P. 1
Midterm A Solutions S10

# Midterm A Solutions S10

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11/15/2012

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# 62–216–01

Midterm 1 (a) Solutions

1. (5 marks) Determine a region of the xy-plane for which the initial value problem √ y − xy = 0; y(−1) = −2 would have a unique solution. Justify your answer. √ Solution. y − xy = 0 Therefore we have ⇒ y = √ xy √ xy. and 1 ∂f = ∂y 2 x y

f (x, y) =

f (x, y) and ∂f are continuous when y = 0 and either both x and y are positive or ∂y negative. The initial condition is y(−1) = −2. Since x0 and y0 are both negative, the given IVP will have a unique solution in the region {(x, y)|x < 0, y < 0}. This is the largest region of uniqueness, one smaller region will be {(x, y)| − 2 < x < 0, −3 < y < −1}. 2. (9 marks) Solve the diﬀerential equation by using an appropriate substitution dy = y(xy 3 − 1) dx
dy dy Solution. dx = y(xy 3 − 1) ⇒ dx + y = xy 4 . This is Bernoulli’s equation with n = 4 so we take u = y 1−n = y 1−4 = y −3 , where y = 0. 1 dy 1 4 du y = u− 3 ⇒ = − u− 3 dx 3 dx Substituting these values in the Bernoulli’s equation, we obtain
1 4 1 4 du − u− 3 + u− 3 = xu− 3 3 dx du 4 Multiplying by −3u 3 , we obtain − 3u = −3x dx This is a linear equation and the integrating factor is

(1)

I.F. = e

R

P (x) dx

= e−

R

3 dx

= e−3x

Multiplying equation (1) by e−3x , we obtain du d −3x − 3e−3x u = −3xe−3x ⇒ (e u) = −3xe−3x dx dx Integrating both sides with respect to x, we obtain e−3x e
−3x

e−3x u = −3[x − −3

e−3x e−3x e−3x −3x dx] ⇒ e u = −3[x − ]+c −3 −3 −3(−3) e−3x 1 + c] ⇒ u = x + + ce3x 3 3

⇒ u = e3x [xe−3x + Replacing u by y −3 , we obtain

1 1 1 + ce3x or y = [x + + ce3x ]− 3 3 3 y = 0 is also a solution of the diﬀerential equation.

y −3 = x +

1

so the integrating factor is µ(x) = e Alternatively.3. y) = Also ∂f =N ∂y ⇒ x2 + x sin y + g(y) 2 x cos y + g (y) = x cos y + ln y ⇒ g (y) = ln y Integrating by parts. Now ∂f =M ∂x ⇒ ∂f = x + sin y ∂x Integrating partially with respect to x we obtain f (x. the given equation is not an exact equation. (a) M = x + sin y and N = x cos y + ln y. cos xdx + (1 + 2y) sin xdy = 0 Do not solve the resulting equation Solution. y) = c ⇒ x2 + x sin y + y ln y − y = c 2 (b) The given equation is cos xdx + (1 + 2y) sin xdy = 0 M = cos x and N = (1 + 2y) sin x My = 0 and Nx = (1 + 2y) cos x Since My = Nx . (12 marks) (a) Determine whether the given diﬀerential equation is exact. y) = x + x sin y + y ln y − y and the solution of the given equation is 2 f (x. My = cos y and Nx = cos y Since My = Nx . then solve it. (b) Find an appropriate integrating factor to make the following equation exact. 2 So f (x. Now My − Nx 0 − (1 + 2y) cos x cos x = =− N (1 + 2y) sin x sin x This is function of x only. (x + sin y)dx + (x cos y + ln y)dy = 0. 2 . so the integrating factor is µ(y) = e R (1+2y) dy = ey+y 2 We can use any of the integrating factor to make the equation exact. If it is exact. R x − cos x dx sin = e− ln | sin x| = eln | csc x| = | csc x| Nx − My (1 + 2y) cos x − 0 = = 1 + 2y M cos x This is function of y only. we obtain g(y) = y ln y − y. the given equation is an exact equation.

Brine solution containing 3 pounds of salt per gallons is pumped into the tank at a rate of 6 gal/min. The well mixed solution is then pumped out at a rate of 8 gal/min. Given equation can be written as 2ydy dx = y2 − 1 (x − x2 ) ⇒ 2ydy dx = y2 − 1 x(1 − x) provided x = 0.F.4. and y = ±1. (8 marks) A large tank is partially ﬁlled with 600 gallons of ﬂuid in which 12 pounds of salt is dissolved. x Note that we have excluded the case y = 1 and y = −1 in the process of solving the above solution. This is a separable diﬀerential equation and now we integrate both sides 2ydy dx = 2−1 y x(1 − x) 2ydy dx dx = + (using partial fraction) 2−1 y x 1−x ln |y 2 − 1| = ln |x| − ln |1 − x| + c ln |y 2 − 1| − ln |x| + ln |1 − x| = c (y 2 − 1)(1 − x) ln =c x (y 2 − 1)(1 − x) = ec x 2 (y − 1)(1 − x) = ±ec = c1 . Solution. Find the number of pounds of salt present in the tank at any time t. The diﬀerential equation is dA = Rin − Rout dt 8A 4A 8A = = Now Rin = (3)(6) = 18 and Rout = 600 + (6 − 8)t 600 − 2t 300 − t Thus the diﬀerential equation is 4A dA 4A dA = 18 − ⇒ + = 18 dt 300 − t dt 300 − t I. = e R 4 300−t (1) dt = e−4 ln |300−t| = (300 − t)−4 3 . Solution. x = 1. we see that y = 1 and y = −1 are also solutions of the given diﬀerential equation. where c1 = ±ec . Let A(t) be the amount of salt in the tank at any time t. (7 marks) Solve the diﬀerential equation: (y 2 − 1)dx + 2(x2 − x)ydy = 0. 5. If we substitute y = 1 or y = −1 into the original equation (y 2 − 1)dx + 2(x2 − x)ydy = 0. (0 ≤ t ≤ 300).

In order to use the formula. Determine whether f1 and f2 are linearly independent on the interval (−∞.. Find a second solution y2 of the equation which is linearly independent of y1 . then y = u + u ln x and y = − x2 + 2u x + u ln x. we obtain u u ln x + 2 − + 2u + u x ln x + + u ln x = 0 ⇒ u + u =0 x x x ln x 4 .Multiplying Equation (1) by I. let y = u ln x. also we have not written ln |x| for 1 the integral of x because we are given that y = ln x is a solution which means that −1 x > 0. (9 marks) (a) Given f1 (x) = cos 2x and f2 (x) = sin 2x. Now the second solution is y2 = ln x ln x = −1 or we can say that y2 = 1. x Substituting these values in the given equation xy + y = 0. (a) The Wronskian of the functions f1 and f2 is W (cos 2x. sin 2x) = cos 2x sin 2x −2 sin 2x 2 cos 2x = 2 cos2 2x + 2 sin2 2x = 2 = 0 for every x. u 1 Alternatively. (b) We know that the second solution will be y2 = uy1 = u ln x. ∞).00000022 (300)4 The amount of salt in the tank at time t is A = 6(300−t)−0. we rewrite the given equation as 1 y + y =0 x So P (x) = 1 x and the formula for u gives u= = e− R P (x)dx 2 y1 1 dx = e − x dx dx = (ln x)2 1 −1 dx = 2 x(ln x) ln x R 1 e− ln x dx (ln x)2 eln x dx = (ln x)2 The integral is found by substituting w = ln x.00000022(300−t)4 6. so we have 12 = 6(300) + c(300)4 ⇒ c = −1788 = −0. Justify your answer. we have (300 − t)−4 dA 4A + (300 − t)−4 = 18(300 − t)−4 dt 300 − t d [(300 − t)−4 A] = 18(300 − t)−4 dt 18(300 − t)−3 (300 − t)−4 A = +c (−3)(−1) A = 6(300 − t) + c(300 − t)4 We are given that A(0) = 12. (b) Given that y1 (x) = ln x is a solution of diﬀerential equation xy + y = 0. Solution.F. We can ﬁnd u by the formula or by substituting y2 into the given equation. We conclude that the given functions are linearly independent.

then u = w .F. we obtain x(ln x)2 w = c ⇒ w = c Since w = u .Let u = w. we have u = x(ln x)2 . we obtain x(ln x)2 w + ln x(ln x + 2)w = 0 ⇒ d (x(ln x)2 w) = 0 dx c . = e R ln x+2 dx x ln x ln x + 2 w=0 x ln x R =e R 2 [ xln xx + x ln x dx] ln =e 1 2 [ x + x ln x dx] = eln x+2 ln | ln x| = eln[x(ln x) ] = x(ln x)2 2 Multiplying by the integrating factor. and the above equation becomes a linear equation in w. x(ln x)2 Integrating with respect to x. we obtain u= −c + c1 ln x 1 ln x Choosing c = −1 and c1 = 0. we have u = 1 y2 = u ln x = ln x ln x = 1. and therefore the second solution is 5 . w + The integrating factor is I. Integrating.

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