®

FLOWMASTER
USER ’S GUIDE

DAA038680-1/0001

Copyright © 1986-2009 Haestad Methods, Inc. All rights reserved. FlowMaster User’s Guide. This documentation is published by Haestad Methods, Inc. (“Haestad”), and is intended solely for use in conjunction with Haestad’s software. This documentation is available to all current Licensees in print and electronic format. No one may copy, photocopy, reproduce, translate, or convert to any electronic or machine-readable form, in whole or in part, the printed documentation without the prior written approval of Haestad. Licensee may download the electronic documentation from Haestad’s web site and make that documentation available solely on licensee’s intranet. Licensee may print the electronic documentation, in part or in whole, for personal use. No one may translate, alter, sell, or make available the electronic documentation on the Internet, transfer the documentation by FTP, or display any of the documentation on any web site without the prior written approval of Haestad. Trademarks The following are registered trademarks of Haestad Methods, Inc.: ClientCare, CulvertMaster, Cybernet, FlowMaster, PondPack, SewerCAD, StormCAD, and WaterCAD. The following are trademarks of Haestad Methods, Inc.: Darwin, DrainageMaster, FlowMaster, HECPack, POND-2, Graphical HEC-1, Graphical HEC-Pack, PondGEMS, and WaterGEMS. Haestad Methods is a registered tradename of Haestad Methods, Inc. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. ESRI is a registered trademark of Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, Visual Studio, Word, and Excel, are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. SentinelLM is a trademark of Rainbow Technologies, Inc. All other brands, company or product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders. Portions of this document include intellectual property of ESRI and its licensor(s) and are used herein under license. Copyright © 1999-2002 ESRI and its licensor(s). All rights reserved.

37 Brookside Road Waterbury, CT 06708-1499 USA Phone: +1-203-755-1666 Fax: +1-203-597-1488 E-mail: info@haestad.com Internet: http://www.haestad.com

Contents
Chapter 1: Orientation
What’s New in FlowMaster? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Using the FlowMaster Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Minimum System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Installing FlowMaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Installing FlowMaster on a Single Computer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 Installing FlowMaster for Deployment Across a Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 Installing SentinelLM™ License Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 Using SentinelLM License Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 Uninstalling FlowMaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8 How Do I?—Frequently Asked Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 Contacting Haestad Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 SUPPORT HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11 Haestad Methods’ Workshops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11 Your Suggestions Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11

1

Chapter 2: Tutorials

13

Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 Tutorial 1—Creating a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 Tutorial 2—Gradually Varied Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18 Tutorial 3—Results Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21

Chapter 3: FlowMaster Environment

27

Welcome Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28 Main Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28 Project Explorer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28 Project Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29

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Engineering Library Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30 Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31 Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-35 Create New Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-37 Channel Worksheet Dialog Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-38 Rectangular Channel Dialog Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-39 UNIFORM FLOW TAB—RECTANGULAR CHANNEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-39 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW TAB—RECTANGULAR CHANNEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-40 Triangular Channel Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-42 UNIFORM FLOW TAB—TRIANGULAR CHANNEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-42 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW TAB—TRIANGULAR CHANNEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-43 Trapezoidal Channel Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44 UNIFORM FLOW TAB—TRAPEZOIDAL CHANNEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-45 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW TAB—TRAPEZOIDAL CHANNEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-46 Gutter Section Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-47 Irregular Section Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-48 UNIFORM FLOW TAB—IRREGULAR SECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-49 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW TAB—IRREGULAR SECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-50 Parabolic Channel Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-51 UNIFORM FLOW TAB—PARABOLIC CHANNEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-52 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW TAB—PARABOLIC CHANNEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-53 Pipe Worksheet Dialog Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-54 Pressure Pipe Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-55 Circular Pipe Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-56 UNIFORM FLOW TAB—CIRCULAR PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-57 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW TAB—CIRCULAR PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-58 Box Pipe Worksheet Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-59 UNIFORM FLOW TAB—BOX PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-60 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW TAB—BOX PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-61 Elliptical Pipe Section Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-62 UNIFORM FLOW TAB—ELLIPTICAL PIPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-62 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW TAB—ELLIPTICAL PIPE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-64 Weir Worksheet Dialog Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-65 Rectangular Weir Dialog Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-65 V-Notch Weir Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-66 Cipoletti Weir Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-67 Broad Crested Weir Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-68 Generic Weir Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-69 Orifice Worksheet Dialog Boxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-70 Rectangular Orifice Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-70 Circular Orifice Dialog Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-71 Generic Orifice Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-72 Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-72 Grate Inlet in Sag Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-73

Contents-ii

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GUTTER TAB—GRATE INLET IN SAG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GRATE TAB—GRATE INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTPUT—GRATE INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grate Inlet on Grade Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUTTER TAB—GRATE INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GRATE TAB—GRATE INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTPUT—GRATE INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curb Inlet in Sag Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUTTER TAB—CURB INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURB TAB—CURB INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTPUT—CURB INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curb Inlet on Grade Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUTTER TAB—CURB INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURB TAB—CURB INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTPUT—CURB INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ditch Inlet in Sag Dialog Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DITCH TAB—DITCH INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GRATE TAB—DITCH INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTPUT—DITCH INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ditch Inlet on Grade Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DITCH TAB—DITCH INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GRATE TAB—DITCH INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTPUT—DITCH INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slotted Drain Inlet in Sag Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUTTER TAB—SLOTTED DRAIN INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLOT TAB—SLOTTED DRAIN INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTPUT—SLOTTED DRAIN INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slotted Drain Inlet on Grade Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUTTER TAB—SLOTTED DRAIN INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLOT TAB—SLOTTED DRAIN INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTPUT—SLOTTED DRAIN INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combination Inlet in Sag Dialog Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUTTER TAB—COMBINATION INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INLET TAB—COMBINATION INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GRATE TAB—COMBINATION INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURB TAB—COMBINATION INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTPUT—COMBINATION INLET IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combination Inlet on Grade Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUTTER TAB—COMBINATION INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INLET TAB—COMBINATION INLET ON GRADE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GRATE TAB—COMBINATION INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURB TAB—COMBINATION INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTPUT—COMBINATION INLET ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-73 3-74 3-74 3-75 3-76 3-76 3-77 3-78 3-78 3-79 3-79 3-80 3-80 3-80 3-81 3-81 3-82 3-82 3-83 3-84 3-84 3-84 3-85 3-86 3-87 3-87 3-87 3-88 3-88 3-89 3-89 3-90 3-90 3-91 3-91 3-92 3-92 3-93 3-93 3-94 3-94 3-95 3-95

Combination Inlet Options Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-96 Rating Table Setup Dialog Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-97 Rating Table Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-97

FlowMaster User’s Guide

Contents-iii

Rating Curve Setup Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-98 Rating Curve Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-98 Cross Section Report Setup Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-99 Cross Section Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-99 Irregular Section Editor Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-99 Weighted Roughness Method Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-100 Open and Closed Channel Weighting Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-100 Note to HEC-2, WSP-2, and WSPRO Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-103 FlexUnits Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-103 Project Properties Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-104 GVF Profile Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-105 GVF Profile Table Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-105 Tabular Reports Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-106 Print Preview Dialog Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-106 Set Field Options Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-107

Chapter 4: How Do I…

109

Create A New Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-110 Creating a New Project From the Welcome Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-110 Creating a New Project from the Main Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-110 Open an Existing Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-111 Create a New Worksheet? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-111 Name a Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-112 Edit a Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-112 Create a Rating Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-113 Plot Rating Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-114 Plot a Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-115 Print a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-115 Set Field Options (Unit, Precision, Format) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-116 Save a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-116 Exit FlowMaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-116

Chapter 5: FlowMaster Theory

117

Uniform Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-117 Manning’s Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-119 Kutter’s Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-119

Contents-iv

FlowMaster User’s Guide

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-134 Supercritical Flow. . 5-139 SEALING (SURCHARGING) CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-127 KUTTER ’S EQUATION . . . . . . . . . . . 5-126 ENERGY GRADE . . . . . 5-133 UNIFORM FLOW AND NORMAL DEPTH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-139 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-141 Sharp-Crested Weirs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-144 SUBMERGED SHARP-CRESTED WEIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-125 HYDRAULIC GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-128 MANNING’S EQUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-135 Energy Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-124 THE ENERGY EQUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-143 CIPOLLETTI SHARP-CRESTED WEIR . . . 5-131 COLEBROOK-WHITE EQUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-145 Non-Sharp-Crested Weirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CRITICAL DEPTH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-129 SWAMEE AND JAIN EQUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-139 Mixed Flow Profiles . . . . . . . 5-122 Basic Concepts of Critical Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-133 Subcritical Flow . . 5-135 Hydraulically Mild Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-141 Weir Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-133 CRITICAL FLOW. . . . . 5-146 FlowMaster User’s Guide Contents-v . . . . . . . 5-135 Profile Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-124 Hydraulic and Energy Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-134 Hydraulically Steep Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hazen-Williams Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-139 DIRECT STEP METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-131 HAZEN-WILLIAMS EQUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-134 Gradually Varied Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-134 Slope Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-121 Critical Flow . . . 5-128 DARCY-WEISBACH EQUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-142 V-NOTCH SHARP-CRESTED WEIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-138 STANDARD STEP METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-140 Frontwater Analysis. . . . . . 5-126 Friction Loss Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-127 CHÉZY’S EQUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-126 HGL CONVERGENCE TEST. . . . . . . . . 5-135 Critical Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-132 Flow Regime . . . . . . 5-132 PRESSURE FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-135 Zone Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-120 Darcy-Weisbach Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-139 Backwater Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-124 THE ENERGY PRINCIPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND CRITICAL SLOPE. . . . . . . . 5-141 RECTANGULAR SHARP-CRESTED WEIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-152 COMPOSITE GUTTER SECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-151 HEC-22 Inlet Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-149 Orifice Coefficients. . . . . . . . . . . . 6-177 Curb and Gutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-151 Inlet Hydraulics . . . . . . . . 5-167 TRANSITION FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-150 Hydraulic Grade and Energy Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-164 Curb Inlet in Sag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-156 Inlet Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-168 WEIR FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-149 Pressure Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-174 Surface Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-146 TRIANGULAR AND TRAPEZOIDAL WEIR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BROAD-CRESTED WEIR . . . . . . . . . . . .6-175 Hydroplaning . . . . . . . 5-168 ORIFICE FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-148 Orifice Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-149 SLUICE GATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-170 Chapter 6: Pavement Drainage 171 Design Frequency and Spread . . 5-169 EQUAL LENGTH INLETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-152 UNIFORM GUTTER CROSS SLOPE . . . . . . . . . . . 5-166 ORIFICE FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-165 WEIR FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-178 Roadside and Median Channels . . . . . 6-172 Selection of Check Storm and Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-169 SWEEPER INLET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-179 Bridge Decks . . . . . 5-157 INLETS ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-163 Combination Inlet on Grade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-175 Longitudinal Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-169 Combination Inlet in Sag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-154 Flow in Ditch or Median Section on Grade . . 5-169 TRANSITIONAL FLOW . 5-152 Flows in Gutters on Grade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-161 Slot Inlet on Grade. . 5-159 Curb Inlet on Grade . . . . . 5-168 Slot Inlet in Sag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-172 Selection of Design Frequency and Design Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-176 Cross (Transverse) Slope . . . . . . . . . . . 5-164 Grate Inlet in Sag. . . . . . . . . 5-163 INLETS IN SAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-180 Contents-vi FlowMaster User’s Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-158 Grate Inlet on Grade . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-224 Combination Inlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURB-OPENING INLETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-184 CONVENTIONAL GUTTERS WITH CURVED SECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-189 V-SECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-262 FlowMaster User’s Guide Contents-vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-189 CIRCULAR SECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-199 Characteristics and Uses of Inlets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-199 Inlet Capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-183 CONVENTIONAL GUTTERS OF UNIFORM CROSS SLOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-225 Interception Capacity of Inlets in Sag Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Bridge Inlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FLANKING INLETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMBINATION INLETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-192 Flow in Sag Vertical Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-197 Drainage Inlet Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-181 Conventional Curb and Gutter Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-198 Inlet Types . . . . 6-207 FACTORS AFFECTING INLET INTERCEPTION CAPACITY IN SAG LOCATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 6-195 Gutter Flow Time. . . . . INLET SPACING ON CONTINUOUS GRADES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-219 SLOTTED INLETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-181 Flow in Gutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMBANKMENT INLETS . . . . 6-213 GRATE INLETS . . . . . . . 6-209 Interception Capacity of Inlets on Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-181 Capacity Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-183 COMPOSITE GUTTER SECTIONS . . 6-229 6-230 6-232 6-239 6-241 6-242 6-242 6-252 6-255 6-255 6-261 Grate Type Selection Considerations . . . . . . . . MEDIAN AND ROADSIDE DITCH INLETS . . . . . . . . . Inlet Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-213 CURB-OPENING INLETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-189 Shallow Swale Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Embankment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GRATE INLETS . . . . . . . 6-209 COMPARISON OF INTERCEPTION CAPACITY OF INLETS ON GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-200 FACTORS AFFECTING INTERCEPTION CAPACITY AND EFFICIENCY ON CONTINUOUS GRADES . . . . .Median Barriers . . . . . . . 6-194 Relative Flow Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . Median. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-180 Impact Attenuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GEOMETRIC CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8-301 Index 303 Contents-viii FlowMaster User’s Guide . . .8-295 Roughness Values—Manning’s Equation . . . . . .Chapter 7: HEC 22 Charts Chapter 8: Engineer’s Reference 265 295 Energy Equation. . . . . . . . . . .8-298 Roughness Values—Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-296 Roughness Values—Kutter’s Equation . . . . . . .8-300 Roughness Values—Hazen-Williams Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Use Bentley ProjectWise for managed • • access to FlowMaster content within a workgroup.FlowMaster now prompts you to activate the software upon first use of the program. use the online help by either pressing the Help button present in each dialog box. • • Integrated Installation and Activation . sorting and filtering data. or rightclicking anywhere in a dialog box. company name. and copying and pasting data to and from the Windows clipboard.Display the date and time. If you need more information. When you first use Bentley FlowMaster. and other information at the bottom of all reports for a project. Improved Cross Sections . yet so powerful and intuitive that it anticipates your needs without getting in your way. or among collaborating professionals.You can now customize your tabular reports by selecting which columns to include. pressing the F1 key. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 1-1 . Customizable Report Footers . company logo.The cross section for an Irregular Section is now plotted on a grid. At Bentley Systems. Our goal is to make software that is easy to install and use.1 What’s New in Bentley FlowMaster? The following features are new to this release: • Improved Tabular Reporting . changing column labels. we pride ourselves in providing the very best engineering software available. Bentley FlowMaster is a feature-rich program with extensive online documentation. the intuitive interface and interactive dialog boxes will guide you. 1.Chapter Orientation 1 Thank you for purchasing Bentley FlowMaster. across a distributed organization. Integration with Bentley ProjectWise . which provides a level of instruction appropriate to your needs.

Automatically generate profile views from the calculated results of your gradually varied flow analysis. Previously Added to FlowMaster: • • • • • Gradually Varied Flow Analysis .You can now print one or more worksheets from within the Project Explorer.Windows-style Undo and Redo commands ease data entry tasks • • • • • • • • 1-2 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .Work on multiple projects simultaneously and exchange data between them freely using FlowMaster's new Project Explorer. Undo/Redo . customized. and paste commands to quickly manipulate data and share it between worksheets and projects.Open multiple instances of FlowMaster at the same time.Change friction methods from each individual worksheet on-the-fly. allowing you to compare the results using any method. In addition. FlowMaster will retain your settings for future use. and GVF Profile Point dialogs dynamically refresh as data is modified or added. Modeless Dialogs .Add and remove buttons. New Worksheet Types .Use Windows-style cut. You can even create three-dimensional graphs! Project-Specific FlexUnits . there are new menu commands and toolbar buttons. Project Explorer . GVF (Gradually Varied Flow) Profile.Enjoy complete control over practically every facet of your graph's appearance using the new charting module. determine window placement.FlowMaster can now calculate parabolic channels.Interact with multiple open windows. Gradually Varied Flow Profiles . Multiple Concurrent Sessions . Improved User Interface .Retain customized FlexUnits settings for each individual project. and elliptical pipes. without having to close the active one first.What’s New in Bentley FlowMaster? • • Print from the Project Explorer .Cross Section. Auto-Update . box pipes. Customizable Graphs . Customizable User Interface . Cut-Copy-Paste .FlowMaster can now perform gradually varied flow calculations for any free surface flow element. Integrated Friction Methods .Toolbars can now be moved. and enable or disable visibility of toolbars and other interface elements to suit your personal preferences. copy. and docked to any of the four sides of the FlowMaster main window.

We highly recommend running our software on the best system possible to maximize its potential. Our products are designed to perform at optimal levels with a fast CPU and ample amounts of RAM and free disk space. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 1-3 . and so the online content includes information about the Bentley FlowMaster interface. with additional room for data files (at least 60 MB) Windows 2000.1 GHz 64 Megabytes 150 Megabytes of free storage space. Processor: RAM: Hard Disk: Pentium III . Windows XP. 256 colors Operating System: Display: While Bentley Systems Haestad Methods products will perform adequately given the minimum system requirements. performance will only improve with a faster system. 1. there is significantly more content available online than in-print.2. These online resources contain extra information that is useful when you are actually using the software and need contextsensitive assistance or help with the software interface. The online content can also be updated dynamically as we update the software. and delivered to you by download or as part of an updated software version. The online content was designed to provide what you need while you are using the software. We designed the Bentley FlowMaster documentation to provide you content in the best possible way. make sure you use the index or search the online book (.PDF) or online help (. and Windows Vista 800 x 600 resolution.2 Using the Bentley FlowMaster Documentation Note: If you cannot find the information you need.CHM). With this in mind.Orientation 1.1 Minimum System Requirements We recommend the following minimum and recommended system requirements for running Bentley FlowMaster without significant delays.

If this is the case.Using the Bentley FlowMaster Documentation Municipal License Administrator Auto-Configuration At the conclusion of the installation process. Shut down and restart your computer. to automatically detect and set the default configuration for your product. You can see applications currently in use by pressing Ctrl+Shift+Esc in Windows 2000 and Windows XP. Software Updates via the Web and Bentley SELECT Bentley SELECT is the comprehensive delivery and support subscription program that features product updates and upgrades via Web downloads. you may have applications running in the background that make it difficult for software setup and installations to determine the configuration of your current system. Disable any antivirus software that you are running. and if not. Verify that there are no other programs running. Exit any applications that are running. You can also access our KnowledgeBase for answers to your Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). you will need to select which one to use by default. Troubleshooting Due to the multitasking capabilities of Windows. if possible. discounts on training and consulting services. Software updates can be downloaded from our Web site. However. if multiple license configurations are detected on the license server. then exit the License Administrator. The Web site automatically checks to see if your installed version is the latest available. around-the-clock technical support. Try these steps before contacting our technical support staff 1. the Municipal License Administrator will be executed. exclusive licensing options. it provides you with the opportunity to download the correct upgrade to bring it up-todate. each time the product starts. you will see the screen below. Simply press OK to clear the Warning dialog. (You only need to repeat this step if you decide to make a different configuration the default in the future. Note: Your PC must be connected to the Internet to use the Check for Updates button. as well as technical information and support channels. 3. Just click Check for Updates on the toolbar to launch your preferred Web browser and open our Web site. Select one and press Make Default. then press Refresh Configurations to display the list of available configurations. 2. 1-4 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . It’s easy to stay up-todate with the latest advances in our software. and your version of Bentley FlowMaster can then be upgraded to the current version quickly and easily.

you can check your current registration status by opening the About. Click the Contents tab. expiration date. and SELECT Server information. Failure to restart your antivirus software leaves you exposed to potentially destructive computer viruses. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 1-5 .2 Glossary The glossary contains many terms used throughout the application and the online help. The current registration status is also displayed. box from within the software itself. including: user name and company. contact Technical Support. make certain that you restart any antivirus software you have disabled. 1. 4.. The version and build number for Bentley FlowMaster display in the lower-left corner of the About Bentley FlowMaster dialog box. It is a listing of commonly asked questions about Bentley FlowMaster. To use the Glossary: • • Click Help > Contents to open the main Help window. Try running the installation or uninstallation again (without running any other program first). serial number. and click the Glossary bookmark. Select Help > About Bentley FlowMaster. To view your registration information 1. click Help > How Do I? The listing of How Do I? topics appear. feature level.Orientation Caution: After you install Bentley FlowMaster. 1. Click the topic of your choice for a detailed explanation. Checking Your Current Registration Status After you have registered the software. To use How Do I?. license type and check-in status.1 How Do I?—Frequently Asked Questions “How Do I?” is an easily referenced topic in Bentley FlowMaster’s online help.. 2. scroll to the bottom of the bookmarks list. If these steps fail to successfully install or uninstall the product.

if you do need support.Contacting Bentley Systems about Haestad Methods Products 1. our highly-skilled staff offers their services seven days a week and may be contacted by phone. Phone: Fax: Email: RELATED TOPICS • • See “Technical Support” on page 6. +1-203-755-1666 +1-203-597-1488 sales@haestad. 1-6 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .com 1. Please contact your sales representative with any questions regarding Haestad Methods products and prices. • • • • “Sales” on page 1-6 “Technical Support” on page 1-6 “Addresses” on page 1-7 “Your Suggestions Count” on page 1-8 1. and you never have a need for our technical support staff.3. in order to assist our technicians in troubleshooting your problem. fax. to upgrade your Haestad Methods product. Windows ME. When calling for support. please be in front of your computer and have the following information available: • Operating system your computer is running (Windows 98. or need support. or Windows XP).3 Contacting Bentley Systems about Haestad Methods Products Contact Bentley Systems if you want information about Haestad Methods products. Windows 2000. contact our sales team and request information about our Bentley SELECT program.2 Technical Support We hope that everything runs smoothly.1 Sales Bentley Systems’ professional staff is ready to answer your questions. See “Addresses” on page 7. For information on the various levels of support that we offer. Windows NT. However.3. and the Internet.

seven days a week. The build number can be determined by clicking Help > About Bentley FlowMaster. Support Hours Support is available 24 hours a day.3 Addresses Use this address information to contact us: Internet: Email: http://www.com Phone: Fax: Mail: +1-203-755-1666 +1-203-597-1488 Bentley Systems.com support@haestad. The build number is the number in brackets located in the lower-left corner of the dialog box that opens.haestad. please provide additional details as follows so we can provide a timely and accurate response: • • • Company name.3. • • When emailing or faxing for support. address. See “Addresses” on page 7.com 1.Orientation • Name and build number of the Bentley Systems software you are calling about. You can contact our technical support team at: Phone: Fax: Email: +1-203-755-1666 +1-203-597-1488 support@haestad. Incorporated Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 1-7 .LOG and ERROR. Any error messages or other information displayed on your screen.LOG files located in the product directory RELATED TOPICS • • • See “Sales” on page 6.com sales@haestad. A note of exactly what you were doing when you encountered the problem. and phone number A detailed explanation of your concerns The HAESTAD. See “Support Hours” on page 7.com info@haestad.

and our printed manuals. we strive to continually provide you with sophisticated software and documentation. Please let us hear from you! 1-8 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .4 Your Suggestions Count At Bentley Systems. We are very interested in hearing your suggestions for improving our products.Contacting Bentley Systems about Haestad Methods Products Haestad Methods Solution Center Suite 200W 27 Siemon Company Drive Watertown. Your feedback will guide us in developing products that will make you more productive.3. CT 06795 1. our online help system.

and Hazen-Williams. 2. Windows-based program that aids civil engineers with the design and analysis of pipes. ditches. Kutter’s. computing the solution from the parameters you provide. These tutorials provide step-by-step instructions for creating a project. Bentley FlowMaster lets you solve for a variable you select. copied to the Windows clipboard. Bentley FlowMaster computes flows. and generating reports. or printed on any standard printer. There are different worksheets for various structure types. If you need help within the program. entering data in a worksheet. It also utilizes the HEC-22 methodology to perform pavement drainage and inlet flow calculations. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 2-9 . depths and pressures based on several well-known formulas: Darcy-Weisbach. water velocities.1 Overview The purpose of this section is to provide step-by-step tutorials to get you familiar with some of the features and capabilities of Bentley FlowMaster. because of the differing input and output data that is required for each. and more. saved to a file. The tutorials serve as a means to get you started exploring and using the software. weirs. Note: You should follow these tutorials in sequence.Chapter Tutorials 2 Bentley FlowMaster is an easy-to-use. Manning’s.2 Tutorial 1—Creating a New Project Data is entered and calculated in a worksheet. 2. open channels. press F1 to access the context-sensitive online help. The program will also calculate rating tables. These graphs and reports can then be viewed on the screen. and will plot curves and cross sections.

Upon project creation. with the new project loaded. When Bentley FlowMaster opens. The project is also associated with a unit system (FlexUnits). 3. Start Bentley FlowMaster by double-clicking the shortcut on your desktop or by clicking the Bentley FlowMaster command from the Start menu. Click the Create New Project button. and any Notes that go along with the project.Tutorial 1—Creating a New Project Worksheets are contained within an Bentley FlowMaster project. The unit system defines the units and display precision used in the project. 2. The main window opens. 2-10 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . the welcome dialog box appears. A project holds global information such as Project Engineer. the default unit system is used. but this can be modified and saved for use on future projects. 1. Project Location (the location where the project files are stored on your computer). Project Date.

10. 8. note the types of information. Click File > Save As. 7. In the Project Properties dialog box. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 2-11 . 5.Tutorials 4. then click the Ellipses button and select your company’s logo image file. Enter the following information in the Project Properties dialog box: – – – – Enter your name in the Project Engineer field. If you want your company name to appear on the bottom of all reports associated with the project. If you want your company’s logo to appear on the bottom of all reports associated with the project. The Project Date field should already contain today’s date (this information is retrieved from the Windows system calendar and clock—click the down-arrow button to select a different date by using a calendar). then click Trapezoidal Channel. enter some global project information. Click File > Properties. Click File > New > Worksheet. Project File Name contains the path to the directory where the project is saved. – 9. Choose the directory to which the file will be saved and type MyTutorial1 as the name for the project file. Now. enter the company name in the Project Company field. Enter Tutorial Project in the Project Notes field. so you don’t overwrite pre-existing files. Note: We recommend you name the tutorial files you are using differently than any other files in your program directory. 6. click in the Company Logo field. ensure that Open Channels is highlighted in the Categories pane. In the Create New Worksheet dialog box. Click OK. The Save As dialog box opens.

Tutorial 1—Creating a New Project 11. click the Ellipsis (. In the Trapezoidal Channel Worksheet dialog box. 2-12 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .. b.. Click Flood plain. In the Roughness Coefficient field. select Discharge in the Solve For drop-down list. 14. Expand the tree containing all of the available material libraries. Click OK. Select Manning Formula in the Friction Method drop-down list. Expand the HMI Material Library item to see the available materials within the library. 12. a. cultivated to highlight it. c. 13.) button to open the Materials library.

d.75 H:V 5.035 displays in the Roughness Coefficient field.004500 ft/ft 2. 18.21 ft3/sec. Click OK.30 ft 0. Save the project by clicking File > Save As. Enter MyTutorial2 in the File name field. for example). the Materials dialog box closes and a roughness coefficient of 0.50 H:V 0. If needed. 16. 17.00 ft The calculated discharge should be 53. then click Save.Tutorials Note that the lower section of the Materials dialog box is updated with the data that is associated with this material. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 2-13 . Click each of the other input fields in turn and enter the data contained in the following table into the appropriate input fields: Table 2-1: Input Data for Trapezoidal Worksheet (Tutorial 1) Attribute: Channel Slope Normal Depth Left Side Slope Right Side Slope Bottom Width Value: 0. close any open dialog boxes. Note: After you enter the last data into a field (Bottom Width. you have to click in another field or click the Solve button to get the Discharge to refresh and update. 15.

click the Gradually Varied Flow tab.Tutorial 2—Gradually Varied Flow Analysis 2. depth rarely remains the same throughout the length of a channel or pipe. 1. In the Trapezoidal Channel Worksheet dialog box. Gradually varied flow analysis lets you calculate the downstream depth from the length of the channel and the upstream depth. 2-14 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . and. double-click the Trapezoidal Channel item to open the worksheet containing the channel you defined in Tutorial 1.3 Tutorial 2—Gradually Varied Flow Analysis For free-surface flow. If necessary. in the Project Explorer. or to calculate the upstream depth from the length of the channel and the downstream depth. This tutorial is based on the project that was created in “Tutorial 1—Creating a New Project” on page 2-9. 2. open the MyTutorial2 project file that you saved at the end of Tutorial1.

Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 2-15 . The calculated downstream depth should be 2. click the Direction drop-down list and select Given Downstream.Tutorials a.74 ft. Click each of the other input fields in turn and enter the data contained in the following table into the appropriate input fields: Table 2-2: Input Data for Gradually Varied Flow Analysis (Tutorial 2) Attribute Downstream Depth Length Number of Steps Value 3. If needed. Click Solve. b. This drop-down list lets you choose whether you are solving for upstream depth (when Given Downstream is selected) or downstream depth (when Given Upstream is selected).0 ft 100 ft 5 c.

Save the project by clicking File > Save As.Tutorial 2—Gradually Varied Flow Analysis 3. 6. and click Save. Enter MyTutorial3 in the File name field. 2-16 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . close any open dialog boxes. 5. If needed. 4. View the profile of the gradually varied flow analysis: Click Analysis > GVF Profile.

and. This tutorial introduces you to these methods.4 Tutorial 3—Results Reporting Bentley FlowMaster provides a number of methods of generating reports from your calculated results. 2. This tutorial is based on the project that was used in “Tutorial 2—Gradually Varied Flow Analysis” on page 2-14. open the MyTutorial3 project file that you saved at the end of Tutorial 2. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 2-17 .” 4. and GVF Output Data. If necessary. 3. The Print Preview dialog box opens. Input Data. in the Project Explorer. double-click the Trapezoidal Channel item to open the worksheet containing the channel you defined in Tutorial 2. Close the Print Preview dialog box. Results. change the default report title then click OK. Click Analysis > Detailed Report.Tutorials 2. In the Generic Report Setup dialog box. 1. GVF Input Data. Note the information supplied in the report: Project Information. or click OK to accept the default report title “Worksheet for Trapezoidal Channel. 5. displaying the report as it would appear if printed.

and results for all of the trapezoidal channel worksheets within the project. 7. in this case.Tutorial 3—Results Reporting 6. Click Analysis > Tabular Reports > Channels > Trapezoidal. just one. 2-18 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . notes. The Report Table dialog box that opens presents all calculation messages. input data.

Tutorials This report is useful for comparing multiple worksheets of the same type. 9. 10. and click OK. In the Cross Section Setup dialog box. then clicking the Print button in the Print Preview window. enter Trapezoidal Channel as the Report Title. b. 11. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 2-19 . The Cross Section dialog box displays a cross section diagram defined by the trapezoidal channel worksheet. then try the menu item again. Click Analysis > Cross Section. If you want to print this report. click the Solve button. Select the Manual Scale check box. 8. You can print the cross section by using the Print Preview button. Close the Report Table dialog box. Click the Options button. To change the size of the diagram: a. 12. Note: If Analysis > Cross Section is dimmed. begin by clicking the Print Preview button.

In the Rating Curve Setup dialog box. and click OK. drop-down list. This is the attribute for which a range of values will be calculated. e. The Rating Curve dialog box opens. The diagram changes to reflect the aspect ration you entered.Tutorial 3—Results Reporting c. select Velocity in the Plot drop-down list. close any open Print and Print Preview dialog boxes and open the Trapezoidal Channel Worksheet dialog box. e. Select Channel Slope in the Vs. If necessary. d. 13. such as 3.0005 ft/ft Click OK. Enter the information contained in the following table for the other fields in the Rating Curve Setup dialog box: f. Bentley FlowMaster also lets you graph a range of results that are calculated from a range of values for a specified variable via the rating curves feature. Minimum: 0. this sets the attribute against which the Plot attribute is calculated. Change the Aspect Ratio back to 1. b. a. c. 2-20 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .0060 ft/ft Increment: 0. Close the Cross Section dialog box. Enter new value in the Aspect Ratio field. showing a graph of the velocity at each of the slopes in the range that is specified by the values you entered. d. Click Analysis > Rating Curve.0030 ft/ft Maximum: 0.

Tutorials 14. You can change practically any aspect of the graph’s appearance by clicking the Chart Options button. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 2-21 .

Set the 3D % to 90. Click the Bottom tab. then click Color. 2-22 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Select the 3 Dimensions check box. Click Chart Options > 3D. Experiment with the various settings available to you. e. c.Tutorial 3—Results Reporting a. d. To create the 3D chart shown here: a. b. Click the Walls tab.

g. Select Vertical from the Direction drop-down list. Click End. m. r. Set the bottom color (in the example it has an Red. Green. Gradient. then close all the open windows. q. 255. Save the project. p. 15. j. select the No Middle Color check box. k. Click OK > OK to close the color dialog boxes. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 2-23 . Click the Panel. 255). Click the Pattern. Click OK. n. Select white from the Color Editor dialog box (RGB of 255. then Format tabs. i. You can print the chart by clicking the Print Preview button. 16. then Background tabs. Click Start. l. Click the Colors tab. then clicking the Print button in the Print Preview window. 215. 255. Click OK. then Close. Click Custom and set an RGB value of 255. o. Blue (RGB) value of 0. In the Hatch Brush Editor dialog box. 255).Tutorials f. h. 0. or redefine the rating curve settings by clicking the Define Rating Curve button.

Tutorial 3—Results Reporting 2-24 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .

and will persist every time Bentley FlowMaster is started Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-25 .Chapter Bentley FlowMaster Environment The Bentley FlowMaster interface utilizes dockable windows and toolbars. so the position of the various interface elements can be manually adjusted to suit your preference. the Bentley FlowMaster environment looks like this: 3 The components that make up the Bentley FlowMaster interface are as follows: • • • • • “Main Window” “Project Explorer” “Engineering Library Explorer” “Menus” “Toolbars” Any changes you make to the placement and display of the dockable windows and toolbars will be saved. By default.

3 Project Explorer The Project Explorer window displays project components in a hierarchical tree view. This button lets you open a previously created project. Project Location (the location where the project files are stored on your computer). you can specify a name for the project. Create Worksheet: Open Existing Project: Show This Dialog at Start: 3. A project holds global information such as Project Engineer. 3-26 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . a new untitled project is created. When you click Create New Project. Project Date. There are different worksheets for various structure types.Welcome Dialog Box 3. The main window itself does not contain any controls. letting you quickly create a worksheet that is not associated with a particular project. 3. The first time the project is saved. This button opens the Create New Worksheet dialog box. You can manually position the project worksheets anywhere in the workspace. and any Notes that go along with the project. Data is entered and calculated in a worksheet. because of the differing input and output data that is required for each. Deselecting this check box causes Bentley FlowMaster to start up at the main window without opening the Welcome dialog box. The following controls are available: Create New Project: This button lets you create a new Bentley FlowMaster project. Worksheets are contained within an Bentley FlowMaster project. Show This Dialog at Start is selected by default. or use the Window menu controls to automatically position them in a number of ways.1 Welcome Dialog Box The Welcome dialog box appears upon startup of the application.2 Main Window The Bentley FlowMaster main window is the workspace in which various project worksheets are displayed. This check box lets you display the Welcome dialog box when ever your start Bentley FlowMaster.

Duplicate—This command creates a copy of the currently highlighted worksheet in the same project. Delete—This command deletes the currently highlighted worksheet from the library. Various commands are made accessible in the Project Explorer through the use of shortcut menus. location. letting you organize your project elements. Print—This command prints a report of the currently highlighted worksheet. Close Project—Closes the currently open project. you are prompted to enter the title for the report. The unit system defines the measurement and display precision used in the project. Save—This command saves the current project. The project is also associated with a unit system (FlexUnits). These folders can be used to organize your worksheets within the project. When you click this command. and notes.Bentley FlowMaster Environment You can also create folders within a project. The folders are contained solely within the project—new Windows directories will not be created when you create folders in the Project Explorer. Each worksheet in the project is represented by an icon that indicates the worksheet element type and an automatically generated label. • • • Right-clicking a worksheet within a project in the Project Explorer will open a shortcut menu containing the following commands: • • • • Rename—This command lets you rename the currently highlighted worksheet. • Properties—This command opens the Project Properties dialog box. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-27 . the default unit system is used. New Folder—This command creates a new folder under the current project. Right-clicking a Project icon in the tree view will open a shortcut menu containing the following commands: • Add—Hovering the mouse over this command opens a submenu containing the following commands: – – New Worksheet—This command opens the Create New Worksheet dialog box. letting you view and modify basic project information such as date. Save As—This command saves all currently open projects. but you can modify unit system and save it for use on future projects. letting you create a new worksheet. Upon project creation. engineer.

mdb: This file holds all of the project settings. Click View > Engineering Library to see the library. Projectname. When emailing or otherwise transferring .bak: Projectname.ldb: This file is a backup file for the FlowMaster project settings file.3.fm8. Rightclick and select Print Selected Worksheets. it is a good idea to compress them using WinZip or another compression utility—the file size will generally be reduced drastically.fm8.fm8. Other files that you may encounter in your saved file directories include: Projectname. Individual material libraries are compilations of all available materials.01. then Ctrl+click or Shift+click the additional worksheets you want to print. To use this command.mdb.fm8: Projectname. and it prevents changes from being made directly to the database. first select the first worksheet to print. This is a database file that holds all of the input and output data for the project.01. 3. This file is a database lock file.1 Project Files Bentley FlowMaster projects comprise the following files: Note: When transferring an Bentley FlowMaster project. This prevents data loss and corruption. 3. and their attributes. you can create a new library that contains any materials that you define. However. make sure that these files are present. This file is a backup file for the FlowMaster data database file.mdb.Engineering Library Explorer • Print Selected Worksheets—This command lets you print more than one worksheet at a time and is only available when multiple worksheeets are selected in the Project Explorer.bak: Projectname.mdb files.fm8. You cannot modify the default material library that is installed with Bentley FlowMaster. 3-28 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .4 Engineering Library Explorer The Engineering Library Explorer contains all of the project’s material libraries. or you will not be able to open it. It will be automatically generated when a project database is currently open.

Delete—This command deletes the currently highlighted material from the library. Rename—This command lets you rename the current library. Folder—This command creates a new folder under the current library. Right-click a material icon in the tree view to open a shortcut menu containing the following commands: • • • • Add—This command creates a new material within the current library.5 Menus FlowMaster’s drop-down menu system provides access to all PondPack's tools and data managers.Bentley FlowMaster Environment Each library is represented by an icon in the explorer view. • • Delete—This command deletes the current library from the current project. letting you organize your materials within the library. The menu system consists of the following selections: • • • • • • • “File Menu” “Edit Menu” “Analysis Menu” “View Menu” “Tools Menu” “Window Menu” “Help Menu” Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-29 . 3. Properties—This command lets you modify the attribute values for the currently highlighted material. Right-click a Project icon in the Project Explorer to open a shortcut menu containing the following commands: • Add—Hover the mouse over this command to open a submenu containing the following commands: – – Material—This command creates a new material entry in the current library. Rename—This command lets you rename the currently highlighted material. and each material under the library is represented by another icon.

directory. Close All—This command closes all open projects without closing FlowMaster. Initiating this command opens a dialog box that lets you enter a drive.1 File Menu The File menu contains project management commands. and filename for your new project file. without closing Bentley FlowMaster. – – • • Print Setup—This command lets you define the print settings that will be used when the current view of the project is printed. Save—This command saves the current project. letting you create a new worksheet within the current project. you are prompted to enter the title for the report. Save As—This command lets you save the current project under a different filename and/or to a different directory. write. You are prompted to log into a ProjectWise datasource if you are not already logged in. It provides features to create. ProjectWise—This command opens a submenu containing the following • • • • • • commands: – Open—Open an existing FlowMaster project from ProjectWise. Initiating this command opens a dialog box that lets you choose the project file that you want to open. Print Preview—This command displays what a printout of the project would look like.5. – • Open—This command opens an existing Bentley FlowMaster project. read. Print—This command prints the current view of the project. and print project files. Save All—This command saves all currently open projects. When you click this button. • 3-30 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .Menus 3. Save As—Saves the current project to a ProjectWise datasource. You are prompted to log into a ProjectWise datasource if you are not already logged in. • New—This command opens a submenu containing the following options: – Project—This command creates a new Bentley FlowMaster project. Worksheet—This command opens the Create New Worksheet dialog box. Close—This command closes the project that is currently highlighted in the Project Explorer. Change Datasource—Lets you connect to a different ProjectWise datasource for future Open and Save As operations.

5. Clicking Undo again cancels the second-to-last data input action.5. letting you view and edit the project date. input data. and calculated results. From the clipboard. • • • Undo—This command cancels last data input action on the current worksheet. you are prompted to save them. you can paste the data into another field. and any notes associated with the project. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-31 . Exit—This command closes Bentley FlowMaster.2 Edit Menu The Edit menu lets you use time-saving shortcuts such as undo/redo and cut-copypaste. and gradually varied flow profiles.3 Analysis Menu The Analysis menu provides access to various analytical tools that allow you to generate reports. file name. Delete—This command deletes the current selection. Cut—This command removes the currently highlighted field data and places it on the Windows clipboard. From the clipboard. Rating Table—This command opens the Rating Table Setup dialog box. where you define a rating table to be associated with the current worksheet. rating tables and curves. engineer. you can paste the data into another field Paste—This command pastes the data stored in the Windows clipboard into the currently highlighted field. Copy Worksheet Data—This command copies the input data from the currently active worksheet. • • • • • 3. Recent Projects—This command displays a list of all recently opened projects. including all input data. Duplicate Worksheet—This command creates a copy of the current worksheet. Copy—This command copies the currently highlighted field data and places it on the Windows clipboard. • • 3. and so on.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • Properties—This command opens the Project Properties dialog box. Redo—This command cancels the last Undo command. • • Detailed Report—This command opens a report that contains project information. If you have any open projects that need saving.

GVF Profile—This command opens a dialog box displaying a diagram of the worksheet element’s cross section. GVF Profile Table—This command opens a report displaying the results of the gradually varied flow calculations in tabular format.4 View Menu The View menu lets you activate/deactivate the component windows of the Bentley FlowMaster interface. Engineering Library Explorer—This command toggles on/off the display of the Engineering Library Explorer window. A check mark appears next to this command when the edit toolbar is displayed. Edit—This command toggles on/off the display of the edit toolbar. • • • • Project Explorer—This command toggles on/off the display of the Project Explorer window. Status Bar—This command toggles on/off the display of the status bar. A check mark appears next to this command when the standard toolbar is displayed. – – – – 3-32 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Tabular Reports—This command opens a submenu that lets you select tabular reports displaying input and results for the chosen worksheet. A check mark appears next to this command when the help toolbar is displayed. Analysis—This command toggles on/off the display of the analysis toolbar. Cross Section—This command opens the Cross Section Setup dialog box.Menus • Rating Curve—This command opens the Rating Curve Setup dialog box. letting you enter a title for the cross section and to change the scale. A check mark appears next to this command when the analysis toolbar is displayed Worksheets—This command toggles on/off the display of the worksheets buttons. • • • • 3. Help—This command toggles on/off the display of the help toolbar. More information about the various profile types can be found in “Profile Classification” on page 5-149. A check mark appears next to this command when the status bar is displayed.5. Toolbars—This command opens a submenu containing the following options: – Standard—This command toggles on/off the display of the standard toolbar. A check mark appears next to this command when the worksheets toolbar is displayed. if desired. letting you define the parameters that will define the content and appearance of the rating curve plot.

and other resources.5. Minimize All—This command minimizes all of the worksheets in the main window. Close All—This command closes all of the worksheets in the main window. Note that this command maximizes all worksheets in the main window. Contents—This command opens the Table of Contents view in the online help. Index—This command opens the online help’s index of key words. letting you view and edit unit settings associated with the project. • • • • • 3. Window List—This command displays a list of all open windows. 3. • Cascade—This command causes the worksheets in the main window to overlap one another in an offset way that maintains visibility of each. maintenance tools. 3.5 Tools Menu The Tools menu contains a command that let you modify some project-level settings. Note that this command maximizes all worksheets in the main window.7 Help Menu The Help menu provides access to the Bentley FlowMaster documentation.6 Window Menu The Window menu provides commands that allow you to alter the position of the various worksheets within the Bentley FlowMaster window. • • • Dynamic Help—This command opens the online help to the topic associated with the currently active window. Note that this command maximizes all worksheets in the main window.5.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • Reset Workspace—Resets the FlowMaster workspace so that the Project Explorer and Engineering Library Explorer appear in their default factory-set positions. Tile Horizontally—This command causes the worksheets in the main window to overlap one another horizontally such that each is at least partially visible.5. and edit ProjectWise settings. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-33 . Tile Vertically—This command causes the worksheets in the main window to overlap one another vertically such that each is at least partially visible. • Options—This command opens the Options dialog box.

which guide you through many of the program’s features. a multimedia presentation that includes information about Haestad Methods products and services. Release Notes—This command opens the online help to describe the new features in this release of Bentley FlowMaster.Toolbars • • • Search—This command lets you search the online help for a specified word or phrase.com—Opens your browser to the main page of the our Web site. Haestad. For more information. see “Tutorials” on page 2-9).com Web site. About Bentley FlowMaster—This command opens a window containing the product and registration information for Bentley FlowMaster. • • • • 3. providing assistance with frequently used functions. Tutorials are a great way to become familiar with new features (for more information. Multimedia CD—Starts the Virtual Tour. Tutorials—This command accesses the interactive tutorials. “Contacting Bentley Systems about Haestad Methods Products” on page 1-6.com Web site.com—Opens your browser to the CivilQuiz.6 Toolbars Bentley FlowMaster has four toolbars: • • • • • “Standard Toolbar” “Analysis Toolbar” “Worksheets Toolbar” “Edit Toolbar” “Help Toolbar” 3-34 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Using Bentley FlowMaster—This opens the How Do I section of the online help. Services—This command Opens a sub-menu containing the following options: – – – – – • • Contents—Opens your browser to the Services page of our Web site.Haestad. Welcome Dialog—This command opens the Welcome dialog box. On-Line Forums—Opens your browser to the online forums page of the www. How Do I?—This command opens help to a series of frequently-asked questions. CivilQuiz. Check for Updates—Lets you update your software via the World Wide Web.

1 Customizing Toolbars You can add and remove buttons to any toolbar. Click the down arrow on the end of the toolbar you want to customize. then click the toolbar button you want to add or remove. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-35 .6.Bentley FlowMaster Environment Standard Toolbar Edit Toolbar Help Toolbar Analysis Toolbar Worksheets Toolbar 3. A check mark appears next to the toolbar buttons that are currently displayed. click Add or Remove Buttons.

When you click this button. Initiating this command opens a dialog box that lets you choose the project file that you want to open. Print Preview—This button displays what a printout of the project would look like. 3-36 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . directory. Initiating this command opens a dialog box that lets you enter a drive. Print—This button prints the current view of the project. and filename for your new project file. Toolbar Options—Click this arrow at the end of the toolbar to add or remove buttons. – • Open—This button opens an existing Bentley FlowMaster project. To move the menu bar or a toolbar. the toolbar becomes a floating dialog box. Save All—This button saves all currently open projects. letting you create a new worksheet within the current project.Toolbars You can move the menu bar and any toolbar to any position in the FlowMaster main window.3 Analysis Toolbar The analysis toolbar contains the following buttons: • Tabular Reports—This command opens a tabular report displaying input and results for the chosen worksheet.6. move your mouse to the vertical dotted line on the left side of any toolbar until the cursor changes to a crosshairs. you are prompted to enter the title for the report. If you move the menu bar or a toolbar to any of the four sides of the main window. If you move a toolbar away from the other toolbar. • • • • • 3. then drag the toolbar to the desired location.6. Worksheet—This command opens the Create New Worksheet dialog box.2 Standard Toolbar The standard toolbar contains the following buttons: • New—Click this button to open a submenu containing the following options: – Project—This command creates a new Bentley FlowMaster project. Save—This button saves the current project. the toolbar will dock or attach to the window in that location. 3.

Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • • Detailed Report—This command opens a report that contains project information.6. Copy—This button copies the currently highlighted field data and places it on the Windows clipboard.6. From the clipboard. • • • • 3. if desired. From the clipboard. where you define a rating table to be associated with the current worksheet. Toolbar Options—Click this arrow at the end of the toolbar to add or remove buttons. Rating Table—This command opens the Rating Table Setup dialog box.4 Worksheets Toolbar The Worksheets toolbar buttons let you access worksheets for: • • • • • Open channels Pipes Weirs Orifices Inlets The Worksheets toolbar also contains the following control: • Toolbar Options—Click this arrow at the end of the toolbar to add or remove buttons. you can paste the data into another field. 3. Cross Section—This command opens the Cross Section Setup dialog box. where you define the parameters that will define the content and appearance of the rating curve plot. and calculated results. input data. GVF Profile Table—This command opens a report displaying the results of the gradually varied flow calculations in tabular format. Rating Curve—This command opens the Rating Curve Setup dialog box. you can paste the data into another field Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-37 . where you enter a title for the cross section and to change the scale.5 Edit Toolbar The Edit toolbar contains the following buttons: • • Cut—This button removes the currently highlighted field data and places it on the Windows clipboard. GVF Profile—This command opens a dialog box displaying a diagram of the worksheet element’s cross section.

Redo—This button cancels the last Undo command.6. Toolbar Options—Click this arrow at the end of the toolbar to add or remove buttons. The left pane of the window displays the five worksheet categories. The available categories are as follows: • Open Channels—The Open Channels category includes the following worksheet types: – – – – – – Rectangular Channel Triangular Channel Trapezoidal Channel Gutter Channel Irregular Section Parabolic Channel 3-38 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . then click the desired worksheet type and click OK.Create New Worksheet • • • • Paste—This button pastes the data stored in the Windows clipboard into the currently highlighted field. Click a category in the left pane.6 Help Toolbar The Help toolbar provides easy access to commonly used documentation and help resources.7 Create New Worksheet This dialog box lets you choose the type of worksheet dialog box to create. 3. Contents—This button opens the online help to the Table Of Contents view. and the right pane shows the individual element types under the category. Toolbar Options—Click this arrow at the end of the toolbar to add or remove buttons. and so on. Dynamic Help—This button opens the online help for the currently active window or worksheet. Clicking Undo again cancels the second-to-last data input action. Undo—This button cancels last data input action on the current worksheet. 3. • • • • Check for Updates—This button lets you update your software via the World Wide Web.

Bentley FlowMaster Environment • Pipes—The Pipes category includes the following worksheet types: – – – – – • Pressure Pipe Circular Pipe Box Pipe Elliptical Pipe Irregular Section Weirs—The Weirs category includes the following worksheet types: – – – – – Rectangular Weir V-Notch Weir Cipolletti Weir Broad Crested Weir Generic Weir • Orifices—The Orifices category includes the following worksheet types: – – – Rectangular Orifice Circular Orifice Generic Orifice • Inlets—The Inlets category includes the following worksheet types: – – – – – – – – – – Grate Inlet in Sag Grate Inlet on Grade Curb Inlet in Sag Curb Inlet on Grade Ditch Inlet in Sag Ditch Inlet on Grade Slotted Drain Inlet in Sag Slotted Drain Inlet on Grade Combination Inlet in Sag Combination Inlet on Grade Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-39 .

The Darcy-Weisbach method requires an additional input variable (Kinematic Viscosity) and generates additional output (Friction Factor and Reynolds Number). Input: • Roughness Coefficient—A value used to represent the resistance of a conveyance element to flow. The variable that is chosen will appear yellow (read-only) in the list of available input fields.8 Channel Worksheet Dialog Boxes The following channel worksheet dialog boxes are available: • • • • • • “Rectangular Channel Dialog Boxes” “Triangular Channel Dialog Box” “Trapezoidal Channel Dialog Box” “Gutter Section Dialog Box” “Irregular Section Dialog Box” “Parabolic Channel Dialog Box” 3. 3-40 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. or results.8. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. section on the right.Channel Worksheet Dialog Boxes 3. Friction Method—This drop-down list lets you select the friction method that will be used to calculate the worksheet. Messages—A Messages tab is included in each worksheet.1 Rectangular Channel Dialog Boxes The following controls make up the Rectangular Channel worksheet dialog box: • Solve For—This drop-down list lets you select the variable that you are solving for. • • This dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • “Uniform Flow Tab—Rectangular Channel” “Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Rectangular Channel” Uniform Flow Tab—Rectangular Channel The Uniform Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output.

Bottom Width—Width of the bottom of the channel cross section. given in units of length (cubed) over time. Specific Energy is the sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. which has a free surface. Critical Slope—Channel slope for which the uniform flow (equilibrium flow for which the slope of total energy equals the channel slope) is critical. For weirs and orifices. For a partially full pipe. Output: • • Flow Area—Cross-sectional area of flow. For a cross section flowing full. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment. For example. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-41 . For critical flow. Viscosity is a property measuring the fluid resistance to shear.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • • • • Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. Normal Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom. this value is 1. Also. Froude Number—Dimensionless parameter used to characterize open channel flow. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. hence the term kinematic. Velocity Head—Energy due to the velocity of a liquid. Critical Depth—Depth of water in the channel for which the specific energy is at its minimum. this value is zero. Kinematic Viscosity (This input is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Viscosity divided by the mass density given in units of length (squared) over time. Flow Type—The flow is defined as: – – – Supercritical if F > 1 Subcritical if F < 1 Critical if F = 1 • • • • • • • • where F is the Froude Number. molasses and tar have relatively high viscosity and water and air relatively low viscosity. the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure. Specific Energy—Sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed.

Upstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the upstream end of the channel. Increasing this number will increase the accuracy of the hydraulic grade calculation. • Headloss—Loss of energy due to friction and minor losses. Output: • Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel. – Input: • • • • Downstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the downstream end of the channel. Note: More information about the various profile types can be found in “Profile Classification” on page 5-149. 3-42 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Given Downstream—When you choose this option. Reynolds Number (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Ratio of viscous forces relative to inertial forces. the number of steps is used to determine the marching interval. It is recommended that the value entered here be at least five for accuracy. There is also a Direction drop-down list: • Direction—This drop-down list lets you choose whether you are solving for the Upstream Depth or the Downstream Depth. but will increase the calculation time. section on the right.Channel Worksheet Dialog Boxes • Friction Factor (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Friction coefficient used in the Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Formula. Number of Steps—The number of segments per profile that the channel is divided into based on its starting and goal depth. Length—The length of the channel. the Downstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for upstream depth. or results. This input is required by the direct step method that is used in the gradually varied flow analysis. In unbounded cases. the Upstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for downstream depth. as follows: – Given Upstream—When you choose this option. • Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Rectangular Channel The Gradually Varied Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. but not as strictly as in a bounded profile.

given in units of length over time. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. The Darcy-Weisbach method requires an additional input variable (Kinematic Viscosity) and generates additional output (Friction Factor and Reynolds Number). or results. • • This dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • “Uniform Flow Tab—Triangular Channel” “Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Triangular Channel” Uniform Flow Tab—Triangular Channel The Uniform Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. Downstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the downstream end of the channel. Upstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the upstream end of the channel. Also. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow.2 Triangular Channel Dialog Box The following controls make up the Triangular Channel worksheet dialog box: • Solve For—This drop-down list lets you select the variable that you are solving for. 3.8. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-43 . given in units of length (cubed) over time. section on the right. Friction Method—This drop-down list lets you select the friction method that will be used to calculate the worksheet. The variable that is chosen will appear yellow (read-only) in the list of available input fields. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. given in units of length over time. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. Input: • Roughness Coefficient—A value used to represent the resistance of a conveyance element to flow. Normal Depth/Rise—Average distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom along the length of the channel.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • • • • • End Depth/Rise—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the end of the channel. Messages—A Messages tab is included in each worksheet.

Left Side Slope—The slope along the left side of the channel. Normal Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom. which has a free surface. Viscosity is a property measuring the fluid resistance to shear. the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure.Channel Worksheet Dialog Boxes • • • • • • Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. For a cross section flowing full. Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel. Output: • • Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. Froude Number—Dimensionless parameter used to characterize open channel flow. For a partially full pipe. Critical Depth—Depth of water in the channel for which the specific energy is at its minimum. Friction Factor (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Friction coefficient used in the Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Formula. Also. For critical flow. Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. Specific Energy is the sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. this value is 1. Kinematic Viscosity (This input is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Viscosity divided by the mass density given in units of length (squared) over time. Right Side Slope—The slope along the right side of the channel. given in units of length (cubed) over time. Reynolds Number (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Ratio of viscous forces relative to inertial forces. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Critical Slope—Channel slope for which the uniform flow (equilibrium flow for which the slope of total energy equals the channel slope) is critical. this value is zero. Velocity Head—Energy due to the velocity of a liquid. For weirs and orifices. • • • • • • • • • • 3-44 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . hence the term kinematic. For example. molasses and tar have relatively high viscosity and water and air relatively low viscosity. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. Specific Energy—Sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section.

the Downstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for upstream depth. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-45 . as follows: – Given Upstream—When you choose this option. This input is required by the direct step method that is used in the gradually varied flow analysis. Given Downstream—When you choose this option. Increasing this number will increase the accuracy of the hydraulic grade calculation. • • • • Headloss—Loss of energy due to friction and minor losses. Note: More information about the various profile types can be found in “Profile Classification” on page 5-149. It is recommended that the value entered here be at least five for accuracy.Bentley FlowMaster Environment Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Triangular Channel The Gradually Varied Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. In unbounded cases. Upstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the upstream end of the channel. but not as strictly as in a bounded profile. but will increase the calculation time. Downstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the downstream end of the channel. Number of Steps—The number of segments per profile that the channel is divided into based on its starting and goal depth. or results.There is also a Direction drop-down list: • Direction—This drop-down list lets you choose whether you are solving for the Upstream Depth or the Downstream Depth. Normal Depth/Rise—Average distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom along the length of the channel. End Depth/Rise—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the end of the channel. Output: • Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel. the Upstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for downstream depth. – Input: • • • • Downstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the downstream end of the channel. Length—The length of the channel. the number of steps is used to determine the marching interval. section on the right. given in units of length over time.

3-46 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Also. section on the right. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. Also. • • This dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • “Uniform Flow Tab—Trapezoidal Channel” “Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Trapezoidal Channel” Uniform Flow Tab—Trapezoidal Channel The Uniform Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. or results. Messages—A Messages tab is included in each worksheet. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. The variable that is chosen will appear yellow (read-only) in the list of available input fields. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. The Darcy-Weisbach method requires an additional input variable (Kinematic Viscosity) and generates additional output (Friction Factor and Reynolds Number). given in units of length (cubed) over time. Bottom Width—Width of the bottom of the channel cross section. 3. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. given in units of length over time.8. Left Side Slope—Slope of the left side of the channel. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Right Side Slope—Slope of the right side of the channel. Normal Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom. Input: • • • • • • Roughness Coefficient—A value used to represent the resistance of a conveyance element to flow.3 Trapezoidal Channel Dialog Box The following controls make up the Trapezoidal Channel worksheet dialog box: • Solve For—This drop-down list lets you select the variable that you are solving for. Friction Method—This drop-down list lets you select the friction method that will be used to calculate the worksheet.Channel Worksheet Dialog Boxes • • • Upstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the upstream end of the channel.

which has a free surface. the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment. For example. For critical flow. Froude Number—Dimensionless parameter used to characterize open channel flow. For a partially full pipe. Critical Slope—Channel slope for which the uniform flow (equilibrium flow for which the slope of total energy equals the channel slope) is critical. Specific Energy is the sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. For weirs and orifices. Specific Energy—Sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel. Kinematic Viscosity (This input is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Viscosity divided by the mass density given in units of length (squared) over time. the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure. molasses and tar have relatively high viscosity and water and air relatively low viscosity. Viscosity is a property measuring the fluid resistance to shear. Velocity Head—Energy due to the velocity of a liquid. this value is 1. hence the term kinematic. • • • • • • • • • • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-47 . Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. Critical Depth—Depth of water in the channel for which the specific energy is at its minimum. Reynolds Number (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Ratio of viscous forces relative to inertial forces. For a cross section flowing full. Output: • • Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. this value is zero. given in units of length (cubed) over time.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Friction Factor (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Friction coefficient used in the Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Formula.

but will increase the calculation time. • • • • Headloss—Loss of energy due to friction and minor losses. 3-48 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Upstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the upstream end of the channel. Downstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the downstream end of the channel. section on the right. In unbounded cases.Channel Worksheet Dialog Boxes Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Trapezoidal Channel The Gradually Varied Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. the Downstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for upstream depth. Output: • Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel. the Upstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for downstream depth.There is also a Direction drop-down list: • Direction—This drop-down list lets you choose whether you are solving for the Upstream Depth or the Downstream Depth. or results. End Depth/Rise—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the end of the channel. Normal Depth/Rise—Average distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom along the length of the channel. Length—The length of the channel. as follows: – Given Upstream—When you choose this option. but not as strictly as in a bounded profile. given in units of length over time. It is recommended that the value entered here be at least five for accuracy. Note: More information about the various profile types can be found in “Profile Classification” on page 5-149. Increasing this number will increase the accuracy of the hydraulic grade calculation. Given Downstream—When you choose this option. – Input: • • • • Downstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the downstream end of the channel. the number of steps is used to determine the marching interval. This input is required by the direct step method that is used in the gradually varied flow analysis. Number of Steps—The number of segments per profile that the channel is divided into based on its starting and goal depth.

Also the vertical drop divided by the channel length. Also. given in units of length (cubed) over time. • • • Output: • • Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. the vertical drop divided by the channel length.0 as well as the gutter cross-slope. If the roadway section is uniform (no gutter depression). Gutter Width—Width of the gutter (W) measured from the curb face to the break in slope of the roadway pavement.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • • Upstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the upstream end of the channel. measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway. Input: • • • • • Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. Spread—A measure of the transverse lateral distance (T) from the curb face to the limit of the water flowing on the roadway. Manning’s Coefficient—Roughness coefficient used in Manning's Formula. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Additionally. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. given in units of length (cubed) over time.8. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Road Cross Slope—Slope (Sx) of the road pavement. Depth—Distance from water level to low point of channel bottom. Also. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-49 . given in units of length over time. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. Gutter Cross Slope—Slope (Sw) of the gutter. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. then you can leave the gutter width to 0. section on the right. 3.4 Gutter Section Dialog Box The Gutter Section worksheet dialog box comprises an input section on the left and an output. or results.

8. Input: 3-50 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . The Darcy-Weisbach method requires an additional input variable (Kinematic Viscosity) and generates additional output (Friction Factor and Reynolds Number). The following controls make up the worksheet: • Solve For—This drop-down list lets you select the variable that you are solving for. or results. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. • • • • This dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • “Uniform Flow Tab—Irregular Section” “Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Irregular Section” Uniform Flow Tab—Irregular Section The Uniform Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. The variable that is chosen will appear yellow (read-only) in the list of available input fields. Edit Section—Opens the Irregular Section Editor. letting you define the cross section of the irregular section. letting you define the current roughness method. Messages—A Messages tab is included in each worksheet.5 Irregular Section Dialog Box The Irregular Section worksheet dialog box comprises an input section on the left and an output.Channel Worksheet Dialog Boxes • Gutter Depression—Used for Composite Gutter Section. Options—Opens the Weighted Roughness method dialog box. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. open channel weighting method. or results. and the closed channel weighting method. section on the right. This is the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face. The gutter depression applies to gutters that are continuously depressed (as opposed to local depression that applies to a depression of the gutter at the location of the inlet only). section on the right. Friction Method—This drop-down list lets you select the friction method that will be used to calculate the worksheet. • 3.

Critical Slope—Channel slope for which the uniform flow (equilibrium flow for which the slope of total energy equals the channel slope) is critical. Also. For a cross section flowing full. In Irregular Sections. • • • • • • • • • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-51 . Specific Energy—Sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. hence the term kinematic.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • Roughness Coefficient—A value used to represent the resistance of a conveyance element to flow. For critical flow. For weirs and orifices. Kinematic Viscosity (This input is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Viscosity divided by the mass density given in units of length (squared) over time. this value is zero. Froude Number—Dimensionless parameter used to characterize open channel flow. this value is 1. Elevation Range—The minimum to maximum elevation of the Irregular Section. usually given in mean sea level (MSL). for critical depth (depth of water in the channel for which the specific energy is at its minimum). Water Surface Elevation—Elevation of the channel's flowing surface. molasses and tar have relatively high viscosity and water and air relatively low viscosity. the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure. Velocity Head—Energy due to the velocity of a liquid. which has a free surface. For example. For a partially full pipe. Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel. Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. given in units of length (cubed) over time. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. Normal Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. Viscosity is a property measuring the fluid resistance to shear. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. the vertical drop is measured from low point to low point. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. Critical Elevation—Water surface elevation (elevation of the channel's flowing surface). • • • • Output: • • Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow.

or results. the Downstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for upstream depth. This input is required by the direct step method that is used in the gradually varied flow analysis. the Upstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for downstream depth. Reynolds Number (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Ratio of viscous forces relative to inertial forces.Channel Worksheet Dialog Boxes • Friction Factor (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Friction coefficient used in the Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Formula. It is recommended that the value entered here be at least five for accuracy. • Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Irregular Section The Gradually Varied Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. Note: More information about the various profile types can be found in “Profile Classification” on page 5-149. • Headloss—Loss of energy due to friction and minor losses. as follows: – Given Upstream—When you choose this option. Upstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the upstream end of the channel. Output: • Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel. section on the right. 3-52 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .There is also a Direction drop-down list: • Direction (menu)—This drop-down list lets you choose whether you are solving for the Upstream Depth or the Downstream Depth. – Input: • • • • Downstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the downstream end of the channel. Given Downstream—When you choose this option. Number of Steps—The number of segments per profile that the channel is divided into based on its starting and goal depth. but not as strictly as in a bounded profile. Increasing this number will increase the accuracy of the hydraulic grade calculation. In unbounded cases. Length—The length of the channel. the number of steps is used to determine the marching interval. but will increase the calculation time.

Input: • Roughness Coefficient—A value used to represent the resistance of a conveyance element to flow. The Darcy-Weisbach method requires an additional input variable (Kinematic Viscosity) and generates additional output (Friction Factor and Reynolds Number). Messages—A Messages tab is included in each worksheet. given in units of length over time. or results. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-53 .Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • • • • • End Depth/Rise—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the end of the channel. given in units of length (cubed) over time. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Also. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages.8. 3. Upstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the upstream end of the channel. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. The variable that is chosen will appear yellow (read-only) in the list of available input fields. • • This dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • “Uniform Flow Tab—Parabolic Channel” “Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Parabolic Channel” Uniform Flow Tab—Parabolic Channel The Uniform Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. Normal Depth/Rise—Average distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom along the length of the channel. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Downstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the downstream end of the channel.6 Parabolic Channel Dialog Box The following controls make up the Parabolic Channel worksheet dialog box: • Solve For—This drop-down list lets you select the variable that you are solving for. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. Friction Method—This drop-down list lets you select the friction method that will be used to calculate the worksheet. section on the right. given in units of length over time.

the vertical drop divided by the channel length. the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure. Specific Energy is the sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. Normal Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom. Constructed Depth—Distance from water level to low point of channel bottom. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Specific Energy—Sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed.Channel Worksheet Dialog Boxes • • • • • • Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. Output: • • Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. For critical flow. molasses and tar have relatively high viscosity and water and air relatively low viscosity. this value is zero. For a partially full pipe. Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. For a cross section flowing full. hence the term kinematic. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment. For example. Velocity Head—Energy due to the velocity of a liquid. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. Kinematic Viscosity (This input is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Viscosity divided by the mass density given in units of length (squared) over time. Constructed Top Width—Cross sectional width of the channel at the highest point. For weirs and orifices. which has a free surface. given in units of length (cubed) over time. Viscosity is a property measuring the fluid resistance to shear. Flow Type—The flow is defined as: – – – Supercritical if F > 1 Subcritical if F < 1 Critical if F = 1 • • • • • • • • 3-54 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . this value is 1. Critical Depth—Depth of water in the channel for which the specific energy is at its minimum. Critical Slope—Channel slope for which the uniform flow (equilibrium flow for which the slope of total energy equals the channel slope) is critical. Froude Number—Dimensionless parameter used to characterize open channel flow. Also.

It is recommended that the value entered here be at least five for accuracy. the Upstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for downstream depth. There is also a Direction drop-down list: • Direction—This drop-down list lets you choose whether you are solving for the Upstream Depth or the Downstream Depth. or results. • Headloss—Loss of energy due to friction and minor losses. the number of steps is used to determine the marching interval. In unbounded cases. Length—The length of the channel. Note: More information about the various profile types can be found in “Profile Classification” on page 5-149. but not as strictly as in a bounded profile. but will increase the calculation time. section on the right.Bentley FlowMaster Environment where F is the Froude Number. the Downstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for upstream depth. Output: • Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel. Number of Steps—The number of segments per profile that the channel is divided into based on its starting and goal depth. • Friction Factor (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Friction coefficient used in the Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Formula. Given Downstream—When you choose this option. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-55 . • Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Parabolic Channel The Gradually Varied Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. – Input: • • • • Downstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the downstream end of the channel. This input is required by the direct step method that is used in the gradually varied flow analysis. as follows: – Given Upstream—When you choose this option. Upstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the upstream end of the channel. Increasing this number will increase the accuracy of the hydraulic grade calculation. Reynolds Number (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Ratio of viscous forces relative to inertial forces.

a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. Upstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the upstream end of the channel.9. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. given in units of length (cubed) over time.Pipe Worksheet Dialog Boxes • • • • • • End Depth/Rise—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the end of the channel. given in units of length over time. Additionally. Normal Depth/Rise—Average distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom along the length of the channel. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel.1 Pressure Pipe Dialog Box The Pressure Pipe worksheet dialog box comprises an input section on the left and an output. section on the right. Elevation at 1—Measured or computed elevation at section 1 in Bernoulli's Equation. 3-56 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Pressure at 2—Measured or computed pressure at section 2 in Bernoulli's Equation. Input: • • • Pressure at 1—Measured or computed pressure at section 1 in Bernoulli's Equation. or results.9 Pipe Worksheet Dialog Boxes The available pipe worksheets are as follows: • • • • • “Pressure Pipe Dialog Box” “Circular Pipe Dialog Box” “Box Pipe Worksheet Dialog Box” “Elliptical Pipe Section Dialog Box” “Irregular Section Dialog Box” 3. 3. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. given in units of length over time. Also. Downstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the downstream end of the channel.

Computed for closed channels as the sum of channel centerline height above datum. Diameter—The inside diameter of a circular channel. Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. Friction Slope—Slope of the energy grade line (sum of base elevation.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • • • • • Elevation at 2—Measured or computed elevation at section 2 in Bernoulli's Equation. given in units of length (cubed) over time. velocity head. the flow depth. Roughness Coefficient—Average height of roughness particles in the channel. Viscosity is a property measuring the fluid resistance to shear. For a partially full pipe. • • • • • • • • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-57 . and the velocity head. the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment. the flow depth. Specific Weight—(This input is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used) The weight of a unit volume of a substance. which has a free surface. Energy Grade at 1—Energy (total energy of flow with reference to a datum. and velocity head) of flow at section 1 in Bernoulli's Equation. piezometric height. and pressure head at a section). Computed for open channels as the sum of channel invert height above datum. Computed for open channels as the sum of channel invert height above datum. hence the term kinematic. Velocity Head—Energy due to the velocity of a liquid. and velocity head) of flow at section 2 in Bernoulli's Equation. Hydraulic Grade at 2—Hydraulic grade of flow at section 2 in Bernoulli's Equation. Computed for closed channels as the sum of channel centerline height above datum. • Output: • • Headloss—Loss of energy grade over a longitudinal channel distance. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. Length—Distance from section 1 to section 2 measured along the channel centerline in Bernoulli's Equation. Energy Grade at 2—Energy (total energy of flow with reference to a datum. For example. molasses and tar have relatively high viscosity and water and air relatively low viscosity. Hydraulic Grade at 1—Hydraulic grade of flow at section 1 in Bernoulli's Equation. Kinematic Viscosity—(This input is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Viscosity divided by the mass density given in units of length (squared) over time. piezometric height. and the velocity head.

the vertical drop divided by the channel length. 3. • • This dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • “Uniform Flow Tab—Circular Pipe” “Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Circular Pipe” Uniform Flow Tab—Circular Pipe The Uniform Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. section on the right. Messages—A Messages tab is included in each worksheet. The Darcy-Weisbach method requires an additional input variable (Kinematic Viscosity) and generates additional output (Friction Factor and Reynolds Number). or results. Reynolds Number—Ratio of viscous forces relative to inertial forces. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet.Pipe Worksheet Dialog Boxes • • Friction Factor—Friction coefficient used in the Darcy-Weisbach (ColebrookWhite) Formula. Normal Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. Friction Method—This drop-down list lets you select the friction method that will be used to calculate the worksheet. 3-58 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Also.9. Input: • • • • Roughness Coefficient—A value used to represent the resistance of a conveyance element to flow. Diameter—The inside diameter of the circular channel. The variable that is chosen will appear yellow (read-only) in the list of available input fields.2 Circular Pipe Dialog Box The following controls make up the circular pipe worksheet dialog box: • Solve For—This drop-down list lets you select the variable that you are solving for.

hence the term kinematic. Specific Energy is the sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. this value is zero. the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Froude Number—Dimensionless parameter used to characterize open channel flow. which is why the full flow discharge is less than the maximum discharge for a circular channel. For example. Kinematic Viscosity (This input is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Viscosity divided by the mass density given in units of length (squared) over time. this value is 1. Any increase in depth will decrease the discharge. Velocity Head—Energy due to the velocity of a liquid. given in units of length (cubed) over time. For closed circular channels. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. For a partially full pipe. the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment. For critical flow. Critical Depth—Depth of water in the channel for which the specific energy is at its minimum. Output: • • Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. For a cross section flowing full. Maximum Discharge—The maximum theoretical discharge that could occur for a closed channel using a given hydraulic computation method. Discharge Full—The computed discharge when a closed channel is flowing full. Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. which has a free surface. Percent Full—Used in closed channels as a measure of flow depth divided by maximum depth. Viscosity is a property measuring the fluid resistance to shear.938 * Diameter. Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel. molasses and tar have relatively high viscosity and water and air relatively low viscosity. • • • • • • • • • • • • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-59 . Slope Full—The computed channel slope that would produce full flow. Specific Energy—Sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. For weirs and orifices. Critical Slope—Channel slope for which the uniform flow (equilibrium flow for which the slope of total energy equals the channel slope) is critical. this discharge occurs at 0.

or results. It is recommended that the value entered here be at least five for accuracy. Output: • Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel.Pipe Worksheet Dialog Boxes • Friction Factor (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Friction coefficient used in the Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Formula. There is also a Direction drop-down list: • Direction—This drop-down list lets you choose whether you are solving for the Upstream Depth or the Downstream Depth. but will increase the calculation time. the Downstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for upstream depth. as follows: – Given Upstream—When you choose this option. This input is required by the direct step method that is used in the gradually varied flow analysis. Upstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the upstream end of the channel. Given Downstream—When you choose this option. the Upstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for downstream depth. Reynolds Number (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Ratio of viscous forces relative to inertial forces. In unbounded cases. Number of Steps—The number of segments per profile that the channel is divided into based on its starting and goal depth. – Input: • • • • Downstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the downstream end of the channel. section on the right. • Headloss—Loss of energy due to friction and minor losses. the number of steps is used to determine the marching interval. 3-60 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . but not as strictly as in a bounded profile. Note: More information about the various profile types can be found in “Profile Classification” on page 5-149. Increasing this number will increase the accuracy of the hydraulic grade calculation. Length—The length of the channel. • Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Circular Pipe The Gradually Varied Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output.

• • • • • • 3. Bottom Width—Width of the bottom of the channel cross section. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. or results. Normal Depth/Rise—Average distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom along the length of the channel. Also. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. Input: • • • • • Roughness Coefficient—A value used to represent the resistance of a conveyance element to flow. given in units of length over time. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. section on the right. Upstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the upstream end of the channel. Normal Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom. given in units of length over time. Downstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the downstream end of the channel. given in units of length (cubed) over time. End Depth/Rise—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the end of the channel. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. Uniform Flow Tab—Box Pipe The Uniform Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. The upstream conjugate depth is supercrital and the downstream conjugate depth is subcritical. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • Conjugate Depth—Conjugate depths of flow are the depths upstream and downstream of a hydraulic jump. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. Height—Height of the channel cross section. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-61 . Also.3 Box Pipe Worksheet Dialog Box This worksheet dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • “Uniform Flow Tab—Box Pipe” “Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Box Pipe” Additionally.9.

Friction Factor (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Friction coefficient used in the Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Formula. Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. Reynolds Number (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Ratio of viscous forces relative to inertial forces. Critical Slope—Channel slope for which the uniform flow (equilibrium flow for which the slope of total energy equals the channel slope) is critical. Viscosity is a property measuring the fluid resistance to shear. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. For critical flow. this value is 1. given in units of length (cubed) over time. For a cross section flowing full. Kinematic Viscosity (This input is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Viscosity divided by the mass density given in units of length (squared) over time. Discharge Full—The computed discharge when a closed channel is flowing full. which has a free surface. the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment. the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure. Output: • • Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel. Froude Number—Dimensionless parameter used to characterize open channel flow. Critical Depth—Depth of water in the channel for which the specific energy is at its minimum. Specific Energy is the sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. For a partially full pipe. For example. Velocity Head—Energy due to the velocity of a liquid. • • • • • • • • • • • • • 3-62 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. Specific Energy—Sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed.Pipe Worksheet Dialog Boxes • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. this value is zero. Slope Full—The computed channel slope that would produce full flow. hence the term kinematic. molasses and tar have relatively high viscosity and water and air relatively low viscosity. Percent Full—Used in closed channels as a measure of flow depth divided by maximum depth. For weirs and orifices.

Bentley FlowMaster Environment Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Box Pipe The Gradually Varied Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. Normal Depth/Rise—Average distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom along the length of the channel. End Depth/Rise—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the end of the channel. There is also a Direction drop-down list: • Direction—This drop-down list lets you choose whether you are solving for the Upstream Depth or the Downstream Depth. • • • • Headloss—Loss of energy due to friction and minor losses. Downstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the downstream end of the channel. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-63 . but not as strictly as in a bounded profile. but will increase the calculation time. – Input: • • • • Downstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the downstream end of the channel. In unbounded cases. It is recommended that the value entered here be at least five for accuracy. Note: More information about the various profile types can be found in “Profile Classification” on page 5-149. Number of Steps—The number of segments per profile that the channel is divided into based on its starting and goal depth. Increasing this number will increase the accuracy of the hydraulic grade calculation. as follows: – Given Upstream—When you choose this option. the Downstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for upstream depth. or results. Length—The length of the channel. Upstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the upstream end of the channel. the number of steps is used to determine the marching interval. given in units of length over time. This input is required by the direct step method that is used in the gradually varied flow analysis. Given Downstream—When you choose this option. Output: • Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel. the Upstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for downstream depth. section on the right.

given in units of length (cubed) over time. section on the right. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Output: • Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. the vertical drop divided by the channel length.Pipe Worksheet Dialog Boxes • • • Upstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the upstream end of the channel. Viscosity is a property measuring the fluid resistance to shear.4 Elliptical Pipe Section Dialog Box The elliptical pipe worksheet dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • “Uniform Flow Tab—Elliptical Pipe” “Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Elliptical Pipe” Additionally. Also. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. For example. given in units of length over time. molasses and tar have relatively high viscosity and water and air relatively low viscosity. Span—The width of the section. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages.9. Input: • • • • • • • Roughness Coefficient—A value used to represent the resistance of a conveyance element to flow. Kinematic Viscosity (This input is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Viscosity divided by the mass density given in units of length (squared) over time. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. 3. Normal Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom. or results. hence the term kinematic. given in units of length (cubed) over time. 3-64 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Also. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. Rise—The height of the section. Uniform Flow Tab—Elliptical Pipe The Uniform Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel.

this value is 1. There is also a Direction drop-down list: • Direction—This drop-down list lets you choose whether you are solving for the Upstream Depth or the Downstream Depth. Critical Slope—Channel slope for which the uniform flow (equilibrium flow for which the slope of total energy equals the channel slope) is critical. For critical flow. the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment. Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel. For weirs and orifices.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. For a cross section flowing full. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. section on the right. Froude Number—Dimensionless parameter used to characterize open channel flow. the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure. or results. For a partially full pipe. Velocity Head—Energy due to the velocity of a liquid. Reynolds Number (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Ratio of viscous forces relative to inertial forces. this value is zero. Specific Energy—Sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. which has a free surface. Friction Factor (This output is only available when one of the Darcy-Weisbach Friction methods is used)—Friction coefficient used in the Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Formula. Discharge Full—The computed discharge when a closed channel is flowing full. Percent Full—Used in closed channels as a measure of flow depth divided by maximum depth. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gradually Varied Flow Tab—Elliptical Pipe The Gradually Varied Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. Slope Full—The computed channel slope that would produce full flow. as follows: Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-65 . Critical Depth—Depth of water in the channel for which the specific energy is at its minimum. Specific Energy is the sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed.

but not as strictly as in a bounded profile. Normal Depth/Rise—Average distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom along the length of the channel. Also. – Input: • • • • Downstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the downstream end of the channel. but will increase the calculation time. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Downstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the downstream end of the channel. End Depth/Rise—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the end of the channel. the Downstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for upstream depth. Channel Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. given in units of length (cubed) over time. Note: More information about the various profile types can be found in “Profile Classification” on page 5-149. the number of steps is used to determine the marching interval. the Upstream Depth is an input variable and the gradually varied flow analysis will solve for downstream depth. Upstream Depth—Distance from water surface to low point of channel bottom at the upstream end of the channel. Number of Steps—The number of segments per profile that the channel is divided into based on its starting and goal depth. Length—The length of the channel. This input is required by the direct step method that is used in the gradually varied flow analysis. Given Downstream—When you choose this option. the vertical drop divided by the channel length. Upstream Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate at the upstream end of the channel. Increasing this number will increase the accuracy of the hydraulic grade calculation. • • • • • • • Headloss—Loss of energy due to friction and minor losses. It is recommended that the value entered here be at least five for accuracy. Output: • Profile Description—The profile classification within the channel.Pipe Worksheet Dialog Boxes – Given Upstream—When you choose this option. given in units of length over time. 3-66 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . In unbounded cases. given in units of length over time.

10. Additionally. Discharge Coefficient—Discharge coefficient Cd used by FHWA HDS-5 methodology to account for submergence effects and reduce the discharge coefficient that would be obtained without submergence.1 Rectangular Weir Dialog Box The Rectangular Weir worksheet dialog box comprises an input section on the left and an output. Tailwater Elevation—Water elevation downstream of the structure. Number of Contractions—Used when the upstream channel is larger than the rectangular weir crest length. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. perpendicularly to the flow direction. section on the right. to account for the contraction of the flow on one or both sides of the weir opening.10 Weir Worksheet Dialog Boxes The available weir worksheets are as follows: • • • • • “Rectangular Weir Dialog Box” “V-Notch Weir Dialog Box” “Cipoletti Weir Dialog Box” “Broad Crested Weir Dialog Box” “Generic Weir Dialog Box” 3. Input: • • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. given in units of length (cubed) over time. Crest Length—Length of the weir opening measured at the crest. Headwater Elevation—Water elevation upstream of the structure. or results. • • Output: • Headwater Height Above Crest—Water depth upstream of the weir measured from the crest of the weir. Crest Elevation—Elevation of the bottom of the weir opening. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-67 .Bentley FlowMaster Environment 3. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet.

Headwater Elevation—Water elevation upstream of the structure. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages.2 V-Notch Weir Dialog Box The V-Notch Weir worksheet dialog box comprises an input section on the left and an output. • Output: • • Headwater Height Above Crest—Water depth upstream of the weir measured from the crest of the weir. Crest Elevation—Elevation of the bottom of the weir opening. Additionally. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. Tailwater Elevation—Water elevation downstream of the structure.Weir Worksheet Dialog Boxes • Tailwater Height Above Crest—Height of the water downstream of the weir measured from the weir crest (a negative value indicated that the tailwater is below the crest elevation). For a cross section flowing full. this value is zero. • • • • 3. Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. section on the right.10. See “V-Notch Weir Coefficient of Discharge” on page 5-157. the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment. V-Notch Weir Coefficient—Coefficients for V-notched weirs vary with the angle of the notch and with head depth. For a partially full pipe. Notch Angle—Angle of the V-Notch weir opening measured from one side to the other side. For weirs. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. Tailwater Height Above Crest—Height of the water downstream of the weir measured from the weir crest (a negative value indicated that the tailwater is below the crest elevation). which has a free surface. or results. 3-68 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. Input: • • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. given in units of length (cubed) over time.

Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. For weirs, the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. For a partially full pipe, the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment, which has a free surface. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. For a cross section flowing full, this value is zero.

3.10.3

Cipoletti Weir Dialog Box
The Cipoletti Weir worksheet dialog box comprises an input section on the left and an output, or results, section on the right. Additionally, a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages, while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Input: • • • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow, given in units of length (cubed) over time. Headwater Elevation—Water elevation upstream of the structure. Crest Elevation—Elevation of the bottom of the weir opening. Tailwater Elevation—Water elevation downstream of the structure. Discharge Coefficient—Weir coefficient obtained from experimental data, dependent on the shape of the weir. Crest Length—Length of the weir opening measured at the crest, perpendicularly to the flow direction.

Output: • • Headwater Height Above Crest—Water depth upstream of the weir measured from the crest of the weir. Tailwater Height Above Crest—Height of the water downstream of the weir measured from the weir crest (a negative value indicated that the tailwater is below the crest elevation). Equal Side Slopes—Slope of trapezoidal channel, assumed to be identical on both sides. Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow.

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Weir Worksheet Dialog Boxes • Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. For weirs, the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. For a partially full pipe, the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment, which has a free surface. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. For a cross section flowing full, this value is zero.

3.10.4

Broad Crested Weir Dialog Box
The Broad Crested Weir worksheet dialog box comprises an input section on the left and an output, or results, section on the right. Additionally, a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages, while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Input: • • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow, given in units of length (cubed) over time. Headwater Elevation—Water elevation upstream of the structure. Crest Elevation—Elevation of the bottom of the weir opening. Tailwater Elevation—Water elevation downstream of the structure. Crest Surface Type—Surface of a broad crested weir, defined as Paved or Gravel. Used by FHWA HDS-5 methodology for calculating the discharge coefficient and submergence factor. Crest Breadth—Width (Lr) of the weir, measured in the direction of flow. Crest Length—Length of the weir opening measured at the crest, perpendicularly to the flow direction.

• •

Output: • • Headwater Height Above Crest—Water depth upstream of the weir measured from the crest of the weir. Tailwater Height Above Crest—Height of the water downstream of the weir measured from the weir crest (a negative value indicated that the tailwater is below the crest elevation). Discharge Coefficient—Weir coefficient obtained from experimental data, dependent on the shape of the weir.

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Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • Submergence Factor—Ratio (kt) used by FHWA HDS-5 methodology for calculating the submergence effect and reduce the discharge coefficient. Adjusted Discharge Coefficient—Discharge coefficient (Cd) used by FHWA HDS-5 methodology to account for submergence effects and reduce the discharge coefficient that would be obtained without submergence. Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. For weirs, the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. For a partially full pipe, the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment, which has a free surface. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. For a cross section flowing full, this value is zero.

• •

3.10.5

Generic Weir Dialog Box
The Generic Weir worksheet dialog box comprises an input section on the left and an output, or results, section on the right. Additionally, a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages, while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Input: • • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow, given in units of length (cubed) over time. Headwater Elevation—Water elevation upstream of the structure. Crest Elevation—Elevation of the bottom of the weir opening. Discharge Coefficient Weir—Coefficient C used in the general weir equation. Crest Length—Length of the weir opening measured at the crest, perpendicularly to the flow direction.

Output: • • • Headwater Height Above Crest—Water depth upstream of the weir measured from the crest of the weir. Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. For weirs, the velocity field is for the velocity of the water through the hydraulic structure

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Orifice Worksheet Dialog Boxes • Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. For a partially full pipe, the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment, which has a free surface. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. For a cross section flowing full, this value is zero.

3.11

Orifice Worksheet Dialog Boxes
The available orifice worksheets are as follows: • • • “Rectangular Orifice Dialog Box” “Circular Orifice Dialog Box” “Generic Orifice Dialog Box”

3.11.1

Rectangular Orifice Dialog Box
The Rectangular Orifice worksheet dialog box comprises an input section on the left and an output, or results, section on the right. Additionally, a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages, while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Input: • • • • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow, given in units of length (cubed) over time. Headwater Elevation—Water elevation upstream of the structure. Centroid Elevation—The elevation of the center of the orifice cross section. Tailwater Elevation—Water elevation downstream of the structure. Discharge Coefficient—Orifice coefficient obtained from experimental data, dependent on the shape of the orifice. Opening Width—Horizontal measurement of the orifice opening. Opening Height—Vertical measurement of the orifice opening.

Output: • Headwater Height Above Centroid—Height of the water upstream of the orifice measured from the orifice centroid.

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Bentley FlowMaster Environment • Tailwater Height Above Centroid—Height of the water downstream of the orifice measured from the orifice centroid (a negative value indicates that the tailwater is below the centroid elevation). Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time.

• •

3.11.2

Circular Orifice Dialog Box
The Circular Orifice worksheet dialog box comprises an input section on the left and an output, or results, section on the right. Additionally, a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages, while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Input: • • • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow, given in units of length (cubed) over time. Headwater Elevation—Water elevation upstream of the structure. Centroid Elevation—The elevation of the center of the orifice cross section. Tailwater Elevation—Water elevation downstream of the structure. Discharge Coefficient—Orifice coefficient obtained from experimental data, dependent on the shape of the orifice. Diameter—The inside diameter of a circular channel.

Output: • • Headwater Height Above Centroid—Height of the water upstream of the orifice measured from the orifice centroid. Tailwater Height Above Centroid—Height of the water downstream of the orifice measured from the orifice centroid (a negative value indicates that the tailwater is below the centroid elevation). Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time.

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Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes

3.11.3

Generic Orifice Dialog Box
The Generic Orifice worksheet dialog box comprises an input section on the left and an output, or results, section on the right. Additionally, a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages, while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Input • • • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow, given in units of length (cubed) over time. Headwater Elevation—Water elevation upstream of the structure. Centroid Elevation—The elevation of the center of the orifice cross section. Tailwater Elevation—Water elevation downstream of the structure. Discharge Coefficient—Orifice coefficient obtained from experimental data, dependent on the shape of the orifice. Opening Area—Area of the orifice opening.

Output • • Headwater Height Above Centroid—Height of the water upstream of the orifice measured from the orifice centroid. Tailwater Height Above Centroid—Height of the water downstream of the orifice measured from the orifice centroid (a negative value indicates that the tailwater is below the centroid elevation). Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time.

3.12

Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes
The available inlet worksheets are as follows: • • • • • • • “Grate Inlet in Sag Dialog Box” “Grate Inlet on Grade Dialog Box” “Curb Inlet in Sag Dialog Box” “Curb Inlet on Grade Dialog Box” “Ditch Inlet in Sag Dialog Box” “Ditch Inlet on Grade Dialog Box” “Slotted Drain Inlet in Sag Dialog Box”

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This dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • • “Gutter Tab—Grate Inlet in Sag” “Grate Tab—Grate Inlet in Sag” “Output—Grate Inlet in Sag” Additionally. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. section on the right. or results. measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway. given in units of length (cubed) over time. then you can leave the gutter width to 0. or results. Spread—A measure of the transverse lateral distance (T) from the curb face to the limit of the water flowing on the roadway. Gutter Cross Slope—Slope (Sw) of the gutter. section on the right. Gutter Width—Width of the gutter (W) measured from the curb face to the break in slope of the roadway pavement.1 Grate Inlet in Sag Dialog Box The Uniform Flow tab comprises an input section on the left and an output.12. Gutter Tab—Grate Inlet in Sag The Gutter tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-75 .Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • • “Slotted Drain Inlet on Grade Dialog Box” “Combination Inlet in Sag Dialog Box” “Combination Inlet on Grade Dialog Box” 3. Input: • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. If the roadway section is uniform (no gutter depression). Road Cross Slope—Slope (Sx) of the road pavement. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway.0 as well as the gutter cross-slope.

etc. which includes the bars (measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway).Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes Grate Tab—Grate Inlet in Sag The Grate tab comprises an input section on the left and an output.5 ft – 4.5 ft. resulting in no flow interception. choose Grate Length Properties and change the maximum and minimum value allowed. leaves. 100% corresponds to a completely clogged grate inlet. shape of the bars. The types defined by HEC-22 are: – – – – – – – – • Curved Vane 30° – 45° Tilt Bar 45° – 60° Tilt Bar 45° – 85° Tilt Bar P-30 P-50 P-50 x 100 Reticuline • • • Clogging—The clogging factor accounts for the reduction in efficiency of the inlet due to partial clogging by debris.100%]. Input: • • Grate Width—Total width of the grate inlet. Output—Grate Inlet in Sag • Depth—Distance from water level to low point of channel bottom. The valid range is [0%. In the case of a continuously depressed gutter. or results. including bars (measured in the road direction). section on the right. The default values for the range of Grate Length are 0. etc. Grate Length—Total length of the grate inlet. Grate Type—The HEC-22 methodology contains 8 different types of grates. 3-76 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .). To change these defaults: right click on the Grate Length field. Local Depression Width—Horizontal width of the locally depressed gutter. The grate type affect the inlet efficiency. Local Depression—Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet. which defines their geometry (spacing. the larger of the local depression width and gutter width is used to calculate the inlet efficiency.

The valid range is [0. and the clogging factor (accounts for the reduction in efficiency of the inlet due to partial clogging by debris. measured in the road direction). etc.1]. Total Depression—Total of the local depression (Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet) and the gutter depression (the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face.1]. etc. leaves. 1 corresponds to a completely clogged grate inlet. the grate width (total width of the grate inlet. which includes the bars. resulting in no flow interception). which accounts for the bars of the grate reducing the opening area (specific to each grate type). 1 corresponds to a completely clogged grate inlet. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway). the grate width (total width of the grate inlet. leaves. and the clogging factor (accounts for the reduction in efficiency of the inlet due to partial clogging by debris. measured in the road direction).12. Active Grate Weir Length—Weir length of the grate used when the grate acts as a weir (at low water depth). This is the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face. which includes the bars. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway). from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face. including bars. This is a function of the grate length (total length of the grate inlet.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • Gutter Depression—Used for Composite Gutter Section. • • • 3. The gutter depression applies to gutters that are continuously depressed (as opposed to local depression that applies to a depression of the gutter at the location of the inlet only). while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-77 . This is a function of the grate length (total length of the grate inlet. including bars. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face). The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. the opening ratio.2 Grate Inlet on Grade Dialog Box This dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • • “Gutter Tab—Grate Inlet on Grade” “Grate Tab—Grate Inlet on Grade” “Output—Grate Inlet on Grade” Additionally. resulting in no flow interception). Open Grate Area—Clear opening of the grate used when the grate acts as an orifice (at high water depth). The valid range is [0. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet.

1].Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes Gutter Tab—Grate Inlet on Grade The Gutter tab comprises an input section on the left and an output.5 ft. then you can leave the gutter width to 0. Input: • • • Efficiency—Ratio of the Intercepted Flow by the inlet over the total gutter flow. The default values for the range of Grate Length are 0. Grate Length—Total length of the grate inlet. choose Grate Length Properties and change the maximum and minimum value allowed. which defines their geometry (spacing.). Grate Type—The HEC-22 methodology contains 8 different types of grates. including bars (measured in the road direction). Gutter Cross Slope—Slope (Sw) of the gutter. Road Cross Slope—Slope (Sx) of the road pavement. Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. or results. Manning’s Coefficient—Roughness coefficient used in Manning's Formula. In Irregular Sections. The range is [0. or results. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway. Also the vertical drop divided by the channel length. If the roadway section is uniform (no gutter depression). Gutter Width—Width of the gutter (W) measured from the curb face to the break in slope of the roadway pavement. shape of the bars. • • • • Grate Tab—Grate Inlet on Grade The Grate tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. section on the right. To change these defaults: right click on the Grate Length field. The types defined by HEC-22 are: – – – – Curved Vane 30° – 45° Tilt Bar 45° – 60° Tilt Bar 45° – 85 °Tilt Bar • 3-78 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Grate Width—Total width of the grate inlet.0 as well as the gutter cross-slope. Input: • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. etc. section on the right.5 ft – 4. measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway. which includes the bars (measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway). The grate type affect the inlet efficiency. the vertical drop is measured from low point to low point. given in units of length (cubed) over time.

The valid range is [0%. The splash-over velocity is a function of the Grate Type and the Grate Length. leaves. Splash Over Velocity—Gutter velocity where splash-over first occurs. Note that the amount of flow bypassed from an inlet in sag is assumed to be 0. Output—Grate Inlet on Grade • Intercepted Flow—Portion of the flow in the gutter that is captured by the inlet (the remaining portion of the flow that is not intercepted is called bypass flow). Total Depression—Total of the local depression (Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet) and the gutter depression (the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face.Bentley FlowMaster Environment – – – – • P-30 P-50 P-50 x 100 Reticuline Clogging—The clogging factor accounts for the reduction in efficiency of the inlet due to partial clogging by debris. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face. 100%]. 100% corresponds to a completely clogged grate inlet. Bypass Flow—Portion of the flow that is not captured by the inlet. etc. The gutter depression applies to gutters that are continuously depressed (as opposed to local depression that applies to a depression of the gutter at the location of the inlet only). Side Flow Factor—Ratio of side flow intercepted by the grate inlet to total side flow. The bypass flow is generally captured by inlets downstream. Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. This is the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face. Gutter Depression—Used for Composite Gutter Section. Depth—Distance from water level to low point of channel bottom. • • • • • • • • • • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-79 . from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face). Spread—A measure of the transverse lateral distance (T) from the curb face to the limit of the water flowing on the roadway. Note that the amount of flow intercepted by an inlet in sag is assumed to be 100%. Frontal Flow Factor—Ratio of frontal flow intercepted by the grate inlet to total frontal flow. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. resulting in no flow interception.

Gutter Tab—Curb Inlet in Sag The Gutter tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. given in units of length (cubed) over time. Spread—A measure of the transverse lateral distance (T) from the curb face to the limit of the water flowing on the roadway. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet.1) 3.0 means that the grate is completely clogged (3. ft) = Length of the grate (m. f = 1. Gutter Width—Width of the gutter (W) measured from the curb face to the break in slope of the roadway pavement.12. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet.Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes • • Grate Flow Ratio—Ratio of frontal flow (portion of flow Qw that is in the gutter within the width of the grate) to total flow. La = Lg (1-f) Where La Lg f = Active grate length (m. ft) = Clogging factor (unitless. Active Grate Length—Length of the side of the grate that is parallel to the curb (grate length) reduced by the clogging factor. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. Input: • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. 3-80 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .3 Curb Inlet in Sag Dialog Box This dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • • “Gutter Tab—Curb Inlet in Sag” “Curb Tab—Curb Inlet in Sag” “Output—Curb Inlet in Sag” Additionally. or results. section on the right.

or results. measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway. then you can leave the gutter width to 0. • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-81 .Bentley FlowMaster Environment • Gutter Cross Slope—Slope (Sw) of the gutter.0 as well as the gutter cross-slope. The gutter depression applies to gutters that are continuously depressed (as opposed to local depression that applies to a depression of the gutter at the location of the inlet only). Throat Incline Angle—Angle of the curb opening throat (measured from the vertical). Gutter Depression—Used for Composite Gutter Section. Local Depression Width—Horizontal width of the locally depressed gutter. Road Cross Slope—Slope (Sx) of the road pavement. If the roadway section is uniform (no gutter depression). measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway. Curb Throat Type—3 types of curb inlets are defined: – – – • • Horizontal throat (most common curb inlet) Vertical throat Inclined throat Local Depression—Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet. Input: • • • Curb Opening Length—Length of the opening of the curb inlet (measured in the direction of the street). • Output—Curb Inlet in Sag • • Depth—Distance from water level to low point of channel bottom. section on the right. In the case of a continuously depressed gutter. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face). This is the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face. Opening Height—Vertical measurement of the orifice opening. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face. Total Depression—Total of the local depression (Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet) and the gutter depression (the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face. the larger of the local depression width and gutter width is used to calculate the inlet efficiency. • Curb Tab—Curb Inlet in Sag The Curb tab comprises an input section on the left and an output.

then you can leave the gutter width to 0.12. Roughness Coefficient—Roughness coefficient used in Manning's Formula. • • • • Curb Tab—Curb Inlet on Grade The Curb tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. 3-82 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. Road Cross Slope—Slope (Sx) of the road pavement.0 as well as the gutter cross-slope. Curb Opening Length—Length of the opening of the curb inlet (measured in the direction of the street). Gutter Width—Width of the gutter (W) measured from the curb face to the break in slope of the roadway pavement. section on the right. The range is [0. Gutter Cross Slope—Slope (Sw) of the gutter. Gutter Tab—Curb Inlet on Grade The Gutter tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. In Irregular Sections. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. section on the right. given in units of length (cubed) over time. or results. the vertical drop is measured from low point to low point. Input: • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. If the roadway section is uniform (no gutter depression). Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway.4 Curb Inlet on Grade Dialog Box The curb inlet on grade worksheet dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • • “Gutter Tab—Curb Inlet on Grade” “Curb Tab—Curb Inlet on Grade” “Output—Curb Inlet on Grade” Additionally. or results. Also the vertical drop divided by the channel length.1]. Input: • • Efficiency—Ratio of the Intercepted Flow by the inlet over the total gutter flow.Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes 3.

Note that the amount of flow intercepted by an inlet in sag is assumed to be 100%. measured in the direction of the street) over total interception length (length. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face). • • • • • • • • • • 3. Total Depression—Total of the local depression (Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet) and the gutter depression (the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • Local Depression—Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet. In the case of a continuously depressed gutter. Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. Equivalent Cross Slope—An imaginary straight cross-slope having a conveyance capacity equal to that of the given compound cross-slope. LT of the curb opening that would be required to intercept 100% of the flow). the larger of the local depression width and gutter width is used to calculate the inlet efficiency. Depth—Distance from water level to low point of channel bottom. Local Depression Width—Horizontal width of the locally depressed gutter. Output—Curb Inlet on Grade • Intercepted Flow—Portion of the flow in the gutter that is captured by the inlet (the remaining portion of the flow that is not intercepted is called bypass flow).12. Length Factor—Ratio of curb opening length (length of the opening of the curb inlet. Bypass Flow—Portion of the flow that is not captured by the inlet. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face. Total Interception Length—Length (LT) of the curb opening that would be required to intercept 100% of the flow. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. Spread—A measure of the transverse lateral distance (T) from the curb face to the limit of the water flowing on the roadway.5 Ditch Inlet in Sag Dialog Box The ditch inlet in sag worksheet dialog box comprises the following tabs: • “Ditch Tab—Ditch Inlet in Sag” Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-83 . The gutter depression applies to gutters that are continuously depressed (as opposed to local depression that applies to a depression of the gutter at the location of the inlet only). Note that the amount of flow bypassed from an inlet in sag is assumed to be 0. This is the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face. Gutter Depression—Used for Composite Gutter Section. The bypass flow is generally captured by inlets downstream.

The default values for the range of Grate Length are 0. which defines their geometry (spacing.). shape of the bars. Input: • • Grate Width—Total width of the grate inlet. width of the bottom of a channel cross section. Ditch Tab—Ditch Inlet in Sag The Ditch tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. the larger of the local depression width and gutter width is used to calculate the inlet efficiency. Grate Length—Total length of the grate inlet. Local Depression Width—Horizontal width of the locally depressed gutter. Grate Tab—Ditch Inlet in Sag The Grate tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. In the case of a continuously depressed gutter.5 ft – 4. Grate Type—The HEC-22 methodology contains 8 different types of grates. section on the right. Local Depression—Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet. etc. or results. including bars (measured in the road direction). Bottom Width—For a regular channel. section on the right. Left Side Slope—Slope of the left side of the channel. Right Side Slope—Slope of the right side of the channel. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. The grate type affect the inlet efficiency. The types defined by HEC-22 are: • • • 3-84 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . given in units of length (cubed) over time. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. To change these defaults: right click on the Grate Length field. which includes the bars (measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway). Spread—A measure of the transverse lateral distance (T) from the curb face to the limit of the water flowing on the roadway.Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes • • “Grate Tab—Ditch Inlet in Sag” “Output—Ditch Inlet in Sag” Additionally. Input: • • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. choose Grate Length Properties and change the maximum and minimum value allowed.5 ft. or results.

• • • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-85 . Active Grate Weir Length—Weir length of the grate used when the grate acts as a weir (at low water depth). Open Grate Area—Clear opening of the grate used when the grate acts as an orifice (at high water depth). measured in the road direction). The valid range is [0%. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. etc. the grate width (total width of the grate inlet. leaves. measured in the road direction). 100% corresponds to a completely clogged grate inlet.Bentley FlowMaster Environment – – – – – – – – • Curved Vane 30° – 45° Tilt Bar 45° – 60° Tilt Bar 45° – 85° Tilt Bar P-30 P-50 P-50 x 100 Reticuline Clogging—The clogging factor accounts for the reduction in efficiency of the inlet due to partial clogging by debris. which accounts for the bars of the grate reducing the opening area (specific to each grate type). resulting in no flow interception. 1 corresponds to a completely clogged grate inlet. For a cross section flowing full. Output—Ditch Inlet in Sag • • Depth—Distance from water level to low point of channel bottom. resulting in no flow interception). Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary. and the clogging factor (accounts for the reduction in efficiency of the inlet due to partial clogging by debris. which includes the bars. which has a free surface. resulting in no flow interception). the grate width (total width of the grate inlet. the opening ratio. and the clogging factor (accounts for the reduction in efficiency of the inlet due to partial clogging by debris. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway). leaves. including bars. etc.1]. The valid range is [0.1]. 100%]. The valid range is [0. which includes the bars. This is a function of the grate length (total length of the grate inlet. the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment. leaves. this value is zero. etc. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway). including bars. This is a function of the grate length (total length of the grate inlet. For a partially full pipe. 1 corresponds to a completely clogged grate inlet.

Bottom Width—For a regular channel. including bars (measured in the road direction). or results. The range is [0. section on the right. given in units of length (cubed) over time. 3-86 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Left Side Slope—Slope of the left side of the channel. Right Side Slope—Slope of the right side of the channel. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages.5 ft – 4.Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes 3. choose Grate Length Properties and change the maximum and minimum value allowed. To change these defaults: right click on the Grate Length field. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Grate Width—Total width of the grate inlet.1]. or results. Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. The default values for the range of Grate Length are 0.5 ft. Input: • • • • • • Manning’s Coefficient—Roughness coefficient used in Manning's Formula. section on the right.12. Ditch Tab—Ditch Inlet on Grade The Ditch tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. Input: • • • Efficiency—Ratio of the Intercepted Flow by the inlet over the total gutter flow. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. Grate Length—Total length of the grate inlet. Grate Tab—Ditch Inlet on Grade The Grate tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. width of the bottom of a channel cross section. which includes the bars (measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway).6 Ditch Inlet on Grade Dialog Box The ditch inlet on grade worksheet dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • • “Ditch Tab—Ditch Inlet on Grade” “Grate Tab—Ditch Inlet on Grade” “Output—Ditch Inlet on Grade” Additionally. Also the vertical drop divided by the channel length. Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel.

Note that the amount of flow intercepted by an inlet in sag is assumed to be 100%. The types defined by HEC-22 are: – – – – – – – – • Curved Vane 30° – 45° Tilt Bar 45° – 60° Tilt Bar 45° – 85° Tilt Bar P-30 P-50 P-50 x 100 Reticuline Clogging—The clogging factor accounts for the reduction in efficiency of the inlet due to partial clogging by debris. • • • • • • • • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-87 . Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. Note that the amount of flow bypassed from an inlet in sag is assumed to be 0. the wetted perimeter includes all of the flow perimeter except for the top segment. The valid range is [0%.). which defines their geometry (spacing. resulting in no flow interception. Output—Ditch Inlet on Grade • Intercepted Flow—Portion of the flow in the gutter that is captured by the inlet (the remaining portion of the flow that is not intercepted is called bypass flow). etc. Frontal Flow Factor—Ratio of frontal flow intercepted by the grate inlet to total frontal flow. The bypass flow is generally captured by inlets downstream. Splash Over Velocity—Gutter velocity where splash-over first occurs. leaves. For a partially full pipe. Wetted Perimeter—Perimeter of flow that travels against a solid boundary.Bentley FlowMaster Environment • Grate Type—The HEC-22 methodology contains 8 different types of grates. shape of the bars. Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. The splash-over velocity is a function of the Grate Type and the Grate Length. this value is zero. Side Flow Factor—Ratio of side flow intercepted by the grate inlet to total side flow. 100% corresponds to a completely clogged grate inlet. Top Width—Length of the free top surface on the flowing cross section. Bypass Flow—Portion of the flow that is not captured by the inlet. which has a free surface. For a cross section flowing full. 100%]. etc. The grate type affect the inlet efficiency.

ft) = Length of the grate (m.0 means that the grate is completely clogged (3.Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes • • Grate Flow Ratio—Ratio of frontal flow (portion of flow Qw that is in the gutter within the width of the grate) to total flow. Critical Slope—Channel slope for which the uniform flow (equilibrium flow for which the slope of total energy equals the channel slope) is critical. Froude Number—Dimensionless parameter used to characterize open channel flow. Specific Energy is the sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. • • • • • Specific Energy—Sum of the elevation head and velocity head (energy due to the velocity of a liquid) as related to the section of a channel bed. ft) = Clogging factor (unitless. Active Grate Length—Length of the side of the grate that is parallel to the curb (grate length) reduced by the clogging factor.7 Slotted Drain Inlet in Sag Dialog Box The slotted drain inlet in sag worksheet dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • • “Gutter Tab—Slotted Drain Inlet in Sag” “Slot Tab—Slotted Drain Inlet in Sag” “Output—Slotted Drain Inlet in Sag” 3-88 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . f = 1. Velocity Head—Energy due to the velocity of a liquid.2) • Critical Depth—Depth of water in the channel for which the specific energy is at its minimum. 3. this value is 1.12. Flow Type—The flow is defined as: – – – Supercritical if F > 1 Subcritical if F < 1 Critical if F = 1 where F is the Froude Number. For critical flow. La = Lg (1-f) Where La Lg f = Active grate length (m.

The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages.Bentley FlowMaster Environment Additionally. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. Spread—A measure of the transverse lateral distance (T) from the curb face to the limit of the water flowing on the roadway. If the roadway section is uniform (no gutter depression). Road Cross Slope—Slope (Sx) of the road pavement. or results. Input: • • • • Slot Width—Width (W) of the slot length opening. • Slot Tab—Slotted Drain Inlet in Sag The Slot tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. the larger of the local depression width and gutter width is used to calculate the inlet efficiency. In the case of a continuously depressed gutter. Output—Slotted Drain Inlet in Sag • Depth—Distance from water level to low point of channel bottom. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-89 . section on the right. or results. measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway. Slot Length—Length of the slot inlet opening. Input: • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Local Depression Width—Horizontal width of the locally depressed gutter. Gutter Tab—Slotted Drain Inlet in Sag The Gutter tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. Gutter Cross Slope—Slope (Sw) of the gutter. Gutter Width—Width of the gutter (W) measured from the curb face to the break in slope of the roadway pavement. section on the right. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway. Local Depression—Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet. given in units of length (cubed) over time.0 as well as the gutter cross-slope. then you can leave the gutter width to 0.

Open Slot Area—Area of the slot opening used in the case of orifice flow.8 Slotted Drain Inlet on Grade Dialog Box The slotted drain inlet on grade worksheet dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • • “Gutter Tab—Slotted Drain Inlet on Grade” “Slot Tab—Slotted Drain Inlet on Grade” “Output—Slotted Drain Inlet on Grade” Additionally. Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. or results.Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes • Gutter Depression—Used for Composite Gutter Section. • • 3-90 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . • • 3. This is the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face.12. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. section on the right. Road Cross Slope—Slope (Sx) of the road pavement. given in units of length (cubed) over time. Gutter Tab—Slotted Drain Inlet on Grade The Gutter tab comprises an input section on the left and an output.0 as well as the gutter cross-slope. Gutter Cross Slope—Slope (Sw) of the gutter. The gutter depression applies to gutters that are continuously depressed (as opposed to local depression that applies to a depression of the gutter at the location of the inlet only). then you can leave the gutter width to 0. Input: • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. Also the vertical drop divided by the channel length. Gutter Width—Width of the gutter (W) measured from the curb face to the break in slope of the roadway pavement. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway. Total Depression—Total of the local depression (Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet) and the gutter depression (the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face. measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face). If the roadway section is uniform (no gutter depression). a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. Manning’s Coefficient—Roughness coefficient used in Manning's Formula.

Bypass Flow—Portion of the flow that is not captured by the inlet. Slot Length—Length of the slot inlet opening. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. In the case of a continuously depressed gutter. Spread—A measure of the transverse lateral distance (T) from the curb face to the limit of the water flowing on the roadway. Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. section on the right. Local Depression—Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet. or results. Output—Slotted Drain Inlet on Grade • Intercepted Flow—Portion of the flow in the gutter that is captured by the inlet (the remaining portion of the flow that is not intercepted is called bypass flow). Note that the amount of flow intercepted by an inlet in sag is assumed to be 100%. Note that the amount of flow bypassed from an inlet in sag is assumed to be 0. The range is [0. Equivalent Cross Slope—An imaginary straight cross-slope having a conveyance capacity equal to that of the given compound cross-slope. The gutter depression applies to gutters that are continuously depressed (as opposed to local depression that applies to a depression of the gutter at the location of the inlet only). Gutter Depression—Used for Composite Gutter Section. Total Depression—Total of the local depression (Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet) and the gutter depression (the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face.Bentley FlowMaster Environment Slot Tab—Slotted Drain Inlet on Grade The Slot tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face). This is the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face. Depth—Distance from water level to low point of channel bottom.1]. The bypass flow is generally captured by inlets downstream. • • • • • • • • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-91 . Input: • • • • Efficiency—Ratio of the Intercepted Flow by the inlet over the total gutter flow. Local Depression Width—Horizontal width of the locally depressed gutter. the larger of the local depression width and gutter width is used to calculate the inlet efficiency.

Gutter Tab—Combination Inlet in Sag The Gutter tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. Total Interception Length—Length (LT) of the curb opening that would be required to intercept 100% of the flow. measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Input: • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow. measured in the direction of the street) over total interception length (length. • 3-92 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Spread—A measure of the transverse lateral distance (T) from the curb face to the limit of the water flowing on the roadway. If the roadway section is uniform (no gutter depression). Gutter Cross Slope—Slope (Sw) of the gutter.12. • 3. Road Cross Slope—Slope (Sx) of the road pavement. section on the right. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet.Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes • Length Factor—Ratio of curb opening length (length of the opening of the curb inlet. then you can leave the gutter width to 0. given in units of length (cubed) over time. The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. or results. LT of the curb opening that would be required to intercept 100% of the flow).9 Combination Inlet in Sag Dialog Box The combination inlet in sag worksheet dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • • • • “Gutter Tab—Combination Inlet in Sag” “Inlet Tab—Combination Inlet in Sag” “Grate Tab—Combination Inlet in Sag” “Curb Tab—Combination Inlet in Sag” “Output—Combination Inlet in Sag” Additionally. Gutter Width—Width of the gutter (W) measured from the curb face to the break in slope of the roadway pavement. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway.0 as well as the gutter cross-slope.

section on the right. Grate Type—The HEC-22 methodology contains 8 different types of grates.5 ft. Local Depression Width—Horizontal width of the locally depressed gutter. In the case of a continuously depressed gutter. 100%]. which includes the bars (measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway). To change these defaults: right click on the Grate Length field. or results. The types defined by HEC-22 are: – – – – – – – – • Curved Vane 30° – 45° Tilt Bar 45° – 60° Tilt Bar 45° – 85° Tilt Bar P-30 P-50 P-50 x 100 Reticuline • Clogging—The clogging factor accounts for the reduction in efficiency of the inlet due to partial clogging by debris. Grate Tab—Combination Inlet in Sag The Grate tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. section on the right. 100% corresponds to a completely clogged grate inlet. the larger of the local depression width and gutter width is used to calculate the inlet efficiency. choose Grate Length Properties and change the maximum and minimum value allowed. Grate Length—Total length of the grate inlet. etc. resulting in no flow interception. leaves. including bars (measured in the road direction). or results.5 ft – 4. shape of the bars. Input: • • Local Depression—Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet. The default values for the range of Grate Length are 0. The grate type affect the inlet efficiency. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-93 .Bentley FlowMaster Environment Inlet Tab—Combination Inlet in Sag The Inlet tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. The valid range is [0%. etc. which defines their geometry (spacing. Input: • • Grate Width—Total width of the grate inlet.).

the grate width (total width of the grate inlet. measured in the road direction). leaves. or results. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face. Total Depression—Total of the local depression (Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet) and the gutter depression (the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face. which accounts for the bars of the grate reducing the opening area (specific to each grate type). Input: • • • Curb Opening Length—Length of the opening of the curb inlet (measured in the direction of the street). including bars. This is a function of the grate length (total length of the grate inlet. including bars. Active Grate Weir Length—Weir length of the grate used when the grate acts as a weir (at low water depth). and the clogging factor (accounts for the reduction in efficiency of the inlet due to partial clogging by debris. Output—Combination Inlet in Sag • • Depth—Distance from water level to low point of channel bottom. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway). from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face). resulting in no flow interception). measured in the cross- • • • 3-94 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . section on the right. Opening Height—Vertical measurement of the orifice opening. the grate width (total width of the grate inlet. The gutter depression applies to gutters that are continuously depressed (as opposed to local depression that applies to a depression of the gutter at the location of the inlet only). Gutter Depression—Used for Composite Gutter Section. measured in the road direction). 1 corresponds to a completely clogged grate inlet. which includes the bars. This is the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face. which includes the bars. etc.1]. The valid range is [0. Open Grate Area—Clear opening of the grate used when the grate acts as an orifice (at high water depth). the opening ratio.Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes Curb Tab—Combination Inlet in Sag The Curb tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. Curb Throat Type—3 types of curb inlets are defined: – – – • Horizontal throat (most common curb inlet) Vertical throat Inclined throat Throat Incline Angle—Angle of the curb opening throat (measured from the vertical). This is a function of the grate length (total length of the grate inlet.

Gutter Width—Width of the gutter (W) measured from the curb face to the break in slope of the roadway pavement. section on the right. a Messages tab is included in each worksheet. etc. • • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-95 . Manning’s Coefficient—Roughness coefficient used in Manning's Formula. given in units of length (cubed) over time.12. measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway.Bentley FlowMaster Environment sectional plane of the roadway). The top section of this tab displays informational calculation messages. Also the vertical drop divided by the channel length. or results. Input: • • • • Discharge—Volumetric rate of flow.10 Combination Inlet on Grade Dialog Box The combination inlet on grade worksheet dialog box comprises the following tabs: • • • • • “Gutter Tab—Combination Inlet on Grade” “Inlet Tab—Combination Inlet on Grade” “Grate Tab—Combination Inlet on Grade” “Curb Tab—Combination Inlet on Grade” “Output—Combination Inlet on Grade” Additionally. 1 corresponds to a completely clogged grate inlet. resulting in no flow interception). If the roadway section is uniform (no gutter depression).1]. while the bottom section lets you enter any explanatory notes that you wish to be associated with the worksheet. Road Cross Slope—Slope (Sx) of the road pavement. measured in the crosssectional plane of the roadway. Gutter Cross Slope—Slope (Sw) of the gutter. and the clogging factor (accounts for the reduction in efficiency of the inlet due to partial clogging by debris. leaves. then you can leave the gutter width to 0. 3. Gutter Tab—Combination Inlet on Grade The Gutter tab comprises an input section on the left and an output.0 as well as the gutter cross-slope. Slope—Longitudinal slope in the channel. The valid range is [0.

• Grate Tab—Combination Inlet on Grade The Grate tab comprises an input section on the left and an output.1]. To change these defaults: right click on the Grate Length field. In the case of a continuously depressed gutter. the larger of the local depression width and gutter width is used to calculate the inlet efficiency. which defines their geometry (spacing. shape of the bars.Inlet Worksheet Dialog Boxes Inlet Tab—Combination Inlet on Grade The Inlet tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. including bars (measured in the road direction). Input: • • Grate Width—Total width of the grate inlet.). Input: • • Local Depression—Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet. choose Grate Length Properties and change the maximum and minimum value allowed. Local Depression Width—Horizontal width of the locally depressed gutter. The grate type affect the inlet efficiency. or results. etc. section on the right. The default values for the range of Grate Length are 0. Grate Length—Total length of the grate inlet. Grate Type—The HEC-22 methodology contains 8 different types of grates. Efficiency—Ratio of the Intercepted Flow by the inlet over the total gutter flow. section on the right. The types defined by HEC-22 are: – – – – – – Curved Vane 30° – 45° Tilt Bar 45° – 60° Tilt Bar 45° – 85° Tilt Bar P-30 P-50 • 3-96 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . which includes the bars (measured in the cross-sectional plane of the roadway). or results.5 ft.5 ft – 4. The range is [0.

100% corresponds to a completely clogged grate inlet. Velocity—Linear measure of flow rate given in units of length over time. etc. section on the right. The bypass flow is generally captured by inlets downstream. 100%]. This is the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face. Note that the amount of flow intercepted by an inlet in sag is assumed to be 100%. leaves. The splash-over velocity is a function of the Grate Type and the Grate Length. Splash Over Velocity—Gutter velocity where splash-over first occurs. • • • • • • • • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-97 . from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face. Spread—A measure of the transverse lateral distance (T) from the curb face to the limit of the water flowing on the roadway. Gutter Depression—Used for Composite Gutter Section. Total Depression—Total of the local depression (Depth of a gutter depression a’ existing only at the location of the inlet) and the gutter depression (the depth a of the gutter measured at the curb face. Input: • Curb Opening Length—Length of the opening of the curb inlet (measured in the direction of the street). The valid range is [0%. Flow Area—Cross sectional area of flow. Note that the amount of flow bypassed from an inlet in sag is assumed to be 0. Curb Tab—Combination Inlet on Grade The Curb tab comprises an input section on the left and an output. from the projection of the pavement crossslope at the curb face).Bentley FlowMaster Environment – – • P-50 x 100 Reticuline Clogging—The clogging factor accounts for the reduction in efficiency of the inlet due to partial clogging by debris. or results. Depth—Distance from water level to low point of channel bottom. Bypass Flow—Portion of the flow that is not captured by the inlet. Output—Combination Inlet on Grade • Intercepted Flow—Portion of the flow in the gutter that is captured by the inlet (the remaining portion of the flow that is not intercepted is called bypass flow). resulting in no flow interception. The gutter depression applies to gutters that are continuously depressed (as opposed to local depression that applies to a depression of the gutter at the location of the inlet only).

0 means that the grate is completely clogged (3. Equivalent Cross Slope—An imaginary straight cross-slope having a conveyance capacity equal to that of the given compound cross-slope. ft) = Clogging factor (unitless. Grate Flow Option—This menu lets you exclude front flow. measured in the direction of the street) over total interception length (length. La = Lg (1-f) Where La Lg f = Active grate length (m. ft) = Length of the grate (m. side flow.13 Combination Inlet Options Dialog Box This dialog box lets you modify certain calculation options.3) • Length Factor—Ratio of curb opening length (length of the opening of the curb inlet. 3-98 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . or both during the calculations. or neither duing the calculations.Combination Inlet Options Dialog Box • • • • • Frontal Flow Factor—Ratio of frontal flow intercepted by the grate inlet to total frontal flow. Grate Flow Ratio—Ratio of frontal flow (portion of flow Qw that is in the gutter within the width of the grate) to total flow. grate inlet. Side Flow Factor—Ratio of side flow intercepted by the grate inlet to total side flow. Total Interception Length—Length (LT) of the curb opening that would be required to intercept 100% of the flow. Active Grate Length—Length of the side of the grate that is parallel to the curb (grate length) reduced by the clogging factor. • 3. LT of the curb opening that would be required to intercept 100% of the flow). The controls available to do this are as follows: • • Calculation Option—This menu lets you use the curb inlet. f = 1.

14 Rating Table Setup Dialog Box This dialog box lets you define the parameters of a rating table for the associated worksheet. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-99 . The following buttons are available: • • Define Rating Table—This button opens the Rating Table Setup dialog box.Bentley FlowMaster Environment 3. The dialog includes a tabular grid and the following control buttons: • • Insert—Creates a new row in the tabular grid. Increment—This value determines how the range determined by the Minimum and Maximum values is broken down. displaying the current rating table as it will be printed. The tabular grid contains the following columns: • Attribute—This drop-down list lets you choose the attribute to which the rating table will be applied. Delete—Deletes the selected row in the tabular grid. The options include: – – – – – • • • Roughness Coefficient Channel Slope Normal Depth Bottom Width Right/Left-Side Slope Minimum—The lower limit of the user-specified range.14. letting you redefine the table parameters. 3. Print Preview—This button opens the print preview dialog box. Maximum—The upper limit of the user-specified range.1 Rating Table Dialog Box The Rating Table dialog box displays the result of the rating table defined in the Rating Table Setup dialog box.

letting you redefine the table parameters.15. Increment—This value determines how the range determined by the Minimum and Maximum values is broken down. The following buttons are available: • • • Define Rating Curve—This button opens the Rating Curve Setup dialog box. allowing another attribute (for a total of three) to be plotted. Print Preview—This button opens the print preview dialog box. displaying the current rating table as it will be printed. Minimum—The lower limit of the user-specified range for the associated attribute.1 Rating Curve Dialog Box The rating curve dialog box displays the result of the rating table defined in the Rating Curve Setup dialog box. You can plot a single curve or a family of curves. 3-100 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . the Varying fields become active. Increment—This value determines how the range determined by the Minimum and Maximum values is broken down. Minimum—The lower limit of the user-specified range for the associated attribute. Vs (drop-down list)—The attribute along the x (horizontal) axis. Chart Options—This button opens the TeeChart Editor dialog box. Maximum—The upper limit of the user-specified range for the associated attribute. letting you modify the graph display options. 3.15 Rating Curve Setup Dialog Box This dialog box lets you plot one or more curves for each worksheet.Rating Curve Setup Dialog Box 3. Varying—When the Family of Curves check box is checked. The following controls are available: • • • • • • • • • • Varying (check box)—When this box is checked. Maximum—The upper limit of the user-specified range for the associated attribute. this menu lets you choose a third attribute to plot. Plot (drop-down list)—The attribute along the y (vertical) axis.

This option is not available for irregular cross sections. 3. A point is defined by entering a station value along with the elevation at that station point. • 3. Irregular cross-sections are displayed on a grid. This option is not available for irregular cross sections. The dialog box contains the following buttons: • • Print Preview—This command opens the Print Preview dialog box. letting you change the report settings. Aspect Ratio—This control is inactive unless the Manual Scale box is checked. The following controls are available: • • Report Title—Enter the title for your report.16 Cross Section Report Setup Dialog Box This dialog box lets you modify the display settings of the cross section report.value determines the scale of the cross section diagram. the title displays at the top of the printed report. Manual Scale—Clicking this check box activates the Aspect Ratio control. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-101 . Options—This command opens the Cross Section Report Setup dialog box.Bentley FlowMaster Environment 3.17 Cross Section Dialog Box This dialog box displays a cross section of the current element using the settings defined in the Cross Section Report Setup dialog box. Delete (button)—This button deletes the selected point from the section table. displaying the cross section as it will appear when it is printed. The dialog box comprises the following sections: • Section Geometry—This section of the dialog box lets you specify the points that allow you to define the channel shape. It increases or decreases the size of the diagram relative to the default value of 1. letting you increase or decrease the size of the cross section diagram. The following controls are available in this section of the dialog box: – – Insert (button)—This button creates a new point in the section table.18 Irregular Section Editor Dialog Box This dialog box lets you define a cross section for the associated irregular section.

a segment can be defined.1 Open and Closed Channel Weighting Methods Bentley FlowMaster uses the following weighting methods: • Pavlovskii’s Method—The Pavlovskii method may be used for open channel as well as closed top irregular channels. and a roughness coefficient can then be applied to this segment. By defining this point and the end point. The following methods are available: 3. 3-102 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Separate methods can be chosen for open and closed channels. Delete (button)—This button deletes the selected point from the section table.Weighted Roughness Method Dialog Box – – Station (column)—This column lets you enter the station for which the associated elevation applies in the cross section. Each segment can be assigned a different roughness value.19. Elevation (column)—This column lets you define the elevation for the associated station to define a point in the cross section. The currently specified method is displayed in the Current Roughness Method field. Roughness Coefficient—The roughness value (Manning’s) that is to be associated with the segment defined by the start and end station values. a segment can be defined. End Station—This column contains a menu containing all of the available station points. Segments appear red when no roughness has been defined in the Segment section. • Segment Roughness—This section of the dialog box lets you define the roughness along specific segments of the cross section. By defining this point and the start point.19 Weighted Roughness Method Dialog Box The Weighted Roughness Method dialog box lets you define the roughness method that will be used in the calculations. – – – Insert (button)—This button creates a new point in the section table. – – • Section Plot—This section of the dialog box displays a continuously updated diagram of the cross section that is defined in the Sections table. 3. Start Station—This column contains a menu containing all of the available station points. and appear green when roughness values have been defined. and a roughness coefficient can then be applied to this segment.

5 N A ) ł (A1n11. irregular channels such as natural floodplains.5 + .6) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-103 .5 N P ) ł (Pn11.5 + A2n1.5 ) 3 1 2 = P 2 3 2 (3..5) = = Roughness coefficient Wetted perimeter Subscripts represents subdivisions of one given section • Colebatch Method—The Colebatch equation is normally used for open..Bentley FlowMaster Environment N 2 (PN nN ) n= 1 P n P = 2 2 Pn12 + P2 n2 + . + AN n1N.5 + . N 2 3 ( n= Ł Where n P 1 PN n1.4) Where = = Roughness coefficient Weighted perimeter Subscripts represents subdivisions of one given section • Horton’s Method—The Horton composite roughness equation is normally used for solving closed top irregular channels such as custom arches or cunnette conduit sections. N 2 3 ( n= Ł 1 AN n1. This equation is also applied in certain specific situations to open channels where steep banks or wide flat floodplains are encountered.... + PN n1N. + PN nN 1 P (3...5 ) 3 2 = A 2 3 2 (3...5 + P2n1.

.. irregular channels such as natural floodplains.8) 3-104 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . n1 n2 nN (3.. N (AN nN ) n= 1 A n A = A1n1 + A2 n2 + .. + AN nN A = = Roughness coefficient Flow area (3. irregular channels such as natural floodplains.7) Where Subscripts represents subdivisions of one given section • Lotter Method—The Lotter equation is normally used for open.Weighted Roughness Method Dialog Box Where n A = = Roughness coefficient Flow area Subscripts represents subdivisions of one given section • Cox Method—The Cox equation is normally used for open...+ N N . n= PR N 1 5 3 5 = PR 5 5 5 3 5 PN RN 3 Ł nN ł P R1 3 P2 R2 3 P R 3 1 + + .

WSP-2. and WSPRO). For these situations. WSP-2.3 of the HEC-2 User's Manual (September. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-105 . Unlike HEC-2. and WSPRO) tends to underestimate effective roughness. see “Note to HEC-2. which use a segmented conveyance method. The segmented conveyance method (HEC-2. can be used for both open channel sections and closed sections. WSP-2. but will make this adjustment at any location in the section. it is recommended that you use Manning’s friction method for irregular channels. and WSPRO Users Improved Lotter Method uses a weighted roughness method for solving uniform flow equations unlike most standard step backwater programs (HEC-2. WSP-2.Bentley FlowMaster Environment Where n P R = = = Roughness coefficient Wetted perimeter Hydraulic radius Subscripts represents subdivisions of one given section • Improved Lotter Method—This method uses a combination of the Horton and Lotter equations.19. unlike the step backwater programs. 1990). WSP-2.2 Note to HEC-2. Bentley FlowMaster's weighted roughness method avoids underestimating effective roughness by combining adjacent segments using Horton's equation in a manner similar to the method applied for subdivided main channels with banks steeper than 5H:1V as documented in Section 2. and WSPRO Users” on page 3-105. Improved Lotter Method also dynamically adjusts its flatness and steepness checks ensuring that computed roughness values will always be higher than the minimum input value encountered over the wetter flow area. Improved Lotter Method does not confine this correction to the main channel. Improved Lotter Method will produce results similar to the segmented conveyance method (HEC-2. For more information. Because both methods are based on Manning’s conveyance equations. WSPRO) except for the following two cases: Sections containing steep vertical segments or flat shallow submerged overbanks intersected by water surface. Improved Lotter weighted roughness method is more general and. Improved Lotter Method yields a higher effective weighted roughness for the total section than the segmented conveyance method. 3. and in many instances the effective weighted roughness will be actually lower than any of the input segment roughnesses.

Default Unit System for New Project—Sets the default unit system used by future new projects.FlexUnits Tab The FlexUnits tab lets you modify the unit settings for the current project. • • • • The table comprises the following columns: • • Formatter—Parameter measured by the unit. (-3) rounds to 1000. Enter a number from 0 to 15 to indicate the number of digits after the decimal point. • • • 3-106 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . To change the unit of an attribute type. Reset Defaults US—This button sets the unit system used by the current project to U. not for the current project. see “Set Field Options Dialog Box” on page 3-114. These defaults are saved as an XML file.20 Options Dialog Box The Options dialog box contains two tabs: • • “Options Dialog Box . click the choice list and click the unit you want. not for the current project. which you can create using Save As. so you can load them in later. Unit—Type of measurement displayed. customary. Default Unit System for New Project—Sets the default unit system used by future new projects. and so on. Display Precision—Rounding of numbers and number of digits displayed after the decimal point.1 Options Dialog Box .ProjectWise Tab” 3.FlexUnits Tab” “Options Dialog Box . This option also lets you use both US Customary and SI units in the same worksheet. Click Tools > Options to open the FlexUnits tab in the Options dialog box. Enter a negative number for rounding to the nearest power of 10: (-1) rounds to 10.Options Dialog Box 3. Reset Defaults SI—This button sets the unit system used by the current project to SI. Format—Select the format for your numbering.20. (-2) rounds to 100. such as Notepad.S. Load—This button lets you open your own set of custom unit defaults. Save As saves the defaults as an XML file that you can edit in an XML editor or text editor. For more information. The FlexUnits tab contains the following controls: • Save As—This button lets you setup your own set of unit defaults.

is the only category).21 Project Properties Dialog Box This dialog box lets you view and modify project information.. This is an optional field. Alphabetic (button)—Click this to display the Project Properties alphabetically without categories. filename. Update server on Save—When this is checked. the files on your ProjectWise server will also be updated and all changes to the files will immediately become visible to other ProjectWise users. If you have not yet logged into a datasource.. To change the datasource. If you click Cancel after you have changed the default datasource. this field will display <login>. which lets you browse your computer for the appropriate logo. and any notes associated with the project.ProjectWise Tab Note: These settings affect ProjectWise users only. This is an optional field. Project Company—This field lets you enter your company’s name. The ProjectWise tab contains options for using FlowMaster with ProjectWise. see “Considerations for ProjectWise Users” on page 3-115 3. complex projects. including the date. Click in this field to display an Ellipses button.) button to open the Change Datasource dialog box. can significantly affect performance. click the Ellipses (. • • • • Categorized (button)—Click this to display the categories in the Project Properties dialog box (Misc. engineer. This tab contains the following controls: • Default Datasource—Displays the current ProjectWise datasource.20.Bentley FlowMaster Environment 3. • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-107 . Project Engineer—This field lets you enter the project engineer’s name.bmp file) to display at the bottom of all reports associated with the current project. especially for large. the new default datasource is retained. which will appear on the bottom of all reports associated with the current project. any time you save your FlowMaster project locally using the File > Save menu command. when turned on. This option is turned off by default. • For more information about using FlowMaster with ProjectWise. Click Project > Project Properties to open the Project Properties dialog box. Company Logo—This field lets you select a logo (. Note: This option.2 Options Dialog Box .

A Print Preview button is available. Project Filename—This field is automatically populated with the file name and location of the project file. Click Solve. To view a GVF profile table: 1. 3.fm8 and yourfilename. projects are saved to your \My Documents directory. To view a GVF profile: 1.22 GVF Profile Dialog Box The GVF Profile dialog box displays a diagram of the calculated gradually-varied profile. 4. 2. letting you see what the profile will look like when it is printed. Click the GVF Profile button. Click the GVF Profile Table button. Enter the data.fm8. 3. By default.GVF Profile Dialog Box • • Project Notes—This field lets you enter any notes that you wish to be associated with the project. Create a new worksheet. 4. 2. Project Date—This field is automatically populated with the date and time that the project was created. Create a new worksheet. Enter the data.mdb. Click Solve. • 3. but you can save them to any directory that you specify. The columns in the table are as follows: • • Distance Depth 3-108 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . 3. The data in this field can be modified by clicking the arrow button on the right side of the field and selecting a date on the calendar that appears. Bentley FlowMaster creates data files with the format: yourfilename.23 GVF Profile Table Dialog Box The GVF Profile Table dialog box displays the results of the gradually-varied flow calculations in a tabular format.

Bentley FlowMaster Environment • • • • • Invert Elevation Flow Area Wetted Perimeter Velocity Specific Energy A Print Preview button is available. The following controls are available in the Tabular Reports dialog box: • Copy—This button lets you copy the contents of the selected table cell. The attributes that are reported will vary according to the type of element being calculated. 3. and/ or columns for the purpose of pasting into a text editing program such as Notepad. The attributes that are reported will vary according to the type of element being calculated. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-109 .24 Tabular Reports The tabular report dialog box displays all available input data and results for each of the worksheet types. rows.24. letting you see what the report will look like when it is printed.1 Tabular Report Dialog Box The tabular report dialog box displays all available input data and results for each of the worksheet types. You can customize tabular reports in the following ways: • • • • • • • • Change the report title Add and remove columns Move columns Resize columns Change column headings Copy data to the Windows clipboard Sort the contents of a column Filter the contents of a table • 3.

only the data for channels that meet your filter criteria will be displayed. • Right-clicking on a column heading in the Tabular Reports displays a shortcut menu containing the following commands: • Units and Formatting—Displays the Set Field Options dialog box. see “Set Field Options Dialog Box” on page 3-114. • • – – • Filter—Displays a submenu containing the following commands: – 3-110 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Click OK to save those changes and close the dialog box or Cancel to exit without making any changes. For more information. from top to bottom. Sort Descending—Sorts the contents of the currently-selected column alphabetically from Z to A. from top to bottom. Sorts cleared check boxes to the top and selected ones to the bottom. and format of the data displayed in the currently selected column. Custom—Displays the Custom Sort dialog box. For more information. if you wish. Sorts numerically from positive to negative. you are prompted to change the title of the report. Sort—Displays a submenu containing the following sorting commands: – Sort Ascending—Sorts the contents of the currently-selected column alphabetically from A to Z. see “Print Preview Dialog Box” on page 3-113. For more information. if you wanted to view data only for trapezoidal channels with a normal depth greater than or equal to 5 feet. Quick Filter—Displays the Filter dialog box. you would create a quick filter by right-clicking the Normal Depth column. display precision. Sorts numerically from negative to positive. see “Custom Sort Dialog Box” on page 3-112. You would then set the operator to >= and the value to 5 and click OK. Sorts selected check boxes to the top and cleared ones to the bottom. For example. which lets you select one or more attribute by which to sort the contents of the selected column. see “Tabular Report Setup Dialog Box” on page 3-111. which lets you filter the contents of the tabular report by the currently-selected column. When you click the Report button. letting you change the units. then select this command and type the new name for the label ion the Edit Column Label dialog box. from top to bottom. Right-click the column whose label you want to change. Edit—Opens the Tabular Report Setup dialog box. Edit Column Label—Lets you change the text of a column label. from top to bottom. which lets you see what the report will look like when it is printed.Tabular Reports • Report—This button displays the Print Preview dialog box. For more information. allowing you to make changes to the format of the currently selected table. then selecting Filter > Quick Filter to display the Filter dialog box.

This list contains all of the attributes that are available for the type of table you are creating. The Add and Remove buttons are located in the center of the dialog box. the selected attributes appear as columns in the table in the same order that they appear in the list. Holding down the Control key provides single element selection behavior. as well as to arrange the order in which the columns appear. then click the Add button [>] or drag and drop the highlighted attributes to the Selected Columns list. • Note: Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-111 . The attributes displayed in yellow represent non-editable attributes. [ >> ]—Adds all of the items in the Available Columns list to the Selected Columns list. – – – – [ > ]—Adds the selected items from the Available Columns list to the Selected Columns list. select one or more attributes in the Available Columns list. To add columns to the Selected Columns list. while those displayed in white represent editable attributes. • Column Manipulation Buttons—Lets you select or clear columns to be used in the table. see “Filter Dialog” on page 3-112. When you open the table.2 Tabular Report Setup Dialog Box The Tabular Report Setup dialog box allows you to customize any table through the following options: • Available Columns—Contains all the attributes that are available for your table design. For more information.24. Selected Columns—Contains attributes that appear in your custom designed tabular report. You can select multiple attributes in the Available Columns list by holding down the Shift key or the Control key while clicking with the mouse. You can drag and drop or use the up and down buttons to change the order of the attributes in the table. The Available Columns list is located on the left side of the dialog box. which lets you set up a custom filter based on one or more criteria. Holding down the Shift key provides group selection behavior.Bentley FlowMaster Environment – Custom—Displays the Filter dialog box. The Selected Columns list is located on the right-hand side of the Tabular Report Setup dialog box. Reset—Turns off the active filter. [ < ]—Removes the selected items from the Selected Columns list. [ << ]—Removes all items from the Selected Columns list. causing all available rows in the table to be displayed. – 3.

>. Delete—Deletes the current row (and filter criterion) from the table. Operator—The operator to use when comparing the filter value against the data in the specific column (operators include: =. Each filter criterion contains three parts: • • • Attribute—The attribute to filter. Each sort key contains two parts: • • Attribute—The attribute to sort. <. the Filter Editor dialog opens. Each row in the table represents a separate sort key.24. You can select any field in the tabular report from a drop-down list. and the following controls: • • Insert—Inserts a new row into the table. 3. letting you select one or more attributes by which to sort the contents of the selected column. >=. the Custom Sort dialog box opens. 3. highlight the item to be moved. Sort Order—The order in which to sort the selected attribute’s values. each row of which represents a filter criterion.4 Filter Dialog When you perform a Quick Filter or a Custom Filter in a tabular report. <=. Value—The comparison value. letting you specify one or more filter criteria. 3-112 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . then move it up or down in the list by dragging or clicking the up or down button located below the Selected Columns list. <>). The Custom Sort dialog box contains a table in which you define custom sort keys. Delete—Deletes the current row (and sort key) from the table.Tabular Reports To rearrange the order of the attributes in the Selected Columns list. The Filter dialog box contains a table.3 Custom Sort Dialog Box When you perform a Custom Sort in a tabular report. Select Ascending or Descending.24. Each row in the table represents a separate filter criterion. and the following controls: • • Insert—Inserts a new row into the table.

Single Page View (button)—Displays a single page in the preview pane. • • • • • • • • • • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-113 . Backward/Forward (buttons)—Let you navigate to and from pages you have already viewed. you can only use this with single-page view. such as a word-processing application or Notepad. You can paste (Ctrl+V) the data into other software. The following controls are available in this dialog box: • • • Table of Contents (button)—Displays the table of contents for the current pump chart. When multiple filter criterian are defined. Previous Page (button)—Returns the report to the previous page. and to define the print settings. Copy (button)—Copies the text from the Print Preview dialog box to the Windows clipboard. Print (button)—Prints the current chart as it appears in the preview pane. Find (button)—Lets you search for words and phrases in the chart displayed in the preview pane. A filter will remain active for the associated table until the filter is reset. Multiple Page View (button)—Lets you display multiple pages simultaneously in the preview pane. Zoom In (button)—Reduces in the current view in the preview pane. Next Page (button)—Advances the report to the next page.25 Print Preview Dialog Box The Print Preview dialog box lets you see the current view of the chart as it will be printed. you can only use this with single-page view. Zoom (drop-down list)—Lets you select the magnification level of the current view in the preview pane. Zoom Out (button)—Magnifies the current view in the preview pane.Bentley FlowMaster Environment Any number of criterion elements can be added to a filter. Current Page Number—Displays the current page number and the total pages in the current preview. Multiple filter criteria are implicitly joined with a logical AND statement. 3. only rows that meet all of the specified criteria will be displayed.

right-click any unit in any Bentley FlowMaster dialog box and select Units and Formatting. (-1) rounds to the nearest 10. (For more information..26 Set Field Options Dialog Box The Set Field Options dialog box lets you view and edit the unit. The string starts with a minus sign if the number is negative. For example.E+ddd” or “-d.ddd. an entered value of 3.ddd..35 will appear as 5. and will automatically enter zeros after the decimal place to do so. With a display precision of 3..ddd. the entered value is converted to a string of the form “-d.. (-2) rounds to the nearest 100.. or the rounding of numbers. The number will also be rounded. display precision. the value that would appear as 5. General—The general format truncates any zeros after the decimal point. see “Options Dialog Box” on page 3106.ddd. Number—When using the number format. Format (drop-down list)—This menu lets you select the display format used by the current field.5 will appear as 3. regardless of the display precision value. To open this dialog box.e+ddd”.ddd.Set Field Options Dialog Box 3. and format of the data displayed in the corresponding attribute field.89 displays as 1235000. where each 'd' indicates a digit (0 – 9). The string starts with a minus sign if the number is negative. and so on.2 when using General format. • – – – 3-114 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . regardless of the display precision. a value of 1234567. Units (drop-down list)—This menu lets you select the units used by the current field.) The Set Field Options dialog box comprises the following components: • • • Value (field)—This non-editable field displays a preview of the appearance of the current unit when the current field options are applied. Display Precision (field)—This field lets you define the display precision for the current field.200 in Fixed Point format will appear as 5. Choices include: – Scientific—When using scientific format. The display precision setting can be used to control the number of digits displayed after the decimal point. Fixed Point—Fixed point format abides by the display precision setting. the entered value is converted to a string of the form “-d. where each 'd' indicates a digit (0 – 9). With a display precision of 3.. Enter a negative number to specify rounding to the nearest power of 10.”. if the display precision is set to (-3). an entered value of 5.500. Thousand separators are inserted between each group of three digits to the left of the decimal point. So.4.

Note that this will abandon any changes you have made since the last server update. Use FlowMaster’s File > New command to create a new project. across a distributed organization. project files can be accessed quickly. refer to the ProjectWise online help. Open. The first time you choose one of the File > ProjectWise menu commands in your current FlowMaster session. you are prompted to log into a ProjectWise datasource. • • • • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-115 . To learn more about ProjectWise. When ProjectWise is integrated with FlowMaster. you are prompted to select one of the following options: – – Check In—Updates the project in ProjectWise with your latest changes and unlocks the project so other ProjectWise users can edit it.Bentley FlowMaster Environment 3. To learn more about using ProjectWise with FlowMaster.27. When you Close a project already stored in ProjectWise using File > Close. FlowMaster automatically installs all the components necessary for you to use ProjectWise to store and share your FlowMaster projects. Use FlowMaster’s File > Open command to open a local copy of the current project. such as Save. see the following topics: • • “General Guidelines for using ProjectWise with FlowMaster” on page 3-115 “Performing ProjectWise Operations from within FlowMaster” on page 3-116 3. If ProjectWise is installed on your system. The datasource you log into remains the current datasource until you change it using the File > ProjectWise > Change Datasource command. Use FlowMaster’s File > Save command to save a copy of the current project to your local computer. and Change Datasource. The project is not stored in ProjectWise until you select File > ProjectWise > Save As. or among collaborating professionals.27 Considerations for ProjectWise Users Bentley ProjectWise provides managed access to FlowMaster content within a workgroup. checked out for use. Unlock—Unlocks the project so other ProjectWise users can edit it but does not update the project in ProjectWise.1 General Guidelines for using ProjectWise with FlowMaster Follow these guidelines when using FlowMaster with ProjectWise: • • Use the File > ProjectWise commands to perform ProjectWise file operations. and checked back in directly from within FlowMaster.

2. calculation result files are not managed inside ProjectWise. If you haven’t already logged into ProjectWise.27. • In the FlowMaster Options dialog box. This option. when turned on. In FlowMaster. If the current project is in ProjectWise. complex projects. you are prompted to do so. there is a ProjectWise tab with the Update server on Save check box. and a ProjectWise icon will appear on the far right side of the status bar. You can perform the following ProjectWise operations from within FlowMaster: To save an open FlowMaster project to ProjectWise: 1. FlowMaster projects associated with ProjectWise appear in the Most Recently Used Files list (at the bottom of the File menu) in the following format: pwname://PointServer:_TestDatasource/Documents/TestFolder/Test1. Select this option if you want to exit Bentley FlowMaster but continue working on the project later. In this release of FlowMaster. type your ProjectWise user name and password. as shown below.Considerations for ProjectWise Users – Leave Out—Leaves the project checked out so others cannot edit it and retains any changes you have made since the last server update to the files on your local computer. especially for large.prj • • 3. the files on your ProjectWise server will also be updated and all changes to the files will immediately become visible to other ProjectWise users.2 Performing ProjectWise Operations from within FlowMaster You can quickly tell whether or not the current FlowMaster project is in ProjectWise or not by looking at the title bar and the status bar of the FlowMaster window. then click Log in. 3-116 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . “pwname://” will appear in front of the file name in the title bar. select File > ProjectWise > Save As. A local copy of reulsts is maintained on your computer. When this is checked. any time you save your FlowMaster project locally using the File > Save menu command. can significantly affect performance. This option is turned off by default. Select a ProjectWise datasource. but to ensure accurate results you should recalculate projects when you first open them from ProjectWise.

2. Select File > ProjectWise > Open. Click OK. 2. b. If you haven’t already logged into ProjectWise. then click Log in. Select File > ProjectWise > Open to open a project stored in ProjectWise. To make a local copy of a FlowMaster project stored in a ProjectWise datasource: 1. select a folder that contains FlowMaster projects. To open a FlowMaster project from a ProjectWise datasource: 1. Keep the default entries for the rest of the fields in the dialog box d. type your ProjectWise user name and password. Select File > ProjectWise > Open. change information about the project as required. In the Document list box. Keep the default entries for the rest of the fields in the dialog box d. 3. If you haven’t already logged into ProjectWise. b. then select a folder in the current ProjectWise datasource in which to store your project. In the ProjectWise Save Document dialog box. Click Open. select a FlowMaster project. type your ProjectWise user name and password. then click Log in. perform these steps: a. you are prompted to do so. 4. 3. Select File > ProjectWise > Save As. In the ProjectWise Select Document dialog box. 2. From the Folder drop-down menu. In the ProjectWise Save Document dialog box. Click Change next to the Folder field. you are prompted to do so. In the ProjectWise Log in dialog box.Bentley FlowMaster Environment 3. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 3-117 . To copy an open FlowMaster project from one ProjectWise datasource to another: 1. select a different ProjectWise datasource. Select a ProjectWise datasource. c. Type the name of your FlowMaster project in the Name field. then click Log in. enter the following information: a. We recommend that you keep the ProjectWise name the same as or as close to the FlowMaster project name as possible. Select a ProjectWise datasource. then click OK. 5. c. Select File > ProjectWise > Change Datasource.

2. 3. or by using the ProjectWise Explorer. You must have previously added these background layer files as described in the first bullet above. Select File > ProjectWise > Change Datasource. Using File > ProjectWise > Open—This works the same as the normal ProjectWise > Open command. The files are intended to be shared with other users at the same time. you are prompted with two options: you can copy all the files to the local project folder for use by the project. you are prompted with two options: you can copy the background layer files to the project folder for use by the project. except that background layer files are not locked in ProjectWise for the current user to edit. the reference to the file is removed but the file itself is not deleted from ProjectWise. Select File > Save As. In the ProjectWise Log in dialog box. 4. or you can remove the background references and manually reassign them after you have saved the project locally. To change the default ProjectWise datasource: 1. To add a background layer file reference to a project that exists in Project Wise— The ProjectWise Select Document dialog box opens.Considerations for ProjectWise Users 3. type the name of ProjectWise datasource you want to log into. To use background layer files with ProjectWise: • Using File > ProjectWise > Save As—If there are background files. Using File > Save As—When you use File > Save As on a project that is already in ProjectWise and there are background layer files. Start FlowMaster. and you can choose any existing ProjectWise document. or you can remove the background references and manually reassign them once the project is in ProjectWise to other existing ProjectWise documents. Save the FlowMaster project to a folder on your local computer. • • • • 3-118 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . then click Log in. When you remove a background layer file reference from a project that exists in ProjectWise.

Chapter How Do I… 4 This section provides step-by-step instructions for performing Bentley FlowMaster’s most commonly used functions. These functions include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Create A New Project” on page 4-120 “Open an Existing Project” on page 4-121 “Create a New Worksheet?” on page 4-121 “Name a Worksheet” on page 4-122 “Edit a Worksheet” on page 4-122 “Create a Rating Table” on page 4-123 “Plot Rating Curves” on page 4-124 “Plot a Cross Section” on page 4-125 “Print a Report” on page 4-125 “Customize a Tabular Report” on page 4-126 “Set Field Options (Unit. Format)” on page 4-129 “Save a Project” on page 4-129 “Exit Bentley FlowMaster” on page 4-129 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 4-119 . Precision.

In the Save As dialog box. 2. – – – To name the project. Alternatively. in the Main Window. To create a new project from the Bentley FlowMaster menu.1 Create A New Project When you first start Bentley FlowMaster. In the Save As dialog box. click Project > Properties. Note: You can click Help > Welcome Dialog to open the Welcome dialog box if 2. then enter your data into the Project Properties dialog box. which lets you create a new project. to create a new project from the Bentley FlowMaster toolbar. click Project > FlexUnits.1. the Welcome dialog box opens. then make any changes. The Main Window opens to a new. 4. then click Save. click File > New > Project (Ctrl+N). You can also create a new project from Bentley FlowMaster’s Main Window when a project is currently open. enter the filename you want to use. then. enter the filename you want to use. To setup the Project Properties. To set up the units for the project.2 Creating a New Project from the Main Window You can create a new project from Bentley FlowMaster’s Main Window by using the menus or the toolbar: 1. 4. The Main Window opens to a new. untitled project. in the Welcome dialog box. click File > Save As. click the Create New Project button. If Bentley FlowMaster is not open. click the New button’s down arrow and select Project. click File > Save As. start Bentley FlowMaster. 4-120 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . in the Main Window. untitled project.1. – To name the project.1 Creating a New Project From the Welcome Dialog Box To create a new project from the Welcome dialog box: 1. Both methods of creating a new project are explained here.Create A New Project 4. then click Save.

the welcome dialog box opens. Use one of the following methods to open an existing project: – – – In the Welcome dialog box. 3. In the Select Project to Open dialog box. then enter your data into the Project Properties dialog box. click the Open Existing Project button. then make any changes. the welcome dialog box opens. Use one of the following methods to create a new worksheet: – – – – In the Welcome dialog box.2 Open an Existing Project When you first start Bentley FlowMaster. In the Project Explorer. then click the Open button. click Project > Properties. In the Bentley FlowMaster menu. 1. click File > New > Worksheet (Ctrl+W). In the Bentley FlowMaster menu. click Create Worksheet. click the New button’s down arrow and select Worksheet. Any project that was already open when you created the New Project is still open. Note: 4.3 Create a New Worksheet? When you first start Bentley FlowMaster. right-click an existing project. browse to the directory where your project is saved. To set up the units for the project.How Do I… – – To setup the Project Properties. You can also open an existing project from Bentley FlowMaster’s Main Window when another project is currently open. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 4-121 . which lets you create a new worksheet. 4. click Project > FlexUnits. You can also create a new worksheet from Bentley FlowMaster’s Main Window when a project is currently open. 1. In the Bentley FlowMaster toolbar. click the Open button. Both the old and new project display in the Project Explorer window. In the Bentley FlowMaster toolbar. Click the project to highlight it. 2. and from the Project Explorer window. then select Add > New Worksheet. click File > Open (Ctrl+O). which lets you open an existing project.

open it by double-clicking it in the Project Explorer. Use one of the following methods to rename a worksheet: – In the Project Explorer window. or results. 3. click the worksheet you want to use. Type the name of the worksheet and press Enter. The section on the left is for input. Change the variable you are solving for by clicking the Solve For drop-down list and making a selection. and the section on the right is output. Set or edit the roughness coefficient by clicking the Ellipsis (…) button next to the Roughness Coefficient field. In the Create New Worksheet dialog box: a. Then. click once on the worksheet label (to the right of the worksheet icon). and is divided along the center into two sections. • 4-122 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .4 Name a Worksheet When you create a new worksheet. In the Worksheets pane. – 2. In the Categories pane. choose a predefined roughness coefficient based on the material used. it is assigned an automatically generated name that comprises the worksheet type followed by a number (the number is incremental). 4.Name a Worksheet 2. Choose the friction method to use in the calculations (available in some worksheet types). Click OK. Right-click on the worksheet whose name you wish to change and select Rename from the shortcut menu. Then you can: • • • Enter input data. To edit a worksheet. 4. to highlight it.5 Edit a Worksheet Each worksheet dialog box comprises multiple tabs. 1. click the element group from which you want to create your worksheet. b. then click the highlighted label again and the label becomes editable. Certain input and output variables are enabled and disabled depending on the friction method you choose.

You might use rating tables to evaluate and show the performance of a design over a range of conditions that it might experience. Click Analysis > Rating Table or click the Rating Table button. 5. Open the worksheet on which you want to base the rating table. Click Solve to calculate the worksheet. and enter your data into it. In the Rating Table Setup dialog box. choose the attributes you want solved—you can select multiple attributes. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 4-123 . The Rating Table Setup dialog box opens. The left side of the rating table corresponds with the input fields on the left side of the worksheet.6 Create a Rating Table A rating table shows how one or more (dependent) attributes change as another (independent) attribute is changed. Move from field to field by clicking on the field with the mouse or pressing Tab or Shift+Tab. Click OK. you can show what the flow and velocity are. 3. Click the worksheet dialog box for which you want to create the rating table. 4. 6. 7. For example. You can create a rating table for every worksheet. while the right side of the rating table ranges of values for the fields on the left half of the rating table. Maximum. and Increment values. The Rating Table dialog box opens and displays the rating table. To create a rating table: 1. You can: – – Click Define Rating Table to change the setup for the table.How Do I… • • Right-click any units to set the Units and Formatting options for any field. 4. for a series of depths in a channel. 2. Click Print Preview to see how the table will look when printed. Enter the Minimum.

For example. The Vs. and Increment data for the Vs. and enter your data into it. Select from the list and enter your data in the fields. You can plot one or more rating curves as graphs for each worksheet. (For more information. You might use rating curves (also called performance curves) to evaluate and show the performance of a design over a range of conditions that it might experience. Choose the attribute to plot from the Plot and Vs. Maximum.7 Plot Rating Curves A rating curve shows how one or more (dependent) attributes change as another (independent) attribute is changed. 7. attribute is the variable for the X axis. and Increment fields become active. Click Solve to calculate the worksheet. Enter the Minimum. Click Chart Options to change the formatting and layout of the graphs. To plot a family of curves. Click Print Preview to see how the curves will look when printed. Click Analysis > Rating Curve or click the Rating Curve button. Maximum. Click OK. 5. 4. You can plot either a single curve or a family of curves. The Rating Curve dialog box opens and displays the rating table. You can: – – – Click Define Rating Curve to change the setup for the table. To plot one or more rating curves: 1. The Rating Curve Setup dialog box opens. 3.Plot Rating Curves 4. select the Varying check box. Click the worksheet dialog box for which you want to plot rating curves. menus. for a series of depths in a channel. attribute. 6.) 4-124 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . see “Tutorial 3—Results Reporting” on page 2-17. you can show what the flow and velocity are. The Plot attribute is the variable for the Y axis. Note that the attribute drop-down list and the associated Minimum. Open the worksheet on which you want to base the rating table. 8. 2.

8. Click Solve to calculate the worksheet. Click the worksheet dialog box for which you want to plot the cross section. then enter a value in the Aspect Ratio field. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 4-125 . 2. 4. To print a detailed report: 1. Open the worksheet for which you want to print a report. Click the worksheet dialog box for which you want to print a report. 3. The Cross Section dialog box opens and displays the rating table. 6. along with all project information present in the Project Properties dialog box. Click Solve to calculate the worksheet. 4. 7. Click OK. and enter your data into it.How Do I… 4. The Cross Section Setup dialog box opens. From the main view. so you can change the Manual Scale value or Report Title. You can: – – Click Print Preview to see how the cross section will look when printed. If you want. Click Analysis > Cross Section or click the Cross Section button. If you want to change the aspect ratio of the diagram. The detailed report contains all input data and results.8 Plot a Cross Section You can plot a cross-sectional diagram for each worksheet. Open the worksheet on which you want to base the cross section. select the Manual Scale check box. 3. Click OK. you can print detailed reports and tabular reports for each worksheet.9 Print a Report Bentley FlowMaster lets you print a variety of reports. 5. 1. 2. and enter your data into it. Click Options to open the Cross Section Setup dialog box. enter a title for the cross section in the Report Title field.

remove. Click the vertical separator line between column headings. select your printer. the table name is used as the title for the printed report. the Print Preview dialog box opens with the report displayed as it will be printed to the currently selected default printer. To change the title that appears on your printed report: a. Change column headings—Right-click the column heading that you wish to change and select Edit Column Label. see “Tabular Report Setup Dialog Box” on page 3-111. rows. • Add and remove columns—You can add. For more information. such as Notepad or Microsoft Excel. Drag the column separator to the left or right to stretch the column to its new size. Move columns—You can drag and drop columns in a tabular report to change the order or columns. then click the Copy button. or columns you want to copy. Click Analysis > Detailed Report. and/or columns to the Windows clipboard. The new title will appear on the report the next time you click the Report button in the Tabular Report dialog box. Copy data—You can copy the contents of the selected table cell. • • • • 4-126 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . then paste the data into another application. This opens the Generic Report Setup dialog box. In the Print Preview dialog box.10 Customize a Tabular Report There are several ways to customize a tabular report: • Change the report title—When you print a table. then click OK. Click the Options button in the Tabular Report dialog box. and change the order of columns from the Tabular Report dialog box by clicking the Edit button. b. which lets you enter a name for the report. A vertical separator line appears betweeen columns to indicate the selected column’s new location before you release the mouse button. After you enter a name for the report and click OK. rows. Notice that the cursor changes shape to indicate that you can resize the column. and click OK to print the report. 5. Just select the cells. Type a new report title in the Report Title dialog box. click the Print button. 4. The Edit button displays the Tabular Report Setup dialog box. Resize columns—You can change the width of any column in a tabular report. Type the new column heading in the Edit Column Label dialog box. then click OK. Select the column heading of the column that you would like to move. then use the mouse drag the column to its new location. which lets you select which columns to include in the table.Customize a Tabular Report 4.

How Do I… • Sort the contents of a table column—You can sort the contents of a table column by right-clicking the column heading and selecting one of the Sort commands. For more information, “Sort the Contents of a Column in a Tabular Report” on page 4127. Filter the contents of a table—You can set up create custom filters to display only certain data in the table by right-clicking a column heading and selecting one of the Filter commands. For more information, “Filter the Contents of a Tabular Report” on page 4-128.

4.10.1

Sort the Contents of a Column in a Tabular Report
To sort the contents of a column in a tabular report: 1. Open the tabular report you want to work with. 2. Right-click the heading of the column you want to sort, then select Sort. 3. Select the sorting method you want to use: – Sort Ascending—Sorts alphabetically from A to Z, from top to bottom. Sorts numerically from negative to positive, from top to bottom. Sorts selected check boxes to the top and cleared ones to the bottom. Sort Descending—Sorts alphabetically from Z to A, from top to bottom. Sorts numerically from positive to negative, from top to bottom. Sorts cleared check boxes to the top and selected ones to the bottom. Custom—Specify one or more attributes by which to sort the contents of the selected column.

4. For a custom sort, specify the attribute(s) by which to sort the selected column in the Custom Sort dialog box. The Custom Sort dialog box contains a table in which you define one or more sort keys. A sort key contains two parts: – – Attribute—The attribute to sort. You can select any field in the tabular report from a drop-down list. Sort Order—The order in which to sort the selected attribute’s values. Select Ascending or Descending.

Enter one or more sort keys. 5. Click OK.

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4.10.2

Filter the Contents of a Tabular Report
To filter the contents of a tabular report: 1. Open the tabular report you want to filter. 2. Right-click the column heading you want to filter, then select Filter. 3. Then, select the filter method you want to use: – – – Quick Filter—Set up a simple filter by right-clicking the column header for the attribute by which you wish to filter and selecting Filter > Quick Filter. Custom Filter—Set up a custom filter based on one or more criteria. Reset—Turn off the active filter, causing all available rows in the table to be displayed.

4. For Quick Filter or Custom Filter, specify your filtering criteria in the Filter dialog box. Each filter criterion is made up of three items: – – Column—The attribute used to filter. Operator—The operator to use when comparing the filter value against the data in the specific column (operators include: =, >, >=, <, <=, < >, Contains, and Begins With).
The filtering options Contains and Begins With allow more flexibility with regard to filtering tables. These filters are only available for column types that have alphabetic values, for example Label. The Contains filter checks for the specified value anywhere in the words, and the Begins With filter checks only the first letter for the specified value.

Note:

Value—The comparison value. You can add any number of criteria to a filter. Multiple filter criteria are implicitly joined with a logical AND statement. When multiple filter criteria are defined, only rows that meet all of the specified criteria are displayed. A filter remains active for the associated table until the filter is reset.

5. Click OK.

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4.11

Set Field Options (Unit, Precision, Format)
Use the Set Field Options dialog box to change the units, display precision, and format used for each attribute in Bentley FlowMaster. You can mix SI (metric) and Imperial unit systems within the same worksheet. To open the Set Field Options dialog box: 1. Right-click the unit label next to the data field for the input or output variable to be changed. 2. Click the Units and Formatting. 3. In the Set Field Options dialog box that appears, change the units, precision, and formatting. For more information, see “Set Field Options Dialog Box” on page 3114.

4.12

Save a Project
You can save a project as follows: • To save the current project without changing the name of the project or its path, you can click File > Save or, in the Project Explorer, right-click the project to be saved and select Save from the shortcut menu. To save and change the name of the project and/or its path, you can click File > Save As or, in the Project Explorer, right-click the project to be saved and select Save As from the shortcut menu. To save all currently open projects, click File > Save All.

4.13

Exit Bentley FlowMaster
To exit Bentley FlowMaster, click File > Exit. If there are unsaved changes, a message will prompt you to save before exiting.

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Chapter

Bentley FlowMaster Theory
Bentley FlowMaster and its calculations are based on the principles outlined in this section: • • • • • • • “Uniform Flow” on page 5-131 “Critical Flow” on page 5-136 “Gradually Varied Flow Analysis” on page 5-148 “Weir Flow” on page 5-155 “Orifice Flow” on page 5-163 “Pressure Pipe” on page 5-164 “Inlet Hydraulics” on page 5-165

5

5.1

Uniform Flow
The equations used in Bentley FlowMaster deal primarily with uniform flow. Uniform flow refers to a hydraulic condition in which the flow depth, channel discharge, and flow area do not change over a channel reach having constant section characteristics such as shape and material. These conditions are met only when the channel bottom slope and the friction slope are equal. When water is flowing under uniform flow conditions, the depth of flow is frequently called normal depth. Uniform flow can be described by the generalized friction equation:

V = CR x S y

(5.1)

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Uniform Flow

Where

V C R S x, y

= = = = =

Mean velocity (m/sec., ft/sec.) Flow resistance factor Hydraulic radius (m, ft) Friction slope (m/m, ft/ft) Exponents

The material lining the flow channel usually determines the flow resistance or roughness factor, C. However, the ultimate value of the C component may be a function of the channel shape, depth, and velocity of flow. The hydraulic radius, R, is a strict function of the channel shape. For every geometric shape, R can be readily calculated by dividing the cross-sectional flow area by the wetted perimeter, once a depth is known or assumed. The energy slope, S, is constant under the uniform flow assumption. Since average velocity is constant under uniform flow (constant discharge and area conditions), combining equation 5.1 with the continuity equation: Q = VA results in the equation: Q = ACRxSy Where Q A = = Discharge (m3/sec., ft3/sec.) Cross-sectional flow area (m3, ft3 ) (5.3) (5.2)

This solution yields a complete solution for the rate of flow.
Note: Hydraulic radius is related to flow area, so further reduction of this equation for specific geometries is often possible.

Bentley FlowMaster offers the four variations of the general uniform flow equation listed below. These equations differ from each other by the computation and nature of C and in the values assigned to x and y. • • • • “Manning’s Formula” “Kutter’s Formula” “Hazen-Williams Formula” “Darcy-Weisbach Formula”

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Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide

4) V= (5.I. Kutter’s Formula is widely used in sanitary sewer design and analysis. ft) Friction slope (m/m. The values of x and y are 2/3 and 1/2. (5.1 Manning’s Formula Manning’s formula is probably the most widely used open channel flow equation. and the channel material. Customary Units V n R S = = = = Mean velocity (m/sec.49 2 / 3 1 / 2 R S n U. Equations for U. The roughness component. respectively. C.S.. V= 1 2 / 3 1/ 2 R S n S. C. customary and the S.1. system are shown below: V = C RS The roughness coefficient C is related to Manning’s n through Kutter’s formula. The roughness component.2 Kutter’s Formula The standard form of Kutter’s Formula is known as the Chézy Formula. ft/ft) (5. Equations for U.S. and is one of the easiest equations to solve.5) Where 5.I.6) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-133 . S. customary units and the S.Bentley FlowMaster Theory 5.1. Both x and y are equal to 1/2. ft/sec. system units are shown below.S. Units 1. is constant over the full range of flows and is typically represented by Manning’s n.) Manning’s coefficient Hydraulic radius (m.I. is variable and is a function of R.

Customary Units (5.7) Chézy’s roughness coefficient (m1/2/sec. k 2 k3 + S n C= n k k1 + 2 1+ Sł R Ł k1 + Where C S R n k1 k2 k3 = = = = = = = (5.811 U. units are shown below.65 U. V = 0.54 S.S.32CR 0. customary) Constant (0.S.S.I.00155 SI. 0.S.S. ft/ft) Hydraulic radius (m. 1.1.00281 U. C.) Friction slope (m/m.0 SI.ft) Kutter’s roughness (unitless) Constant (23.63 and 0.3 Hazen-Williams Formula The Hazen-Williams Formula is most frequently used in the design of pressure pipe systems for water distribution. The roughness coefficient.Uniform Flow Note: Kutter’s roughness coefficients are the same as Manning’s roughness coefficients.63 S 0. Equations for U. is constant over the full range of flows (assumed turbulent).9) 5-134 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .0 SI.85CR 0.I. customary and the S.8) (5. Units V = 1.54. ft1/2/ sec.63 S 0.. customary) 5. customary) Constant (1. 41.54 U. The values of x and y in this empirical equation are 0.

which is applicable to circular pipes with full flow only.2 ) (5. The familiar form of the equation.2.11) V= 8g RS f (5. the formula is sufficiently general so that it can be applied readily to open channel flow systems. is: hf = f L V2 D 2g hf f D L V g = = = = = = Headloss (m. geometry.1. However. both x and y are equal to 1/2. Like Kutter’s Equation.) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec. ft/sec.12) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-135 . and not readily computed by simple desktop methods. Thus. The roughness component in the Darcy-Weisbach equation is a function of both the channel material and the Reynolds Number. many engineers view this formula as the most accurate method for modeling uniform flow. ft) Pipe length (m. In fact. ft) Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Pipe diameter (m. since it successfully models the variability of effective channel roughness with channel material.. This recommendation has not been widely accepted since the solution to the equation is difficult. the ASCE Task Force on Friction Factors in Open Channels (1963) supported the use of the Darcy-Weisbach formula for freesurface flows. the Darcy-Weisbach Formula will likely gain greater acceptance. and velocity. which varies with V and R. With the computerization of this method.Bentley FlowMaster Theory 5. ft) Flow velocity (m/sec.10) Where This equation is adapted for channel geometries other than full circular by the relation: D = 4R and then rearranged to the form: (5. ft/sec.4 Darcy-Weisbach Formula The Darcy-Weisbach Formula was developed for use in the analysis of pressure pipe systems.

ft) 5. is assumed to equal 1. The specific energy.2 ) (5. a.51 1 = .51 + 12 Ł R Re f ł Free Surface (5.14) Reynold’s number (unitless) Roughness height (m. the velocity of flow is also equal to the wave celerity (i.Critical Flow The Darcy-Weisbach friction factor (f) can be found using the Colebrook equation for fully developed turbulent flow. F. Equations for free surface and full flow closed conduits are shown below. in Bentley FlowMaster is computed using the equation: E = y+ V2 2g = = = Flow depth (m. It also neglects the effects of the velocity variation across the flow section. for a given discharge. it is undefined for closed conduits or closed top irregular channels when flowing full.0. Roughness height. that is.) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec. ft) Velocity (m/sec. the specific energy of flow is at a minimum.e.2 log k 2. is a physical property of the channel material. k. is defined as the ratio of actual velocity to wave celerity.2 log + 14 f Ł . ft/sec. the speed at which waves will ripple outward from a pebble which is tossed into the water).. This number is only defined for sections that have a free surface. the velocity coefficient.2.2 Critical Flow Critical flow conditions occur when.13) k 2.15) Where y V g The quantity V2/2g is also known as the velocity head. At critical depth. ft/sec. The Froude number. 5-136 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . The specific energy equation used in Bentley FlowMaster is valid only for small slopes (< 10%). 1 f = .8 R Re f ł Where Re k = = Full-Flow Closed Conduits (5. E.

Q 2T (5. Figure 5-1: Specific Energy Curve The requirement that wave celerity equals actual velocity at critical flow conditions means that critical depth can be computed by varying depth of flow until F equals 1. the flow is said to be supercritical (velocity faster than wave celerity).17) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-137 . ft2) Top width of flow (m. A diagram showing these flow ranges appears below. the flow is said to be subcritical (velocity slower than wave celerity). the flow is said to be critical. Specifically. ft) Where When F is less than one. When F is greater than one. When F is equal to one.Bentley FlowMaster Theory The ratio is: F= V gD D A T = = = (5.0.16) Hydraulic depth of channel is equivalent to A/T (m. and solves by iterating over depth until f (y) = 0: f ( y ) = gA3 . ft) Flow area (m2. Bentley FlowMaster uses the following function.

such as electrical and chemical energy.1 Basic Concepts of Critical Flow This section is intended to familiarize you with some of the methods used in this program’s calculations. 5.2. and Reynolds number. The energy referred to in this principle represents the total energy of the system minus the sum of the potential.19) (5. the change in energy is equal to the difference between the heat transferred to the system and the work done by the system on its surroundings during a given time interval.2 Hydraulic and Energy Grades Bentley FlowMaster considers the following hydraulic and energy grade principles: • • • • • “The Energy Principle” on page 5-138 “The Energy Equation” on page 5-139 “Hydraulic Grade” on page 5-140 “Energy Grade” on page 5-140 “HGL Convergence Test” on page 5-140 The Energy Principle The first law of thermodynamics states that for any given system. Using these length equivalents gives engineers a better feel for the resulting behavior of the system. hydraulic depth.2. However. hydraulic radius.18) (5. such as determination of wetted perimeter. and internal (molecular) forms of energy. When using these length equivalents.20) 5-138 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . kinetic. The energy at any point within a hydraulic system is often represented in three parts: Pressure head: p/γ Elevation head: z Velocity head: V2/2g (5.Critical Flow 5. energy is often represented as energy per unit weight. the text does not go into great detail on common hydraulic terms and equations. In hydraulic applications. resulting in units of length. The internal energy changes are commonly disregarded in water distribution analysis because of their relatively small magnitude. the state of the system is expressed in terms of head.

2.. ft) Velocity (m/sec. ft/sec. and head removed from the system due to friction.21) The components of the energy equation can be combined to express two useful quantities. These changes in head are referred to as head gains and headlosses. which are the hydraulic grade and the energy grade. lb/ft2 ) Specific weight (N/m3. lb/ft2 ) Specific weight (N/m3. ft) (5. Balancing the energy across two points in the system.. and velocity head.Bentley FlowMaster Theory Where p γ z V g = = = = = Pressure (N/m2. ft) Velocity (m/sec. ft) Combined headloss (m. we then obtain the energy equation: p V2 p1 V2 + z1 + 1 + hp = 2 + z2 + 2 + H L g 2g g 2g Where p γ z V g hp HL = = = = = = = Pressure (N/m2.2) These quantities can be used to express the headloss or head gain between two locations using the energy equation. by a pump for instance.) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec. The Energy Equation In addition to pressure head. lb/ft3 ) Elevation (m. lb/ft3 ) Elevation at the centroid (m.) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec. elevation head. ft/sec.2) Head gain from pump (m. there may also be head added to the system. respectively. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-139 .2. ft/sec. ft/sec.

Critical Flow Hydraulic Grade The hydraulic grade is the sum of the pressure head (p/γ) and elevation head (z). The plot of the hydraulic grade in a profile is often referred to as the energy grade line. or EGL. Energy Grade The energy grade is the sum of the hydraulic grade and the velocity head ( V2/2g ). This is the height to which a column of water would rise in a pitot tube. as can be seen in the following figure. 5-140 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . the upstream propagation of headlosses through pipes will continue until two successive calculations change by an absolute difference of less than this test value. This test is used to optimize the performance of system solutions. where the velocity is essentially zero. At a lake or reservoir. It minimizes the number and extent of hydraulic grade line computations in the upstream direction. the EGL is equal to the HGL. The hydraulic head represents the height to which a water column would rise in a piezometer. Figure 5-2: Plot of EGL and HGL HGL Convergence Test In full network calculation this value is taken as the maximum absolute change between two successive solves of hydraulic grade at any junction or inlet in the system. or HGL. The plot of the hydraulic grade in a profile is often referred to as the hydraulic grade line. For a given discharge.

Chézy’s equation is: Q= C A Where Q C A R S R S = = = = = Discharge in the section (m3/sec. the step is solved.Bentley FlowMaster Theory The HGL Convergence Test value is also used in the standard step gradually varied flow profiling algorithm. Chézy’s Equation Chézy’s equation is rarely used directly. but it is the basis for several other methods. ft2 ) Hydraulic radius (m.) (5. Commonly used friction methods include: • • • • • • • “Chézy’s Equation” “Kutter’s Equation” “Manning’s Equation” “Darcy-Weisbach Equation” “Swamee and Jain Equation” “Colebrook-White Equation” “Hazen-Williams Equation” Friction losses are generally based on the relationships between fluid velocity. 5... including Manning’s equation and Kutter’s equation. ft) Friction slope (m/m. depth of flow. ft3/sec. and the friction slope (headloss per unit length of conduit). ft/ft) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-141 .3 Friction Loss Methods There are many equations that approximate friction losses associated with the flow of liquid through a given section.) Flow area (m2. section roughness.22) Chézy’s roughness coefficient (m1/2/sec. ft1/2/ sec.2. If two successive depth iterations are within this absolute test value.

ft1/2/ sec. the roughness coefficient in Chézy’s equation is calculated as: R1/ 6 C= k n (5.0 SI. like Kutter’s equation.65 U.. customary) Constant (0. and is most commonly used for sanitary sewer analysis.24) 5-142 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .) Friction slope (m/m. 1.23) Chézy’s roughness coefficient (m1/2/sec. is based on Chézy’s equation).00155 SI.00281 U. ft/ft) Hydraulic roughness (unitless) Kutter’s roughness (unitless) Constant (23.811 U.Critical Flow Kutter’s Equation Kutter’s equation can be used to determine the roughness coefficient in Chézy’s formula.0 SI. customary) Constant (1. 0. k 2 k3 + S n C= n k k1 + 2 1+ Sł R Ł k1 + Where C S R n k1 k2 k3 = = = = = = = (5. Kutter’s equation is as follows: Note: Kutter’s roughness coefficients are the same as Manning’s roughness coefficients.S. 41.S. For Manning’s equation. customary) Manning’s Equation Manning's equation is one of the most popular methods in use today for free surface flow (and.S.

customary) Manning’s coefficient (unitless) Flow area (m2.49 ft1/3/ft1/3 U.S. we obtain the well-known Manning’s equation: Note: Manning’s roughness coefficients are the same as the roughness coefficients used in Kutter’s equation. 1.) Hydraulic radius (m.) (5.26) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-143 . ft1/2/ sec. ft) Friction slope (m/m. 1.00m1/3/m1/3 SI. the Darcy-Weisbach equation is viewed by many engineers as the most accurate method for modeling friction losses.. ft2 ) Hydraulic radius (m. Q= Where k A R 2 / 3 S 1/ 2 n Q k n A R S = = = = = = Discharge (m3/sec.25) Constant (1. ft3/sec. ft) Manning’s roughness (sec. customary) Substituting this roughness into Chézy’s equation.49ft1/3/ft1/3 U.00m1/3/m1/3 SI.Bentley FlowMaster Theory Where C R n k = = = = Chézy’s roughness coefficient (m1/2/sec. It most commonly takes the following form: L V2 hf = f D 2g (5. ft/ft) Darcy-Weisbach Equation Because of non-empirical origins.S./m1/3 ) Constant (1..

2 ) (5.) Area of flow (m2.2 ) For section geometries that are not circular. ft) Flow velocity (m/sec.) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec. ft2 ) Top width of flow (m. ft/sec.2.2. ft3/sec. ft) Section discharge (m3/sec. ft) Darcy-Weisbach friction factor (unitless) Pipe diameter (m.2 ) (5.27) This can then be rearranged to the form: Q= A 8g R S f = = = = = = Section discharge (m3/sec. ft/ft) Darcy-Weisbach friction factor (unitless) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec. ft/sec.28) Where Q A R S f g 5-144 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide ..2.) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec. ft2 ) Hydraulic radius (m. ft/sec. ft3/sec. ft) Pipe length (m. ft) Friction slope (m/m. this equation is adapted by relating a circular section’s full flow hydraulic radius to its diameter: A3 Q 2 = T g Where A T Q g = = = = Area of flow (m2...Critical Flow Where hf f D L V g = = = = = = Headloss (m. ft/sec.

ft) Reynolds number (unitless) Colebrook-White Equation The Colebrook-White equation is used to iteratively calculate for the Darcy-Weisbach friction Factor: 1 k 2. which is dependent on the flow velocity.29) Where f k D Re = = = = Friction factor (unitless) Roughness height (m. The default units are initially set by Bentley Systems. The friction factor is dependent on the Reynolds number of the flow. As you can see. this process requires the iterative selection of a friction factor until the calculated discharge agrees with the chosen friction factor.2 log + 14 f Ł .51 = .8 R Re f ł Free Surface (5.31) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-145 .7 D œ Re ł º ß (5.2 log + 12 f Ł . which is dependent on the discharge.0 R Re f ł Full Flow (Closed Conduit) (5.9 œ Œ Ł 3. Swamee and Jain Equation Note: The Kinematic Viscosity is used in determining the friction coefficient in the Darcy-Weisbach Friction Method. f= 1. ft) Pipe diameter (m.74 0.30) 1 k 2.Bentley FlowMaster Theory The Swamee and Jain equation can then be used to calculate the friction factor.325 2 Ø ø Œ k ln + 5.51 = .

and Critical Slope” “Subcritical Flow” “Supercritical Flow” 5-146 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .Critical Flow Where Re k f R = = = = Reynolds number (unitless) Darcy-Weisbach roughness height (m. and other conditions. customary) 5. 1.) (5.S. The basic flow regimes that a pipe may experience include: • • • • • “Pressure Flow” “Uniform Flow and Normal Depth” “Critical Flow. ft/ft) Constant (0. pipe slope.63 S 0. The formula is as follows: Q = k C A R 0.4 Flow Regime Note: Based on the gradually varied flow analysis. different portions of any given pipe may be under different flow regimes. ft2 ) Hydraulic radius (m. ft3/sec.32 U. ft) Hazen-Williams Equation The Hazen-Williams Formula is frequently used in the analysis of pressure pipe systems (such as water distribution networks and sewer force mains).. The hydraulic grade in a flow section depends heavily on the tailwater conditions. ft) Friction factor (unitless) Hydraulic radius (m. discharge.2.85 SI.32) Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient (unitless) Area of flow (m2.54 Where Q C A R S k = = = = = Section discharge (m3/sec. Critical Depth. ft) Friction slope (m/m.

2.2 ) (5. This depth is called normal depth. making numerical convergence more difficult. For a pipe flowing full. friction loss calculations are greatly simplified by pressurized conditions. are constant throughout the length of the channel or pipe. the energy grade line is parallel to both the hydraulic grade line and the section invert under uniform flow conditions. and therefore the velocity. Critical Depth. ft) Section discharge (m3/sec. This condition is defined by the situation where: A3 Q 2 = T g Where A T Q g = = = = Area of flow (m2. however. there are a few additional points of interest: • In order for the cross-sectional area to remain the same. ft/sec.33) This is a relatively simple computation for simple geometric shapes. ft2 ) Top width of flow (m. For a non-full section. but can require iterative calculation for more complex shapes (such as arches).) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-147 . Some sections may even have several valid critical depths. • In prismatic channels. ft3/sec. Critical Flow. and Critical Slope Critical flow occurs when the specific energy of the section is at a minimum. Uniform Flow and Normal Depth Uniform flow refers to a hydraulic condition where the discharge and cross-sectional area. headlosses are based on the full barrel area and wetted perimeter. Since the hydraulic grade line parallels the invert of the section and the velocity does not change. flow conditions will typically approach normal depth if the channel is sufficiently long. the depth of flow must be constant throughout the length of the channel. Because these characteristics are all functions of the section shape and size.Bentley FlowMaster Theory Pressure Flow When a pipe is surcharged. all that this requires is that the pipe be straight and have no contractions or expansions. This requires that the friction slope equal the constructed slope..

the depth is above critical depth. Slopes fall into one of three types. all of which are handled by the program: • • • Hydraulically Mild Slope Critical Slope Hydraulically Steep Slope 5-148 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . The areas of classification for gradually varied flow analysis are: • • • Slope Classification Zone Classification Profile Classification 5. and the velocity is above the critical depth velocity. The determination of a boundary control depth depends on both the tailwater condition and the hydraulic characteristics of the conduit. For this condition. the depth changes gradually. depth rarely remains the same throughout the length of a channel or pipe.Gradually Varied Flow Analysis Critical depth refers to the depth of water in a channel for which the specific energy is at its minimum. increasing or decreasing until normal depth is achieved (if the conduit is sufficiently long). or the ratio of internal forces to gravity forces.3 Gradually Varied Flow Analysis For free surface flow.0. Starting from a boundary control depth.3. and the velocity is below the critical depth velocity. 5. Subcritical Flow Subcritical flow refers to any flow condition where the Froude number is less than 1. Critical slope refers to the slope at which the critical depth of a pipe would be equal to the normal depth.0.1 Slope Classification The constructed slope of a conduit is a very important factor in determining the type of gradually varied flow profile that exists. For this condition. the depth is below critical depth. Supercritical Flow Supercritical flow refers to any condition where the Froude number. is greater than 1.

However. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-149 .3. the section’s normal depth is below critical depth. and S3. and the flow regime is usually supercritical. These slopes do not relate to just the constructed slope. For example. Critical depth is an inherently unstable surface. M3. For this condition. critical. but it is possible and the program does calculate it appropriately. 5.3. 5. Zone 2 is where actual flow depth is between normal depth and critical depth.3. 5. high tailwater conditions may cause flow to be subcritical. the section’s normal depth is above critical depth.3. a pipe with a hydraulically mild slope and flow in zone 1 would be considered a mild-1 profile (M1 for short).3. though. and steep slope. so flow is most likely to be subcritical for these slopes.Bentley FlowMaster Theory Any pipe can qualify as only one of these slope types for a given discharge. For this condition.4 Hydraulically Mild Slope A hydraulically mild slope is a condition where the constructed slope is less than the critical slope. but will not analyze certain flow profile types that occur rarely in conventional sewer system such as H3.2 Hydraulically Steep Slope A hydraulically steep slope is a condition where the constructed slope is greater than the critical slope. but to the constructed slope relative to the critical slope for the given discharge.5 Zone Classification There are three zones that are typically used to classify gradually varied flow: • • • Zone 1 is where actual flow depth is above both normal depth and critical depth. Zone 3 is where actual flow depth is below both normal depth and critical depth. This is a very uncommon occurrence. and the flow regime is usually subcritical. 5. 5. For differing flows.3 Critical Slope A pipe or channel may have exactly the same slope as the critical slope for the discharge it carries.6 Profile Classification The gradually varied flow profile classification is a combination of the slope classification and the zone classification. The program will analyze most profile types. a pipe may change between qualifying as a mild.

n S1 Unsealing Conjugate yn' yc yn Steep Slope yn< yc yc yn Horizontal Slope H1 None yc H2 yc H3 yc Adverse Slope A1 None yc A2 yc A3 yc 5-150 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . y > yc M1 Unsealing Conjugate Conjugate Mild Type I Q < Qfull yn yc yn' yn yc yn' yn yc Mild Type II Q Q full M1 Slug yc yn' yn Slug Sealing Conj. Zone 1 Profiles y > yn. yc yn' yn Q max C1 Critical Slope yn= yc yc.Gradually Varied Flow Analysis The following diagrams describe the various profile classifications.

Bentley FlowMaster Theory Zone 2 Profiles y y y cyn y c y . n Mild Type I Q < Qfull Mild Type I Q < Qfull M2 yn yc Zone 3 Profiles y < yn.n Q C3 yc.n S2 Slug Conjugate Steep Slope yn< yc yn' yc yn S3 yc yn Horizontal Slope H2 yc H3 yc Adverse Slope A2 yc A3 yc Figure 5-3: Profile Classification Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-151 . y < yc M3 yn yc full Mild Type II Q Q Q Mild Type II Q Q full max M2 Slug Conjugate yc yn' yn M3 Slug yc yn' yn max Critical Slope yn= yc Critical Slope yn= yc Steep Slope yn< yc Horizontal Slope Adverse Slope S2 yc yn H2 yc A2 yc C2 Unstable yc.

ft) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec. This relationship is as follows: H L = S Avg D x = Where HL SAVG S1 S2 ∆x S1 + S2 Dx 2 = = = = = Loss across segment (m. ft/ft) Length of segment being analyzed (m. the solution is still a matter of balancing the energy between the two ends of a pipe segment.. since it is free surface flow): Z1 + Where V12 V2 = Z2 + 2 + H L 2g 2g Z1 V1 Z2 V2 HL g = = = = = = (5.Gradually Varied Flow Analysis 5. The energy equation as it relates to each end of a segment is as follows (note that the pressures for both ends are zero. ft) Average friction slope (m/m. ft) Velocity at downstream end (m/sec.3.2 ) The friction loss is computed based on the average rate of friction loss along the segment and the length of the segment. ft/ft) (5.7 Energy Balance Even for gradually varied flow. ft/sec.34) Hydraulic grade at upstream end of segment (m.) Hydraulic grade at downstream end of segment (m..2.35) Friction slope at upstream end of segment (m/m.) Loss due to friction—other losses assumed to be zero (m. ft/ft) Friction slope at downstream end of segment (m/ m. ft) Velocity at upstream end (m/sec. ft/sec. ft) 5-152 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . ft/sec.

and bridge contractions. and the remaining portion is analyzed with gradually varied flow techniques. a pipe may contain several different profile types. The transitions that may be encountered include: • • “Sealing (Surcharging) Conditions” “Rapidly Varied Flow” Sealing (Surcharging) Conditions There may be conditions such that part of the section is flowing full. Rapidly Varied Flow Rapidly varied flow is turbulent flow resulting from the abrupt and pronounced curvature of flow streamlines into or out of a hydraulic control structure. the Standard Step method and the Direct Step method. These conditions are called sealing conditions.3. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-153 . For sealing conditions. the depth at the other end of the segment can be found through iteration. while part of the flow remains open. Instead of assuming a segment length and solving for the depth at the end of the segment. Standard Step Method The standard step method of gradually varied flow energy balance involves dividing the channel into segments of known length and solving for the unknown depth at one end of the segment. the portion of the section flowing full is analyzed as pressure flow. The standard step method is the most popular method of determining the flow profile because it can be applied to any channel. starting with a known or assumed depth at the other end. Examples of rapidly varied flow include hydraulic jumps. There are two primary methods for this iterative solution. and the sections are analyzed in separate parts. the direct step method assumes a depth and then solves for the segment length. Since the friction slope is a function of velocity. not just prismatic channels.Bentley FlowMaster Theory The conditions at one end of the segment are known through assumption or from a previous calculation step. 5.8 Mixed Flow Profiles Although the hydraulic slope of a pipe will be the same throughout its length. Direct Step Method The direct step method is based on the same basic energy principles as the standard step method. which is a function of depth. but takes a slightly different approach towards the solution. bends.

submerged.9 Backwater Analysis The classic solution of gravity flow hydraulics is via a backwater analysis. and reset the hydraulic control to critical depth at the upstream end of the steep pipe.3. or tailwater control. These forces are also highly erosive. as shown in the following figure. due to the amount of mixing and hydraulic turbulence that occurs. The program does not perform any specific force analyses that seek to precisely locate the hydraulic jump.Gradually Varied Flow Analysis The hydraulic phenomenon that occurs when the flow passes rapidly from supercritical to subcritical flow is called a hydraulic jump. nor does it identify the occurrence of jumps that might happen as flows leave a steep pipe and enter a mild pipe. The following criteria must be met to enable a valid downstream control: Note: An error message will be displayed if the input data does not satisfy these requirements. with the backwater analysis recommencing from the upstream structure. A frontwater analysis may be needed for a steep profile (such as an S2). and proceeds in an upstream direction. or structure protection. Steep pipes tend to interrupt the backwater analysis. The most common occurrence of this within a gravity flow network occurs when there is a steep pipe discharging into a particularly high tailwater. Rather it performs analyses sufficient to compute grades at structures. Certain situations are considered to be invalid downstream control by Bentley FlowMaster. so engineers typically try to prevent jumps from occurring in gravity flow systems. or at least try to predict the location of these jumps in order to provide adequate channel. Figure 5-4: Hydraulic Jump There are significant losses associated with hydraulic jumps. • • • Mild Case: Normal Depth Greater Than Or Equal To Critical Depth Steep Case: Critical Depth Greater Than Or Equal To Normal Depth Critical Slope: Critical Depth Equal To Normal Depth 5-154 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . pipe. This type of analysis starts at the network outlet under free discharge. 5.

Certain situations are considered to be invalid upstream control by Bentley FlowMaster. As a result. The hydraulic control is at the upstream end of the conduit. Non-sharp-crested weirs are usually part of a hydraulic structure.Bentley FlowMaster Theory 5. Bentley FlowMaster handles weir calculations for unsubmerged (free discharge) and submerged (backwater effect) sharp-crested weirs.1 Sharp-Crested Weirs A sharp-crested weir has a sharp upstream edge formed so that the water flows clear of the crest. such as an overflowing embankment or roadway. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-155 . This is a performance trade-off that has little impact in evaluating performance of the collection system in most situations.4. Sharp-crested weirs are usually used for measuring a discharge. Note: The program’s algorithm is fundamentally based on backwater analysis.The following criteria must be met to enable a valid downstream control: • • • Mild Case: Depth Less Than Or Equal To Normal Depth Steep Case: Normal Depth Greater Than Or Equal To Critical Depth Critical Slope: Critical Depth Equal To Normal Depth 5. 5.3.10 Frontwater Analysis The program will perform a frontwater analysis in a steep pipe operating under supercritical flow.4 Weir Flow Sharp-crested and non-sharp-crested weirs are the two profiles generally associated with weir flow. and is exactly correct at the point of the steep run furthest upstream. a continuous frontwater analysis is not performed through two or more consecutive steep pipes. or the end of the pipe is encountered. and the gradually varied flow analysis will proceed in a downstream direction until either the normal depth is achieved. based on the water height. a hydraulic jump occurs. since these pipes are typically entrance controlled. The assumption of critical depth at the upstream end results in a conservative depth in all cases.

customary) Weir opening width (m.S.37) 5-156 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .1iH )H 3 2 Where Q C L i H = = = = = Discharge over weir (m3/sec. ft3/sec.Weir Flow Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weir Note: An error message will be displayed if the input data does not satisfy these requirements. ft) Number of contractions (i = 0. ft) i = 0 corresponds to the case of a suppressed rectangular weir. or 2) Head above bottom of opening (m.33 U.36) Weir coefficient (typical values for this kind of weir are C = 1. and yields the equation: Q = CLH 3 2 i = 2 corresponds to the case of a contracted rectangular weir. (5. 1. L H Figure 5-5: Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weir The discharge over an unsubmerged rectangular sharp-crested weir is defined as: Q = C (L .. for which the channel width is equal to the weir opening length.) (5.0.84 SI and C = 3.

38) Where Coefficient of discharge (C = 0.583 . ft) Table 5-1: V-Notch Weir Coefficient of Discharge Head (feet) 0.590 ..0 1.590 .5 2.572 .578 .570 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-157 .571 90 .605 .611 .58 typically used for a 90° V-notch weir) Angle of notch (degrees) Head above bottom of notch (m.5 3.580 .574 .577 45 .Bentley FlowMaster Theory V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weir 0 H Figure 5-6: V-Notch Sharp Crested Weir The discharge over an unsubmerged V-Notch sharp-crested weir is defined as: Q= C 8 Q 2 g tan H5 2 Ł2 ł 15 Q C Θ H = = = = Discharge over weir (m3/sec.581 .571 .574 60 .571 .596 .5 .) (5.572 .584 .575 .583 .593 .578 . ft3/sec.586 .570 .570 .576 .0 Weir Angle (degrees) 22.583 .579 30 .580 .573 .580 .576 .570 120 .0 2.672 .575 .5 1.

1986. 1981.84 LH 3 2 S. ft3/sec. Ernest F. review the references noted at the bottom of this page. Shen. 5-158 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . ft) (5. Bruce P. and Horace Williams King.) Bottom of notch width Head above bottom of opening (m.84 and 3. of Interior. Q = 1. 1976.S.. For detailed discussion on discharge coefficients for various weir configurations. New York. 2. American Water Works Assoc.1 2 3 Cipolletti Sharp-Crested Weir L H Figure 5-7: Cipoletti Sharp-Crested Weir Cipolletti weirs are trapezoidal with 1:4 slopes to compensate for end contraction losses.I. Customary Units Where Q L H = = = Discharge over weir (m3/sec. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1617-B.Weir Flow Coefficients for sharp-crested V-notched weirs vary with the angle of the notch and with head depth.39) (5. Brater. The equation generally accepted for computing the discharge through an unsubmerged sharp-crested Cipolletti weir with complete contraction is: Note: 1. Discharge Characteristics of Triangular Notch Thin-Plate Weirs.. John. McGraw-Hill Book Company.40) 1. U. Water Resource Measurements.367 are standard values only.367 LH 3 2 U. Units Q = 3. Derived from table in: Van Haveren.S Dept.. 3. Handbook of Hydraulics.

Bentley FlowMaster Theory

Submerged Sharp-Crested Weir

H1

H2

Figure 5-8: Submerged Sharp-Crested Weir If the sharp-crested weir is submerged as illustrated in the figure above (with H2 > 0), then the flow Q1 that would be obtained without submergence, using one of the equations above, is corrected as follows to obtain the flow Q over the weir1:
0 n ø.385 Ø Œ- H 2 œ Q = Q1 Œ 1 œ Œ ŁH1 ł œ ß º

(5.41) Discharge over weir (m3/sec., ft3/sec.) Discharge over weir opening that would be obtained without submergence at head H1 (m3/ sec., ft3/sec.) Head above weir crest (m, ft) Downstream head above weir (m, ft) Exponent in corresponding weir equation with no submergence (3/2 or 5/2 in cases above)

Where

Q Q1

= =

H1 H2 n

= = =

1. Brater, Ernest F. and Horace Williams King, Handbook of Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1976.

Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide

5-159

Weir Flow

5.4.2

Non-Sharp-Crested Weirs
For the following types of weirs, the weir coefficients are strongly dependent on the weir shape, width (measured in the flow direction) and the upstream head. It is recommended to use values from a reference book as a starting point, and when possible, calibrate these coefficients.

Broad-Crested Weir
A broad-crested weir has a crest that extends horizontally in the direction of flow far enough to support the nappe (sheet of water flowing over the crest of the weir) so that hydrostatic pressures are fully developed for at least some short distance. In order to model Embankment or Roadway overtopping, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has developed a methodology that can be found in the manual FHWA, HDS No. 5, Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts, 1985, which uses the general broad-crested weir equation.

Q = Cd LH r3 2
Where Q Cd L Hr = = = = Discharge over weir (m3/sec., ft3/sec.) Weir coefficient Length of roadway crest (m, ft) Overtopping depth (m, ft)

(5.42)

Hr

ht Lr

Figure 5-9: Broad-Crested Weir The overtopping discharge coefficient Cd is a function of the submergence using the equation:

Cd = K t Cr

(5.43)

5-160

Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide

Bentley FlowMaster Theory The variables Kt and Cr are defined in the following figures, reproduced from the manual FHWA, HDS No.5, Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts, 1985. The first two figures are used by Bentley FlowMaster to derive the base weir coefficient Cr resulting from deep and shallow overtopping, respectively. The submergence correction Kt is determined implicitly using the third figure.

Figure 5-10: Discharge Coefficient Cr, for Hr/L > 0.15

Figure 5-11: Discharge Coefficient Cr, for Hr/L ≤ 0.15

Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide

5-161

Weir Flow

Figure 5-12: Submergence Factor, k

Triangular and Trapezoidal Weir
The discharge over a triangular or trapezoidal weir is:

Q = CLH 3 2
Where Q C L H = = = = Discharge over weir (m3/sec., ft3/sec.) Weir coefficient Weir length (m, ft) Head above weir crest (m, ft)

(5.44)

Model these weirs by using the Generic Weir in Bentley FlowMaster, entering the appropriate coefficient. The weir coefficient is a function of the upstream head and the shape of the weir.

5-162

Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide

Bentley FlowMaster Theory

5.5

Orifice Flow
H For free outfall, measure H from centroid

Figure 5-13: Orifice Flow (schematic) The orifice equation is defined as:

Q = CA 2 gH
Where Q C A g H = = = = = Flow (m3/sec., ft3/sec.) Orifice coefficient Flow area (m2, ft2 ) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec.2, ft/sec.2 ) Head (m, ft)

(5.45)

5.5.1

Orifice Coefficients
Although these coefficients vary with shape, size, and head depth, an average C coefficient of 0.60 is often used for storm water orifice openings. A list of orifice coefficients for various heads and sizes of circular, square, rectangular, and triangular shapes can be found in the Handbook of Hydraulics, by Brater et Al. (see References).

Sluice Gate
Gates have the hydraulic properties of orifices. Therefore, the discharge through a sluice gate is:

Q = CA 2 gH

(5.46)

Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide

5-163

Pressure Pipe

Where

Q C A g H

= = = = =

Flow (m3/sec., ft3/sec.) Orifice coefficient Flow area (m2, ft2 ) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec.2, ft/sec.2 ) Head (m, ft)

Model a sluice gate by using the Generic Orifice in Bentley FlowMaster, entering the appropriate coefficient.

5.6

Pressure Pipe
In hydraulic applications, energy is often converted into units of energy per unit weight, resulting in units of length. Using these length equivalents gives engineers a better “feel” for the resulting behavior of the system. When using these length equivalents, the user is expressing the state of the system in terms of head. The energy at any point within a hydraulic system is often represented in three parts: Pressure head: p/γ Elevation head: z Velocity head: V2/2g Where p γ z V g = = = = = Pressure (N/m2, lb/ft2 ) Specific weight (N/m3, lb/ft3 ) Elevation (m, ft) Velocity (m/sec., ft/sec.) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec.2, ft/sec.2) (5.47) (5.48) (5.49)

Balancing the energy at the two ends of a pressure pipe, the energy equation can be reduced to:

p1 p + z1 = 2 + z2 + hL g g

(5.50)

5-164

Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide

6. The hydraulic head represents the height to which a water column would rise in a piezometer.7 Inlet Hydraulics Bentley FlowMaster considers the following inlet hydraulic principles: • • • • • • • • • • • • “HEC-22 Inlet Comparison” on page 5-166 “Flows in Gutters on Grade” on page 5-166 “Flow in Ditch or Median Section on Grade” on page 5-170 “Inlet Analysis” on page 5-171 “Grate Inlet on Grade” on page 5-173 “Curb Inlet on Grade” on page 5-175 “Slot Inlet on Grade” on page 5-177 “Combination Inlet on Grade” on page 5-177 “Grate Inlet in Sag” on page 5-178 “Curb Inlet in Sag” on page 5-179 “Slot Inlet in Sag” on page 5-182 “Combination Inlet in Sag” on page 5-183 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-165 . The plot of the hydraulic grade in a profile is often referred to as the hydraulic grade line. or EGL.Bentley FlowMaster Theory Where hL = Friction headloss (m. ft) 5.1 Hydraulic Grade and Energy Grade The hydraulic grade is the sum of the pressure head (p/γ) and elevation head (z). This is the height to which a column of water would rise in a pitot tube. 5. The energy grade is the sum of the hydraulic grade and the velocity head (V2/2g). The plot of the hydraulic grade in a profile is often referred to as the energy grade line. or HGL.

This chapter is included as “Pavement Drainage” on page 6185.7.7. August 2001 Pub No FHWA-NHI-01-021FHWA. 1991.5 2. For more information.51) 5-166 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Related charts can be found in “Engineer’s Reference” on page 8-309. and AASHTO’s Model Drainage Manual. The design of these elements is dependent on storm frequency and the allowable spread of storm water on the pavement surface. Bentley FlowMaster performs hydraulic computations for analyzing or sizing one inlet at a time. Most of the information presented in HEC-22 Chapter 4 was originally published in the 2nd edition. refer to “Pavement Drainage” on page 6-185 or the HEC-22 documentation. 5. which also follows the HEC-22 methodology for inlet computations.Inlet Hydraulics 5. Bentley Systems offers StormCAD. assuming normal flow: Q= K c 1. 1996. This section presents an overview of the HEC-22 methodology used by Bentley FlowMaster. the relationship between the gutter flow Q and the flow spread T is obtained by applying the Manning’s equation.2 Flows in Gutters on Grade Flows in gutters on grade includes: • • “Uniform Gutter Cross Slope” on page 5-166 “Composite Gutter Section” on page 5-168 Uniform Gutter Cross Slope In the case of a uniform cross-slope (gutter slope Sw equal to pavement slope Sx). For analyzing or designing an entire storm sewer network. The methodology used by Bentley FlowMaster to perform pavement drainage and inlet computations is described in Chapter 4 of the HEC-22 manual: Urban Drainage Design Manual.1 HEC-22 Inlet Comparison Note: Pavement drainage requires consideration of gutter flow and inlet capacity.67 0.67 Sx SL T n (5.

376 SI.. ft) (5. ft) T Wg Ts Qs Qw Sw Sx Figure 5-14: Uniform Gutter Cross Slope The flow depth along the curb is: d = TSx Where d = Depth of flow at curb (m.S. ft/ft) Longitudinal pavement slope (m/m.Bentley FlowMaster Theory Where Q Kc n Sx SL T = = = = = = Flow rate (m3/sec.54) (5.) 0.55) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-167 .52) The coefficient E. ft3/sec. ft/ft) Width of flow—spread (m. as well as the variables Qw and Qs. 0. are introduced as: Qw = E0Q Qs = Q – Qw = (1 – E0)Q E0 = 1 – (1 – Wg/T)2.67 (5. customary Manning’s coefficient Pavement cross-slope (m/m.53) (5.56 U.

as well as the variables Qw and Qs...) Grate width (m. ft) = Composite Gutter Section T W Ts Qs Qw Sw a Sx Figure 5-15: Composite Gutter Section In the case of a composite gutter section. ft3/sec. are defined as: Qw = E0Q Qs = Q – Qw = (1 – E0)Q (5.) Ratio of flow above the grate to total flow Side flow—flow outside the grate width (m3/sec.Inlet Hydraulics Where Q Qw E0 Qs Wg = = = = Total pavement flow (m3/sec.56) (5. ft3/sec.57) 5-168 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . the coefficient E0.) Frontal flow—portion of the flow over the grate width (m3/sec. ft3/sec..

) E0 can then be derived from Manning’s equation as: 2. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-169 .) Ratio of flow in the depressed gutter to total flow Side flow—flow outside the depressed gutter (m3/ sec.60) Gutter depression is the depression of the gutter relative to the street cross-slope projection.) Frontal flow—portion of the flow in the depressed gutter (m3/sec. ft3/sec. ft/ft) Width of depressed gutter—or grate.1ł Ł ß º S E0 = 1 / 1 + w Sx (5.. if it is smaller (m..67 ø1 Ø Sw S x œ Œ ..58) Where Sw W = = Gutter cross-slope (m/m.S. in) (5. It is also identified as a continuously depressed gutter because the gutter is depressed along its full length. ft3/sec.1œ Œ1 + T œ Œ ( W ). a. Customary Units = Gutter depression (mm.59) Sw = S x + Where a (5. ft3/sec.Bentley FlowMaster Theory Where Q Qw E0 Qs = = = = Total pavement flow (m3/sec. defined as: Sw = S x + a 1000W SI Units a 12W U. ft) The continuously depressed gutter is also sometimes defined by a gutter depression.

) 1. z2 SL = = = = = = = Discharge rate (m3/sec.. customary Manning’s coefficient Ditch width (m.486 U.3 Flow in Ditch or Median Section on Grade T 1 Z1 W B d Z2 1 Figure 5-16: Ditch Cross Section The discharge Q in a ditch or median section is expressed as: 1.62) Where 5-170 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . ft3/sec.7. ft) Ratio H:V for ditch side slopes (m/m. ft/ft) Ditch longitudinal slope (m/m. ft) (5.S. ft) Water depth (m.67 Ø z1 + z2 2 ø 0 Kc Œ + Bd d œ S L.5 œ Œ 2 ß º Q= Ø 2 2 ø n Œ + d 1 + z1 + 1 + z2 œ B Œ œ º ß ( ) (5. 1.Inlet Hydraulics 5. ft/ft) The ratio E0 of frontal flow (over the grate) to total flow is: E0 = W z + z2 B+ d 1 Ł 2 ł W = Grate width (m.0 SI.61) Where Q Kc n B d z1.

Combination Inlet d. Chapter 4 (see “Pavement Drainage” on page 6-185). refer to the HEC-22 Manual. Slotted Drain Inlet Figure 5-17: Inlet Types For details on each type of inlet.4 Inlet Analysis Inlets are divided into 4 categories. as illustrated in the following figure: L h W L W a.Bentley FlowMaster Theory 5. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-171 . Curb Opening Inlet L h W c. Grate Inlet b.7.

with: atotal = a + a' Where a a' atotal = = = Gutter depression (mm.64) 5-172 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . in) Local depression (mm. in) (5. It is also referred to as a continuously depressed gutter. It is measured from the gutter slope. which shows a gutter and inlet cross section. E. It does not exist in the gutter upstream or downstream of the inlet. for a given set of conditions: E= Qi Q (5.6 illustrates the concept of local depression versus gutter depression used by HEC-22.63) Inlets on Grade Inlets located on a grade (SL > 0) are characterized by an efficiency. The local depression is the depression at the location of the inlet (a’ in the figure below). in) Total depression at location of inlet (mm.Inlet Hydraulics Note: Do not confuse gutter depression and local depression: The gutter depression is the depression of the gutter relative to the pavement normal cross-slope named a on the figure below. Sx Q Sw Q' S'w Q total Figure 5-18: Continuous Gutter Depression and Local Depression Figure 6.

.) The flow that is not intercepted is called carryover or bypass flow. customary Average velocity in gutter (m/sec.295 SI... is composed of a frontal flow Qw and a side flow Qs. It is defined as follows: Qb = Q – Qi Where Qb = Bypass low (m3/sec.65) 5. ft/sec.Bentley FlowMaster Theory Where E Q Qi = = = Inlet efficiency (unitless) Total gutter flow (m3/sec. ft/sec.) (5. The ratio Rf of frontal flow intercepted to total frontal flow is expressed as: Rf = 1 – Kcf (V – V0) Where Kcf V V0 = = = 0.) Intercepted flow (m3/sec. 0.S.7. ft3/sec..) Gutter velocity at which splash-over first happens (m/sec.5 Grate Inlet on Grade W L Figure 5-19: Grate Inlet As previously defined. the total gutter flow.090 U. Q.66) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-173 ..) (5. ft3/sec. ft3/sec.

15 U. L.68) The bypass flow is then: Qb = Q – Qi Where Qb = Bypass flow (m3/sec. The frontal flow intercepted. The splash-over velocity.) (5.71) 5-174 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .S. ft) Where Kcs L = = The side flow intercepted. 0. Qwi.3 Sx L ł Ł (5. customary Grate length (m.70) The efficiency of the grate is expressed as: E = RfE0 + Rs(1 – E0) (5.0828 SI. is: Qwi = RfQw The ratio Rs of side flow intercepted to side flow is expressed as: K V 1. ft3/sec. is therefore: Qsi = RsQs The total flow intercepted is: Qi = Qwi + Qsi Where Qi = Total flow intercepted (m3/sec. ft3/sec.0.69) (5.. Qsi. Also.Inlet Hydraulics Note: If V < V0. then Rf = 1 (all the frontal flow is intercepted). Rf cannot exceed 1.8 Rs = 1 / 1 + cs 2.) (5.67) 0.. V0 is a function of the grate type and the grate length.

E = Qi /Q (5.60 U.6 (5.S.7.42 0 S L. an equivalent cross slope. Se.6 Curb Inlet on Grade L h W Figure 5-20: Curb Inlet The curb opening length Lr that would be required to intercept 100% of a flow Q on a pavement with a uniform cross slope is computed as: LT = K C Q 0.Bentley FlowMaster Theory Or.72) 5. 0. is computed.817 SI.3 1 ŁnS x ł = = 0.73) Curb opening length required to intercept 100% of gutter flow 0. customary Where LT Kc In order to account for a locally or continually depressed gutter. Sx Q total Sw S'w Figure 5-21: Composite Gutter Section Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-175 .

S.Inlet Hydraulics S'w is calculated as: S ’w = atotal 1000W SI Units atotal 12W U.77) = Curb opening length (m. ft/ft) Total depression at inlet location—includes local and continuous gutter depression (mm. ft) Where L 5-176 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . in) Larger of the gutter width and local-depression width (m.6 (5.74) S ’w = (5. ft) The curb opening length LT that would be required to intercept 100% of a flow Q on a pavement with a composite cross slope at the location of the inlet is: LT = KT Q 0.76) The efficiency E of a curb opening shorter than the required length for total interception is: L E = 1.1Ł LT ł 1.3 1 ŁnSe ł 0.8 (5.42 0 S L. Customary Units S'w Sw atotal W = = = = (5. ft/ft) Gutter cross-slope upstream of inlet—does not account for local depression (m/m.75) Where Gutter cross-slope at inlet location—measured from pavement cross-slope (m/m.

7 Slot Inlet on Grade Figure 5-22: Slot Inlet The efficiency of a Slotted Inlet on Grade with an opening width greater than or equal to 45 mm (1. plus the portion of the remaining flow intercepted by the grate.75 in) is calculated using the same equations as for a curb opening inlet of the same length. 5. and the capacity of the combination inlet is identical to that of the grate alone.7. the flow interception by the curb opening is negligible.8 Combination Inlet on Grade L h W Figure 5-23: Combination Inlet HEC-22 distinguishes two cases: • The grate and the curb opening are placed side by side.Bentley FlowMaster Theory 5. The curb opening is extended upstream of the grate in order to intercept debris that could otherwise clog the grate inlet.7. The flow intercepted by the combination inlet is calculated as the flow intercepted by the curb opening upstream of the grate inlet. In this case. • Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-177 .

3.7. the efficiency of an inlet located in sag is always assumed to be 1.Inlet Hydraulics Inlets in Sag Note: Inlets in sag location operate as weirs at low water depth and as orifices at higher depth. ft) (5.S.9 Grate Inlet in Sag W L Figure 5-24: Grate Inlet The flow Qw intercepted by a grate inlet operating as a weir is: Qw = Cw 2Wd11.0 U.67AgP(2gd)1/2 (5. ft) Length of the grate (m.66 SI. customary) Flow depth at middle of grate(m.5 Where W L CW d1 d2 = = = = = Width of the grate (m. ft) Flow depth at side of grate opposite the curb (m.79) 5-178 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . In contrast with inlets on grade. as clogging of the grate is likely to occur. 5.0 (or 100%). Grate inlets alone are not recommended. ft) The flow Qio intercepted by a grate inlet operating as an orifice is: Q =0.5 + Cw Ld 21.78) Weir Coefficient (1.

(5.10 Curb Inlet in Sag L h W Figure 5-25: Curb Inlet Curb inlets are divided into 3 categories. and inclined.7.80) 5. based on their throat geometry: horizontal (most common).Bentley FlowMaster Theory Where Q A d g = = = = Capacity of the grate operating as an orifice (cfs. m) Acceleration due to gravity (ft/s2. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-179 . m/s2) The intercepted flow Qi is conservatively calculated at any flow depth by using the lesser of the intercepted flows computed using the weir or orifice equation: Qi = min(Qiw . vertical. Qio ) This accounts for the three stages: weir flow. orifice flow and transitional flow. m2) Average depth of flow over grate (ft. m3/s) Clear opening area of grate (ft2. as defined in the figure below.

ft) Effective head.e. Horizontal Throat do d o = d i -(h/2)Sin 0 b. ft) (5. ft) Water depth at lip of curb (m. the previous condition becomes: 5-180 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . operates as a weir for depths at curb (measured from the normal cross slope) that are less than or equal to the curb opening height. This condition can be expressed as: d≤h Where d = Depth at curb—i. d = TSx (m.81) In the case of a depressed curb opening (local depression) or a continuously depressed gutter. ft) Throat angle for inclined-throat inlets Weir Flow A curb inlet in a sag. measured from center of orifice throat (m. Inclined Throat do = di c. without a locally or continuously depressed gutter. Vertical Throat 0 h Figure 5-26: Curb Inlet Throat Types Where h di do Θ = = = = Height of curb-opening inlet (m.Inlet Hydraulics h di do do d o = d i -(h/2) h a..

5 Where Cw2 = (5. Customary SI Units d D = = Total depression.5 which is also expressed as: (5.S.83) Weir coefficient (1.86) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-181 .84) Weir coefficient (1.6 m (12 ft).4h (5.4 times the curb opening height: di ≥ 1. then the following equation is used. measured from normal cross-slope (m.6 SI. ft) The intercepted flow Qiw by a curb-opening inlet operating as a weir. customary) Orifice Flow A curb inlet in a sump operates as an orifice for depths at the lip of a curb opening that are greater than 1. which is the same as the equation for curb-opening inlets without depression: Qiw = Cw2Ld1.5 Where Cw1 L W = = = (5. with a locally or continuously depressed gutter. 3.S.3 U.25 SI.82) Where Depth at curb. in) (5. if L is greater than or equal to 3. ft) Lateral width of depression (m.85) The intercepted flow Qio by a curb-opening inlet (depressed or undepressed) operating as an orifice is: Qio = CohL(2gdo)0. measured at inlet (mm. customary) Curb-opening length (m. ft) However.8W)d1. 2.Bentley FlowMaster Theory d+ atotal £h 1000 U.S.0 U. is: Qiw = Cw1(L + 1.

0 and 1.88) 5. Qio) (5.87) Where Θ = 90° for horizontal-throat inlets.5 Where Cw d L = = = (5.06 m (0.Inlet Hydraulics 0 ø.sin Q œ œ Œ Ł ł 2 ß º (5. measured from normal cross slope (m.7.48 U. ft) Slot length (m.11 Slot Inlet in Sag Slot inlet in sag includes: • • • “Weir Flow” on page 5-180 “Orifice Flow” on page 5-183 “Transitional Flow” on page 5-183 Weir Flow Slotted inlets located in sag operate as weirs to water depths.2ft). d (measured at the curb from the normal cross slope). 2. customary) Water depth at curb. the flow is in a transition stage. The intercepted flow Qiw is expressed as: Qiw = CwLd1.5 Ø h 2 Qio = Co hL Œ g di .S. ft) 5-182 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .4 times the opening height. This intercepted flow Qi is calculated conservatively in this depth range as: Qi = min(Qiw.89) Weir coefficient—varies with flow depth and slot length (typically 1. of about 0. 0° for verticalthroat inlets Transition Flow At depths between 1.4 SI.

66 SI.4 ft).06 m (measured at the slot from the normal cross slope) and 0.5 Where Cw P d = = = Weir coefficient (typically 1. ft) (5.92) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 5-183 .S. combination inlets are considered advisable for use in sags where hazardous ponding occurs. disregarding side along curb (m.8LW(2gd)0. customary) Perimeter of grate.91) 5. The intercepted flow Qi is conservatively calculated in this depth range as: Qi = min(Qiw.7.90) Transitional Flow At depths between 0.12 Combination Inlet in Sag According to HEC-22. The intercepted flow Qio is expressed as: Qio = 0. 3. At lower flow depths. in which case the curb is intercepting some flow). The flow Qiw intercepted by the combination is then: Qiw = CwPd1. the grate inlet is operating as a weir and the interception capacity of the curb is negligible (unless the grate is clogged.12 m (0.Bentley FlowMaster Theory Orifice Flow At water depths (measured at the curb) greater than about 0.5 Where W d = = Slot width (m. slotted inlets perform as orifices. the flow is in a transition stage.12 m. ft) Flow depth at curb (m. Equal Length Inlets Equal length inlets refer to a grate inlet placed along the side of a curb-opening inlet of identical length.0 U. ft) Water depth at slot (m. ft) (5. Qio) (5.

ft) Head.93) h do = = Sweeper Inlet A sweeper inlet refers to a grate inlet placed at the downstream end of a longer curb opening inlet.94) 5-184 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Qi = Qie + Qic (5. The flow Qio intercepted by the combination inlet operating as an orifice is: Qio = CoAg(2gd)0. ft) (5.67) Clear opening of grate (m2.16 ft/ sec.2. both the grate inlet and the curb-opening inlet are operating as orifices.5 + CohL(2gdo)0. some assumptions were made in order to define the flows for this inlet.81 m/sec. A sweeper inlet is more efficient than an equal length combination inlet in intercepting debris. Note: The clear opening area of the grate depends on the opening ratio of the grate (HEC-22 defines an opening ratio for each grate type). The flow Qi intercepted by a sweeper inlet is the sum of the flow Qie as calculated above for an equal length combination inlet of length L (where L is the length of the grate) and the flow Qic intercepted by the additional length L (upsteam of the grate) of the curb opening. 32.2 ) Height of curb-opening inlet (m.Inlet Hydraulics At higher flow depths. Note that since the HEC-22 manual is not very explicit about this type of inlet in sag.5 Where Co Ag g = = = Orifice coefficient (Co = 0. measured from the center of the orifice throat (m. as well as the clogging factor you specify. ft2 ) Gravitational acceleration (9.

Drainage of Highway Pavements. The HEC22 methodology is used by Bentley FlowMaster to perform flow computations through inlets. and cause difficulty in steering a vehicle when the front wheels encounter puddles. Bentley Systems offers StormCAD. Pavement drainage requires consideration of surface drainage. and inlet capacity. and AASHTO’s Model Drainage Manual. Hydraulic Engineering Circular Number 22 (HEC-22). Water on the pavement can interrupt traffic. limit visibility due to splash and spray. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-185 . Most of the information presented here was originally published in HEC-12. Pavement Drainage. For analyzing or designing an entire storm sewer network. increase potential for hydroplaning. This section presents design guidance for the design of these elements. which also follows the HEC-22 methodology for inlet computations. gutter flow. The design of these elements is dependent on storm frequency and the allowable spread of storm water on the pavement surface. Effective drainage of highway pavements is essential to the maintenance of highway service level and to traffic safety.Chapter Pavement Drainage 6 Note: This section was extracted from the Urban Drainage Design Manual. reduce skid resistance. Bentley FlowMaster performs hydraulic computations for analyzing or sizing one inlet at a time. published by the Federal Highway Administration in November 1996. All charts referred to in this section are provided in “HEC 22 Charts” on page 7-279.

A summary of the major considerations that enter into the selection of design frequency and design spread follows: 1. and highway classifications. Design speed is important to the selection of design criteria. speeds. and the nuisance and possible hazard to pedestrian traffic increase. At speeds greater than 70 km/hr (44 mi/hr). The process of selecting the recurrence interval and spread for design involves decisions regarding acceptable risks of accidents and traffic delays and acceptable costs for the drainage system. 3. 6.1. the risks of traffic accidents and delays. A related consideration is the use of an event of lesser frequency to check the drainage design. These subjects are central to the issue of highway pavement drainage and important to highway safety. high speeds. 2.1 Selection of Design Frequency and Design Spread The objective of highway storm drainage design is to provide for safe passage of vehicles during the design storm event. Spread and design frequency are not independent.Design Frequency and Spread 6. The design of a drainage system for a curbed highway pavement section is to collect runoff in the gutter and convey it to pavement inlets in a manner that provides reasonable safety for traffic and pedestrians at a reasonable cost. Ponding on traffic lanes of high-speed. As spread from the curb increases. Projected traffic volumes are an indicator of the economic importance of keeping the highway open to traffic. and higher highway classifications than with lower volumes. The classification of the highway is a good starting point in the selection process since it defines the public’s expectations regarding water on the pavement surface. It also has different implications for a low-traffic. The implications of the use of a criterion for spread of one-half of a traffic lane are considerably different for one design frequency than for a lesser frequency.1 Design Frequency and Spread Two of the more significant variables considered in the design of highway pavement drainage are the frequency of the design runoff event and the allowable spread of water on the pavement. it has been shown that water on the pavement can cause hydroplaning. 6-186 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Risks associated with water on traffic lanes are greater with high traffic volumes. low-speed highway than for a higher classification highway. The costs of traffic delays and accidents increase with increasing traffic volumes. high-volume highways is contrary to the public’s expectations and thus the risks of accidents and the costs of traffic delays are high.

Spreads of one-half of a traffic lane or more are usually considered a minimum type design for low-volume local roads. an assessment of the relative risks and costs of various design spreads may be helpful in selecting appropriate design criteria. costs may be very sensitive to the criteria selected for use in design. and nuisances to pedestrian traffic. 5. The recommended design frequency for depressed sections and underpasses where ponded water can be removed only through the storm drainage system is a 50-year frequency event. The potential for ponding to hazardous depths should be considered in selecting the frequency and spread criteria and in checking the design against storm runoff events of lesser frequency than the design event. it may be practicable to significantly upgrade the drainage design and reduce risks at moderate costs. Table 61 provides suggested minimum design frequencies and spread based on the type of highway and traffic speed. The relative elevation of the highway and surrounding terrain is an additional consideration where water can be drained only through a storm drainage system. For example. Tradeoffs between desirable and practicable criteria are sometimes necessary because of costs. may assume major importance. as in underpasses and depressed sections.Pavement Drainage 4. The selection of design criteria for intermediate types of facilities may be the most difficult. Spread on traffic lanes can be tolerated to greater widths where traffic volumes and speeds are low. and it influences the public’s perception of acceptable practice. These considerations should not be minimized and. Cost considerations make it necessary to formulate a rational approach to the selection of design criteria. the costs and feasibility of providing for a given design frequency and spread may vary significantly between projects. In particular. Other considerations include inconvenience. The use of a lesser frequency event. In these instances. such as a 100-year storm. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-187 . Risks associated with the spread of water on pavements may be less in arid areas subject to high intensity thunderstorm events than in areas accustomed to frequent but less intense events. such as where extensive outfalls or pumping stations are required. hazards. in some locations such as in commercial areas. In some cases. Local design practice may also be a major consideration since it can affect the feasibility of designing to higher standards. to assess hazards at critical locations where water can pond to appreciable depths is commonly referred to as a check storm or check event. In other instances. The intensity of rainfall events may significantly affect the selection of design frequency and spread. Capital costs are neither the least nor last consideration. some arterials with relatively high traffic volumes and speeds may not have shoulders which will convey the design runoff without encroaching on the traffic lanes.

i.1. Where no significant ponding can occur. but each sets a standard by which the design can be evaluated. check storms are normally unnecessary. Also. Divided. Criteria for spread during the check event are: 1) one lane open to traffic during the check storm event.Design Frequency and Spread 6. These criteria differ substantively. and 2) one lane free of water during the check storm event. inlets should always be evaluated for a check storm when a series of inlets terminates at a sag vertical curve where ponding to hazardous depths could occur.2 Selection of Check Storm and Spread A check storm should be used any time runoff could cause unacceptable flooding during less frequent events.e. or Bi-Directional <70 km/hr (45 mph) >70 km/hr (45 mph) Sag Point Collector <70 km/hr (45 mph >70 km/hr (45 mph) Sag Point Local Streets Low ADT High ADT Sag Point Design Frequency 10-year 10-year 50-year 10-year Design Spread Shoulder +1m (3ft) Shoulder Shoulder +1m (3ft) 1/2 driving lane Shoulder 1/2 driving lane 1/2 driving lane 1/2 driving lane 1/2 driving lane 10-year 10-year 5-year 10-year 10-year 6-188 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . the consequences of spread exceeding that chosen for design and the potential for ponding.. Table 6-1: Suggested Minimum Design Frequency and Spread Road Classification High Volume. The frequency selected for the check storm should be based on the same considerations used to select the design storm.

Pavement Drainage 6. As the water builds up. For the purposes of highway drainage. As the depth of water on the pavement increases. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-189 .2. it forms a thin film of water that increases in thickness as it flows to the edge of the pavement. the tire loses its tractive ability and the driver has a loss of control of the vehicle. Hydroplaning occurs when the drainage capacity of the tire tread pattern and the pavement surface is exceeded and the water begins to build up in front of the tire. and rainfall intensity. surface texture. since water offers little shear resistance. a water wedge is created and this wedge produces a hydrodynamic force which can lift the tire off the pavement surface. the potential for vehicular hydroplaning increases. When a rolling tire encounters a film of water on the roadway. the potential for hydroplaning increases. This is considered as full dynamic hydroplaning and. Factors which influence the depth of water on the pavement are the length of flow path. a discussion of hydroplaning is presented and design guidance for the following drainage elements is presented: • • • • • • • longitudinal pavement slope cross or transverse pavement slope curb and gutter design roadside and median ditches bridge decks median barriers impact attenuators Additional technical information on the mechanics of surface drainage can be found in Improved Surface Drainage of Pavements. surface slope. published by the Federal Highway Administration in 1995.2 Surface Drainage When rain falls on a sloped pavement surface. the water is channeled through the tire tread pattern and through the surface roughness of the pavement.1 Hydroplaning As the depth of water flowing over a roadway surface increases. 6.

A minimum longitudinal gradient is more important for a curbed pavement than for an uncurbed pavement since the water is constrained by the curb. vehicle speed. the following general guidelines are presented: 1. This is accomplished where the length of the curve in meters divided by the algebraic difference in grades in percent (K) is equal to or less than 50 (167 in U. a minimum slope of 0.S. 3.3 percent. In addition. 2. The use of drainage structures along the roadway to capture the flow of water over the pavement will reduce the thickness of the film of water and reduce the hydroplaning potential of the roadway surface. acceptable pavement drainage. This is represented as: 6-190 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . flat gradients on uncurbed pavements can lead to a spread problem if vegetation is allowed to build up along the pavement edge.2. and conditions of the pavement surface. To provide adequate drainage in sag vertical curves. Increase the pavement surface texture depth by such methods as grooving of Portland cement concrete. 6. Desirable gutter grades should not be less than 0. The use of open graded asphaltic pavements has been shown to greatly reduce the hydroplaning potential of the roadway surface. However. This reduction is due to the ability of the water to be forced through the pavement under the tire. Minimum grades can be maintained in very flat terrain by use of a rolling profile. An increase of pavement surface texture will increase the drainage capacity at the tire pavement interface.2 Longitudinal Slope Experience has shown that the recommended minimum values of roadway longitudinal slope given in the AASHTO Policy on Geometric Design will provide safe. Design the highway geometries to reduce the drainage path lengths of the water flowing over the pavement. 3.Surface Drainage Hydroplaning is a function of the water depth. 4. The following can reduce the hydroplaning potential of a roadway surface: 1. roadway geometrics.3 percent should be maintained within 15 meters (50 ft) of the low point of the curve. customary units). 2.5 percent for curbed pavements with an absolute minimum of 0. This releases any hydrodynamic pressures that are created and reduces the potential for the tire to hydroplane. tire inflation pressure. It has been shown that hydroplaning can occur at speeds of 89 km/hr (55 mph) with a water depth of 2 mm (0.08 in). tread depth. or by warping the cross slope to achieve rolling gutter profiles. This will prevent flow build-up.

ft/%) Horizontal length of curve (m.G1 K L Gi = = = Vertical curve constant (m/%. Shoulders should be sloped to drain away from the pavement.1) Where 6. and in sections of flat longitudinal grades. ft) Grade of roadway (%) (6. except with raised. it is desirable to counter the resulting increase in flow depth by increasing the cross slope of the outermost lanes. 4. inside lanes can be sloped toward the median if conditions warrant. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-191 . narrow medians and super-elevations. and successive lane pairs. The number and length of flat pavement sections in cross slope transition areas should be minimized. On multi-lane highways where three (3) lanes or more are sloped in the same direction. These cross slopes represent standard practice. Although not widely encouraged. Additional guidelines related to cross slope are: 1. should be increased by about 0.5 percent) may be used to facilitate drainage. Use of a cross slope steeper than 2 percent on pavements with a central crown line is not desirable. a somewhat steeper cross slope (2. In areas of intense rainfall. The two (2) lanes adjacent to the crown line should be pitched at the normal slope.3 Cross (Transverse) Slope Table 6-2 indicates an acceptable range of cross slopes as specified in AASHTO’s policy on geometric design of highways and streets. 3. Median areas should not be drained across travel lanes. 2.5 to 1 percent. cross slopes of 2 percent have little effect on driver effort in steering or on friction demand for vehicle stability. crest vertical curves. The maximum pavement cross slope should be limited to 4 percent (refer to table 6-2). Consideration should be given to increasing cross slopes in sag vertical curves.2. As reported in Pavement and Geometric Design Criteria for Minimizing Hydroplaning. or portions thereof outward.Pavement Drainage K= L G2 . These cross slopes are a compromise between the need for reasonably steep cross slopes for drainage and relatively flat cross slopes for driver comfort and safety.

Spread is what concerns the hydraulic engineer in curb and gutter flow.4 Curb and Gutter Curbs are normally used at the outside edge of pavements for low-speed.015 minimum.2. prevent erosion on fill slopes.015 – 0.040 Gutters formed in combination with curbs are available in 0. They serve the following purposes: • • • • contain the surface runoff within the roadway and away from adjacent properties. T. When a design flow occurs. A curb and gutter combination forms a triangular channel that can convey runoff less than or equal to the design flow without interruption of the traffic. 0. Gutter cross slopes may be equal to that of the pavement or may be designed with a steeper cross slope.040 maximum 0.3 through 1.030 0.060 >= 0. increase 0.010 per lane.Surface Drainage 6. 6-192 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .020 0.060 0. is measured perpendicular to the curb face to the extent of the water on the roadway and is shown in Figure 6-1. usually 80 mm per meter (1 inch per foot) steeper than the shoulder or parking lane (if used). but also parking lanes or shoulders.0 meter (12 through 39 inch) widths. provide pavement delineation. there is a spread or widening of the conveyed water surface. The distance of the spread.020 – 0. and enable the orderly development of property adjacent to the roadway.015 – 0. The water spreads to include not only the gutter width. and portions of the traveled surface. Table 6-2: Normal Pavement Cross Slopes Surface Type 2 Lanes (High-Type Surface) 3 or more lanes.020 – 0. AASHTO geometric guidelines state that an 8% slope is a common maximum cross slope. each direction (High-Type Surface) Intermediate Surface Low-Type Surface Bituminous or Concrete Shoulders Bituminous or Concrete Shoulders With Curbs Range in Rate of Surface Slope 0. highway facilities.005 to 0. and in some instances adjacent to shoulders on moderate to high-speed facilities.

the deposition of sediment and other debris on the roadway as well as the amount of water which must be carried in the gutter section will be minimized. Where curbs are not needed for traffic control. Shallow Swale Sections AB A S x1 B T1 BC T Ts Sx3 D Sx3 T AB BC D Sx2 C A S x1 B Sx2 C Sx3 d 1. By doing so. runoff from cut slopes and other areas draining toward the roadway should be intercepted before it reaches the highway. shallow ditch sections at the edge of the roadway pavement or shoulder offer advantages over curbed sections by providing less of a hazard to traffic than a near-vertical curb and by providing hydraulic capacity that is not dependent on spread on the pavement. Curved Section b. Composite Section x 3. These ditch sections are particularly appropriate where curbs have historically been used to prevent water from eroding fill slopes. Where practical. Conventional Curb and Gutter Sections T W T Qw Sx a 1. "V"-Shape Gutter 2.2.Pavement Drainage Limiting this width becomes a very important design criterion and will be discussed in detail in “Flow in Gutters” on page 6-195. Uniform Section y Ts Qs y=ax-bx 2 d y a=2H/B b=H/B 2 x H Sx Sw 2. 6.5 Roadside and Median Channels a. "V"-Shape Median 3. Circular Section Figure 6-1: Typical Gutter Sections Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-193 .

Because of the difficulties in providing for and maintaining adequate deck drainage systems. Additionally. and other locations where sufficient right-of-way is available and driveways or intersections are infrequent.7 Median Barriers Slope the shoulder areas adjacent to median barriers to the center to prevent drainage from running across the traveled pavement. A detailed coverage of bridge deck drainage systems is included in Design of Bridge Deck Drainage. parapets collect large amounts of debris.Surface Drainage Roadside channels are commonly used with uncurbed roadway sections to convey runoff from the highway pavement and from areas which drain toward the highway. zero gradients and sag vertical curves should be avoided on bridges. slope median areas and inside shoulders to a center swale. and particularly on horizontal curves with associated superelevations. it is necessary to provide inlets or slotted drains to collect the water accumulated against the barrier. This design is particularly important for high speed facilities and for facilities with more than two lanes of traffic in each direction. 6. They can be used in cut sections. runoff from bridge decks should be collected immediately after it flows onto the subsequent roadway section where larger grates and inlet structures can be used. 6-194 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Due to right-of-way limitations. gutter flow from roadways should be intercepted before it reaches a bridge. and drainage inlets or typical bridge scuppers are less hydraulically efficient and more easily clogged by debris.2. To prevent drainage from the median areas from running across the travel lanes. Additionally. depressed sections.6 Bridge Decks Bridge deck drainage is similar to that of curbed roadway sections. some highway department agencies use a piping system to convey water through the barrier. 6. For similar reasons. Effective bridge deck drainage is important for the following reasons: • • • Deck structural and reinforcing steel is susceptible to corrosion from deicing salts Moisture on bridge decks freezes before surface roadways Hydroplaning often occurs at shallower depths on bridges due to the reduced surface texture of concrete bridge decks Bridge deck drainage is often less efficient than roadway sections because cross slopes are flatter.2. published by the Federal Highway Administration in 1993. roadside channels cannot be used on most urban arterials. Where median barriers are used.

1. a.67 0. Conventional gutters may have a straight cross slope (Figure 6-1. a composite cross slope where the gutter slope varies from the pavement cross slope (Figure 6-1.2. The resulting equation is: Q= K c 1.1 Capacity Relationship Gutter flow calculations are necessary to establish the spread of water on the shoulder. Gutter sections can be categorized as conventional or shallow swale type as illustrated in Figure 6-1.1.2. Conventional curb and gutter sections usually have a triangular shape with the curb forming the near-vertical leg of the triangle.3. or a parabolic section (Figure 6-1. Shallow swale gutters typically have V-shaped or circular sections as illustrated in Figure 6-1.). particularly where the top width of the water surface may be more than 40 times the depth at the curb. A modification of the Manning equation can be used for computing flow in triangular channels.3 Flow in Gutters A pavement gutter is defined.3.). b. parking lane. a. grate inlets and/or slotted drains may be needed to prevent water from running through the clear opening and crossing the highway lanes or ramp lanes. To compute gutter flow.3. for purposes of this circular. a. curb-type structures or swales cannot be used to direct water across this clear opening as vehicle vaulting could occur. 6.. Curb.67 Sx SL T n (6.5 2.). the Manning equation is integrated for an increment of width across the section. b. or pavement section.. It may include a portion or all of a travel lane.Pavement Drainage 6.2) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-195 . and b. With some impact attenuator systems it is necessary to have a clear or unobstructed opening as traffic approaches the point of impact to allow a vehicle to impact the system head on. 6. If the impact attenuator is placed in an area where superelevation or other grade separation occurs.8 Impact Attenuators The location of impact attenuator systems should be reviewed to determine the need for drainage structures in these areas. as a section of pavement adjacent to the roadway which conveys water during a storm runoff event. and are often used in paved median areas on roadways with inverted crowns. respectively.2. The modification is necessary because the hydraulic radius in the equation does not adequately describe the gutter cross section.

trowled finish Asphalt pavement. For other values of n.376 SI.. ft/ft) Equation 6. Instructions for use and an example problem solution are provided on the chart. 0. rough texture Concrete gutter-asphalt pavement.2 neglects the resistance of the curb face since this resistance is negligible. Design Chart 1 in “HEC 22 Charts” on page 7-279 is a nomograph for solving Equation 6.013 0. ft) (6.2. ft) Cross slope (m/m. ft3/sec. smooth texture Asphalt pavement.016 0.Flow in Gutters Where Kc n Q T Sx SL = = = = = = 0.3) Chart 1 can be used for direct solution of gutter flow where the Manning n value is 0.016. ft/ft) Longitudinal slope (m/m.013 0. rough Manning’s n 0.012 0. smooth Concrete gutter-asphalt pavement.015 6-196 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Table 6-3: Manning’s n for Street and Pavement Gutters Type of Gutter or Pavement Concrete gutter. customary Manning’s coefficient (see Table 6-3) Flow rate (m3 /sec.) Width of flow—spread (m. The chart can be used for either criterion with the relationship: d = TS x Where d = Depth of flow (m.56 U. Spread on the pavement and flow depth at the curb are often used as criteria for spacing pavement drainage inlets. divide the value of Qn by n.S.

the paved gutter has a cross-slope which is steeper than that of the adjacent pavement. gutters can have uniform.Pavement Drainage Table 6-3: Manning’s n for Street and Pavement Gutters Type of Gutter or Pavement Concrete pavement. float finish Concrete pavement.016 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-197 .2 Conventional Curb and Gutter Sections Conventional gutters begin at the inside base of the curb and usually extend from the curb face toward the roadway centerline a distance of 0. This concept is illustrated in Example 6-1. Uniform gutter sections have a cross-slope which is equal to the cross-slope of the shoulder or travel lane adjacent to the gutter.020 m/m n = 0.014 0. Procedures for computing the capacity of curb and gutter sections follow.016 For gutters with small slope.3. where sediment may accumulate.2 for gutters having triangular cross sections. increase the above values of “n” by 0. composite. As illustrated in Figure 6-1. broom finish Manning’s n 0. Gutters having composite sections are depressed in relation to the adjacent pavement slope. EXAMPLE 6-1 Given: SL = 0. That is. Example 6-1 illustrates its use for the analysis of conventional gutters with uniform cross slope.0010 m/m SX = 0.02 Reference: USDOT. Curved gutter sections are sometimes found along older city streets or highways with curved pavement sections.3 to 1 meter. Conventional Gutters of Uniform Cross Slope The nomograph in Chart 1 solves Equation 6. FHWA. HDS-3 6. or curved sections.

8 ft3/sec.4 ft3/sec.0008) ( º {(0. using Equation 6.376)( . is provided for use with Equations 6.2 or Chart 1 with T = 2.5 m.4.67 (0. Equation 6.67 0.5 (0. Gutter flow at spread of 2.2 or from Chart 1. T. W. less than the total spread.2 ft) Solution 1: Compute spread T.67 ß T = 2. and the preceding information. Qw.67 S L. (1.375 0 ø T = ØQn) (K m S 1. 6-198 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .5 ) ( x Œ œ º ß 0.67 x 1.) 2.05 m3/sec.020) 0 0 Qn = 0. Spread at flow of 0.5 and 6.5 m (8.6 and Chart 1 to determine the flow in a width of gutter in a composite cross section. determine Qn.376)(0.375 0.) Composite Gutter Sections The design of composite gutter sections requires consideration of flow in the depressed segment of the gutter.010) (2.67 S L.00064 m3/sec.010) }ø œ Ø T = Œ0. 0 Qn = K m S 1.7 m (8/9 ft) Solution 2: Using Equation 6.Flow in Gutters Find: 1.0020) 1. The procedure for analyzing composite gutter sections is demonstrated in Example 6-2. 0.5 2. displayed graphically as Chart 2.5) Qn = ( . (1.5T 2.

EXAMPLE 6-2 Given: Gutter section illustrated in Figure 6-1 a.) Flow capacity of gutter section above depressed section (m3/sec.5) QW = Q .) Gutter flow rate (m3/sec.2 with: W = 0.2) Where Figure 6-2 illustrates a design chart for a composite gutter with a 0. ft3/sec.. ft3/sec..Eo ) Eo Sw = = (6.60 m (2 foot) wide gutter section with a 50 mm depression at the curb that begins at the projection of the uniform cross slope at the curb face.Qs Where Qw Q Qs = Flow rate in depressed section of gutter (m3/sec.) = = Q= Qs 1 ( .01 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-199 . A series of charts similar to Figure 6-2 for typical gutter configurations could be developed. ft3/sec.6) Ratio of flow in a chosen width (usually the width of a grate) to the total gutter flow (Qw/Q) Sx+a/W (see Figure 6-1 a..Pavement Drainage Eo = 1 / 1 + S w sx 2 ø.67 Ø œ Œ Œ Sw S x œ 1+ -1 Œ T œ œ Œ Œ W œ ß º (6.6 m (2 ft) SL = 0.4) (6.

15) / (4.6 m Ts = 1. Ts.75 ft3/sec.5 m (8.016 Qs = 0.01)0.5(1.5 / 0.15 Eo = 1 / {1+[(Sw / Sx) / (1 + (Sw / Sx) / (T / W – 1))2. (0.Flow in Gutters Sx = 0.102 m/m Ts = T – W = 2. Compute the cross-slope of the depressed gutter.) 3.70 Q = Qw / Eo = Qs / (1 – Eo) 6-200 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .00031 / 0. T / W = 2. Eo = Qw / Q = 0. (4.) Qs = Qs / n = 0. a = 50 mm Find: 1. and the width of spread from the junction of the gutter and the road to the limit of the spread.2 ft3/sec.376)(0.020 n = 0.17 Sw / Sx = 0.020) = 0. Spread at a flow of 0.103 / 0.2 or from Chart 1 (using Ts): 0 Qs n = K m S 1.17 – 1))2. of 2.9 m (6.5T 2.12 m3/sec.67 S L.6 = 4. using Equation 6. Gutter flow at a spread. Determine the gutter flow.67 Qsn = 0.020 = 5.67 – 1]} Eo = 0.67(0.6) + (0. Sw = a / W + Sx Sw = [(50) / 1000] / (0.15 / (1 + (5. (0.4 or Chart 2.2 ft) 2. Q.016 Gutter depression.00031 m3/sec.) Solution 1: 1.019 m3/sec.67 – 1]} Eo = 1 / {1+[5. T.9)2.5 m – 0. Sw.02)1. from Chart 2. From Equation 6.67 x Qsn = (0.011 ft3/sec.2 ft) 2.70 Or.

04 m3/sec.70) Q = 0.) Figure 6-2: Spread Curves for a Composite Gutter Section Solution 2: 1.) 2. (1.06 m3/sec.3 ft3/sec. Compute Qw Qw = Q – Qs = 0.019 / (1 – 0.12 – 0. (2.Pavement Drainage Q = 0.4 ft3/sec. Try Qs – 0.04 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-201 .

6 – 0.6 m (8. Try a new assumed Qs and repeat steps 2 through 7.4 or from Chart 2.02)1.) Qw = 0.12 – 0.77 ft3/sec.67 Qsn = 0. Assume Qs = 0.15 W / T = 0. Compute spread based on the assumed Qs.0 ft3/sec. Compute Ts based on assumed Qs.) Eo = Qw / Q = 0.12 – 0.08 / 0.8 ft3/sec.016 Qs = 0.6 ft) 5. Use Equation 6. Ts = T – W = 2.103 / 0.5 ft) Ts = 3.15 W / T = 0.17 T = 0.376)(0. (0.67 x Qsn = (0.5 m (11. Qs assumed = 0.058 = 0.5T 2. Using Equation 6.9 m (9.01)0.23 T = 2.17 = 3.6 / 0.6 ft) 6. 0 Qs n = KS 1.00123 ft3/sec. T = W / (W / T) = 0.058 m3/sec.6 = 2.5 – 0.020 = 5.23 (from Chart 2) 4.0)2.08 m3/sec.67 S L.2 or Chart 1 to determine Qs for computed Ts. Eo = Qw / Q = 0.00035 m3/sec.04 Qw = 0.Flow in Gutters Qw = Q – Qs = 0. (2.60 / 0. Compare the computed Qs with the assumed Qs. (2.62 m3/sec.2 ft3/sec.062 / 0.52 Sw / Sx = 5.04 > 0.12 = 0. (2. determine the W / T ratio.022 = Qs computed 8.6 = 2.0 m (6.5 ft) 6-202 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .) 3.) Qs = Qsn / n = 0. (0.12 = 0.67 Sw / Sx = 0.00035 / 0.) 7.022 m3/sec.5(2.67(0.

) Qs assumed = 0.3. Small swale sections may have sufficient capacity to convey the flow to a location suitable for interception. Analysis of a V-shaped gutter resulting from a roadway with an inverted crown section is illustrated in Example 6-4.1) with: SL = 0.016 = 0. V-Sections Chart 1 can be used to compute the flow in a shallow V-shaped section.01 n = 0. EXAMPLE 6-3 Given: A V-shaped roadside gutter (Figure 6-1 a.00094 / 0.3 Shallow Swale Sections Where curbs are not needed for traffic control. the control of pavement runoff on fills may be needed to protect the embankment from erosion.Pavement Drainage Qsn = 0. As an example.1 ft3/sec.04 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-203 . = Qs computed Conventional Gutters with Curved Sections Where the pavement cross section is curved. (0.) Qs = 0.7) Example 6-3 demonstrates the use of Chart 1 to analyze a V-shaped shoulder gutter.016 Sx1 = 0. a small swale section of circular or V shape may be used to convey runoff from the pavement. For this reason. 6. Sx is determined by the following equation: Sx = S x1 S x 2 (S x1 + S x 2 ) (6. the cross slope.00064 m3/sec.059 m3/sec.059 m3/sec. (2.25 Sx2 = 0.058 m3/sec. gutter capacity varies with the configuration of the pavement. When using Chart 1 for V-shaped channels.032 ft3/sec. equal to 0. discharge-spread or discharge-depth at-the-curb relationships developed for one pavement configuration are not applicable to another section with a different crown height or half-width.

25 + 0.9 ft) 0.375 0 ø T ’= ØQn) (KS 1. Solve for the depth at point C.067 / 0. Sx = Sx1Sx2 / (Sx1 + Sx2) = (0.0 ft) Find: 1. dC = dB – BC(Sx2) = (0.Flow in Gutters Sx3 = 0. Using Equation 6.) 2. (1. AC = 0. from which dB = T'(Sx1)(Sx2) / (Sx1 + Sx2) = (1.04) dB = 0. AB. and compute the actual spread from the edge of gutter section Ts.9 ft) Solution 1: 1.2 or Chart 1: 0.6 m = 0.) 3. Flow at a spread of 1.04) Sx = 0.8 ft3/sec.60)(0.9 ft) AC = AB + 0.5}]0.25)(0.8 m (5.016) / {(0.376)(0.6 m (2. spread falls outside the V-shaped gutter section 4.067 m (0. dC.27 m (0. dB can be computed using the following geometric relationship: T' = (dB / Sx1) + (dB / Sx2).94 m (6.27 m + 0.0345 2.87 m (2.067) – (0. and use this depth to find the horizontal distance between points A and B.04) / (0.67 S L. at point B. Spread at a flow of 0.25 + 0.0345)1.4 ft) T' is the hypothetical spread that is correct if it is contained within Sx1 and Sx2. Calculate Sx.67(0.02 Distance BC = 0.01)0. To determine if T' is within Sx1 and Sx2.25 AB = 0.94)(0. dB.375 T' = 1.05)(0.5 ) ( x Œ œ º ß T' = [(0.87 m < T' therefore.22 ft) AB = dB / Sx1 = 0.6 m.04) 6-204 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . compute the flow depth.25)(0.05 m3/sec.04) / (0.

04 m3/sec.02) dC = 0.034 0 Q = KS 1. Compute T'.01)0.043) / (0.06 m (0.25)(0.04) Sx = 0.034)1. Ts = dC / Sx3 = (0.036 m (0.043 m (0. T' = dB / Sx1 + BC + dC / Sx2 T' = (0.04) T' = 1. compute Q.12 ft) 2.02) Ts = 2.3 ft3/sec. Compute the depth at point C.6 + (0.04)] + 0. dC. (1.25 + 0. Using Equation 6.Pavement Drainage dC = 0.2 ft) 3. dB = [(BC)(Sx2)] + dC dB = [(0.1 ft) Solution 2: 1.) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-205 .06 / 0.60 m)(0.5T 2.67 n x Q = (0.15 m (7.67 / (0.376)(0.5(1.67 S L.04) / (0.25) + 0.74 m (5. Sx = (0.036 m dB = 0.036 / 0.80 m)(0. Compute dB.14 ft) Therefore.67(0.2 or Chart 1.74)2.016) Q = 0. dC = (Ts)(Sx3) = (1.7 ft) 4.

67 n x Q = ( .2 or Chart 1 0. From Equation 6.5T 2.04) ( .5 ) ( x Œ œ º ß 0.67 (0.02 Step 2.5 2.04 + 0.7 m (9.8 cfs) (2) Flow at a spread of 3 m (9.04 S x 3 = 0.Flow in Gutters EXAMPLE 6-4 Given: V-shaped gutter as illustrated in Figure 6.67 S L.01 n = 0.8 ft) BC (9.376)( .01) (3) 0.04)( .3cfs) Circular Sections Flow in shallow circular gutter sections can be represented by the relationship: 6-206 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .8 ft) Solution (1) Step 1.05 m3 /s (1.67 0. From Equation 6.0 ft) This is within Sx1 and Sx2 .67 (0. Sx = 0. Compute Sx S x = (S x1 S x 2 ) (S x1 + S x 2 )= ( .016 S x1 = S x 2 = 0.375 1.1 b.016) ( .8 ft ) S L = 0. therefore OK { } Soution (2): Step 1.01) œ ( ( º ß T = 2.016) Q = 0.375 0 ø T = ØQn) (KS 1.02) ( .05) 0.04) 0 0 0 S x = 0.02) 0 0 3 1.376)( . Compute Sx From Part 1.2 or Chart 1 6 0 Q = KS 1. Step 1 above.67 S L.2 with 2 AB = 3 m (9.064 m /s(2.02 Step 2.5 ø Ø 0 0 0 T = Œ0.02 Find: (1) Spread at a flow of 0.

9 represents the width of circular gutter section Tw. customary Where d D Kc = = = which is displayed on Chart 3.488 d œ Œ = K C Œ 2. The chord of the arc which can be computed using Equation 6.67 0.5 œ D D SL œ Œ ß º (6. ft) Where Tw = = Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-207 .d ) ( r 2 0. ft) Radius of flow in circular gutter (m.Pavement Drainage 0 Ø Qn ø.(r .8) Depth of flow in circular gutter (m.S.9) Width of circular gutter section (m. ft) Diameter of circular gutter (m. Tw = 2 r 2 .5 ) (6. 0. ft) 1.179 SI.972 U.

01 n = 0.488 0 ø d D = K D ØQn) (D 2.67 0.016) Ø1.( .488 0.5 )= ( .5) ( . determine d D 0. The spread in these areas should be checked to insure it remains within allowable limits.Flow in Gutters EXAMPLE 6-5 Given: A circular gutter swale as illustrated in Figure 6. Sag vertical curves and measures for reducing spread are discussed further in “Drainage Inlet Design” on page 6-212.027 Step 2.20)= 0.3) ø r ( Œ œ Œ œ º ß º ß = 1.(r . Using Equation 6.20 d = D (d D )= 1.9 ft) diameter and S L = 0.67 S L.9. 6-208 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . determine Tw 2 12 2 2 12 0 Tw = 2 Ø 2 .6 cfs) Find: Flow Depth and top width Solution: Step 1.027 ] º ß d D = 0.d ) ø = 2 Ø0.30m(0.75) . additional inlets should be provided to reduce the flow as it approaches the low point.179)[ . Determine the value of h 2.9 ft) 6.5 meter (4.5)( . If the computed spread exceeds design values.0.5 ) 1 0 ( Œ œ = ( .8 or Chart 3.3.75 .5 0 Qn (D 2.1b (3) with a e 1.4 Flow in Sag Vertical Curves As gutter flow approaches the low point in a sag vertical curve the flow can exceed the allowable design spread values as a result of the continually decreasing gutter slope. Using Equation 6.67 S L.5 ( .2 m (3.98 ft ) 0 Step 3.016 Q = 0.01) ø 0 0 0 ( Œ œ º ß = 0.5 m3 /s (17.

10) S 1. Equation (6.14 respectively.12) Similar transformations can be performed to evaluate the effects of changing longitudinal slope and width of spread on gutter capacity resulting in Equations 6.67 = K1Q1 Q = 1 K1Q2 Q2 (6.13 and 6.3.67 = K1Q x And (6.11) S x1 ŁS x 2 ł 1. and longitudinal slope on the capacity of a section with a straight cross slope.5 (6.Pavement Drainage 6.67 0. To examine the effects of cross slope on gutter capacity.13) = Q1 Q2 (6.2) can be used to examine the relative effects of changing the values of spread.67 (6. S L1 Q = 1 Q2 ŁS L 2 ł T1 ŁT2 ł 2. cross slope.5 Relative Flow Capacities Example 6-1 and Example 6-2 illustrate the advantage of a composite gutter section.14) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-209 .5T 2.2) can be transformed as follows into a relationship between Sx and Q as follows: Let K1 = Then n 0 K m S L. The capacity of the section with a depressed gutter in the examples is 70 percent greater than that of the section with a straight cross slope with all other parameters held constant. Equation (6.

2 times the capacity of a gutter at 2 percent cross slope. The effects of cross slope are also relatively great as illustrated by a comparison of gutter capacities with different cross slopes. the effects of spread on gutter capacity are greater than the effects of cross slope and longitudinal slope. The magnitude of the effect is demonstrated when gutter capacity with a 3 meter (9.8 ft) spread is 18. Cross Slope. Figure 6-3: Relative Effects of Spread. 6.6 ft). and Longitudinal Slope on Gutter Capacity 6-210 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .13.3 ft) spread. as would be expected due to the larger exponent of the spread term. and 3 times greater than a spread of 2 meters (6.8 times greater than with a 1 meter (3. As illustrated.10. a gutter has 10 times the capacity of a gutter of 1 percent cross slope. A gutter at 4 percent cross slope has 3.Flow in Gutters Equations 6. At a cross slope of 4 percent.14 are illustrated in Figure 6-3. and 6.

The time of flow can be estimated by use of an average velocity obtained by integration of the Manning equation for the gutter section with respect to time.15 for the velocity in a triangular channel with known cross slope.04. T1 and T2 are the spread at the upstream and downstream ends of the gutter section respectively. 1.70 0.68 0.04 to 0. In the table. i.11 U.5 0. but slope changes which change gutter capacity are frequent.90 6.77 0. ft/sec.2 0.7 0. customary (6.752 SI.4 0.) Example 6-6 illustrates the use of Table 6-4 and Chart 4 to determine the average gutter velocity.02 will reduce gutter capacity to 71 percent of the capacity at S = 0. both the velocity and flow rate in a gutter are spatially varied. Table 6-4: Spread at Average Velocity in a Reach of Triangular Gutter T1/T2 Ta/T2 0.1 0. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-211 .82 0. To find the gutter flow component of the time of concentration.3. and spread.8 0. V= K C 0..15) Where Velocity in the triangular channel (m/sec.6 Gutter Flow Time The flow time in gutters is an important component of the time of concentration for the contributing drainage area to an inlet. Chart 4 is a nomograph to solve equation 6.Pavement Drainage Little latitude is generally available to vary longitudinal slope in order to increase gutter capacity.3 0.86 0. The velocity in a gutter varies with the flow rate and the flow rate varies with the distance along the gutter.6 0. a method for estimating the average velocity in a reach of gutter is needed. Figure 63 shows that a change from S = 0. gutter slope.5 0. Table 6-4 and Chart 4 can be used to determine the average velocity in triangular gutter sections.67 0..74 0.e.66 0. Ta is the spread at the average velocity.67 SL Sx T n Kc V = = 0.S.

02) (2. Inadequate inlet capacity or poor inlet location may cause flooding on the roadway resulting in a hazard to the traveling public. Determine the spread at average velocity interpolating between values in Table 6-4.01 = 0. 6-212 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .30 .3 ft) T2 = 3 m (9.98)/ 60 = 1.752) ( .71 Ta = ( . Inlet capacity governs both the rate of water removal from the gutter and the amount of water that can enter the storm drainage system.Drainage Inlet Design EXAMPLE 6-6 Given: A triangular gutter section with the following characteristics: T1 = 1 m (3.13 m (7.03) 0 0 0 Va = 0.33 Step 2. Using Equation 6.70 + 0.0. Compute the travel time in the gutter.4)= X (0.5 S x .33) (0.0.01 Ta T2 = 0.13) 0.67 Va = ( .3 .0 ft) 0 3 Step 3. 100 0 t = ( )/ ( .02 n = 0.15 or Chart 4.0.67 Step 4.70) X = 0.71)( )= 2.016 Inlet spacing anticipated to be 100 meters (330 ft) Find: Time of flow in gutter Solution: w Step 1.03 S x = 0.752 / nS L.5 (0. determine the average velocity e 0 0 Va = 0.8 ft) S L = 0.7 minutes 6.4 Drainage Inlet Design The hydraulic capacity of a storm drain inlet depends upon its geometry as well as the characteristics of the gutter flow.2 ft/s) 0. (0.016)( . Compute the upstream to downstream spread ratio T1 T2 = 1 3 = 0.67 0.67 T 0.74 .98 m/s (3.

Inlets used for the drainage of highway surfaces can be divided into the following four classes: • • • • Grate inlets Curb-opening inlets Slotted inlets Combination inlets Grate inlets consist of an opening in the gutter or ditch covered by a grate. Consequently. but to a lesser degree than curb opening inlets.1 Inlet Types Storm drain inlets are used to collect runoff and discharge it to an underground storm drainage system.4. 6.4. The interception capacity of curb-opening inlets decreases as the gutter grade steepens. Slotted drains may also be used with grates and each type of inlet may be installed with or without a depression of the gutter. where bicycle traffic occurs. and with flows which typically carry significant amounts of floating debris.Pavement Drainage 6. This combination results in a high capacity inlet which offers the advantages of both grate and curb-opening inlets. For safety reasons. When the curb opening precedes the grate in a Sweeper configuration. Additionally. but the curb opening may be located in part upstream of the grate. paved medians. The principal advantage of grate inlets is that they are installed along the roadway where the water is flowing. Combination inlets provide the advantages of both curb opening and grate inlets. the curb-opening inlet acts as a trash interceptor during the initial phases of a storm. preference should be given to grate inlets where out-of-control vehicles might be involved. as a class. Combination inlets consist of both a curb opening inlet and a grate inlet placed in a side-by-side configuration. Curb-opening inlets are most effective on flatter slopes. grates should be bicycle safe. Of course. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-213 . perform satisfactorily over a wide range of gutter grades. Slotted inlets consist of a pipe cut along the longitudinal axis with bars perpendicular to the opening to maintain the slotted opening. Grate inlets generally lose capacity with increase in grade. the sweeper inlet can have a curb opening on both sides of the grate. in sags. Inlets are typically located in gutter sections. Figure 6-4 illustrates each class of inlets. the use of curb-opening inlets is recommended in sags and on grades less than 3%. Curb opening inlets are vertical openings in the curb covered by a top slab. and roadside and median ditches. they are bicycle safe as well. Used in a sag configuration.2 Characteristics and Uses of Inlets Grate inlets. Their principal disadvantage is that floating trash or debris may clog them.

and a parallel bar grate was used as a standard with which to compare the performance of others.Drainage Inlet Design Slotted inlets can be used in areas where it is desirable to intercept sheet flow before it crosses onto a section of roadway. and are not recommended for use in environments where significant sediment or debris loads may be present. slotted inlets are very susceptible to clogging from sediments and debris. Slotted Drain Inlet Figure 6-4: Classes of Storm Drain Inlets 6. Curb Opening Inlet L h W c. 6-214 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Hydraulic tests on grate inlets and slotted inlets included in this document were conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation for the Federal Highway Administration. Their principal advantage is their ability to intercept flow over a wide section. Grate Inlet b.3 Inlet Capacity Several agencies and manufacturers of grates have investigated inlet interception capacity. three have designs and bar spacing similar to those proven bicycle-safe. However. Slotted inlets on a longitudinal grade do have the same hydraulic capacity as curb openings when debris is not a factor. L h W L W a. Four of the grates selected for testing were rated highest in bicycle safety tests.4. Combination Inlet d.

45° – 85 Tilt Bar: 45° tilt-bar grate with 83 mm (3-1/4 in) longitudinal bar and 102 mm (4 in) transverse bar spacing on center (Figure 6-8). P-30: Parallel bar grate with 29 mm (1-1/8 in) on center bar spacing (Figure 6-6). Reticuline: Honeycomb pattern of lateral bars and longitudinal bearing bars (Figure 6-10). For ease in identification. Curved Vane: Curved vane grate with 83 mm (3-1/4 in) longitudinal bar and 108 mm (4-1/4 in) transverse bar spacing on center Figure 6-7). Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-215 . the following terms have been adopted: P-50: Parallel bar grate with bar spacing 48 mm (1-7/8 in) on center (Figure 6-5).Pavement Drainage Figures 7.10 show the inlet grates for which design procedures were developed. P-50x100: Parallel bar grate with bar spacing 48 mm (1-7/8 in) on center and 10 mm (3/8 in) diameter lateral rods spaced at 102 mm (4 in) on center (Figure 6-5). 30° – 85 Tilt Bar: 30° tilt-bar grate with 83 mm (3-1/4 in) longitudinal bar and 102 mm (4 in) transverse bar spacing on center (Figure 6-9). 45° – 60 Tilt Bar: 45° tilt-bar grate with 57 mm (2-1/4 in) longitudinal bar and 102 mm (4 in) transverse bar spacing on center (Figure 6-8).5 through 7.

as reported in both Hydraulics of Runoff from Developed Surfaces and Hydraulic Design of Depressed Curb-Opening Inlets. Design procedures adopted for this Circular are largely derived from experimental work at Colorado State University for the Federal Highway Administration. 6-216 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .Drainage Inlet Design Figure 6-5: P-50 and P-50x100 Grates The interception capacity of curb-opening inlets has also been investigated by several agencies.

Pavement Drainage Figure 6-6: P-30 Grate Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-217 .

Drainage Inlet Design Figure 6-7: Curved Vane Grate 6-218 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .

Pavement Drainage Figure 6-8: 45 – 60-Degree and 45-85-Degree Tilt-Bar Grates Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-219 .

Drainage Inlet Design Figure 6-9: 30 – 85-Degree Tilt-Bar Grate 6-220 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .

Pavement Drainage Figure 6-10: Reticuline Grate Factors Affecting Interception Capacity on Continuous Grades Inlet interception capacity. is the percent of total flow that the inlet will intercept for those conditions. The efficiency of an inlet changes with changes in cross slope. to a lesser extent. pavement roughness. Qi. efficiency. E. and..) Intercepted flow (m3/sec. E. ft3/sec. The efficiency of an inlet. is the flow intercepted by an inlet under a given set of conditions.) (6. In mathematical form. longitudinal slope.16) Where Flow that is not intercepted by an inlet is termed carryover or bypass and is defined as follows: Qb = Q . ft3/sec..Qi (6. total gutter flow.17) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-221 . is defined by the following equation: E= Qi Q E Q Qi = = = Inlet efficiency Total gutter flow (m3/sec.

Tests have shown that such supports reduce the effectiveness of openings downstream of the support by as much as 50 percent and. The interception capacity of an equal length combination inlet consisting of a grate placed alongside a curb opening on a grade does not differ materially from that of a grate only. The interception capacity of a grate inlet depends on the amount of water flowing over the grate.Drainage Inlet Design Where Qb = Bypass flow (m3/sec. interception by the downstream portion of the opening may be reduced to near zero.) The interception capacity of all inlet configurations increases with increasing flow rates. curb opening inlet interception capacity and efficiency. Slotted inlets function in essentially the same manner as curb opening inlets. The depth of water next to the curb is the major factor in the interception capacity of both grate inlets and curbopening inlets. they should be recessed several inches from the curb line and rounded in shape.. ft3/sec.e. if debris is caught at the support. inlet length and total gutter flow. the size and configuration of the grate and the velocity of flow in the gutter.. is increased by the use of a local gutter depression at the curb-opening or a continuously depressed gutter to the proportion of the total flow adjacent to the curb. as weirs with flow entering from the side. Flow depth at the curb and consequently. If intermediate top slab supports are used. A combination inlet consisting of a curb opening inlet placed upstream of a grate inlet has a capacity equal to that of the curb opening length upstream of the grate plus that of the grate. taking into account the reduced spread and depth of flow over the grate because of the interception by the curb opening. The efficiency of a grate is dependent on the same factors and total flow in the gutter. 6-222 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Top slab supports placed flush with the curb line can substantially reduce the interception capacity of curb openings. Efficiency is dependent on flow depth. This inlet configuration has the added advantage of intercepting debris that might otherwise clog the grate and deflect water away from the inlet. Interception capacity is dependent on flow depth and inlet length. i. Interception capacity and efficiency are dependent on the same factors which affect grate capacity and efficiency. Factors affecting gutter flow also affect inlet interception capacity. Interception capacity of a curb-opening inlet is largely dependent on flow depth at the curb and curb opening length. and inlet efficiency generally decreases with increasing flow rates.

The curb-opening height and length. All of the slotted inlets and curb opening inlets shown in the figure lose interception capacity and efficiency as the longitudinal slope is increased because spread on the pavement and depth at the curb become smaller as velocity increases. At depths above 1. but some inferences can be drawn that are applicable to other sets of conditions. Figure 6-11 shows a comparison of curbopening inlets.2 ft3/sec.09 m3/s (3. It is accurate to conclude that curb opening inlet interception capacity and efficiency would increase with steeper cross slopes.). grates. At a given flow rate. For orifice flow. width. and slotted drain inlets with gutter flow fixed at 0. and longitudinal slope varied up to 10 percent. transition between weir and orifice flow occurs. Transition flow exists between these depths. Interception capacity varies with flow depth. and water depth at the curb affect inlet capacity. Between weir and orifice flow depths. It is also Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-223 . Slotted drains are not recommended in sag locations because they are susceptible to clogging from debris. a transition from weir to orifice flow occurs. the effective water depth at the curb can be increased by the use of a continuously depressed gutter. The capacity at a given depth can be severely affected if debris collects on the grate and reduces the effective perimeter or clear opening area. cross slope fixed at 3 percent.Pavement Drainage Factors Affecting Inlet Interception Capacity in Sag Locations Grate inlets in sag vertical curves operate as weirs for shallow ponding depths and as orifices at greater depths. Figure 6-11 illustrates the effects of flow depth at the curb and curb-opening length on curb opening inlet interception capacity and efficiency. thus decreasing the width of spread at the inlet. by use of a locally depressed curb opening. Grate configurations used for interception capacity comparisons in this figure are described in “Inlet Capacity” on page 6-214.4 times the opening height. and length at a given spread. The perimeter and clear opening area of the grate and the depth of water at the curb affect inlet capacity. slope. Comparison of Interception Capacity of Inlets on Grade In order to compare the interception capacity and efficiency of various inlets on grade. or by use of an increased cross slope. Curb-opening inlets operate as weirs in sag vertical curve locations up to a ponding depth equal to the opening height. Slotted inlets operate as weirs for depths below approximately 50 mm (2 in) and orifices in locations where the depth at the upstream edge of the slot is greater than about 120 mm (5 in). an empirical equation derived from experimental data can be used to compute interception capacity. Conclusions drawn from an analysis of this figure are not necessarily transferable to other flow rates or cross slopes. the inlet operates as an orifice and between these depths. it is necessary to fix two variables that affect capacity and efficiency and investigate the effects of varying the other factor.

All of the 0. At a slope of 6 percent. and about 79 percent more interception capacity at an 8 percent slope.6 m by 0. A 1.6 m (2 ft by 2 ft) grates have equal interception capacity and efficiency at a flow rate of 0. The effect of depth at the curb is also illustrated by a comparison of the interception capacity and efficiency of depressed and undepressed curb-opening inlets. is intercepted by grate inlets.Drainage Inlet Design accurate to conclude that interception capacity would increase and inlet efficiency would decrease with increased flow rates. it can be concluded that parallel-bar grates and the curved vane grate are relatively efficient at higher velocities and the reticuline grate is least efficient. the grates perform equally.085 m3/s (3 ft3/sec. Only a small portion of the flow outside of the grate. At low velocities. Splash-over for the less efficient grates begins at the slope at which the interception capacity curve begins to deviate from the curve of the more efficient grates. At slopes steeper than 2 percent. From these performance characteristics curves. some of the grates such as the reticuline grate are more susceptible to clogging by debris than the parallel bar grate. Long curb-opening and slotted inlets compare favorably with grates in interception capacity and efficiency for conditions illustrated in Figure 6-11. termed side flow. Figure 6-11 shows that interception capacity and efficiency are reduced at slopes steeper than the slope at which splash-over begins. 3 percent cross slope.). However.5 m (5 ft) depressed curb-opening inlet has about 67 percent more interception capacity than an undepressed inlet at 2 percent slope.085 m3/s (3 ft3/ sec.) gutter flow. At low velocities. and longitudinal slope of 2 percent. all of the water flowing in the section of gutter occupied by the grate. When the longitudinal slope is increased. cross slope of 3 percent. 6-224 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . is intercepted. called frontal flow. and 0. splash-over occurs on the reticuline grate and the interception capacity is reduced. water begins to skip or splash over the grate at velocities dependent on the grate configuration. velocities are such that splashover occurs on all except the curved vane and parallel bar grates.

It also illustrates that the interception capacity of all inlets increases and inlet efficiency decreases with increased discharge. for example. are subject to clogging. This comparison of inlet interception capacity and efficiency neglects the effects of debris and clogging on the various inlets. It shows.02 m3/s (0. wider grates would be needed. In order to capture more of the flow. that at a 6 percent slope. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-225 . Attempts to simulate clogging tendencies in the laboratory have not been notably successful. Figure 6-12 can be used for further study and comparisons of inlet interception capacity and efficiency. This is because frontal flow increases with increased velocity. including curb-opening inlets. Slope Variable The capacity and efficiency of grates increase with increased slope and velocity if splash-over does not occur. All types of inlets.7 ft3/sec. splash-over begins at about 0. and all frontal flow will be intercepted if splash-over does not occur.) on a reticuline grate. some being more susceptible than others.6 m by 0.6 m (2 ft by 2 ft) grates. Figure 6-11 also illustrates that interception by longer grates would not be substantially greater than interception by 0.Pavement Drainage Figure 6-11: Comparison of Inlet Interception Capacity.

Except for reticuline grates.Drainage Inlet Design except to demonstrate the importance of parallel bar spacing in debris handling efficiency. Since partial clogging of inlets on grade rarely causes major problems. Flow Rate Variable 6-226 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Problems with clogging are largely local since the amount of debris varies significantly from one locality to another. allowances should not be made for reduction in inlet interception capacity except where local experience indicates an allowance is advisable.1 m (4 in) were not tested so conclusions cannot be drawn from tests concerning debris handling capabilities of many grates currently in use. grates with lateral bar spacing of less than 0. Some localities must contend with only a small amount of debris while others experience extensive clogging of drainage inlets. Grates with wider spacings of longitudinal bars pass debris more efficiently. Figure 6-12: Comparison of Inlet Interception Capacity.

only part of the flow will be intercepted. Grates also intercept a portion of the flow along the length of the grate. the length of the grate. because these inlets are both side-flow weirs. At velocities greater than splash-over velocity. Where clogging may be a problem. Grate Inlets Grates are effective highway pavement drainage inlets where clogging with debris is not a problem. Remember that for locally depressed inlets.4. or the side flow. One set of charts is provided for slotted inlets and curb-opening inlets. dependent on the cross slope of the pavement. A part of the flow along the side of the grate will be intercepted. grate efficiency in intercepting frontal flow is diminished. when the gutter flow velocity exceeds the splash-over velocity for the grate. and flow velocity. the quantity of flow reaching the inlet would be dependent on the upstream gutter section geometry and not the depressed section geometry. see Table 6-5 where grates are ranked for susceptibility to clogging based on laboratory tests using simulated leaves.4 Interception Capacity of Inlets on Grade The interception capacity of inlets on grade is dependent on factors discussed in “Interception Capacity of Inlets on Grade” on page 6-227. which show that grates intercept all of the frontal flow until a velocity is reached at which water begins to splash over the grate. E0 = Qw W = 1.Pavement Drainage 6. In this section. Eo. The chart for frontal flow interception is based on test results.18: Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-227 . A chart is provided to determine side-flow interception. design charts for inlets on grade and procedures for using the charts are presented for the various inlet configurations. Charts for grate inlet interception have been made and are applicable to all grate inlets tested for the Federal Highway Administration. Conversely. A procedure for determining the interception capacity of combination inlets is also presented. This table should be used for relative comparisons only.18) The ratio of frontal flow to total gutter flow. When the velocity approaching the grate is less than the splash-over velocity.67 (6.1Ł Tł Q 2. for a uniform cross slope is expressed by Equation 6. the grate will intercept essentially all of the frontal flow. The equation developed for determining the length of inlet required for total interception fits the test data for both types of inlets.

20: R f = 1 . Rf. W (m3/sec.. Qs.0.) (6. ft3/sec. The ratio of side flow.20) Gutter velocity where splash-over first occurs (m/ sec.Eo Q Q (6.K c ( ..19) The ratio of frontal flow intercepted to total frontal flow. to total gutter flow is: Qs Q = 1 .Drainage Inlet Design Where Q Qw W T = = = = Total gutter flow (m3/sec. ft3/sec. ft) Example 6-2 and Chart 2 provide solutions of Eo for either uniform cross slopes or composite gutter sections.) Note: Rf cannot exceed 1.) Flow in width.) Width of depressed gutter or grate (m.. ft/sec.295 Velocity of flow in gutter (m/sec..w = 1 . ft) Total spread of water (m. 6-228 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . is expressed by Equation 6. ft/sec.Vo ) V Where Kc V Vo = = = 0.

is expressed by Equation 6.8 (6.21. Chart 5 provides a solution for Equation 6. Tilt Bar P-50 P-50x100 45 – 60 deg. and gutter velocity at which splash-over occurs.21: Rs = 1 / 1 + 2. 0.20.0828 SI.3 Ł Sx L ł Where Kc = 0. which takes into account grate length. Tilt Bar 45 – 85 deg. The average gutter velocity (total gutter flow divided by the area of flow) is needed to use Chart 5.S. customary K cV 1.21) Chart 6 provides a solution to Equation 6.040 61 55 48 32 28 23 16 20 This ratio is equivalent to frontal flow interception efficiency. or side flow interception efficiency. The ratio of side flow intercepted to total side flow.005 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Curved Vane 30 – 85 deg. This velocity can also be obtained from Chart 4. Rs. Tilt Bar Reticuline P-30 45 44 43 32 18 16 12 9 0. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-229 . bar configuration.15 U.Pavement Drainage Table 6-5: Average Debris Handling Efficiencies of Grates Tested Rank Grate Longitudinal Slope 0.

and the second term is the ratio of intercepted side flow to total side flow.Eo ) R 1 Œ œ º ß The use of Charts 5 and 6 are illustrated in the following examples. where velocities are high.Eo ) 1 (6.Drainage Inlet Design A deficiency in developing empirical equations and charts from experimental data is evident in Chart 6. The fact that a grate will intercept all or almost all of the side flow where the velocity is low and the spread only slightly exceeds the grate width is not reflected in the chart. of a grate is expressed as provided in Equation 6. The second term is insignificant with high velocities and short grates.22) The first term on the right side of Equation 6. In fact.22 is the ratio of intercepted frontal flow to total gutter flow. The interception capacity of a grate inlet on grade is equal to the efficiency of the grate multiplied by the total gutter flow: ø Qi = EQ = Q Ø f Eo + Rs ( . The efficiency.22: E = R f Eo + Rs ( . E. side flow interception may be neglected without significant error. (6. Error due to this deficiency is very small.23) 6-230 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .

Determine the frontal flow efficiency using Chart 5 R f = 1.5) ( .2) with T = 2. S w = 0. a = 50 mm (2 in) Find: The interception capacity of a curved vane grate 0.08 V = 0.5 (2.06 m3 /s (2.5 m (8.6 m (2.016 Continuous gutter depression.5 ( .5 ft/s) Step 2.6 m by 0.5T 2 S x + 0.02)+ 0.010 S x = 0.0 ft) S L = 0. Compute the average gutter velocity A = 0.2 ft) W = 0.103 Eo = 0.0 2 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-231 .6 m (2 ft by 2 ft) Solution: From Example 6-2.08m 2 (0.70 Q = 0.Pavement Drainage EXAMPLE 6-7 Given: Given the gutter section from Example 6-2 (illustrated in Figure 6.050) 0.86 ft 2 ) V = Q A = 0.06 0.02 n = 0.5 DW = 0.75 m/s (2.1 a.6) 0 0 ( A = 0.3 cfs) Step 1.

6 m (2.376) ( .67 x Q = ( .4 or Chart 2 W T = 0.19 m3 /s (6.3 ø Rs = 1 Œ 0 1 0 0 0 œ º ß Rs = 0.8 ( .70)+ ( . P-50.016) 0.0 ft by 2.46 2.W T ) 1 Eo = 0. Determine E o from Equation 6. Compute the interception capacity using Equation 6.67 (0. Grates in a.67 Step 2. with a length of 1.0 ft by 2.6 3 = 0.Eo ) R 1 Œ œ º ß Ø1.0 ft) c c.20 or Chart 6 t Rs = 1 Ø + ( .0. Reticuline.6 m (2.11 Step 4.2 or Chart 1.04 S x = 0.6) .025 n = 0.0)( .0828V . and b. Using Equation 6.6 cfs) 1.67 6-232 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .025) 0 0 ( Q = 0.67 S L.Drainage Inlet Design Step 3.1 with T = 3m(9.3 ø 1 œ Œ 0 ß º 1 2 Ø + ( .8 ) S x L2.5 2.5T 2.1 a.0 ft) t Solution: Step 1.6 m by 0. 0.( .22 ø Qi = Q Ø f Eo + Rs ( .044 m3 /s (1.8 ft ) S L = 0.6 m by 0.0828)( . determine Q 0 Q = K n S 1. Determine the side flow efficiency using Equation 6. 0.2 Eo = Qw Q Eo = 1 .06)( ( º ß Qi = 0.02)( .75).0 ft) b.016 Bicycle traffic not permitted Find: The interception capacity of the following grates: a.70) ø 0 0 0 Qi = ( .04) (3) 0.2 m (4.11) 1 .6 cfs) EXAMPLE 6-8 Given: Given the gutter section illustrated in Figure 6.

Using Equation 6.0ft) 0.752 ( . Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-233 .89 ft3/sec.9 0.6m by 1.0 Side Flow Efficiency (Rs) 0.66m / sec(5.67 V = 0.082 cubic m/s (2. compute i the interception capacity of each grate.19 or Chart 5.63 ft3/sec.036 Interception Capacity P-50 0.155 0.2 ft3/sec. The following table summarizes the results: Table 6-6: Example 6-8 Results Grate Size (width by length) Frontal Flow Efficiency (Rf) 1. Curb openings are less susceptible to clogging and offer little interference to traffic operation.036 0.6m (2.0ft) 0.5 S x .) The P-50 parallel bar grate will intercept about 14 percent more flow than the reticuline grate or 48 percent of the total flow as opposed to 42 percent for the reticuline grate.103 cubic m/s (3.4 ft / s ) Step 4. Using Equation 6.0 0. Using Equation 6.103 cubic m/s (3.091 cubic m/s (3.0ft by 4.04) 0 0 0.15 or Chart 4 compute gutter flow velocity 0 0 V = 0.6m (2.155 0.0ft by 4.6m by 1. Increasing the length of the grates would not be cost-effective because the increase in side flow interception is small.0ft) 0. determine a the side flow efficiency for each grate.) Reticuline 1.Pavement Drainage Step 3.63 ft3/sec.752 nS L.) Reticuline 0. determine the frontal flow efficiency for each grate. Using Equation 6.67 T 0.2m (2. They are a viable alternative to grates on flatter grades where grates would be in traffic lanes or would be hazardous for pedestrians or bicyclists.2m (2.67 V = 1.6m by 0.016)( .22.) P-50 1.0 0.0ft by 2.67 0.6m by 0. Curb-Opening Inlets Curb-opening inlets are effective in the drainage of highway pavements where flow depth at the curb is sufficient for the inlet to perform efficiently.0ft) 0.025) (3) 0.5 (0.20 or Chart 6.0ft by 2.

ft) Sx a S'w W Figure 6-13: Depressed Curb-Opening Inlet Chart 7 is a nomograph for the solution of Equation 6.1Ł LT ł Where L 1.S.8 (6.24) Where Kc LT SL Q 0. a typical maximum height is approximately 100 to 150 mm (4 to 6 in). and Chart 8 provides a solution of Equation 6. The length of the curb-opening inlet required for total interception of gutter flow on a pavement section with a uniform cross slope is expressed by Equation 6.6 (6.Drainage Inlet Design Curb opening heights vary in dimension. customary Curb opening length required to intercept 100% of gutter flow (m.) The efficiency of curb opening inlets shorter than the length required for total interception is expressed by Equation 6.25. ft3/sec. 6-234 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .. however.24.25) = Curb opening length (m. ft) Longitudinal slope Gutter flow (m3/sec.817 SI.3 1 ŁnS x ł = = = = 0.24: LT = K C Q 0.42 0 S L.6 U. 0.25: L E = 1.

ft) Gutter depression (mm. Se can be computed using Equation 6. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-235 .Pavement Drainage The length of inlet required for total interception by depressed curb-opening inlets or curb-openings in depressed gutter sections can be found by the use of an equivalent cross slope.25 is applicable with either straight cross slopes or composite cross slopes.26 uses the ratio. Sx (m/m. Eo is the same ratio as used to compute the frontal flow interception of a grate inlet. customary Equation 6. As seen from Chart 7. Eo.6 (6. Se.6 U. Se.27) Where KT 0. Se. Se = S x + S ’w Eo Where S'W S'w a Eo = = = = (6. Charts 7 and 8 are applicable to depressed curb-opening inlets using Se rather than Sx. ft/ft) a/[1000W].3 1 ŁnSe ł = 0. Equation 6.24 in place of Sx. 0. Example 6-9 demonstrates the procedure to determine spread and then the example uses Chart 2 to determine Eo.26.42 0 S L.(a/[12w]) (m. in the computation of the equivalent cross slope. Using the equivalent cross slope. the length of curb opening required for total interception can be significantly reduced by increasing the cross slope or the equivalent cross slope.26. in) Ratio of flow in the depressed section to total gutter flow determined by gutter configuration upstream of inlet Figure 6-13 shows the depressed curb inlet for Equation 6.26) Cross-slope of the gutter measured from the crossslope of the pavement. The equivalent cross slope can be increased by use of a continuously depressed gutter section or a locally depressed gutter section.S.24 becomes: LT = KT Q 0. in Equation 6. Equation 6.817 SI.

8 1.6 ft) Step 2. Use Equation 6.817 ( .Drainage Inlet Design EXAMPLE 6-9 Given: A curb opening inlet with the following characteristics: e S L = 0. Determine spread.29 = 0.817Q 0.016 Find: (1) Qi for a 3 m (9. Compute the interception capacity Qi = EQ = ( .02 Q = 0. Compute the curb opening efficiency using Equation 6.3 ø 1º (0.01 S x = 0.23 or Chart 7.8 E = 0.01) ( Ø0.6 m (2 ft) Solution (1): l Step 1.016)(0. T (Procedure from Example 6-2.41) 1 1.05) 0 0. Solution 2) 6-236 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .41 E = 1 . L LT = 3 7. (2) Qi for a depressed 3 m (9.6 LT = 0.4 (Chart 2) and Equation 6.29 m (23.( .( .8 ft) curb opening.031 m3 /s ( cfs) 1.0.42 S L.61) 0.1 Solution (2): Step 1.24 or Chart 8 .61 Step 3. s 0 LT = 0.6 0. Determine the length of curb opening required for total i interception of gutter flow using Equation 6.05 m3 /s(1.2 (Chart 1) to t determine the W/T ratio.3 ( (nS x ) 1 ) 0.02)) ( ß LT = 7.8cfs) n = 0. o a = 25 mm (1 in) W = 0.05) 0 ( Qi = 0.8 ft) curb opening inlet with a continuously depressed curb section.L LT ) 1 E = 1 .42 0.

L LT = 3 4.2 ft) W Ts = T .67 S L.W = 2.3 ft) Using Equation 6.67 x Qs = ( .02 + Ø25 1000) ( .016) 0.0.2 or Chart 1 to obtain Qs 0 Qs = K nS 1.Qs = 0.24 or Chart 8 to obtain curb inlet efficiency .5Ts2.1 Use Equation 6.018 m3 /s (0.817)( .0.9) 0.6 0.6 = 0.032 m3 /s (1.5 2.2 ft) Use Equation 6.376) ( .05 = 0.9 m (6.032 0.019 m3 /s (equals Qs assumed) Step 2.6 0.5 .64) 0 ø0 ( º ß Se = 0.6 Ts = 1.24 = 2.( .02 + (25 1000) 0.69) 1 1.8 E = 0.8 1.0.67 Qs = 0.016)(0.42 S L.88 Step 3.02 = 3. Determine efficiency of curb opening Se = S x + S ’w Eo = S x + (a W ) Eo = 0.37 = 0.37 m (14.67 1 (0.42 0.02) 0 0 ( 0 1.062 0.05 . Compute curb opening inflow using Equation 6.70 E = 1 .01) Ø ( 0.25 or Chart 7 0 ø LT = KT Q 0.4 or Chart 2 to determine W T W T = 0.05) 0 0 0.01) ( .5 m (8.88) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-237 .24 T = W ( T )= 0.0.64 S w = S x + a W = 0.047 Using Equation 7.3 1 (0.047) ø )œ Œ ( º ß LT = 4.( .062 S w S x = 0.Pavement Drainage Assume: Qs = 0.6 LT = ( .3 Ø (nSe ) 1 º ß 0.16 0 0 Qi = QE = ( .05)( .64 cfs) Qw = Q .018 .L LT ) 1 E = 1 .6) ( .1 cfs) Eo = Qw Q = 0.

044 m3 /s (1.55 cfs) The depressed curb opening inlet will intercept 1. They can be used on curbed or uncurbed sections and offer little interference to traffic operations. An installation is illustrated in Figure 6-14.5 times the flow intercepted by the undepressed curb opening. The configuration of slotted inlets makes them accessible for cleaning with a high pressure water jet. which have a variety of applications. Deposition in the pipe is the problem most commonly encountered. Figure 6-14: Slotted Drain Inlet at an Intersection Slotted inlets are effective pavement drainage inlets. Slotted Inlets Wide experience with the debris handling capabilities of slotted inlets is not available.Drainage Inlet Design Qi = 0. 6-238 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .

as shown in Figure 6-15. Use Charts 7 and 8 for slotted inlets the same way you would for curb-opening inlets. Combination Inlets Figure 6-15: Combination Curb-Opening. 45-Degree Tilt-Bar Grate Inlet The interception capacity of a combination inlet consisting of a curb opening and grate placed side-by-side. however. Chart 7. is therefore applicable for both curb-opening inlets and slotted inlets. Equation 6.Pavement Drainage Flow interception by slotted inlets and curb-opening inlets is similar in that each is a side weir and the flow is subjected to lateral acceleration due to the cross slope of the pavement. Similarly. Additional examples to demonstrate the use of the charts are not provided here for that reason. The curb opening in such an installation intercepts debris. that it is much less expensive to add length to an existing slotted inlet to increase interception capacity than it is to add length to an existing curb-opening inlet. Capacity is computed by neglecting the curb opening.75 in) indicates that the length of slotted inlet required for total interception can be computed by Equation 6. A combination inlet is sometimes used with a part of the curb opening placed upstream of the grate as illustrated in Figure 6-16.24. It should be noted. is no greater than that of the grate alone.25 is also applicable to slotted inlets and Chart 8 can be used to obtain the inlet efficiency for the selected length of inlet. Analysis of data from the Federal Highway Administration tests of slotted inlets with slot widths ≥ 45 mm (1. which Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-239 .

Figure 6-16: Sweeper Combination Inlet The following example illustrates computation of the interception capacity of a combination curb-opening grate inlet with a portion of the curb opening upstream of the grate. 6-240 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . except that the frontal flow and thus the interception capacity of the grate is reduced by interception by the curb opening. A sweeper combination inlet has an interception capacity equal to the sum of the curb opening upstream of the grate plus the grate capacity.Drainage Inlet Design might otherwise clog the grate and is called a sweeper inlet.

6 m (2 ft) of the curb opening.24 or Chart 8} 1. T (Procedure from Example 6-2. Flow at grate = Qg = Q .8 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-241 .05 = 0.01 Sx = 0.0003 = 0.Pavement Drainage EXAMPLE 6-10 Given: A combination curb opening grate inlet with a 3 m (9.4 4.012 m3 /s (0.02 n = 0.6 m = 2. Qi Solution: Step 1.0120 = 0.0117 m3 /s (0.4 m (7.0.3 cfs) 0 0 Step 2.038 m3 /s (1.L LT ) 1 E = 1 .( .Qs = 0.05 m3 /s (1.55) 1 E = 0.0 ft) L LT = 2.4 cfs) Determine spread. D = 25 mm (1. Solution 2.0003 m3 /s (0.01 cfs) Qw = Q .8 cfs) SL = 0.8 {Equation 6.0117 0.( .76 Qic = EQ = ( .016 Gutter depression.8 ft) curb opening. Step 2 LT = 4.Qic = 0.97 1.0 in) Find: Interception capacity.038 Qg = 0.6 m Q = 0.37 = 0.37 m (14. Compute the interception capacity of the curb opening upstream of the grate. Solution 2) p Assume Qs .0.05)= 0.76)( . 0.6 m by 0. e This inlet is located in a gutter section having the following characteristics: r W = 0.55 E = 1 .0. Qic .6 m (2 ft by 2 ft) curved vane grate placed adjacent to the downstream 0.0120 .9 ft) From Example 6-9.0. Compute the interception capacity of the grate.41 cfs) Eo = Qw Q = 0. L = 3 m .

0.40 cfs) Step 3.Drainage Inlet Design S w S x = 0.2 ft) Qs = 0.8 ft).6 m (2 ft by 2 ft) depressed 6-242 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .22} R œ º ß ø Qig = 0.8 2.1) (S w S x )+ 1ø .01 cfs) {Chart 1 or Equation 6.97 m (3.13 ( ) Ø ø 1 Qig = Qg Œ f Eo + Rs ( .02)+ ( .0 {Chart 5} Rs = 1 1 + ( .W .5)( .1 ( .3 ) {Equation 6.20 or Chart 6} 0 ( ) 1.6) ø 0 0 ( ( Œ œŒ œ º ߺ ß Rs = 0.0 m (9.68 m/s (2.97) 0 ( 0 ( º ß Qig = 0.97 .0115 Ø0.02 = 3. length = 3.6) ( Œ œ º ß V = 0.1 W T=1 W T=1 0.60 = 0.62 T = W ( T )= 0.3 3 Rs = 1 1 + Ø0.0385 + 0.6 0.1) ( .13) 1 .62 = 0.1)+ 1 3 ( )3 Œ 1 œ º ß Ł ł W T = 0.0003 m3 /s (0.2} Qs assumed = Qs calculated Determine velocity.97 . and Example 6-10 for a combination of 0.0.2 ft) W 9 Ts = T . length = 3. Example 6-9 for an undepressed curb opening inlet.6 m (2 ft by 2 ft).0828)( .8 ) (S x L2.0 m (9.6 m by 0.02)( .97)+ ( . Compute the total interception capacity.1 (S w S x )+ 1 ( ) Œ 1 œ º ß Ł ł 0.1)+ 1ø .23 ft/s) R f = 1.062 0.5)(25 1000)( .5T 2 S x + 0.0828V 1.0)( . V V = Q A = Q Ø .Eo ) {Equation 6.76 cfs)(approximately 100% of local initial flow) The use of depressed inlets and combination inlets enhances the interception capacity of the inlet.5 DW ø 0 Œ œ º ß 2 0 0 0 0 ø V = 0.375 1 Ø1 ( 0.68) ø Ø0.375 1 Ø1 ( Eo .0112 Qi = 0.0.8 ft) and a depressed curb opening inlet.0497 m3 /s (1.) Qi = Qic + Qig = 0.0115 Ø1. (Note: Interception capacity t of curb opening adjacent to grate was neglected.0112 m3 /s (0.37 m (1. Example 6-7 determined the interception capacity of a depressed curved vane grate.97) ( .6 m by 0.0.

1 ft3/sec. Grate inlets alone are not recommended for use in sag locations because of the tendencies of grates to become clogged. However.4. the curb opening height.) (Example 6-10) Curb Opening—Undepressed Curb Opening—Depressed Combination Inlet (Curved Vane and Curb Opening)— Depressed From Table 6-7.) (Example 6-9) 0. Combination inlets or curb-opening inlets are recommended for use in these locations. if the curb opening was undepressed. 6. At these depths. Orifice flow begins at depths dependent on the grate size. flow is in a transition stage. The depressed curb opening intercepted 90% of the total flow.2 ft3/sec. control is ill-defined and flow may fluctuate between weir and orifice control.045 cubic m/s (1.76 ft3/sec. The geometries of the inlets and the gutter slopes were consistent in the examples and Table 6-7 summarizes a comparison of the intercepted flow of the various configurations. The efficiency of inlets in passing debris is critical in sag locations because all runoff which enters the sag must be passed through the inlet. Qi 0.Pavement Drainage curve vane grate located at the downstream end of 3. it would have only intercepted 62% of the total flow. or the slot width of the inlet.033 cubic m/s (1.0 m (9. Total or partial clogging of inlets in these locations can result in hazardous ponded conditions.) (Example 6-7) 0. Design procedures presented here are based on a conservative approach to estimating the capacity of inlets in sump locations.5 Interception Capacity of Inlets in Sag Locations Inlets in sag locations operate as weirs under low head conditions and as orifices at greater depths. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-243 .050 cubic m/s (1.) (Example 6-9) 0.59 ft3/sec. Table 6-7: Comparison of Inlet Interception Capabilities Inlet Type Curved Vane—Depressed Intercepted Flow. it can be seen that the combination inlet intercepted approximately 100% of the total flow whereas the curved vane grate alone only intercepted 66% of the total flow.031 cubic m/s (1.8 ft) long depressed curb opening inlet. At depths between those at which weir flow definitely prevails and those at which orifice flow prevails.

The curved vane grate performed about 10 percent better than a grate with a net opening equal to the total area less the area of the bars projected on a horizontal plane. ft) (6.16 ft/ sec. however the grate performed as a grate with a net opening of 35 percent.81 m/sec. the projected area of the bars in a curved vane grate is 68 percent of the total area of the grate leaving a net opening of 32 percent. Tilt-bar grates were not tested. ft2) Gravitational acceleration (9. Grates of larger dimension will operate as weirs to greater depths than smaller grates or grates with less opening area. 3.29 requires the clear area of opening of the grate.5 (6.5 Where W CW d1 d2 = = = = Width of the grate (m. but exploration of the above results would indicate a net opening area of 34 percent for the 30-degree tiltbar and zero for 6-244 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .2) Use of Equation 6.2.28) Flow depth at side of grate opposite the curb (m.5 + Cw Ld 21. ft) The capacity of a grate inlet operating as an orifice is: Qi = Co Ag (2 gd ) Where Co Ag g 0. ft) 1.66 SI. The capacity of grate inlets operating as weirs is: Qw = Cw 2Wd11.0 U. 32.S. such as the P-50x100 and P-30 grates.29) = = = Orifice coefficient 0. That is. the clear opening is equal to the total area of the grate less the area occupied by longitudinal and lateral bars. customary Flow depth at middle of grate(m.Drainage Inlet Design Grate Inlets A grate inlet in a sag location operates as a weir to depths dependent on the bar configuration and size of the grate and as an orifice at greater depths. Tests of three grates for the Federal Highway Administration showed that for flat bar grates.67 Clear opening of the grate (m2.

Example 6-11 illustrates use of Equations 6.05 n = 0.016 Tallowable = 3 m (9.3 m (1 ft).49 ft) P = Qi Ø w d 1. Chart 9 is a plot of Equations 6.28 and 6. Determine the required grate perimeter. If the area of a grate is 50 percent covered by debris so that the debris-covered portion does not contribute to interception. g Solution: Step 1.05) d = 0. Tilt-bar and curved vane grates are not recommended for sump locations where there is a chance that operation would be as an orifice. if a 0. Opening ratios for the grates are given on Chart 9.25 or Chart 9} C Œ œ º ß 1.3 = 1. this capacity can be approximated by drawing in a curve between the lines representing the perimeter and net area of the grate to be used.15 m (0. d = TS x = (3.4 m (8 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-245 .3 + 1. rather than 2.8 m (6 ft).2 + 0.10 m3 /s (3.2 m (2 ft by 4 ft) grate is clogged so that the effective width is 0.1 cfs).66)( .28 and 6.23) Ø1.8 ft) b Find: Find the grate size required and depth at curb for the sag inlet assuming 50% clogging. EXAMPLE 6-11 Given: Under design storm conditions a flow of 0.0)(0. For example. The effects of grate size on the depth at which a grate operates as an orifice is apparent from the chart. P = 0.5 cfs) bypasses each of the flanking inlets resulting in a total flow to the sag inlet of 0.23 m3 /s u (8.15) ø ( Œ œ º ß P = 2.29 for various grate sizes.4 m (8 ft) Some assumptions must be made regarding the nature of the clogging in order to compute the capacity of a partially clogged grate. Also. then the perimeter.5 ø {Equation 6. Transition from weir to orifice flow results in interception capacity less than that computed by either the weir or the orifice equation. Sx = 0. the 45-degree tilt-bar grate would have greater than zero capacity. the effective perimeter will be reduced by a lesser amount than 50 percent. Obviously.Pavement Drainage the 45-degree tilt-bar grate.29 and Chart 9.6 m by 1.5 0 0 P = ( .

the total perimeter. At depths between 1. Assuming 50 percent clogging along the grate length.2 m by 1. 0 ø.9 m then L ‡ 1. t Peffective = (0. or a . a 1.5 m (5 ft) Select a double 0. assuming 50 percent clogging along the length of the grate. The inlet operates as a weir to depths equal to the curb opening height and as an orifice at depths greater than 1.9 m (2 ft by 3 ft) grate 50 percent clogged is adequate to intercept the design storm flow at a spread.Drainage Inlet Design ft).6) + (1.67 d = Ø ( w P) Q C º ß 2.4 m (8 ft) Step 2. Curb-Opening Inlets The capacity of a curb-opening inlet in a sag depends on water depth at the curb.8 m (2 ft by 6 ft). Therefore.6 m by 0.9 m (2 ft by 3 ft) grate.2 m (4 ft by 4 ft). Conclusion: A double 0. The area of the opening would be reduced by 50 percent and the perimeter by 25 percent.67 d = Ø .8) Peffective = 2.9 m by 1. the curb opening length.6 m by 0.15 m (0.23 ( 1. Therefore. the tendency of grate inlets to clog completely warrants consideration of a combination inlet or curb-opening inlet in a sag where ponding can occur.4) ø 0 ( )œ Œ º ß d = 0.5)(2)(0.25 or Chart 9.5)(2)W + L if W = 0.4 m (8 ft) perimeter 50 percent clogged. However.4 m = (0. 0.4 times the opening height. flow is in a transition stage. and the height of the curb opening.5 m (3 ft by 5 ft) grate would meet requirements of a 2. Spread on the pavement is the usual criterion for judging the adequacy of a pavement drainage inlet design. g Peffective = 2. depths at the curb measurements from experiments coincide with the 6-246 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .8 m (6 ft) if W = 0.0 and 1.4 times the opening height. It is also convenient and practical in the laboratory to measure depth at the curb upstream of the inlet at the point of maximum spread on the pavement.6 m by 1. half of the total perimeter. Check depth of flow at curb using Equation 6. OK. and flanking inlets on the low gradient approaches. which does not exceed design spread.5 ft) Therefore.6 m then L ‡ 1.66)(2.2 m (4 ft). or 1.

in) (6. 2. measured from the normal crossslope—d = TSx (m. and the effective weir length is dependent on the width of the depressed gutter and the length of the curb opening.30 will yield conservative estimates of the interception capacity. Use of Equation 6.Pavement Drainage depth at curb of interest to designers. The equation for the interception capacity of a depressed curb-opening inlet operating as a weir is: Qi = Cw (L + 1.8W )d 1. The weir equation for curb-opening inlets without depression becomes: Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-247 . as shown in Chart 10. ft) Depth of depression (mm. ft) Lateral width of depression (m. customary Where h a = = Height of curb-opening inlet (m.S.30) Depth at curb.30 for a depressed curb-opening inlet is: d £ h + a( 1000) SI or d £ h + a 12 U. The weir coefficient for a curb opening inlet is less than the usual weir coefficient for several reasons.31) Experiments have not been conducted for curb-opening inlets with a continuously depressed gutter. ft) The weir equation is applicable to depths at the curb approximately equal to the height of the opening plus the depth of the depression. the limitation on the use of Equation 6.3 U. ft) (6. but it is reasonable to expect that the effective weir length would be as great as that for an inlet in a local depression. the most obvious of which is that depth measurements from experimental tests were not taken at the weir.5 Where Cw L W d = = = = 1.S. The weir location for a depressed curb-opening inlet is at the edge of the gutter.25 SI. The weir location for a curb-opening inlet that is not depressed is at the lip of the curb opening. and its length is equal to that of the inlet. customary Length of curb opening (m. Thus. and drawdown occurs between the point where measurement were made and the weir.

The depth at the inlet includes any gutter depression. Curb-opening inlets operate as orifices at depths greater than approximately 1. At curb-opening lengths greater than 3. These equations are applicable to depressed and undepressed curbopening inlets. other orifice throat locations can change the effective depth on the orifice and the dimension (di – h/2).33 and Equation 6. ft) Clear area of the opening (m2. becomes 1. A limited throat width could reduce the capacity of the curb-opening inlet by causing the inlet to go into orifice flow at depths less than the height of the opening. Qi = Co hL (2 gd o ) Or 0. Cw.4 times the opening height.32) Without depression of the gutter section. The depth limitation for operation as a weir becomes d ≤ h.5 (6.Drainage Inlet Design Qi = Cw Ld 1. U.5 Ø h ø 2 Qi = Co Ag Œ g di œ œ Œ Ł 2ł ß º (6. the weir coefficient. The interception capacity can be computed by Equation 6.32 for non-depressed inlet produces intercepted flows which exceed the values for depressed inlets computed using Equation 6. ft) Length of the orifice opening (m.30.60 (3.5 (6. customary) Where Co do L Ag di h = = = = = = The height of the orifice in Equations 6. 6-248 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .0.67 Effective head on the center of the orifice throat (m.34.6 m (12 ft).6m (12 ft).34 assumes a vertical orifice opening. customary system).S. ft) Height of curb opening orifice (m. Equation 6. ft) h = TSx + a (a/12 U.S.32 should be used for all curb opening inlets having lengths greater than 3. As illustrated in Figure 6-17. Equation 6. ft2) Depth at lip of curb opening (m. Since depressed inlets will perform at least as well as non-depressed inlets of the same length.34) Orifice coefficient 0.33 and 6.33) 0.

32 and 6.33 for depressed curb-opening inlets. Chart 12 is provided for use for curb openings with other than vertical orifice openings. Equation 6.33 for curb-opening inlets without depression. Inclined Throat Figure 6-17: Curb Opening Inlets do = di c.33 can be used with: Where h do = = Orifice throat width (m. ft) Effective head on the center of the orifice throat h di do do d o = d i -(h/2) h a.Pavement Drainage For curb-opening inlets with other than vertical faces (see Figure 6-17).30 and 6. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-249 . Horizontal Throat do d o = d i -(h/2)Sin 0 b. Vertical Throat 0 h Chart 10 provides solutions for Equations 6. Example 6-12 illustrates the use of Charts 11 and 12. and Chart 11 provides solutions for Equations 6.

therefore weir controls Step 2.02 T=2.5 6-250 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .13 m (0. d = TS x = (2.2 ft) h=0.5 m (8.05 m £ h = 0.02) d = 0.31 or Chart 11 to find Qi .5)( .60)(2.2 ft) (2) Depressed curb opening Sx =0.5)(0.16 ft) d = 0.013 m.43 ft) (1) Undepressed curb opening e Sx =0. Determine depth at curb. d Qi = Cw Ld 1.6 m (2 ft) T=2.Drainage Inlet Design EXAMPLE 6-12 Given: Curb opening inlet in a sump location with L=2.5 m (8.2 ft) Find: Qi Solution (1): Step 1.02 a=25 mm (1 in) W=0.045 m3 /s (1.6 cfs) 1 0 1 .5 Qi = ( .05) = 0.05 m (0. Use Equation 6.5 m (8.

7 ft) Qi = Cw (L + 1. dependent on slot width. therefore weir flow controls Step 2. ft) L d = = The interception capacity of a slotted inlet operating as an orifice can be computed by Equation 6.5 m + (1.48 U.05) = 0. customary) Length of slot (m.25)( . At depths greater than about 0.58)( .048 m3 /s (1.36) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-251 .8)(0.7 cfs) 1 3 0 The depressed curb opening inlet has 10 percent more capacity than an inlet h without depression.2 ft).35) Weir coefficient that varies with flow depth and slot length (typically 1. The interception capacity of a slotted inlet operating as a weir can be computed by an equation of the form: 1.5 ) Where Cw = (6.29 or Chart 10 to find Qi . (0.5 Qi = Cw L (d 1.5) + 25 1000 di = 0. flow is in a transition stage. ft) Depth at curb measured from the normal crossslope (m.S. Slotted Inlets Slotted inlets in sag locations perform as weirs to depths of about 0.25 ft) di = 0.4 SI and 2.13 m.8W = 2. Between these depths.5 Qi = ( .075 m (0. they perform as orifices.02)(2. d i .06 m (0. Determine depth at curb.4 ft).36: Qi = 0. Use Equation 7. di = d + a di = S x T + a = (0.Pavement Drainage Solution(2): Step 1.6) P = 3.8W )d 1.58 m (11.5 (6.12 m.075 m < h = 0.8 LW (2 gd )0. P = L + 1.

5 ft) 6-252 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .37) Chart 13 provides solutions for weir and orifice flow conditions as represented by Equations 6.5 L = ( . Due to clogging characteristics.35 and 6.36.14) Ø0. the transition between weir and orifice flow occurs at different depths. EXAMPLE 6-13 Given: A slotted inlet located along a curb having a slot width of 45 mm (1.81 m/sec.36 or Chart13 L = Qi Ø0. Equation 6.14 m3 /s (4.9 cfs) Find: The length of slotted inlet required to limit maximum depth at the curb to e 0. ft) Depth of water at slot for d ≤ 0. l The gutter flow at the upstream end of the inlet is 0.2) For a slot width of 45 mm (1.09) ø 0 0 ( Œ œ º ß L = 2.6 in) assuming no clogging. To conservatively compute the interception capacity of slotted inlets in sump conditions in the transition area.09 m (3.4 ft Gravitational acceleration (9. ft) Length of slot (m.16 L0.5 ) ( ( ø Œ œ º ß 0.16)( .16) d 0.16 ft/ sec.Drainage Inlet Design Where W L d g = = = = Width of slot (m. original conditions should be assumed.75 in).5 d (6.2. As indicated in Chart 13.91 m (9.75 in). 32. g Solution: Using Equation 6.36 becomes: Qi = 0. slotted drains are not recommended in sag locations.12 m or d ≤ 0.

and 6. Equation 6.2. A sweeper inlet refers to a grate inlet placed at the downstream end of a curb-opening inlet. the interception capacity of the inlet is computed by adding Equations 6. both of which have the same length. 6.67 hL (2 gd o ) Where Ag g = = 0. ft) Length of the curb opening (m.30. the capacity of the equal length combination inlet is equal to the capacity of the grate plus the capacity of the curb opening.2) Depth at the curb (m. 11 and 12 for curb-opening inlets are applicable. The curb-opening inlet is longer than the grate inlet and intercepts the flow before the flow reaches the grate.29 and 6.34 as follows: Qi = 0.32.67 Ag (2 gd ) + 0. 10. The interception capacity of the equal length combination inlet is essentially equal to that of a grate alone in weir flow. ft) Effective depth at the center of the curb-opening orifice (m.28 and Chart 9 can be used for weir flow in combination inlets in sag locations.Pavement Drainage Combination Inlets Combination inlets consisting of a grate and a curb opening are considered advisable for use in sags where hazardous ponding can occur. ft) d h L do = = = = Trial and error solutions are necessary for determining the depth at the curb for a given flow rate using Charts 9. In orifice flow.33 and Charts 10. and 11 for orifice flow. Equal length inlets refer to a grate inlet placed along side a curb-opening inlet. 32. Assuming complete clogging of the grate. ft2) Gravitational acceleration (9. ft) Height of the curb-opening orifice (m. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-253 .81 m/sec. Different assumptions for clogging of the grate can also be examined using these charts as illustrated by Example 614. The sweeper inlet is more efficient than the equal length combination inlet and the curb opening has the ability to intercept any debris.38) Clear area of the grate (m2.5 (6. Equations 6. Where depth at the curb is such that orifice flow occurs. which may clog the grate inlet.5 0.16 ft/ sec.

Drainage Inlet Design EXAMPLE 6-14 Given: A combination inlet in a sag location with the following characteristics: Grate .15 m3 /s (5.9 in) Q=0.4 m (7.03 Find: Depth at curb and spread for: (1) Grate clear of clogging l (2) Grate 100 percent clogged Solution (1): l Step 1.27 or Chart 9 6-254 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .6) + 1.1 m (3. Assuming grate controls interception: s P = 2W + L = 2(0.L = 1.6 m by 1. Compute depth at curb.2 m (2 ft by 4 ft) P-50 Curb Opening .2 6 P = 2.9 ft) From Equation 6.2 m (4 ft) h=0.0.3 cfs) Sx =0.

6. use Chart 11 or Equation 6.15 m3 /s (5. Depth at the curb and spread on the pavement would be almost twice as great if the grate should become completely clogged.4.66)(2.8 ft) ø ( º ( 8 ß 0 Step 2.0 m (26. you need the following information: • • • • • • A layout or plan sheet suitable for outlining drainage areas Road profiles Typical cross sections Grading cross sections Superelevation diagrams Contour maps Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-255 .6 Inlet Locations The location of inlets is determined by geometric controls which require inlets at specific locations.24) ( .03) T = 3.67 d = Ø i ( w P) Q º C ß 0.3 cfs) d = {Qi ( o hL) C } d= 2 (2 g )+ h 2 2 ( {(0.11) ( .11 m (0. Compute associated spread.2 ft) Interception by the curb opening only will be in a transition stage between weir and orifice flow with a depth at the curb of about 0.67 d = Ø0.15) {( .67)(0. Compute depth at curb.36 ft) 1 ( }œ Œ º ß Step 2.Pavement Drainage 0 ø.24 m (0. Compute associated spread.81) + ( . d 0 0 T = d S x = ( .4) ø = 0. the use and location of flanking inlets in sag vertical curves. and the criterion of spread on the pavement.2)ø } º ß Ø2) 9.03) 0 0 T = 8. i T = d S x = ( .15) Ø0.24 m (0.33 with Q = 0.10)(1. In order to adequately design the location of the inlets for a given project.1 2)= 0. Assuming grate is clogged.8 ft).67 m (12 ft) Solution (2): Step 1.

Inlet Spacing on Continuous Grades Design spread is the criterion used for locating storm drain inlets between those required by geometric or other controls. and street intersections (i. This applies to drainage from cut slopes.e. The interception capacity of the upstream inlet will define the initial spread. the time of concentration is assumed to be the same for all inlets. or flow bypass. 6-256 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . The next downstream inlet is located at the point where the spread in the gutter reaches the design spread. and other areas alongside the pavement. In this case. entrance/exit ramp gores. the designer may establish the uniform design spacing between inlets of a given design if the drainage area consists of pavement only or has reasonably uniform runoff characteristics and is rectangular in shape. the spacing of inlets on a continuous grade is a function of the amount of upstream bypass flow. cross walks. the tributary drainage area. as described in the following examples: • • At all low points in the gutter grade Immediately upstream of median breaks. runoff from areas draining towards the highway pavement should be intercepted by roadside channels or inlets before it reaches the roadway. inlet capacity. spread increases.Drainage Inlet Design Geometric Controls There are a number of locations where inlets may be necessary with little regard to contributing drainage area. side streets. shoulders or sidewalks to drain low areas • • • • • • • In addition to the areas identified above. These locations should be marked on the plans prior to any computations regarding discharge. The following procedure and example illustrates the effects of inlet efficiency on inlet spacing. at any location where water could flow onto the travelway) Immediately upgrade of bridges (to prevent pavement drainage from flowing onto bridge deck) Immediately downstream of bridges (to intercept bridge deck drainage) Immediately up grade of cross slope reversals Immediately up grade from pedestrian cross walks At the end of channels in cut sections On side streets immediately up grade from intersections Behind curbs. Curbed pavement sections and pavement drainage inlets are inefficient means for handling extraneous drainage. For a continuous slope. As flow is contributed to the gutter section in the downstream direction. and the gutter geometry. Therefore. water spread.

for the drainage area. 8) From the roadway profile. Kc = 360 (= 1 for U. and work towards the low point. The flow is calculated by multiplying column 3 times column 4 times column 6 divided by Kc. tc. onto the roadway. where practical. determine the rainfall intensity from the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curve for the design frequency. Step 3—Start at a high point. Enter the value in column 6. C. Identify the curb and gutter type in column 19. 4) Determine the runoff coefficient. route. 7) Calculate the flow in the gutter using Q = CIA / Kc. taking into account any superelevation. Using the SI system of units. 3) Compute the drainage area (hectares) outlined in step 4 and record in column 3. Step 5—(Col. 2. at the inlet. Step 11—(Col. Step 9—(Col. customary units). Then begin at the next high point and work backwards toward the same low point. 6) Using the time of concentration. Step 4—To begin the process. date. Step 2—Mark on a plan the location of inlets which are necessary even without considering any specific drainage area. drainage from large areas behind the curb should be intercepted before it reaches the roadway or gutter. at one end of the job if possible. Col. enter in column 8 the gutter longitudinal slope. 1. Step 8—(Col. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-257 . Remarks. select a trial drainage area approximately 90 m to 150 m (300 to 500 ft) long below the high point and outline the area on the plan. for the first inlet and record in column 5.Pavement Drainage Use the computation sheet shown in Figure 6-18 and perform the steps in the following procedure: Step 1—Complete the blanks at the top of the sheet to identify the job by state project number. and your initials. SL. Col. 19) Describe the location of the proposed inlet by number and station and record this information in columns 1 and 2. Step 6—(Col. in minutes. However. Step 7—(Col. 5) Compute the time of concentration. The time of concentration is the time for the water to flow from the most hydraulically remote point of the drainage area to the inlet. A sketch of the cross section should be prepared. Include any area that may drain over the curb. Enter the flow value in column 7.S. The minimum time of concentration is 5 minutes. Step 10—(Col.

since there was no previous bypass flow. 17) Calculate the flow intercepted the grate. 12) Determine the spread. 14. Step 21—(Col. enter the value from column 7 into column 11. The bypass flow is column 11 minus column 17. Step 22—(Col. Qb. Step 19—(Col. Use Chart 5 and Equation 6. If the calculated spread. Compare the calculated spread with the allowable spread as determined by the design criteria outlined in “Design Frequency and Spread” on page 6-186. Additionally. Use Equations 6. enter the cross slope. Col. Step 17—(Col.21 or Chart 6 to define the flow intercepted by the grate. Then. 11.2 and 6. Additionally. enter 0 into column 10. Step 20—(Col. W. Col. if the inlet is the first in a series. and enter into column 18. expand or decrease the drainage area up to the first inlet to increase or decrease the spread. Step 13—(Col. determine the depth at the curb.4 or Charts 1 and 2 and enter the value in column 14. 10) For the first inlet in a series. and enter the value in column 12. repeat steps 6 through 14 until appropriate values are obtained. 9. 7) Determine the flow in the gutter and record the value in column 7. Also. Col. 15) Calculate W/T and enter the value in column 15. Step 15—(Col. 16) Select the inlet type and dimensions and enter the values in column 16. 6-258 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Repeat steps 5 through 7 considering only the area between the inlets. respectively. in column 13. Finally. by using Equations 6.25 to determine the intercepted flow.25 or Charts 7 and 8 for curb opening inlets.18 and 6. 18) Determine the bypass flow. Step 18—(Col. column 14. Step 14—(Col. Else.15 or Charts 2 and 4 to define the gutter flow. in column 9 and the grate or gutter width. d. The drainage area can be expanded by increasing the length to the inlet and it can be decreased by decreasing the distance to the inlet. Qi. 5) Compute the time of concentration for the next inlet based upon the area between the consecutive inlets and record this value in column 5. T. 6) Determine the rainfall intensity from the IDF curve based upon the time of concentration determined in step 19 and record the value in column 6. compare the depth at the curb with the actual curb height in column 19. is near the allowable spread and the depth at the curb is less than the actual curb height. by multiplying the spread by the appropriate cross slope.24 and 6. 13) From the cross section. select a drainage area approximately 90 m to 120 m (300 to 400 ft) below the previous inlet for a first trial. To begin the procedure. Use Equations 6. 1-4) Proceed to the next inlet down the grade. continue on to step 15. Step 16—(Col. and enter the value in column 17. use Equation 6. Sx.Drainage Inlet Design Step 12—(Col.

Col. 11) Record the value from column 18 of the previous line into column 10 of the current line. This completes the spacing design for the inlet. 12. 14) Determine the spread and the depth at the curb as outlined in step 14. Step 26—(Col. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-259 . Step 25—(Col. 16) Select the inlet type and record in column 16. 17) Determine the intercepted flow in accordance with step 17. Repeat steps 18 through 24 until the spread and the depth at the curb are within the design criteria. Determine the total gutter flow by adding column 7 and column 10 and record in column 11. Step 24—(Col. Step 27—(Col. 18) Calculate the bypass flow by subtracting column 17 from column 11.Pavement Drainage Step 23—(Col. Step 28—Repeat steps 19 through 27 for each subsequent inlet down to the low point.

Drainage Inlet Design Figure 6-18: Inlet Spacing Computation Sheet 6-260 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .

Pavement Drainage Figure 6-19: Storm Drainage System for Example 6-15 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-261 .

9 m long g (2 ft by 3 ft) P 50 x 100 grate.5 ft/s) 0 3 p Calculate the time of concentration.5 6-262 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .0) = 1. t c . V = KS 0. C = 0.03 Allowable spread = 2.20. The entries are shown in Figure 6.04 4 For maintenance reasons. The initial drainage area consists of a a 13 m wide roadway section with a length of 200 m.20+00 = 200 m Width = 13 m Drainage area = (200)(13) = 2600 m 2 = 0. 19 Composite gutter with a curb height = 0. 2 Station 20+00 Col. Col. The top of the drainage basin is located at station 22+00. 1 .15 m (0.1) 60 = ( 1 ø º ß 0.6 m wide by 0. 5 . Col.First calculate velocity of gutter flow using Equation a 3-4 and Table3-3. Col.Distance from top of drainage area to first inlet = o 22+00 . Steps 1-4.64 ac) 0 Step 7. tc = L [ V ] (200) Ø60)( . Col.016 Sx =0.Drainage Inlet Design EXAMPLE 6-15 Given: The storm drainage system illustrated in Figure 6. 5 .26 ha (0.19 with the following roadway characteristics: n=0.5 = ( .02 SL =0. inlet spacing is limited to 110 m (360 ft) o Find: The maximum design inlet spacing for a 0. Solution: Use the inlet computation sheet shown in Figure 6.0 m (6.50 ft) Step 6.Inlet # 40 e Col.20.6 ft) Gutter and shoulder cross slope = 0. during a 10-year storm event.619)( . 3 . s Step 5. The computations can begin at either of the inlets 4 located at station 20+00.73 Step 8.Runoff coefficient.1 m/s (3.

Eo = 1 .4 cfs) 0 0 360 ( Step 11. therefore proceed to next step) o Step 15.67 0. Col.26) ( )= 0. T. 16 . using Equation 3-1. 12 .04) ( . Col. I.04)(0.0 {Chart 5} 1 (0.0828)( .18 or Chart 2} = 0.04 m/m Step 13.W T = 0.67 2.8 2. 13 . 8 . using Equation 6.0828V 1. Col.Determine spread.17 { }{ } Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-263 .6 ft/s) R f = 1. Col 17 . Col 15 . 0.376)( .6 m (2 ft) Step 14.67 {Equation 6.752 nS L. Col.8 ) (S x L2.03) 0 0 V = 1.83 m (6.Sw = 0.W = 0.67 0 0 V = 0. Col. Col.Pavement Drainage tc = 3.016)( .67 S L. 9 .67 0.Determine depth at curb.375 1. from IDF curve.( .0 ft) (less than allowable. d.( .67 {Equation 6.24 ft) (less than actual curb height.5 S x .6 1.Determine gutter flow rate.41 m/s (4. Col.41) 1 0 1 (0.Determine rainfall intensity.0 min (use 5 minutes minimum) Step 9.9 m long (2 ft by 3 ft) t Step 17. 7 .04)= 0.W T ) 1 Eo = 1 . .21 or Chart 6} 1 œ Œ 0 ß º 1.03 m/m Step 12.Select a P 50 x 100 grate measuring 0.03) œ 0 0 0 {0 } 0 º ß T = 1.6 m wide by 0. Q.375 0 T = Ø Qn} {KS 1. Qi . 6 . using Equation 6.3.73) 180)( .33) 1 2.66 0.04) ( .095 m3 /s (3. 2 { } 1 0 d = TS x = ( .016) ( .15 or Chart 4} V = 0.095)( .0.83) ø Rs = 1 Ø + ( .5 ø Ø T = Œ( .073 m (0. I = 180 mm/hr Step 10. s Q = CIA K c = ( .83)( .2 or Chart 1.SL = 0.752 ( .5 }ø { x Œ œ º ß 0.3 Ø Rs = 1 Œ + ( . therefore proceed to next step) Col.83 = 0.Calculate intercepted flow.3 ) {Equation 6.5 0.67 T 0.33 3 Step 16.9) ø œ º ß Rs = 0. 14 .

Drainage Inlet Design Figure 6-20: Inlet Spacing Computation Sheet 6-264 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .

14 .Q = CIA K c Q = ( . 16 .Qi = 0.040 m3 /s (1.50 m (4.Qb = Q . Step 25.0. 11 .17) 1 . Col. 7 = 0. Col.5 ft/s) {Step 8} p tc = L [ V ] 110 Ø60)( .I = 180 mm/hr Step 22.078 m3 /s (2. 4 .9 ft) {Equation 7.Col. 18 . 12 .73 Step 20. C = 0.Runoff coefficient.027 + 0. maintenance considerations limit the spacing to 110 m (360 ft). 11 = Col. 6 . 18 = 0.1 m/s (3.V = 1.Q b = Q .1) = 2 min 60 = ( 1 ø º ß (Use 5 minutes maximum) Step 21.Drainage area = (110 m)(13 m) = 1430 m 2 1 = 0. in this e case. 11 . Col.6 m wide by 0.06 m (0.0.8 cfs) 0 180 0 360 Step 23.Qi = 0. 18 = Col.2 or Chart 1} r T < T allowable Col. Col. 17 . Col.078 .20 ft) d < curb height Since the actual spread is less than the allowable spread.0.66) ( º ß Qi = 0.068 m3 /s (2. Col.051 = 0.8 cfs) Step 24. However. 5 . Repeat Steps 19 through 27 for each additional inlet. 7 .d = 0.095)( .Station 18+90 n Col.0)( .4 cfs) Step 18. 10 + Col. r (2 ft by 3 ft) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-265 . 3 .66)+ ( .068 Qb = 0.Eo ) {Equation 6.35 ac) Col.38 m3 /s (1. Col. Col.051 m3 /s (1.1 . 17 Col.3 cfs) Step 28.Pavement Drainage ø Qi = Q Ø f Eo + Rs ( .Inlet # 41 Col. 18 .4 cfs){Step 17} Step 27.T = 1. a e larger invert spacing could be used here.027 m3 /s (1.9 m long 0 (2 ft by 3 ft) Step 26.Col.14) ( )= 0.Select P 50 x 100 grate 0. 2 .040 = 0.0 cfs) Step19.Qi Col.73)( )( .23} R 1 Œ œ º ß Ø1 ø 0 0 0 Qi = ( . Col.14 ha (0. Col.095 .

12ft) Flanking Inlet Low Point Inlet 11. Flanking Inlets d = Depth at Curb at Design Spread d=0.Drainage Inlet Design For inlet spacing in areas with changing grades. it is good engineering practice to place flanking inlets on each side of the low point inlet when in a depressed area that has no outlet except through the system. They should do this without exceeding the allowable spread at the bottom of the sag. In addition. inlets may be spaced at closer intervals because the spread will exceed the allowable. the spacing will vary as the grade changes. Flanking inlets can be located so they will function before water spread exceeds the allowable spread at the sump location. The use of table 6-8 is illustrated in Example 6-16. individual transportation agencies may have limitations for spacing due to maintenance constraints. The purpose of the flanking inlets is to act in relief of the inlet at the low point if it should become clogged or if the design spread is exceeded. The AASHTO policy on geometrics specifies maximum K values for various design speeds and a maximum K of 50 considering drainage. Additionally.2ft) 0. Table 6-8 shows the spacing required for various depth at curb criteria and vertical curve lengths defined by K = L / (G2 – G1). If the grade becomes flatter. The flanking inlets should be located so that they will receive all of the flow when the primary inlet at the bottom of the sag is clogged. inlets should always be located at the low or sag points in the gutter profile.0m (38ft) Flanking Inlet Figure 6-21: Example of Flanking Inlet As discussed in the previous section. for an increase in slope. it will be necessary to either develop a new factor or do a trial and error solution using assumed depths with the weir equation to determine the capacity of the flanker inlet at the given depths. they will each intercept one-half the design flow when they are located so that the depth of ponding at the flanking inlets is 63 percent of the depth of ponding at the low point. where L is the length of the vertical curve in meters and G1 and G2 are the approach grades. If the flanker inlets are not the same size as the primary inlet.0m (38ft) 11. This is illustrated in Figure 6-21. 6-266 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .04m (0.06m (0. the inlet spacing will become longer because of increased capacity in the gutter sections. Conversely. If the flanking inlets are the same dimension as the primary inlet.

2 11.2 33.0 12. drainage maximum K = 50 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-267 .1 14.02 0.0 15.1 10. d = depth at curb in meters (does not include sump depth) • 3.09 0.2 22.5.4 • 1.0 12.21 0.7 6.9 39.2 39.8 50 10.2 31.7 30.2 16.6 9.1 30.8 4.2 49.0 4.0 12.7 34.1 13.3 37 8.06 0.1 23.4 27.4 36.8 11 4.7 42.1 35.4 24.7 23.1 16.6 30.4 18.1 24.6 36.2 15 5.6 13.4 23.4 25.9 11.2 34.7 7.5 24.1 14.8 39.5 16.1 22.1 21.Pavement Drainage Table 6-8: Distance to Flanking Inlets in Sag Vertical Curve using Depth at Curb Criteria d(m) 0.7 27.0 14.9 30 7.2 26.03 0.9 11.1 29.6 14.0 9.0 32. x = (200dK) 0.18 0.1 21.9 7.0 15.1 18.15 0.3 8.5 19.1 20 6.5 7.3 13.5 19.6 19.24 4 2.3 17.0 8.0 13.5 43 9.8 46.3 27.2 32.1 17.9 12.01 0.5 21.3 20. where x = distance from sag point • 2.2 15.6 19.7 42.7 27.12 0.2 25 7.0 42.6 12.6 8.0 5.0 8 4.8 38.8 45.0 30.7 11.0 33.6 17.7 9.9 28.

d = 0.3 percent be maintained within 15 m (50 ft) of the level point in order to provide for adequate drainage. Example problem solutions in “Interception Capacity of Inlets in Sag Locations” on page 6-243 illustrate the total interception capacity of inlets in sag locations.0) 0 3 d = 0.04 = 0. d = 0.06 m (0.06 ft) Inlet spacing = 11. Determine the depth for flanker locations. and are not considered as intercepting flow to reduce the bypass flow to the sag point.02 m (0.0 m (36 ft) from the sag point.63) = 0.Drainage Inlet Design EXAMPLE 6-16 Given: A 150 m (L) sag vertical curve at an underpass on a 4-lane divided highway with begin and end slopes of -2. 6-268 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Find the rate of vertical curvature. They are installed to assist the sag point inlet in the event of clogging. K. n .12 ft) Step 4.02 Find: The location of the flanking inlets if located to function in relief of the inlet at the low point when the inlet at the low point is clogged. d = S x T = ( . The spread at design Q is not to exceed the shoulder width of 3. e Solution: l Step 1. It is considered advisable to use spread on the pavement at a gradient comparable to that recommended by the AASHTO Committee on Design to evaluate the location and design of inlets upgrade of sag vertical curves.06 .06(0. Determine depth at design spread.0.2 ft) Step 3.0 m (9. Standard inlet locations may need to be adjusted to avoid excessive spread in the sag curve. For major sag points.59) K = 30 m Step 2.5% respectively.Send ) K = 150 m ( 2. S x = 0. spread on low gradient approaches to the low point is a more stringent criterion for design than the interception capacity of the sag inlet. the flanking inlets are added as a safety factor.04 m (0.2. Inlets may be needed between the flankers and the ends of the curves also.5% and +2. AASHTO recommends that a gradient of 0.8 ft). For use with Table 7-7.59 .02)( . K = L (Sbegin . Except where inlets become clogged.

Bridge deck drainage is discussed in greater detail in Design of Bridge Deck Drainage. Figure 6-22 illustrates a traffic-safe median inlet. Where adequate vegetative cover can be established on embankment slopes to prevent erosion.4. Embankment. or by cross drainage culverts which are not continuous across the median. and Bridge Inlets Flow in median and roadside ditches is discussed briefly in “Bentley FlowMaster Theory” on page 5-131 and in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 4. Bridge deck drainage is similar to roadway drainage and deck drainage inlets are similar in purpose to roadway inlets. paving around the inlets helps to prevent erosion and may increase the interception capacity of the inlet marginally by acceleration of the flow.Pavement Drainage 6. Drop inlets should be flush with the ditch bottom and traffic-safe bar grates should be placed on the ends of pipes used to drain medians that would be a hazard to errant vehicles. Where storm water must be collected with curbs or swales. or pipe downdrains. It is sometimes necessary to place inlets in medians at intervals to remove water that could cause erosion. although this may cause a plugging potential. The interception capacity of drop inlets in median ditches on continuous grades can be estimated by use of Charts 14 and 15 to estimate flow depth and the ratio of frontal flow to total flow in the ditch. Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-269 . Inlets are sometimes used in roadside ditches at the intersection of cut and fill slopes to prevent erosion downstream of cut sections. inlets are used to receive the water and discharge it through chutes. 15 and Hydraulic Design Series No.7 Median. Cross drainage structures should be continuous across the median unless the median width makes this impractical. it is preferable to allow storm water to discharge down the slope with as little concentration of flow as practicable. However. and discontinuous cross drainage culverts should be designed so as not to detract from a safe roadside. pipes. Inlets. Median and Roadside Ditch Inlets Median and roadside ditches may be drained by drop inlets similar to those used for pavement drainage. No test results are available on which to base design procedures for estimating the effects of placing grates on culvert inlets. Pipe drains for medians operate as culverts and generally require more water depth to intercept median flow than drop inlets. sod or riprap swales. little effect is expected. published in 1993 by the Federal Highway Administration. by pipe culverts under one roadway. Ditches tend to erode at drop inlets.

0 SI. The Manning equation for open channels is: Q= KM 0 AR 0.15m to .67 S L. ft) Bed slope (m/m. 1.S.5 (6. customary Hydraulic resistance variable Cross-sectional area of flow (m2.39) Where Hydraulic radius—area/wetted perimeter (m.67 0 S L.40) 6-270 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . ft3/sec.) 1. ft2) (6. the Manning equation becomes: KM B + zd 2 2 Q= ( B + zd ) n ŁB + 2d z 2 + 1 ł 0..5 n Q KM n A R SL = = = = = = Discharge rate (m3/sec.2m (typ) Flo w A 1:8 1:8 ) (typ (typ ) Embankment Material Slope Inlet Section A-A A B B 0. ft/ft) For the trapezoidal channel cross section shown on Chart 14.Drainage Inlet Design 1.30m Section B-B Figure 6-22: Median Drop Inlet Chart 14 is the solution to the Manning equation for channels of various side slopes.486 U.

Pavement Drainage

Where

B z

= =

Bottom width (m, ft) Horizontal distance of side slope to a rise of 1 m (ft) vertical (m, ft)

Equation 6.40 is a trial and error solution to Chart 14. Chart 15 is the ratio of frontal flow to total flow in a trapezoidal channel. This is expressed as:

Eo = W (B + dz )

(6.41)

Charts 5 and 6 are used to estimate the ratios of frontal and side flow intercepted by the grate to total flow. Small dikes downstream of drop inlets (Figure 6-22) can be provided to impede bypass flow in an attempt to cause complete interception of the approach flow. The dikes usually need not be more than a few inches high and should have traffic safe slopes. The height of dike required for complete interception on continuous grades or the depth of ponding in sag vertical curves can be computed by use of Chart 9. The effective perimeter of a grate in an open channel with a dike should be taken as 2(L + W), since one side of the grate is not adjacent to a curb. Example 6-17 illustrates the use of Charts 14 and 15 for drop inlets in ditches on continuous grade. EXAMPLE 6-17

Given: A median ditch with the following characteristics: c B = 1.2 m (3.9 ft) n = 0.03 z=6 S = 0.02 The flow in the median ditch is to be intercepted by a drop inlet with a e 0.6 m by 0.6 m (2 ft by 2 ft) P-50 parallel bar grate; there is no dike downstream of the inlet. r

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Drainage Inlet Design

Q = 0.28 m3 /s (9.9 cfs) Find: The intercepted and bypassed flows (Qi and Q b ) Solution: Step 1. Compute the ratio of frontal to total flow in trapezoidal channel. n Qn = (0.28)(0.03) Qn = 0.0084 m3 /s (0.30 cfs) d B = 0.12 {Chart 14} {Equation 7.38 or Chart 15} d = (B )(d B )= ( .12)( .20)= 0.14 m (0.46 ft) 0 1 Eo = W (B + dz ) Eo = ( .6) Ø.2 + ( .14)( ) = 0.30 0 1 0. 6ø º ß Step 2. Compute frontal flow efficiency e V=Q A Ø6 0 0 A = ( .14)( )( .14)+ 1.2ø º ß 2 2 A = 0.29 m (3.1 ft ) 0 0 V = ( .28) ( .29)= 0.97 m/s (3.2 ft/s) R f = 1.0 {Chart 5} Step 3. Compute side flow efficiency. Since the ditch bottom is wider than the grate and has no cross slope, o use the least cross slope available on Chart 6 or use Equation 6.21 to solve for R s . Rs = 1 Ø + ( 0828V 1.8 ) S x L2.3 ø {Equation 6.21 or Chart 6} 1 Œ 0.0 œ º ß 1.8 2.3 Ø Rs = 1 Œ + ( .0828)( .97) 1 0 0 (0.01)(0.6) ø= 0.04 œ º ß Step 4. Compute total efficiency.

{

}

1E = Eo R f + Rs ( - Eo ) E = ( .30)( .0)+ ( .04) 1 - 0.30)= 0.33 0 1 0 ( Step 5. Compute interception and bypass flow. Qi = EQ = ( .33)( .28) 0 0 Qi = 0.1 m3 /s (3.5 cfs) 0 0 Qb = Q - Qi = ( .28)- ( .1) Qb = 0.18 m3 /s (6.4 cfs)

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Pavement Drainage In the preceding example, a P-50 inlet would intercept about 30 percent of the flow in a 1.2 m (4 ft) bottom ditch on continuous grade. For grate widths equal to the bottom width of the ditch, use Chart 6 by substituting ditch side slopes for values of Sx, as illustrated in Example 6-18. EXAMPLE 6-18

Given: A median ditch with the following characteristics: c Q = 0.28 m3 /s (9.9 cfs) B = 0.6 m (2 ft) W = 0.6 m (2 ft) n = 0.03 z=6 Sx = 1 6 = 0.17 S = 0.03 The flow in the median ditch is to be intercepted by a drop inlet with a 0.6 m by 0.6 m (2 ft by 2 ft) P-50 parallel bar grate; there is no dike downstream of the inlet. Find: The intercepted and bypassed flows (Qi and Q b ). Solution: Step 1. Compute ratio of frontal flow to total flow in trapezoidal channel. l Qn = ( 0.28)( 0.03) Qn = 0.0084 m3 /s (0.30 cfs) d B = 0.25 {Chart 14} 0 0.6 d = ( .25)( )= 0.15 m (0.49 ft) Eo = W (B + dz ) {Equation 6.41 or Chart15} Eo = ( .6) Ø .6 + ( .15)( ) = 0.40 0 0 0 6ø ß º Step 2. Compute frontal flow efficiency V= Q A Ø6 0.15)+0.6ø A= ( 0.15)( )( º ß A=0.23 m 2 (2.42 ft 2 )

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V= ( 0.28) ( 0.23)=1.22 m/s (4.0 ft/s) R f =1.0 {Chart 5} Step 3. Compute side flow efficiency ø Rs = 1 Ø + ( .0828V 1.8 ) (S x L2.3 ) {Equation 6.21 or Chart 6} 1 Œ 0 œ º ß 1.8 2.3 Ø Rs = 1 Œ + ( .0828)( .22) 1 0 1 (0.17)(0.6) ø œ º ß Rs = 0.30

{

}

Step 4. Compute total efficiency. 1 E = Eo R f + Rs ( - Eo ) 0 E = ( .40) 1.0)+ ( .30) 1 - 0.40)= 0.58 (0 0 ( Step 5. Compute interception and bypass flow. Qi = EQ = ( .58)( .28) 0 0 Qi = 0.16 m3 /s (5.7 cfs) Qb = Q - Qi = 0.28 - 0.16 Qb = 0.12 m3 /s (4.2 cfs)
The height of dike downstream of a drop inlet required for total interception is illustrated by Example 6-19. EXAMPLE 6-19

Given: Data from Example 6-18 Find: The required height of a berm to be located downstream of the grate inlet i t to cause total interception of the ditch flow. Solution: t P = 2 (L + W ) 0 P = 2 ( .6 + 0.6)
0 ø.67 D = Ø i ( w P ) {Equation 6.28 or Chart 9} Q º C ß 0.67 1 d = Ø0.28) {( .66)(2.4) ø = 0.17 m (0.55 ft) ( }ß œ Œ º

A dike will need to have a minimum height of 0.16 m (0.5 ft) for total interception. Due to the initial velocity of the water which may provide adequate momentum to carry the flow over the dike, an additional 0.15 m (0.5 ft) may be added to the height of the dike to insure complete interception of the flow.

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Pavement Drainage

Embankment Inlets
Drainage inlets are often needed to collect runoff from pavements in order to prevent erosion of fill slopes or to intercept water upgrade or downgrade of bridges. Inlets used at these locations differ from other pavement drainage inlets in three respects. First, the economies which can be achieved by system design are often not possible because a series of inlets is not used; second, total or near total interception is sometimes necessary in order to limit the bypass flow from running onto a bridge deck; and third, a closed storm drainage system is often not available to dispose of the intercepted flow, and the means for disposal must be provided at each inlet. Intercepted flow is usually discharged into open chutes or pipe downdrains, which terminate at the toe of the fill slope.

a. Perspective

Inlet

Outlet Pipe b. Section

Figure 6-23: Embankment Inlet and Downdrain

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Grate Type Selection Considerations Example problem solutions in other sections of this circular illustrate by inference the difficulty in providing for near total interception on grade. Grate inlets intercept little more than the flow conveyed by the gutter width occupied by the grate. Combination curb-opening and grate inlets can be designed to intercept total flow if the length of curb opening upstream of the grate is sufficient to reduce spread in the gutter to the width of the grate used. Depressing the curb opening would significantly reduce the length of inlet required. Perhaps the most practical inlets or procedure for use where near total interception is necessary are sweeper inlets, increase in grate width, and slotted inlets of sufficient length to intercept 85-100 percent of the gutter flow. Design charts and procedures in “Interception Capacity of Inlets on Grade” on page 6-227 are applicable to the design of inlets on embankments. Figure 6-23 illustrates a combination inlet and downdrain. Downdrains or chutes used to convey intercepted flow from inlets to the toe of the fill slope may be open or closed chutes. Pipe downdrains are preferable because the flow is confined and cannot cause erosion along the sides. Pipes can be covered to reduce or eliminate interference with maintenance operations on the fill slopes. Open chutes are often damaged by erosion from water splashing over the sides of the chute due to oscillation in the flow and from spill over the sides at bends in the chute. Erosion at the ends of downdrains or chutes can be a problem if not anticipated. The end of the device may be placed low enough to prevent damage by undercutting due to erosion. Well-graded gravel or rock can be used to control the potential for erosion at the outlet of the structure. However, some transportation agencies install an elbow or a tee at the end of the downdrains to re-direct the flow and prevent erosion. See HEC-14) for additional information on energy dissipator designs.

6.5

Grate Type Selection Considerations
Grate type selection should consider such factors as hydraulic efficiency, debris handling characteristics, pedestrian and bicycle safety, and loading conditions. Relative costs will also influence grate type selection. Charts 5, 6, and 9 illustrate the relative hydraulic efficiencies of the various grate types discussed here. The parallel bar grate (P-50) is hydraulically superior to all others but is not considered bicycle safe. The curved vane and the P-30 grates have good hydraulic characteristics with high velocity flows. The other grates tested are hydraulically effective at lower velocities. Debris-handling capabilities of various grates are reflected in Table 6-5. The table shows a clear difference in efficiency between the grates with the 83 mm (3-1/4 inch) longitudinal bar spacing and those with smaller spacings. The efficiencies shown in the table are suitable for comparisons between the grate designs tested, but should not be taken as an indication of field performance since the testing procedure used did not simulate actual field conditions. Some local transportation agencies have developed factors for use of debris handling characteristics with specific inlet configurations.

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conversely. However. published by the FHWA in June 1977 and April 1978. Grate loading conditions must also be considered when determining an appropriate grate type. respectively. Tilt Bar 45-60 deg. grates draining yard areas do not generally need to be as rigid. Table 6-9: Ranking with Respect to Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Grate Style P-50x100 Reticuline P-30 45-85 deg. Grates in traffic areas must be able to withstand traffic loads. Tilt Bar Curved Vane 30-85 deg. Tilt Bar Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 6-277 . The bicycle safety ratings were based on a subjective test program as described in Hydraulic and Safety Characteristics of selected Grate Inlets on Continuous Grades volumes 1 and 2. all the grates are considered bicycle and pedestrian safe except the P-50.Pavement Drainage Table 6-9 ranks the grates according to relative bicycle and pedestrian safety.

Grate Type Selection Considerations 6-278 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .

S. customary)—Curb-opening inlet in sump locations Chart 12A (S.I.S.) and 14B (U.I.I.I.I.S.) and 7B (U.S.S. customary)—Slotted drain inlet capacity in sump locations Chart 14A (S.) and 3B (U.S.) and 12B (U.I.S.S. customary)—Curb-opening and slotted drain inlet interception capacity Chart 8A (S.S.I. Chart 9A (S. customary)—Velocity in triangular gutter sections Chart 5A (S.I. customary)—Curb-opening inlet orifice capacity for inclined and vertical orifice throats Chart 13A (S.) and 11B (U. customary)—Grate inlet capacity in sump conditions Chart 10A (S.) and 13B (U. customary)—Ratio of frontal flow to total gutter flow Chart 3A (S.Chapter HEC 22 Charts 7 Chart 1A (S.) and 5B (U.I.) and 10B (U. customary)—Conveyance in circular channels Chart 4A (S.S. customary)—Solution of Manning’s equation for channels of various side slopes Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 7-279 . customary)—Grate inlet side flow interception capacity Chart 7A (S.) and 6B (U.) and 8B (U.S.) and 1B (U.S.I.) and 4B (U. customary)—Curb-opening and slotted drain inlet interception capacity.) and 9B (U.S.S.I.) and 2B (U.I.I. customary)—Flow in triangular gutter sections Chart 2A (S.I. customary)—Depressed curb opening inlet in sump locations Chart 11A (S. customary)—Grate inlet frontal flow interception efficiency Chart 6A (S.

) and 15B (U. customary)—Ratio of frontal flow to total flow in a trapezoidal channel 7-280 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .Chart 15A (S.S.I.

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HEC 22 Charts Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 7-307 .

7-308 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .

2. ft) (8. such as from a pump (m.3.2.2) Pressure (N/m. ft) Combined headloss (m.2) Gravitational acceleration (m/sec. ft/sec. ft/sec.1 Energy Equation The energy relationship between the downstream and upstream end of a pipe is: V12 P V2 P + 1 + z1 + hG = 2 + 2 + z2 + hL 2g g 2g g Where V g P γ z hG hL = = = = = = = Fluid velocity (m/sec.2. lb/ft3) Elevation at centroid (m. ft) Headgain. lb/ft2) Specific weight of fluid (N/m.Chapter Engineer’s Reference 8 This section includes: • • • • • “Energy Equation” on page 8-309 “Roughness Values—Manning’s Equation” on page 8-310 “Roughness Values—Kutter’s Equation” on page 8-312 “Roughness Values—Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Equation” on page 8314 “Roughness Values—Hazen-Williams Formula” on page 8-315 8.1) Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 8-309 .

010 0.013 0. Storm Drain Minimum 0. Lockbar and welded Steel.2 Roughness Values—Manning’s Equation Commonly used roughness values for different materials are: Table 8-1: Manning’s Coefficients n for Closed Metal Conduits Channel Type and Description Brass. Uncoated Wrought iron.Roughness Values—Manning’s Equation 8. smooth Steel.012 0.030 Table 8-2: Manning’s Coefficients n for Closed Non-Metal Conduits Channel Type and Description Lucite Glass Cement.013 0.017 0.013 0.017 0. connections.014 0.013 0.024 Maximum 0.009 0. Riveted and spiral Cast iron.011 0.010 0. Galvanized Corrugated metal.010 0.011 0.011 0.010 0.013 0.014 0. Culvert.009 0.012 0. Neat.015 0.011 0.017 0.021 Normal 0.011 Normal 0. Coated Cast iron.009 0. Mortar Concrete.014 0.014 0.013 0.021 0. surface Cement. and some debris Concrete.011 0.019 0. straight and free of debris Concrete.013 0.015 0. Culvert with bends. Black Wrought iron.008 0.013 0.010 0.014 8-310 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .016 0.012 Maximum 0.010 0.016 0. Finished Minimum 0. Subdrain Corrugated metal.010 0.016 0.013 0.014 0.

Common drainage tile Clay.016 0.016 0.030 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 8-311 . straight Concrete. rough wood form Wood.014 0. Unfinished.014 0.018 0.019 0.Engineer’s Reference Table 8-2: Manning’s Coefficients n for Closed Non-Metal Conduits Channel Type and Description Concrete.017 0. Clay. treated Clay. inlet.017 0.011 0.012 0.016 0.014 0. Vitrified subdrain with open joint Brickwork.020 0. cemented Minimum 0.012 Normal 0.012 0.014 0. with bends and connections Paved invert.020 0.017 0.012 0. Glazed Brickwork.020 0. Sewer with manholes.012 0. Unfinished. Stave Wood.013 0.013 0. Vitrified sewer with manholes. sewer.013 0.015 0.025 0.015 0.011 0.017 0.013 0. Lined with cement mortar Sanitary sewers coated with sewage slimes. etc..014 0.015 0.016 0. smooth wood form Concrete. etc.017 0.011 0. steel form Concrete.016 0.015 0.013 Maximum 0.013 0.017 0. smooth bottom Rubble masonry.015 0.013 0. Unfinished. Laminated.010 0. inlet.018 0. Vitrified sewer Clay.

straight Minimum 0. etc.012 0. straight and free of debris Concrete.010 0. Galvanized Corrugated metal. Culvert with bends.3 Roughness Values—Kutter’s Equation Table 8-3: Roughness Values—Kutter’s Equation Channel Type and Description Brass.011 0. surface Cement.030 Table 8-4: Kutter’s Coefficients n for Closed Non-Metal Conduits Channel Type and Description Lucite Glass Cement.014 0.013 0. Uncoated Wrought iron. Coated Cast iron.015 0. Sewer with manholes.016 0.014 0.010 0.017 0.010 0.013 0.019 0.013 0.012 0. inlet.014 0.014 0.016 0.010 0.011 0.011 0.013 0.011 0.014 0.013 0.012 0.013 0.013 0.009 0.016 0.013 0.017 8-312 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide . Subdrain Corrugated metal.021 0. Mortar Concrete.009 0. Riveted and spiral Cast iron.010 0.014 0. Storm Drain Minimum 0.013 0.Roughness Values—Kutter’s Equation 8.015 0. connections.013 Normal 0. Neat.024 Maximum 0. Black Wrought iron.017 0. Culvert.015 Maximum 0. Lockbar and welded Steel. Finished Concrete.011 0..010 0.021 Normal 0.017 0.008 0. and some debris Concrete.011 0.010 0.009 0. smooth Steel.

smooth wood form Concrete. etc.018 0.017 0.015 0. Clay.012 0. cemented Minimum 0.025 0.012 0.017 0.013 Maximum 0.016 0.017 0. smooth bottom Rubble masonry. steel form Concrete.015 0. Common drainage tile Clay.016 0.020 0.016 0. Unfinished.014 0. sewer. with bends and connections Paved invert.017 0.019 0.Engineer’s Reference Table 8-4: Kutter’s Coefficients n for Closed Non-Metal Conduits Channel Type and Description Concrete. Lined with cement mortar Sanitary sewers coated with sewage slimes.030 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 8-313 . Vitrified sewer with manholes.013 0.013 0.011 0. inlet. Vitrified subdrain with open joint Brickwork.013 0. Vitrified sewer Clay.020 0.011 0. treated Clay. Unfinished.014 0.014 0.020 0. Glazed Brickwork.013 0. rough wood form Wood.012 Normal 0.014 0.011 0.014 0.015 0.017 0.015 0.011 0. Laminated.010 0.013 0. Stave Wood.018 0.016 0. Unfinished.012 0.015 0.

12 0.9 ~ 9.03 0. visible.60 0.0 45 k (ft) 0.9 0. form marks) Riveted steel (new) Corrugated metal k (mm) 0.Roughness Values—Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Equation 8.003 0.36 0.0048 0.002 0.26 0.000013 0.045 0.0004 0.045 0.0012 0.4 Roughness Values—Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White) Equation Table 8-5: Darcy-Weisbach Roughness Heights k for Closed Conduits Pipe Material Glass.000016 0. drawn brass.15 0. copper (new) Seamless commercial steel (new) Commercial steel (enamel coated) Commercial steel (new) Wrought iron (new) Asphalted cast iron (new) Galvanized iron Cast iron (new) Wood stave (new) Concrete (steel forms.18 ~ 0.0006 ~ 0.00085 0.003 ~ 0.15 8-314 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .000005 0.004 0.0005 0.00015 0. average) Concrete (rough.00015 0. smooth) Concrete (good joints.0015 0.0006 0.18 0.

old Cast iron. old Cast iron. Centrifugally spun Copper Galvanized iron Glass Lead Plastic Steel. 30 yr.Engineer’s Reference 8. unlined Cast iron. old Cast iron. Steel forms Concrete or concrete lined.5 Roughness Values—Hazen-Williams Formula Table 8-6: Hazen-Williams Coefficients Pipe Material Asbestos cement Brass Brick Sewer Cast iron. Wood forms Concrete or concrete lined. Coal tar enamel. 40 yr. New. New. old Concrete or concrete lined. lined Steel. unlined C 140 130 – 140 100 130 107 – 113 89 – 100 75 – 90 64 – 83 140 120 135 130 – 140 120 140 130 – 140 140 – 150 145 – 150 140 – 150 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide 8-315 . 10 yr. 20 yr.

Roughness Values—Hazen-Williams Formula Table 8-6: Hazen-Williams Coefficients (Continued) Pipe Material Steel. Riveted Tin Vitrified clay (good condition) Wood stave (average condition) C 110 130 110 – 140 120 8-316 Bentley FlowMaster User’s Guide .

114 charts: where to find them 171 Chézy 119 Chézy's 127 Chézy’s equation 127 Cipoletti weir 67 Cipolletti 144 circular channel 56 circular orifice 71 ClientCare 10 clogging 74. 42. 59. 68. 48. 51. 91. 85. 56. 47. 88. 169 combination inlet on grade 163 combination inlet on grade worksheet 93 composite cross slope 162 composite gutter section 154 conjugate depth 59 constructed depth 52 constructed top width 52 contacting Haestad Methods email 11 fax 11 hours 10 mail 11 sales 9 technical support 10 telephone 11 contents 34. 67. 77. 62. 55. 82. 44. 59. 73. 52. 42. 86. 65.Index A AASHTO 171 about the software 34 active grate length 78. 51. 71. 89. 82. 159 C calculation messages 39. 90. 95 close 31 close all 34 Colebatch 101 Colebrook 122 Colebrook-White 127 Colebrook-White equation 131 combination inlet in sag 90. 92 actual flow depth 135 address See contacting Haestad Methods. 96 active grate weir length 75. 11 adjusted discharge coefficient 69 alphabetic 104 analysis menu 33 analysis toolbar 36 aspect ratio 99 attribute 107 channel worksheets 38 chart options 98. 93 calculation option 96 carryover 159 cascade 33 categorized 104 centroid elevation 70. 62. 41. 84. 60. 97 FlowMaster User’s Guide Index-303 . 69. 146 bypass flow 77. 42. 78. 52 channel slope 39. 95. 86. 72. 49. 70. 44. 71. 39. 57. 47. 45. 81. 83. 45. 45. 75. 84. 83. 72 channel 38. 85. 97 boundary control depth 134 broad-crested weir 68. 49. 51. 60. 54. 65. 106 continuity equation 118 continuously depressed gutter 155 contracted 142 copy 32 B backwater analysis 140 bottom width 39. 66. 80.

92. 132. 135 cross section 33. 156 ditch inlet in sag 81 ditch inlet on grade 84 documentation 2 downstream depth 41. 54. 89. 105 detailed report 33 diameter 55. 74. 86. 82. 84. 92. 47. 79. 89. 67. 81. 94 EGL 126 elevation 99 elevation at 1 55 elevation at 2 55 elevation head 126. 53. 60. Index-304 FlowMaster User’s Guide . 68. 86. 57. 80. 64 end station 100 energy balance 138 energy equation 125. 95. 46. 46. 59. 78. 135 critical depth 40. 41. 68. 99 cross-section 115 curb 79. 45. 60. 59. 80. 67. 50. 84. 49. 129. 43 Discharge 68 discharge 39. 47. 52. 87. 69. 52. 123. 57. 43. 71 direct step 139 direct step method 139 direction 40. 59. 68. 70. 72. 42. 88. 67. 47. 163 curb opening length 79. 66. 44. 72 discharge coefficient weir 69 discharge full 58. 60. 62. 61. 80. 44. 62. 54. 92. 43. 69 crest surface type 68 critical 40. 67. 87. 44. 127. 114 define rating table 97 delete worksheet 32 depth 48. 61. 71. 92 curves 98 cut 32 70. 57. 150 energy grade 126 energy grade at 1 55 energy grade at 2 56 energy grade line 126 energy principle 124 engineer 104 engineering library 32 engineering library explorer 30 entrance controlled 141 D Darcy-Weisbach 121. 51. 133. 63 display precision 103 distance 105 ditch 82. 44. 95 curb inlet 96 curb inlet in sag 165 curb inlet on grade 80 curb opening 162. 54. 57. 51. 63. 151 elevation range 49 elliptical pipe 62 email 11 email address 11 end depth/rise 41. 66. 52. 50. 90. 58. 131 Darcy-Weisbach formula 121 date 104 decimal point 103 default unit system for new project 104 define rating curve 98. 63. 69. 64 drainage 171. 77. 80. 64 downstream velocity 41. 172 duplicate worksheet 32 dynamic help 34 E edit menu 32 edit section 48 editor 99 efficiency 76. 133 critical slope 40. 46. 55. 73. 86. 95 curb throat type 79. 69 crest length 65. 63. 84. 51. 62. 135 critical elevation 50 critical flow 122. 76. 65. 134. 133. 93 discharge coefficient 65.D copy worksheet data 32 cox 102 create new project 28 create worksheet 28 crest breadth 68 crest elevation 65. 53. 48. 71. 83.

91. 70. 61. 68. 53. 69. 87. 72 headwater height above centroid 71. 87. 135 flow type 40. 71. 58. 76. 127. 94 grate width 74. 93 gutter depression 48. 66.log 10 Hazen-Williams 120. 87. 108 generalized friction equation 117 generic orifice 72 generic weir 69 FlowMaster User’s Guide Index-305 . 105. 63. 90. 158 gutter flow 152 gutter width 48. 85. 67. 43. 46 given upstream 41. 84. 89. 78. 72 headwater height above crest 66. 73. 95. 86 format 103. 47. 85. 80. 91. 84. 50. 58. 79. 64 headlosses 125 headwater elevation 65. 80. 53. 62. 78. 77. 45. 107 flexunits 33. 127 Hazen-Williams Formula 120. 43. 48. 93 gutter cross slope 48. 96 frontwater analysis 141 Froude 122 Froude number 40. 51. 88. 81. 80. 64. 50. 94. 141 gradually varied flow analysis 18 gradually varied profile 105 graph display options 98 Grate 94 grate 76. 57. 70. 105 flow depth 135 flow regime 132. 46. 71. 52. 63. 61. 155. 58. 76. 132 head gains 125 headloss 41. 88. 103 Flow 48 flow area 39. 46 glossary 9 gradually varied flow 46. 90. 96 grate inlet 96 grate inlet in sag 164 grate inlet on grade 159 grate length 74. 46. 91. 89. 79. 76. 94 grate type 74. 63. 95. 163 grate flow option 96 grate flow ratio 78. 89. 43. 91. 61. 96 error. 43. 82. 56. 76. 122 friction loss 127 friction method 48 friction slope 56 front flow 96 frontal flow 77. 90. 75. 68. 59. 86 H H3 135 Haestad Methods email addresses 11 Web site 11 Haestad. 69. 68. 44. 66. 85. 54. 77.log 10 given downstream 41.F equal length inlets 169 equal side slopes 68 equivalent cross slope 81. 73. 49. 82. 67. 55. 93 GVF profile 33 GVF profile table 33 F family of curves 98 fax 11 field 107 field id 97 file menu 31 filename 104 find 106 fixed point 103. 60. 104. 53. 76. 88. 56. 156 frontal flow factor 77. 84. 94 gutter 73. 107 formatter 103 free surface flow 134 frequency 172 friction factor 40. 43. 76. 67. 70 HEC-12 171 HEC-22 152 height 60 G gate 149 general 103. 53. 82. 82. 81. 87. 85. 92.

51. 88. 82. 87. 75. 151 HGL convergence test 126 highway 171. 78. 3 mixed flow profiles 139 multiple page view 106 I improved Lotter 102 inclined 165 inclined throat 79. 94 log files 10 Lotter 102 M M3 135 mail 11 main window 28 Manning's equation 128 Manning’s 119. 158 local depression width 74. 89. 88. 42. 70. 80. 82. 57. 93 mild 135 mild-1 135 minimize all 33 minimum 2. 55. 55. 89. 127 Kutter’s equation 128 Index-306 FlowMaster User’s Guide . 59. 93. 56. 61. 98 maximum discharge 58 median section 156 menus 31 messages 39. 75. 84. 68. 45. 88. 81. 81. 49. 90. 47. 44. 62. 93 manual scale 99 material libraries 30 materials 30 maximum 97. 79. 47. 98 system requirements 2. 96 load 104 local depression 74. 86. 71. 76. 84. 51. 92 increment 97. 80. 73. 85. 135 hydraulically steep slope 134. 67. 84. 55. 92 horton’s 101 how do i? 34 hydraulic grade 126. 87. 98 index 34 inlet 73. 91. 63 Kutter’s 119. 45. 82. 86. 72. 64 length factor 81. 49. 42. 94. 69. 90. 81. 94. 91. 97. 79. 91. 96 inlet capacity 152 inlets in sag 164 inlets on grade 158 installing for network deployment 5 installing on a single computer 4 installing the software 3 intercepted flow 77. 78. 95 invert elevation 105 irregular channel 99 irregular section editor 48 K kinematic viscosity 39. 135 Kutter’s formula 119 L left-side slope 42. 127 Manning’s coefficient 100 Manning’s formula 119 Mannings coefficient 48. 60. 151 hydraulic grade at 1 56 hydraulic grade at 2 56 hydraulic grade line 126 hydraulic head 126 hydraulic jump 141 hydraulic jumps 139 hydraulically mild slope 134. 66. 97 Length 81 length 41. 89. 59. 45. 52. 53. 65. 90. 81. 84. 172 horizontal 165 horizontal throat 79. 82.I help menu 34 help toolbar 37 HGL 126.

51. 61. 56. 104 R rapidly varied flow 139 rating curve 33. 63. 50. 59. 59. 60. 59. 32 project file 104 project filename 104 project files 29 project menu 32 Projectname. 49. 59. 169 overtopping 147 pitot tube 126. 56. 97. 47. 68.mdb 30 properties 33.N N next page 106 non-sharp-crested 141 normal depth 39. 64 O open 31 open channel weighting methods 100 open existing project 28 open grate area 75. 75. 66. 151 pressure pipe 150 pressure pipe channel 55 preview 106 previous page 106 print 31. 57. 80. 69. 106 print preview 31. 97 recent projects 31 rectangular 142 rectangular orifice 70 rectangular weir 65 rectangular worksheet 39 redo 32 report title 99. 114 rating table 33. 73. 64 project 14. 86. 135 profile description 41. 51. 106 printing reports 115 prismatic 133 profile 41. 79. 72. 98 rating curves 113. 44.fm8. 47.fm8 29 Projectname. 78. 62. 47. 88. 47. 28. 46. 67. 65. 54. 84. 42. 96. 105. 50. 61. 54. 59. 133. 62. 31 project components 28 project explorer 28. 93. 60. 135 normal depth/rise 41. 45. 115 reporting 21 reports P parabolic channel 51 parameter 103 paste 32 pavement 171 pavement drainage 152 Pavlovskii’s 100 percent full 57. 82. 108 number of contractions 65 number of steps 41. 59. 97. 98. 52. 55. 64 profile classification 41. 167. 44. 63 performance curves 114 piezometer 151 pipe 55. 54. 42. 72 orifice coefficients 149 orifice flow 165. 70. 62 FlowMaster User’s Guide Index-307 . 90. 83. 62. 43. 62. 99. 133 pressure head 126. 134. 47. 104 number 103. 134. 58. 92 opening width 70 optimize 126 options 49. 92 open slot area 88 opening area 72 opening height 70. 71. 51. 44. 107 orifice 70. 151 plot 98 power 103 precision 107 pressure at 1 55 pressure at 2 55 pressure flow 132. 64 normal flow 132 notch angle 66 notes 39. 54. 45. 51. 71. 62. 44. 51.

42. 76. 53. 93. 145 SI 103 side flow 96 side flow factor 77. 58. 86. 87. 50. 80. 95 spread 48.S about worksheets 115 printing 115 reset defaults SI 104 reset defaults US 104 results 21 Reynolds number 40. 90. 76. 135 slope full 58. 45. 70. 80. 86. 89. 122 specific weight 55 splash over velocity 77. 56. 89 slot width 87 slotted-drain inlet in sag 86 slotted-drain inlet on grade 88 slotted-inlet on grade 163 sluice gate 149 software updates 34 solve for 48 span 63 specific energy 40. 63. 53. 53. 97. 61. 90. 71. 96 single curve 98 single page view 106 slope 48. 67. 134 support 10 addresses 11 hours 10 suppressed 142 surcharging conditions 139 Swamee and Jain equation 131 sweeper inlet 170 system requirements 2 S S3 135 sales 9 save 31 save all 31 save as 31 scientific 103. 87. 45. 63. 55. 43. 135 subcritical flow 132. 141 supercritical flow 132. 105. 123. 95 standard step 127. 68. 52. 93 roughness coefficient 39. 61. 82. 85. 80. 62. 72 tailwater height above centroid 71. 84. 57. 78. 63 slot 87. 46. 77. 107 sealing conditions 139 search 34 section 47 section geometry 99 section plot 100 segment roughness 100 SentinelLM 3 installing 6 settings 106 sharp-crested 141 sharp-crested V-notched weirs 144 sharp-crested weir 141. 134 slope classification 134. 53. 43. 66. 88. 73. 97 rise 62 Road 79 road cross slope 48. 79. 73. 139 standard step method 139 standard toolbar 35 start station 100 station 99 status bar 32 steep 135 subcritical 40. 61. 134 submerged 145 submergence correction 147 submergence factor 69 suggestions 11 supercritical 40. 57. 86. 84. 85. 81. 121 right-side slope 42. 50. 128 roughness method 100 runoff 172 slot length 87. 88. 46. 49. 123. 60. 89 slot inlet in sag 168 T tabular 105 tabular report 106 tabular reports 33 tailwater condition 134 tailwater elevation 65. 82. 72 Index-308 FlowMaster User’s Guide .

57. 135 zoom 106 zoom in 106 zoom out 106 V varying 98 velocity 40. 53. 31 workshops 11 workspace 28 U U. 49. 77. 67. 52. 73. 67. 46. 57. 62. 83. 68. 95 total interception length 81. 69. 66. 58. 69. 62. 56. 105 velocity head 40. 92. 72. 92 throat-incline angle 79. 66. 57. 70. 92 tile horizontally 33 tile vertically 33 toolbars 32. customary 103 undo 32 uniform flow 45. 166. 43.U tailwater height above crest 66. 151 vertical 165 vertical throat 79. 47. 67. 89. 67. 70. 68. 60. 66. 70. 28. 57. 60. 85 total depression 75. 43. 69. 45. 54. 68. 50. 88. 83. 48. 68. 63. 69 technical support 10 TeeChart editor 98 throat 79.S. 63. 56. 44. 168 welcome 28 welcome dialog box 34 wetted perimeter 40. 95. 126. 85. 43. 63. 63. 96 transition flow 168 transitional flow 165. 49. 59. 67. 133 uniform gutter cross slope 152 uninstalling 8 unit 103. 141 weir flow 165. 90. 132. 53. 71. 46. 57. 52. 92 view menu 32 V-notch weir 66 v-notch weir coefficient 66 vs 98 FlowMaster User’s Guide Index-309 . 81. 68. 105 What’s New 1 where to find charts 171 window menu 33 worksheet 13. 79. 69. 49. 65 using the software 34 Z zone 1 135 zone 2 135 zone 3 135 zone classification 134. 44. 60. 51. 85. 77. 66. 43. 52. 64 upstream velocity 41. 50. 50. 117. 47. 86. 46. 169 tutorials 13 W water surface elevation 49 Web site 11 weighted roughness 49 weir 65. 60. 56. 53. 89. 35 top width 40. 61. 107 updates 34 upstream depth 41. 81.

Z Index-310 FlowMaster User’s Guide .

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