ß] gmß^mi `mgmR>B™ AmQ>m{H$mQ> ‡`ÀZ H{$b{. Am[b| gd© H$mßht À`mßV XdS>b|. [U
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 696$&&

À`mßZm `e Amb| Zmht (H$mßhr g_H$mobZmß¿`m _V| "o_eZË`mßZt À`mßZm `e o_iyß oXb|
Zmht.)
(XeaW od«>b H$X_ `mßZt obohb{b| Mnaà d qMVm_U a{dOr Jm`H$dmS> (YmH$Q>m
qMVy) `mßZt gmßoJVb{br hH$sJV `mß¿`m AmYma|)

¯z_ a{ ES>dS>© g∞H{$Q> (1848-1908)
1840 V{ 1951 `m EH$e| AH$am dfm™V ¯z_ Kam `m¿`m VrZ o[T>ÁmßZr o_eZar
ÂhUyZ _hmamÔ≠>mMr g{dm ]Omdcr. S>m∞. am∞]Q>©, ES>dS>© d o_g gmam `m ^mdßS>mMr o[T>r
Xwgar.
a{. B©.Eg. ¯z_ C\©$ YmH$Q>{ ¯z_gmh{] ^m`Iim `{Wrc o_eZ hm`ÒHy$c_‹`| o‡p›g[m∞c
hm{V{. (`m hm`ÒHy$ccm [wT>| À`mßM|M Zmßd X{ `mV Amc|). `mßMm O›_ _wß]B©Mm. oejU _mÃ
A_{naH|$V `{c `woZÏhog©Q>tV d hmQ>©\$S>© g{o_Zar_‹`{ Pmc|. V{WyZ V{ qhXwÒVmZmßV g[pÀZH$
Amc{. Ah_XZJamg df©^a amhˇZ C^`VmßZr _amR>r ^mf{Mm A‰`mg H{$cm. 2 \{$]´wdmar
1871 am{Ot À`mßZt o_eZ emi{Mr (AmVmßM{ ¯z_ hm`ÒHy$c) ÒWm[Zm H{$cr. hm`ÒHy$cM{
o‡p›g[m∞c, _wcmß¿`m d _wct¿`m dgoVJ•hmßM{ gßMmcH$ ó `mßVM dgoVJ•hmgmR>t \ß$S>
Jm{im H$a `mMr O]m]Xmar Amcr AmoU AZ{H$ d{imß kmZm{X` [ÃmM{ gß[mXH$ Aem ‡H$ma|
YmH$Q>Ám ¯z_gmh{]mßZt ]h˛_wIr g{dm H{$cr.

¯z_ a{. S>m∞.am∞]Q>© A∞cZ M.A.,D.D.(1847-1929)
S>m∞. Ama.E. ¯z_ C\©$ Wm{ac{ ¯z_gmh{] h{ a{. B©.Eg. ¯z_ `mßM{ Wm{ac{ ]ßYw. h{ Ah_XZJa
Y_©‡mßVmM{ o_eZar hm{V{. 1895 _‹`| oQ>iH$ oºÒVr PmÎ`mda À`mßZm _wß]B©¿`m o_eZ
emi|V (hÑtM| ¯z_ hm`ÒHy$c) YmH$Q>Ám ¯z_gmh{]mß¿`m hmVmImct oejH$mMr Zm{H$ar
X{ `mßV Amcr. [U V{Wcr odcm`Vr M{hË`m_m{hË`mMr ewÓH$ oeÒV oQ>iH$mß¿`m Òd^mdmcm
_mZd `mgmaIr ZgÎ`mZ| À`mßM{ dna>mßet IQ>H{$ CSy>ß cmJc{. V{Ïhmß Wm{aÎ`m ¯z_gmh{]mßZt
oQ>iH$mßZm Ah_XZJa ‡mßVmV, Am[Î`m od^mJmßV ]m{cmdyZ K{Vc|. V{WyZ [wT>| e{dQ>[`™V
À`mßZtM oQ>iH$mßZm ""gmß^moic|.''
S>m∞. am∞]Q>© ¯z_ h{ EH$ _m{R>{ H$V©]Jma, Ï`dhmaHw$ec Ag{ ‡emgH$ hm{V{. AmoU
À`m]am{]aM V{ EH$ ‡{_i AmoU odZm{Xo‡` gX≤J•ÒWoh hm{V{. oQ>iH$mßgmaª`mcm gmß^miyZ
K{U| XwgË`m H$m{Umoh o_eZar gmh{]mcm e∑` Pmc| ZgV|.
kmZm{X` [ÃmM| gß[mXZ, Ah_XZJaMr oWAm∞cm∞oOH$c g{o_Zar, `wZm`Q>{S> MM© Am∞\$
BßoS>`mMr [ohcr _m∞S>a{Q>aoe[, [maZ{a ‡mßVmMr X{Ia{I Aet ododY ‡H$maMt H$m_|
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 697$&&

¯z_gmh{]mßZt `epÒdV{Z| [ma [mS>ct.
"kmZm{X`' h| _amR>tVc| EH$ Ow›`mßVc| OwZ| [Ã. ‡W_ h| A_{naH$Z _amR>r o_eZ¿`m
_mcH$sM| hm{V|. À`mM{ ghmo_eZmß¿`m _wI[ÃmßV Í$[mßVa KS>odc| S>m∞. ¯z_ `mßZtM. AZ{H$
oR>H$mUt H$m`©aV Aem oZaoZam˘`m o_eZmßM{ E{∑` ÒWm[Z Ïhmd| Aer À`mßMr CÀH$Q>
B¿N>m d gVV IQ>[Q> Ag{. `wZm`Q>{S> MM© Am∞\$ BßoS>`mM{ V{M [ohc{ _m∞S>a{Q>a Pmc{ hm{V{.
_mà À`mßM| hß{ E{∑`mM| ÒdflZ gmH$ma Pmc| V| À`mß¿`mZßVa, gr.EZ.Am`. (CNI) gmaIr
_ßS>i| AmO h|M [yU© H$arV Amh{V.
[o¸_ qhXwÒWmZmßVcr [ohcr g{o_Zar Ah_XZJamßV S>m∞. ¯z_ZtM ÒWm[Z H{$cr.
ohcmM [w T >| Ah_XZJa oS>pÏhoZQ>r H$m∞ c { O h| Zmß d o_imc| . `m gß Ò W{ M r
O]m]XmarAY©eVH$^a, 1926 [`™V S>m∞. ¯z_ `mßZtM gmß^moicr. a{. VwH$mam_ ZWm{Or,
a{. oQ>iH$, a{. B_m_]j ]mdm, a{. _c{cw, a{. am.‡. C\©$ ]´Xa X{e[mßS>{ `mßgmaI{ oH$À`{H$
od¤mZ d g{dm^mdr oºÒV^∫$ `m [naemc{Z| _hmamÔ≠>mcm oXc{.
Ah_XZJa `{Wrc ^Ï` C[mgZm_ßoXa h| S>m∞. ¯z_ `mß¿`mM [nal_mßM{ EH$ Jm{_Q>| \$i
Amh{. Jmßdm¿`m _‹`dÒVtV oºÒVmM| C[mgZm_ßoXa, À`mdaMm VmO_hmcmgmaIm Kw_Q>,
H$_i `m qhXw ‡VrH$mMm À`mßVrc dm[a MM©_YyZ BVaà AmT>iUmË`m R>amodH$ oMÃmßMm
A^md h| gma| S>m∞. ¯z_M|M. h| _ßoXa ]mßY `mgmR>t oH$À`{H$ oºÒVr cm{H$mßZt Am[m[c|
EH$EH$ _oh›`mM| CÀ[›Z oXc|. `wam{[r`Z AoYH$mË`mßZt [°g{ oXc{. A_{naH|$Vrc AZ{H$
o_eZmßZt Va hmV^ma cmodcmM AmoU `woZQ>{na`Z d am{_Z H∞$Wm∞ocH$ [ßWmß¿`m A_{naH$Z
o_ÃmßZtoh X{UΩ`m oXÎ`m. EH$m B]´r Y_u`mZ|gw’mß `m B_maVrgmR>t X{UJr oXc{cr Amh{.
S>m∞. ¯z_ `mßMr AmUIr EH$ _hmZ H$m_oJar ÂhUO{ VrZ hOma XwÓH$mi[roS>V A^©H$mßMm
‡oV[mi, oH$À`{H$ cm{H$mßZt XwÓH$mimßV Am[ct A^©H|$ Ajaeï dmË`mda gm{Sy>Z oXct
hm{Vt. À`mßVct Wm{S>H$s®M XwÓH$mimZßVa AmB©]m[mßZt [aV Z{ct. ]mH$s® gdm™Mm ^ma `m
gßV[wÈfmZ| dmohcm. À`mZ{ `mßZm ZwgV| A›ZdÒÃM oXc| Ag| Zmht, Va À`mß¿`mgmR>t
YßX{oejUm¿`m gm{`r H$Í$Z oXÎ`m, AmoU gdm™Zm CÀH•$Ô> diU, Òdmdcß]ZmZ| OJ `mM|
gm_œ`© AmoU$ Òdmo^_mZmM{ß OrdZ ‡mflV H$Í$Z oXc|.
Ï`pŒH$eï oH$Vr OUmßZm gm¯ d _mJ©Xe©Z H{$c| `mMr JUVrM hm{Uma Zmht. 1926 V
oZd•Œm hm{D$Z _m`X{et J{Î`mZßVaoh À`mßM| h| H$m`© [ÃÏ`dhmam¤ma| AI{a[md{Vm| Mmcc{c|
hm{V{|.
""qhoXÒVmZm'' darc À`mß¿`m ‡{_mcm [ma ZÏhVm. _. JmßYr, cm{H$]ßYw gr. E\$. A±S>Áy´O,

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 698$&&

H{$ed Mß– g{Z Aem AZ{H$mßet À`mßM{ oOÏhm˘`mM{ ÒZ{hgß]ßY hm{V{. S>m∞. ¯z_ `mß¿`m
_aUmZßVa À`mß¿`m B¿N>{‡_mU| À`mß¿`m X{hmM| XhZ H$Í$Z ajm Ah_XZJa¿`m H$]aÒVmZmßV
AmUyZ [wa `mV Amcr.
o_g{g H{$Q>r]mB© ¯z_ ¯moh [Vrgmaª`mM qhX‡{_r hm{À`m. [oVoZYZmZßVa À`mßZm
A_{naH|$V M°Z [S>{Zm. [aV qhXwÒVmZmßV `{D$Z À`m ]mB© `{W| Am[cm [wà S>m∞. dm∞bQ>a ¯z_
`mßOH$S>{ e{dQ>[`™V amohÎ`m. c˙_r]mB™Zm À`mßZt H$mßht _ohZ{ dmB©g Am[Î`mOdi
R>{dyZ K{Vc| hm{V|. oºÒVm`ZmßVrc ]a|M A‹`m` c˙_r]mB™Zt À`mß¿`m Kat ]gyZ ocohc{c{
Amh{V.
Am[Î`m ImgJr [°emßVyZ ]arM a∑H$_ H{$Q>m]mB™Zt _•À`w[Ãm¤ma| oºÒVm`Zm¿`m
‡H$meZmgmR>t amIyZ R>{odcr hm{Vr.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 699$&&

‡[yaH$ Mm°W|

b˙_rZmam`Umgß]ßYt AmUIr Wm{S>{g|
Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$, oMIcJmßdH$a ï [ydm©Y©
Ò_•oVoMÃmßdÍ$Z Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$mß¿`m Ï`pŒH$ÀdmMr ]arMer H$Î[Zm `{V Agcr
Var À`mß¿`m gwadmVr¿`m gmohpÀ`H$ hmcMmcrodf`t \$mag| H$mßhrß À`mßV gmßoJVc{ Zmht.
gmYmaUVï gZ 1900 [mgyZ 1919 [`©V¿`m À`mß¿`m gmnhÀ`mMr Wm{S>r\$ma _mohVr
dmMH$mßOdi Amh{. AmYtMr Zmht. `mgmR>t À`mß¿`m [nhÎ`m [ohÎ`m ocImUmodf`t
OwO]r _mohVr X{ `mMm hm ‡`ÀZ Amh{.
Amaß^rß Amaß^t À`mß¿`m [wÒVH$mßda b{IH$mM{ Zmßd "" Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$
oMIcJmßdH$a'' hß{ oXc{cß{ Agß{.
AmÂhmßg C[c„Y Pmc{cr oQ>iH$mßMr [ohcr ‡H$merV H$odVm ""Y›` Y›` [ßMdQ>r ''
hr ZmZm dm_Z oQ>iH$ `m ZmßdmZß{ 4-2-1882 ¿`m ZmogH$d•ŒmmßV Amc{cr Amh{.
1884-85 ¿`m gw_mamg À`mßMrß VrZ [wÒVHß{$ ‡og’ PmÎ`mMr _mohVr o_iV{.
1. _yoV©[yOm H$aU| hß{ [m[ ZÏh{
2. qhXw cm{H$mß¿`m Y_©H$m`m©V gaH$ma ZH$m{.
[wÒVH$mß¿`m Ame` _W˘`mßdÍ$ZM H$iyZ `{Vm{. À`m H$mit ZmerH$cm JßJ{¿`m
(Jm{Xmdar¿`m) H$mßR>t oºÒVr Y_m}[NX{eH$ a{. cwH$g _cm{]m Om{er `mß¿`m ‡Mmag^m
Mmcm`¿`m. oQ>iH$ À`mßZm dmaßdma AmS>drV d dmX KmcyZ Hwß$oR>V H$arV. À`mßVyZ ht
[wÒVH|$ CX≤^yV Pmc{ct Agmdt. [wT>{ 1897 V oQ>iH$ ocohVmV, "" AmO oºÒVg{d{ÒVd
gXm CÀgwH$ Aem ¯mM hmVmZ{ß À`mM oºÒVm¿`m qZX{¿`m ^amßV oH$Vr H$mJX ^aH$mßoS>c{
Amh{V.'' (Ò_•oVoMÃ|ó^mJ 1, [•.176) V| Ù`m d Aem AmUIr H$mßht ocImUmodf`tM
Agmd|.
hrß Xm{›hr [wÒVH|$ Zmam`U ^mÒH$a amZS>{ `mßZt Mmcodc{Î`m H$ma^mar [ÃmßV ‡W_
`{D$Z ZßVa ÒdVßà [wÒVH$Í$[mZ| ]mh{a [S>ct Agmdt Agm _mPm AßXmO Amh{.
3. hnaXmgmßH$naVmß MwQ>H{$óC[c„Y Zmht. `mMr _mohVroh Hßw$R>| o_iV Zmht.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 700$&&

1. gßJrV JU[oVÒVdó
JU[oVÒVdóh| oQ>iH$mßM| Ow›`mßV OwZ| C[c„Y [wÒVH$. 1885 (?)
_‹`| odcmgmZßX _ßS>irZ| _wß]B©g BßXw‡H$memßV N>m[yZ ‡og’ H{$c{. ^y[m˘`m, [X|, AmaÀ`m
dJ°a{ o_iyZ EHy$U 23 [⁄|, À`mßVct 4 gßÒH•$V. H$mßhtZm ZmQ>H$mßVÎ`m cm{H$o‡` Mmcr
oXc{Î`m. JU[VrM| [aß[amJV dU©Z, ]mcJU{emM{ß dm∑MmVw`©, AmoU eßH$amMm o‡` g[©
JU[Vr¿`m CßXamcm [H$S>m`cm YmßdVm{, Va gm|S> [mhˇZ hŒmr g_OyZ [md©VrMm cmS>H$m
qgh PS>[ KmcVm{. oVH$S>{ V{ ^c{_m{R>{ [m{Q> ]KyZ XwßXw^r g_OyZ [m{a| À`mcm R>m{H$m`cm
YmßdVmV AgÎ`m CWi odZm{Xr ∑c•flÀ`m, `mß_wi| À`m H$mi¿`m JU{e^ŒH$mßZm h| [wÒVH$
^mdc| AgÎ`mg Zdc Zmht.
4. KS>Ámi H$m` ÂhUV|?ó1886 `m [wÒVH$mMr O›_H$hmUt c˙_r]mB™Zt oXc{cr
Amh{. (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 2, [•. 66) h| _wcmßgmR>t ocohc{c| 30 ˚cm{H$mßM| H$mÏ` ^wOßJ‡`mV,
_mocZr, dgßVoVcH$m, Bß–dOm, C[OmoV, emXy©codH´$soS>V Aem AZ{H$odY d•Œmmß_‹`|
aoMc{c| AgyZ ""]mcH$Î`mU{¿Nw> _mVmo[Va d JwÈ `mßg À`mßZt `m chmZem [wÒVH$mßVrc
h“V _wcmß¿`m _ZmßV q]]dyZ ⁄md| `m Ame{Z| ‡{_ d AmXa [waÒga ZOa'' H{$c{c| Amh{.
""h| [wÒVH$ VwÂhmßg Jm{S> dmQ>c| Va ImD$ ÂhUyZ `mMm AßoJH$ma H$am, H$Sy> cmJc| Va
Am°fY ÂhUyZ ø`m,'' Aer Amaß^t _wcmßg odZßVr AgyZ ‡À`j H$odV|V ""hmVmßVyZ EH{$H$
[i oZgQy>Z Mmcc| Amh{ `mMm odMma H$a X{dmZ| oXc{Î`m ]h˛_m{c d{i{Mm ZrQ>[U| dm[a
H$aerc Va B©úamcm gßVm{f X{erc'' Agm gmYmM C[X{e gm‹`mM e„XmV, À`mda
ÒdX{e‡{_m¿`m ^mdZ{Mr [mßIa `mß_wi| h| H$mÏ` gag CVac{c| Amh{.
6. aß J [ß M _r (1886)óaßJ[ßM_r `m ZmßdmM| N>m{Q>| [wÒVH$óe|Xm{Ze| ‡Vró
oQ>iH$mßZr 1886 VH$ N>m[c| hm{V|. À`mMr aMZm ]arM AmYtMr Agmdr. [wT>| 1889 V
H$mÏ`Hw$gw_mßOoc _mogH$mßV À`mßZt V| [w›hmß oXc{c| Amh{.H•$ÓU AmoU Jm{[r ∑doMV≤ amYm
`mß¿`m H´$sS>{¿`m dU©ZmMr ht 10 [⁄| Amh{V. Mmcr ZmQ>H$mßVrc gd©[naoMV [Xmß¿`m
`m{oOc{Î`m Amh{V.oQ>iH$ H$dtZm e•ßJmaagmM| dmdS>| hm{V| Agm EH$ g_O AmOda ‡g•V
Pmc{cm Amh{. [U `m H$odV{odf`t H$drZ| ÒdVï ÂhQ>c{c| Amh{, ""Oa Òd^mdm{pŒH$ Zm_H$
gwßXa AcßH$mamZ| _ßoS>V Agm gß^m{Je•ßJma ˆX`mÎhmXOZH$ Ag{c Va hr H$odVm __©kmßg
Í$Mmdr Ag{ß Am_M{ß AZw_mZ Amh{.''
EH$ _m°O{Mr Jm{Ô> ÂhUO{ `m H$odV{ßVrb EH$ [X "" H$m` H$amd{ß hnabm?'' EH$ZmWodanMV
JdiU ÂhUyZ od¤›_m›`Vm [mdyZ ]gbß{ Amh{.
7. gßJrV AmZßXamd oHßdm [me]’ ÒdX{emo^_mZr ZmoQ>H$m (1886)- EH$
ZdbmMr Jm{Ô> ÂhUO{ h| N>m{Q>| ZmQ>H$ oQ>iH$mßZr ""VrW©È[ dm_Zamd oQ>iH$ `mß¿`m MaUr
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 701$&&

A[©U'' H{$b{bß{ Amh{.
AmZßXamd hm ÒdX{emo^_mZm¿`m ^wVmZ| [N>mS>b{bm VÈU A_{naH$m X{emg OmD$Z
C[`w∫$ H$bm oeHy$Z `{ `m¿`m ‡`ÀZmßV AgVm{. À`mM{ YoZH$ ÒZ{hr À`mbm gm¯oh H$aVmV.
ZmV{dmB©H$mßMm AWm©V odam{Y AgVm{. AmZßXamd A_{naH{$g Om `mgmR>rß _w]B©[`™V `{Vm{oh.
[U Im{Q>Ám Vmam YmSy>Z À`mM{ ohVqMVH$ À`mbm À`m¿`m Jmdr [aV ]m{bmdyZ K{VmV.
X{emo^_mZr [w›hm [me]’ hm{Vm{. oVgË`m AßH$mM{ e{dQ>rß ^aV^yo_ _mVm ÒdVï [´H$Q>
hm{D$Z À`mMr g_OyV KmbV{. KarM amhˇZ ÒdX{emMr g{dm H$a. _mVmo[À`mMr d [ÀZrMr
H$miOr K{, Agm AmX{e X{V{ AmoU "" Vwbm [wà hm{B©b d Vm{ VwPm h{Vy [yU© H$arb'' Agm
Amerdm©X X{V{.
`m ZmQ>H$m¿`m H$WmdÒVy_‹`{ß Zmdr›` Zgb| Var [mÃoMÃU|- ode{fVï Ûr[mÃ{ gwßXaM
O_yZ J{b{br Amh{V. h| ZmQ>H$ aßJ^y_rdaoh Ambß{ hm{V{ß. `mdÈZ H$mßht o_Ã_ßS>ir oQ>iH$mßZmM
AmZßXamd ÂhUyZ [wH$marV Ag{.
‡À`j ZmoQ>H{$[{jm Amaß^t¿`m N>m{Q>Ám ‡ÒVmdZ{dÍ$ZM b{IH$mMr ^ynß_H$m AoYH$
Ò[Ô> hm{V{.
8._mPm Am{gmS> [S>b{bm Jmßd (1886) ""Jm{ÎS>pÒ_W H$dt¿`m oX oS>PQ>}S> pÏhb{O
Zm_H$ H$mÏ`mM{ß [⁄mÀ_H$ ^mfmßVa Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$ oMIbJmßdH$a `mßZrß H{$b| V{
am.am.ZrbHß$R> Õ`ß]H$ Om{er `mßZt [´og’ H{$b|. _wß]B© ÒdX{e‡H$me N>m[Im›`mV N>mo[b|.
_wimZwgma `m H$odV|V 16 gJ© AgyZ, gmH$s, qXS>r, hnaUr, emobZr Aem oH$À`{H$
d•ŒmmßMm [´`m{J H{$b{bm Amh{. H$mßht [Xmßda amJ Vmb dJ°a{oh oXb{b{ Amh{V."" lr_ßV
amdgmh{] Zmam`U amdOr [{Ug{ VmbwH|$ gßJ_Z{a `mßg À`mß¿`m oZJ©d© d CXma Òd^mdmg
bw„Y hm{D$Z H$À`m©Zß{ h{ H$mÏ` A[©U H{$b{ß Ag|.''
9. Jß J m (1887) - `m [wÒVH$mMr O›_H$Wm Ò_•oVoMÃmßV (^mJ 1, [•.78-79)
Amb{br Amh{. hr 23 [mZmßMr Jm{Ô> (J⁄) Iar [U Vr _yi H$odV{V obhˇZ Oer¿`m Ver
J⁄mßV CVaÎ`mM| dmMmVmßZm ghO OmUdV|. g_mam{[mM| AmIar dm∑` Amh{- "" H$am
ohbm Z_ÒH$ma. Mbm. h{ H$ob`wJmßVrb gmodÃr, Vwbm ¯m XmgmZwXmgmMm gmÔ>mßJ Z_ÒH$ma
Agm{.''
h| [wÒVH$ H$À`m™Zr Am[Î`m oXdßJV _mV{bm A[©U H{$b{b{ß Amh{.
10. _mPr ^m`m
^m`m© (1887) - ""hr H$odVm Zmam`U dm_Z oMIbJmßdH$a `mßZr
aoMbr. [wUß{ lr. oedmOr N>m[Im›`mßV N>m[yZ [wÒVH$H$À`m™Z| [´og’ H{$br.''
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 702$&&

Amaß^rß Ãm{Q>H$er [´ÒVmdZm - A[©U[oÃH$m VtVM Ambr- oeInaUr d•ŒmmßVb{ 75
˚bm{H$ AmoU AI{arg "" H{$b| H$mÏ` [aßVw À`mV __ hm{ gß]ßY H$mht Zg{ !'' hr gwMZm. Ag{
¯m [wÒVH$mM| Í$[S>| Amh{.
oQ>iH$mß¿`m VÀH$mbrZ H$odVmß_‹`{ d°`o∫$H$ AZw^yVrMm [m`m Agb{br hr [ohbrM
ÂhUmdr bmJ{b. Vg|M ‡m°T>H$od oQ>iH$mß¿`m ÒÃrodf`H$ Img —oÔ>H$m{UmMr [ohbr
Mmhˇboh À`mß¿`m `m H$odV|VM E|Hy$ `{Dß$ bmJb{br Amh{.
[wT>{ß 1913-14 _‹`| oQ>iH$mßMr H$odVm ^mJ 1 `m [wÒVH$mßV g_modÔ> H$aVmZm
oQ>iH$mßZr ¯m H$odV|V gwYma d \{$a]Xb BVH{$ H|$b{ H$s® Vr oZamirM EH$ H$odVm hm{D$Z
]gbr. `m Xm{›htMr VwbZm H$Í$Z [mh `mVßnh _m{R>r _m°O Amh{.
11. lr_ÇmJX≤JwÈ H°$bmgdmgr `edßVamd X{d_m_b{Xma `mßM{ dU©Z (1887)$`edßVamd _hmamO ^m{g{H$a C\©$ X{d_m_b{Xma h{ gQ>mU{ `{Wrb JmOb{b{ EH$ gßV[wÈf.
À`mß¿`m oZYZmZßVa oQ>iH$mßZr h{ 11 [mZrß N>m{Q>{g| [wÒVH$ ZmogH$d•Œm N>m[Im›`mßV N>m[yZ
[´og’ H{$b|. `m _hmamOmß¿`m ghdmgmßV oQ>iH$ H$Yt AgÎ`mM{ß `m [wÒVH$mdÍ$Z dmQ>V
Zmht. Zmht ÂhUm`bm AßÀ``mÃ{bm V{ hOa Agmd{V Ag| `mßVrb dU©ZmdÍ$Z dmQ>V|.
BVaà _hmamOmß¿`m Aª`mo`H$m d M_ÀH$ma `mßM| _mà MdrZ{ dU©Z H{$b{b| AmT>iV{.
Amaß^tMr [´ÒVmdZm, VtV EH$ H$odVm g_modÔ>, [wT>| _wª` ‡H$aUmßV 23 [⁄{ (16
õm{H$ 7 [X|) AmoU e{dQ>r "" [wÒVH$H$À`m™Mr B©Ìdamg odZßVr '' VtV gmYyM| dU©Z _bm
oZÀ` KS>md| hr [´mW©Zm, hm `m [wÒVH$mMm AmamIS>m. oQ>iH$mßMr Imog`V ÂhUO{ S>m{ig
^∫$s ohMm AOyZ Var CJ_ Pmb{bm oXgV Zmhr."" X{h VmbwH$m `edßVmZ{ß _m_bVr H{$br.''
h{ß [X dmMZr` Amh{. _m_bVr ÂhUO{ E{ohH$ gßgma, À`mgmR>rß [arjm AZwVm[mMr, odd{H$
hm hmVmImbrß \$S>Urg, oZÌM` hm [hma{H$ar, "hnahna' hr À`mMr "Amb]{b' h| [maß[mnaH$
Í$[H$ _mß{R>| ]hmaXma Amh{. EHß$XarßV d `© odf`merß V–x[ hm{D$Z ‡m_moUH$[U{ ^mdZ{Z|
H{$b{b| h| dU©Z [wa| dmMÎ`moedm` Imbt R>{ddV Zmhrß.
12. ]m[mM{ Alw (1888) - ]m[mM{ Alw `m ZmßdmMt Xm{Z H$mÏ`{ß oQ>iH$mßZr obohbt.
oQ>iH$mßMr H$odVm ^mJ 1 `mßVb| "" ]m[mM{ Alw '' V| Zd|. 1909 _‹`{ß EH$m o_Ãm¿`m
_wbmda obohb{b|. OwZ| " ]m[mM{ Alw' À`mßZr obohb|. V| 15-11-1887 am{Ot ÒdVïMm
oXdßJV _wbJm od⁄mZßX `mßg AZwbjyZ. h| 114 gm∑`mßM{ H$mÏ` 1888 _‹`{ß [wÒVH$Í$[mZ{ß
‡og’ Pmb|. oQ>iH$mß¿`m BVa oXK© H$odVmßhˇZ `mMr ‡H•$Vr oZamirM Amh{. [wÃod`m{Jm¿`m
Vw\$mZmZ{ß H$dt¿`m AßV`m©_mda CR>Uma{ VŒdkmZmÀ_H$ odMmaVaßJ h|M `mM| ÒdÍ$[ AmoU
h|M `mMß{ gm°ßX`©.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 703$&&

"‡mUdÑ^{ H$odV{ VwoP`m N>ßX{| XwïI| ZmZm$& odga{ _r [na H$g| AmO h| XwïI K{Vg{
‡mUm$&' hr gwÈdmV; od⁄mZßXmMr AmB©, AmOr, `mß¿`m XmÈU AdÒW{M{ dU©Z; " _mPm
JwÈM Vyß', _bm OJm¿`m ZÌdaV{Mr oeH$dU X{ `mgmR>r [m{Q>r `{D$Z J{bmg' Aem ˆ⁄
H$Î[Zm; g_mOmßVrb ÈT>r d VÀH$mobZ gßgmaodf`r¿`m ^mdZm; oejU, [ßVm{Or,
[mR>Á[wÒVH{$ß `mß]m]VM{ ZdrZ odMma; Am{KmAm{KmZ|M `{Umar ]mboddmhgmaª`m am{JQ>
Mmbtdarb Q>rH$m; " _aUma{ V| dr`© Am_wM| \$img `{D$Z _aV|' Agbm C¤{J, ""....
bm°H$a Ïhmd|, _•À`yM _J Vm{ Xya ]g{b H$gm a{?'' AgÎ`m d°MmnaH$ ∑b•flÀ`m AmoU gß[yU©
H$odV|V dhmV Agb{bm ghOH$Í$U ^mdmMm Am{K `mß_wi| hr H$odVm aogH$_m›` PmÎ`mg
Zdb Zmhrß. dm.]. [Q>dY©Zmß¿`m _V| Va OwZ| ]m[mM{ Alw H$mÏ` ZÏ`mhyZoh gag CVab{b{ß
Amh{.
13. draH$›`m (1888) "" hr bhmZer _Zm{aßOH$ H$mXß]ar Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$
oMIbJmßdH$a `mßZrß aoMbr, [wU{ß kmZ‡H$me N>m[Im›`mßV N>mn[br... OmZ{dmar gZ
1888.'' ‡ÒVmdZ{Imbr VmarI _mà 5 _mM© 1888.
AÑmCo‘Zm¿`m 5-50 df} AmYt `dZmßZr X{doJarda Òdmar H{$br d À`mßZm VtV
[am^yV Ïhmd| bmJb| Aem H$pÎ[V BoVhmgmda hr ]{Vb{br Amh{. amOm am_amO `mß¿`m
Owb_r amOdQ>r_wi| ‡Om AgßVwÔ> Pmb{br AgV{. d•’ [amH´$_r gaXma odO`qgh
[´Om[jmMm Z{Vm ]ZVm{. À`mMr H$›`m H$_bm hr H$W{Mr Zmo`H$m. amO[jmg YÍ$Z
amhUmË`m H•$ÓU amOmMm _wbJm _mYd hm Zm`H$.
‡Om[j amOmda MmbyZ Om `m¿`m ]{VmV AgVmß `dZmß¿`m ÒdmarM| d•Œm `{V|.
Am[gmßVrb d°a ]mOybm R>{dyZ Xm{›hr [j EH$ hm{VmV d [aMH´$mM{ß oZdmaU H$aVmV. Zm`H$Zmo`H{$Mß{ o_bZ hm{Vß{ Agß{ Wm{S>∑`mV H$WmZH$, oQ>iH$mßM{ AmdS>V{ß VŒd ÛrMr V{OnÒdVm
h{ Zmo`H{$¿`m o_fmZß{ Ï`∫$ Pmb{bß{ Amh{M. AmUIr EH$ _m°O ÂhUO{ AJXt AmO¿`m
o\$Î_r oeaÒÀ`mgmaIr Zm`H$- Zmo`H$m ^{Q>VmßM JmUß{ gwZod `mg MwH$V ZmhrßV.
14. VrZ odYdm (1888) - draH$›`{]am{]aM VrZ odYdm ZmßdmMr oQiH$mßMr
N>m{Q>r H$mXß]ar ‡og’ Pmbr. oh¿`m ‡oV C[b„Y ZmhrßV. 22 Am∞JÒQ> 88 ¿`m kmZm{X`mßVyZ
oh¿`mda odÒV•V Ao^[´m` Amb{bm Amh{. kmZm{X` obohVm{- "" `m [wÒVH$mßV Am]m^Q>
Zmßdm¿`m AodMmar YZbm{^r ]´m˜UmZ{ß Am[Î`m VrZ _wbrß¿`m bæm¿`m gß]ßYmZ{ß H$er
AdÒWm H{$br À`mMß{ dU©Z H{$bß{ Amh{...... Jm{ajUmH$naVmß _ßS>˘`m ÒWm[Z ÏhmÏ`mV,
À`mßMr X`m _ZwÓ`mg `mdr [U [m{a∑`m b{H$amßM{ Ag{ hmb _ZwÓ`mZ{ H$amd{V hr _m{R>r
odbjU Jm{Ô> Amh{..... [Vr¿`m [ÌMmV g›_mJm©Z{ß MmbyßM Agm oObm odÌdmg Zg{b
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 704$&&

oVZ| Xm|›hr Hw$bmßg H$bßH$ bmd `m[{jt Xwgam [nV H$amßdm h| ]a{ß.''
15. _wbmßg `m{Ω` ]ojg (1989) - ododYkmZodÒVma ï 1890 _mM© ÂhUVm{ - h{
""Y_©VŒd'',""AmB©'',""]m['' BÀ`mXr 10 odf` Amh{V. lr Amfl[mgmh{] ]wQ>r `mß¿`m
Aml`mZ{ß h| V`ma H{$b{b| Amh|. _wbmß¿`m H$Î`mUmg AZwbjyZ AbrH$S>{ Orß bhmZ
bhmZ [wÒVH{$ß [´og’ hm{V Amh{V. À`mß[°H$sß h{ß EH$ g_Ob| [mohO| ... [⁄| ]ar Amh{V.
dmB©Q IoMV ZmhrßV. odMmamßMr AgßJVrnh \$maer —oÔ>g [S>V Zmhrß...... am.oQ>iH$mßMr
Or gag H$odVm AmÂhrß [mohb{br Amh{ oV¿`m[wT{ß ‡ÒVwV H$mÏ` EH$X_ o\ Hß{$ [S>{b.''
odÒVmamM{ß ÂhUU| Ia|M Amh{. Xm{Z dfm™_mJ| oZKmb{b| "" KS>Ámi H$m` ÂhUV|?''
`m[{jmßoh h{ H$mÏ` oZag dmQ>Vß{. `mßM{ gß^mÏ` H$maU H$À`m™Z{ [´ÒVmdZ{ßV gmßoJVb| Amh| "" h| V`ma H{$b{ß H$s® Zmhrß, V{Ïhmß AmÂhr bhmZ hm{Vm|. "" V{Ïhmß oQ>iH$mßMr EH$ AJXrß
‡maßo^H$ H$odVm ÂhUyZM ¯m `m{Ω` ]ojgmH$S>{ [mohb| [mohO{.
16. gß J rV Jm{ X w ï Iod_m{ M Z ZmQ>H$ (1889) -Jm{ajU‡MmamgmR>rß oQ>iH$mßZrß
obohb{b| h| VrZ AßH$sß ZmQ>H$ Jm{ajU N>m[Im›`mZ{ oeimob[rda N>m[b{b| Amh{.
Amaß^r¿`m gyÃYmaZQ>r¿`m ‡d{emßV b{IH$mMm CÎb{I ""_mPm o_Ã Jm{Hw$bg{dH$''
Agm Pmb{bm Amh{. [wT>| À`mbmM ""Jm{g{dH$'' ÂhQ>b{b{ Amh{.
AH$]a ]mXehmZ{| Am[Î`m am¡`mßV Jm{dYmbm ]ßXr H{$br hm{Vr `m E{oVhmogH$ KQ>Z{da
¯m ZmQ>H$mMr C^maUr H{$b{br AgyZ ode{fVï XwgË`m AßH$mVrb H$mOr -- emÛr[ßoS>VmßVb{
dmXgßdmX `m ‡MmaH$m`m©bm oZpÌMVM C[H$maH$ R>aUma{ Amh{V. ÛrMr V{OnÒdVm h{
oQ>iH$mßM{ AmdS>V{ VŒd `m ZmQ>H$mßVnh Zmo`H$m amYm oh¿`m H$m_oJar_YyZ [´H$Q>bß{ Amh|M.
ZmQ>H$ ‡MmamgmR>rß obohb{b| AgÎ`mZ{ß ‡`m{Jgm°H$`m©Mr b{IH$mZ| H$miOr K{Vb{br
oXgV{. ""‡`m{J H$aUmamßg AS>MU Z [S>mdr ÂhUyZ `mßV gßJrV \$ma Wm{S>{ R>{ndbß{ Amh{.
ÛrM{ß gm|J EH$M AgyZ À`mgoh JmU{ß Zmhrßß.''
17. Jm{ a jm d Jm{ a jm[a [⁄| B. (1889) - Jm{XwïIod_m{MZ ZmQ>H$m]am{]a
Jm{ajUm¿`m ‡MmamW© AZ{H$ bhmZ _m{R>r [wÒVH{$ß À`m AdYrßV oQ>iH$mßZt obohb{bt
AgmdtV. Jm{ajm `m 112 [mZmß¿`m [wÒVH$mMm CÑ{I XmV{ gyMt_‹`{ß gm[S>Vm{.
Jm{ajm[a [⁄{ß ZmdmßMß{ EH$ 32 [mZr [wÒVH$ _bm o_imb{b| Amh{. Amaß^r b{IH$mMr
‡ÒVmdZm, [⁄mÀ_H$ A[©U[Ã, gßJrV Jm{odbm[, Jm{ajU odf`r \$Q>H$m, Jm`rMm hß]aS>m
hr VrZ XrK© [⁄| EH$ g_mam{[mÀ_H$ [X AmoU [aoeÔ>Í$[mZ{ß ]m,b. Hw$bH$Uu oboIV
""Y{ZwH$mH$me'' d e{dQ>r OmohamVrMr Mma [mZ| EdT>m [wÒVH$mMm [gmam Amh{. darb
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 705$&&

oV›hr XrK© [⁄| bhmZghmZ [wpÒVH$mß¿`m È[mZß{ [´og’ Pmb{brß Agmdrß Ag|, ""OmohamVr''
dÈZ oXgV|.
`m H$odVmß_‹`{ß oQ>iH$mßM{ H$mÏ` [´m°T> PmÎ`mgmaI{ dmQ>V{ß. ‡gmX AmoU oOÏhmim hr
À`mßMr Xm{›ht d°oeÓQ≤`ß{ `mß_‹`{ß oXgyZ `{VmV. CŒmam`wÓ`mßVrb oQ>iH$mß¿`m ^o∫$H$odVmßet
`mßMß{ OdiM{ß ZmV| OmUdV|.
`mßI{arO ""The Cow's Appeal'' `m ZmßdmM| BßJ´Or H$mÏ`nh À`mßZr obohb|
AgÎ`mM{ CÎb{I gmß[S>VmV. V{ ]h˛V{H$ ""JmB©Mm hß]aS>m'' `m ‡H$aUmM| ^mfmßVa Agmd|.
18. H•ß$ÓUmZßX _wHwß$XamO C\©$ XmXmOr _hmamO gmY
gmYw (1889) - h| [wÒVH$ Jm{ajU
N>m[Im›`mßVM [U Q>mB[mßV N>m[b{b| Amh|. _wI[•> _mà oeimob[rMß{. [wÒVH$ 48 [mZmßM{
AgyZ 4 [mZ| [´ÒVmdZ{Mr, 22 gßVoMÃmßMr d AmIar 22 [mZ| ""H•$ÓUod`m{Jodbm[''
XrK© H$odV{Z| Ï`m[b{bt Amh{V.
EH$m{oUgmÏ`m eVH$mßVb{ gßVMnaÃ, AmoU Vß{nßh MnaÃZm`H$m¿`m M{Î`mZ{ß obohb{b|.
Ag{ AgVmß À`mßV XßVH$WmßMr AmoU M_ÀH$mamMt a{bM{b Agm`bm hdr. (AmoU Xm{Z
dfm©_mJÎ`m X{d_m_b{Xma- MnaÃmßV Ver Amh{nh) [U ‡ÒVwV [wÒVH$mßV Vgb| OßOmi
ZmhrßM. MnaÃZm`H$, À`mßMt AmB©]m[| ^mD$]ohUr `mßMr Ymo_©H$Vm _m{O∑`m ‡gßJmßVyZ
doU©b{br Amh{. ÒdVï XmXmOr _hmamOmßM{ dU©Z H$aVmßZmoh À`mß¿`m gmYwÀdm[{jmß À`mMß{
H$odÀd, d∫•$Àd `m JwUmßdaM AoYH$ ^a oXb{bm AmT>iVm{.
[wÒVH$mMm CŒmamY© ""H•$ÓUod`m{Jodbm['' h{ 113 H$S>Ï`mßM{ß odbm[JrV. [ydm©[ma¿`m
d•Œmd°oMÕ`m]am{]a VÀH$mobZ bm{H$o‡` [Xmß¿`m Mmbtdahrß aMZm H{$b{br Amh{. [ohbm
õm{H$ gßÒH•$V AgyZ À`mßV ZmJ[wamM| Zmßd ""\$oU[war''Ag| Amh|.
EH$m pÒWa_oV gÀ[wÈfmM| bm°oH$H$ Mnaà ÂhUO{ H$mÏ`aMZ{bm \$magm AZwHy$b odf`
Zgmdm. À`mßV gßKf©, g_a‡gßJ `mßZm dmd ZmhrßM. Vargw’mß oQ>iH$mß¿`m aMZ|Vrb ‡gmX
d ‡{_i[Um `m JwUmß_wi{ß H$odVm H$m{R>|hr Zrag dmQ>V Zmhrß. oedm` Òd^mdm{o∫$, ghm{o∫$,
ew’ [maß[mnaH$ Í$[H$ `m AbßH$mamßMr M[Ib `m{OZm, Am{KdVr dmUr AmoU H$dtM{
d `© odf`mßerß [yU© VmXmÀÂ` `mß_wi{ß h{ß J⁄ odf`mdarb [⁄ ˆ⁄ d am{MH$ Pmb{b| Amh{.
19. X{drMm ‡gmX- 1891 X{dr ÂhUO{ dUrOdirb g·l•ßJ JS>mdarb Aß]m,
1890-92 _‹`| dUrg AgVmßZm oQ>iH$ ohM| [a_^∫$ Pmb{ hm{V|. oh¿`mda [X|, ÒVm{Ã|,
AmaÀ`m,^y[m˘`m Aer oH$À`{H$ [⁄| À`mßZr aoMbt. X{dr ^mJdV ZmßdmMm Am{dr]’
J´ßWnh obohbm hm{Vm. Vm{ ‡og’ Pmbm Zgmdm. oZdS>H$ [⁄mßMm X{drMm ‡gmX hm gßJ´h
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 706$&&

V{Wrb o_ÃmßZr H$moT>bm.
X{dr¿`m [mfmU_yVußVyZ gmjmV≤ ]´˜mMm d{Y K{UmË`m "og’'[wÈfmß[mgyZ ""eaU Vwbm
_r AmB© ^dmZr Xmdt gwV_wI[Ÿmbm'' ÂhUyZ Ym` _m{H$b `mË`m "]’Ûr' [`™V AZ{H$odY
^yo_H$mßdÍ$Z H$od À`m X{dr ^dmZrMr AmidUr H$naVm|. H$mßqh [X| gßÒH•$VmV obohb|broh
Amh{V. H$dt¿`m CŒmam`wÓ`mßVrb ^o∫$JrVmßM{ gma| ode{f `m H$odVmßVyZ OmUdVmV. [wT>|
oºÒVr PmÎ`mZßVa `mVtb EH$Xm{Z [⁄mßV Wm{S>m \$ma\{$a H$Í$Z oQ>iH$mßZr Am[Î`m
""^OZgßJ´hmV'' À`mßMm g_md{e H{$b{bm Amh{.
(1892-95 `m H$mimßVrb oQ>iH$mßMr gmohnÀ`H$ hmbMmb ÂhUO{ ""F$of'' AmoU
""H$mÏ`Hw$gw_mßOnb d ododY odf`ßVaßJrUr'' ht Xm|Z _mogH|$, ZmZmOr _hmamO
H$m[erH$amnX gßV[wÈfmßda ÒVwoV[a [⁄|, (gwYmaH$)? [ÃmßVyZ H$mßht H$odVm EdT>mM gwJmdm
bmJVm{.
1894 _‹`| kmZm|X` d 95 V ]mb]m{Y_{dm `m oºÒVr oZ`VH$mobH$mßet oQ>iH$mßMm
[naM` Pmbm. Xm{›hrVyZ À`mßM{ J⁄[⁄ obImU, [´W_ ""OJp›_Ã' d [wT>| H$mhrß H$mi
"nd⁄mWu' `m Q>m{[UZmdmßZr `{Dß$ bmJb|. (oQ>iH$mßMr \w$bm_wbmßMr gmarM H$odVm
]mb]m{Y_{Ï`mßVyZ 1895 V{ 1910 XaÂ`mZ `{D$Z J{bt ÂhUVmß `{B©b. kmZm{X`mM{ V{ [wT>|
1912 _‹`| gß[mXH$M Pmb|. e{dQ>[`™V À`mßZrß h{ H$m_ H{$b|.)
1893 _‹`| À`mßZr d{Uy ZmßdmMr EH$ H$mXß]ar obohbr hm{Vr Ag| F$of _mqgH$mVrb
OmohamVrdÍ$Z oXgV{.)
20. \w$bmßMm hma (1895)- kmZm{X` d ]mb]m{Y_{dm `mßVyZ [´og’ Pmb{Î`m 24
[⁄mßMm hm N>m{Q>m gßJ´h OJo_Ã `m Q>m{[UZmßdmZ{ oQ>iH$mßZr H$mT>b{bm Amh{. o_g{g
gr.B©.¯z_]mB© `mßZm hm A[©U H{$b{bm AgyZ À`mda VmarI 2-9-95 hr Amh{.
21. oºÒVO`ßVrMr ^{Q> (1896) ññ oºÒVr ^o∫$[a bhmZ_m{R>rß ZD$ [⁄|, H$Vm© ""
OJp›_Ã''.
22. ¯mbm ÂhUmd{ ‡roV (1898) ]mb]m{Y_{Ï`mßV Amb{br EH$ H$Wm, b{IH$mM{ß
Zmßd od⁄mWu. AerM EH{$H$ H$WmßMr oQ>iH$mßMr AZ{H$ bhmZ ghmZ [wÒVH|$ `m H$mimV
oZKmbt Agmdt Ag| oXgV|.
23. EH$m od⁄mœ`m©Mr gmj (1898) A Spiritual A wakening among
India's Students ¯m [wÒVH$mßgmR>rß oQ>iH$mßZr Am[Î`m Y_©_V [nadV©ZmMm d•ŒmmßV
A Student's Testimony obhˇZ oXbm. [wT>| À`mßZrM À`mMm _amR>r AZwdmX ""EH$m
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 707$&&

od⁄mœ`m©Mr gmj'' ]mb]m{Y_{dm _mogH$mßVyZ (Zm{Ïh|]a -oS>g|]a 1897) oXbm d ZßVa
[wÒVH$Í$[mZß{ ‡og’ H{$bm. hm gmamM _OHy$a Ò_•oVoMÃmV (Ò_•oVoMÃ{ß -^mJ 1) gm_modÓQ>
Pmb{bm Amh{.
24. oºÒVr _ZwÓ`mM{ß _aU (1898)ñ h| N>m{Qß>{ [wÒVH$ oZ]ßY qH$dm MM©_Yrb g_©Z
Aem ÒdÍ$[mM{ß Amh{. Ò_•oVoMÃmßVrb b˙_r]mB™Zr dJib{Î`m EH$m H$mÈ `[yU©
‡gßJmdÍ$Z h| obohb{bß{ Amh{. oQ>iH$ `mßV gmßJVmVñ ""OyZ Vm. 15 am{Ot EH$ d Vm 23
am{Or Xwgar ¯m[´_mU{ EH$m d`mßVrV odYd{¿`m gX≤JwUr, goeojV, gwerb _wbr X{dm¿`m
Karß J{Î`m. Òd[Vr‡_mU{ß oVbm Bhbm{H$s Am[br ÂhUm`bm ohM Xm{Z E{ohH$ ‡{_mMr
MmbVr]m{bVr odYmZ{ß hm{Vt. VemßV EH$ _wbJr 18 dfm©Mr Va Xwgar 22 dfm™Mr, EH$m
jUmßVM À`m o]MmË`m AmB©Mm ‡mU em{H$md{JmZ{ß oZKyZ Omdm. [U Vr oºÒVr Amh{.
X{dmMr `m{OZm, ‡rnV, oºÒVmM{ [wZÈÀWmZ ¯m[mgyZ hm{UmË`m AHwß$R>Á Ame{Z| oVbm
gmßdÈZ Ynab| Amh|. AÒVw, ¯m ]mB©da Amb{Î`m `m ‡gßJmZ{ß h| [wÒVH$ obhmd|g| AmÂhmßg
dmQ>b|.''

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 708$&&

Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$
gm`Z AßemÀ_H$ Hwß$S>br

12
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11
Mß 10 ew 2

10
am. 5
9 a 15

1
2

8 _{ 8 ]w 25

5
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6
ew.22 Jw. 25

O›_ 6 oS>g|]a 1861
(d{i oZo¸V ZgÎ`mZ{ amoeHwß$S>br oXbr Amh{)

Ò[Ôr>H$aU
gm`Z Mß– Hwß$^{Mm AgyZ hr amne _mZdVmdmXr Amh{. d À`m_wi{ Hwß$^amne h{ [Q>V|.
Mß–-ewH´$ `woV H$odÀdmßM| ^mdZmerb _mJm©M| Xe©Z KS>odV|. aod-he©b [´oV`wnV
AßemÀ_H$ AgyZ À`m_wi{ hm H$odˆX`mMm _mUyg _m{R>m bT>mD$ d•ŒmrMm hm{Vm. unorthodox d À`m_wi| À`mM| d gZmVZr oº¸Z Y_©[ßWr`mßM{ßnh \$ma [Q>b| ZgV|.
]wY-eoZ bm^`m{Jm_wi|M Òd^md qMVZerb Pmbm. d Am[Î`m odMmamßZm [∏$r
]°R>H$ o_id `mgmR>rß gßem{YZ H{$b|. ]wY-JwÍ$ bm^`m{JmZß{ À`mßV CÉ odMmagaUr Ambr.
]wY-Z{[¿`wZ oÃH$m{Umß_wi| [´dmg, H$Î[Zmeo∫$ ^a[ya, [U H$mhtet ÒdflZmiy d À`m_wi|
AÏ`dhmar. ÂhUyZ V{ Hw$Umdaoh odúmg R>{drVñ d \$gJV hm{B©. eoZ- JwÍ$ `woV [wÃqMVm,
gß[oŒmqMVm, gß[ŒmrMr À`mßZrß H$Yrß o\$oH$aM H{$br Zmht. [U AÎ[gßVoV, _wbmßMm
]mi[UmMm AmOma, `mß_wi{ß ht \$i|nh ^a[ya ^m{Jmdrß bmJbt.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 709$&&

Mß–- aod bm^`m{J, `mßZ{ oddmh bm°H$a, [ÀZr MmßJbr d bm{H$_m›`Vmoh bm°H$a.
Mß–mM{ [pÌM_ H|$X´m®V _ßJi. EHy$U Òd^md Vm[Q> [U BVaoh gd© `m|JmßH$S>{ [mhVmß `mMm
[naUm_ PJS>m H$a `mH$S>{ Pmbm. bT>mD$[Um Ambm.

`m emÛmV _bm ÒdVïbm H$mqhnh JÂ` Zmht. oQ>iH$ d b˙_r]mB© `m Xm{Kmß¿`m Hwß$S>Î`m
[naoeÔ>mV AgmÏ`m Aer H$mqh dmMH$mßZr _mJUr H{$br. Ah_XZJa `{Wrb S>m∞.[r.[r.^mJdV
`mßZt oQ>iH$mßMr Hwß$S>br V`ma H$Í$Z oXbr.À`mßM{ AmÂhr F$Ur Amhm|VM. b˙_r]mB™Mr O›_oVWr
C[b„Y hm{ `mgmaIr ZgÎ`mZ{ß Vr _mJUr _mà [yU© H$aVm Ambr Zmhr.
oQ>iH$ Jm{Ib{ dßed•jmßVrb CVmamoh dmMH$mß¿`m _mJUrdÍ$ZM oXb{bm Amh{.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 710$&&

b˙_r]mB™M{ gmohÀ`
b˙_r]mB™Mr ª`mnV Amh{ Vr Ò_•oVoMÃmßMr b{oIH$m ÂhUyZM. À`m_wi| À`mßM| BVa
b{IZ Oam _mJ|M [S>Î`mgmaI| Pmb{ Amh|. À`mß¿`mß gmohÀ`g{d{Mr Wm{S>∑`mV H$Î[Zm
X{ `mMm hm ‡`ÀZ Amh{.
1. Ò_•oVoMÃ| ]mB™Zm gmohÀ`b˙_r hm Ao^Zd oH$Vm] o_imbm Vm{ Ò_•oVoMÃmß_wi|M.
À`mß¿`m b{IZmbm gwÈdmV gw_ma{ 1924 [mgyZ Pmbr. À`mAmYr À`mß¿`m AmR>dUr
À`mß¿`m Vm|Sy>Z oH$À`{ßH$mßZr AmoU oH$À`|H$Xm E{H$b{Î`m Amh{V. 1923 V \$mXa O∞H$
od›Òbm{ `mß M { Narayan Vaman Tilak The Christian Poet of
Maharashtra h| [wÒVH$ ]mh{a [S>b|. _bm dmQ>V| À`mdÍ$ZM X{dXŒmamdmß¿`m _ZmßV
H°$H$ oXdg Km{iV Agb{br oQ>iH$-Mnaà oboh `mMr H$Î[Zm ode{f \$m{\$mdy bmJbr
AmoU À`m gßH$oÎ[V MnaÃmßgmR>r À`mßZrß b˙_r]mB™H$S>{ AmR>dUtMr _mJUr H{$br.
1924 _‹`| gmohÀ`Mm`© lr[mX H•$ÓU H$m{ÎhQ>H$a `mßMm oQ>iH$ [nadmamerß [naM`
Pmbm. À`mßZm b˙_r]mB™¿`m AmR>dUr \$ma AmdS>Î`m. AmoU À`m Amh{V VemM [´og’
ÏhmÏ`m Agm AmJ´h À`mßZr Ynabm. [wT>{ ‡^mH$a lr[mX `mßM{ß gßOrdZr _mogH$ gwÍ$ Pmb|.
À`mVyZ Ò_•oVoMÃ| H´$_eï [´og’ hm{D$ bmJbt. ]mB© ÂhUV,""`m ]m[b{H$mßZr _m¬`m
Ò_•oVoMÃmßZm [ßI bmdb{.''
Ò_•oVoMÃ{ h| Zmßd _mà ]mB™Zrß oXb{b| Zmht. X{dXŒmamd, [´m{.^m.b.[mQ>UH$a d H$XmoMV≤
‡.lr.H$m{ÎhQ>H$a `mß¿`m EH$m AZm°[MmnaH$ ]°R>H$s®VyZ h{ Zmßd oZKmb|.
Ò_•oVoMÃmßV [ohbm ^mJ [´H$moeV Pmbm Vm{ 15 oS>g|]a 1934 am{Or. AmoU À`mZßVa
]am{]a EH$m dfm©Zß{ oVgam ^mJ. `mM d{ir b˙_r]mB™Mm Q>m{b{OßJ gÀH$mag_maß^
ZmerH$H$amßZr H{$bm. A‹`j[XmdÍ$Z o‡.AÃ{ (AmMm`© C[mYr ZßVaMr) `mßZt gmohÀ`
b˙_r ÂhUyZ b{oIH{$Mm Jm°ad H{$bm.
Mm°Wm ^mJ 15-12-36 `m oXderßññ ]mB™¿`m oZYZmZßVañññ ‡H$moeV Pmbm.
`mßVrb [ohbt 84 [•>| ]mB™¿`m hmVMt AgyZ ]mH$s® b{IZ X{dXŒmamdmßM{ Amh{. ]mB™¿`m
oZYZm[`™VMr hH$sJV `mßV Amb{bt Amh{.
Ò_•oVoMÃmß¿`m Amd•Œ`m AZ{H$ PmÎ`m. gdm©V AoYH$ dmoMbr J{br Vr X{dXŒmamdmßZr
gßj{[ H{$b{bt gßoj· Ò_•oVoMÃ|.
À`mZßVaMr gmohÀ` AH$mX_rMrß Ò_•oVoMÃ| Wm{S>r\$ma gßoj·M Amh{V. hm gßj{[nh
X{dXŒmamdmßZtM H$Í$Z oXbm. `m Amd•Œmrbm S>m∞. H$_bm]mB© X{e[mßS>{ `mßMr ‡ÒVmdZm
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 711$&&

Om{S>b{br Amh{. o_g Om{g{\$mBZ B›dÒQ>a `mßZr Ò_•oVoMÃmßM{ H{$b{{b{ I Follow After
h{ g_J´ BßpΩbe ^mfmßVaoh ‡og’ Amh{.
`mZßVaMr Ao^Zd Amd•oŒm (1974) hr dmMH$mß¿`m _ohVrMr Amh{. [´ÒVwV Amd•oŒm
h{ oVM|M ZdrZ gßÒH$aU Amh{.
2. oºÒVm`Z : h{ Am{dr]’ _hmH$mÏ` obhm`bm oQ>iH$mßZr 1910 ¿`m gw_mamg
gwÈdmV H{$br. V{ À`mß¿`m hmVyZ [yU© Pmb| Zmhr 10 [yU© A‹`m` AmoU 11Ï`m¿`m 106
¿`m Am{Ï`m oQ>iH$mß¿`m hmV¿`m Amh{V. [wT>{ H°$H$ df} h{ _hmH$mÏ` A[wa{M amohb| hm{V{.
oQ>iH$mß¿`m ¯mVrV V{ A[wa|M [wÒVÈ[mZ{ ‡og’oh Pmb{ hm{V{. 1930 _‹`{ H$›`{¿`m
oddmhm_wi{ CX≤^db{Î`m dmXimM{ oZo_Œm hm{D$Z b˙_r]mB™Zr oºÒVm`Z [yU© H$a `mMr
‡oVkm H{$Î`mMr hH$sJV dmMH$mßZm _mhrV Amh{. (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 4. [• 94 [hm) 11
[mgyZ 75 [`™VM{ A‹`m` ]mB™Zr gw_ma{ [mMß dfm™V [wa{ H{$b{. oQ>iH$mßZr gm{S>b{bm YmJm
CMbyZ b˙_r]mB™Zr _hmH$mÏ` ]{_mby_ [yU© H{$b| Ag{ _mà Zmhr. Xm{Kmß¿`m oboh `mßV
_m{R>rM V\$mdV Amh{. ]mB™M| b{IZ h{ oºÒVMnaà Amh{ oQ>iH$mß¿`m oboh `mßV
H$WmdÒVy[{jmß VX≤ZwfßJmZ{ AZ{H$ odf`mßM{ odd{MZ AoYH$ Amh{.
76 dm A‹`m` obhyZ X{dXŒmmßZr `m J´ßWmßMr [yoV© H{$br. AmoU 1938 _‹`{ H$nd
oJare `mßZr h{ _hmH$mÏ` gß[moXV H{$b{. gm߇V `m¿`m ‡Vr Xwo_©i Pmb{Î`m Amh{V.
ÒdV: b˙_r]mB© oºÒVm`ZmbmM Am[b{ OrodVH$m`© _mZrV AgV. ([hm Ò_•oVoMÃ|
- ^mJ 4)
3. ^abr KmJa : hm b˙_r]mB©¿`m Ò\w$Q> H$odVmßMm gßJ´h X{dXŒmamdmßZr 1951 V
gß[moXV H{$bm. H$od AmoU H$mÏ`, AmÀ_[a, Ûr[wÈf, dmgÎ`, ‡mgßoJH$, È[H$mÀ_H$,
amÔ≠>r`, Ag{ 12 od^mJ. À`mßV EHy$U 54 H$odVm d 13 dm od^mJ oºÒVm`ZmßVrb d|M{
Aer `mMr _mßS>Ur Amh{. _mà `mßV b˙_r]mB™Mr gmarM Ò\w$Q> H$odVm Amb{br Zmhr.
oQ>iH$m߇_mU{M ]mB™¿`moh AZ{H$ H$odVm H$mbm¿`m CXamßV Zmhrem Pmb{Î`m Amh{V.
"^abr KmJa' h{ Zmßd "_r VwPr _mder Vwbm ›`md`m Amb{' `m ]mB™¿`m ‡og’
H$odV{dÈZ oXb{b{ Amh{.
‡mÒVmodH$ oZd{XZmßV X{dXŒmamd ÂhUVmV. ""Ò_•oVoMÃ|, oºÒVm`Z d AmVmß ^abr
KmJa Aer VrZ _m{R>mbr [wÒVH{$ _m¬`m ¯m AS>mUr [U ‡{_i _mV{Z| obohbr h{ [mhˇZ
Y›` dmT>V{.''

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 712$&&

gmohÀ`b˙_rMr dmQ>Mmb
emb{` oejUmMm JßYoh Z bm^b{Î`m gmohÀ`b˙_r¿`m `m j{ÃmVrb ‡dmgm¿`m
Wm{S>∑`mßV _mJm{dm K{U{ _Zm{aßOH$ Amh{.
1814 (]h˛V{H$ gflQ>|]a) _‹`{ ]mB™Zr Am[br [ohbr H$odVm nbohbr. (Ò_•oVoMÃ|
- ^mJ 1, [•. 160) À`m[ydu H$odV{er gß]ßYM ZÏhVm Ag{ _mà ZÏh{. oQ>iH$mß¿`m H$odV{Mr
[ohbr lm{Vr d Q>rH$mH$ma b˙_r]mB© Agm`¿`m EH$m H$odV|V oQ>iH$mßZr H{$b{br
H$mÏ`aÀZmdbrdarb Q>rH$m ]mB™¿`m bjmßV Ambr d À`mßMr "H$i `mMr eo∫$' [mhˇZ
oQ>iH$mßZm Zdb dmQ>Î`mM{ Ò_•oVoMÃmßV Amb{b{ Amh{M.
b˙_r]mB™¿`m AmB© H$do`Ãr hm{À`m, H$odo`oà hm e„X _mà À`mß¿`m H$mir ‡MobV
ZÏhVm. ]mB© obohVmV. "" AmB©bm obohVmß dmMVmß `{V ZÏhV{. _Zmbm odaßJwim ÂhUyZ
oVZ| JmUr aMmdt d e{OmË`m[mOm`mß¿`m gwZmb{H$s®H$Sy>Z [mR> H$ÈZ ø`mdr'' hmM
H$mÏ`aMZ{Mm YmJm o^Hy$VmB© `mß¿`mH$S>{oh Amb{{bm oXgVm{. Vr _m¬`mda EH$ JmU|
ÂhUV Ag|. "" _°Zm VwPm J q[Oam _m`{Mm'' dJ°a{. Jm `mMm AW© Agm hm{Vm H$s, ""_°Z{
Vwbm H$m|Sy>Z R>{db| Amh{ Var hm q[Oam ÂhUO{ H°$XImZm Zmhr AmÂhmbm _m`{Z{M Vwbm
H$m|S>md{ bmJV{. ZmhrVa Vy H{$ÏhmßM ^waH$Z CSy>Z Omerb.''
JmUr aM `mMm N>ßX (H$odVm oboh `mMm ZÏh{) b˙_r]mB™H$S>{oh OwZmM Agbm
[mohO{. À`m ÂhUVmV - ""_t oV¿`mda EH$ _m{R>| ˆX`–mdH$ JmU| aMb| hm{Vß d V{ oVbm
oeH$d `mH$aVmß ]m{bmdb{ hm{V|. (Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 2. [•.83)
1855 _‹` H$odXß[Vr¿`m odahm[H$mbm¿`m Amaß^r Amaß^r À`mßMm H$odVm]’
[ÃÏ`dhma Mmbm`Mm. `mMm oZX}e ]mB™¿`m gÀH$mag_maßmV [m{. Om{Ji{H$a d A‹`j
o‡.AÃ{ `m Xm{Kmßoh ^mfUmßV Amb{bm Amh{. _mà hm [ÃÏ`dhma ÂhUO{ ‡{_[ÃmßMr X{dK{d
ZÏhVr. O| O| _Zr Amb{ V{ gma| ]mB© H$odVmÍ$[mZ| obhrV. gdV, Zdam, XiU Aem
H$mßhrH$mßhr È[H$mÀ_H$ H$odVm À`m obhˇZ YmS>m`¿m` BVH|$M. ""_bm H$mßhr À`mß¿`mOdi
_mJm`M{ ZÏhV| H$s À`mßZm H$mßhr gmßJm`M{ ZÏhV{'' (Ò_•oVoMÃ{- ^mJ 2, [•. 11) `m
[ÃmßVrb EH$Xm{Z H$odVmM AmO C[b„Y Amh{V À`m ""^abr KmJa'' _‹`{ g_modÔ>
Amh{V.
`mM H$mimßV ]mb]m{Y_{dm _mogH$mßV "" AÈUˆX`m oM_wH$Î`m [ojam`m'' h|
b˙_r]mB™Zr H{$b{b{. ''Little Robin Red Breast" M| ^mfmßVa Amb{b{ Amh{.
1900 gmbr E{∑`g^{V (Am∞∑Q>m|]a 23 V{ 30 XaÂ`mZ) ]mB™M{ [ohb| ^mfU Pmb|.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 713$&&

1900-01 `m dfm™V oQ>iH$mßZr ""oºÒVr'' _mogH$ Mmbodb{ `m H$m_mßV À`mßZm
b˙_r]mB™M| gm¯ Ag{ AßH$m¿`m KS>Ám Kmb `m[mgyZ AßH$ [m{ÒQ>mßV Z{D$Z Q>mH$s[`™VM{
gm{[ÒH$ma Om{S>rZ| Mmbm`M{ `m _mogH$mßV b˙_m]mB™¿`m H$odVm _YyZ_YyZ `{V AmO
À`m C[b„Y ZmhrV.
1901 _‹`{ pÏh∑Q>m{na`m _hmamUr¿`m oZYZmda ]mB™Mr EH$ H$odVm ""oOH$S>{ oVH$S>{
oIfiVm'' ]mb]m{Y_{Ï`mßV Amb{br Amh{. 1904 [mgyZ ]mB™¿`m H$odVm AZ{H$ _mogH$mßVyZ
AYyZ _YyZ `{D$ bmJÎ`m.
1906 _‹`{ oQ>iH$mßMm ""^OZgßJ´h'' [ß. a_m]mB™Zr ‡og’ H{$bm. À`mßV ""^yV O]a
_m{R>| ]mB© J ! Pmob PS>[U H$È JV H$mB J'' Ag| EH$ ^mÈS>dOm ^OZ Amh{. EH$ Am{i
oQ>iH$mßMr Xwgar b˙_r]mB™Mr Aer g_Ò`m[yoV© H$arV H$arV V{ C^`VmßZr aoMb{b| Amh{.
1907 gmbr OiJmdß¿`m H$odgß_{bZmbm b˙_r]mB™Zr YmS>b{bm gßX{e "" H$od
VwÂhr o^H$mnaU _r hm{ Vw_¿`m Xmar'' hm MmßJbmM JmObm. `m¿`m AZwfßJmZ{ b˙_r]mB©
AmoU H$od AZßVVZ` `mßMm H$odVm]’ Om]gmb oºÒVr ZmJnaH$mßVyZ ]a{M oXdg
Mmbbm hm{Vm.
1909 V{ 1914 `m H$mimßV ]mB©¿`m [wÓH$iM H$odVm _mogH$ _Zm{aßOZmßVyZ ‡og’
PmÎ`m. À`m[°H$s ""H$aß¡`mVbm _m{XH$'' ""[oV[ÀZr'', ""_r VwPr _mder'' dJ°a{ H$odVmßM{
ode{f H$m°VwH$ Pmb|.
1914 _‹`{ b˙_r]mB™Zr EH$ gm_moOH$ H$mXß]ar obhm`bm K{Vbr hm{Vr. Vr H$Yr
[yU© Pmbr Zmhr. oV¿`mdarb ]mbH$drMm Ao^‡m` _mà gd©lwV Amh{. (Ò_•oVoMÃ{^mJ 3)
`mM gw_mamg oQ>iH$mßZr b˙_r]mB™Zm H$sV©Z H$a `mM{ ""Q≠>{oZJ'' oXb{. amh˛arg ZJamg
]mB™Mr H$sV©Z| hm{V. oQ>iH$mßMm ""H$sV©ZH$bm['' _wª`V: b˙_r]mB™gmR>rMß nbohb{bm
Amh{. [wT>{ oQ>iH$mß¿`m ZßVa H°$H$ dfm™Zr 1932-33 gmbr b˙_r]mB™Zr H$sV©ZmMm Xm°am
H$mT>Î`mM| _bm AmR>dV{.
_‹`ßVar H$mßhr H$mi b˙_r]mB™M{ b|IZ Wmß]Î`mgmaI{ Pmb|. [U 1919 _‹`|
oQ>iH$mß¿`m oZYZmZßVa À`mßMr ‡oV^m [w›hm OmJ•V Pmbr. AmoU e{dQ>[`™V H$m`©aV amohbr.
oQ>iH$mß¿`m _mJ{ XwgË`m qH$dm oVgË`mM oXder À`mßZr ""lr_Vr Zmßd _O Amb{ & gm°^mΩ`
Î`mbm J{b{'' hr ‡og’ H$odVm obohbr. ( Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 4)
1919 Am∞JÒQ> 5 am{Or b˙_r]mB™Mm [ohbm ZmVw O›_mg Ambm. À`m oXder À`mßZr
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 714$&&

obohb|br "" oM_wH$b| ]mbH$ _m¬`m[wT>{'' hr À`mßMr gdm}ÀH•$Ô> H$odVm R>amdr. ( Ò_•oVoMÃ|
- ^mJ 4, [•> 17-19)
1919-21 `m H$mimßV X{dXŒmmßZr oQ>iH$mßMr kmZm{X`mßVrb Xm{Z gXa| ""oºÒVmZwdV©Z''
AmoU ""A^ßJmßOob'' hr [wT>| Mmbodbr. `m ZÏ`m A^ßJmßObrVb{ 11 A^ßJ b˙_r]mB™M{
Amh{V. [wT>|oh À`mßZr AZ{H$ A^ßJ obohb{. oQ>iH$mß¿`m A^ßJmMm e{dQ>Mm MaU ""Xmg
ÂhU{...'' Agm`Mm b˙_r]mB™Mr N>m[ Agm`Mr ""XmgmMr hr Xmgr''
1923 : 1924 (?) Ò_•oVoMÃmßM| b{IZ gwÈ Pmb{.
1924-1928 `m H$mimßV ZmVdßS>mßZm oeH$od `m¿`m oZo_ŒmmZ{ b˙_r]mB™Zr oH$À`{H$
oeewJrV| obohbt. À`mßVrb H$mhr ""^abr KmJa'' _‹`| Amh{V. H$mßhr J{br À`mßVb{
AmH$S>ÁmM{ JmU| ode{f ‡og’ Amh{ (Ò_•oVoMÃ|-^mJ 4)
1930-1931 _‹`{ b˙_r]mB™Zr ‡^mV\{$Ë`mVyZ ^mJ-^mJ ÂhU `m[{jm [wT>mH$ma
K{Vbm. ‡^mV\{$Ë`mßgmR>r X{e^o∫$[a H$dZ| À`mßZr ]arM obohbr ""amÔ≠>r` JrV'' ZmdmM{
N>m{Q>{g| [wÒVH$oh ‡og’ H{$b{.
H$mimam_ _ßoXa ‡d{e gÀ`mJ´hmdÈZoh ]mB™Zr H$odVm obohÎ`m, À`mßVrb ""am_mog
dmQ> Zmhr'' h{ EH$ H$dZ H$m` V| AmO C[b„Y Amh{. ( Ò_•oVoMÃ| - ^mJ 4)
1933 ZmoeH$ `{Wrb H$odgß_{bZm¿`m ÒdmJVm‹`j[XmdÍ$Z b˙_r]mB™Zr H{$b|b|
^mfU `m ^mfUmdÈZM oºÒVrVa aogH$mßZm ]mB™¿`m d∫•$ÀdmMr OmUrd Pmbr.
`mM dfv ZmJ[ya _amR>r oºÒVr gmohÀ` gß_{bZmM| A‹`j[X b˙_r]mB™H$S>{ Amb|.
À`mßM{ A‹`jr` ^mfU gd©Xya JmOb|.
hr Xm{›hr ^mfU| ‡ÒVwV [wÒVH$mßV [naoeÔ>È[mZ{ oXb{br Amh{V.
1934-35 Am`wÓ`m¿`m AI{a¿`m [dm™V b˙_r]mB™Zm À`mß¿`m g_J´ gmohÀ`g{d{Mr
[mdVr o_imbr.
15 oS>g|]a 1935 am{Or Ò_•oVoMÃmß¿`m oVgË`m ^mJmM| ‡H$meZ Pmb|. À`mM d{ir
ZmoeH$H$amßZr ]mB™Mm ^Ï` gÀH$mag_maß^ gmOam H{$bm. A‹`j[XmdÈZ o‡. AÃ{ `mßZr
]mB™Zm ""gmohÀ`-b˙_r'' hr Ao^Zd [Xdr ]hmb H{$br.
1936 \{$]´wdmar 24 am{Or b˙_r]mB™Mm AßV Pmbm. À`mßMr gmohÀ`g{d{Mr B¿N>m
AI{a[md{Vm| OmJ•V hm{Vr. e{dQ>Î`m AmOmamV À`mßZr C“ma H$moT>b| "" _mPr ^mH$ar ^mOyZ
Pmbr. odÒVdmda e{H$m`Mr amohbr Amh{ ''
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 715$&&

*
b˙_r]mB™M{ EH$ [Ã*
Ò_•oVoMÃmß_‹`{ X{dXŒmamd obohVmV, ""EH$ [ÀZr oOdßV AgVm Xwgar H$Èß Z`{ h| oVM|
_V ZwgV{ ÒdV:[waV{ ZgyZ À`mgmR>r oVbm AJXr ÒdV:¿`m _wbm‡_mU{ o‡` Agb|Î`m
_mUgmßer oVZ{ VßQ>{ H{$b{. À`mßM{ Iam{IaM H$mZ o[aJmib|'' ( Ò_•oVoMÃ{ - ^mJ 4, [•
110) `mM ]m]VrV bm{H$_V ]Zod `mMm ]mB™Mm EH$ ‡`ÀZ ÂhUO{ [wT>| oXb{b| [Ã _{
1935 _‹`| h| AZ{H$ _amR>r [Ãmß_YyZ ‡og’ Pmb{b| Amh{. kmZ‡H$memZ{ß `mbm _m{R>{
erf©H$ oXb| hm{V|. V| [Ã Ag{.
EH$ [ÀZr oOdßV AgVm [wZb©æ H$a `mMr gmW
EH$[pÀZÀdm¿`m H$m`⁄mMr AmdÌ`H$Vm
lr_Vr b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$ `mßMr gyMZm
am. am. kmZ‡H$meH$V} `mßg
AoIb _hmamÔ≠>r` gwoeojV ]ßYw^oJZtZm odZßVr H$a `mßV `{V{ H$s AbrH$S>{ EH$
^`ßH$a gmW gwÈ Pmbr Amh{. Var oV¿`mda am_]mU Am°fYmMr `m{OZm H$aU| h| AmÂhm
‡À`{H$mßM{ AmoXH$V©Ï` Amh{. Vr [wÈfdJm©V \°$bmdV Mmbbr Amh{. À`m[mgyZ qhXw
g_mOmbm AZrVrM| ÒdÈ[ `{V Amh{.
AmO OdiOdi [fimg df} [wZod©dmhmMr arV gwÈ Pmbr Vr `m{Ω` Amh{. gmV, AmR>,
]mam, [ßYam dfm™¿`m AmßV]mh{a _wbtZm V| `m{Ω` hm{V|, [U AmVmß EH$ oZamirM ‡Wm [Sy>
[hmV Amh{.
EH$ ]m`H$m{ oOdßV AgyZ oVbm _wb{]mi| Pmbr Agbt Var oV¿`m Camda Xwgar
AmUVmV. EH$ Jm` JmimßVyZ H$mT>VmV d Xwgar JmimßV bm{Qy>Z oVbm [m`mZ| VwS>odVmV,
o^Ñ, H$m{ir, R>mHy$a `mßZm AmÂhr Zmßd| R>{odVm|, [ßaVw V{ ]a{. [aßVw À`mhˇZ oH$Vr Var CÉdUu`
od¤mZ, ZmdmßOb{b{, d`m{d•’, MmaMma [m{amßM{ ]m[, drg drg df} ‡[ßM MmbdyZ EIm⁄m
JmB©bm da H$mT> `mg Am[bm hmV X{VmV. Jm` Zg{b Va EIm⁄m Hw$_mnaH{$¿`m
AmB©]m[mß¿`m J˘`mM| bm{T>U| Xya H$aVmV. AmO[`™V oOZ| gßgma H{$bm, Mma _wb| Pmbt,
V{Ïhmß AmdS>Vr hm{Vr d AmVmßM ZmdS>Vr Pmbr ! am{_m›g ! am{_m›g ! H$emMm am{_m›g !
oºÒVr bm{H$m߇_mU{ H$m`Xm H$ÈZ ø`m. [wT>| Ïhm. _J [mhˇß am{_m›g. Am[U AmVmß
ÂhUmb AmÂhr g^m ^adyZ À`mßMm oZf{Y H$naVm{. Am_¿`m oZf{Ymbm ^rH$ H$m{U KmbVm{?
[U g^m ^adm d ¯m Jm{Ô>rMm [yU© odMma H$am. ZmBbmOmÒVd H$mßhrVar ¯mß¿`m _mJ|
* kmZ‡H$me, 12 _{ 1935
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 716$&&

gaH$mar H$m`Xm H{$Î`oedm` h| bm{H$ ew’rda `{Uma ZmhrV. _J À`mßZm ÂhUmd| gaH$ma¿`m
odlmßoVgXZmßV gmV df} am{_m›g H$arV ahm. hr odZßVr.
Am[br,
b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$

AJXr ÒQ>{[ ]m` ÒQ>{[
15 oS>g|]a 1935 am{Or Pmb{Î`m gÀH$mamg CŒma X{VmßZm b˙_r]mB™Zr Am[Î`m
odH$mgmM| dU©Z ""AJXr ÒQ>{[ ]m` ÒQ>{['' `m e„XmßZr H{$b{ hm{V{. À`mß¿`m Y_©H$Î[ZmßMm
odH$mgoh Aem ""AJXr ÒQ>{[ ]m` ÒQ>{['' [’VrZ{M Pmb{bm Amh{. À`mßZr oQ>iH$mßgmaIr
Am[br ""gmj'' obhˇZ R>{odb{br Zmhr. EdT>ÁmdÈZ - qH$dm EdT>ÁmMm \$m`Xm K{D$Z "" e{dQ>r gVrbm [VrdmMyZ X{d Zmht hr qhXwY_m™Vrb oeH$dUM oºÒVr Y_© ÒdrH$maVmßZm
À`mß¿`m [mR>rer hm{Vr.'' Agm od[`©ÒV AmJ´h S>m∞. H$_bm]mB© X{e[mßS>{ `mß¿`mgmaª`m
odXwfrZ{ßoh Yamdm1 AmoU AJXt AbrH$S>{ _wß]B© XyaXe©ZmZ| "" gJi{ Y_© gmaI{M _J
Am[Î`m _mUgmßZm H$embm XwIdm`M{ ÂhUyZ _r oºÒVr Pmb{''2 Agb{ H$mßhrVar ]mÓ\$i
odYmZ b˙_r]mB™¿`m Vm|S>t KwgS>md| Ag{ Km{a A›`m` b˙_r]mB™da hm{V Amh{V.
b˙_r]mB™¿`m ApÒ_V{Mr AoU Òd`߇k{Mr OmUyZ]wOyZ XIb K{ `mßV `{V Zmhr. Ag|
ÂhUU| H´$_‡m· Amh{. Ò_•oVoMÃmßMr gmj Va Aer Amh{ H$s® oZU©` K{ `mMr d{i Ambr
ÂhUO{ b˙_r]mB© Vm{ ÒdV:M K{D$Z _m{H$˘`m hm{VmV AmoU ZßVa À`m oZU©`mbm oQ>iH$mßMr
ghOJÀ`m hmoX©H$ AZw_oV o_iyZ OmV|.
dmÒVodH$ [hmVmß oºÒVrY_© ÒdrH$mÈZ b˙_r]mB™Zt Am[Î`m oºÒVr[UmM{ gmW©∑`oh
H$g| H{$b| À`Mr AJXr ÒQ>{[ ]m` ÒQ>{[ H°$o\$`V Ò_•oVoMÃmßV oZ:gßoXΩY e„XmßV Amb|br
Amh{. À`mß¿`m À`m ÒQ>{flg `{W{ Wm{S>∑`mV X{Vm{.
[ohbr ÒQ>{[ : AZo^k AmoU oZpÓH´$`
oQ>iH$ oºÒVr hm{B©[`™V "" _mJ©'' hr ]mOy ]mB™Zm _mhrVM Zmhr. oQ>iH$mßMr ^yo_H$m
AmH$bZ H$a `mMr Hw$dV Zmht, oOH$sa Zmhr, H$s o\$H$sa Zmhr. ""_r À`mß¿`mH$S>{ J{b{
AmoU V{ _wgb_mZ Pmb{ Va? Ag| À`mßZm dmQ>{ oQ>iH$ J{b{ BVH|$M À`mßZm OmUdb{ AmoU
V{dT>ÁmZ| À`mßZm oOdmdaM| XwIU| Amb{.''
Xwgar ÒQ>{[ : Amem]›Y : [ßT>a[wamg oQ>iH$ `{D$Z ^{Q>b|. "" _mÒVamßMr IQ>[Q>''
hm{D$Z J{br. J{b|bm [oV [aV `{U| AJXtM Ae∑` H$m{Q>rVb{ Zmht hr Amem
1. Ò_•oVoMÃ| gmohÀ` AH$mX_r Amd•Œmr- ‡ÒVmdZm

2. XyaXe©Z 12-2-1983

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 717$&&

]mB™ ¿ `m _Zmß V ÈObr AmoU ""Amem]›Y'' Hw $ gw _ g—eß ‡m`em{ ¯ß J ZmZmß
g⁄:[moV‡Uo` ˆX`ß od‡`m{J{ ÈΩUo’''* hm H$mbmoXmgm{ÀH$ M_ÀH$ma KSy>Z `{D$Z ]mB™Mr
OrodV{¿N>m ]imdbr.
oVgar ÒQ>{[ : Am[Î`mH$Sy>Z hm{B©b V|. b˙_r]mB™Zt Am[Î`m _yi Òd^mdmZwgma
MT>mB™M{ Ym{aU AmIb|. oQ>iH$mßZm [aV AmU `mMm MßJ ]mßYyZ Zdggm`mg, d´Vd°H$Î`{,
C[mgVm[mg H$ÈZ eara H$Ô>odb| À`mßZm OmUyZ K{{ `mMm `ÀZ _mà H{$bm Zmhr.
Mm°Wr ÒQ>{[ : VŒdmßV Zmhr Var V[erbmßV VS>Om{S> Am[bm gZmVZ Y_©, gm|di{Am{di{,
_yoV©[yOm gma{ H$Q>mjmZ{ gmß^miyZ [oVJ•hr AmJ_Z. `m Mma [m`Ë`mßZm ]mB™Zm gw_ma| Mma
df} bmJbr. [U Am[Î`m Friend - Philosopher-Guide ¿`m ghdmgmßV
`m[wT>rb AoYH$ H$R>rU [m`Ë`m À`m df© ghm _oh›`mß¿`m AdYrV ghO MTy>Z J{Î`m.
[mßMdr ÒQ>{[ : Km|Q> odfmMm H$s® A_•VmMm? OmoV^{X g_yi J{bm.
ghmdr ÒQ>{[ : [a_VgohÓUwVm - hm°erbm K{VmßZm Am[br H•$oV X{dmbm [gßV Amh{
H$s Zmhr h{ [maI `m¿`m ]w’rZ{ ]mB™Zr ]m`]bbm H$m°b bmodbm. hm _mJ© Im{Q>m. [U
[a_Y_m©Mm J´ßW H$m°b bmd `mBVH$m [odà _mZ `mMr gohÓUwVm Im{Q>r ZÏh{.
gmVdr ÒQ>{[ : "" _O [mfl`mda X`m H$a'' ‡mW©Z{Mr Jm{S>r bmJbr. ˆX`ÒW [a_{úamer
]m{b `mMm A[yd© AZw^d bm^bm'' VX≤ZßVa ‡H$Q>[U{ oºÒVmMm ÒdrH$ma H{$bm.
`mZßVaoh ]mB™M| ""`moÃH$ H´$_U'' MmbyM amohb{, Am[Î`m hmVyZ oºÒVm`Z
_hmH$mÏ`mMr [yoV© Ïhm`Mr hm{Vr ÂhUyZ Am[Î`mbm oºÒVr hm{ `mMr ‡{aUm Pmbr AmoU
V{ [yU© hm{D$Z Am[Î`m oºÒVr hm{ `mM| gmW©∑` Pmb| h{ g_mYmZ '' b˙_r]mB™Zm `mM X{ht
`mM S>m{imß bm^b|.
AJXr ÒQ>{[ ]m` ÒQ>{[ : BßJ´Or agadi step by step `m A. X{. oQ>iH$
nboIV [wpÒVH{$Mm gmamße.

* _{KXyV- 9
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 718$&&

amÔ≠>r` JrV
o[´`H$a qhoXÒVmZ $& A_wMm $&& Y´w. &&
hrM gwImMr, gm°^mΩ`mMr, gd© JwUmßMr ImU $& Iam{Ia $&$& 1$&&
qMVm ¯mMr H$Èß gd©Xm, ¯mMm YÈß Ao^_mZ $& Iam{Ia $&&2$&&
X{Dß$ YZmbm, X{Dß$ _Zmbm, ¯mÒVd X{Dß$ ‡mU $& Iam{Ia $&&3$&&
ÒdX{e -g{dm ÈM{ Z Vm{ Za X{h Ogm oZÓ‡mU Iam{Ia $&
Vm{ ZM oºÒVr OmU && 4$&&
o‡` X{emM| A_w¿`m X{dm, oZÀ` H$ar Vyß ÃmU $& Iam{Ia $&&5$&&
- Zm. dm. oQ>iH$
(2)

Mmb - (AmZßX Hß$X )
`m qhXr ]mobH$mßZm{ Am]mbd•’ OZ hm{
ÒdmVßÕ` - JrV JmDß$ ÒdmVßÕ` h| KamßV $&&Y´w $&&
H$m_mer bmJw AmYr `m Am[wÎ`m KamßV
XmÈet hmH$bm{Zr ÒdmVßÕ` h{ KamßV $&& 1$&&
amkr[Xmg Xmdyß `m Am[wÎ`m KamßV
H$mT>m{oZ gyV d{J| ÒdmVßÕ` h| KamßV $&&2 $&&
AmUy [w›hmß O{ J{b| H$m°eÎ` h| KamßV
OZV{g hmV X{Dß$ ÒdmVßÕ` h| KamßV $&&3 $&&
]mimßg K{Dß$ I{i K{Dß$ ÒdX{er _mb
dÛ| ÒdX{er b{Dß$ ÒdmVßÕ` h| KamßV $&&4$&&
K{Dß$ ÒdX{er _mb CŒm{OZmg X{Dß$
Yß⁄mg XrZamV ÒdmVßÕ` h| KamßV $&& 5$&&
J•h-amÔ≠> gmdam`m ]ßXr Zg{ KamßV
d´V oZÀ` Mmbdm`m ÒdmVßÕ` h| KamßV $&& 6$&&
K{ amÔ≠> O›_ AmYr ¯m Am[wÎ`m KamßV
ÒdmVßÕ` hr ‡^mV h| JmD$ `m KamßV $&& 7$&&

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 719$&&

(3)

Mmb - (Mß–H$mßV amOmMr H$›`m )
qhX_m` hr Jm` A^mJr \$m{S>r hß]aS>m
oºÒVr OZ hm{ Mbm [wT>{ Ïhm h| o]aS>| gm{S>m $&&1$&&
XS>[emhrMm \$mßg bmJbm gwam AgyarMm
oV¿`m H$maU| Zme Ohmbm A[wÎ`m amÔ≠>mMm $&& 2$&&
Kam{K∂S>r hr H$am [{aUr `{Dß$ ⁄m [rH$m
Ï`gZm[m`r X{e ]wS>mbm, Xmna–`m X{Im $&& 3$&&
Vm{S>m ]ßYZ H$am _m{H$ir hß]aV{ Jm`
Ï`gZ| gm{S>m [Xa [gÈZr odZdrV{ _m` $&& 4$&&
(4)

Mmb - (KZÌ`m_ gwßXam)
Mbm Mbm V{ ]ßYw^oJZtZm{ $& Am[Uoh OmD$ $&
amÔ≠>-`em{Xm _ßWZ H$naV{ hmV oVbm bmdyß $&& 1$&&
H$mamJ•ht¿`m S>{Ë`m_‹`{ $& H°$er aod Kmbr $& [hm hm{
›`m`X{dVm hmV KmbwZr ]KV{ da Imbr $&& 2 $&&
g·g_w–r ZmX Kw_{ hm $& oV¿`m _ßßWZmMm $& [hm hm{
ZmZmodY ¯m oV¿`m [mH$˘`m ]iH$Q> ÒVß^m¿`m $&& 3$&&
›`m`ZrVr¿`m gm{¡di Xm{Ë`m $& ÒVß^m¿`m ^m|Vr $& [hm hm{
oZÒdmWm©Mr Xm{ar em{^V{ À`m _‹`mdaVr $&& 4$&&
oJarXatVyZ ZmX hm{Vg{ $& AdZr IS>]S>bt $& [hm hm{
oºÒVr OZ hm{ CR>m CR>m Va ‡^mV Pmbr $&& 5$&&
(5)

Mmb - (CMb Am[wbm Imß])
gm{Sw> Ï`gZ|, Vm{Sw> ]ßYZ
_mV•^yo_bm H$ÈoZ dßXZ
e[W dmh˛oZ gmßJy oVObm
VwOda gmam Ord. $&& 1$&&

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 720$&&

Ï`gZm[m`t oH$Vr ]wS>mb{
gmZ Wm{a V{ R>ma Ohmb{
didwoZ À`mßZm AmUw ewo’da
VwOda gmam Ord . $&&2$&&
gmßJ gmßJ Vyß A[wb{ h{Vy
gm{Sw>Zr Ao^_oV AdK{ qH$Vy
AmOdar Oar ^Q>H$V o\$abm|
VwOda gmam Ord $&& 3 $&&
gmßJ gmßJ Vyß A[wb{ h{Vy
gm{Sw>Zr Ao^_oV AdK{ qH$Vy
AmOdar Oar ^Q>H$V o\$abm|
VwOda gmam Ord $&& 3 $&&
_m°Zm YÈoZ H$mß J{ ]get
Hß$R> XmQ>bm Aly Z{Ãt
hm gÀ`mJ´h gmßJ Hw$UmÒVd
VwOda gmam Ord $&& 4 $&&
_wH{$ ]m{b J{ VwP{ H$imb{
O{ hm{V{ Vd ˆX`t XS>b{
AgwZr X{er Var [aX{er
A_wMm gmam Ord $&& 5 $&&
[m{Q>mgmR>r dUdU o\$aVr
XrZ, [wßJw O{ Xmam{Xmar
CMbyß À`mßZm X{D$oZ ‡mUm
VwOda gmam Ord $&& 6 $&&

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 721$&&

(6)

Mmb - (Mbm Mbm PUt [X CMbm )
Ka h{ A[wb{ Òd¿N> H$am.
JwÈ-_ßà Yam, C[X{e H$am $$&& Yw´ $&&
gÀ` dXm`m ^roV Zmhr,
IË`m gßJVt B©˚da amhr.
Ao^_mZmbm Xya H$am $& JwÈ-_ßà Yam $& C[X{e H$am $&& 1 $&&
_oXam[mZ{ ZH$m{ ZmMU{
_Z X{dm¿`m R>m`t a_U{
‡^y gmßJVm{ gÀ` Yam $& JwÈ -_ßà Yam$& C[X{e H$am $&$& 2 $&&
ÒdX{e ‡{_r _m{e{ Pmbm
ÒdOZmß gmR>r I[bm PQ>bm
bT>{ oH$Vr hm dra Iam $& JwÈ-_ßà Yam $& C[X{e H$am $&& 3$&&
ÒdX{e-‡{_r emÛmYmar
ÒdOZmß gmR>r l_br ^mar
_Zt ‡{_ dam hm ‹`{` Yam $& JwÈ-_ßà Yam $& C[X{e H$am $&& 4 $&&
X{emgmR>r `{ey aS>bm
oH$Vr AßVar Vm{ H$idibm
Ò_am Am[wÎ`m JwÈdam $& JwÈ-_ßà Yam $& C[X{e H$am $&& 5 $&&
(7)

Mmb- (e{dQ>r ‡^wam`m)
AOwZr OmJ{ Ïhm a{, VwÂhr gma{ gmdY Ïhm a{ $$&& Y´w $&&
XwÈZr _mb Ambm, Ord À`mZ{ A_wMm ^wbbm
È∑`mMm Q>∏$m Pmbm, [°gm dmh˛oZ`m Z{bm $&& 1$&&
J•ohMr J{br dmQ>r, [na H$mßM bmJ{ [mR>t ;
oVMmhr Mya Pmbm, [°gm dmh˛oZ`m J{bm $&& 2 $&&
dÛ h| [aX{er, _D$ bmJ{ ÂhUwoZ K{er;
X{h hm gOoder, [a∑`mßZm [°gm X{er $&& 3$&&
gm{›`mM| ZmU| J{b{, oZH$bmM| hmVr Amb|,
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 722$&&

H$bmoh b`m J{br, [Xat hr Jna]r Ambr $&& 4$&&
OwZ| V| gma{ J{b{, [a∑`mM{ gma{ Pmb{;
`m_wi{ Zme Pmbm, YßX{dmbm R>ma ]wS>mbm $&& 5 $&&
(8)

Mmb - (Vyß Q>mH$ oMÈZr hr _mZ)
ZM qhX[wà S>aUma $& [wT>| gaUma $&
Oer eo∫$ Vg| H$aUma $& [wT>{ gaUma $&& Y´w $&&
amÔ≠>m¿`m Mm°\{$amßV $& dUdm hm ^S>H{$ AmßV $&
odPod `m Ord X{Uma $& [wT>| gaUma $&& 1 $&&
Aær¿`m ^{gya ¡dmbm $& J´moeVr Z^t¿`m H$mim $&
]KwoZ H$mß dra S>aUma $& [wT>| gaUma $&& 2 $&&
ÒdmVßÕ` ^maV^yZ| $& O{ H$S>{ K{Vb| Vm›h{ $&
]{_mZ H$g{ hm{Uma $& [wT>| gaUma $&& 3 $&&
Hw$Ur X{Dß$ odŒm oMŒmmbm $& Hw$Ur X{h A[u X{embm $&
Hw$Ur X{dr AmidrUma $& [wT>| gaUma $&& 4 $&&
`{ Ymd OJm¿`m ZmWm $& VyßM hm{B© A_wMm Z{Vm $&
_J Zmhr H$Yr haUma $& [wT>| gaUma $&& 5 $&&
(9)
D$R> Ordm, ‡mWu X{dm, ]m{b dßX{ _mVa_≤ $&
MmbVmßZm hmM Mmbm{ _ßà dßX{ _mVa_≤ $&& Y´w $&&
H$m`© H$naVmß O›_^yM| Km{f dßX{ _mVa_≤
ew’ ^md| ew’ Jmd| _ßà dßX{ _mVa_≤ $&& 1 $&&
_mV•^yMm _ßà gm{[m ]m{b dßX{ _mVa_≤
E{∑` amhm{ ^{X Omdm{ ]m{b dßX{ _mVa_≤ $&& 2$&&
X{e-g{dm hm odgmdm _ßà dßX{ _mVa_≤
amÔ≠> JmB© h|M AmVm e„X dßX{ _mVa_≤ $$&& 3$&&

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 723$&&

(10)
^d ^` ^` ^` ÂhUer $& gmßJ a| H$emM{ ?
O` O` O` O` VwoP`m $& H$mß Z `{B dmM{ ? $&& Yw´ $&&
X{e]ßYw Vd _aVr $& I{X Z Vm{ Vd oMŒmr,
oZÀ` VwPr _æ d•oŒm $& ajUt VZyM{ $&& 1 $&&
Q>miwoZ`m OZg{dm $& aojVm{g oZOOrdm
]wS>drU| JwÈZmßdm $& [m[ Km{a gmM| $&& 3 $&&
AÒV Z ¡`m oZÀ` CX` $& oºÒV C^m _•À`wßO`
Vm|da Vyß OJt oZ^©` $& gm¯ K{Dß$ À`mM| $&& 4 $&&
- Zm. dm. oQ>iH$
(11)
Mbm og’ Ïhm, `m g_am $&
O`Km{f H$am, O`Km{f H$am !
H$am Àdam a{, H$am Àdam;
O`Km{f H$am, O`Km{f H$am !$&& Y´w $&&
T>mb H$at ø`m odúmgmMr,
H$Q>Áma ø`m a{ ‡^wdMZmMr,
Ia{[U{ ]mßYm H$_am,
O`Km{f H$am, O`Km{f H$am $&& 1$&&
‡gßJ [S>bm OmUwZ ]mßH$m
oXdg Ag{ Vm| PwßOm qOH$m !
‡^w A[wbm Vna odO` Iam;
O`Km{f H$am, O`Km{f H$am $&& 2 $&&
ˆX`t, BH$S>{, oVH$S>{, [wT>Vr
_mJ| Imbr, qH$dm daVr,
oºÒV C^m, hm ^md Yam,
O`Km{f H$am, O`Km{f H$am $&& 3$&&
- Zm. dm. oQ>iH$

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 724$&&

SKETCH OF A BRAHMIN WOMAN
By. Miss H.L. Bruce

(1895 _‹`{ oQ>iH$mßZr Y_m™Va H{$b|. À`mZßVaMr gw_ma| Mma df} hm oQ>iH$Xmß[À`m¿`m
Am`wÓ`mßVrb ""[naj{Mm H$mi'' hm{Vm. `m AdYtV H$mßhr oXdg odX{er o_eZË`mßZm
_amR>r ^mfm oeH$od `mM| H$m_ ( o_eZË`mß¿`m ^mf|V "[ßoS>qVJ') H{$Î`mZ{ oQ>iH$mßMm
AZ{H$ `wam{o[`Z d A_{naH$Z o_eZË`mßer oOÏhm˘`mMm ÒZ{h O_yZ Ambm. o_g h∞Q>m©
]´yg ¯m À`m[°H$sM. oQ>iH$mßZr ¯m ]mB™Mm CÑ{I "" _mPr oºÒV¤mamß ]hrU'' Agm H{$b{bm
Amh{. oQ>iH$mßer Jfl[mJm{Ô>r H$aVmßZm ]´yg]mB™Zr hiyM b˙_r]mB™Mm odf` H$mT>mdm AmoU
oQ>iH$ H$m` ÂhUVmV À`mMr Zm|X H$Í$Z R>{dmdr. oQ>iH$mßMr À`mßZm `m odf`mda [Ã|oh
`m`Mr. `m gJ˘`mßdÈZ À`mßZr h| ""EH$m ]´m˜UrM| oMÃ'' a{ImQ>b{b| hÒVoboIV ÒdÍ$[mßV
_bm C[b„Y Pmb|. h{ H$Yr H$m{R>| ‡H$moeV Pmb{b| ZgUma. Am[Î`m hmbMmbr Am[Î`m
X{edmgr o_ÃmßZm godÒVa obhˇZ H$iod `mMm o_eZar [m`ßS>m Ag{. oVV∑`m[waVr gro_V
‡og’r _mà `mbmoh o_imb{br Agmdr )
It is in faintest outline that I have been able to prepare for you the
following sketch of Mrs. N.V. Tilak who has recently suffered all that it
is possible for a high caste woman to suffer through her husband's
acceptance of Christianity, She is the wife of my Marathi teacher, the
wife of his love and choice. You should hear their sweet love story,
such an one as is well nigh incredible in India; how they played together
in the fields,in the woods, in the river; how he even taught her to swim
and they entered into one another's delights with heedless abandon.
Their keenly responsive and poetic natures seemed made to confide in
each other, while no thought of marriage embarrassed those days of
free intercourse marriage in India having naught to do with personal
love or preference, only with the desire of the elders.
But by and by Mr. Tilak was considered of marriageable age, and
his family friends began looking about for a suitable bride. They may
have hastened matters a little in as much as Mr. Tilak was beginning to
develop all a poet's eccentricities. He showed such a passionate love
of nature and fondness for books, that, lest books should make him
mad, they had temporarily deprived him of everything in the literary
line, pen and ink included; but all to no purpose. The prisoner had
become almost beside himself under the restraint and had succeeded
in convincing his solicitious relations that books could never make him
mad except as they were taken away from him

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 725$&&

Marriage was next proposed in order that family cares and
responsibilities might make him more like other men. But again he
picked against the pricks; his sensitive and highly strong nature rebelling
against the thought of marriage thus forced upon him. Although
according to oriental ideas of propriety. this was a most immodest
thing to do. A youth is expected to show becoming indifference to any
arrangements for his marriage which may be made by his elders. It is
equally immodest for him to say he would like to be married or that he
would not like to be. The tide of public feeling ran high, and when Mr.
Tilak could resist it no longer he proposed a compromise which should
allow him to name his own bride. Thus he chose his old time associate,
who though of suitable caste and family, would never have been chosen
for him because her complexion was darker than his; and thus he
entered upon that union which was to prove such a blessing to him in
the days to come until he must surrender all for Christ's sake and the
Gospel's.
Only a single glimpse may I give you of their early married life,
which, notwithstanding the love between them, was one of perpetual
restraint. To look at each other - an act of questionable propriety , to sit
and talk together-an offence to the elders. To read and write -most
horrible thing ! What Brahmin woman would be so unorthodox as to do
this. It was only subrosa, when they could elude the vigilance of their
elders, that a little free intercourse was allowed them. Nor was this
embarrassment relieved by the birth of their first child. How did the
father long to hold it in his arms. He might not even look at it. Stolen
glances could not satisfy such a nature as his; he must gaze for hours
upon that little one who was his own. And so it happened one day,
stealthily creeping to the cradle he kidnapped his baby and escaped
with it into the field. An; this was rapture indeed to look and look without
thought of the grim elders, - to dream a poet's dream with no one to
interrupt him or say him nay; to love and love as anywhere but in India,
a man may love his child. Meantime the alarm was given, a search
instituted, there was anxious running to and fro about the house; and
finally, hidden amongst the flowers and grass, out of doors, the child
was found in his father's arms. I believe he only returned on condition
that he might have thereafter a little more freedom in the house; this
was of necessity granted him. But not long was the child for this world;
and a second child followed it into the home eternal. '' For of such is the
Kingdom of Heaven." After the third little one was born the parents
moved into another city far away from any elders who might embarrass
them by their presence.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 726$&&

And just a little glimpse must I give you of the unconventional life
they lived together here, thereafter. Mrs. Tilak entering enthusiastically
into her husband's plans; reading, writing and studying with him in his
new and engrossing study of the life of Christ. Her husband had now
become a Christian at heart, She, too was intellectually convinced
while sympathetic in this as in all things else that affected his happiness.
They were talking together one day about uniting themselves with the
people of God. " How do we know " she queried, " what we ought to do?
Let us cast lots," And her husband with a prayer in his heart that the
disposing of the lot might be of the Lord prepared, in consultation with
his wife, three papers marked as follows :
1st. My wife and I should become Christians together.
2nd. My wife and I should not become Christians
3rd. I should become a Christain, and my wife should follow me.
Scattering these papers on the floor Mrs. Tilak told their little boy
Sharadchandra to bring her one of them. He ran and picked up No. 3.
"But", she objected, " that happened to be written on a larger piece of
paper than the others and it is only natural that a child should pick up
the largest. Let us try again "So with great precision, she cut three
papers just the same size. marked them as before, threw them down,
and deleaf Sharadchandra pick up one of them. Again he laughingly
brought No. 3. " It only happened so" she still persisted ''there must be
some mistake. It only happened so.'' And Mr. Tilak, who had received
remarkable answers to prayer before this, trusted that a third time the
disposal of lots should be of the Lord. So Sharadchandra brought No. 3
again to his mother, little thinking how much of joy and sorrow
compliance with this lot must bring into all their lives. But Mrs. Tilak
knew not the cost of becoming a Christain and when she counted it,
she turned heart-sick aways. Dealth was preferable to shame and
ignominy of it all, Her whole spirit revolted against the demands of
Christ. She would not love him who was asking her to pay so dear.
Thus her husband had to leave her and child with all else beside, and
face alone the fearful persecution that followed his baptism. It swept
over him with violence sufficient to rob him of reason and life, but for the
sustaining presence of God. I have been privileged to know Mr. Tilak
Intimately during the past few months, as Balbodhmewa matters have
kept us in constant touch with each other. At Mahabaleshwar he often
told me of communications from his wife. These were in prose or poetry,
passionate pleadings with him to return. In one she said bitterly she

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 727$&&

would write a tragedy and dedicate it to him. She seemed to be sick
unto death with the agony of separation. He sent her repeated
assurances that he would be true to her, promising never to marry
another, not to take away her child, both of which things, the law
permitted him to do. At one time when it was suggested that if he
secured possession of his son, his wife would soon follow, he answered
simply, "I could never separate a child from its mother." At another
time, when we were speaking of his happy matrimonial choice, he
surprised us by saying " Happy though I thought it once, I am sometimes
inclined to regret it now. If I had married a stupid woman, she would
have come with me." But the love flashed into his eyes, as he said this,
and we knew, that, far from regretting ought, he was only proud that his
wife was not a stupid woman, after all. And trustful too, was he, that in
God's good time if he could but bide it patiently she would be given
back to him, " not so much for my sake", he would say " as for the
sake of her soul's salvation," As the Mahabaleshwar season drew
near to a close, Mrs. Tilak calls to her husband became irresistibly
touching She was dying, dying for love and he must not delay to come
to her. We were all solicitous test he should be unable to withstand the
temptations of Pandharpur. But to that sacred city, one of the strongholds
of Hinduism, he ventured; and there our thoughts and prayers followed
him, while blasts of persecution more pitiless than the first spent their
force upon him, well nigh beating the breath out of his body and the
Christ life out of his soul. "I know thy works and where thou dwellest
even where Satari's seat is: and thou holdest fast my name and hast
not denied my faith" - This was one of the messages I sent him, and in
response to such expressions of sympathy he would write something
as follows: I quote from several letters. " My wife is dangerously ill. Her
position is quite pitiable. She is a noble woman burning with a pure true
love and spirit of faithfulness. She promised on an oath that she would
not break her caste to save her sister's husband when he took strong
fever, at the news of my Baptism. She cannot and will not break that
oath, nor is she able to forget me and be calm. My relations openly say
that they would rather see her dead than joined with me. They ought to
have been moved by this manifestation of woman's true love but, instead,
they are mean enough to taunt her the more for it. Now she says, my
dear madam ( I cannot write her words fully, it breaks my heart, and yet
I will try) She says: "the fates have not decreed that I should place my
hands in yours and die. But till we ascertain what is their will, may the
daily vision of your face be mine." We do not know all the ways of God,
yet my heart is broken, and I believe our lives will prove a complete

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 728$&&

tragedy. I have lost all appetite, and sleep, and strength, during only
three days. I grieve for the native Christians. I love them and would have
been of great use to them. Please remember me to all, and join your
voice in prayer with mine. You know in what an unbearable fiery trial I
have been placed and you know perhaps all my circumstances. My
wife suffers actually from a broken heart. To leave her is to give a decisive
blow to her physical life to stay with her is to give a blow to my eternal
life. she will die for love, but will not follow Christ for love. All my prayers
and expostulations seemed lost upon her. I trust you will find time to
continue addressing her upon the subject, in simple but poetic marathi.
She will at least listen to you. Will you do this for God's sake? I believe
you will. If you and Miss Emily Bissell and Mrs. Hume of Bombay, all of
you, try to reach my wife, I hope God will give you success, People
say nothing if my wife receives letters from other ladies; but to write
hereself, she cannot do this, as long as she chooses to abide in social
slavery; and yet when I asked her, she said she had no objection to
write out a friendly letter secretly, and send it to you.
You may not know that in the family in which we live, it is even a sin
myself and my wife to sit and talk together, not because I am a Christain,
but because to do so is to offend the elders of the house". " The
translation of 'God's beautiful lesson' for the Balbodhmewa has braced
up my dropping spirits to a considerable extent. Praise the Lord. It is
unnecessary that I should send my own translation of the Robin Red
Breast song. I explained to my wife the meaning of the English verses
and she prepared the enclosed Marathi translation which is more literal
and simple than mine. I trust it may receive the prize. (Note-this-poetry
received the 4 Rs. prize and was published in the July Balbodhmewa)
" Hope seems to return to me. Doctors said that no medicines
would cure my wife, except hope of me. Though she could not herself
express such a desire, she would have come very gladly, But no, the
hard hearted champions of Brahmin hypocrisy would rather see a loving
wife die, and a loving husband follow her than break the caste. Under
such circumstances, I happened to come here; and, as I realized that
I was going to be the cause of the dealth of my wife, I was almost
beside myself, But, praise God, it seems that He is going to save me
from any desperate step and will give me my wife again. Yes, I shall
have to wait long here. Praise the Lord. It gives me strength and
opportunity to learn this and go. I am starting for Bombay today. I am
very much debilitated in constitution owing to the various anxieties to
which I have been subject during the past two months. My wife is

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 729$&&

better, but I fear my leaving her may make here worse again, I do not
know why I fear when I know everything is in the hands of God. I have at
least clearly discovered that I am too weak to stay here, though human
vanity shows me otherwise. The husband and father are still stronger in
me than the devotee."
Dear friends; With Mr. Tilak's return to Bombay, I must leave the
account of his wife for the present. Since writing the above I have waited
many a week in order that I might add a happy sequel to my story, but
the end is not yet; and I will not keep you longer waiting. The skies are
one more heavily overcast ( Sept. 26, 1895), and it may be granted to
some friend in the homeland through the prayer of faith to dissipate the
stormy clouds here. Let us ask our Father if we may individually do
anything to help in such a crisis time as this.
H.L.Bruce
Satara, India
June 30th, 1899. The principal thing I have to share with you today
is news for which some of you in the home land have been waiting and
praying for years. The sequel to the Story of a Brahmin woman, I can
also give you only privately. Let me copy from the private letters just
received from Mr. N.V. Tilak of our Mission telling the circumstances of
his wife's return
Pandharpur 8/6/1899
I had not the least intention of going to Pandharpur when I left
Mahabaleshwar. While at Wai, one evening, after prayer, I was as if
possessed with the strongest impulse to go to Pandharpur. I came
here; and, to my joy and astonishment found my wife fully decided to
come over to me, with my son. In a moment, I saw her defying all those
relations and friends whom to the last hours she regarded with utmost
faith and affection. We shall all start next Monday for Ahmednagar, if
everything goes on well. However, we must still continue praying for a
matter of equal or perhaps much more importance. My wife's pride of
caste, and her faith in useless, heathen observances is simply
boundless and the boundless grace and power of God must be invoked
for the saving of her soul. Her conditions to which I have agreed are
these :
1. She will live separately from me, until she herself comes out.
She does not think it a sin to break caste without the knowledge of the
caste.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 730$&&

2. She likes to study English and medicine.
3. My son will be sent to the Government School.
4. All my income, except Rs. 5 per months shall be handed over to
her.
5. I am allowed to read and pray in her presence; but not to preach.
But if the same by conduct and devotion is allowed, it is enough. So
also to pray in her presence is not a small thing, I shall require at least
Rs. 40/- to leave this place. The heathen tongawallas and cartmen are
combined in refusing to take us to the Railway station which is 31
miles away. A Mohammedan will do it, if I give him Rs. 20/- for the
whole tonga. I am not going to borrow; but I am confident my friends
will help me as much as they can, at this time. Thank for your sympathy
and prayers. continued through so many months.
Ahmednagar 14/6/1899
Many thanks for your most sympathetic letter. The whole story of
my wife's coming to stay as my neighbour in Ahmednagar is simply a
miracle. At Pandharpur three women who were once opposed to me
suddenly changed their attitude and pressed my wife to join me. My
brother, who was outwardly on my side, but secretly was rousing all
the relations of my wife utterly failed in his attempt. His own wife stood
fast by me. Men then called upon me to satisfy them as to why I
become a Christian, and the Spirit put words into my mouth which
made them almost speechless. Tongawallas who were planning to make
it hard for me to go to the station, gave way before prayer. Then after I
came here the Brahmins made it quite a trial for me to get a house. Mr.
and Mrs. Pendse begged, threatened, and did almost everything possible
to dissuade my wife from even living as my neighbour. The most
surprising thing is that my child who once was horrified at the mention
of my name, suddenly grew very very fond of me. At every step I prayed
and at every step God helped me. It is only today that my family came
to live near the Lecture Hall Compound, Just in the neighbourhood of
Christians.
December 28/1899.
Some of you may be waiting impatiently for the sequel to the Sketch.
Here it is, so far as I know it myself, Mr. and Mrs. Tilak with their little
boy, are at last reunited. During Dr. Ballantine's absence from his station
on Government plague duty, at Ahmednagar, this orthodox Christian
husband and orthodox Hindu wife and child occupy two rooms of the

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 731$&&

Rahuri mission Bungalow. Dr. Ballantine knowing my interest in the
family, kindly arranged for me to go out and visit them at the close of
mission meetings. Servants, tonga and indeed the whole Bungalow
with all its furnishings was placed at their disposal for the day, and
Mrs. Tilak became my hostess. As she stepped forward to welcome
me graciously, as any missionary lady might do, I saw for the first time
the heroine of my Sketch. The fair slight woman she is, with eyes that
betoken supreme suffering in the past - supreme happiness now. Did
you ever see such eyes? Upon the fore head is the dot of red paint of
which every married woman is proud. I used to think it had some
idolatrous significance; but have been told positively that it means one
has a living husband. Nothing more nothing less, I have asked; " Is
there in it no reference to the Gods?" and have received this answer "
Only that a woman's husband is her God" In the years of Mrs. Tilak's
separation from her husband when there seemed no hope of their ever
been reunited, and she was practically a widow, she yet clung to this
mark that she was not a widow. How much more must she cling to it
now a loved wife in her husband's home. God bless her. She extended
her hands to me, by way of greeting and led me into the Bungalow
where every provision had been made for my comfort. In a little while
Mr. Tilak and I sat down to table, Mrs. Tilak waiting upon us, for she
might not eat until afterwards. She only breaks caste with her husband
alone Eight or ten varieties of Brahamin cooking prepared by her hand
made a delicious lunch.
When it was over, we strolled into the garden for a heart to heart talk
together. She knew it was that I had come for, and she did not disappoint
me. Her heart had been touched by my long continued prayers on her
behalf. Once she had written "You have prayed all these years for me a
stranger. Such devotion is known to us in India but is usually that of a
wife for her husband." Now she confided to me that she too, had been
praying to her Gods. " How could I not have prayed in my loneliness"
She said " This is in answer to both our prayers, yours and mine." "
What a wonderful answer"! I exclaimed, " Could we ever have thought
we should meet under such circumstances? God has been leading us,
step by step, and He and will still lead on" "Uh," She replied shriking
back, "He has led me far enough. I could wish to stay just where I am.
It is all right now. I am more than content to be with husband and child
in a house of our own. And I do not despise the native Christians.
Indeed I am friendly in my manner towards them, and I let them come
and go as they will. It does not matter even if they touch me, because
for their sakes, I wear this simple dress that is not supposed to
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 732$&&

communicate defilement. As for my husband, I do not try to keep caste
with him any more. I did at first, but now he sometimes brings the
water or helps with the cooking. We eat together. You see I never
meant to come so far as this, when I started. I have been led on and on,
almost in spite of myself." "He who has led can lead further." I said
"yes" she answered,"but only if He change my heart. I shall never
become a Christian until there is a real heart change within me." "I
hope you never will," I said," if you become a Christian, let it be more
than in name. Yield yourself to God's working and He will change your
heart, as he has your husband's and mine. It is real change in us. Do
you doubt it?" "No It must be real. You have had an experience that I
have not," She admitted and then she went on talking confidentially
until the shadows fell.
After supper she sang for me some of her songs. She has what her
husband calls the gift from Heaven. If not from heaven, one wonders
where the faultless rhythm came from. For none of the rules of Marathi
poetry has she ever learned. She just sings away as sweetly as a bird
in the woods. But of late she has lost much of her inspiration. "Poetry
does not come to me". She sings, "Poetry is jealous, as other friends
are, since I have rejoined my husband. It must needs be so with exclusive
affection. The river flowing to the sea has every thing to give its
individuality, banks of its own, and wild flowers. But when it has reached
the sea, where are its banks, where are wild flowers? It has nothing left
of its own and it asks for nothing but to lose itself for ever in the sea.....
Let us leave her singing - this dear salt that must yet to be won for
Christ.
Yours sincerely,
H.L.Bruce.
May 1900*
The last letters say that Mrs. Tilak is asking, " When may I be
baptised ?" "To me to live is my husband and to die before him is
glory." This was the religion of a faithful Brahmin wife - Mrs. Tilak.

* `mZßVa _ohZm^amVM Vm. 8 Owb° 1900 am{Or b˙_r]mB™Mm ]mo·Ò_m Pmbm.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 733$&&

[naoeÔ>-6

H$Yt?... H$m` KS>b|?... H$m` H{$b|?
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1876-78 : ^Q>OrMm _R>, JU{eemÛr b{b{ `mßOH$S>{ gßÒH•$V d _amR>r J´ßWmßMm A‰`mg
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hm`ÒHw$bmßV oejH$ B.
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&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 734$&&

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1885 (?)
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1888 :
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The Cow's
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• XmXmOr_hmamO MnaÃ
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H$›`m, Z_©Xm, ]ßYw _mYd oZYZ
amOd°⁄mH$Sy>Z d°⁄H$od⁄m
1891 Owb° 16 : ""XŒmy'' Mm O›_.
b˙_r]mB™Mm AmOma
1892 Owb° 2 : [w›hm ZmJ[ya
1892-94
JmS>tV gmh{] ^{Q>bm.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 735$&&

• H$mÏ`Hw$gw_mßOob d

[wà _mYd O›_ d oZYZ
amOZmßXJmßdr oejH$, H$maHy$Z,
ZmPa dJ°a{
194 Owb° 14 : [ohbm qhXr dH•$Œdg_maß^
amOZmßXJmßd
1894 Am∞JÒQ> : amOZmßXJmßd - ZmJ[ya Am∞∑Q>m{]a
ZmoeH$-MmßXm{ar-_wß]B©
1894 Zm{Ïh| 1 : AßV`m©_t oºÒVr AgÎ`mMm oZ¸`
kmZm{X`mßVZy Zmhr.
1895 \{$]´w 10 : ]mo·Ò_m
1895 :
b˙_r]mB©Mm AmOma

1896-97 :

OmVrV [aV K{ `mM{ ‡`ÀZ
XŒmyMr _wO
ß

1898 :

AmeÂ_m]mB™¿`m Xm{Kr H$›`m
oZYZ [mdÎ`m
1899 OyZ : b˙_r]mB© [oVJ•hr `{VmV
1899-1900 : b˙_r]mB©¿`m ""ÒQ>{flg''
b˙_r]mB™Mm oºÒVÒdrH$ma
1900 Owb° 8 : Vmam CJdbr
1900-01 : flb{J-H±$[ _Yrb g{dm :
22 _wbmßMm gß^mi
1902-03 : ]mB™M| Zog™J oejU

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 736$&&

ododY odf`VaßoJUr.
• H$mßX]ar d{Uw (?)
F$of _mogH$
• ZmQ>H$ (?), gßV
ZmZmOr_hmamO
ÒVm{Ã| B.
• ]mB™Mr [ohbr H$odVm.
• kmZm{X`mßVyZ H$odVm
(OJp›_Ã ZmdmZ{)

• ]mb]m{Y_{Ï`mßVyZ
\w$bm_wbmßMr
H$odVm gwÈ
• kmZm{X`mßV
J⁄ [⁄ b{IZ
\w$bmßMm hma
• EH$m od⁄mœ`m©Mr gmj
(]mb]m{Y_{Ï`mßVyZ)
• oºÒVO`ßVrMr ^{Q>,
¯mbm ÂhUmd{ ‡roV
B. b{IZ
• oºÒVr _ZwÓ`mM{ _aU

• oºÒVr [Ã
• Am_¿`m odYdm.
• oºÒVO`ßVr AmoU

1904 :

1905 :

oºÒVgXZ ]mßYb{ ( amh˛ar)
Am∞JÒQ> 31 (amh˛ar
Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$ dm[r
[ß. a_m]mB©¿`m ]m`]b ^mfmßVam
gmR>t H{$S>Jmßdmg d [aV

1906 :

1907

OiJmßdr H$odgß_{bZ
]mbH$dtMm CX`

df©‡oV[Xm.
AmZßXr]mB© B. [wÒVH{$
• oºÒVr ZmJnaH$ [Ã gwÈ
• _{ar Om{›g d oVM| emÛ
•ÛrOmVrMm _oh_m B. [wÒVH{$
• ^OZgßJ´h
• CYb{ [wŒm, MmßJbm
_|T>[mi, ]m{Y AmoU aßOZ
B. [wÒVH{$ aßOZ B. [wÒVH{$
• oH$À`{H$ ^o∫$JrV{

1908

• gwerbm, Òdam¡` h|M
Ia| Òdam¡`
• _mogH$ _Zm{aßOZmVyZ
H$odVm

1909

• ]m[mM{ Alw, dZdmgr \w$b
B.
• b˙_r]mB© H$aß¡`mßVrb
_m{XH$.
d [oV[ÀZr H$odVm
• Ao^Z`H$mÏ`_mbm
gß[mXZ
• oºÒVm`Z _hmH$mÏ`mg

1910

ZmoeH$, gam{X{ Hw$Q>ßo]`mßer [naM`
]mbH$dtM{ gßJm{[Z
‡maß^

1911
1912

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 737$&&

• o]´Q>∞oZ`m, Òdam¡`
AmoU oÛ`m ( ZmQ>H$)
erbß [a ^yfU_≤ (ZmQ>H$)
JdVmMr JßOr
(IßS>H$mÏ`)
kmZm{X`mM{ gß[mXZ
(1919 [`©V)

1913-14

b˙_r]mB™Zm H$sV©ZH$b{M{ d
oWAm∞bm∞OrM{ [R>

1914

aI_m]mB© Imß]{Q>{ oZYZ

1915

1916-17

gmVmam : X{dmMm Xa]ma

1918
Eo[´b 30

X{dXŒm-ÈW oddmh

1918 5 _{
1919 9 _{.
1919 _{ 11

]mbH$od _mdib{
oQ>iH$mßM{ oZ`m©U
b˙_r]mB™Mr H$odVm [wZ: AdVabr

1919 Am∞JÒQ> 5 [ohbm ZmVw Zmam`U O›_
_m¬`m[wT>{''
1919-22 : [ohbr d e{dQ>br Zm{H$ar (_wß]B©)
1920 _{ 20 gImam_ dm_Z oQ>iH$ oZYZ
1920
AH$am _wbr d EH$ _wbJm
Am∞JÒQ> 8 :
A[KmVr _•À`w
1921 OmZ{. 5 : H•$ÓUamd gam{X{ oZYZ
1921 _{ 29 : Xwgam ZmVy Aem{H$
1922 _{ 5 : [. a_m]mB™M| X{hmdgmZ
1922 gflQ>|. 10 : ZmV _ram
1922 oS>g|]a 25 : H$amMrg ‡`mU
1924 A∑Q>m{]a 21 : H$amMr gm{S>br Ah_XJamg AmJ_Z

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 738$&&

• H$sV©ZH$bm[
• b˙_r]mB©Mr H$mßX]ar
• ]mB©Mt H$sV©Z|
• oQ>iH$mßMr H$odVm
^mJ 1 ‡H$moeV
• _wß]B© ZmQ>Ágß_{bZmA‹`j
• _wß]B© gmohÀ`gß_{bZmg
gßX{e
• oºÒVmZwdV©Z kmZm{X`mßVyZ
gwÈ
• A^ßJmßObrg
kmZm{X`mßVyZ gwÈdmV
qXqXJb EFMC _‹`{
Ï`mª`Z_mbm
• ZdrZ oddmh[’Vr
• oºÒVm`Z, A^ßJmßßOob,
Xa]ma JrV| B.

""lr_Vr Zmßd _O Amb{
gm°^mΩ` b`mbm J{b{.''
"" oM_wH$b{ ]mbH$

1924 oS>g|]a : ZmoeH$bm ÒWmo`H$
1925 Owb° 30 : YmH$Q>m ZmVy Y´wd.
1930 :
ZmZmgmh{] [|S>g{ oZd©Vb{
1931 :
Vmam-h{_Mß– oddmh
1932 _{ 29 : emßoVgXZ
1933 gflQ>|. 16 ZmoeH$ H$odgß_{bZ
oS>g|]a 28
ZmJ[ya oºÒVr gmohÀ`gß_{bZ
1934 oS>g|. 15: ZmoeH$
1935 oS>g|. 15 gÀH$mag_maß^
gmohÀ` b˙_r oH$Vm]
1936 \{$]´w 24 : ""[yU© Pmb{''

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 739$&&

• Ò_•oVoMÃ{ b{IZmg gwÈdmV
• oºÒVm`Z[yVuMm oZYm©a
""emßVrgXZ'' Xm{Z H$odVm
ÒdmJVm‹`j
A‹`j
Ò_•oVoMÃ| ^mJ 1 bm
‡H$meZ
Ò_•oVoMÃ| [yU© ‡H$meZ

[naoeÔ>-7

b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$- Ï`o∫$ AmoU gmohÀ`
oZdS>H$ gßX^©
Ò_•oVoMÃ| - MnaÃodf`H$ _mohVr
AÃ{ ‡.H{$. : ^mfUmMm gmamße Ò_•oVoMÃ{ A. Amd•oŒm 1973 : 114
_hmÀ_m JmßYtZr Am[b{ "gÀ`mM{ ‡`m{J' obohVmßZm Om{ _m{H$i{[Um d oZ^©`Vm
‡JQ> H{$br Amh{, VrM b˙_r]mB©¿`m OrdZmVoh ‡H$fm©Z| OmUdV{. À`mß¿`m
AmÀ_MnaÃmßV Pwß]amßVrb ew’ bm{bH$m‡_mU{ Am`wÓ`mM{ Ia| ‡oVq]] d{Jd{J˘`m
aßJmßoZer —Ô>rg [S>V{
AZm_ _•À`wb{I. kmZ_ßoXa _m. 36 : [•. 225
b˙_r]mB™¿`m _•À`yZßVa À`mßZm dmohb{br l’mßOob, Ò_•oVoMÃm]‘b
obohVmßZm : _amR>rVrb AmÀ_MnaÃ[a J´WmßV gd©l{> R>amd| BV∑`m `m{Ω`V{M{ [wÒVH$
CVab| AgyZ _hmamÔ≠>m¿`m J{Î`m AY©eVH$mßVrb gm_moOH$ BoVhmg H$i `mg
À`mMr ]h˛_m{b _XV Pmbr Amh{.
H$mU{H$a AZßV : gmohÀ`-b˙_r. Amb_Jra oXdmir 68 : 18-20
b˙_r]mB™¿`m O›_eVm„Xr¿`m oZo_ŒmmZ{ À`mß¿`m dmL>_`JwUmMm Jm°ad
H$aUmam b{I
H$m{bV{ od. o^. : AmB©¿`m gmofi‹`mßV. Ûr _{ 37 : 624-29
b˙_r]mB™¿`m _•À`wg_`r¿`m AmR>dUr
ImZm{bH$a Jß. X{. : Adm©MrZ _amR>r dmL≤>_`g{dH$, o¤Vr` IßS> b˙_r]mB©
oQ>iH$ `mßMr MnaÃa{Im.

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 740$&&

Jm{Ib{ C_m]mB© H°$. Zmam`U dm_Z oQ>iH$ ( EH$ ha[b{b{ Ò_•oVoMÃ )
[wÈfmW© Am∞∑Q>m{. 37:205 - 209
"Ò_•oVoMÃm'V ^mJ 1, ‡H$aU 7 _‹`{ oQ>iH$mß¿`m V•Vr` [bm`Zm¿`m (
1881-85) `m H$mbIßS>mMm CÑ{I Amh{; [U V[erb b˙_r]mB™ZmM _mhrV
ZgÎ`m_wi{ oXb{bm Zmhr. `m H$mimßVrb H$mßhr ^mJm_‹`{ oQ>iH$mßer [naM` Ambm
ZgÎ`mZ{ À`mMm V[erb Vg{M À`m H$mimer gß]ßoYV A›` Ï`∫$sMr Zmßd|
Ò_•oVoMÃmßMr [wadUr ÂhUyZ AoYH$ gßem{YZmgmR>r oXb{br hr _mohVrhr E{H$sd
AgÎ`mZ{ À`mbm "lwoVoMÃ' ÂhUmd{, Aer odZßVr.
oQ>iH$ A. X{ : AJXr ÒQ>{[ ]m` ÒQ>{[ - ‡H$mH$ a{. gw. X. H$aßXrH$a, 1963
oQ>iH$ A. X{ : Agadi step by step - ‡H$meH$ : _m`mdVr oQ>iH$,
ZmoeH$, 1966
oQ>iH$ A. X{ : emßoVgXZ, _m`mdVr A. oQ>iH$, ZmoeH$, 1975 : 10 +
62
Ò_•oVoMÃmßVrb KQ>Zmß]‘b d oZd{XZm]‘b [yaH$ _mohVr d d{Jim X•oÔ>H$m{Z
X{ `m¿`m h{VyZ{ obohb{Î`m AmR>dUr
KmQ>{ od X. : AmB©M{ _aU ! H$mßhr ÂhmVma{ d EH$ ÂhmVmar. Jß. X{. ImZm{bH$a
: 114-120
b˙_r]mB©¿`m _•À`wg_`rM{ dU©Z
VmÂhmU{ gwYm : lr_Vr b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$ `mß¿`m ghdmgmVrb H$mßhr jU
Ûr Am∞J. 33:13-15
b˙_r]mB™¿`m H$odVmgß]ßYr H$mßhr AmR>dUr
[mQ>UH$a ^m. b. : b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$. ‡oV_m (_wß.) 11-9-33 : 2-5
b˙_r]mB© gmohpÀ`H$ Xe©Z d Ï`o∫$Xe©Z.
]m]a gam{oOZr : ^maVr` Ûr - aÀZ{ ^mJ 4 Wm. Om{S>r-bm{IßS>{, ‡H$meZ,
[wU{, 1949 : 2+3 -32.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 741$&&

_Zm{ha _mYd : AmB™¿`m AmR>dUr. ‡oV^m (_wß.) 1-4-36 : 9-12
b˙_r]mB™¿`m _•À`wg_`r¿`m AmR>dUr
_Zm{ha _mYd : b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$mß¿`m ghdmgmV, bobV Ow. 68 : 1012, 30
b˙_r]mB© _•À`g_`t¿`m AmR>dUr Vg|M À`mß¿`m b{IZ[’Vr]m]V _mohVr
("Zde∫$s' _YyZ [wZ_w©o–V)
_mS>Im{bH$a J. Õ`ß. : "_mVrMr Myb' ¿`m oZo_ŒmmZ{ bobV oS>. 71 :
15-18
b˙_r]mB™¿`m "Ò_•oVoMÃmßV' V X{. Zm. oQ>iH$ `mßZr gwYmaUm H{$Î`m. Vg{M
b˙_r]mB™Zr H$mßhr Jm{Ô>r - Vmam]mB© oQ>iH$ `mßM{ O›_ - ahÒ` d ÈW]mB™Zm H{$b{bm
gmgwadmg - `mßMm ]wo’[waÒga AZwÑ{I H{$bm Agm Amam{[
bobV Om 72 g‡{_ Z_ÒH$ma 24-33
`m gXamßV , nS> 71 _Yrb CÑ{Im]m]V MMm© d ‡oVoH´$`m
_mS>Im{bH$a J. Õ`ß.: bobV oS> 71 _Yrb CÑ{Im]m]V AmUIr _mohVr
^mJdV XwJm© : gZgZmQ>r `emgmR>r !
_mS>Im{bH$amßM{ Amj{[ Ag‰` d AgßÒH•$V[UmM{
Mm°Yar gm{[mZX{d : ÈW]mB™Mm gmgwadmg b˙_r]mB™Zr H{$bm h{ odYmZ MwH$sM|!
KmQ>{ od. X. : odH•$V Hw$Vyhb !
Ò_•oVoMÃmßMr O›_H$Wm d Vmam]mB™Mr O›_H$Wm `m]‘b _mohVr
_Zm{ h a _mYd : "Ò_•oVoMÃmß'¿`m gß]ßYmßVrb Im{Q>{[Um _mS>Im{bH$amß¿`m
odYmZmßMm ‡oVdmX
bobV E 72 g‡{_ Z_ÒH$ma : 34-42
_mS>Im{bH$a J. Õ`ßß. : _mZg[wÃmß¿`m _Zm{Ï`Wm !
Am[Î`m _yi Amj{[mM{ (bobV oS> 71) g_W©Z H$a `mgmR>r AoYH$ _mohVr.
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 742$&&

oQ>iH$ A. X{ : Ò_•oVoMÃ{ AmoU _mS>Im{bH$a H$mH$m.
_mS>Im{bH$amßMr odYmZ{ d À`m odÈ’ [wadb{br _mohVr. Vg{M `m gßX^m©Vrb
X{. Zm. oQ>iH$ `mßM{ _yi [Ã CX≤Y•V.
dËhmS>[mßS>{ d. H•$.: ^maVr` Ûr-aÀZ{. gwodMma ‡H$meZ _ßS>i, ZmJ[ya.
1966 : 105-107
b˙_r]mB©M| gßoj· MnaÃ.
oQ>iH$ A. X{. : _Z H{$dT>ß H{$dT>ß, _m`mdVr oQ>iH$, ZmoeH$, 1973
[•. 21-30
Zm. dm. oQ>iH$ `mßZr b˙_r]mB™er H{$b{bm oddmh - b˙_r]mB™Zm ‡{_ OS> `mZ|
- `m{OZm[yd©H$ H{$bm hm{Vm, ÂhUV{ Vm{ ‡{_oddmh hm{Vm Aer AmR>dU Vg|M oQ>iH$Xß[Vr¿`m A›` AmR>dUr
oQ>iH$ A. X{. : o_Ã hm{, _m`mdVr oQ>iH$, ZmoeH$, 1977. [•. 28-34
Zm. dm. oQ>iH$ d b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$ `mßZr obohb{Î`m oºÒVm`Zm¿`m ^mJmßVrb
gmÂ`-^{XmßMr oMoH$ÀgH$ g_rjm. [•. 35-41 : Ò_•oVoMÃmß_Yrb KQ>ZmßH$S>{
d{J˘`m X•oÔ>H$m{ZmßVyZ [mhˇZ H{$b{b{ Zm. dm. oQ>iH$mßM{ Òd^mdXe©Z.
oQ>iH$ A. X{ : odl„Y emaXm IwX© : _m`mdVr oQ>iH$, ZmoeH$ 1978,
[•. 67-69, 72-73, 75-79, 101-104 d BVa
A›` [Ãmß]am{]a Ò_•oVoMÃmßV g_modÔ> Pmb{Î`m d ‡gßJmßMr _mohVr X{Umar,
_V^{X Zm|XodUmar [Ã{, Ò_•oVoMÃ| Ao^Zd Amd•Œmr, 1973, emßoVgXZ `m
[wÒVH$mßdarb Ao^‡m`. B. Mm g_md{e " _m{XH$ ]h˛ Jm{S> Ag{ -[•¿N>{¿`m H$À`m©
b˙_rVZ`m ÂhUO{ Aß]yVmB© [Q>dY©Z `m b˙_r]mB™¿`m _°ÃrU Aer _mohVr
[waodUma{ À`mß¿`m oMaßoOdmßM{ [Ã Vg{M adt– q[J{ `mß¿`m "eV[mdbr' _Yrb
Ò_•oVoMÃmgß]ßYr H{$b{Î`m odYmZmßM{ Ò[Ô>rH$aU B.
oR>[g{ ‡oV^m : hX≤JV≤ - am_Mß– XmÒVmZ{ A∞ S> Hß$., [wU{. 1981
A›` oÛ`mß¿`m AmÀ_MnaÃmß]am{]aM - b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$mß¿`m Ò_•oVoMÃmßVyZ
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 743$&&

Hw$Qw>ß]mgßÒWm, oejU, gmgyadmg, Xm[À`OrdZ, gm_moOH$ OrdZ B. gm_moOH$
OrdZmßJm¿`m hm{UmË`m Xe©ZmM{ odd{MZ
X{e[mßS>{ A. Zm. : AmYwoZH$ _amR>r dmL≤>_`mMm BoVhmg, ^mJ Xwgam, ÏhrZg
‡H$meZ, [wU{, 1958. [•. 671
OrdZmVrb agmÀ_H$V{Mm VQ>ÒW[U{ [U CÀH$Q>V{Z{ AmÒdmX K{ `mMr eo∫$
AßJr Ag `mdaM H$m{UÀ`moh _mUgmM{ gmohpÀ`H$ hm{U{ Adbß]yZ Amh{ AmoU h{
B©úar X{U| b˙_r]mB™Zm ^a[ya bm^b{ hm{V|.
X{e[mßS>{ H$_im]mB© : ‡ÒVmdZm - gßoj· Ò_•oVoMÃ{, gmohÀ` AH$mX_r,
_wß]B©
1958, 1968
O›_[mgyZ odoj·, odoMÃ Òd^mdm¿`m _mUgmßV dmJm`Mr d{i{ `{D$Zoh
b˙_r]mB©_‹`{ _mZogH$ odH•$oV Ambr Zmhr. À`mßMr d•oŒm gXm AmZßXr AmoU
Ï`o∫$_ŒdmV ÒdVßÃ[Um amohbm. Varoh [VrM{ AZwgaU H$a `mM| qhXy gßÒH$ma d
OmoV^{Xm¿`m, odQ>mim¿`m ÈT> H$Î[Zm Am{bmßSy>Z ÒdrH$mab{br _mUwgH$s,
ghmZw^yoV, ^yVX`m hr oºÒVr Y_©_yÎ`| `mßMm g_›d` À`mß¿`m _ZmßV oXgVm{. h|
gd© ZmQ>Á[yU© ‡gßJmßVyZ Ï`∫$ H$aUmar À`mßMr Òd`ß^y, gw]m{Y dU©Ze°br AmoU
MnaÃH$mambm AmdÌ`H$ Aer gmYb{br Ã`ÒWmMr ^yo_H$m `m_wi{ MnaÃdmL≤>_`mßV
`m H•$VrZ{ AÏdb XOm©M| ÒWmZ o_iodb{ Amh{.
oZ\$mS>H$a ZmW : Ò_•oVoMÃ{, ^m 1 bm ([wd) dmL≤>_`, ^m 35 : 851-856
Ò_•oVoMÃ| d Mnaà `mßVrb o^fiVm gmßJyZ hr Ò_•oVoMÃ| oOÏhm˘`mZ| obohb{bt
`WmVœ` dU©Z H$aUmar Aer Amh{V. `mßV oQ>iH$mß¿`m H•$VrM| odd{MZ dm g_W©Z
Zmhr [U AoVe` oOdßV M°V›`_` nZd{XZ Amh{. Ag{ dU©Z.
[mßJmaH$a b. am. : Ao^‡m`, Ò_•oVoMÃ{ A. Am. 1973 : 112
Ò_•oVoMÃmßV ^mf{Mm gmY{[Um d odMmamßMm ‡mßOi[Um h{ Xm{Z JwU AÀ`wÀH$Q>
Amh{V `mV gÀ`V{bmM H$b{M{ ghOgm¢X`© ‡m· Pmb{ Amh{. [wÒVH$ hmVt K{Vb{
H$s [wT>{ H{$Î`moedm` M°Z [S>V Zmhr. BVH$s AmH$f©Ueo∫$ b˙_r]mB™¿`m b{IUtV
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 744$&&

Amh{.
[mQ>H$a a_{eMß– : AmÀ_Mnaà EH$ dmL≤>_`‡dmh AmoU _amR>r AmÀ_MnaÃ{
(A‡H$moeV ‡]ßY) _wß]B©, od⁄m[rR>, _wß]B©, 1966. [•. 268, 283-300
AmÀ_MnaÃm¿`m XOm©‡V OmUmË`m _amR>rVrb Xm{Z AmÀ_MnaÃm[°H$s EH$ Agm
"Ò_•oVoMÃm'Mm Jm°ad H$ÈZ [oVMnaà gmßJU{ hr _wª` ‡{aUm Agbr Var
oQ>iH$mßBVH|$M "Òd'bmoh _hŒd o_imÎ`mZ{ V{ AmÀ_MnaÃoh Amh{; Ag{ gmßJyZ
AW©[yU© AZw^dmßMr oZdS> d À`m AZw^dmßVrb AZ›`gmYmaUÀd `WmW© ÒdÈ[mV
Ï`∫$ H$a `mgmR>r bm^b{br g_W© ^mfme°br hr Ò_•oVoMÃmßMr d°oeÔ>`{ hm{V Agm
Ao^‡m` `m AmÀ_MnaÃmM{ odZm{X, ‡gßJmVrb Xwd{ Om{S> `mM{ H$m°eÎ` ]oh_w©I
d•Œmr, __©k dU©ZerbVm `m JwUmßM{ odd{MZ.
[m‹`{ ‡^mH$a : "Ò_•oVoMÃ'Vrb oQ>iH$Xe©Z - gÀ`H$Wm Ow 76:31-39
bm{H$OrdZm¿`m Ò[e© Pmb{br e°br, gMm{Q>r d odZm{X]wo’ h{ b˙_r]mB™¿`m
b{IZmM{ ode{f Z_yX H$ÈZ `m [wÒVH$mßV hm{UmË`m oQ>iH$mß¿`m Òd^mdXe©ZmM|
odd{MZ, A›` Am°[MmnaH$ gmohÀ`mßVyZ hm{UmË`m oQ>iH$-Xe©Zm[{jm d{Ji| Ag|
À`mß ¿ `m ApÒWaVm, odoj·[Um, ›`y Z Jß S >mß V y Z CX≤ ^ d{ b r dM© Ò do‡`Vm,
odZm{X]w’rMm A^md `m JwUmß (!) M{ Xe©Z "Ò_•oVoMÃmß'V hm{V|. _mà À`mß¿`m
Ahß_›`V{M| e{dQ>t Cfi`Zoh hm{V J{Î`mM| oXgV| Ag| oZarjU Zm|Xdb{ Amh{.
q[J{ adt– : eV[mdbr, amOhßg ‡H$meZ, [wU{, 198, [•. 128-129
Ò_•oVoMÃmß¿`m ‡H$meZmMr E{H$sd H$Wm. `m _mohVrMm ‡oVdmX "odl„Y emaXm
IwX©' g[m. A. X{. oQ>iH$ `m [wÒVH$mV Amh{.
[ßoS>V ^. lr. : "H$do`Ãr oQ>iH$', Ûr E 47 : [•. 435-347
b˙_r]mB™¿`m H$mÏ`mMr agJ´hU[a g_rjm, hr H$odVm ghOm{X≤JmamÀ_,
‡mgmoXH$ AgyZ ‡m_wª`mZ{ ^o∫$, H$ÈU AmoU dmÀgÎ` `m VrZ agmßZr Ao^qgoMV
Pmbr Amh{.
(^abr KmJa, 1948 ¿`m ‡ÒVmdZ|V [wZ_w©oXV)
]m]a gam{ o OZr : oÛ`mßMr _amR>rVrb gmohÀ`g{dm ( A‡H$moeV ‡]ßY)
_wß]B© od⁄m[rR>, _wß]B©, 1950 : [•. 339-346
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 745$&&

[a^mfm d [aX{er dmVmdaUmV JßYoh Zgb{b|, oZ:gßH$m{M _m{H$i{[UmZ{ H{$b{b{
oQ>iH$mßM{ oOdßV oMÃU d Ï`o∫$ÀdXe©Z Ag|. "Ò_•oVoMÃmß'M{ _yÎ`_m[Z H$ÈZ
À`mß¿`m ododY JwUd°oeÔ>`mßM{ _yi CVmË`mßgh odd{MZ.
H$U{H$a ‡oV^m : _amR>r dmL≤>_`mßVrb nÛ`mßMr AmÀ_MnaÃ{ - EH$ oMoH$ÀgH$
A‰`mg H$mbIßS> B.g. 1880 V{ 1980. A‡H$moeV ‡]ßY _wß]B© od⁄m[rR>,
_wß]B©.
1987. [•. 76, 78-86, 89, 97-99, 116-117, 148-150
[VrM| Mnaà oboh `mMm C‘{e [U ÒdV:¿`m OrdZmMm ÒÃm{V Agm o_giyZ
J{b{bm H$s® V| A[nahm`©[U{ b˙_r]mB™M| OrdZMnaÃoh R>ab| oH$]h˛Zm b˙_r]mB™¿`m
]oh_w©I Ï`o∫$Àdm_wi{ Vr Xm{KmßMrM H$hmUr Z amhmVmß VÀH$mbrZ gm_moOH$
OrdZmM{oh oMÃ R>ab{. [Vr hmM X{d _mZ `m¿`m H$mimV b˙_r]mB™Zr oQ>iH$mßZm
_mUyg ÂhUyZ g_OyZ K{Vb{. À`mß¿`m odoj·[Umoh _m{H$i{[UmZ{ ÒdrH$mabm.
oQ>iH$ MnaÃmMm odH$gZerb KmQ> `m AmÀ_MnaÃmbm bm^bm Amh{. Agm
Ao^‡m` `m gß X ^m© V erbdVr H{ $ VH$a, brbm]mB© [Q>dY© Z B. A›`
gmohpÀ`H$[ÀZt¿`m AmÀ_MnaÃmer Vm°boZH$ odd{MZ.
Ûr ^mf{¿`m M°V›`_` Í$[m_wi{ `m H$bmH•$Vr¿`m `emßV Ame`m¿`m bmQ>m
oH$Vr AmoU Ao^Ï`o∫$¿`m oH$Vr h{ gmßJU{ H$R>rU Ag| gmßJyZ `m ^mfme°brM{
odÒVmamZ| odd{MZ.
oH$bm}ÒH$a _mbVr : oÛ`mß¿`m gmohÀ`g•oÔ>M{ odhßJ^mdbm{H$Z, Ûr _m
64 : 17, 21, 41
Adbm{H$Z H$aVmßZm , "`m Xm[À`m¿`m gmßgmnaH$ d gm_moOH$ OrdZmMr `m
[wÒVH$mßVyZ oXgUmar oMÃ| H$_mbrMr dmÒVd, ‡^mdr dR>br Amh{V. ‡dmhr ^mfm,
‡À``H$mar, ZmQ>Á[yU© d{YH$ ‡gßJmßMr oZdS>, Z_©odZm{XmMm MVwamB©Z| H{$b{bm dm[a
`m_wi| hr H$bmH•$Vr qMaOrd R>abr Amh{.
oH$bm}ÒH$a _mbVr g· (gmV H$do`Ãt¿`m oZdS>H$ H$odVmßMm gßJ´h)
H$m∞p›Q>Z|Q>b ‡H$meZ, [wU{, 1953. [•. 5-13
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 746$&&

b˙_r]mB©¿`m H$mÏ`mMr agJ´hU[a g_rjm
Hw$iH$Uu dm. b. : b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$ ( MnaÃa{Im). _amR>r odúH$m{e IßS>
6 gß[m. b˙_UemÛr Om{er, _hmamÔ≠> am¡` gmohÀ` - gßÒH•$Vr _ßS>i, _wß]B©.
1977. [•. 850
b˙_r]mB™M| Mnaà d dmL≤>_` `mßMm gßoj· AmT>mdm. Ï`o∫$, ‡gßJ EdT>{M
ZÏh{ Va EH$ gß[yU© H$mbIßS> oOdßV[U| dmMH$mß¿`m g_m{a C^m H$a `mM{ gm_œ`©
[mZm[mZmßV Amh{. AmÀ_MnaÃmÀ_H$ b{IZ. Am[br _yi ‡H•$Vr Z gm{S>Vm l{>
H$bmH•$Vr¿`m [mVirda H$g| [m{hm|My eH$V{ `mM| _amR>tVrb EH$_{d CXmhaU ÂhUO{
Ò_•oVoMÃ{ !
JmS>Jri JßJmYa : Ò_•oVoMÃ{ gmohÀ`mM{ _mZXßS>, [m∞fl`wba, _wß]B©,
1962 : [•. 67-88
oQ>iH$mßM{ JwUXm{f`w∫$ Ï`o∫$_Àd, À`mßMm gßV[UmH$S>{ Mmbb{bm ‡dmg `m
]am{]a oºÒVr g_mO d o_eZar `mßM{ AZw^dodú, VÀH$mbrZ g_mOpÒWVr
oQ>iH$mßM{ dmL≤>_`OrdZ d À`mß¿`m gß[H$m©V Amb{Î`m Agߪ` Ï`o∫$oMÃmßM{
a{ImQ>Z h{ gd© `m AmR>dUrVyZ ghO[U{ Amb{b{ Amh{. À`mßMr ^mfme°br hr
À`mß¿`m ]oh_w©I, ZmQ>`mÀ_H$ ‡gßJmßMm d{Y K{UmË`m, odZm{Xerb Aem Òd^mdmM{
‡oVq]] AgyZ Vr _amR>r gmohpÀ`H$mßMm EH$ _mZXßS> Pmb{bm Amh{. Ag{ ÂhUyZ
`m ^mfme°brM| d odZm{Xm¿`m AZ{H$ odY d°oeÓQ>`mßM{ dU©Z. CÀH•$Ô> [m¸mÀ`
gmohÀ`mer VwbZm H$aVmß `{B©b Ag| [wÒVH$ Agm Ao^‡m`.
Om{Ji{H$a a. lr : Ao^‡m`, Ò_•oVoMÃ| A. Am. 1973 : 113
oZ:gßH$m{M _m{H$i{[UmZ{ b˙_r]mB©Zr gd© d•Œmm›VmM| a{ImQ>Z H{$Î`m_wi{
oQ>iH$mßMm Òd^md, ÒdV: b{oIH{$Mr _Z:pÒWVr d VÀH$mbrZ [napÒWVr `mßM{
Am[Umg `WmW© Xe©Z hm{V{. gmYr KaJwVr ^mfm d gy˙_ _mo_©H$ odZm{XmMr [IaU
`m_wi{ `m J´ßWmbm AZ›`_Zm{ha È[ ‡m· Pmb{ Amh{.
Om{Ji{H$a a. lr. : ‡ÒVmdZm ^abr KmJa b{. b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$, H{$. o^.
T>di{, _wß]B©, 1948 : 1-11

&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 747$&&

b˙_r]mB™¿`m Ï`o∫$ÀdmVrb AmemdmXr[Um, AßV:H$aUmMr AmV©Vm B. JwUmßM{
dU©Z H$ÈZ odf`mßZwgma JrVmßM{ dJuH$aU d agJ´hU[a g_rjU.
Om{er A. _. : MnaÃ-AmÀ_Mnaà - Vßà AmoU BoVhmg, gwodMma ‡H$meZ
_ßS>i,
ZmJ[ya, 1956 : 132, 190
J•hOrdZmM| BVH|$ a_Ur` d ‡m_moUH$ dU©Z OJm¿`m dmL≤>_`mßVhr gmß[S>Uma
Zmhr; Ag{ _V Ï`∫$ H$ÈZ Ò_•oVoMÃmß¿`m ^mfm[’VrZ{ gm¢X`©, oMÃ_` dU©Z,
oZd{XZmVrb _m{H$i{[Um d [yd©J´haohVVm `m d°oeÔ>`mßM{ dU©Z.
Om{er Zm. J. ::"Ò_•oVoMÃmß'Mr Ao^Zd Amd•Œmr ([w[) gÀ`H$Wm
g. 75 : 55-57
ZdrZ Amd•Œmr¿`m gß[mXZm_mJrb ^yo_H{$er gh_oV d `m gß[mXZm]‘b
K{VÎ`m J{b{Î`m Amj{[mßM{ oZamH$aU H$a `mMm ‡`ÀZ.
Om{er EZ≤. Q>r. : Ò_•oVoMÃ| EH$ ododYmßJr A‰`mg ([w[) d°Iar oXdmir
75:31-36
a{. oQ>iH$mßM{ Mnaà d b˙_r]mB™M{ AmÀ_Mnaà Aem Xm{›hr dmL≤>_`‡H$mamßda
g_W©[U{ AoYH$ma gmßJy eH$Umar A‡oV_ H$bmH•$oV ! oQ>iH$MnaÃmßVrb gd©
gwXwÔ> N>Q>m AmoU À`mßMm Ï`o∫$_ŒdodH$mg Xe©odUmË`m AmR>dUtMr oZdS>,
Xm{fXe©Z hr ‡{_mXamZ| d ghmZw^yVrZ| H$ÈZ oQ>iH$mß]‘b AZmXa oZ_m©U hm{Uma
Zmht `mMr K{Vb{br XjVm, [ydm©`wÓ`mßVrb Ò_•oV gmßJVmZm Ï`o∫$-‡gßJmßM{ `WmVœ`
VQ>ÒW[U{ Xe©Z-oMÃU dmMH$mßMr CÀHß$Q>m H$m`_ R>{dUmar H$bmÀ_H$ dU©Z e°br
`m JwUmß_wi{ oQ>iH$m߇_mU|M hm b˙_r]mB™¿`moh Ï`o∫$_ŒdodH$mgmMm Amb{I
]Zbm Amh{, Agm Ao^‡m`.
oQ>iH$ A. X{. : ‡ÒVmdZm Ò_•oVoMÃ| Ao^Zd Amd•Œmr 1973. gß[m. A.X{.
oQ>iH$, ZmoeH$ , 1973 : 3-18
Ò_•oVoMÃmßMm d `© Zm. dm. oQ>iH$ `mßM{ Ï`o∫$Àd AmpÀ_H$ ‡dmg hm _ybV:
_Zm{d{YH$ d ZmQ>Á[yU© odf` AmoU À`mßVrb ZmQ>Á d AX≤^wVVm AMyH$ oQ>[yZ
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 748$&&

K{Umar b˙_r]mB™Mr Ao¤Vr` e°br Aer Ò_•oVoMÃmß¿`m `emMr _r_mßgm H$Í$Z;
AmÀ_d•Œm `m dmL≤>_`‡H$mam¿`m gÀ`Xe©Zm¿`m H$mßht AßJ^yV _`m©Xm Amh{V À`m
^Í$Z H$mT> `mgmR>r gß[mXZ AmdÌ`H$ Aer ^yo_H$m Ò[Ô> H{$br Amh{. hm gß[mXZ
h{Vw _ZmV R>{dyZ Ò_•oVoMÃmßV Amb{Î`m dmÒVdmMr Xwgar ]mOy XmIdU{, À`mda
AoYH$ ‡H$me Q>mH$U| dm ÃwQ>r ^ÈZ H$mT>U| `mgmR>r AoYH$ V[erb X{UmË`m,
_V^{X Zm|XdUmË`m od[wb Q>r[oQ>[Ur J´ßWmV oXÎ`m Amh{V.
^mb{ a md od_b : AmYwoZH$ _amR>r dmL≤>_`mVrb oÛ`mßMr AmÀ_MnaÃ| EH$ A‰`mg - 1910-1975. gmohÀ` ‡gma H|$–, ZmJ[ya, 1986, [•. 66-73,
168, 203-206
_ZmMm _m{R>{[Um H$Zdmiy[Um, H•$VkVm]wo’, odZ_´Vm, Òdmo^_mZr[Um,
l’merbVm, oZamJg d AH•$oÃ_ odZm{X]wo’ `m JwUmßZr `w∫$ b˙_r]mB™M| Ï`o∫$Àd
À`mß¿`m obImUmßV ‡oVq]o]V Pmb{ Amh{. À`mßZr VÀH$mbrZ g_mOpÒWVrM| Xe©Zoh
KS>db{b{ Amh{. oQ>iH$mßM{ ‡{_i, bhar, odoj·, CXma, gßVm[r, [am{[H$mar Ag{
JwUXm{f`w∫$ Ï`o∫$ŒdXe©Z KS>odVmZm K{Vb{bm H$m°VwH$`w∫$, ‡{_m¿`m gˆX`V{¿`m
—oÔ>H$m{ZmßVyZ À`mßMr [oV^o∫$, [oVl’m d [oVoZ>m OmUdV{.
_{h|Xi{ C¡dbm : _amR>rVrb oÛ`mßMr AmÀ_MnaÃ{ ( B.g. 1910 V{ 1982),
(A[´H$moeV ‡]ßY) lr. Zm. Xm. R>mH$agr od⁄m[rR>, _wß]B©, 1985,
[•. 27-29, 35-36, 249-267.
Ò_•oVoMÃmßVrb H$WZe°brM{ odõ{fU H$aVmßZm ‡gßJmßM| Xw]{ Om{S>Uma{ oZd{XZ,
X°ZßoXZr, [Ã|, H$odVm B. ¿`m C[`m{JmßVrb Am°oMÀ` `mßMm odMma. g_mOoMÃUmMr
d°oeÔ>`| Vg|M Ò_•oVoMÃmßMr dmL≤>_`rZ g_rjm H$aVmßZm b{oIH{$Mr gßd{XZerbVm,
AZw^dmßVyZ gÀ`em{YZ H$a `mMr d•oŒm, e°brMr d°oeÔ>`|, JVOrdZmbm EH$
gwgßJV AmH$ma X{ `mMm ‡`ÀZ B. JwUmßM{ odd{MZ.
`mXd g. Am. : _hmH$odo`Ãr b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$ ( 1868-1938), o‡`Xeu
‡H$meZ, H$m{Îhm[ya, 1988: 82
b˙_r]mB™¿`m H$mÏ`odf`H$ VŒdkmZmM| odd{MZ. À`mß¿`m H$odVmßMr AmÀ_[a,
gm_moOH$, dÀgb Aer od^mJUr H$ÈZ `m H$odVm ÂhUO{ [⁄È[ AmÀ_MnaÃM
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 749$&&

AgÎ`mMm Ao^‡m`. Vg|M "oºÒVm`Z' `m H$mÏ`mMr odÒV•V g_rjm.
amdV{ J. H$m. : _amR>r MnaÃ-_ybVŒd| d g_rjm gam{O amdV{, _wß]B© h{ [wÒVH$
EH$mMd{ir ZdË`mM| Mnaà d ]m`H$m{M{ AmÀ_Mnaà Amh{. À`mß¿`m Ï`o∫$_Œdm¿`m
g_j [°byßM{ Vg{M C^`Vmß¿`m odH$gZerb , ‡JÎ^ hm{V OmUmË`m Ï`o∫$_ŒdmßM{
Xe©Z `{W| hm{V|. b˙_r]mB™¿`m bmobÀ`[yU© H$WZe°br_wi{, Ûrgwb^ oOdßV
]m{bm^mf{_wi{ `mbm H$W{M| [na_mU bm^b| Amh{. Mnaà hr EH$ dmL≤>_`rZ H•$oV
Amh{. `m _yÎ`odMmam¿`m `m H•$VrZ{ Am[Î`m AßJ^yV JwUmßZr ]iH$Q>r AmUbr
Amh{.
dmK_ma{ odZm`H$ : Ò_•oVoMÃ{ ([w[) A_•V, Oy. 74 : 158-161
"Ò_• o VoMÃ{ ' `m J´ ß W mMr _w b ^y V _hŒmm _m›` H$ÈZoh AmÀ_MnaÃmß V
"A[nahm`©[U{' `{Umam EH$mßJr[Um d gÀ`Xe©ZmMm A[wa{[Um `m ÃwoQ> `{VmV Ag|
_V Ï`∫$ H$ÈZ `m ÃwoQ> ^ÈZ H$mT> `mgmR>r ZdrZ Amd•ŒmtV A. X{. oQ>iH$ `mßZr
H{$b{Î`m [´`ÀZmßMm AmoU Hw$eb d gˆ⁄ gß[mXZmMm Jm°ad.
d°⁄ gam{oOZr : Ò_•oVoMÃ{ _mVr AmoU _yVu, _∞O{pÒQ>H$ ]wH$ ÒQ>m∞b, _wß]B©
1975. 91-103
Ï`o∫$oZÔ>, MnaÃmÀ_H$ KQ>Zmß¿`m ]ßYZmßVyZ gwQy>Z Ò_•oVoMÃ| hr b˙_r]mB™¿`moh
ZH$iV EH$ ÒdVßÃ, Òd`ß[yU© bobVH•$oV ]Zbr Amh{. h| bmobÀ` H$g| ‡m·
Pmb| `mMr _r_mßgm H$aVmZm b{oIH{$¿`m g^m{dVmbM| dmL≤>_`rZ dmVmdaU,
AZw^dmet gdm™JmZ{ g_ag hm{ `mMr ghOd•oŒm, _w∫$ _Z, "`emVœ`' dU©Z
H$a `mMr ‡{aUm OrdZodf`rMr C[OV Im{b g_O, gßd{XZerbVm AmoU ododY
ZmQ>Á[yU© ‡gßJmßZm Vm|S> X{VmßZm Amb{bm AmÀ_odúmg `m JwUmßMm [na[m{f À`mß¿`m
b{IZmßV H$gm oXgVm{ `mßM{ odd{MZ. `m‡_mU{M b˙_r]mB© OmUrd[yd©H$,
]wo’[waÒga b{IZ H$È bmJÎ`mda oVgË`m IßS>mßV Amb{Î`m H$bmhrZV{Mmoh
CÑ{I H{$bm Amh{.
d°⁄ gam{oOZr : "Ò_•oVoMÃmß'Mr Ao^Zd Amd•Œmr ([w[) _mVr AmoU _yVu,
_∞O{pÒQ>H$ ]wH$ ÒQ>m∞b, _wß]B© - 1975 : 104-108.
A. X{. oQ>iH$ `mß¿`m gß[mXZm_mJrb ^yo_H{$et _V^{X _yi Ò_•oVoMÃmßZm
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 750$&&

[yaH$ Aer _mohVr X{ `mZ| \$mag| H$mßhr gmYb{ Zmhr. À`mE{dOr ZdrZ C[b„Y
H$mJX[Ãmß¿`m AmYma| gß[mXH$mßZr ZdrZ gmYma MnaÃM og’ H$amd`mßg [mohO{
hm{V|, Agm Ao^‡m`.
oeadmS>H$a od. dm : Ò_•oVoMÃ| ‡ÒVmdZm. "Ò_•oVoMÃ{' Ao^Zd Amd•oŒm
1973 : 38
("Ò_•oVoMÃ|' ^mJ 4 Wm, Am. 2, 1956 `m gßj{[ H{$b{Î`m Amd•ŒmrMr
‡ÒVmdZm )
AZmg∫$ ]w’rZ{ H$V©Ï` H$arV amh `mMr oZ>m AmoU XmQ> H$mim{Imbmoh gm{Z{ar
oH$Zma bmdUmar odZm{Xd•oŒm `m b˙_r]mB™¿`m Xm{Z JwUmßMm oZX}e. [Vr¿`m _•À`yZßVa
ÒdV:¿`m ÒdVßà ApÒVÀdmMm d gm_œ`m©Mm Pmb{bm gmjmÀH$ma d À`mZßVaMm
OrdZ‡H$me `m Mm°œ`m ^mJmßV doU©b{bm Amh{. e{dQ>¿`m H$mimßV À`mß¿`m
b{ IZmbm, Ï`mgß Jmbm, d∫• $Àdmbm ode{ f ^a Amb{ bm hm{ V m. ‡ÒVmdZ| V
[wÒVH$m¿`m agJ´hUm]am{]aM `m AI{a¿`m H$mbIßS>mM{ ode{f oMÃU.
e{I, _ra BghmH$ : b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$mßMr Ò_•oVoMÃ{ : EH$ qMVZ, [´oV_m
‡H$meZ, [wU{, 1987 : 102.
"Ò_•oVoMÃ{' `m AmÀ_MnaÃmMm dmL≤>_`rZ d gm_moOH$ Aem C^`odY
—oÔ>H$m{ Z mß V y Z H{ $ b{ b m oMoH$ÀgH$ A‰`mg. Ò_• o VoMÃmß M r Aß V J© V aMZm,
‡gßJoZo_©Vr, Ï`o∫$oMÃU, dmL≤>_`rZ ÒdÈ[ Vg{M À`m_YyZ hm{Uma{ g_mOXe©Z
`mß]‘b b{IH$mZ{ V[erbdma odÒV•V odd{MZ H{$b{ Amh{.
gaX{gmB© a. Jm{. : b˙_r-Zmam`U - Am_Mm gßgma, Jß. [mß. [aMwa{ ‡H$meZ
_ßoXa, _wß]B©, 1948 : 37-53
(_yi b{IZ - ]m`H$mß¿`m —oÔ>H$m{ZmßVyZ Zda{' `m b{I_mb|V - b˙_rZmam`U
hßg \{$ 48 : 9-14)
Ò_•oVoMÃmß"V b˙_r]mB™Zr oQ>iH$mß¿`m JwUXm{fmßM{ `WmVœ` oMÃU H{$b{ [U
V{ AßoV_V : oQ>iH$mßZm Wm{a _mZyZ - ^o∫$^md[yd©H$, ghmZw^yVrZ|, ‡{_mXamZ{
!gaX{gmB™Zr _mà Ò_•oVoMÃmßVrb CVmË`mß¿`m AmYma| [oV ÂhUyZ oQ>iH$mßM{ H$mßhr
Xm{f CXm. [ÀZr]m]V ‡{_ gZmVZr daMÓ_mdmXr —oÔ>H$m{Z, gohÓUwV{Mm A^md,
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 751$&&

[Vr¿`m _m{R>{[Um]‘b gße` B. XmIdyZ oXb{ Amh{V.
gadQ>{ od. gr. : _amR>r gmohÀ`-g_mbm{MZ IßS> 3 Mnaà 1918, 1965 :
198-200
Mmaoh ^mJmßVrb H$W{Mm gmamße .
b˙_r]mB© oQ>iH$ - gmohÀ` gß[Xm
oQ>iH$, b˙_r]mB© - Ò_•oVoMÃ|
1. ‡W_ ‡H$meZ - ^mJ 1 : 1934 : ^mJ 2 : 1935: ^mJ 3 : 1936 ^mJ
4:
1937. 1953 [`™V gmV Amd•Œ`m.
2. gßoj· Amd•oŒm, H{$. o^. T>di{, _wß]B© 1940
3. gßoj· Amd•oŒm, gmohÀ` AH$mX_r, _wß]B© - 1958, 1968.
4. Ao^Zd Amd•oŒm, 1973, gß[m. A. X{. oQ>iH$
gß[yU© 1,2,3,4, ^mJ, [naoeÔ>{ d odf`oZX}egyMr Q>r[m, ViQ>r[m, ‡[yaH{$
B. _mJm™Zr AoYH$ _mohVr [wadb{br.
5) daXm ‡H$meZ, [wU|.
BßJ´Or ^mfmßVa (First Part only)
I follow After. tr. by E. Josephine Inkster.
Oxford University Press London. 1950 (published in
India by Geoffrey Cumberledge. Oxford University Press.
Madras)

pp : 353
oQ>iH$ b˙_r]mB© : ^abr KmJa, H{$. o^. T>di{, _wß]B© - 1948.
Zm. dm. oQ>iH$ d b˙_r]mB© : oºÒVm[Z
gßH$bZ : gwYm ^Q>
&& Ò_•oVoMÃ|$- [naoeÔ>{ && 752$&&

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