Swimming Pools

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

Swimming Pools

Fourth edition

Philip H Perkins

London and New York

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

This edition published in 2000 by E & FN Spon 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2003.

E & FN Spon is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group
First edition 1971 Second edition 1978 Third edition 1988 (Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd) © 2000 Philip H Perkins All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
A catalog record for this book has been requested ISBN 0-203-47788-X Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 0-203-78612-2 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0-419-23590-6 (Print Edition)

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

Contents

Preface 1 The planning and layout of swimming pools General considerations 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Introduction Basic requirements for all swimming pools Pools for private houses, clubs, hotels and schools Covered pools for private houses, hotels, clubs and schools Teaching/learner pools Public swimming pools Floor gradients The drainage of walkways and wet areas Hydrotherapy pools Pools used for sub-aqua activities Facilities for the disabled Swimming pools with movable floors Wave-making machines

Recommended procedure for getting a pool built: contracts and dealing with disputes 1.14 Introduction 1.15 Contracts: how to proceed 1.16 Dealing with disputes Further reading 2 Basic characteristics of the materials used in the construction of swimming pools 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Portland cements 2.3 Aggregates from natural sources for concrete and mortar 2.4 Admixtures

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

6 2.16 2.8 3.11 Introduction Site investigations Under-drainage of site Flotation (uplift) of the pool shell General comments on design and construction Concrete construction in cold weather Concrete construction in hot weather Plastic cracking Thermal contraction cracking Swimming pools with floor slabs supported on the ground Construction of the walls of the pool Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .9 Introduction Corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete Carbonation of concrete Chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcement Deterioration of the concrete Chemical attack on cement-based mortar Swimming pool water and chemicals used in water treatment Moorland water and the Langelier Index Alkali-silica reaction Further reading 4 Construction of swimming pool shells in insitu reinforced concrete 4.2 3.7 2.15 2.10 4.9 4.11 2.12 2.1 3.13 2.7 3.4 3.14 2.7 4.2.8 4.10 2.6 4.8 2.9 2.2 4.17 Additions Water for mixing concrete.6 3.1 4.4 4.3 3.3 4.5 2.5 3. mortar and grout Steel reinforcement Spacers Non-ferrous metals Bimetallic corrosion Curing compounds for concrete and mortar Polymers Reactive resins Joint fillers Joint sealants Ceramic tiles British standards and euro codes References Further reading 3 Factors affecting the durability of reinforced concrete and cement-based materials used in the construction of swimming pools 3.5 4.

13 5.4 5.19 5.16 5.12 Construction of walkway slabs and floors of wet changing areas 4.12 5.3 5.1 5.7 5.20 5.8 Introduction Design and specification Methods of application Execution of the work Thermal insulation Pipework Testing for watertightness Under-water lighting Swimming pools constructed with reinforced hollow concrete block walls and insitu reinforced concrete floor 5.24 5.16 Under-water lighting and under-water windows Further reading 5 Construction of swimming pool shells in reinforced sprayed concrete and other materials Reinforced sprayed concrete (shotcrete) 5.23 5.9 5.14 5.14 Construction of suspended pool shells 4.18 5.10 5.13 Curing the concrete floor and walls of the pool 4.2 5.11 5.4.6 5.17 Introduction Construction of the floor Construction of the walls Pipework Under-water lighting Curing the concrete and protecting the blockwork Testing for watertightness Back-filling around the walls Thermal insulation Sandwich type construction with insitu reinforced concrete core wall and concrete blocks as permanent form work 5.15 Thermal insulation of swimming pool shells 4.25 Introduction Construction of the floor Pipework Construction of the walls Under-water lighting Finishes to floor and walls Testing for watertightness Back-filling around the walls Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .21 5.5 5.22 5.15 5.

7 7.30 5.15 Pressurised roof voids 7.27 5.33 General comments Pools constructed with mass (gravity) type walls Curing the concrete Testing for watertightness Pools constructed in very stable ground such as chalk or rock Pools constructed of precast post-tensioned concrete units Pool shells of steel Further reading 6 External works 6.32 5.1 7.5.6 7. problems with pool hall roofs Finishing the pool shell and associated structures 7.3 7.31 5.28 5.29 5.10 7.4 General considerations Paving Surface water drainage Walling Further reading 7 Finishing the pool shell and associated structures.5 7.2 6.16 The warm-deck roof Further reading Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .14 General considerations 7.1 6.4 7.8 7.11 7.12 7.13 Cement-sand rendering to insitu concrete walls Cement-sand rendering to sprayed concrete walls Cement-sand rendering to concrete block walls Cement-sand screeds on insitu concrete floors Cement-sand screeds on sprayed concrete floors Ceramic tiles and mosaic Walkways and wet changing areas Testing the completed tiling Marbelite Coatings and paints Sheet linings to swimming pools Glass-fibre polyester resin linings Finishes to walls of pool halls The roofs of swimming pool halls 7.9 7.3 6.26 Thermal insulation Other methods of construction 5.2 7.

2 Pools where the pool water is in continuous circulation 8.11 8.3 Shut-down periods 10.6 Remedial work to insitu concrete paving for pedestrians 10.8 Water circulation and water treatment Water circulation 8.9 8.1 General considerations 10.14 8.12 8.6 8.8 8.4 8.5 Foot infections Repairs to external works: paving 10.2 Routine supervision: smaller pools 10.7 Remedial work to insitu concrete paving for light commercial vehicles 10.4 Algal growths: prevention and removal 10.2 9.1 Flow-through pools 8.3 Ducts for pipework Water treatment 8.7 8.15 Layout of treatment plant Filtration and filters Chemical dosing of the pool water The disinfection of pool water Chlorination Ozone Bromine Chlorine dioxide Metallic ions (silver and copper) Ultra-violet radiation The base-exchange process for softening pool water Sulphates in swimming pool water Further reading 9 Notes on heating swimming pools and energy conservation 9.4 Heating open-air swimming pools Heating the water in indoor swimming pools Heating and ventilation of pool halls and adjoining areas Solar heating of swimming pools Further reading 10 Maintenance and repairs to swimming pools Maintenance of swimming pools 10.1 9.5 8.10 8.3 9.8 Remedial work for precast concrete flag paving Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .13 8.

17 10.16 10.22 General investigations Remedial work to existing pools: repairs following leak tracing and investigations 10.18 10.10.21 Tracing leaks 10.10 10. Commissioning swimming pools Introduction Testing new pools Testing existing pools The leakage test procedure General comments on testing Watertightness test for walkway slabs and other wet areas Commissioning swimming pools (filling and emptying) Appendix 3 Investigations.11 10.9 10. sampling and testing General considerations Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .13 Remedial work to free-standing walls 10.24 10.23 10. walkway slabs and other wet areas for watertightness.14 Remedial work to earth-retaining walls Remedial work to pools under construction 10.15 10.19 General comments Remedial work to thermal contraction cracks Remedial work to drying shrinkage cracks Remedial work to honeycombed concrete Inadequate concrete cover to the reinforcement Remedial work to existing pools: tracing leaks and investigations 10.12 Remedial work to precast concrete block paving Remedial work to clay pavers Remedial work to slippery paving Preventing trips and falls Repairs to external works: walling 10.20 Introduction 10.26 Remedial work to leakage Improving support to the pool floor Structural lining to the pool shell Remedial work to finishes Further reading Appendix 1 Conversion factors and coefficients Appendix 2 Testing swimming pools shells.25 10.

Sampling and laboratory testing Cover-meter survey Appendix 4 The consultant/designer as an expert witness Introduction The form of the Expert’s Report The expert witness and the Construction Act 1996 Appendix 5 Notes on safety in swimming pools Introduction Water depths for diving Signs for water depths in the pool Other safety signs Outlets for water in the pool floor Water slides and play equipment Slipping and tripping on floors of walkways. Chemicals in water treatment Appendix 6 List of organisations relevant to this book Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . changing rooms etc.

install and demolish buildings and plant. It has virtually been replaced by the independent Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group. The Construction Products Regulations came into force at the end of 1991 to implement the Construction Products Directive. The Committee which produced the publications for the Department of the Environment on the purification of swimming pool water is no longer in existence. There has been significant developments in the field of National Specifications and Code of Practice relating to construction due to the intensive work on the preparation of Euro Standards and Codes and the issue of Directives from the EEC. A similar comment can be made about the design of reinforced concrete swimming pool shells. The latter set out minimum quality standards for a wide range of constructional materials. The number of swimming pools has continued to increase both in the public and private sectors. This is particularly so with private club leisure centres which offer a wide range of activities. 11/93 gives information on Ecolabelling of building materials and building products. These Regulations make people assess risks and take precautions rather than waiting to deal with problems when they occur. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . They target the health and safety of those who build. and establish the responsibility of suppliers and designers. The Building Research Establishment Information Paper IP. maintain. Health and Safety Regulations have been extended and tightened up and there is increasing awareness of the need for a more enlightened and professional approach to treatment of swimming pool water.Preface Since the third edition of this book was published in 1988 there have been no startling changes in the materials used for the construction of swimming pools. The British Standards Institution emphasise that the Kite Mark will continue to ensure that the level of quality is above the minimum legal requirements. Of particular importance are The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 which became completely effective in December 1995. The Regulations provide for the application of the European Community regulatory mark—the CE mark—to construction products. The potential scope of the Regulations is very wide indeed as they are applicable to all types of product which are intended for permanent incorporation in buildings and civil engineering works.

Geoffrey Roberts and Jim Gordon of Buckingham Swimming Pools Ltd. David Butler of the Sports Council. and in particular. The corrosion of steel reinforcement continues to be the number one cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. It can cause burns to the skin. particularly to people who are vulnerable to dermatitis. 37. Users should obtain information from the manufacturers and be aware of the requirements of the publications of the Health and Safety Executive relating to the use of substances hazardous to health. A safety warning is included as an Appendix in all British Standards for Portland cement. he has received from his wife. Research Focus. Concrete itself is not a hazardous material. It recommends that precautions be taken to prevent dry cement entering the eyes. Portland cement when mixed with water is highly alkaline (it has a pH of about 13. Polymer resins are now widely used in construction and there are hazards associated with the use of some of these compounds. however. states that: ‘Corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures…is estimated to be costing the UK £550 million a year. organisations and firms. and prevent skin contact with wet cement. and many useful comments. Many of these structures continue to require maintenance or replacement…’ It is therefore surprising that the protection of rebars by properly formulated and applied epoxy resin coatings (see BS 7293 and ASTM Specification A775) is still only used on a comparatively small scale in the UK. No. nose or mouth.5) and is considered a caustic alkali. and also all types of plant and equipment. The author acknowledges with gratitude the encouragement. May 1999.It is important to observe recognised safety precautions when using certain materials. He also records the help he has been given by numerous people. Andrew Alphick of the Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group. Ralph Riley of the Institute of Baths and Recreation Management. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .

The shell must be watertight against loss of water when the pool is full or Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . the position is different. Requirements for the chemical and bacteriological quality of the water are included. the construction of the shell of a swimming pool (without ancillary buildings such as plant house.) is unlikely to require a Building Permit under the Building Regulations.Chapter 1 The planning and layout of swimming pools GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 1.1 Introduction In the United Kingdom.2 Basic requirements for all swimming pools The recommendations given below are intended to apply to all swimming pools constructed of what may be termed ‘long-life’ materials such as concrete. While there are regulations relating to swimming pools open to the public. It is therefore advisable for any one wishing to build a swimming pool to consult their Local Authority. such as metering of the supply. The PWTAG is an independent body supported by all the organisations involved in the operation of swimming pools. schools and health establishments. Recommendations for the treatment and quality of swimming pools water have been issued by the Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group (PWTAG). 1. for example in California regulations are in force which apply to all swimming pools except private pools maintained by an individual for use by his family and friends. clubs. but planning permission may be required. The regulations specifically apply to pools belonging to hotels. and also the water supply company as there may be special requirements. layout. In the United States. restriction on the amount of water used etc. clubs and hotels is minimal. namely the Pool Water Treatment and Quality Standards. 1. the legal control over the purity of water in pools for private houses. Important aspects of design. operation and maintenance are detailed and clear directions given. 2. changing rooms etc. The pool shell (floor and walls) must be structurally sound.

Figure 1. A walkway of adequate width (minimum about 1.5 m). easily cleaned and durable surface should be provided around the pool. reasonably impervious. with a non-slip. 4.9 m) below top water level (Figure 1. 5. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . A safety step (or ledge) should be provided on all the walls of pools used by young children and non-swimmers. and if constructed below ground level. easily cleaned. 3.1 Sketch showing safety step. The internal surface of the floor and walls must be finished with a smooth. the regulations of the Federation Internationale de Natation Amateur (FINA) should be followed. 6. against infiltration of ground water when the pool is empty or partly empty. The water must be maintained at a proper standard of purity and clarity. This safety step should be located not more than 900 mm (0. attractive material. partially full.1). For pools used for international diving competitions. A diving board should not be provided unless the dimensions of the diving area and the water depth comply with the recommendations of the Amateur Swimming Association (ASA).

or part of the main building. 1. For private houses and hotels. landscaping of the area in which the pool is to be located should be given careful thought and professional advice is usually worthwhile.3. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . and if it does not exist. The vicinity of large trees or potentially large trees should be avoided. 9. 3.2 and 1. the following points should receive consideration. The primary use of the pool will be a major factor in determining both shape and dimensions. A small building (or room in the main building) will be needed for plant and equipment and storage of cleaning materials and the chemicals used for water treatment. 4. to provide one as part of the landscaping. access for materials and plant required for the construction can be critical. Figures 1.3. Depending on the method of construction of the pool (see Chapters 4 and 5). 6. The cost of a simple model and/or an isometric drawing could be justified.3 Pools for private houses.2 The shape and dimensions of swimming pools The shape and dimensions of a swimming pool are mutually interdependent. Tree roots can cause damage to foundations. It is advantageous to utilise a natural wind-break. particularly in the afternoon.1 Open-air pools: location With pools in this category. electricity and gas supply lines is important. garden wall.3 illustrate alternative positions for a private pool. 8. water supply. For open-air pools for private houses. People often find it difficult to envisage from a two-dimensional sketch what the completed three-dimensional project will look like.1. A position should be selected which receives as much sun as possible. An exception is school pools as these may form part of sports ground facilities which are likely to be some distance from the school. 5. Leaves can cause discolouration of the pool water and staining of the pool finish which is difficult to remove. 2. 1. 7. clubs. It is desirable for the distance from the changing accommodation to the pool to be as short as practical bearing in mind the points mentioned above. and hotels. The position of existing drainage. and to drains and other pipelines. hotels and schools 1. such as a thick hedge. there is generally a limited choice of location as they usually have to be built on the same plot as the main building.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . constructed in sprayed reinforced concrete can be any shape. compared with a pool constructed in sprayed concrete (shotcrete). and the width a number of swimming lanes which are usually to be 2. The smaller domestic and hotel pools. The materials used in the construction of the pool shell will also influence its shape. If the primary use is for training and swimming. but the cost of a free-formed pool would be very high due to the cost of the formwork. Pools constructed in insitu reinforced concrete can be of any shape.2 Pool adjacent to building. The length should be a simple fraction of 100 m. But this cost differential is influenced by the size of the pool. it being greater for smaller pools than for larger ones. with little difference in cost between rectangular and free-formed. then a rectangular shape is normally chosen.0 m wide (ASA for 25 m pools).Figure 1.

3 Pool near boundary of plot. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .Figure 1.

1).As these pools are likely to be used by children.50 m.3. The relevant publications of both organisations should be consulted and followed by the designers of any swimming pool which is intended to include a diving board. There are minor differences between these two sets of regulations but both provide adequate safety for diving in properly designed pools. a water depth of 1. This is a standard feature of hotel pools in Switzerland (Figure 1.00 m above the water level in the pool.00 m long by about 4.4 Requirements for diving The depth of water and the dimensions of the diving area for competitive diving are covered in the UK by the requirements of the ASA. which must be Table 1. However.00 m wide with a minimum water depth of 1. clubs and schools Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . For general comfort. hotels. which can only be safely executed by experienced swimmers.00 m.9 m) below top water level is strongly recommended.5 m2 for each person who wants to swim. the minimum size would be about 6. the Federation Internationale de Natation Amateur (FINA). The designer should check and comply with the latest recommendations. there should be an allowance of about 4. the provision of a safety step around the pool at a depth not exceeding 900 mm (0. non-swimmers and weak swimmers. even then the minimum depth of water is 1. For international events these matters are covered by the world governing body.3.00 m is not sufficient from a safety point of view for even a very flat dive. A natural question is ‘What about diving from the sides of the pool?’. 1. 1.3 Requirements for swimming Even the smallest pool should be large enough for a swimmer to take several strokes.1 Examples of rectangular swimming pools for private houses. It is emphasised that the dimensions given are essential for safe diving from a position not more than 1. The only form of dive recommended into shallow water from the pool sides is what is known as a flat racing dive.

problems arising from freezethaw do not arise. See Figures 1. say. club. depending on the method of construction. hotels. The environment in the hall of a heated indoor swimming pool can be considered as particularly hostile to many building materials. These recommendations are given by the courtesy of the Institute of Baths and Recreation Management.6 m and the water level in the pool should not be more than 0.4 Covered pools for private houses.5–1.10 for views of hotel. if the air is saturated Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . and school pools. The surfaces in contact with the air in the pool hall will generally have a lower temperature than the temperature of the air in the hall. and discolouration of the water from leaves and air-borne dirt will be eliminated. A major problem with covered pools is the occurrence of condensation on the walls.7–1. 1. and the relative humidity is also high. staining of the walls and floor is much reduced. Diving should not be permitted nor attempted into pools which do not meet the above recommendations. A covered pool can be used in comfort 365 days a year compared with the ‘season’ for an open-air pool of about 150 days. clubs and schools There are obviously many advantages in having a covered swimming pool instead of an open-air one. and.Figure 1. the air temperature is relatively high—probably about 28 °C to 30 °C. within the roof space. The conditions under which the pool has to operate are much less onerous. the pool owner/manager may be faced with a claim that would be difficult to contest. and Figures 1.6 for views of private house pools.4 Section through 25 m pool with diving pit. windows and ceiling. 70–75%.38 m below the pool edge. Should an accident occur to a person diving into a pool from a diving board which does not meet authoritative safety recommendations. maintained forward for a distance of 7.

Buckingham Swimming Pools Ltd.Figure 1. Courtesy. Courtesy.5 Pool with Roman end and steps and fully automatic cover. Figure 1. Buckingham Swimming Pools Ltd.6 Indoor private house pool. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .

8 Open-air pool at private club leisure centre. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Courtesy. Buckingham Swimming Pools Ltd. Courtesy.Figure 1. Figure 1. Buckingham Swimming Pools Ltd.7 Indoor hotel deck-level pool with spa pool.

Courtesy.9 Indoor.10 Indoor hotel pool. Switzerland.Figure 1. Buckingham Swimming Pools Ltd. Figure 1. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 25 m school pool.

If the teaching pool is in a separate enclosed part of the main building.with water vapour.80 m to 1. There are often shallow steps into the pool extending the full length of the short side.0 m.6.6 Public swimming pools 1. Table 1.1 Introduction In the UK and most countries in the temperate zone.00 m by about 7. There are different opinions as to whether the walkway around the pool should be lower than the deck to enable the teacher to carry out his duties without having to bend down.9.15 and briefly described in Section 1. In the UK. or whether the pool shell should be elevated similar to the hydrotherapy pool shown in Figure 1. it is usual for the temperature of the water and the air in the pool hall to be a few degrees above that in the main part of the building. The temperature at which condensation occurs is known as the dew point. The pools are usually rectangular on plan with an almost level bottom. A useful size is 12.2 Examples of dimensions of teaching pools Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . condensation will occur on the contact surfaces.5 Teaching/learner pools This section deals with general principles relating to layout and dimensions of teaching pools irrespective of whether they belong to a school or form part of a large swimming pool complex (leisure centre) run by a local authority. 1. it is customary for the teaching pool to be quite separate from the main swimming pool so that the two different types of use do not interfere with each other.00 m. 1. The design and detailing of the roof requires special attention and this is discussed briefly in Chapter 7. all new large swimming pools which are publicly owned are covered to enable them to be used throughout the year. The water depth generally varies from 0. The first principle is that the pool must be absolutely safe for nonswimmers.

3. but the following are matters which should receive careful consideration: 1. adequate access for emergency services. fire brigade and ambulance.11 View of part of pool at Bletchley Leisure Centre. some with wave-making machines. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . usually from May to September. gas and telephone.11–1. electricity. These are only in operation for four or five months in the year. Figures 1. 2.2 Location It is not possible to lay down detailed rules for the location of public swimming pools. 1. water supply. in spas. provision for adequate car parking. Figure 1.There are a number of large open-air pools in the UK which are owned by local authorities. In Europe. 4. there are large openair heated pools. provision of adequate public transport.6. but these were built many years ago. They are rectangular on plan and some contain sea water which contributes to a high rate of general deterioration. mainly in Switzerland and Germany. provision of public sewers (foul and surface water). A few of these are heated.13 are examples of pools in public leisure centres. generally before the Second World War.

12 View of pool in Rushcliffe Leisure Centre. British Cement Association. T.Figure 1.13 View of pool in Swansea Leisure Centre with wave machine in operation. Figure 1. Courtesy.Jones. Courtesy.Jones. British Cement Association. T. Photographer. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Photographer.

Stairs and steps must be accommodated outside the pool dimensions. a water depth of 2.80 m. This is of particular importance in view of the alleged shortage in the UK of ‘good building land’. the water depth in front of the starting blocks must not be less than 1. the minimum depth of water over the whole playing area must not be less than 1.e. In L-shaped pools. The provision of a diving pit as part of the main pool is deprecated as diving into a pool in which persons are swimming is unpleasant and can be dangerous. sub-soil conditions including water table levels. and the list of Further Reading at the end of this chapter. i.3 Types. it is usual for the main pool to be freeformed and incorporate a sloping ‘beach’ and the installation of a wave-making machine which is switched on for relatively short periods several times a day. sets out detailed requirements for dealing with containments. shapes and dimensions When the first edition of this book was published in 1971. with the advent of the leisure centre. The following are examples of some of these requirements: 1. Requirement C2 of Schedule 1 of the Building Regulations 1991 states that ‘precautions shall be taken to avoid danger to health and safety caused by substances found on or in the ground covered by the building…’ Approved Document C.80 m and this must extend forward for a distance of 6.5.11–1. For competitive swimming (national events). The requirements mentioned in this book are only a few of the very detailed requirements laid down by these two organisations.13 show examples of public swimming pools in leisure centres. There are many advantages in having a separate diving pit which is used only for diving. the long leg can be used for swimming and the short leg for diving. 2. Figures 1. the requirements of the ASA (for national events) and FINA (for international events) must be fully complied with. presence of aggressive chemicals and presence of contaminated ground. the standard shape of public swimming pools in the UK was rectangular or L-shaped. which in some cases exerts pressure to build on land-fill sites. However. For life saving certificates. 1. diving and aquatic sports. Reference can also be made to Section 4. The Environmental Protection Act 1990 should be studied. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .6.2. size and use of pools have changed considerably. 3. 4. 1992 edition. the shape. they must be recessed. the playing area must not exceed 30 m× 20 m and must not be less than 20 m×8 m.0 m is required and this must extend for a length of 6.00 m over the full width of the pool. For water polo. In these centres.00 m. Some large pools had two shallow ends. It is emphasised that for competitive swimming.

1. there does not appear to be any formal and recognised gradients for floors in these areas. The gradient should be uniform between clearly marked locations and depth markers on all walls are essential. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The steeper the gradient.5 m for international events. a gradient of about 1 in 40 (25 mm in 1. It is in these areas that injuries resulting from slipping are most likely to occur.4.0 m for national events or 2. As the point of over-balance varies with the height of the person. such as changing areas. the sooner a person will reach the point of over-balance. shower cubicals etc. To avoid ponding. but for safety a gradient of 1 in 60 (25 mm in 1. The above comments on gradient do not apply to the steep slope down to a diving pit as shown in Figure 1.00 m). hydraulic considerations require a gradient of about 1 in 80 (25 mm in 2.1 The pool The floor of the pool must be laid with a fall (slope) towards the outlet with such a gradient that the pool can be effectively emptied. the gradient should not be so steep that non-swimmers and learners can lose their balance and/or slip. and the same applies to training. See Section 8. For efficient emptying of the pool. There is also the problem of ponding. At the time of writing.By having a separate diving pit. Water outlets in the floor at the deep end of the pool should be fitted with small aperture gratings.7 Floor gradients 1. which are made constantly wet by pool users and by cleaners.2 Walkways and wet areas In this context ‘wet areas’ include all those areas. walkways around the pool.75 of the person’s height. It should be noted that the gradient suggested here is considerably less than for the floor of the pool in Section 1. 1. It is generally considered that the depth of water at which boyancy is likely to affect a person’s balance is about 0.1.7. The frictional characteristics of the finished surface when in contact with the bare feet of pool users are relevant. it is suggested that the maximum gradient for the floor of a pool used by children and non-swimmer/learners should be 1 in 40 (25 mm in 1.00 m) is normally required.00 m).7. A further safety precaution is to provide non-slip tiles on the floor.6.. swimming and diving events can be held simultaneously. either 2.50 m) is probably needed. Pools intended for competitive swimming are normally 25 m or 50 m long with a width based on a number of swimming lanes.2. Reference must always be made to the latest edition of the relevant regulations. However. There is a conflict between the need for a non-slip (or slip resistant) surface and the need for easy cleaning and efficient drainage (run-off).7.

1 General comments In some cases the public sewers are designed on the ‘separate’ system in which surface water is carried in surface water sewers. which in some places is slightly radio-active. this has not happened on the continent of Europe. Figure 1. the sewerage system is ‘combined’ and the foul and surface water is carried in the same sewer. with names starting with ‘Bad’ in Germany.9 Hydrotherapy pools The advantages of carrying out special exercises under water have been known to the medical profession for many years. Under-water massage by powerful jets located at different depths below the water surface is a common feature of many of these pools. It is a deck level pool and the water temperature is maintained at 32°C. Figure 1. With open-air pools.1. In the UK there are many therapeutic pools but these are mainly attached to hospitals. special health resorts.50 m.15 shows a hydrotherapy pool at a school for pupils with severe learning difficulties. continue to flourish and attract large numbers of visitors/patients. 1. recuperation homes and similar institutions and are used for treatment prescribed by a physician. the drainage of these areas should not discharge into the water circulation system of the pool but should be connected to the main drainage system of the building. The pool is 10 m×5. There. Switzerland and Austria. 1.14 shows a pool at a spa in Switzerland. It is important that an adequate number of inspection chambers/man-holes should be provided and drainage system laid to gradients which will provide a self-cleansing velocity.90 m to 1. They seldom form part of a holiday resort. Special features to be taken into account in the design of such pools include the following: Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . While spas in the UK have declined in popularity. but in other areas. The spas are mainly situated in beautiful country and make a very pleasant location for a holiday. the weight of the body is reduced by the weight of water displaced and thus movements are made much easier with less muscular effort. the surrounding paving should slope away from the pool. There are often a number of pools which operate at different temperatures and possess therapeutic properties. The length of stay in the pool is strictly limited. Many of the special baths and swimming pools contain naturally heated highly mineralised water from springs.00 m and the depth varies from 0.8.8 The drainage of walkways and wet areas Where walkways and wet areas form part of a covered pool complex.

14 Open-air pool with wave machine in operation Bad Vals. Courtesy.15 Hydrotherapy pool in school for pupils with severe learning difficulties.Figure 1. Buckingham Swimming Pools Ltd. Switzerland. Figure 1. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Graubunden.

If the pool is not deck-level. currents etc. including information on any variations in the concentration and type of dissolved salts. 3. The turn-over period (the time required to completely circulate all the water in the pool) should not exceed 3 hours.1. The floor of the pool and all wet areas should be finished with non-slip ceramic tiles or ceramic mosaic.2. then a detailed chemical analysis should be obtained.00 m) which should be adequate for emptying. low visibility. The floor should have a flat gradient of about 1 in 80 (25 mm in 2. In any event. 8. the equipment used by the Club’s members should not cause damage if the finishes are high quality ceramic tiles or ceramic mosaic. With reasonable care. see also Section 1. these finishes require maintenance and repair in the course of time. Thus. The BSAC have published a booklet giving detailed information on all aspects of aqualung diving—see Further Reading at the end of this chapter. 5. 2. finishes and fittings. The use of public swimming pools is not always permitted by Baths Managers owing to interference with public use of the pool and possible damage to the finish of the pool and walkways by the divers equipment. Training in the sea. See Section 8. All fittings should be corrosion resistant (austenitic stainless steel or phosphorbronze). then glazed ceramic scum channels should be provided as these are more efficient in providing good water circulation than skimmer outlets. 6.10 Pools used for sub-aqua activities Sub-aqua activities have become very popular in all parts of the world. The water temperature and the air temperature in the pool hall and changing areas should be maintained at a higher temperature than in normal swiming pools. there are many advantages in carrying out training in a swimming pool.11.1. some pools operate on a 1½hour cycle. Small damaged areas can be repaired under-water which eliminates the need to lower the water level or empty the pool. The British Sub-Aqua Club (BSAC) requires that every beginner should receive basic training in a swimming pool. special arrangements should be included to enable such persons to enter and leave the pool easily. lakes and rivers in the UK and other countries in the temperate zone is often difficult owing to low temperatures. This is essential in order to decide whether special protective measures are needed for the pool shell. As these pools will certainly be used by disabled persons. If the pool contains saline water. 7. A water temperature of 30–32°C and an air temperature of 33 °C is adopted in many pools. 1. 4. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .

The BASC Code of Conduct contains some 21 directions. Figure 1.11 Facilities for the disabled The absolute need to provide satisfactory arrangements for disabled persons to use public swimming pools is now recognised. Courtesy.16 shows sub-aqua training. Work in this field is done by a number of organisations and reference should be Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .50 m and if possible 5. T. including emphasis on the prohibition of dropping heavy equipment in the pool and anywhere in the pool premises.50 m. British Sub-Aqua Club. with a minimum depth of water over this area of 1. The specification and design of the necessary facilities require special study at the design stage as it can be difficult and costly to provide these facilities at a later date. the requirements for sub-aqua activities are very modest. Photographer. with special reference to water depth to 3.Figure 1. These requirements can be increased with advantage.50 m. As far as the pool itself is concerned. Designers should contact the BSAC for their latest recommendations. 1.00 m.16 Aqualung training in public pool. The minimum dimensions required for a group lesson are 3.60 m×5.Jones.

Buckingham Swimming Pools Ltd. diving and teaching has been mentioned earlier in this chapter. 1. Figure 1. Figure 1.17 shows a movable floor in the raised position.17 View of movable floor in public pool. Courtesy. also. the teaching and diving facilities are only used from time to time. This feature has proved more popular in Europe than in the UK where the number of public pools with movable floors is small and very few have been constructed in recent years.made to BS 5810 1979 Code of Practice for Access for the Disabled to Buildings and to the publications of the Thistle Foundation. The depth of water can be reduced over part of the pool by raising a section of the floor thus forming a teaching/learner area. Such separation entails additional capital investment and increased operating and maintenance costs. This led to the development of hydraulically operated movable pool floors and separating walls. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .12 Swimming pools with movable floors The desirability of having separate pools for swimming.

there was only one pool with wave-making equipment in operation in the UK.2 Swing arm equipment The makers usually make a model of the pool so that they can assess all important hydraulic features. For example. backwash. Figures 1. 1.14 show pools with a wave machine in operation. The shape and sloping floor create the effect of a sloping beach with the waves breaking naturally.0 oscillations per minute.13 Wave-making machines 1. During the past 25 years.5 oscillations per minute and the other at 18. This usually includes the making of a scale model. When the first edition of this book was published in 1971.1.13 and 1. The wave-making machines are usually switched on at stated times for about 15–20 minutes. location of ‘breaking’ point. which was installed in 1936. The creation of waves of the desired height and distance from crest to crest (wave-length) is not a simple matter and all relevant factors must be taken into account.13. The shape also provides adequate area of shallow water for non-swimmers. wave-making equipment has been installed in many new leisure centre pools.1 Introduction The provision of equipment which generates artificial waves in swimming pools has become increasingly popular in recent years. There are several methods of creating artificial waves in swimming pools. such as wave height. cross currents etc. and (2) compressed air. 1. the main methods being by (1) swing arm equipment. A specially designed screen is provided in front of the wings.3 Compressed air equipment There are a number of patented systems using compressed air to create artificial waves. The wave-making equipment consists of two swing arms which operate together but not in complete unison. namely the large open-air Portobello pool at Edinburgh.13. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . one arm oscilates at 17.13.

club committees and owners of small hotels. and obtaining all necessary permits. 1. and quantity surveyors. Although there is a theoretical saving in capital cost the dividing line between success and failure is a very narrow one and the cost saving does not justify the risk. these should be checked by site visits by the consultant. three contractors. A test for watertightness should be clearly described and included in the 2. The names and addresses of swimming pool contractors can be obtained from the Swimming Pool and Allied Trades Association.RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE FOR GETTING A POOL BUILT: CONTRACTS AND DEALING WITH DISPUTES 1. The consultant should be a Chartered Civil or Structural Engineer or Chartered Architect. the Architect is usually the head of the team. The financial standing of the selected contractors should also be checked. should prepare a clear brief setting out the requirements (see Section 1. send out the invitations to tender.15 Contracts: how to proceed It is not recommended that a swimming pool should be built on a do-it-yourself basis. The consultant. and inspect the work at appropriate stages. The consultant should recommend a list of. there will be several professional firms involved responsible for structural and civil design. with the client. It is important that the contractors should submit a list of recently completed pools. certify the contractor’s accounts.14 Introduction The recommendations which follow are intended mainly for private persons. To employ a consultant to advise on the selection of a suitable ‘package deal’ contractor. although it is hoped that even large hotel groups and local authorities will find some of the points mentioned useful. In the case of large contracts for public swimming pools/ leisure centres. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . electrical and mechanical and architectural. recommend to the client the adjudication of the contract.2). specification and other contract documents. To engage a qualified professional person with proven experience in swimming pool design and construction who will take responsibility for the preparation of the design. say. heating and ventilating. in discussion with the client (referred to as the Employer in the contract). and information obtained on the extent the contractors employ sub-contractors. The two procedures recommended are: 1. drawings.

Irrespective of which procedure is adopted. These are offered by contractors/sub-contractors and material suppliers claiming that should the work prove defective. then the insurance company will provide the funds to have remedial work put in hand in the event of the contractor/supplier failing to do so. or He can instruct the contractor to put things right.. He can accept the situation. This is why it is important for the consultant not to feel obliged to recommend the acceptance of the lowest tender even though the tenders are from a list which he has drawn up. which he would be most unwilling to do.15. The consultant’s brief should also include for periodic site inspections to help ensure that the contractor is carrying out the work in accordance with the contract. such as work unduly delayed.1 Insurance-backed guarantees and warrantees In recent years there have appeared on the market ‘insurance-backed guarantees’. in accordance with the terms of the contract. which are sometimes referred to as ‘warrantees’. poor workmanship. 1. it is unlikely that even after completion of the remedial work. see Appendix 2 at the end of this book for details of this test. the failure of the pool to pass the leakage test etc. 2. One of the worst things that can happen is for the contractor to go into liquidation during the contract. are stated to be valid for periods of 10–20 years from the completion of the work. A consultant would be unwise to recommend reliance on such a guarantee without first taking competent legal advice. the building owner will find he is faced with the following limited choice: 1. but experience suggests that caution and attention to detail is the best approach. Such documents should be examined by a solicitor experienced in that particular field. 1. The cost of employing another contractor to complete the project will be very high and the chance of obtaining financial compensation from the original contractor is extremely small.16 Dealing with disputes The above may appear to be exaggerated. and if he fails to do so he can follow the procedure laid down in the Conditions of Contract. This suggests that the client will avoid the necessity of legal action to obtain redress. There can be many reasons why a contractor will submit an Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . the finished job will be as satisfactory as if it had been done properly the first time. A careful scrutiny of these guarantee/warrantees will usually reveal that they contain many anomalies and uncertainties.contract. the use of sub-standard materials. If the faults are serious. These ‘guarantees’. if things do go wrong.

but the construction of a private swimming pool is likely to be outside the Act as it would most probably come under the exemption given to residential contracts. However if the contract falls within the Act. (c) Fundamental changes to court proceedings which should decrease costs and increase speed. and care in the selection of the contractor cannot be over emphasised. entirely new procedures would have to be followed. e. a conditional fee arrangement.16. ‘the case will be dealt by another route. Unfortunately. The value of an experienced consultant. states: ‘There has been a fundamental review of the legal system in this country over the last three years. Grants. The client would be unwise to disregard his consultant’s advice in this matter.exceptionally low price. 1.1 General comments The method of dealing with disputes which may arise during or after completion of a contract will depend mainly on whether the contract comes within the scope of the Housing. A review carried out by Lord Woolf (“Access to Justice”) will culminate this year in major changes to come into effect on 26 April 1999 which will affect the speed and cost of legal proceedings. all Personal Injury work will be excluded from the new Legal Aid structure…’ Except in certain cases. Solicitors.) ‘Even before litigation starts there will be changes in the manner in which Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . No fee’) for all proceedings except crime and family. If the contract falls outside the scope of the Act then dealing with disputes would follow established procedure. The February 1999 issue of Construction Briefing issued by Merricks. The Act covers a very wide field. (b) The expansion of contingency fee arrangements (‘No win. London.’ (This change in dealing with personal injury cases is likely to affect claims arising from accidents in swimming pools. and the ICE Conditions of Contract. the wording of the Act in a number of important matters is lacking in clarity and at the time of writing this book. The coming into force of the Construction Act has necessitated the revision of the Standard Forms of Building Contract and Sub-Contract. there is little reported experience in the operation of the Act. or via alternative dispute resolution. In the main. The changes can be divided into three areas: (a) The restriction of legal aid. Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 which came into force on 1 May 1998 (known as the Construction Act 1996).g. a properly drawn-up contract.

The action to be taken is generally laid down in the General Conditions of Contract.16.2 Notes on procedure for contracts outside the construction Act 1996 As stated in Section 1.16. is no doubt why so many disputes are settled out of Court (about 75–80%). There will be a series of preaction protocols dealing with various categories of litigation…There is a single objective to the new court rules—to enable the court to deal with the cases justly.parties conduct themselves. A Solicitor experienced in construction disputes would be able to advise the client on the appropriate procedure. Action against the consultant could arise if it was considered by the employer’s Solicitor that he had been guilty of professional negligence. difficult technical considerations can arise if a defence of ‘Limitation’ is put forward. and/or the consultant. a party can apply to the Court to have the matter settled by Court action. Some information of the duties of an Expert Witness are given in Appendix 4. But subject to certain conditions. contain a provision for referring disputes as a last resort to arbitration. This. and payment has to be made for the hire of the arbitration room. the situation may arise where the owner is faced with the choice of accepting an unsatisfactory swimming pool or taking legal action against the contractor. Such a defence is only likely to arise some years after the completion of the pool. The majority of construction contracts (prior to the 1996 Act). Normally experts will not be allowed to give oral evidence but will provide a written report and answers to written questions put to them by the opposing party…’ There will be considerable control of costs. It is important to remember that Arbitration can be more expensive than Court action as the Arbitrator has to be paid (Arbitrators fees are high). A defence of limitation would Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . In the event of Arbitration or Court action. the employer would be advised by his Solicitor to engage a professional person to act as an Expert Witness. Costs usually ‘follow the event’ which means that the losing party may have to bear his own legal costs and those of the other party. ‘Prior to taking interlocutory steps details of the costs must be given to the other side…’ All the above changes face the test of practical use and there may well be further changes in the light of experience.1 above. together with the high cost of litigation. Court judgments can be quite surprising. Lord Woolf felt that the two evils of modern litigation were delay and disproportionate costs… Expert evidence will be more restricted and may not be adduced without leave of the court. 1. In Court proceedings.

Some references on ADR are given under Further Reading at the end of this chapter. 1. Due to the enormous cost of High Court actions and the very considerable delay which occurs between the time of the issue of the Writ and the handing down of the judgment. The procedure is intended to provide a fast-track method of resolving disputes.1. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Mediation. proposals have been made in recent years to find alternative methods of settling disputes. The essence of ADR is to create a framework in which the parties involved in a dispute can reach a solution for themselves. While the majority of cases in the Official Referee’s court and in arbitration settle before trial. to refer a dispute for adjudication under the procedure laid down in the Act. Expert fact finding and adjudication. There are a number of ADR techniques which include: Conciliation. A party to a construction contract has a right. and this requires considerable give and take. When did significant damage first occur? What was the earliest date on which the Plaintiff had both the knowledge required to bring an action for damages in respect of the relevant damage and the right to bring such action? Such questions give rise to very complex technical considerations to which there is unlikely to be a clear-cut technical answer. This usually requires the assistance of a neutral third party. few do so early enough to avoid the substantial costs incurred in the preparations leading to trial.3 Notes on procedure under the construction Act 1996 The comments which follow are intended to supplement those made in Section 1.16. This is generally known as ‘Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)’. 2. and the expert witness would be asked for his opinion on the following two issues: 1. Mini-trial. The Act gives parties to a construction contract the right to refer a dispute arising under the contract to adjudication in accordance with a clearly defined procedure.involve the Limitation Act 1980 and the Latent Damage Act 1984.16. but not an obligation. The success of ADR depends entirely on the willingness of all parties to resolve their dispute in a mutually satisfactory way.

London. Institute of Baths and Recreation Management. Institute of Baths and Recreation Management. Chelmsford and London. Practical Leisure Centre Management. With the consent of the referring party. Sports Council. and Notes of a Seminar on the Construction Act. London. 1995. Further reading General British Sub-Aqua Club.I. Vol. Department of Public Health. Cottam. Lawrence Graham. 1998. Construction Act 1996 Merricks. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Building Regulations (Amendment) Regulations 1998. 2561—Revision to Part M. Construction Briefing—The Housing Grants. Swimming Pool Guide. issued by Merricks.The Adjudicator must then be appointed within seven days of the issue of a notice by the party wishing for adjudication. Solicitors. G. Merricks. Thomas Telford. Solicitors. Construction and Regeneration Act 1996. Reference can usefully be made to the publication Construction Briefings. S. Four papers at a seminar on The Housing Grants. The decisions of the Adjudicator are binding until the dispute is finally determined by legal proceedings or by arbitration or by agreement between the parties. London. Access and Facilities for Disabled People. 2. International Board for Aquatic. May 1998. Finish and Equipment. Construction. Swimming Pools and Allied Trades Association. The Act contains numerous new concepts and conditions and anyone intending to have work carried out by contract after 1 May 1998 should seek legal advice on whether the contract will come within the scope of the Act. The orders of the Adjudicator must be complied with and they are binding until the dispute is finally determined. Chelmsford and London. July 1998. given by Lawrence Graham. Pools for Sub-aqua Use. Safety in Swimming Pools. International Standards Swimming Pools: Part B. Diving in Swimming Pools. excerpts from the California Health and Safety Code and the California Administrative Code. the Adjudicator may extend the 28–day period by up to 14 days. Adjudication under the Scheme for Construction Contracts. 1998. 1977. Solicitors. Solicitors. The Adjudicator must reach a decision on the dispute within 28 days of referral. Lawrence Graham. State of California. Sports and Recreation Facilities. Laws and Regulations Relating to Swimming Pools. Department of the Environment. unless both parties agree to an extension of time. Construction and Regeneration Act 1996.

11–17. Kay. The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations. Slips and Trips HS (G) 155. Journal CIArb. European Standards for protection and repair.B. May 1995. May 1995. Journal CIArb. S. 14–15. 6–8. 1. B. Stubbs. Euronews. pp. pp. 1998. Law Letter.E. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 1997. McKenna and Company. McKenna. P. 113–17. Alternative dispute resolution.Health and safety and environmental law Fink. J. Special supplement. T. Solicitors. A. The Lund lecture—The expert witness. 1999: Court of Appeal Judgement 27 July 1999. 244–5. Lord Taylor. 1995. Autumn/Winter 1989. September 1997. pp. 173–81. February 1992. EEC construction legislation Department of the Environment. Taylor Joynson Garrett. Journal CIArb. Alternative dispute resolution. Journal CIArb. Professional liability of expert witnesses. Law Report: 6 Oct. and Wyatt. Construction Review. pp. 57–9. The expert witness Newman. J Concrete. November 1997. London. pp. London. Issue No. Alternative dispute resolution McKenna and Company. Environmental Law in the Construction Industry. Solicitors. London. Solicitors. The Times. Hollands. Construction products directive. August 1993. pp. The role of arbitration in an ADR environment. Thomas Telford. Litigation Update. Grove. London. Stevens v Gullis (Pile third party). McKenna. 1994. Health and Safety Executive. September 1991. D. pp. Thomas Telford. Health and Safety Law for the Construction Industry. Construction .

Joint fillers and joint sealants. Admixtures. Notes on bimetallic corrosion. Polymers and reactive resins. Non-ferrous metals. Notes on British Standards and Euro Codes. Additions.Chapter 2 Basic characteristics of the materials used in the construction of swimming pools 2. Water for mixing the concrete/mortar. The information given in this chapter is intended to be of a general nature and specifiers and users should always refer to the latest edition of the relevant National Standard.1 Introduction The objective of this chapter is to provide information on the principal materials used in the construction of swimming pools. Work is continuing at the British Standards Institution on the revision of existing Standards and Codes and the production of new Euro Standards and Codes. It is therefore essential that anyone wishing to incorporate into a contract requirements for compliance with British Standards should ensure that they are still valid and have not been replaced by a Euro Standard. Aggregates from natural sources for concrete and mortar. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Steel reinforcement including stainless steel. Reference can also be made to BRE Digest 397. September 1994: Standardisation in Support of European Legislation. Spacers. Curing compounds. including those used in external works described in Chapter 6. The materials are: Portland cements. Ceramic tiles.

The clinker is ground and gypsum (calcium sulphate) is added to control the set. The fact that Portland cement contains sulphate is important when investigating the possibility of sulphate attack on concrete or mortar which is discussed in Chapter 3.5%. and also to the occurrence of alkali-aggregate reaction.5 to BS 12 1996 (CEM 1). The revisions were mainly concerned with methods of test and terminology and were intended to agree with the European Standard for cement. and this was issued in four parts: Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Guide to Specifying Concrete 1995. A very fine powder. The interaction Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . BSI issued a Published Document PD 6534 1993 Guide to the Use in the UK of DD ENV 206 1992.5 to BS 4027 1996. Portland cement class 52. Revised British Standards for cements were published in 1996. The principal characteristics of Portland cement are: 1.1. In the early 1990s a complete and major revision was carried out to BS 5328 Concrete.2.5 to BS 12 1996. Methods for Specifying Concrete Mixes 1991. particle size 1–50 microns (1 micron equals 0.0001 mm). The letter R denotes high early strength. The addition of water to the cement results in a complex reaction accompanied by the evolution of heat. Portland Masonry cement to BS 5224 1995. ENV 413. Testing and Assessing Compliance of Concrete 1990. Sulphate-resisting Portland cement class 42. Minor changes in composition were also introduced. Portland cement class 42. 2.2 Portland cements It is made by burning at high temperature a mixture of chalk and clay in a rotary kiln. In 1993. having a pH of about 13. ENV 197–1. The high alkalinity is relevant to the protection of steel reinforcement.5.5R to BS 12 1996. The new designations for Portland cements likely to be used for the construction of swimming pools and external works are as follows: Portland cement class 42. Specification for the Procedures to be Used in Producingand Transporting Concrete 1990. British Standard BS 12 limits the amount of sulphur (expressed as SO ) to 3 3. The paste (cement and water) is highly alkaline. Specification for the Procedures to be Used in Sampling.

The setting time (initial and final) is in the range of 45 minutes to 10 hours. permeability. The compounds which are principally responsible for the cementing action of the cement paste are mainly the calcium silicates (the C2S and the C3S). the increase in strength after the first 28 days is likely to be very small and can generally be ignored. 2. but the hydration is rapid to start with and then slows down. not exceeding 0. determine the strength of the concrete/mortar.2.5. With modern cements. The amount of water in the mix (usually referred to as the water/cement ratio.2. 6. This is why it is often necessary to use a plasticizer in the mix when high quality concrete is required.2.1 Sulphate-resisting Portland cement Sulphate-resisting Portland cement (SRPC) should be specified as Low Alkali Sulphate-resisting. The calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) is liberated by the hydrolysis of the calcium silicates. It is the hydration products of the cement which. the fineness. and the temperature of the hydrating mix.3. The hydration products are very complex chemical compounds. this is discussed in Section 3.2 Blended cements Blended cements consisting of mixtures of Portland cement and pulverised fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement and ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) are used in concrete for special purposes such as reduction of heat of hydration and to Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .9. See Section 3. other factors being equal. 8.2. The three major factors which influence the rate of gain of strength are the chemical composition. The reaction between the cement and the acid takes place immediately the two are in contact. 5. Generally. The principal compounds are calcium silicate gel. The various hydration products hydrate at different rates. 2. 7. This can have important consequences as the reaction products are expansive in character and is discussed in Section 3. 4. calcium hydroxide (about 20%) and tricalcium aluminate hydrate. absorption and durability of the concrete/mortar. betweenalkalis in the cement and certain types of silicious aggregates is discussed in Section 3. The cement is similar in its strength and other physical properties to Ordinary Portland cement (OPC). but the tricalcium aluminate content (the C3A) is limited in the relevant British Standard (BS 4027) to a maximum of 3%. class 42.5.1. It is the C3A which is attacked by solutions of sulphates of various bases.5 complying with BS 4027 1996. Due to its high alkalinity. w/c) is a vital factor in determining the strength. is useful in minimising the risk of alkali-silica reaction. the higher the water/cement ratio the lower the strength and the higher the permeability and absorption. The low alkali content. Portland cement is very vulnerable to attack by acids.6% equivalent sodium oxide. other things being equal.2.9.

Generally. crushed rock and sand. It contains an air-entraining agent which increases resistance to freeze-thaw conditions. is BS 882. In the UK.’ With sea-dredged aggregates. blockwork and masonry. Appendix B makes the point that ‘No simple tests for durability and resistance to frost or wear of concrete can be applied.2. The Standards should be referred to for their detailed requirements. BS 8007 1987 Code of Practice for the Design of Concrete Structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids. special attention should be paid to the shell and salt (mainly sodium chloride) contents. However. which include grading limits. The relevant Code. 2. published information on properly conducted tests which would justify this restriction are conspicuous by their absence. and covers gravel. and these cover sand for mortar for plain and reinforced brickwork. It is used for mortar for brickwork and blockwork and for external rendering.3 Aggregates from natural sources for concrete and mortar The relevant British Standard for concreting aggregates.3 Portland masonry cement This should be specified as Portland masonry cement class MC 12.improve sulphate resistance. experience of the performance made with the type of aggregate in question and a knowledge of their source are the only reliable means of assessment. The Standards for sands for mortar are BS 1199 and 1200: Building Sands from Natural Sources. which is still valid at the time of writing. When there is any doubt about an aggregate. hence. There are different opinions among experienced engineers on the effect of absorption of aggregates on the permeability of concrete used for water-retaining structures. dust and chlorides. aggregates from some sources in Scotland and the north of England possess high shrinkage characteristics. The inclusion of additives to impart workability and improve water retention are particularly useful. BS 882. this is in 23 parts published between 1985 to 1995. places a limit of 3% on the absorption of aggregates. reference should be made to BS 812 Testing Aggregates. The British Standards for fine aggregate (sand) for mortars and external rendering are BS 1199 and BS 1200 1976/1996. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . and limits on clay. Part 120 details test methods for determining drying shrinkage of mortar prisms made with the suspect aggregates and recommendations are given for the interpretation of the results. flakiness. shell content. Regarding durability. 2. these additions slow down the rate of gain of strength of the concrete.5 complying with BS 5224 1995.

4 Admixtures 2. The USA Standard for admixtures for concrete is ASTM C494–86.2%. these admixtures are covered by BS 5075 Part 1. the USA and other developed countries. to produce some desired characteristic in the mix and/or in the mature concrete.4. The ENV puts an upper limit on the use of admixtures in a mix at 5% by mass of the cement and a lower limit of 0.2 Water-reducing admixtures/workability aids/plasticizers For concrete. clause 4. or grout at the time of batching or mixing. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The main types of admixtures in general use are: Water-reducers. The British Standards are performance specifications. It should be noted that BS 8110 Structural Use of Concrete refers to pigments as an admixture. mortar. This type of admixture is a compound which increases the workability of a concrete mix with a constant w/c ratio. Set retarders. 2. The ENV also requires that when the dosage of admixtures in liquid form exceeds 3 litres/m3 of concrete. or permits the w/c ratio to be reduced without reducing the workability of the concrete. Air-entraining admixtures.4. The Standard also covers ‘accelerating water/reducing’ admixtures and ‘retarding water-reducing’ admixtures. While the use of admixtures in the UK has increased significantly in recent years.1 Introduction An admixture can be defined as a chemical compound that is added in comparatively small quantities to concrete. It should not increase the air content of the mix.5 includes pigments under the heading of Additions and this practice has been followed in this book. plasticizers/workability aids. Superplasticizers.2. but PD 6534 1993 Guide to the Use in the UK of ENV 206 1992 Concrete. The general use of admixtures is covered by various Codes and by BS 5328 Parts 1 and 3 and by ENV 206 (draft European Standard). mortar or grout. Accelerators. this shall be taken into account when calculating the water/cement ratio of the mix. this country lags behind continental Europe.

However. Suppliers of readymixed building mortars make extensive use of this type of admixture.2. The very high workability obtained (150–200 mm) slump ensures that the concrete is virtually self-compacting. The two main basic types of superplasticizers are sulphonated naphthaleneformaldehyde condensates. and thus accelerates the setting and rate of gain of strength of the concrete. Some accelerators contain chlorides as an active ingredient and the British Standard requires that the chloride content must be stated by the manufacturer. thus reduces the rate of setting of the concrete/mortar. For mortars. in members containing congested reinforcement and repairs to honeycombed concrete. the draft European Standard is ENV 934–2. 2. The relevant British Standard for set retarders for mortar is BS 4887 Part 2. In the context of this book. e. This type of admixture increases the rate of reaction between the cement and water in a concrete mix. the super workability only lasts for a limited period. There is no British Standard for accelerators for mortar and grout.4.4. this type of admixture can be very useful for placing concrete in positions where compaction is very difficult. or allows a large decrease in the w/c ratio while maintaining a given workability.6 Air-entraining admixtures This type of admixture is covered by BS 5075 Part 2.4. This type of admixture is a compound which when added to a concrete mix imparts very high workability to the mix. 2. Standards for concrete now strictly limit the chloride ion content of concrete which contains ferrous metals. It is a compound which when added to a concrete mix incorporates air during the mixing. the relevant British Standard is BS 4887 Part 1. see BS 5328 Parts 2 and 3.5 Set retorders This type of admixture is covered by BS 5075 Part 1. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .4. The draft European Standard is ENV 934–2. 2. The British Standard covers building mortars and rendering.g. and sulphonted melamine-formaldehyde condensates. usually in the range of 2–4 hours.3 Superplasticizing admixtures These admixtures are covered by BS 5075 Part 3. but not mortars for floor screeding. it should not significantly affect the setting of the concrete.4 Accelerators These are covered by BS 5075 Part 1 and draft European Standard ENV 934–2. It is a compound that reduces the rate of reaction between the cement and water in a concrete/mortar. and by the draft European Standard ENV934–2.

there is a reduction in the compressive strength compared with a control mix of the same mix proportions and W/C ratio. 2. magnesium. November 1997.5. It should be noted that with cement contents in excess of about 350 kg/m3 difficulties are likely to arise in entraining the air.The presence of the entrained air increases the resistance of the concrete (and mortar) to frost attack (freeze-thaw conditions). and the approximate composition is: 50% silicon (SiO ). The materials described below are generally considered as Additions. The two main differences in the BS EN 450 compared with BS 3892 lies in the permitted fineness. This type of admixture is normally specified for all external insitu concrete paving to prevent damage by frost and freeze—thaw conditions.2 Pulverized fuel ash Pulverized fuel ash (pfa) is covered by BS 3892 Part 1 1997 Pulverized-fuel Ash for Use in Concrete. 31. this is important in concrete and should be allowed for. and European Standard BS EN 450 1995 Fly Ash for Concrete—Definitions.1 Introduction These are materials which are added to a mix (concrete or mortar or grout) in much larger quantities than admixtures. The actual reduction in compressive strength depends on a number of factors.5. The size of the bubbles of entrained air is about 50 microns (0. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Requirements and Quality Control. Pulverized fuel ash is also classed as a cement replacement and in fact that is its principal use in the concrete industry. Part 2 covers pfa for use in grouts (excluding grout used in prestressing ducts) and for miscellaneous uses in concrete. 2 3 11% oxides of calcium. sodium and potassium. 2 3 11% iron oxide (Fe O ). British Standard BS 3892 Part 1 covers pfa for use as a cementitious compound in structural concrete. However. namely to impart some desirable characteristics to the mix and/or the concrete. the former allows a much coarser material. It is a fine powder. The material is a by-product of pulverized coal-fired electricity generating stations.05 mm). This is discussed in some detail in Research Focus No. The reason for the use of Additions is similar to that for the use of admixtures. but a figure of 4% for each 1% of entrained air is often used as a guide. 2. The increase in fineness results in a decrease in strength (other factors being equal).5 Additions 2. 2 28% alumina (Al O ). mortar or grout.

potassium and sodium. increased resistance to sulphate attack. It can be used as an aggregate for concrete or as an addition to Portland cement for concrete. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . mixes containing 40% ggbs and 60% OPC. reduced permeability to liquids. 2. chemical and physical properties for two combinations of Portland cement and pfa. ferric 2 oxide. 2. aluminium oxide (alumina) and oxides of magnesium. but a European Standard (an EN) is in course of preparation. The proportions used with OPC depends on the required characteristics of the hardened concrete. strength. There appears to be some reason to believe that the inclusion of pfa in the concrete may render it more resistant to alkali-silica reaction. reduction in heat of hydration. to 65% ggbs and 35% OPC are used. it increases the resistance of the concrete to sulphate attack. 2. The slag is a waste product produced in steelworks.The main advantages claimed for the inclusion of pfa in concrete are: 1. While the presence of pfa in hardened concrete can be determined by microscopic examination of thin sections. and to alkali-silica reaction by limiting the alkali content of the binder (cement plus ggbs). or by the particle density method described in Annex D in Part 128 of BS 1881 Methods for the Analysis of Fresh Concrete. 3. mortar or grout. Condensed silica fume is a waste product of the ferrosilicon industry. The pfa content in fresh concrete can be determined by the chemical method described in BS 6610 Specification for Pozzolanic Pulverized Fuel Ash Cement. It is a very fine greyish powder with a specific surface about fifty times that of normal Portland cement and is a highly reactive pozzolan. 4. When used in combination with OPC. although there is no British Standard for this material at the time this book was written. long-term increase in compressive strength. it is not possible by chemical analysis to determine the proportion of pfa in concrete. It consists of about 88% silicon dioxide (SiO ) with very small percentages of carbon. It also reduces the heat of hydration. Generally. 5. Reference should also be made to BS 6588 Specification for Portland Pulverized Fuel Ash Cements which lays down requirements for composition.5. improved workability with constant w/c ratio.3 Ground granulated blastfurnace slag This material should comply with BS 6699 Specification for Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (ggbs) for use with Portland cement.5.4 Condensed silica fume Condensed silica fume is used as an Addition in concrete.

6 Water for mixing concrete.The addition of condensed silica fume to a concrete or mortar mix has a significant effect on the properties of the plastic mix as well as on the hardened concrete or mortar.0. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . In the UK and USA. mortar and grout should be free from compounds which adversely affect the setting and hardening of the mix and/or have an adverse effect on the properties of the hardened concrete/mortar/grout.5. but water which is unfit for drinking may be quite suitable. increase in resistance to a number of aggressive chemicals.2. 2. mortar and grout The relevant British Standard is BS 3148 Methods of Test for Water for Making Concrete.001 mm). Some comments on their use are in Section 6. It is not possible to determine by chemical tests the percentage of condensed silica fume in a mix.5 plus or minus 1. one is chromic oxide and one is titanium dioxide. increase in compressive strength. The very small particle size increases the water demand of the mix and can result in premature stiffening if placing and compaction is delayed. increase in resistance to sulphate attack. increased cohesion. Table 1 of BS 1014 lists seven pigments of which four are oxides of iron.0 microns and sand 150–5000 microns (1 micron= 0. The Agrement Certificate for a proprietary slurry marketed in the UK states that the pH is 5. The USA Standard is ASTM C979–82. 2. 3. these are: 1. It is normally used with a superplasticiser. 4. reduced permeability. except possibly ammonium sulphate.1 microns. The impurities may be organic or inorganic. The dosage is usually in range of 2% to 10% by mass of the cement.5 Pigments The relevant British Standard is BS 1014 Pigments for Portland Cement and Portland Cement Products. one is carbon black. it is mainly marketed as a stabilised slurry which contains a plasticiser or superplasticiser. This can be compared with Portland cement 1. Water used for mixing concrete. 2. Water which is fit for drinking (potable water) is suitable for making concrete/ mortar/grout. The principal pigments used are the oxides of iron and are in the form of very fine powders. Sulphates in solution (as SO ) should 3 not exceed 1000 ppm.0–50. having a particle size of about 0. 5. and it imparts a number of beneficial characteristics to the concrete/mortar.

but there is a Standard BS 729 for hot dipped galvanized coatings for iron and steel articles. there is a chemical reaction between the zinc coating and the calcium hydroxide in the hydrating cement paste. Steel Fabric for the Reinforcement of Concrete. Hot Rolled and Processed. The zinc surface is passivated with the evolution of hydrogen. The author is indebted to the Galvanisers Association for the following information. it became widely used during the war years when sea-dredged aggregates were used for concrete structures. The coefficient of thermal expansion of plain carbon steel is 12×10-6. it appears to be mainly used in precast concrete units for large building projects. zincate.7 Steel reinforcement Steel reinforcement for concrete is covered by the following British Standards: BS 4449 BS 4482 BS 4483 BS 4486 BS 5896 BS 7295 BS 6744 Carbon Steel Bars for the Reinforcement of Concrete. 2. it is essential that this passivated film on the zinc be undamaged. Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coated Carbon Steel Bars for the Reinforcement of Concrete. Austenitic Stainless Steel Bars for the Reinforcement of Concrete. In the UK. Galvanised reinforcement was first used in Bermuda in the 1930s.7. Cold Reduced Steel Wire for the Reinforcement of Concrete. All reinforcing steel should meet the tests prescribed by CARES (UK Certification Body for Reinforcing Steels) and purchasers should check that suppliers hold the Quality Assurance Certificate issued by CARES. The passivation occurs with the initial formation of a layer of zinc hydroxide.2. there is no British Standard specifically for galvanized reinforcement. For durability in aggressive conditions. resulting in the formation of a complex stable zinc compound. further chemical reactions follow. High Steel Wire and Strand for the Prestressing of Concrete.1 Galvanised reinforcement At the time of writing. When Portland cement concrete/mortar is placed around galvanised rebars. The protection of the steel provided by the zinc coating is mainly dependent on the thickness of the coating and therefore the thickness should be specified to meet the anticipated exposure conditions. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . High Alloy Steel Bars for the Prestressing of Concrete.

315 and 316 are by far the most resistant to attack by concentrations of chlorides. have shown that austenitic steel embedded in concrete containing 3% chloride by mass of the cement. toughness to reduce damage to the coating during transport and fixing and this includes an adequate coating thickness which latter should be in the range 130–300 microns. showed no sign of corrosion after 17 years. 2. Tests by the Building Research Establishment. Two conditions are paramount for the coating to protect effectively the steel rebars: 1. Of the three basic types of stainless steel.3 Stainless steel reinforcement The relevant British Standard is BS 6744 Specification for Austenitic Stainless Steel for the Reinforcement of Concrete. and to possess a sufficient degree of flexibility to accommodate bending stresses in the bars and to possess high bond to the bars. 2. Stainless steel is much more expensive than ordinary carbon steel and its use for reinforcement is only justified in special cases. The UK Specification is BS 7295 Parts 1 and 2. The American Standard is ASTM A775 Standard Specification for Epoxy-coated Reinforcing Bars. but in the UK its acceptance has been much slower. The coating is an epoxy powder specially formulated to resist impact and abrasion.7. UK. ferritic and austenitic. Type 316 steel contains 18% chromium. martensitic. 2. This was illustrated by the failure of stainless steel hangars supporting a reinforced concrete ceiling slab in a swimming pool in Switzerland in 1985. corrosion can occur. However.2 Fusion-bonded epoxy coated reinforcement This method of protecting steel reinforcement from corrosion has been in use in the USA since the early 1970s. The coefficient of thermal expansion of austenitic stainless steel 18×10-6 compared with 12×10-6 for carbon steel. even with this steel if it is exposed to warm humid conditions and is very highly stressed. 10% nickel.The presence of a very small concentration of chromate (about 20 ppm) in the cement will inhibit the reaction between the cement paste and the zinc and thus limit the formation of hydrogen. and 3% molybdenum. The epoxy resin is defined in BS 7295 as a thermosetting epoxy powder consisting mainly of epoxy resin plus curing agent and pigments. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . high bond strength to the surface of the rebars. the latter steel types 302.7.

9.8 Spacers The use of correct spacers is an essential part of the construction of reinforced concrete.10.10 Bimetallic corrosion When using dissimilar metals.9. The coefficient of thermal expansion is about 20×10-6. strip and foil. Reference should be made to the comments in Section 2.10. gunmetal and copper. and phosphor-bronze contains phosphorus as copper phosphide. Cover less than that required by the relevant Code of Practice can increase considerably the risk of corrosion of the rebars resulting in premature deterioration of the concrete member. These alloys are corrosion resistant and are used for fittings and fixings. For many years it was used as water bars in concrete water-retaining structures but has been entirely superseded by PVC. Reference should be made to the comments in Section 2. PD 6484 1979 Commentary on Corrosion at Bimetallic Contacts and its Alleviation. Copper is corroded by solutions of chlorides and by solutions of ammonium salts which latter may be present in some organic adhesives used for floor coverings. Spacers are normally made of plastics. 2. For example. BS 2870 1980 covers copper and copper alloys for sheet.1). Spacers are used to ensure correct cover to the rebars.2 Copper Copper is resistant to most conditions met in building construction. and these are phosphor-bronze. There is no British Standard for spacers. or that bimetallic corrosion will not take place. Comprehensive recommendations on this subject are contained in a BSI publication. 2. but some are made of fibrereinforced cement based material which has the advantage of bonding to the surrounding concrete. 2. 2. it is important to ensure that either they are not in contact with each other.9 Non-ferrous metals Only a limited number of non-ferrous metals are likely to be used in the construction and fitting-out of swimming pools. phosphor-bronze or stainless steel (Figure 2.1 Phosphor-bronze Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. but in 1991 the Concrete Society published a manual Spacers for Reinforced Concrete.2. mild steel can be seriously corroded if it is in contact with copper. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .

Sheet materials. The USA Standard is ASTM 309–81 Standard Specification for Liquid Membrane-forming Compounds.11 Curing compounds for concrete and mortar The efficient curing of concrete and mortar is essential to ensure strength. Wet/water curing.1 Corrosion of mild steel rebar caused by direct contact with phosphor-bronze tie. and long-term durability.11. 2. 2. resistance to shrinkage cracking.1 Spray-applied membranes The relevant British Standard for testing spray-applied membranes is BS 7542 Methods of Test for Curing Compounds for Concrete. and resistance to abrasion. Materials used for curing are in three forms: Spray-applied membranes. These compounds are generally either water-based or resin-based and should be applied as soon as possible after completion of compaction and finishing.Figure 2. When Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .

It is specifically recommended for high alumina cement concrete. 4. Also.concrete is cast in formwork. rendering or bedding for tiles etc. 2. improved workability of the mix with constant w/c ratio or reduced w/c ratio with constant workability. but in the context of this book they are materials used in a concrete or mortar mix to provide some desirable characteristics to the mix. and kept in position for at least four days.g.2 Sheet materials The principal sheet material used for curing concrete is polyethylene sheeting (trade name polythene). They are mainly available in liquid or powder form. and the sheets are held down around the edges. 5.11. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . reduced permeability and absorption. 2. The liquids are dispersions (also referred to as latexes) and are generally whitish in colour. 3. 1000 gauge sheeting should be used.12 Polymers The term polymers includes a wide range of materials. improved resistance to carbonation.) then the suppliers of the curing compound should be consulted as most curing compounds adversely affect bond at the interface with the base concrete. some limited increase in resistance to chemical attack. such as: 1. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVAs). this gauge material is 250 microns (0. curing should commence as soon as the formwork is removed. Styrene acrylics.11. increased bond with the substrate. the solid content is usually in the range of 40–70%.25 mm) thick. Many of these compounds gradually weather away in the course of time. 2. The solid content and the viscosity vary. This is very effective in reducing moisture loss provided it is laid as soon as practical after casting the concrete or mortar. 2. Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR).3 Wet/water curing The curing of concrete and mortar by water spray is only carried out in special cases mainly when it is required to keep the temperature of the concrete under control. but if it is intended to apply a coating or other layer to the concrete (e. The polymers in most general use include: Modified polyvinyl acetates (PVAs). Acrylics.

For use. epoxies suffer loss of compressive strength with increase in temperature. 4. 6. Adequate mixing by mechanical means is essential to ensure effective dispersion of the hardener in the epoxy. The principal properties of epoxy resins are: 1. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . coefficient of thermal expansion of sand-filled epoxy is about three to four times that of concrete made with natural aggregates. and when mixed with selected fine aggregates. In the case of SBRs.13 Reactive resins These materials are generally used for protective coatings. the proportions recommended by the suppliers should generally be followed. very low shrinkage during curing. for thin bonded repairs. Polyurethanes.1 Epoxy resins These resins are by-products of the petrochemical industry. The main resins used for mortars for the repair of concrete are: Epoxies. tensile and flexural strength when used with selected aggregates. the proportions are usually in the range of 15–25% by mass of cement. high bond strength to many materials.When these polymers are added to a mix. it must be mixed with a hardener/accelerator. high compressive. 3. 7. The hardener reacts chemically with the epoxy and changes it from a liquid to a solid. All polymers are expensive and so the amount used justifies careful consideration. 2.13. The great advantage with epoxies is that they can be formulated to suit particular conditions of application and end use. 5. depending on the reason for the addition. high resistance to a wide range of chemicals. 2. 2. with temperatures above about 75 °C the loss of strength can be considerable. The basic resin is a liquid with a fairly high viscosity and will remain in this condition almost indefinitely. with special reference to concrete and steel. high resistance to water penetration. Polyesters. It is assumed that the dispersion weighs 1 kg/litre.

13. There is a large variety of polyurethane resins. a bond breaker should be used. resistance to abrasion and resistance to chemical attack. shrinkage during curing is appreciably higher than that of epoxies. the main differences are: 1. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . It must be durable under service conditions. wood fibre with bitumen (not suitable for use in damp conditions). The materials used for joint fillers should fulfil the following requirements: 1. cork granules bonded in bitumen (may be unsuitable for use in contact with potable water). The main materials used for joint fillers include: 1. 3. ideally. They bond well to concrete and mortar. 2. It must be formed easily and be inserted readily into the joint. it is therefore important when specifying these resins that the performance characteristics be clearly defined. they also help prevent the entry into the joint of stones and debris during construction as the sealant is usually applied later in the contract. They have a number of excellent characteritics including flexibility. It must be chemically inert and non-toxic. but the surface of the substrate must be dry to avoid formation of blisters. 3. cork granules bonded in a resin which is resistant to long-term immersion in water. 2.14 Joint fillers These materials are used in ‘in-house’ design joints and are sometimes referred to as back-up materials. but should not bond to it.2.3 Polyurethane resins These resins are used mainly for floor sealants and protective coatings. if it is liable to do so. It should be resilient but should not extrude so as to interfere with the sealant. the service life should be the same as that of the structure in which it is inserted. coefficient of thermal expansion is about 1.13.5 times that of epoxies. They provide support to the sealant. The curing of polyester resins is adversely affected by the presence of moisture. 4. 5. 2. all of which possess specific qualities. It should not bond to the sealant. 3. the shelf life of the basic resin is strictly limited. 2. 2.2 Polyester resins These resins are similar in many respects to epoxies.

As far as swimming pools and ancillary structures are concerned. This document deals mainly with the selection of insitu sealants.15 Joint sealants These materials can be divided into two basic groups: Insitu compounds. Table 4 indicates that the only sealant recommended as suitable for use in swimming pools is a flexible epoxy.1 Insitu compounds The insitu sealants can be divided into two main classes: Hot applied sealants. but should not bond to the joint filler (a bond-breaker may be required). 4. Preformed compounds. It must bond well to the side of the joint. the service life should be the same as that of the structure in which it is used. Another relevant British Standard is BS 6093 Code of Practice for Design of Joints and Jointing in Building Construction. Cold applied sealants (pouring-grade and gun-grade). Two-part Polysulphide-based Sealants. Materials in both groups should possess the following characteristics: 1. 2. One-part Gun-grade Silicone-based Sealants. reference should be made to BS 6213 Guide to the Selection of Constructional Sealants. For detailed advice on the use of sealants in structures. the material must be virtually impermeable. Cold-applied Joint Sealant Systems for Concrete Pavements. 2. Ideally.2. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The relevant British Standards are: BS BS BS BS 5215 5889 4254 5212 One-part Gun-grade Polysulphide-based Sealants. It should deform in response to the movements in the structure without extruding and without losing its integrity. the sealants in general use are the gun-grade sealants. 3. For external use and in liquid retaining structures. Sealants in joints in swimming pools have to function in particularly severe conditions and consequently few materials can be relied upon to give satisfactory service.15.

there are many divisions and full details can be obtained from the manufacturers. Generally. In each category. once a Euro Code or Standard has been finally approved and published. it is likely that certain sections of some of the British Codes and Standards will be retained on the grounds that they have special application to conditions in the UK. There are two basic categories of tiles used for swimming pools in the UK. The thicker tiles generally have deeper indentations or ‘frogs’ on the back. as the preformed sealant does not accommodate itself well to out-of-true surfaces. but the dimensional tolerances are smaller so that there is very little variation in the declared size of the tiles. it is recommended that reference be made to International Standards Organisation. Theoretically. 2. Standard ISO 11600 Building Construction Sealants. and dimensional tolerances are larger. in practice.17 British standards and Euro codes Frequent reference is made in this book to British Standards and Codes of Practice. extruded tiles with very low absorption are recommended for swimming pools. the pressed tiles are thinner and the body of the tile is relatively more absorbent. This means that the joints can be narrower.2 Preformed sealants Preformed sealants suffer from one practical disadvantage. However. This results in the absorption being much lower and the joints being wider. which is published in 23 parts. Further information on ceramic tiles is given in Section 7. Generally.The first three Standards listed above have been declared obsolete and not replaced at the time of writing this book. 2.15. and to Euro Codes. 2.16 Ceramic tiles Ceramic tiles are covered by BS 6431–EN87 Ceramic Wall and Floor Tiles. Extruded tiles are thicker and the body is wholly or partly vitrified. cement/sand mortar is not recommended for this type of repair. For outdoor pools the tiles must be frost resistant. The difference arises mainly from the method of manufacture. This may require that the sides of the joint have to be trued-up with an epoxy resin mortar. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . and they are usually described as pressed tiles and extruded tiles. In the circumstances. the equivalent British Code or Standard will be withdrawn.6. Neoprene and EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene monomer) are particularly resistant to a wide range of chemicals and this makes them suitable for use in floors of stores holding chemicals for water treatment and in swimming pools. Classification and Requirements. namely the sides of the joints have to be smooth and even.

A496. Technical Report No. pp. Steel Wire Plain for Reinforcement of Concrete. British Standards Institution. ACI Committee 252. November 1998. British Standards Institution. Draft European PreStandard. D. D. Corrosion-resistant Stainless Steel Fastners. Steel Wire Deformed. R. ACI Materials Journal. ACI Committee 211. Silica Fume. Journal of Quarry Management. ACI Committee 252. C494. 1992. American Concrete Institute. Technical aspects of aggregates for concrete. May 1998. Superplasticisers for Concrete. A185. Guidance on the Use of Stainless Steel Reinforcement. Aggregates for Concrete. C1240. pp. in Construction Materials Reference Book. 1993. 1991. Walters. Doran. 1997. 39.The following terminology is in general use: CEN CPD EN prEN prENV European Committee for Standardisation. 1994. C33. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . BS 6105. Aggregates for concrete. A775. European Standard. Ryle. Comparison of latex-modified Portland cement mortars. 51. BS 1199 and 1200. R. for Reinforcement of Concrete. Polymers in Concrete. April 1988. pp. American Concrete Institute. Epoxy Coated Reinforced Bars for Concrete. Draft European Standard. Steel Welded Wire Fabric for Reinforcement of Concrete. Further reading American Concrete Institute. 372–7. Concrete. 27–31. Brown. British Standards Institution. Building Sands From Natural Sources. Pigments for Concrete. July/August 1990. Construction Products Directive. C150. Concrete Society. Dennis. Butterworth Heinemann. BS 2870. 12–14. Polymer dispersions. Rolled Copper and Copper Alloy Sheet. B. C979. Chemical Admixtures for Concrete. Ed.K. Concrete Society. Aggregate for Concrete.G. References American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM): Portland Cement. A82. Technical Report No. Chemical Admixtures for Concrete.

3. Service Life. Maintenance. 4. 3. Design Life. A material can be considered durable if it fulfils its intended duty for the whole of its design life with an acceptable amount of maintenance including general repair. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .1 Introduction When one considers the need for a structure to be durable the following questions arise: 1. minor repairs. decorating and replacing parts when required. This is the length of time which the designer estimates the material will remain durable. This is a very important subject and guidance is given in two British Standards to which reference should be made: BS 7543 BS 8210 Guide to the Durability of Buildings. Building Elements and Components. The work and materials which when applied to a structure enables the structure to fulfil its duty during its service life. Maintenance should include cleaning. This is the actual length of time the material remains durable. Durability. What maintenance is likely to be required? The time lapse between construction and the need for repairs? What is the likely useful life of the structure before partial or complete replacement is considered appropriate? The following terms are important when dealing with the above questions: 1. Guide to Building Maintenance Management. 2.Chapter 3 Factors affecting the durability of reinforced concrete and cement-based materials used in the construction of swimming pools 3. 2.

screed and tiling/high-quality decorative coating. Unfortunately. unless special factors are Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . However. 3.7. Some chemicals used in water treatment are acidic in solution. Steel does not corrode when it is surrounded with concrete or cement-based mortar. concrete and cracking are often closely associated in peoples’ minds. The main causes of deterioration of reinforced concrete and the commonly used cement-based materials are discussed in this chapter. It is necessary to distinguish between the causes of the deterioration of the concrete and of the steel reinforcement. this is valid if the concrete is good quality and the cover to the rebars is adequate taking into account the exposure conditions. e. in other words. with particular reference to swimming pools. However. Remedial work to cracks which are found to be a source of leakage is described in Chapter 10. The corrosion of steel reinforcement is the most serious durability problem affecting concrete structures. sodium bisulphate. steel reinforcement is the ‘Achilles Heel’ of reinforced concrete. consist of oxides of iron. This is particularly important with swimming pools as generally these are constructed in the ground and inspection and repair to the pool shell can be difficult and disruptive to the use of the pool. For this to occur the crack must be of a certain minimum width at the interface of the concrete and the rebars. air and agressive chemicals in solution.2 Corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete 3. For rusting to occur. Unfortunately. corrosion is unlikely to occur. but the basic principles are applicable.g. see Section 3. Cracks which penetrate right through the wall or floor of a swimming pool are likely to form a source of leakage and need attention. It is usually assumed that if the width of the crack at the surface of the concrete is not more than 0. the chance of reinforcement corrosion is reduced. Consideration should be given to how maintenance and repairs can be carried out. even in these circumstances.1 Introduction The corrosion products of steel. very fine cracks may be self-healing (known as autoginous healing). and aluminium sulphate.The suggestions/recommendations put forward are linked to the anticipated level of maintenance (including repair) applicable to the type of structure under consideration. Cracks can result in corrosion of steel reinforcement due to the admission of moisture. the two publications referred to above do not include specific reference to swimming pools. both are present to a greater or lesser degree. known generally as rust. moisture and oxygen must be present and for steel embedded in the vast majority of concrete structures.2.3 mm wide. The types of cracks which normally occur in the floor and walls of swimming pools are discussed in Chapters 4 and 5. in swimming pool shells which are finished on the inside with rendering.

and the steel does not corrode. e.2. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Carbon dioxide is present in the air. The recommended thickness/depth of cover will depend on the exposure conditions and the permeability/porosity of the cover coat. Such cracks are normally due to shrinkage and/or stress. physical damage to the concrete surrounding the steel. or the use of shrinkable aggregates (see Section 2. oxygen. can result in loss of passivation leading to corrosion of the rebars.present.3).2. high permeability/porosity of the concrete surrounding the rebars allowing ingress of moisture etc. this is known as carbonation. This loss of passivation can be caused by a number of factors. However.1 Shrinkage cracks Shrinkage cracks can result from a high water/cement ratio.2. of which the principal are set out below: 1.2. 3. inadequate thickness of the cover coat of concrete or mortar.5 and 4.2. See BS 5328 Part 1 Clause 4. or aggressive chemicals.13.. Comments on water/cement ratio and curing are given in Sections 4. chlorides. with special reference to Table 6. resulting in exposure of the steel. Causes of cracking in concrete All concrete contains micro-cracks and these do not adversely affect the performance of the concrete. further oxidation of the steel is inhibited. 3. The presence in the concrete of chlorides in excess of the ‘safe’ recommended concentration as laid down in Standards and Codes of Practice.3. such as ferric oxide. Flexural cracks. 5. development of cracks in the concrete extending down to the rebars. and while it does not damage the concrete it lowers the pH of the cement paste to about 9. 4.1–3. The high alkalinity of the cement paste passivates the steel due to the formation of a protective film of oxidation products. of sufficient width to allow the ingress of moisture. see Section 3. It therefore follows that subsequent corrosion (oxidation) of the steel must be due to a breakdown of the passivating film on the surface of the steel. if they extend down to the rebars.2. Thermal contraction cracks. and/or inadequate curing of the concrete. 3. See Sections 3. As long as this film is maintained.g.3.2.2. See BS 5328 Part 1. 2.5 which can result in depassivation of the steel. macro-cracks.2. The main types of cracks likely to be found in swimming pool shells and associated structural members are: Shrinkage cracks.2.

the rate of penetration is very slow and depends on many factors.2. This is discussed in Section 4. 3. permeability and moisture content.5 to about 9. 3.3 Thermal contraction cracks This type of crack is not uncommon in reinforced concrete swimming pool walls.3 mm.2. chlorides are in solution in the pore water.2.1 General considerations Corrosion of rebars can occur in un-carbonated concrete due to the presence of chlorides.9. the principal ones being porosity.4 Chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcement 3. the width is measured at the surface of the member and decreases in width with depth. The surface of concrete exposed to the air carbonates very rapidly. Chlorides are present either because they were added to the concrete mix. See also BS 8007 1987 Code of Practice for the Design of Concrete Structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids.4.5). When a salt is dissolved in water it is immediately split up into electrically charged particles known as ions: Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .3. The floor and walls of the majority of swimming pools are not exposed directly to the air once the back-filling has been completed. They are caused by the cooling of the concrete after the removal of the formwork when inadequate distribution steel has been used to control this type of cracking. forming a carbonated layer of micron thickness. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the carbonation of the concrete shell is unlikely to endanger the reinforcement during the lifetime of the pool. or they had penetrated into the hardened concrete from an outside source. and/or the mixing water. When present.2 Flexural cracks The width of this type of crack is limited in BS 8110 to 0. It is considered that cracks of this type and width are unlikely to result in corrosion of the rebars. In good quality concrete.2. or were present in the aggregates.3 Carbonation of concrete Carbon dioxide in the air reacts with the calcium hydroxide in the hydrating cement paste to form calcium carbonate: Ca(OH) +CO =CaCO +H O 2 2 3 2 The reaction results in a significant reduction in the pH of the cement paste (from about 12. which is the main Code for the design of swimming pool shells. 3.

free chloride ions and combined chloride ions. These pits may penetrate the rebars by more than 50% of the bar diameter. mainly chlorides. mainly the tricalcium aluminate (C3A). There are two main types of corrosion of rebars. the use of a cement with a high C3A content is to be preferred. It is generally agreed that it is the free chloride ions which damage the passivity of the steel. The combined chloride ions are combined with the hydration products in the cement paste.2 Chlorides in swimming pool water Concern is sometimes expressed about the durability of reinforced concrete in continuous contact with chlorinated swimming pool water. From the point of view of dealing with potential chloride attack on reinforcement. the chloride ions present in the pore water exist in two forms. It can thus be seen that the higher the concentration of C3A in the hydrating cement paste. compared with sulphate-resisting Portland cement which has a C3A content not exceeding 3.4. the higher the percentage of chloride ions which will be ‘locked up’ and not free to attack the steel. The Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Comparatively few swimming pools contain sea water. 3. The formation of rust by chloride attack can cause cracking and spalling of the concrete due to the considerable increase in volume of the steel when it is converted into rust (an increase of three to four times the original thickness of steel).5% (see BS 4027). A careful literature search has not revealed any authorititive research or detailed study of this problem. and consideration of the characteristics of sea water is worthwhile as this water contains a high percentage of dissolved salts. the water in the pool is filtered and treated with various chemicals including a disinfectant. Localised/pitting corrosion is more likely to be the result of chloride ions in the concrete in contact with the steel than carbonation of the concrete in contact with the rebars. However. even a careful visual examination of the concrete may not detect localised/pitting corrosion. Ordinary Portland cement has a C3A content in the range 8–12%. the majority of pools in the UK contain water of drinking quality. a brief discussion on the subject is considered justified. resulting in the corrosion of the rebars.NaCl=Na++ClIt is the negatively charged chloride ions which destroy the passivity (the layer of ferric oxide) on the surface of the rebars. A great deal has been written about the durability of reinforced concrete marine structures. In practice. The general corrosion is more likely to cause cracking and spalling of the concrete. For reasons of hygiene. general corrosion and local corrosion (pitting). but local corrosion can be more serious due to significant reduction in the diameter of the rebars at the ‘pits’. This suggests that significant corrosion of steel reinforcement in pool shells due to chlorides introduced into the pool water for disinfection of the water has so far not been detected and/or has not caused serious concern.

disinfectant in most general use in public swimming pools in the UK is chlorine which is generally produced by dosing the water with sodium or calcium hypochlorite. Sea water contains a high percentage of dissolved salts. although the finish itself may be damaged. the chance of chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcement occurring in a properly constructed swimming pool shell can be considered as insignificant. i.5–1. Figures given by Lea. and can be reasonably disregarded until authentic research proves otherwise. then it can be seen that the concentration of chloride ions in swimming pool water is less than 0. 3rd edition. are quoted below: This Table can be converted to: The dosage of chlorine into swimming pool water depends on a number of factors as the aim is to maintain the ‘free chlorine residual’ at about 0. However.1 Physical damage The usual causes of physical damage to concrete structures are unlikely to be relevant to swimming pools with the possible exception of open-air pools.5 Deterioration of the concrete 3.0 ppm. 3. when the bathing load is heavy. in The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete.5. which could be in possible danger from frost (freeze-thaw conditions). On this basis.01% of that in sea water. a decorative coating or tiling/mosaic which would protect the concrete from the effects of frost. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . all swimming pools are provided with a finish.e. If it is assumed for the purpose of this discussion that the actual dosage of chlorine is as high as 5 ppm.

Organic acids are present in moorland water and if this class of water is used in a swimming pool without pretreatment.5.5. sulphates can build up in the pool water and attack mortar joints between tiles. the Arabian Gulf or the gauging water contains sulphates in solution as would be the case if brackish/saline water had to be used for mixing. 3. e.5. sodium bisulphate. and alum which are used in the treatment of swimming pool water to adjust the pH.2. this is referred to in Section 3. it measures the intensity of the acidity. The pH alone does not define the type nor the amount of acid present. Some salt solutions are acidic. See Section 3. 3 These are only likely to be found in sub-soil contaminated by use as an industrial tip and should be detected by a proper site investigation.2 Chemical attack on the concrete This is a wide field for discussion as concrete is vulnerable to a range of chemical compounds in solution. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . the most likely source of sulphate in sufficient concentration to cause deterioration of the concrete is from sub-soil and ground water.0.0. see Section 4. 3. An exception is where the concreting aggregates are contaminated by sulphates. e.2. It is important to remember that the same concentration in solution of different acids will give different pH values. inorganic acids such as the three listed below are more aggressive than organic acids: Sulphuric acid (H SO ). it must be pointed out that if close control of the addition of chemicals to the pool water is not adhered to.2.3. However. Acidic solutions have a pH below the neutral point of 7. concrete swimming pools are only likely to come into contact with a limited range of aggressive agents and these are discussed below. The pH of a liquid can be readily measured by the use of indicator papers or by a pH meter.7.1 Acids and industrial chemicals in the subsoil All Portland cement-based materials will be attacked by acids (acidic solutions). A solution with a pH of 5.0 and alkaline solutions have a pH above 7. the tile bedding.6 and Chapter 8. Generally speaking. Nitric acid (HNO ).2 Sulphates in solution As far as the reinforced concrete shell of the pool is concerned. However. quite significant attack on exposed concrete and cement-based mortars can take place.0 has 100 times the hydrogen ion concentration than a solution with a pH of 7. and the screed and rendering.g.g. 2 4 Hydrochloric acid (HCl).

Sulphates in solution react with the hydrates of tricalcium aluminate (C3A) in the cement forming calcium aluminium hydrate (known as ettringite).Figure 3. Figure 3. Portland cement contains gypsum (calcium sulphate) expressed as SO .5. also by the inclusion of pfa or ggbs as an addition to the mix. This reaction is expansive in character and this expansion can cause disruption of the concrete. by mass 3 of the cement as this is added during manufacture to control the setting of the Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .1 Concrete surface attacked by sulphates in solution.1 shows a concrete surface attacked by sulphates in solution. Sulphates and acids in solution in the sub-soil and ground water are dealt with in some detail in Building Research Establishment Digest 363 1991 Sulphate and Acid Resistance of Concrete in the Ground. Ordinary Portland cement can contain up to about 12% C3A. it is advisable to use a Portland cement with a low C3A content such as sulphate-resisting Portland cement in which the C3A content is limited to 3. Increased sulphate resistance can also be obtained by reducing the w/c ratio and increasing the cement content.5% (BS 4027). See also Section 2. If the sulphate in the sub-soil and/or ground water exceeds the concentrations given in BRE Digest 363.

rendering. bedding for tiles and mosaic and building mortar have appreciably higher porosity and permeability than concrete and therefore may suffer attack in conditions where concrete would be virtually immune. but only about four cases had been reported world-wide prior to the report on the UK motorway bridge foundations.0 to 6. Which compounds are used and the dosage will depend Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .5 to 8. The following compounds are in common use for the treatment of swimming pool water. alkalinity about 200 ppm. 3. the chemical characteristics of the raw water can vary considerably. waters with higher alkalinity and a pH in the range of about 7. Early in April 1998 the technical press carried reports of severe deterioration of concrete bridge foundations and this was claimed to be due to sulphate attack involving the formation of the mineral thaumasite. waters with a pH range between 6. pH in the range 5. Thaumasite is a calcium silicate sulphate carbonate hydrate. The formation of ettringite may be considered as ‘standard’ sulphate attack. 2. While such water is quite fit for drinking. See Chapter 4 for recommended concrete mixes. When this form of attack occurs the surface of the concrete becomes very soft.cement. 3. soft.7 Swimming pool water and chemicals used in water treatment The water used in the vast majority of swimming pools is taken from a public supply. In the UK. Hand-applied mortar. There is reason to believe that because gypsum is added during manufacture it does not form ettringite on the hydration of the cement paste. low in alkalinity and total dissolved solids.6 Chemical attack on cement-based mortar It can be seen from what has been written so far that it is the cement which is the ingredient in concrete and mortar that is most vulnerable to chemical attack. Chapter 8 gives information on the basic principles of water treatment which will not be repeated here. The reaction needs wet cold conditions and a source of carbonate (which is usually found in calcareous aggregates) and the presence of sulphates or sulphides in the sub-soil in contact with the concrete. Laboratory tests showed that attack on concrete due to the formation of thaumasite could be produced by continuous exposure to high concentrated sulphate solutions using limestone aggregate. The quality of concrete recommended for swimming pool shells is likely to possess considerable resistance to general sulphate attack. 3.5. slightly acidic water. such water can be assumed to fall into the following general categories: 1.5 and 7. The fact that this reaction could take place had been known for many years.5. rather like lime putty.5.

As previously stated. Aluminium sulphate (alum) (Al (SO ) ). but is significantly less aggressive to cement-based products than hydrochloric acid. an acidic compound usually has to be added to adjust the pH to the required level. 3. it may still be ‘lime dissolving’ and therefore needs special attention. 2 The hypochlorite (sodium and calcium) are both strongly alkaline chemicals and tend to raise the pH of the pool water. it can cause etching of cementbased mortar joints in tiling. As the pool water should have a pH in the range 7. A concentrated solution of sodium hypochlorite will attack concrete slowly but this is only likely to occur from spillage in storage areas. It is also used to adjust the pH of the water.8. Reference should be made to Chapter 7. When not properly controlled.8 Moorland water and the Langelier Index Soft moorland waters can be particularly difficult to deal with in their raw state as their characteristics can vary considerably through the year. Nevertheless. Even though the pH of the pool water may be above the neutral point of 7. slightly alkaline). For this reason it is advisable for cement-based bedding and jointing for tiles and mosaic to be formulated to resist sulphate attack.2 to 7. Its use in the pool water (to correct the pH) can result in the slow build-up of sulphate to undesirable levels. 2 Sodium bisulphate (Na SO ).on a number of factors. including the characteristics of the ‘raw’ water and the bathing load: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). protective measures to concrete floors and cement/sand screeds should be adopted. Carbon dioxide is a gas and when dissolved in water forms carbonic acid which is a weak acid and it is used to adjust the pH of the pool water necessitated by the use of hypochlorite. This is discussed in the next paragraph. They are used to provide chlorine for the disinfection of the pool water.0 (i. in areas where spillage of the concentrate may occur. Calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl) ).e. 2 4 3 Carbon dioxide (CO ). Sodium bisulphate is acidic in reaction (it is often referred to as ‘dry acid’). Aluminium sulphate (alum) is strongly acidic and is used mainly to provide a ‘floc’ for the efficient filtration of the pool water. It is not unusual to Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The concrete floors of storage areas should be protected by the provision of a suitable coating based on epoxy or polyurethane resins. hydrochloric acid is very aggressive to all cement-based materials and protective measures should be adopted in storage areas where spillage is liable to occur. 2 4 Hydrochloric acid (HCl). The hypochlorite is not aggressive to cement-based materials in the concentrations used in water treatment.

Lime in this context is calcium carbonate. find that the pH of the raw water drops appreciably after heavy rain.Figure 3. The Langelier Index was developed in the USA in the 1930s by Dr Langelier to assess the characteristics of boiler feed water. If the Index is positive the water will be lime depositing and will not be aggressive to Portland cement. Some dissolved carbon dioxide and often some organic acids. These waters are aggressive to cement-based materials and Figure 3. Low alkalinity. A positive Langelier Index indicates that the water is lime depositing. while a negative index indicates that it is lime dissolving. The chemistry behind the calculation of the Index is complicated. The characteristics of these waters are: Low calcium hardness. but it can be summarised by accepting that if the Index is negative the water will be lime dissolving and consequently potentially aggressive to Portland cement.5.2 shows attack on a concrete water channel in a moorland area. There is a scarcity of published guidance on the practical interpretation of Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .2 Severe etching of concrete water channel by moorland water. Low total dissolved solids (tds). and may even go as low as 3.

There are differences of opinion on the number of confirmed cases of ASR in the UK. An ISO (International Standards Organisation) document. or both.0 to -2. This gel in contact with water expands and causes visible cracking. The main precautions which can be taken to avoid ASR damage is to either use a non-siliceous aggregate or use a low alkali cement.9 Alkali-silica reaction Although a library search has not disclosed any reports of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) affecting swimming pools. there must also be a high moisture level within the concrete. as ASR was confirmed some years ago in the concrete of a water reservoir in the UK. It is unlikely that the concrete shell of the pool will suffer attack. For the reaction to take place.0 any positivevalue If swimming pool water has a negative Langelier Index. load carrying capacity. N18E. The situation is complicated by the fact that with aggregates in the UK there is a maximum percentage of reactive silica beyond which expansion decreases. Figure 7. The alkalis generally originate in the cement and are present in the pore fluid. it is recommended that measures be adopted to increase the resistance to attack on the bedding mortar and grouted joints between tiles and mosaic. it is considered that some basic information on this important subject is justified. 3. frost resistance. of February 1983 indicates a classification of the Langelier Index for water as follows: Highly aggressive Moderately aggressive Non-aggressive -2. Since then it has been identified as the cause of expansion and cracking in concrete in many countries. Alkali-silica reaction arises from chemical reaction between alkalis in the concrete and certain types of siliceous aggregates. Agreement is general that the effects of ASR are long term and about five years is the minimum period required for any visible signs to appear.the Index. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . and this is discussed below. and increased risk of rebar corrosion. Alkali-silica reaction was first reported in 1940 in the USA. and an even greater difference on the extent to which concrete affected by ASR suffers loss of strength. varies from one type of aggregate to another.0 and lower 0. The environmental conditions in which swimming pools operate (relatively high temperature and high humidity) are favourable to the occurrence of ASR.6 shows severe erosion of grouted tile joints by a soft moorland water. This maximum amount (the ‘pessimum’). but much more than this is needed for attack to take place. This reaction results in the formation of an alkali-silica gel.

BS 8110 Part 1 1985.W. reaffirmed 1982. American Concrete Institute. Guide to Durable Concrete. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Sulphate and acid resistance of concrete in the ground. American Concrete Institute. W. 1991. 1979. American Concrete Institute. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete. British Standards Institution. Minimum Requirements for Durable Concrete. Diagnosis. 11 papers. Ed. or external concrete paving treated with de-icing salts. Langelier.Also. Protective and Decorative Barrier Systems for Concrete. BRE Digest 330 1988. Building Elements and Components. Remedial Works and Guidance on New Construction. steps should be taken to prevent solutions of alkalis coming into contact with and penetrating the concrete. Damp-proofing. The analytical control of anti-corrosion water treatment. 1999. This latter is most unlikely to occur with swimming pools. clause 6. January 1999. reviewed 1985. British Standards Institution. British Cement Association. Department of the Environment. 1996. October 1936.5. Building Research Establishment. The Thaumasite Form of Sulphate Attack: Risks. Hobbs. the recommended limit in the UK for equivalent sodium oxide is 3 kg/m3 of concrete. ACI 515–1R–79 43. Digest 363. General guidance on ASR is given in: BS 5328 Part 1 1991. Further reading American Concrete Institute. 2 At the time of writing this book. Alkali-silica Reaction: Minimising the Risk of Damage to Concrete.4. Concrete Society Technical Report No. A Guide to the Use of Waterproofing. Concrete Society. 1998. 3rd edition. D.H. BS 7543. 28(1). BS 8210. except from a highly alkaline ground water in an industrial tip. Guide to the Durability of Buildings. Journal AWWA.2. Technical Report 30. 30 1987. ACI 201–2R–77. Guide to Building Maintenance. The alkali content of cement is expressed as ‘equivalent sodium oxide’ (Na O). Permeability of Concrete. 1988.

Chapter 4

Construction of swimming pool shells in insitu reinforced concrete

4.1 Introduction
This chapter sets out to discuss a number of important matters which are generally applicable to concrete water-retaining structures but with special reference to swimming pools. It is not possible to draw a clear dividing line between design, specification and construction. Designers should possess a working knowledge of how the structure will be built and the problems the contractor is likely to face on site. Equally necessary, the contractor should understand the basis of the design and the reasons for the specification requirements. Detailed treatment of the structural design of the pool shell is outside the scope of this book as the design of concrete liquid-retaining structures are covered by a number of well-known publications, some of which are included under Further Reading at the end of this chapter. The three most important factors in the construction of swimming pool shells in insitu reinforced concrete are: structural stability, durability, and watertightness. For durability, the steel reinforcement must be protected against corrosion during the life-time of the structure. This requires that the concrete cover to the rebars should be dense and virtually impermeable. It is difficult to ensure that the concrete cover to the rebars (usually specified as 40 mm) is fully compacted and there is no loss of grout (cement and fines) through joints in the formwork. General (standard) type formwork consists of timber, fibre-glass panels, or steel. The type of formwork used determines the type of finish to the concrete when the formwork is removed. It is important to ensure that the correct type of release agent is used, and also that the joints between the formwork panels are grout tight. The use of what is known as ‘controlled permeability formwork’ can help to achieve the necessary quality of the concrete cover to the rebars. This type of formwork was originally developed in Japan in the 1980s and is now used in Europe and other developed countries. The formwork is designed to be permeable to water and air but not to cement particles. The forms consist of an outer shutter, a filter and a drain.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

Work by the Cement and Concrete Association (now the British Cement Association) showed that about 90% of the pressure on the formwork by the plastic concrete is caused by the pore water. Therefore, by removing a substantial proportion of the pore water, the pressure on the formwork will be substantially reduced. On removal of the formwork, the concrete surface has relatively few blow holes and a fine textured finish. It is recommended that the use of this type of formwork be considered for large insitu reinforced concrete pools. The pool shell should be tested for watertightness, as detailed in Appendix 2, before any finishes are applied.

4.2 Site investigations
4.2.1 General comments
It is essential that site investigations should be carried out in the early stage of the design process. The work should only be entrusted to experienced firms and they should be asked in the brief to give practical interpretation and advice on the results of the investigation. The theory and practice of sub-soil surveys falls within the province of soil mechanics and is outside the scope of this book. Three important publications relevant to this subject, particularly to larger projects are:

BS 5930 1981 BS 8004 1986 DD 175 1988

Code of Practice for Site Investigations; Code of Practice for Foundations; Code of Practice for the identification of contaminated land and its investigation.

4.2.2 Reasons for site investigations
There are many reasons for carrying out a site investigation of which the following three are the most important: 1. to obtain information on the sub-soil, its physical and chemical characteristics, to enable the designer to decide on the type and dimensions of the foundations and other parts of the structure below ground level; to ascertain whether the sub-soil and/or ground water is likely to be aggressive to the concrete in contact with it, including information on whether there are hazardous and/or toxic substances present; to obtain sufficient information for the contractor to appreciate the problems involved in carrying out the work below ground level and to price his contract accordingly, including the time required to carry out the work.

2.

3.

It is essential that there should be an adequate number of trial pits or boreholes to ensure that the information obtained gives a clear picture of sub-soil conditions over the whole site.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

4.2.3 Interpretation of results
In all sub-soil investigations, except rock, the pH of the soil and ground water should be given. If the pH is below 6.5 or above 9.5, a chemical analysis should be carried out to ascertain the composition of the compounds present which give rise to the low (acidic) or high (alkaline) pH. Information should be obtained (if possible), on the likely variations in water table level. The following factors should be taken into account: 1. There are many practical difficulties in obtaining truly representative samples of sub-soil and ground water, and in carrying out the analysis. 2. All test results should be viewed with caution and carefully considered with all other relevant information. For example, ground water may be practically static, i.e. the velocity of flow may be very slow, as in clay, or appreciable as in gravels. 3. Due to excavation, and to the control of ground water by pumping subsurface conditions can change appreciably and these changes can be significant during the construction period, and the life-time of the structure. Where aggressive chemicals come from a specific deposit, e.g. an industrial tip on adjacent land, their quantity may be limited and perhaps removed altogether if the adjoining site is developed. 4. The degree of exposure to attack from aggressive chemicals should be assessed in the site investigation report. The following conditions are listed in increasing potential for attack on the concrete: (a) conditions, above water table level; (b) conditions below static ground water level; (c) conditions below flowing ground water level. 5. Seasonal fluctuations in ground water level and changes in its chemical composition, as well as its direction and velocity of flow can have an important bearing on the severity of attack. For example, in peaty sub-soils, the pH can fall significantly after heavy rain and then rise again. It may be worthwhile to consider the practicality of permanently lowering the water table by means of a properly designed sub-soil drainage system. Some general recommendations on sub-soil drainage are given in the next paragraph. It may be necessary to lower the water table level to enable the pool to be constructed in the dry. This can be effected by well point dewatering or water collecting pits. However, it is necessary to take into account the effect of lowering the water table on the foundations of adjacent/nearby structures. 4.3 Under-drainage of site Under-drainage of sites are carried out for two main reasons: 1. to permanently lower the water table for the reasons given in the preceding paragraph;

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

2. to prevent the build-up of ground water pressure which may result in uplift (flotation) causing serious damage to the structure. 4.3.1 Materials and layout The pipes generally used for sub-soil drainage are: 1. 2. unglazed clayware field drainage pipes to BS 1196 1989; plastics pipes for sub-soil field drains to BS 4962 1989.

It is also possible, and in some types of fine-grained soils desirable, to use dense concrete pipes to BS 5911 Part 3 1982 or vitrified clay pipes to BS 65 1991 with open joints, the joints being surrounded with graded aggregate. Dense concrete pipes may be attacked by an aggressive groundwater unless protected by a suitable coating. The layout of the under-drainage system will depend on site conditions. On many sites, the provision of a simple perimeter drain with inspection chambers/ manholes at each change of direction would provide adequate access for periodic inspection and clearing.

4.4 Flotation (uplift) of the pool shell
It is unusual for flotation to be a serious problem with the construction of insitu concrete swimming pools because the dead weight of the concrete shell, without taking into account the friction between the ground and the walls, is usually more than adequate to counter the upward pressure of the groundwater even when the water table is high. In any case, the design should be checked for the posibility of flotation.

4.5 General comments on design and construction
4.5.1 Introduction
Anyone undertaking the design and/or construction of a reinforced concrete swimming pool is recommended to become acquainted with the relevant provisions in BS 8007 Code of Practice for the Design and Construction of Concrete Structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids, BS 8110 The Structural Use of Concrete, and BS 5328 Concrete Parts 1–4. The basic publication in the UK is BS 8007, and the equivalent document in the US and Canada is the American Concrete Institute publication ACI 350 R-89. Essentially, BS 8007 sets out recommendations for the quality of the concrete and the structural design of the structure to meet the design life under service conditions, which is stated to be in the range of 40–70 years. However,

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

In the case of swimming pools which are finished with tiles/mosaic.1 and 4.2 Joints The selection of the type of joints and their location is fundamental to the calculation of the distribution steel for crack control. Sliding joints. See comments in Sections 2. The author’s experience is that joints should be kept to a practical minimum.2 show these joints. 4. and by drying shrinkage which occurs as the concrete matures. There is some conflict between the wish to keep the amount of distribution steel within ‘reasonable’ limits and the known fact that joints are the major source of leakage in a concrete water retaining structure. The crack width and crack spacing is controlled by reinforcement and the location and type of joints. Partial contraction joints. Where the two Codes differ on a specific point.15 which discuss joint fillers and sealants.1 Full movement joints This type of joint is designed to cater for both expansion and contraction of the concrete on each side of the joint. The reason for this is that joints in the pool shell which may have to accommodate movement should be carried through the tiling/mosaic and the cutting of tiles should be avoided as far as this is practical.it is pointed out that some components such as jointing materials have a shorter life than the concrete and are likely to require replacement at intervals.1 mm depending on conditions of exposure. British Standard BS 8007 recommends that the minimum conditions of exposure should be taken as ‘severe’ (see Table 3. This is the width of cracks at the surface of the concrete. The joints considered here are: Full movement joints (also known as expansion joints). by thermal effects (heat of hydration of the hydrating cement and by external temperature changes). British Standard BS 8007 is linked to the principal structural design Code BS 8110.2 of BS 8110 and Tables 5 and 6 of BS 5328 Part 1).5.5.2.2 mm and 0. Figures 4. Cracks in reinforced concrete members are caused by applied loads. Construction joints (also known as day-work joints).14 and 2. it is strongly recommended that there should be close co-operation between the suppliers of the tiles/mosaic and the designer of the pool shell. the recommendations of BS 8007 take precedence. Stress relief joints. Contraction joints. 4. Calculated crack widths are set at 0. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .

It should be noted that this type of joint is about 15 mm to 20 mm wide. There is no initial gap left between the adjacent concrete. It is important that the wall should be of adequate thickness to enable the concrete to be thoroughly compacted around a centrally located water bar. 4. The reinforcement is stopped off each side of the joint.Figure 4. if it is decided that there may be non-uniform settlement across the joint. Figure 4. it may be desirable to insert dowel bars (as in a road slab).3. but no attempt is made to secure bond at the interface. It is desirable that a water bar be provided and that the joint should be sealed. The thickness is likely to be 300 mm to 400mm.5. but this is unusual. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .2 Contraction joints This type is shown in Figure 4. However. Reinforcement does not cross the joint.2.2 Full movement joint in wall.1 Full movement joint in floor slab.

3 Contraction joint in floor slab. see note above on minimum wall thickness for installation of centrally located water bars.3 Stress relief joints These joints are formed in the freshly placed concrete in floor slabs. The joint becomes a Partial Contraction Joint if some of the reinforcement (up to 50%) crosses the joint.Figure 4. a crack may Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . and provided with a water bar which is centrally located in a wall. but the correct time after casting the concrete to carry out the sawing is very difficult to determine.2. The joint should be sealed. If too early.5. the concrete is likely to ravel and. and sometimes in walls. and located on the underside of a floor slab. 4. A crack inducer is fixed at a predetermined position in the underside of the slab and directly over this a slot is wetformed in the top surface of the slab to a depth of one-third of the overall depth of the slab. The surface slot can be sawn. if too late.

5 Concrete surface at construction/day-work joint prepared to secure bond. The principle is that thermal contraction and drying shrinkage will cause a crack to form through the slab in a straight line which can be sealed. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The surface of the hardened concrete should be lightly bush hammered or other means used to expose the coarse aggregate.5.2. followed by removal of all loose Figure 4. sealing will be very difficult.4. 4. An alternative type of stress relief joint in a wall is shown in Figure 4.form which is unlikely to be straight. The joint should be sealed and provided with a water bar as for a contraction joint. they become necessary if there is a serious delay in the supply of concrete. also. Such joints should be formed with a stop-end and all necessary steps taken to ensure maximum bond between the ‘old’ concrete and the newly placed concrete when placing starts again.4 Constructionlday work joints These joint are formed to facilitate the construction of the pool shell. The diameter of the void should be about one-third of the wall thickness. Reinforcement crossing the joint is generally reduced by 30–50%. The reinforcement crossing the joint is reduced by 30–50%. in either event.

The QSRMC Certification Mark should be on all quotations and delivery tickets. It is essential that the supplier of the concrete. At the time this book was being revised. the main parameters used for judgement of conformity. It is recommended that ready-mixed concrete should be supplied by a QSRMC Registered Company from a plant holding current QSRM Certification for Product Conformity. For a designated mix. The workability should be adequate for full compaction (say a nominal slump of 75 mm). The use of ready-mixed concrete is recommended.2 that the pool shell should be watertight against loss of water when the pool is full and against ingress of ground water when the pool is empty. well graded and complying with BS 882 Aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete. 2. with a maximum w/c ratio of 0.grit and dust. It was emphasised in Section 1. and the details of a suitable test are given in Appendix 2. For swimming pool shells. the terms in which the mix is specified.50 (but a lower w/c ratio plus the use of a plasticiser is recommended by the author. the responsibility for selection of mix proportions. whether this is a ready-mixed concrete firm or a contractor who wishes to mix the concrete on site.5. The contractor has the option of deciding on site mixing or using ready-mixed concrete. Reinforcement should be carried across the joint. Tables in Part 2 of BS 5328 provide detailed information for the specification requirements of designed. about 80% of concrete used in the UK was supplied by readymixed concrete firms. The main differences in the selection of the type of mix referred to in BS 5328 relate to: 1. 3.5 shows a concrete surface prepared. Figure 4. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Concrete has a pore structure and water can very slowly move through it. this permeability is unlikely to have an adverse effect on the durability of the structure. is given the necessary information so that it is clear exactly the type and standard of concrete required. prescribed and designated mixes. 4. but with good quality concrete and proper design. This necessitates a practical water test. the concrete should have a characteristic strength of 35 N/ mm2. or designated mix as detailed in Part 2 of BS 5328. the recommendations for concrete mixes to meet specific requirements for buildings and civil engineering structures have been greatly extended. Aggregates should be 20 mm maximum size. the concrete should be either a designed. These requirements are included in BS 5328 Concrete Parts 1–4. The objective is to make the concrete at the joint as monolithic as possible.3 The concrete Since the third edition of this book was published in 1988. a prescribed.

The thermal effects (cracking) will occur in the early age of the concrete.2 and in Appendix 3. It is recommended that the cover to reinforcement in walls be checked by means of a cover-meter survey as soon as practical after the removal of the formwork. the mix proportions of the concrete have to be carefully designed and this is emphasised in the Code. To secure low permeability. It is important that the specified nominal cover to all reinforcement is maintained by the use of spacers and careful fixing of the reinforcement. Low permeability helps to ensure resistance to chemical attack. or pfa. 20% with ground granulated blastfurnace slag (ggbs). and/or by reducing the length of wall or floor slab between joints. This can result in thermal contraction cracking and the Code deals with this in some detail under Temperature and Moisture Effects. which is important when the concrete is cast in timber formwork. will also help. e. while for the same mix using a limestone aggregate. generally within a few days after removal of the formwork. it would be about 7–8×10-6 per °C. by increasing the amount of distribution steel.22. The reduction of the amount of Portland cement in the mix by replacing. Consideration should be given to the effect of the heat of hydration on the maximum temperature likely to be reached by the concrete. while shrinkage cracks are likely to appear later. Permeability may be defined as the characteristic of a material which allows fluids to pass through it under differential pressure. Thermal contraction cracking can be controlled by specific design of the reinforcement. and protection of the steel reinforcement. The type of aggregate used also has a significant effect on the thermal movement (expansion or contraction) of the concrete. Moisture effects in this context refer to the drying out of the concrete after casting.g. particularly in hot weather.British Standard BS 8007 emphasises this and states that the concrete should possess low permeability which is one of the important characteristics required to ensure durability of the structure (see also Chapter 3). Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . and these ‘effects’ consist of drying shrinkage which can result in cracking. say. A similar exercise should be carried out on the floor slab as soon as practical after casting and finishing the concrete. This is the reason for the suggestion given above to reduce the w/c ratio and thus reduce the amount of water in the mix when it is placed. and this in turn reduces the risk of drying shrinkage cracking. The coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete made with a flint gravel is generally taken as 12–14× 10-6 per °C. It has recently been suggested that the use of limestone aggregate concrete in contact with a high concentration of sulphates in the ground water may trigger the occurance of thaumasite attack. Some information on cover meter surveys is given in Section 10.

It can be advantageous to increase the cement content by.6.1 General considerations The information given here is intended to bring out important principles which should be followed when concreting in cold weather. 2.6. the hardening process practically ceases. 4. by providing thermal insulation and/or using heated concrete.6 Concrete construction in cold weather 4. readers are referred to Further Reading at the end of this chapter. and if sulphate-resistant Portland cement is required to resist sulphate attack. the chemical reaction between the cement and the mixing water is slowed down and the rate of gain of strength decreases. and has a reasonable cement content (300 kg/m3). The precautions to be taken to prevent frost damage to maturing concrete must be directed towards maintaining the temperature of the concrete as high as practical. if the concrete is not saturated with water and if it has reached a compressive strength of not less than 3 N/mm2. 1. The cement content should not be less than 300 kg/ m3. For more details on this subject. When the temperature of the setting and maturing concrete is lowered. say. The important factors involved in using Portland cement concrete when air temperatures are near freezing point are set out below: 1.2 Recommended precautions to be taken The following simple rules. will enable concreting to proceed in the severe weather likely to be experienced in the UK. the temperature of the heated concrete should not exceed about 30 °C at the time of placing. However. Frozen aggregates and icy water must not be used. Wet curing should not be used. As the temperature of the concrete approaches freezing point. if properly applied. Concrete must not be placed on frozen ground nor in frozen formwork. it may be necessary to suspend concreting until the air temperature rises. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Sulphate-resisting Portland cement generally has a slower hardening rate than ordinary Portland cement. 1½ bags (75 kg) per m3 unless there is a specific reason not to do so. It is the temperature of the concrete which is the key factor and the concrete should not be placed unless it has a temperature of at least 10 °C. However. 3. Or to use rapidhardening Portland cement. When the temperature of the concrete rises again the maturing process (hardening) will recommence and will continue at a rate proportional to the temperature of the concrete. then even if the concrete does freeze it is unlikely that permanent damage will result. 2.4.

while the same mix placed under the same external conditions but with a casting temperature of 20 °C may reach a temperature of about 55 °C after 20 hours. 4. say. as the exposed surface area to volume ratio is high.7 Concrete construction in hot weather 4.7. 4. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . the increase in ambient temperature provides this additional heat.2 Recommended precautions to be taken The following matters should be given careful consideration: 1. the heat of hydration of the cement type used will affect the temperature rise of the concrete. The degree of exposure of the site should also be given consideration. The temperature of the concrete at the time of placing should not be lower than 10 °C. it may be advantageous to reduce this. and an increased risk of plastic cracking and thermal contraction cracking. 4.1 General considerations It may be thought that. Also. However. This can be achieved by ordering heated concrete from a readymixed concrete plant which has the equipment to produce this type of concrete. The possible change in the cement type from OPC to a cement containing pfa or ggbs (BS 6588 or BS 4246). with temperatures in the high twenties and low thirties. but the need to maintain the specified strength and low permeability must be kept in mind.3. concrete placed at a temperature of. difficulties can be experienced. 2. In the summer. 10 °C may reach a temperature of about 30 °C in 24 hours. For example. but the maximum temperature should not exceed about 50 °C.7. It has been mentioned in the preceding paragraph that increase in the temperature of the concrete speeds up the chemical reaction between the mixing water and the cement. including premature stiffening of the concrete which makes placing and compaction difficult. The adverse consequences of the neglect of proper curing and protection against direct sunshine and strong wind will be increased. there would be no problems arising from concreting in the summer months. This is particularly important when casting slabs on the ground. The concrete must be well insulated as soon as the finishing processes have been completed. but such a change may increase the striking time for formwork. If the specified cement content exceeds 330 kg/m3. The aggregate stock piles can be sprayed with water as this will lower the temperature of the aggregate. The usual way of producing heated concrete is to heat the mixing water. 3. in temperate climates (such as in the UK).

The former is more common. 5. 4. Investigations by various authorities have established that the principal cause is the rapid evaporation of moisture from the surface of the concrete while it is still in a plastic or semi-plastic state. The use of a retarder is likely to be essential when ready-mixed concrete has to be transported over a long distance.Blackledge. and water storage tanks should be painted white.F. When the rate of evaporation exceeds the rate at which water (known as bleed water) rises to the surface of the concrete. but if kept in a black painted steel tank it will become quite hot. Water drawn from a public supply main will be reasonably cool.6 Plastic shrinkage cracks in floor slab. namely plastic shrinkage cracking and plastic settlement cracking. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 4. 6.8 Plastic cracking There are two types of plastic cracking. Special attention to proper curing is essential and consideration may have to be given to the use of tentage for floor and roof slabs. and the latter is unlikely to be encountered in the construction of a swimming pool shell and associated floor slabs. plastic shrinkage cracking is very likely to occur. The mixing water should be as cool as possible. G.8.1 Plastic shrinkage cracking This type of cracking may occur on the surface of floor and roof slabs while the concrete is still plastic. Courtesy. Figure 4.4.

and rarely extend to the slab edge. 2. 3. The following are recommended precautions to be taken when conditions are likely to be suitable for this type of cracking to occur: 1. they can also appear on cooler days if the concrete is exposed to a strong wind. Curing should be commenced as soon as possible after finishing is complete and the surface of the concrete should be protected from hot sun and strong wind.The cracks are usually very fine and are often not noticed until the next day (Figure 4. considerable heat is evolved by the chemical action between the mixing water and the cement which results in a rise of temperature of the concrete. These fine cracks are usually straight and short and transverse in direction.9 Thermal contraction cracking 4.5% by volume of the fresh concrete (BS 5328 Part 1 clause 4.3).6.5% is given in Part 4 of the Standard. 5. They are sometimes parallel to each other and the spacing can vary from about 50 mm to 300 mm.7. The placing.3. During the setting and early hardening of concrete. this has been referred to in Section 4. held down around the edges with planks or blocks. 4. preferably including a styrene butadien (SBR) emulsion. clause 3. Slabs cast ‘on the ground’ should be separated from the sub-base by 1000 gauge polythene sheeting. The allowable tolerance on the 5. While these cracks generally occur in hot weather.6). the peak temperature and the time taken to reach the peak and then to cool down depend on a large number of factors of which the following are the most important: 1.9. They should be grouted in with a Portland cement grout. the cracks are shallow and seldom extend to below the top layer of reinforcement. should be sprayed with water. Figure 4. when using 20 mm maximum size aggregate should be 5. An air entraining admixture can often be used with advantage. The formwork (if any) should be well damped down prior to placing the concrete. The treated surface should be covered with polythene sheeting.1 General considerations This is a common type of cracking in the walls of reinforced concrete water retaining structures including swimming pools. The mean air content of the mix. compacting and finishing should be proceeded with as quickly as possible without delay between each operation. say 10 litres to 50 kg cement. particularly if they are dry. the temperature of the concrete at the time of placing. The actual rise.6 shows plastic shrinkage cracking in the floor slab of a swimming pool. 4. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . It may be advisable to use a slightly finer grading of sand. The aggregates.

but it can pass Figure 4. the volume/exposed surface area of the concrete. It must be kept in mind that the walls are restrained at the base as the joint between the kicker and the wall panel is specially prepared to secure maximum bond and minimum permeability.2. seldom exceeding 1. 3. the ambient air temperature. the type of cement and the cement content of the mix. the concrete has already started to harden so that tensile stress set up by the contraction can only be accommodated without crack formation if the tensile strength of the concrete and/or the bond strength with the distribution reinforcement is not exceeded. This type of crack is usually narrow. By the time it starts to cool. the method of curing. As the temperature of the concrete rises it expands and when it cools down it contracts. 8.7 Thermal contraction crack in wall. Figure 4.7 shows a thermal contraction crack in the wall of swimming pool. 6. see BS 8007.0 mm in width. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 4. steel or plastic) and the time the formwork is kept in position. 7. the amount and detailing of crack control reinforcement. the type of formwork used (whether timber. the thickness of the section cast. 5.

The detailing of reinforcement in the perimeter bay at the four corners of a rectangular Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The surface left by the tamper will be ribbed. There is usually a perimeter bay which forms the heel of the wall. i.10 Swimming pools with floor slabs supported on the ground 4. the concrete must have reached the right degree of stiffness before the power floating. The tamper can be a single or double beam (twin beam compactor). The type of finish required should be clearly stated in the specification.1 mm and 0. 40 mm) has been provided. 4. but this cannot be relied upon.2 Slab reinforcement The reinforcement for the main floor slab could be either high yield deformed bars or high tensile fabric. 4. To provide a smoother finish. the power floating and trowelling would be desirable if the finish is to be a proprietary coating or PVC sheeting. and is normally located in the top of the slab with 50 mm cover.through the wall and is a potential source of leakage. Experience shows that some cracks seal themselves by ‘autogenous healing’. The concrete should be placed with a surcharge of about 50 mm to allow for reduction due to compaction.10.2 mm. They are often present when the formwork is stripped but are frequently not noticed until some time later when their ‘discovery’ causes consternation to designers and contractors alike. not less than 100 mm thick. and unless controlled by careful curing will tend to widen the existing thermal cracks. However. Once the formwork is removed. Cracks of ‘design’ width.e. drying shrinkage will start to take effect.1 Casting the floor slab The floor slab should be cast on a sliding layer consisting of two sheets of 1000 gauge polythene laid on a compacted granular sub-base.5 m to 2. The actual surcharge will depend on the slump of the concrete and the thickness of the slab. are unlikely to allow water to reach the rebars provided the specified cover (normally. The concrete should be thoroughly compacted by a vibrating tamper working off the side forms. To achieve satisfactory results. The use of the power float and power trowel should not be necessary if the floor slab is to receive a screed.10.0 m and then moved forward slowly over the compacted surface to smooth out the ridges and furrows left by the first pass of the beam. the tamper should be taken back every 1. The finish can be further improved by the use of a power float followed by a power trowel. 0. Poker vibrators should be used around the perimeter (next to the side forms) to help ensure adequate compaction.

mortar can be used instead of concrete. and this is discussed below.10.g.5. This should be sprinkled with coarse sand while it is still tacky and then allowed to harden.pool requires careful thought and experience. Figure 4. An alternative is to accommodate the pipe in a galvanized steel sleeve which would overcome the problem of bond. It should be noted that the majority of the pipes used for water circulation are now plastic instead of steel or cast iron. as the wall reinforcement has to be securely anchored into this slab. namely by boxing-out. the inlets for the treated water are located longitudinally on the centre line of the floor. The mortar should have a low w/c ratio and a styrene butadiene emulsion should be added to the mix (10 litres of SBR to 50 kg cement).4. 4. There are differences of opinion as to which method gives the better results from a watertightness point of view. say. and has been discussed in some detail in Section 4. up to. The pipe should be cleaned and all dirt and coating/paint removed prior to fixing.3 Joints in the floor slab The selection of the types of joints and their location is an essential part of the design.10.10. or building-in. 75 mm diameter.8 shows a detail of a boxed-out steel pipe with a flange on the water face of the floor slab or wall. For small diameter pipes. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . e. The boxed-out hole must be of adequate size to accommodate the pipe and allow for compaction of the concrete around it.2. 4.1 Boxing-out This method has to be adopted when for one reason or another it is not practical to insert the pipe at the time the slab is cast. as the work proceeds. If plastic pipe is used it will be difficult to obtain a good bond between the pipe and the concrete/mortar. the pipe may not be available or its exact position has not been finally determined. There are two ways of carrying the pipes through the floor (and in fact the same applies to the walls). The surface of the pipe should be roughened and a specially formulated resin bonding coat applied. Thorough compaction is essential.4 Pipework through the floor slab The main outlet pipe for the pool is located at the deep end and special care is required to ensure that leakage does not take place at this point. In some special systems of water circulation. 4. the object being to assist bond with the concrete/mortar. A flange should be provided on the water face of the floor slab.

A flange should be provided on the water face of a floor slab. Also.8 Boxing-out for pipe through wall. 4. Displaced water bars are a source of leakage which is very difficult to rectify.10. bearing in mind that there will be four layers of reinforcement and two lots of cover. This preparation can consist of bush hammering to lightly expose Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Figure 4.Figure 4. but can be centrally located in a wall panel which in fact is the usual location for what is known as a ‘puddle’ flange.4. The thickness of the wall will be determined by the design.1 Casting the concrete The walls are cast within formwork firmly secured at the base to the kicker which forms part of the perimeter bay of the floor slab.11 Construction of the walls of the pool 4. The top surface of the kicker should be carefully prepared so that maximum bond is obtained at this position where stress is likely to be at a maximum.11. and probably 400 mm with water bars.2 Building-in This method should be adopted whenever possible and involves casting-in the pipe as the concrete is cast. but it must be thick enough to allow for thorough compaction of the concrete. The same precautions should be taken to ensure good bond between the pipe and the concrete. 4. This means that the minimum thickness of the wall would be 300 mm without a water bar. the designer may have decided to specify the use of water bars in contraction joints as well as in expansion joints. The PVC water bar must be securely fixed to the reinforcement otherwise if may interfere with the placing and compaction of the concrete.2 shows a PVC water bar in an expansion joint in a wall.

The wall panels should be cast to their full height in one lift. The surface should be well damped down but care taken to avoid standing water between the pieces of exposed aggregate.11. or the use of high-velocity water jets. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .2.3 Execution of the work The reinforcement should be checked for specified cover and for general condition.11.9 Top surface of kicker prepared to receive placing of concrete for wall. the coarse aggre gate. If the surface is scabbled then all grit and dust must be removed before the concrete is cast on it.9 shows the top surface of a kicker prepared for the casting of the wall panel. 4. The joint between the formwork and kicker must be grout tight otherwise honeycombing at the base of the wall is likely to occur resulting in leakage when the water test is applied.2 Joints in the walls The question of type and location of joints has been discussed in Section 4. The same comment applies to joints in the formwork. It should be free from grease and loose scale rust. 4. The use of a water bar in the kicker is not recommended as it is very easily displaced during the placing and compaction of the concrete.Figure 4. Figure 4.5. light powdered rust does no hard and may in fact improve bond with the concrete.

The problem of thermal contraction cracking has been discussed in Section 4. 4. in the case of the walls. Slabs uniformly supported on the ground need not be designed for watertightness. If there is any fear about the probable occurrence of thermal contraction cracks. This requires careful detailing Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .. This may sound obvious. The time lost and the cost of repairing these cracks can be considerable. The omission of the surface flange would simplify the formwork. if the pipes are cast in as the work proceeds. The leakage is often only reported some time after the completion of the swimming pool complex and can only be rectified at considerable cost and serious dislocation of the use of the pool. However. outlets etc. it is better to leave the formwork in position for a day or so longer. Seepage is likely to occur through cracks and joints.11. A flange on the water face is not required unless the pipes are sleeved.1 Introduction If these slabs are suspended to provide space below for some specific purpose.12 Construction of walkway slabs and floors of wet changing areas 4. a puddle flange can be provided in the centre of the wall.12. as described in Appendix 2. 4.12. then it is essential that they should be designed and constructed so as to be completely watertight.2 Suspended slabs The slabs should be designed to the ‘water retaining’ Code (BS 8007). plant rooms etc. This omission can result in serious leakage through the slab into the utilised area below (Figure 4. The design and method of construction will depend on whether the pool is open air or enclosed.4 Pipework through walls Pipes for the water circulation system will pass through the walls below top water level and the precautions outlined in the previous paragraph for the floor of the pool also apply to the walls. and pipework passing through the slab such as drainage channel. The standard of watertightness of the slab itself should be the same as for the roof slab of a building.9 and this is relevant to the type of formwork used (whether timber or steel) and the length of time it is kept in position. Account should not be taken of applied finishes such as screeds and non-slip ceramic tiles or mosaic.10). but it is surprising the number of cases where this has not been done. The slab should be tested for watertightness. 4. They should be tested for watertightness as described in Appendix 2. such as storage.

then the walkways can be constructed as described in Chapter 6.3 Slabs supported on the ground If the pool is an open air one.11). and consultation between the designer and the suppliers of the fittings and pipework is desirable.10 Seepage through walkway slab into plant room below. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The provision of a flange on the top and/or bottom surface of the slab is likely to provide a practical solution.12. but this restraint may introduce complex stresses and therefore a sliding joint is often preferred (Figure 4. These slabs can be designed as flat slabs and all interior joints are detailed as construction joints so that the whole slab is virtually monolithic.Figure 4. 4. The precautions described in the previous paragraph for pipes passing through the pool floor are applicable here. The perimeter of the slab can be tied to the supporting structure. If the pool is enclosed. If the joint is tied. any movement joints in the supporting walls should be carried through into the suspended slab and this will increase the problem of ensuring complete watertightness. then the walkways and other ‘wet’ areas can be constructed as normal ground floor slabs as required by the Building Regulations and the relevant Approved Documents made thereunder.

Recommendations for the curing of the concrete of swimming pool shells is given below. it may be practical to keep the formwork in position for a few extra days and omit special curing procedure.13 Curing the concrete floor and walls of the pool Some general information on the materials used for curing concrete has been given in Section 2. special frames are needed to secure the sheeting and these should be kept in position for four days after removal of the formwork. The sheeting should be kept in position for a minimum of four days after completion of the casting of the concrete floor. an insitu terrazzo known as marbelite. or.11 Sliding joint between walkway slab and supporting structure. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .Figure 4. Concrete swimming pools are normally provided with a decorative and easily cleaned finish consisting of either a proprietary coating or ceramic tiles/mosaic. 4. For this reason. For the walls. If the weather is ‘favourable’ (mild and damp). All these finishes are required to bond strongly either directly to the base concrete or to an applied rendering which also has to bond well to the base concrete. Wet curing with water is also not recommended as it is very difficult to ensure proper control. in the case of private pools.11. A practical solution is to use polythene sheeting securely fixed so that wind cannot blow underneath it. the use of a spray-applied curing membrane is not recommended as this is likely to interfere with the bond at the interface of the finish with the concrete.

4. A pool located on the upper floor of a building has to be designed as a suspended structure and is constructed in a special structural void. beneath the pool shell.14 Construction of suspended pool shells 4. The standard of watertightness required is much higher than required for a normal pool located on or in the ground.12 Sketch showing suggested arrangement for reinforced concrete pool on upper floor of a building. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . While a damp patch may Figure 4.1 Introduction Very few pools are designed and constructed as completely suspended structures. when this is done it is usually required to utilise the space below the pool itself. This creates a number of special problems of which the most important is the need to ensure that there is no moisture penetration through the pool shell into the areas below. stores etc.14. Examples are large public pools when it is required to locate plant rooms.

will influence the design and method of construction of the pool shell. a decorative waterproof coating or ceramic tiles/mosaic. It would be logical to post-tension the walkway slab and the floor slab of Figure 4.2 Methods of construction It is assumed that the pool shell is located in a structural void in the building so that the outside of the walls and floor are available for inspection. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .B. but thought should be given to how a leak can be located and repaired.13 Reinforcement with nominal prestressing for pool on upper floor of a building in London.e. S. Griffiths. Burkett.be tolerated on the ceiling of a plant room. it would not be accepted on the ceiling of a hotel room or similar. All pipework should be in accessible ducts (Figure 4. 4. Insitu reinforced concrete post-tensioned to ensure that the walls and floor of the pool are in a state of permanent compression (Figure 4.13). Consulting Engineers and Scarlett.Tietz & Partners.14. Chartered Architects. The type of finish required. It is also recommended that the void should be tanked so that should leakage occur it will be contained and will not penetrate to other parts of the building. Suggested methods of construction are: 1. i. Courtesy.12). The precautions outlined below may be considered as rather exaggerated.

If joints.15 Thermal insulation of swimming pool shells It is sometimes suggested that thermal insulation should be provided to the pool shell. 2. due to its penetrating smell is not suitable and some other method should be selected such as ozone. The method to be adopted for the disinfection of the pool water. The membrane can be sheet material or a waterproof coating applied by spray. and corrosion. An alternative is complete aerial disconnection between the swimming pool hall and associated rooms. Insitu reinforced concrete with sandwich type membrane. or metallic ions. and the rest of the building. There should be a regular routine inspection. say. and if necessary repair any leakage. Chlorine. every six months which should be recorded. and wet changing areas if there are any.33. An alternative is to form the pool shell out of steel. the walkways around the pool. By far the greatest loss of heat is from the surface of the water with only a small percentage through the floor and walls to the surrounding ground unless the water table is high. 4. wet changing areas. the flexing of the pool shell.3 Additional matters for consideration When the pool is located on the upper floor of a residential building special attention should be given to: 1. In methods 2 and 3. should be provided with a membrane fully bonded to the structural floor slab. but this is a matter of design. The void in which the pool is located should be large enough for men to enter. 4. can be eliminated. carry out a detailed inspection. With a permanently high water table. See Chapter 8. in which case the installation of Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . An efficient system of mechanical ventilation to ensure that the warm humid air in the pool hall does not find its way into other parts of the building. this would be very advantageous from the point of view of watertightness. there can be problems with the application of finishes. This increases the dead load considerably. Insitu reinforced concrete finished with either fully bonded PVC or similar sheeting or a decorative waterproof coating applied by spray. the important point is that the membrane must be fully bonded to the base concrete and be sufficiently tough to withstand the laying of the finishes on top. 3.2. Permanent lighting and power points should be provided in this working space. See paragraph 5.14. However. other than daywork joints. the loss of heat from the heated water in the pool may be significantly increased.

0 m to 3. Practitioners Guide to Cold Weather Concreting. It is essential that recesses for the light fittings should be formed when the pool shell is being cast. American Concrete Institute. published by the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ACI 504-R-90. 1988. American Concrete Institute. The light fittings should preferably be installed so that bulbs can be changed without having to lower the water level in the pool. The longitudinal distance between the lights is usually 2. If it is decided to install the fittings after the pool shell has been constructed.0 m. In deep pools. Further reading American Concrete Institute. The equipment and wiring etc. lights should only be installed in the side walls. Under-water windows require an access corridor or similar for use by viewers. and it can improve safety for the bathers. the lights should be installed at a depth of about 0. in swimming pools. Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures.16 Under-water lighting and under-water windows The provision of under-water lighting can be very attractive. Inspections and tests should be carried out at intervals prescribed by the IEE. ACI Committee 306. To be effective. The fittings themselves are proprietary items and recommendations for installation should be obtained from the manufacturers. it can prove very difficult indeed to make such openings watertight. American Concrete Institute.90 m below the water surface as this will prevent dazzle to swimmers and spectators. 1996. 4. Practitioners Guide to Hot Weather Concreting. ACI Committee 360/AWWA Committee 400–511. 1989. ACI 350-R-89. and these should be recorded. In diving pools. and the same applies if the light fitting is installed in a watertight tube. Cold Weather Concreting. it may be desirable to install a second row of lights. the insulation must be virtually impermeable to water. and should be installed between two under-water lights. should be installed and tested in accordance with the latest edition of Regulations for Electrical Installations. Testing Reinforced Concrete Structures for Watertightness. The International Board for Aquatic Sports and Recreational Facilities recommend that. The whole installation should be corrosion-proof and water-proof. American Concrete Institute. American Concrete Institute.thermal insulation is worth considering. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Control of Cracking in Concrete Construction. American Concrete Institute. 1997. Guide to Sealing Joints in Concrete Structures. The window(s) must be made of high-quality safety glass. ACI Committee 224.

Classification and Requirements. British Cement Association. 10. Cement and Concrete Association. DD175. 1995. Concrete Society. Pink. Recent developments in the use of controlled permeability formwork. 1985. W. 11. R. D. Concreting in Hot Weather. Design of Liquid Retaining Concrete Structures. Winter Working. ISO 11600.Anchor. Code of Practice for Building Research Establishment. British Standards Institution. Early-age crack control in concrete. Joints in insitu concrete. Digest No. 1992. 1988.D. BS 5930. Watertight concrete construction. Code of Practice 4: Indentification of Contaminated Land and its Investigation. Deacon. 3. 2nd edition. 8–10. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Non-structural Cracks in Concrete. International Standards Organisation. Curing concrete. pp. London. Concrete. Harrison.504 1980. Shirley. British Cement Association. 1988. March 1998. A. BS 8004. British Cement Association. 1980. Concrete on Site No. Sulphate and Acid Resistance. 1993. British Standards Institution. Winter Concreting. 1992. Digest No. Technical Report 22. 1978. Edward Arnold. CS 030. Concrete Society.A. Price. Concrete Society. CS 053. R. CIRIA Report 91. British Standards Institution. T. 1981. Code of Practice for Foundations.C. Formwork—A Guide to Good Practice. Building Construction Sealants. British Standards Institution. Code of Practice for Site Investigations. Concrete Society. 46.

The Code comments: ‘It is a specialist operation…’ and ‘the designer should agree a full specification with the contractor for materials. mix proportions. defines shotcrete as ‘mortar or concrete pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a surface’. and does not refer to the construction of water retaining structures with shotcrete. No reference is made in the Code of pneumatically applied concrete. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . equipment and curing…’ The implication of this statement is that structures constructed of pneumatically applied mortar are outside the scope of the Code. Formwork (which is very expensive) is virtually eliminated. and this is unfortunate as sprayed concrete has been used satisfactorily for many years for swimming pools. the term now generally used in the UK is sprayed concrete. In the US and Canada the relevant Code for concrete water retaining structures is ACI 350 R-89 Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures. The use of sprayed concrete has a number of advantages: 1. 2. The material is also used for repair and strengthening reinforced concrete structures and for lining tunnels. sand and water). and Guidance Notes on the measurement of sprayed concrete in 1981. published a specification for sprayed concrete in 1979. for pneumatically applied mortar (cement. With the increasing use of a coarse aggregate in addition to the sand. The American Concrete Institute (ACI).Chapter 5 Construction of swimming pool shells in reinforced sprayed concrete and other materials REINFORCED SPRAYED CONCRETE (SHOTCRETE) 5. The pool can be formed to any desired shape without undue difficulty and significant increase in cost. in the US this was known as shotcrete. both large and small. This is similar in many respects to the UK Code (BS 8007). The UK Code for the design of concrete water-retaining structures (BS 8007) only devotes one short clause (6. placing. The Concrete Society (UK).7) to pneumatically applied mortar and does not offer any detailed advice or information on the use of this material.1 Introduction The term gunite was originally used in the UK. mixing.

3. Cement Gun Co. The design and construction is not specifically covered by the UK Code (BS 8007). 2. 4. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .4 and 5.1 The usual design incorporates a wide cove angle at the junction of the wall and floor. or to design the pool shell to eliminate the wide cove at the junction with the floor (Figures 5. 5.4. butt construction joints which are usually not provided with a sealing groove and sealed with sealant.1 Reinforcement prepared for construction of pool shell in sprayed concrete. See Section 4.1 and 5.2). because the delivery hose to the gun can be at least 100 m long. suitable precautions should be taken. and where necessary. High speed of construction is possible. The problem of flotation can be a real one and this should be checked in all cases. this prevents the use of ceramic tiles as a finish. The pool can be constructed on a congested site where access for materials and equipment is severely restricted. Pools constructed for national and international competitions should Figure 5. The only joints normally found in sprayed concrete pools are plain. 3. The alternative is to use ceramic mosaic. Courtesy. There are a number of disadvantages with shotcrete pools: 1.

Special skill and care is required by the gun operator to ensure that all the rebars are properly embedded. if the design procedure set out in the Code is followed it could reasonably be claimed that the Code had been complied with.Figure 5. 5. 4. Sprayed concrete construction can be more vulnerable to low winter temperatures than insitu concrete due to the virtual absence of formwork. have a right angle at the junction of the walls and floor in order to comply with ASA and FINA requirements. 5.5.2 Design and specification As mentioned above. and this has generally proved satisfactory in practice.2 Construction of pool shell in reinforced sprayed concrete. See Section 5. the design of liquid-retaining structures constructed in sprayed concrete are not specifically referred to in the UK Code of Practice (BS 8007). It appears that some experienced contractors specialising in swimming pool construction have evolved their own designs with the object of eliminating movement and stress relief joints. Buckingham Swimming pools Ltd. Courtesy. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . It is particularly difficult to ensure full embedment of the rebars in the floor slab and at wall junctions. However.

and the cores from the wet mix gave a compressive strength range of 37–40 N/mm2. The mix should contain not less than 325 kg of Portland cement per cubic metre.e. 5. The mix is then pumped to the nozzle where compressed air is admitted which conveys the mix at high velocity into place. whether the shotcrete is applied to a floor. These figures are not necessarily accepted by experienced contractors as being representative of good quality wet mix construction. It is here that the water is admitted by the gun operator. The amount of rebound is affected by the w/c ratio. In the dry mix method. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . i. The mix is then conveyed at high velocity into place. and the placement factor. grading of the sand and coarse aggregate and the type and condition of the equipment used are also important. The properties and performance of sprayed concrete depends largely on the experience and skill of the operators. In the wet mix method. and also the concrete should possess low permeability and low shrinkage and have an adequate cement content. 1. It is recommended that the ready-mixed concrete should be supplied by a QSRMC Registered Company from a plant holding current QSRMC Certification for Product Conformity. 2. and the aggregates should comply with BS 882 Aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete. It should be particularly noted that the mix proportions of the sprayed concrete in place are likely to be different to the proportions at the time of batching. wall or a ceiling. but the mix proportions.The specification for the concrete mix should be suitable for the type of equipment used. It is usual for the concrete to be ready-mixed to a specification prepared by the designer or by the packagedeal contractor. the wet mix and the dry mix. the cement and aggregates are weigh batched without the addition of water and the mix is then conveyed pneumatically to the ‘gun’ which consists of a mixing manifold and nozzle. It is usual for shotcreting contractors to use ready-mixed concrete. grading of the sand and placement velocity. The dry mix cores gave a compressive strength range of 50–72 N/mm2.3 Methods of application There are two methods of application. This is due principally to what is known as ‘rebound’. The operator has thus complete control over the amount of water in the mix. the cement and aggregates are weigh batched and a predetermined quantity of water is added. Experience in the US (see ACI 506-R-90 Guide to Shotcrete) gives the following figures for rebound. The Building Research Establishment in the UK carried out tests on the compressive strength of cores taken from both dry mix and wet mix sprayed concrete. Volume batching should not be used.

then the mass of the shell should be increased by thickening the floor slab to ensure a reasonable factor of safety. Reinforcing bars should be fixed so that they are at Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . problems is to ensure that the sprayed concrete is of consistent density throughout and that there are no voids or sand pockets behind the reinforcement. These valves. An increase in the mass of the pool shell in accordance with flotation calculations has obvious advantages.2 Application of the reinforced sprayed concrete One of the most difficult. A further point for consideration is that the ground water may be contaminated. the weight of the shell may be appreciably less than a reinforced concrete pool of the same size. With a high water table. the density (mass per unit volume) may be rather less than for well compacted insitu reinforced concrete. 5. being mechanical devices.4 Execution of the work The majority of swimming pools are constructed wholly or partly below ground and the comments given in Chapter 4 on site investigations. but at the same time most important. or may become contaminated. A third solution to the problem of uplift is to control ground water level by means of under-drainage and level controlled pumps. or by installing pressure relief valves in the floor. Corners and the floor require special care in this respect.1 Flotation of the pool shell The thickness of the floor and walls of sprayed concrete is less than a conventionally designed insitu reinforced concrete pool. Consequently. under-drainage of site and flotation are applicable for pools constructed in sprayed concrete with special reference to flotation/uplift. Also.4.5. 5. can fail to operate.4. Many pool contractors install these valves as standard procedure. If a calculation shows that flotation may occur. it admits ground water into the pool when the ground water pressure is higher than the pressure of the water in the pool. The effect on the foundations of adjacent structures by the lowering of the water table must be considered and expert advice taken before a decision is made. the danger of uplift can be very real and the necessary precautions should be taken. and then the pool shell may be damaged by uplift. this could constitute a health hazard. When a pressure relief valve operates. and if admitted to the pool through pressure relief valves.

followed by the central portion of the floor. For large projects. even a small private house pool will not be gunned in one continuous operation. 5.4. It is important to check for the presence of hollow-sounding areas behind reinforcement during the construction of the pool shell. in one operation. hessian or hardboard is fixed to a timber frame which forms the background to which the sprayed concrete is applied. The nominal cover should be 40 mm. The ACI in their Recommended Practice for Shotcrete recommends featheredging.2 show swimming pools being constructed of sprayed concrete.1 and 5. The cover should be checked with a cover meter as soon as practical after completion of the placing of the shotcrete (see Section 10. On the outer face of the walls. Formwork is not used for the walls but only for a ring beam at the top of the walls. On this the reinforcement is fixed and the sprayed concrete applied to the thickness required by the design. Movement joints are not normally provided in walls and floor and thus the pool shell is virtually monolithic. In swimming pools. the organisation of the work and the output of the gun operator. sand and water) to stiffen it. There are differences of opinion about how these joints should be formed. This is discussed in the next paragraph.3 Joints Although movement joints are not normally provided in the shell of sprayed concrete pools. but plaster-board should not be used as it is composed largely of gypsum (calcium sulphate) and the sulphates may. This can be done by simple tapping with a light hammer or rod. This requires the use of day-work/construction joints. and for any intermediate wall beams which may be included in the design of deep pools. It can be seen that the amount of reinforcement is considerable. it is usual for the walls and adjoining bays of the floor to be gunned first. The sub-base is often formed of large shingle (known as ‘rejects’). laid to a depth of 150–200 mm. The walls are usually gunned in panels to their full height and thickness. to help ensure full embedment of the steel. it is sometimes used as the ‘back shutter’. but in the UK it is considered good practice to form a plain butt joint down to the Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Figures 5. the hessian is sprayed with mortar (cement.22. Compacted granular material of adequate thickness can be used as a sub-base. If the excavation has been cut accurately and is stable. ultra-sonic pulse velocity equipment or impulse radar can be used.least four bar diameters apart or 50 mm which ever is the greater. followed by the adjoining floor bay. Hardboard and plywood can be used instead of the hessian.2 and Appendix 3 for information on cover meter surveys). migrate into the sprayed concrete resulting in sulphate attack. Prior to the commencement of the gunning. This means that the size of the panel is largely governed by the capacity of the equipment. in the course of time.

2 mm) are most unlikely to be seen on the rough surface of sprayed concrete. Lack of careful curing can result in serious drying shrinkage cracks which may penetrate down to below the reinforcement and result in corrosion of the steel.13 is essential. to remove all loose material (this cleaning can also be carried out by compressed air). The object is to make the joints monolithic and to assume that movement across the joint does not take place to a degree likely to cause cracks exceeding about 0. and below this the joint is tapered.4. 5.1–0. it will disturb the newly gunned material. 5. in very cold weather. if too early.2 mm wide at the surface as the weight of reinforcement normally used would ensure adequate crack control. and screed. but the surface must be well brushed down. The virtual absence of formwork will make a major contribution to reducing temperature rise in the sprayed concrete. and if too late it will be ineffective in providing a relatively smooth. 5.4 Curing the sprayed concrete Proper curing. although there is a tendency to neglect it or even omit it altogether. The cement content of sprayed concrete is usually higher than insitu concrete and the resulting increase in the heat of hydration is advantageous. For pools which are finished with tiles or mosaic.4. depending on what subsequent finishes are required. Sprayed concrete walls of swimming pools are particularly vulnerable to low temperature as the inside (water) face does not have any formwork and the outer face has only hessian or hardboard or thin plywood. it is normal good practice to apply rendering in order to ensure a true and even background for the tiling/ mosaic. The width of very fine cracks on such a surface are very difficult to measure. Cracks of this width (0. The time after ‘gunning’ for the application of the wood float must be carefully judged by an experienced operator. If these cannot be provided then it would be prudent to suspend concreting until the weather improves. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . or it can be worked over with a wood float. prior to the application of the rendering/ screed. as described in Section 4. have been discussed in Sections 4. even surface. and in hot weather with air temperature above about 28°C. However. The basic principles involved apply to the application of sprayed concrete.6 and 4. The ‘as gunned’ material provides a good key to rendering.6 Construction in cold weather and hot weather The problems associated with placing concrete in cold weather with air temperature close to or below 0°C.7. the use of heated concrete and efficient thermal insulation are likely to be essential. unless carefully and specifically looked for.4.5 Finishing the sprayed concrete Sprayed concrete can be left ‘in the rough’ straight from the gun.reinforcement.

the water test described in Appendix 2 should be carried out before any finishes such as rendering. are applied. 5. This constitutes a reason for carrying out the water test after application of rendering and screed.10.11.8 Under-water lighting The provision of under-water lighting has been discussed briefly in Section 4.6 Pipework Recommendations for dealing with pipes which pass through the floor.4. However.4 and 4. the finish to the sprayed concrete is usually not acceptable to tilers. An exception is the use of puddle flanges for pipes passing through the walls.5 Thermal insulation The provision of thermal insulation to the floor and walls of swimming pool shells constructed below ground level in insitu reinforced concrete has been discussed in Section 4. the basic fact that the heat loss from the pool surface is substantially greater than through the walls and floor applies and this is why thermal insulation is seldom used.15 to which readers should refer. A sprayed concrete pool is likely to have thinner walls and floor than an insitu concrete pool and therefore thermal insulation would be comparatively more effective. However. 5. or suppliers of proprietary coatings and sheet vinyl linings. and walls below top water level have been given in Sections 4.16 to which readers are referred.7 Testing for watertightness Theoretically. The presence of a flange within the wall thickness would create problems in gunning behind the flange and therefore it is generally better to provide the flange on the inner surface of the wall and floor. and this necessitates the application of rendering and screed.5. screed etc. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 5. as the same principles apply to sprayed concrete pools. The comments and recommendations made can be considered as generally valid for pools constructed in reinforced sprayed concrete.

and 8 m×4 m on plan. The blocks should be dense aggregate two core blocks. British Standard BS 5628 Part 2 1985 The Structural Use of Reinforced Masonry.SWIMMING POOLS CONSTRUCTED WITH REINFORCED HOLLOW CONCRETE BLOCK WALLS AND INSITU REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR 5.50 m. Figure 5. having a minimum compressive strength of 10 N/mm2.9 Introduction This is a popular method of constructing small swimming pools for private houses. All batching of concrete should be by weight.3 is a sketch showing a suggested section through a reinforced blockwork wall and insitu reinforced concrete floor of a small swimming pool with a maximum depth of 1. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .3 Sketch through wall and floor of pool constructed with reinforced blockwork walls and insitu reinforced concrete floor. The method of construction described here does not comply with the Figure 5. but mortar is normally batched by volume. deals with the design of laterally loaded walls based on limit state principles and it is recommended that these design principles be followed. to BS 6073.

The joint between the concrete block walls and the insitu concrete floor is particularly vulnerable to leakage and the provision of a substantial cove in cement/ sand rendering is recommended.2 and Appendix 3 for information on cover meter surveys.50. and 1100 kg coarse aggregate (20 mm maximum size). The fabric should be fixed so that the cover (to the top surface) is 50 mm.50 and the nominal slump should be 75 mm.1 Reinforcement The vertical rebars must be located as accurately as practical and securely fixed into the floor slab. as shown in Figure 5.recommendations of the Code of Practice for concrete water retaining structures (BS 8007). The floor slab for these small pools (dimensions on plan should not exceed about 8 m×4.3. See Section 10. The cover should be checked with a cover meter as soon as practical after casting. and the type of mesh should be determined by the dimensions of the slab. preferably pre-packed. For additional information on floor screeds see Chapter 7.22. and nominal slump of 75 mm. The floor slab should be cured by covering it with polythene sheeting held down around the perimeter and kept in position for at least four days. If the concrete is ready mixed then the order for the concrete should be: Designated mix to BS 5328. 5.0 m) can be cast without a transverse joint provided the reinforcement is designed accordingly. The concrete should be cast on a slip membrane consisting of two sheets of polythene laid on either 50 mm of oversite concrete or 75 mm of compacted granular material blinded with sand. Any joints in the floor slab should be carried through the screed and any rigid finish such as tiles etc. The reinforcement can consist of high tensile fabric to BS 4483. The floor would normally be finished with a cement/sand screed. The floor slab should be not less than 150 mm thick. The w/c ratio should not exceed 0. To ensure full compaction of the concrete a plasticiser may be required. The top surface of the kicker must be horizontal to accommodate the blockwork. having mix proportions of 1:4½ cement to concreting sand. medium grading (BS 882).3. The mix proportions for site mixed concrete would be 360 kg OPC.11. 5. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .11 Construction of the walls 5. If a joint is provided it can be considered as a contraction joint and detailed as shown in Figure 4.10 Construction of the floor The floor is cast first with a 100 mm high kicker on which the wall is built. characteristic strength of 35 N/mm2. w/c ratio not exceeding 0. 550 kg sand.

3 The concrete infill The concrete infill for the blocks should have mix proportions of 1:2:2½ by mass. Horizontal reinforcement should be provided in each course of blockwork as shown in Figure 5.3 and the diameter of these rebars should be determined by the length of the wall. If a bituminous based material such as Liquapruf is used this should be protected by hardboard to prevent damage by the back-filling. The walls should be finished on the inside with two coats of a cement/sand render containing 10 litres of SBR to 50 kg of OPC. the vertical reinforcement in the walls is extended into the ring beam. A substantial cove should be formed at the junction of the wall and floor. using 10 mm maximum size aggregate. The mortar mix for the blockwork would be determined by the design of the wall. 5. However.5. The joints of the blockwork should be raked out to a depth of 10 mm to improve the key for the rendering.11.4 The ring beam The wall is finished at the top with a reinforced concrete ring beam.11. this would require the use of a plasticiser or superplasticiser. with a slump of about 150 mm. 5. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . having a compressive strength of 10 N/mm2. An alternative is to render the outside of the walls. and the thickness for the second coat should be between 5 and 8 mm.2 The hollow concrete block walls The two-core hollow concrete blocks for the walls should comply with BS 6073 Precast Concrete Masonry Units. As a precautionary measure. The final coat can be finished with a wood float if ceramic tiles or mosaic is specified. as required by BS 5628. The blocks should be 440 mm×215 mm×215 mm.11. The mix for the ring beam can be the same as that used for the floor or the infill for the blocks. and a w/c ratio not exceeding 0. it is recommended that the outside of the walls be given two coats of a proprietary waterproofing compound.Reliance has to be placed on the infill concrete and the rendering to the blockwork walls to protect the rebars from corrosion as the concrete blocks have relatively high permeability. The second coat should not be applied sooner than four days after the completion of the first coat to allow the first coat to mature. The top surface of the kicker should be roughened and all grit and dust removed prior to the commencement of the blockwork so as to provide good bond to the building mortar. then the finish to the render should comply with the recommendations of the coating supplier. the mix should be 1:3½ cement to sand. and to ensure watertightness. The thickness of the first coat should be between 12 and 15 mm. if a proprietary coating is specified. 5.

16 Back-filling around the walls This should be carried out after the pool has passed the watertightness test. not exceed 10 mm.2 and 7. 5. A flange should be provided on the inside (water) face.13 Under-water lighting For under-water lighting.4. there are serious practical difficulties in inserting lighting fittings.4. The maximum permitted water loss over the test period of seven days should theoretically. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . but from a practical point of view. and not sooner than 28 days after completion of the walls.15 Testing for watertightness The pool should be required to pass the water test described in Appendix 2 with the following modifications: 1.5. 2.10.16. reference should be made to Section 4. The mortar joints in the blockwork are vulnerable to freezing temperatures and building the walls should be suspended during very cold weather.5. but it must be emphasised that with the walls constructed in reinforced blockwork.4. 5.12 Pipework Pipework which has to pass through the floor slab should be carried out as recommended in Section 4. It is unlikely that the blockwork walls will require curing unless the weather is particularly hot and windy.1. The test should be carried out after the rendering and screed have been applied and allowed to mature for at least 14 days. 5. The rendering and screed should be cured as recommended in Sections 7. and before the back-filling around the walls is carried out. 5. The passing of pipework through the block walls below top water level presents considerable difficulty and special care is needed.14 Curing the concrete and protecting the blockwork The floor slab should be cured as described in Section 5. a somewhat higher figure may have to be accepted.10. 3. The ‘initial soakage’ period should be 21 days as the precast concrete blocks have higher absorption than insitu reinforced concrete or sprayed concrete.

However. it does not comply with the Code of Practice. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . BS 8007 for concrete liquid retaining structures. 5.The back-fill material should be carefully placed and compacted in 150 mm thick layers.11. to which the reader is referred.4 Sketch through wall and floor of pool constructed with insitu reinforced concrete core wall with concrete blocks as permanent formwork.17 Thermal insulation Thermal insulation has been discussed in Section 4. Figure 5.18 Introduction This method of construction is favoured by many package-deal contractors. As generally constructed. see also the recommendation in Section 5. SANDWICH TYPE CONSTRUCTION WITH INSITU REINFORCED CONCRETE CORE WALL AND CONCRETE BLOCKS AS PERMANENT FORMWORK 5.15 and in Section 5. when properly designed and constructed.5.2. it can give satisfactory service.

10. 5.10. The main reinforcement for the floor is usually a high tensile fabric to BS 4483.0 m deep. However. Figure 5. The recommendations which follow are based on the assumption that the design is an empirical one and does not comply with the BS 8007. 5. this is likely to be uneconomic compared with taking account of the blockwork in the design.3. For a pool of this size. The construction of the floor slab should be as described in Section 5. 5. This difficulty can be overcome by designing the insitu core wall to comply with the Code requirements without taking into account the concrete blocks. The concrete mix should be as recommended in Section 5. and detailed as shown in Figure 4. The cover to the reinforcement should be checked with a cover meter as described in Appendix 3.0 m×2.4.4 shows a section through the wall of this type of pool.The main question that arises concerns the walls. the insitu reinforced concrete floor can be cast without movement joints. and then the suggested restrictions on size and depth in Section 5. reference should be made to Section 4. The top surface of the kicker should be horizontal so that the blockwork bed joints are also horizontal. For pipework passing through the floor.4. the pipes can be either cast-in or boxed-out. provided the reinforcement is designed accordingly.0 m×6.14. located 50 mm from the top surface of the slab which should have a minimum thickness of 150 mm. and curing should be carried out as described in Section 5. Should the contractor decide to cast it in two bays then the transverse central joint can be a contraction joint formed by a stop end. The size of the pool should be limited to about 10.20 Pipework For the walls.21 Construction of the walls The reinforcement should be securely fixed so that the minimum cover of the insitu concrete is 40 mm. The concrete blocks which act as permanent formwork to the insitu core wall cannot be considered as forming a structural part of the wall because the blocks themselves do not comply with the requirements for concrete quality in the Code. Starter bars for the wall should be securely fixed in the floor slab.19 Construction of the floor The floor should be constructed in insitu reinforced concrete and provided with a kicker 100 mm high which forms the base on which the wall is constructed as shown in Figure 5.19 would not apply.10. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .

20 for pipework should be adopted for underwater light fittings.50. The final finish can be ceramic tiles/mosiac.15. Package deal contractors often use marbelite. or chlorinated rubber paint. masonry cement can be used as this eliminates the need to use lime.24 Testing for watertightness The pool should be tested for watertightness not less than 14 days after completion of floor screed and rendering. 5. see Section 7. Nominal slump.23 Finishes to floor and walls The floor would normally be finished with a cement/sand screed and the inside surface of the walls with two coats of cement/sand rendering.50. ½ part lime and 4½ parts of sand Type S to BS 1200. The use of a plasticiser is likely to be required in order to obtain the 100 mm slump with the w/c ratio of 0. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . If a bituminous-based compound is used. Both skins of blockwork should be supported while the core wall is being cast and the supports should be left in place for 48 hours after completion of casting. 1100 kg coarse aggregate (20 mm maximum size). Reference should also be made to Section 4. A suitable mix for the concrete core wall would be: 360 kg cement.The concrete blocks should be solid dense aggregate blocks complying with BS 6073. as described in Appendix 2. it would be desirable for the coating to be protected by plywood or hardboard to prevent damage by back-filling. 550 kg sand.22 Under-water lighting The procedure suggested in Section 5. The mix would then be 1 part masonry cement to 3 parts sand Type S to BS 1200. Galvanised wall ties should be inserted in each course at 450 mm centres and staggered vertically.0 m. The mortar mix should be 1 part OPC. A cement/sand rendering could be used instead of a proprietary waterproofing compound. As the height of the wall is limited to 2. 5. 0. and the gauging water should contain 10 litres of SBR to 50 kg cement. the blockwork can be built to the full height and then the concrete for the core wall can be cast in one pour not less than 7 days after completion of the blockwork. Maximum water cement ratio. 5. It is recommended that the outside of the walls be given two coats of a proprietary waterproofing compound.9. As an alternative. with a minimum strength of 10 N/mm2. 100 mm.16. modified as recommended in Section 5.

for these pools.11.28. a higher rate of water loss than the figure of 10 mm drop in level given in Appendix 2 may have to be accepted. to which the reader is referred. Mass (gravity) type walls should be constructed on independent foundations. The walls can often be conveniently constructed by casting against the sides of the excavation which has been covered with polythene sheeting.5 m. 5. The walls can be mass concrete with mix proportions of about 1:3:6 by mass using 40 mm maximum size aggregate. Also. The insertion in the base/foundation of a steel flat as a waterbar is recommended. other than the precast post-tensioned type. For these methods of construction. Problems arise with joints in the walls. the nominal cover to the rebars should be 50 mm and this should be checked with a cover meter after casting the concrete.27 General comments Chapter 4 and parts of this chapter are intended to cover the methods of construction adopted for the vast majority of swimming pools. The installation of inlets and outlets and the circulating pipework are likely to create serious problems. Where reinforced concrete is used for the floor.5. it is probable that the cost and time for construction exceeds that of a conventional pool.5 and 5. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .26 Thermal insulation This has been discussed in Sections 5. see Appendix 3 for information on cover meter surveys. OTHER METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION 5.17.1 The walls The walls must be structurally stable by their own weight when subjected to water pressure from the inside when the pool is full and when subjected to sub-soil and ground water pressure when the pool is empty. When these factors have been taken into account.16.28 Pools constructed with mass (gravity) type walls 5. the pools should be limited in size to about 5 m×4 m with a maximum depth of water of 1. There are however other methods which may be suitable and convenient in special circumstances. The walls can be finished with cement/ sand rendering on the inside carried out as described in Section 5. 5.25 Back-filling around the walls The back-filling should be carried out as recommended in Section 5.

Such a wall should be finished with cement/sand rendering. and thus the wall is basically similar to the pool wall described earlier in this chapter. A waterbar cannot be used at the junction of the wall and the foundation. with a minimum compressive strength of 10 N/mm2.29 Curing the concrete Curing of the mass concrete. The thickness of the sprayed concrete and the amount of fabric reinforcement required would have to be decided in the light of site conditions.14. 5. but a higher water loss may have to be accepted. The wall must be stable by its mass.31 Pools constructed in very stable ground such as chalk or rock Such pools can be satisfactorily constructed by the application of a lining of reinforced sprayed concrete direct to the sides of the excavation.30 Testing for watertightness The pools described here should be tested for watertightness as recommended in Section 5. 440×215×215 mm. it is a gravity type wall and the thickness is determined by calculation. The application of the sprayed concrete should be carried out generally as described earlier in this chapter. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 5. The hollow blocks are filled with insitu concrete. A final finish with chlorinated rubber paint is recommended. 5. 5. The principle is similar to that used for the lining of rock tunnels and similar work and therefore would be suitable for a flowthrough pool as briefly described in Section 8.An alternative method is to use dense aggregate two-core hollow blocks (to BS 6073). The sprayed concrete should be finished with cement/sand rendering and screed as described earlier in this chapter.2 The floor The floor can be insitu reinforced concrete.15.28. The mortar for the blockwork should have mix proportions given in Section 5. with the vertical reinforcement omitted. the insitu reinforced concrete floor and the cement/sand rendering should be carried out as recommended in Section 5. The excavation should be carried out carefully to line and level so as to ensure a reasonably uniform thickness of the sprayed concrete. constructed as described in Section 5. but the thickness should not be less than 75 mm.10.11.1. 150mm thick.

Figure 5. Courtesy. Figure 5.6 Precast post-tensioned concrete units under erection.5 Section through pool constructed in chalk or rock and lined with reinforced sprayed concrete. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Dickerhoff & Widmann in association with IBACO International.

The precast units are only suitable to rectangular pools. then the problems associated with the installation of the circulating water pipework as previously mentioned would apply. Magazine of Concrete Research. (eds). Figure 5. The practical use of ultra-sonic pulse velocity measurements in the assessment of concrete quality. CS 021. Vol. 32. Switzerland. Figure 5.7 but a somewhat higher water loss would not be unexpected. Concrete Society. Design and Application Whittles Publishing. If the pool is intended to have water treatment. Guidance Notes on the Measurement of Sprayed Concrete. 5. Precast Concrete Masonry Units. 1995. H. Current Paper CP18/77. and in Europe it has not progressed as originally anticipated due to the popularity for pools which are not rectangular on plan. P. Austin. Sprayed Concrete—Properties. Guide to Shotcreting. No. A valid assessment can only be made after the pools have been in use for several years. Further reading American Concrete Institute. 5.M. In recent years stainless steel has been used for a few small pools. British Standards Institution.The pool should be tested for watertightness as described in Section 5. American Concrete Institute.32 Pools constructed of precast post-tensioned concrete units This type of construction has been used on a number of public swimming pools in Germany and Switzerland. shows a section through such a pool. March 1980. Guide to Evaluation of Shotcrete. 1981. Scotland. Specification for Sprayed Concrete. a small number of pool shells have been constructed of welded steel sheets (carbon steel and stainless steel).J. Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Support Requirements and the Wet Mix Process. Parts 1 and 2. ACI-506–2–95. S. this method has not been used for swimming pools in the UK. 1979.5. American Concrete Institute. Specification for Shotcrete. mainly due to problems of corrosion and deterioration of the finishes. and Robbins. BS 6073. Concrete Society. ACI-506–4R-94. As far as the author is aware. CS 022. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .33 Pool Shells of Steel With the object of ensuring complete watertightness and reducing dead load. Carbon steel shells have given poor performance. ACI-506R-90. 110.A. Building Research Establishment. Tomsett.6 shows such a pool under construction at Chur.

the pool can be constructed into the side of the hill. it is advisable for the edge of the pool and the surrounding paving to be raised slightly. but care must be taken to ensure that the whole of the pool is built on solid undisturbed ground or is uniformly supported in some other way.00 m (1 in 50) is adequate.2. As most open-air pools are wholly or partly below ground level. This is discussed in Sections 4. Natural depressions in the ground can be useful in saving excavation for the pool. The term external works comprises paving. stores etc. Large covered pools which form part of a leisure centre are sometimes designed with the plant rooms. 50–75 mm above the level of the adjoining ground. below the pool shell and/or below walkways and changing rooms. With unsymmetrical sites. this is to prevent water used for washing down the paving and rain Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .14. the excavated material can be used to adjust levels and form terraces and embankments.Chapter 6 External works 6. The advice of an experienced landscape architect is generally worth the cost. On a sloping site. a minimum gradient of 20 mm in 1.2. and this is discussed in Section 6. Paved areas adjacent to the pool should be laid to slope away from the pool. This will help to keep insects from crawling into the pool and will generally help in maintaining cleanliness in the pool.12 and 4. walling and surface water drainage. Paved areas laid on compacted fill can present problems arising from long-term settlement. say. Consideration can be given to the construction of a circular pool for private houses when serious swimming is not contemplated. For outdoor pools. some external works will be needed for even a small private pool. which require proper compaction. and it is important to remember that good landscaping can transform a rather dull uninteresting site into a most attractive one. Nevertheless. The floor can be designed as a suspended slab supported on reinforced concrete columns or load-bearing walls.1 General considerations External works on a large scale are only likely to be required for major swimming pool projects such as leisure and sports centres. the construction of a free-formed pool instead of a rectangular one can assist in producing an attractive layout. but this can be very expensive and is seldom adopted except for large projects.

Clay paving bricks (pavers).2 Paving 6. or chemically stained. chemically stained. but it is hoped Fgure 6. particularly when wet. Precast concrete flags—plain or pigmented. All the above can be used for paving for pedestrians and for vehicles but the end use must be taken into account when specifying the material and the method of construction. plain or pigmented. pigmented. pattern-imprinted. It is not possible in this book to give a detailed specification for each of the above types of paving laid on various sub-soil conditions. A proper system of surface water drainage may be required.2. from draining into the pool. depending on the layout and size of the project. are not suitable for paving around a swimming pool nor for any form of external paving as the finished surface is very smooth resulting in a real danger of slipping.1 Introduction There are a number of materials and methods of construction which can be used satisfactorily: Insitu concrete: plain or reinforced. 6. while very attractive. Asphalt or coated macadam. Precast concrete paving blocks—plain or pigmented.water.1 Illustration of terms used in concrete paving. Action to provide a non-slip surface to these materials is likely to spoil their natural attractive appearance. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Natural stone flags. and natural marble. See also Section 6. Precast and insitu terrazzo.3.

6. If ready-mixed concrete is used.1 illustrates the terms used. For site-mixed concrete.2. The length should not exceed 1. Owners can be bitterly disappointed when they find their new paving has developed an uneven surface and a considerable amount of cracking which can only be rectified at high cost. 6. The concrete must be thoroughly compacted. It is better to use concrete flags or concrete or clay paving blocks as settlement of the sub-base can be readily corrected.0 m.5 times the width.2. it is advisable to lay 75 mm of compacted gravel or similar material as the sub-base. On natural ground such as gravel or sand. to the finished level of the surface of the paving. particularly for small jobs when heavy compacting plant is not available. this should be specified as GEN 4 in accordance with the relevant clauses in BS 5328: Concrete. Top soil must be stripped down to the appropriate level and shape. Plain unreinforced concrete should be 100 mm thick and laid in bays not exceeding 2. Even well-compacted fill is liable to settle in the course of time resulting in cracks.2. the mix proportions recommended are: 1 bag (50 kg) cement (about 1¼ cubic feet or 0. but care must be taken to ensure that the hardcore does not contain material such as gypsum. then the use of insitu concrete can give rise to problems. Figure 6. which can attack concrete paving laid on it.3 Insitu concrete For the reasons given in Section 6. The hardcore should be broken up into pieces not exceeding 50 mm in size and ‘blinded’ with a thin layer of sand.2 Paving for pedestrians If the paving has to be laid on compacted fill. The use of compacted hardcore to make up levels is likely to give appreciably better results. The following recommendations apply when the insitu paving is laid on undisturbed ground. The finished level of paving close to buildings must be at least 150 mm lower than any damp-proof course (dpc) in the walls of the building.2.5 m×2. and unevenness across the cracks which is very difficult to rectify without complete relaying. this type of paving is not recommended if it has to be laid on filled ground. On clay/peat.036 m3). the separating layer can be laid directly on the prepared ground (known as the sub-grade).that the information which follows will be useful. A separating layer of 1000 gauge polythene sheeting should be laid on the subbase. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . and after finishing must be cured for not less than four days by covering with polythene sheeting held down around the edges.

2. clean concreting sand. 6.1 Pigmented concrete Many building owners do not like the grey colour of concrete and want a coloured (pigmented) concrete. The first application uses about 60% of the total dosage.2. The final operation consists in the application of a wax or acrylic type sealant. The amount of pigment should be decided by trial and the pigment added to the mix before water is added. fine hard aggregate. There is one further problem with pigmented concrete and that is efflorescence or lime-bloom. The basic principles of construction given in Section 6. standard of mixing.5. It wears off in time. Some information on pigments is given in Section 2.5. Figure 6. Sufficient water should be added to make a workable mix which can be easily spread.2.2.108 m3 coarse (20 mm) aggregate. The imprinting tools consist of rubber mats of various shapes and patterns. amount of water in the mix.75 ft3 (0. The pigments used should comply with BS 1014 Pigments for Portland Cement and Portland Cement Products. variations in compaction and finishing. This gives mix proportions by volume of 1:2:3. 6. which are pressed into the surface after the second application of the sprinkled colour-hardener. but can be very disfiguring before it finally disappears. pigments.3.2 shows a garage drive of patterned concrete. It is not possible to obtain the same uniformity of colour as is given by a pigmented coating.3 should be followed. The process should only be entrusted to specialist contracters with a proven record of successful jobs. and an admixture to assist the imprinting process.5 ft3 (0.2 Pattern-imprinted concrete Pattern-imprinted concrete has been in use for many years but on a small scale. compacted and finished. The colour is imparted to the surface of the plastic concrete in the form of a ‘colour-hardener’ which is sprinkled evenly by hand in two applications. These variations in pigmented insitu concrete arise from inevitable variations in mix proportions. particularly if dark pigments have been specified. The result can be disappointing due to variations in the tone (intensity of colour). It is much more noticeable on pigmented concrete. The colour hardeners usually consist of mixtures of Portland cement. 3. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . This is a whitish discolouration which can appear on the surface of the concrete irrespective of whether it is pigmented or plain. some colours are adversely affected by ultra-violet light (mainly blues and greens). However.3.072 m3) coarse.

There will be variations in the intensity of the surface colour and unless this fact is accepted.Figure 6. Edgings and Quadrants. Channels.2.2 Garage drive in imprinted concrete. The thickness varies from 50 mm to 70 mm. 6. Kerbs.3.4 Precast concrete paving flags These can be obtained in a range of standard sizes. the results can be very disappointing. These stains are water-based solutions of metallic salts and are claimed to react with the free lime in the concrete and form stable coloured deposits in the surface layers of the concrete. Only specialist contractors should be employed with a proven record of satisfactory work. 6.2. Part 1 Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .3 Chemical staining of concrete Chemical staining of concrete is carried out after it has hardened for at least a month. rectangular and square. Concrete to be treated by this process should not be given a floated finish as this will significantly reduce the penetration of the metallic salt solution into the concrete. These flags should comply with BS 7263 Precast Concrete Flags.

Specification for Paving Blocks. The joints should be made with cement-sand mortar. The joints between the flags can be narrow (2–4 mm) and filled with fine sand. it is relatively easy to take up the offending flags and rebed them. Difference in level between adjacent flags should not exceed 3 mm. The precast flags can be pigmented and. having mix proportions of 1 part cement to 4½ parts of fine sand. sand. and laid in accordance with Part 3 Code of Practice for Laying. It is not unusual for this 3 mm ‘lip’ between adjacent flags to increase with time due to consolidation of the bedding and sub-base. 6. The Interpave Information Sheets give details of these alternative materials suitable for the sub-base. Generally. variations in colour intensity should be much less than with insitu concrete. garage drives and access roads for commercial vehicles (Figures 6. They should be laid in accordance with Part 2 Code of Practice for Laying. but the minimum joint width is 6 mm to allow for slight variations in the slab surface. or crushed rock fines. cement-bound material or wet lean concrete.5 Natural stone flags These are best specified to have a riven finish to help prevent slipping. particulary for paving around a swimming pool where people walk with bare feet.2. the flags should be laid on a bed of mortar. but can be obtained in Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The blocks should be manufactured to BS 6717 Precast Concrete Paving Blocks Part 1.2. The blocks are generally rectangular. 25 mm compacted thickness. The flags must be uniformly bedded and well punned down onto the sub-base which should consist of Type 1 Granular Material. This is important. The bedding should be laid on a properly prepared sub-base. and efflorescence as referred to in Section 6. See BS 5385 Part 5 Wall and Floor Tiling.3 and 6.Specification. When this occurs.6 Precast concrete paving blocks This type of paving has become very popular for both pedestrian areas and car parks. as they are factory made. They can be laid in the same way as precast concrete flags. This is a sound reason for using precast flags instead of insitu concrete. There is still a potential problem with change in colour intensity (fading) due to ultra-violet light.2. or they can be wide (5–10 mm) and filled with mortar (1:4½ cement to sand).3. British Standard BS 7263 requires that the difference in level between adjacent flags must not exceed 3 mm. The Precast Concrete Paving and Kerb Association (Interpave) have issued a number of explanatory leaflets giving detailed information on these products and how they should be laid. 6.4).1. 200×100 mm.

Marshalls plc. Courtesy.4 Concrete block paving for light commercial traffic. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .3 Concrete block paving around garden pool. Figure 6. Redland Precast Ltd. Courtesy.Figure 6.

Brick Development Association. and the thickness of the Type 1 Granular Material used for the subbase.2. Structural Design is not required. The recommendations on the Information Sheets issued by Interpave relating to installation and detailing should be followed. Courtesy. then the full design procedure recommended by the Code (BS 7533) and detailed in the Interpave Information Sheet Concrete Block Paving.7 Clay paving bricks (pavers) The relevant Standards and Codes are: BS 7533 Guide for Structural Design of Pavements Constructed with Clay or Concrete Block Pavers. 6.a number of proprietary shapes and sizes. Where the block paving is intended for pedestrian use only. CBR).5 Flexible clay paving under construction in herringbone pattern. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . A block thickness of 50 mm would generally be sufficient for pedestrian use only. Part 3 Method for Construction of Pavements. BS 6677 Clay and Calcium Silicate Pavers for Flexible Pavements Part 1 Specification for Pavers. Figure 6. They are made in a range of thicknesses and colours and are frost resistant. Informed consideration must be given to the type of sub-grade (California Bearing Ratio. Part 2 Code of Practice for Lightly Trafficked Pavements. The level of the water table must also be taken into account.

The Brick Development Association have issued a Design Note (No.8 Paving for light vehicular traffic This is intended to cover parking areas and access roads for private cars and light commercial vehicles. precast concrete paving blocks.1 Insitu reinforced concrete for use by private cars and light commercial vehicles For this type of use.2. The materials discussed in this section are: insitu reinforced concrete. 6.6). the following is recommended. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .5 and 6. 9) Flexible Paving with Clay Pavers. based on the use of readymixed concrete laid by a local contractor. and this.Figure 6. Courtesy.2. clay paving bricks (pavers).8.6 Decorative clay pavors in large pedestrian area. together with the Standards and Codes referred to above should provide the information required for the design and laying of this type of paving (Figures 6. 6. asphalt and coated macadam. Brick Development Association.

The Ministry of Transportation and Communications (Ontario). The concrete should be air-entrained (mean 5. The American Concrete Institute.5 m.2 Precast concrete paving blocks This type of paving is suitable for light and heavy commercial vehicles provided the recommendations of BS 7533 Guide for the Structural Design of Pavements Constructed with Clay or Concrete Block Pavers. The use of fabric reinforcement located 50 mm from the top surface of the slab would allow the bays to be increased in length and width. The transverse joints can be stop-end joints with the reinforcement stopped back 75 mm each side of the joint. and are bonded throughout their length. Tie bars are sometimes used in these joints. The mix should comply with BS 5328 Designated Mix PAV 1 Table 13 Part 1 and Table 6 of Part 2. A minimum thickness of 150 mm is recommended. laid on a slip membrane of 1000 gauge polythene sheeting. well compacted. The use of saw-cut joints in this class of work can result in practical difficulties over timing of the sawing. 6. The concrete should be laid between side forms.g. The work should be carried out by an experienced contractor under reasonable site control. The Portland Cement Association (USA). which are laid down in the publications of the Department of Transport in the UK and to the following authorities in the USA and Canada: American Association of State Highways and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). supplemented by the Information Sheets issued by Interpave.5% entrained air).The order to the supplier should state the purpose for which the concrete is to be used. they are usually located at 500 mm centres and are located at the neutral axis.2. The Portland Cement Association (Canada).0 m×2. laid on a compacted sub-base not less than 100 mm thick. and properly cured for four days by covering with polythene sheeting or by the application of a resin-based curing compound. see Chapter 2 for information on air entraining admixtures. OCCASIONAL USE BY HEAVY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES Paving subject to occasional use by heavy commercial vehicles (e. specified and laid on the same principles as those adopted for highways. the dimensions depending on the weight of reinforcement used. are followed. The slab should be reinforced unless it is laid in bays not exceeding 3. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . petrol bowsers) should be designed.8. Tie bars are recommended at longitudinal (warping) joints.

It can also be used for the resurfacing of deteriorated concrete paving. Relevant British Standards are BS 594 Hot Rolled Asphalt for Roads and Other Paved Areas. 6. supplemented by the detailed recommendations given in the Brick Development Association (BDA) Design Note No. 6. 2 and 3.Essentially. The Quarry Products Association have issued a set of Information Sheets giving details of this type of construction for pavements and roads.e. soil cement. September 1991 Soakaways and CIRIA Report No. Type 1 Granular Material. 6. It has the advantage of being relatively easy to lay to close tolerances. car parks for light commercial.8. water course or soakaways. In brief. Care should be taken to prevent the water table rising to less than 600 mm from the pavement surface. It should be noted that if the sub-grade material is susceptible to frost attack then the thickness of the sub-base would have to be substantially increased and expert advice should be sought. i. some information on this is given in Section 10.2.3 Surface water drainage To help eliminate ponding.7. factorymade channels are now available on the market. 156 Infiltration Drainage Manual of Good Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . This may require sub-soil drainage. lean concrete. Details of these publications are given under Further Reading at the end of this chapter. a combined sewer. The paving blocks should be laid in accordance with BS 6717 Precast Concrete Paving Blocks Part 3 Code of Practice for Laying.8.2.3 Clay pavers The paving should comply with BS 6677 Clay and Calcium Silicate Pavers for Flexible Pavements Parts 1. the procedure is to establish the CBR value for the sub-grade. followed by the selection of the sub-base material and determination of its thickness. the sub-base should not be less than 450 mm thick. and BS 4987 Coated Macadam for Roads and Other Paved Areas.4 Asphalt and coated macadam This material is suitable for garage drives. If the sub-grade is frost susceptible. and heavy commercial vehicles. it is necessary to establish the CBR value. The design and construction of soakaways need careful consideration and reference should be made to BRE Digest 365. The gulleys are connected to the main drainage system which is either a surface water sewer. Surface water drainage for a large paved area normally consists of a channel or channels which collect the run-off from the paving and these channels discharge to road gulleys located at predetermined positions. or cement-bound granular material (all in accordance with the DoT Specification for Highway Works) and decide its thickness based on the CBR value. cross falls to all types of paving should not be less than 1 in 60 and drainage channels should have an appropriate longitudinal fall. and from this select the material for the sub-base. 9 Flexible Paving with Clay Pavers.

2 Free-standing walls These walls are usually constructed in clay bricks and one of the best-known references is the Brick Development Association’s publication Design of Freestanding Walls DG12. are generally suitable for use in sheltered and moderate zones. The details of surface water drainage design and construction are outside the scope of this book.4. For the small projects. Then a mix of 1:½:4½(cement. Also relevant is BS 5628 Part 3 Code of Practice for the Use of Masonry Materials.1 Intoduction For external works associated with swimming pools there are essentially two types of walling. The most important factor in the design of such walls is the correct assessment of the exposure conditions and reference should be made to the Driving Rain Index map or the Wind Zone map of the UK which is included in BS 5628. The information in these publications is largely based on theoretical considerations. and the BSI publication DD 93 Methods for Assessing Exposure to Wind Driven Rain. frost resistant bricks should be specified. will be based on how soakaway systems actually work. sand) to coping level. New research by the Hydraulics Research Station at Wallingford. namely free-standing walls and earth-retaining walls. Design and Workmanship.Practice 1996. provided the wall is provided with an overhanging coping and has a damp-proof course of two courses of engineering bricks or two courses of slates half-lapped and bedded in mortar. located 150 mm above adjacent ground level. UK. or masonry cement and sand mix 1:3 by volume. Components. Ordinary clay bricks to BS 3921 Clay Bricks and Blocks. For sites exposed to freeze-thaw cycles. and should project not less than 50 mm beyond the face of the wall on both sides.4 Walling 6. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . reference to BS 8301 Code of Practice for Building Drainage is recommended. 6. The design of large drainage systems should be based on the recommendations in BS 6367 Code of Practice for Drainage of Roofs and Paved Areas. taking into account rainfall. lime. Copings should be provided with a throat and bedded on a bituminous felt damp-proof coursing and can be precast concrete or stone. 6.4. and the run-off from various types of surface. It is recommended to use sulphate-resisting Portland cement for the mortar for the full height of the wall. A mix of 1:¼:3 up to dpc level.

Figure 6. or clay bricks. the Building Research Establishment publication Building Brick or Blockwork Free-standing Walls.7 Boundary wall (free-standing) in contrasting facing bricks. The location of these joints depends mainly on the design of the wall (Figure 6.4. As an alternative for small projects. Good Building Guide 14 gives useful practical advice based on ‘rule of thumb’ procedures for this type of wall. The first question which arises is under what circumstances should a garden retaining wall be ‘structurally designed’. 6. Courtesy. Movement joints should extend the full height of the wall (from foundation to top of the wall including the coping).3 Earth retaining walls These can be constructed in reinforced concrete. The wall should be structurally designed in accordance with the procedure set out in the BDA publication DG 12. see Brick Development Association publication DG 12 for details. mass concrete.7). concrete blocks. but it is suggested that reference should be made to the Building Research Establishment’s Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . stone. Brick Development Association. There is no clear answer to this.

useful practical advice is given in the BRE publication GBG 27 Building Brickwork and Blockwork Retaining Walls. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . DG 2. Insitu reinforced concrete would only be used for larger projects and should be designed to BS 8110 Structural Use of Concrete. Courtesy.0 m centres longitudinally. clay bricks or concrete blocks.8 for the view of an attractive clay brick retaining wall. the relevant Code is BS 5628 Code of Practice for the Use of Masonry. Figure 6. The mortar mix should be the same as for clay bricks. ‘Weep holes’ should be provided near the base of the wall at about 2.8 Reinforced clay brick retaining wall.2 1951 Earth Retaining Structures.Good Building Guide GBG 27 which provides rule of thumb guidance for the safe construction of brick and block earth retaining walls. See Figure 6. 1 part SRPC to ¼ lime to 3 sand (type S to BS 1200). For concrete block retaining walls. Useful information is contained in Civil Engineering Code of Practice No. Specific information on the use of clay bricks is given in the BDA publication Design of Brickwork Retaining Walls.75 m. Brick Development Association. 3 m high and 337 mm thick. It is recommended that low sulphate clay bricks be used with a sulphate-resisting Portland cement (SRPC) mortar. The mortar mix should be by volume. up to a maximum retained height of 1. For masonry.

British Standards Institution. Concrete Quarterly. BS 8104. Precast Concrete Paving and Kerb Association. pp. Update on pattern-imprinted paving. November 1997. Roeder. Rain relief. Precast Concrete Paving and Kerb Association. 2 and 3. 1986/89. pp. Construction and Surfacing of Car Parking Areas. Whitehead. Precast Concrete Paving and Kerb Association. Information Sheet 4.Further reading Bennett. with amendments. HD 14/87. Design for Road Surface Dressing. Chemical stain. Paving Flags—Techniques for Laying. November 1997. T. 14– 15. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . London. HMSO. Code of Practice for Assessing Exposure to Wind-driven Rain. Autumn 1992. Road Note 39. Department of Transport. 32–3. Concrete Block Paving—Structural Design of the Pavement. Quarry Products Association—Asphalt Information Service. Model Specification Clauses. 4th edition. Precast Concrete Paving and Kerb Association. Department of Transport. Transport Research Laboratory. Decorative and Coloured Finishes for Asphalt Surfacings. T. Quarry Products Association—Asphalt Information Service. concrete terrazzo and exposed aggregate finishes. Department of Transport. pp. New Civil Engineer Concrete Engineering. Concrete. Kerbs and Footways. Specification for Highway Works. D. Concrete Block Paving—Detailing. Joints. Structural Design of New Road Pavements. Parts 3 and 7. London. Information Sheets 1. 36–7. HMSO. New Civil Engineer Concrete Engineering. November/December 1992. December 1989.

6. On ‘the balance of probabilities’.3 that Sulphate Resisting Portland cement (SRPC) is recommended instead of Ordinary Portland cement. coatings. and glass-fibre polyester resin linings. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .2.Chapter 7 Finishing the pool shell and associated structures. Precast concrete blocks. The temperature of the pool water 26 °C to 28 °C assists the chemical reaction between the sulphates in solution and the tricalcium aluminate (C3A) in Ordinary Portland cement. 3. the term associated structures means walkway slabs and floors of wet changing areas. with thick-bed adhesives.2 and 7.2. See Sections 2. 3.2. The finishes considered here in some detail are cement/sand rendering and screed followed by ceramic tiles and mosaic. The substrates to which the finishes are: applied are: Insitu concrete.8. It will be noted in Sections 7.00 m straightedge must not exceed 3 mm. The reason for this is that the author has investigated a number of cases of deterioration of tile bedding and cement-based rendering and screeds caused by sulphate attack. 3. problems with pool hall roofs FINISHING THE POOL SHELL AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES For the purpose of this chapter. Brief mention is made of marbelite (an insitu white terrazzo). These tolerances depend on the type of bedding used. the ‘gap’ must not exceed 6 mm.5. Sprayed concrete. While ceramic tiles and mosaic can be applied successfully direct to insitu concrete.1. this should only be attempted by experienced concreting contractors due to the practical difficulties in obtaining the required surface tolerances on the concrete so that it is suitable for the laying of the tiles or mosaic.1. and 8. sheet linings. the source of the sulphate has been the pool water.1. The Code is BS 5385 Part 4 and this requires that with thin-bed cement-based adhesives the gap beneath a 2.7.

2. excessive use of percussion tools can cause fracture of the coarse aggregate resulting in a weak surface. method 3 is much preferred. Compliance with the recommended periods result in the following time sequence: From casting to test (for structural reasons): Filling for test. Methods 1 and 2 can be create considerable dust and fine grit and Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . A period of six weeks is recommended between the curing of the pool shell and the commencement of rendering or screed.1 and can be obtained by the following means: 1. The most effective way of ensuring a high standard of bond is to prepare the surface of the concrete so that the coarse aggregate is slightly exposed. It is assumed that pool shells constructed in insitu concrete or sprayed concrete have been successfully tested for watertightness (as described in Appendix 2) before the rendering and screed are applied. 7 days: Drying out after completion of test including 2 days for emptying (2+42) 28 days 16 days 44 days Total: 88 Days This is a total period of almost 3 months from casting the pool shell to the start of the rendering/screed. 3.1 Preparation of the base concrete It is essential to obtain maximum bond between the base concrete and the rendering as bond failure is probably the most frequent cause of serious trouble (failure) with rendering. The surface of concrete prepared for application of screed and rendering should be checked and accepted by the supervising officer before the screed/rendering is allowed to proceed. preliminary soakage.1. The curing of the pool shell is likely to take about seven days after the removal of the formwork. 7 days.1 Cement-sand rendering to insitu concrete walls 7. This type of surface is shown in Figure 7. or completion of the application of the sprayed concrete.British Standard BS 5385 Part 4 sets great importance on providing an adequate period for drying out of the pool shell when insitu concrete or sprayed concrete is used for walls and floor. A depth of exposure of the coarse aggregate of 3 mm is adequate. leakage test. grit blasting (wet and dry). high-velocity water jets. 2 days. 7. Of the above. percussion tools such as bush hammers and Kangos.

It should be noted that very high-pressure water jets can be used for cutting concrete (Figure 7. Methods 2 and 3 can be started seven days after casting the concrete in ‘normal’ weather conditions. However.Figure 7. as described in Section 7. about 50 litres per minute per jet.3). but rather less satisfactory. in cold weather this may have to be increased. An alternative to exposure of the coarse aggregate.2). It is recommended that the preparation of the base concrete to receive screed Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . of which about one-third is dissipated as mist and spray. The pressure at the nozzle is in the range of 25 N/mm2 to 30 N/mm2. see notes on concreting in cold weather in Section 4. there is some advantage in delaying the exposure of the coarse aggregate until after the completion of the water test.1 Close-up view of concrete surface prepared for application of rendering or screed. The jetting leaves the concrete clean and damp and very suitable for the application of rendering and screed (Figure 7.1. method 1 considerable noise.6.2. The amount of water used with high-velocity water jets is comparatively small. All grit and dust must be removed before the first coat of rendering is applied. Percussion tools should not be used earlier than 21 days after completion of the casting of the concrete. is to use a spatter-dash coat direct on the concrete.

if rendering is to be applied to a smooth dense concrete surface. and this should ensure a good bond with the first coat of rendering. 2 parts of sharp clean dry sand. The mix proportions by volume should be: 1 part SRPC (Sulphate Resisting Portland cement) class 42. The grading of the sand should comply with Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .5 to BS 4027 1991.1. If damp sand is used allowance should be made for ‘bulking’ up to 25%.Figure 7. Then immediately before the spatter-dash is applied the concrete surface should be well damped down. and rendering be carefully checked to ensure that the preparation is satisfactory before the application of the screed/rendering. it is necessary to brush down the surface to remove all dust. It is necessary.1. dirt and the remains of the release agent and curing membrane (if the latter has been applied).1. The object of this coat is to provide a firm rough surface with reasonably uniform suction. Before the spatter-dash is applied.2 Spatter-dash coat A spatter-dash coat is not required if the concrete surface has been prepared by the exposure of the coarse aggregate as described in Section 7. however.2 The use of high-velocity water jet to expose the coarse aggregate in preparation for application rendering. 7.

3 Concrete wall cut by very high-velocity water jet. Figure 7. It is applied as a very thin coat not exceeding about 2 mm thick. and this will depend on the accuracy of the as-cast surface of the base concrete. The timing depends on the weather. the spatter-dash should be lightly sprayed with water to ensure adequate hydration of the cement.1. About 36–48 hours after application.4 shows a spatter dash coat being applied. 7. owing to inaccuracies in the Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .Figure 7.3 The first and subsequent coats of rendering The number of coats. Type A of Table 1 of BS 1199 Building Sands from Natural Sources for External Rendering. and to some extent the thickness of each. will depend on the total thickness of the rendering. the first coat of rendering can be applied. it must be protected from hot sun and/or strong winds by properly secured covers. If. The cement and sand should be mixed with sufficient water to give a consistency of a thick slurry. About an hour after the application. Also.

care being taken to ensure that the stainless steel does come into contact with the reinforcement of the concrete otherwise bimetallic corrosion is likely to occur (see Section 2. In the UK. and the British Cement Association publication External Rendering. The mesh should preferably be stainless (austenitic) steel. reference number 47.Figure 7. The thickness of the rendering is critical on the short end walls if the pool is used for competitive swimming.10). The batching of rendering is generally done by volume in spite of the known inaccuracies involved. nor how a zero tolerance can be achieved in practice. then it is advis able for a lightweight steel mesh to be provided as reinforcement. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . the Amateur Swimming Association (ASA) requires a tolerance on the length of the pool of plus 30 mm. The UK Code of Practice is BS 5262 1991. Courtesy. but with no minus tolerance. surface of the concrete.102. British Cement Association. the rendering has to exceed 25 mm in thickness. the ASA does not say how the length should be measured. The mesh must be pinned into the wall by stainless steel fixings. Unfortunately.4 Application of spatter-dash to concrete wall.

1992. With a total thickness of 25 mm. Each undercoat should be allowed to mature for several days before a subsequent coat is applied. 1:3½ by volume.5 to BS 4027 1991. These joints are usually 15–20 mm wide and this width should be carried right through all applied finishes. and the same applies to the second coat if a third coat is required (Figure 7. then the rendering can be applied in panels for the full height of the walls and with a length not exceeding about 5. The mix proportions recommended here for the first coat are: 1 part SRPC class 42.4 Application of the rendering 7. give useful and practical advice. In cold wet weather.1. 3 parts clean dry sharp sand. If the final finish is ceramic tiles or mosaic. 20 mm the first coat could be 12 mm thick and the second 8 mm. The first coat would be about 10 mm thick and the second about 6 mm thick. the SBR acts as a plasticiser and thus improves workability. this must be thinner than the second coat.0 m. also with the inclusion of SBR.4. Full movement joints in the pool shell must be carried through the rendering and any rigid applied finish such as ceramic tiles/mosaic. All mixing should be by mechanical pan mixer as an ordinary concrete mixer gives considerable variations in the actual proportions of the mixed material. So that for a total thickness of. graded to Type A.5). If an organic-based adhesive is used.8). the third coat could be 5 mm. The addition of 10 litres of SBR latex to 50 kg cement is recommended. except for small localized areas. e. the period should be increased. Table 1 of BS 1999 1976. say. The first coat should be scraped or scratched to provide a key for the second coat. and/or lightly scratched to provide a key for cement-based adhesive. then the final coat of rendering should be finished with a wood float.g.1. For the second coat. it also reduces permeability and the leaching of lime from the mix if the pool water has a negative Langelier Index (see Section 3. For rendering onto dense concrete. 7. a slightly weaker mix is recommended. If for any reason a third coat has to be applied. advice should be obtained from the adhesive supplier on the recommended finish to the rendering. the exact time between coats has to be determined by weather conditions. the overall thickness should ideally not exceed 15 mm.1 Panel sizes and joints If the pool has been designed and constructed without full or partial movement joints. It is important that the second coat should be appreciably thinner than the first coat. Partial movement Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .

1. Courtesy. However it is most important that each coat of rendering should be protected from hot sun and drying winds for a period of not less than 48 hours after application. The part of a full movement joint within the thickness of the rendering should be filled with a suitable backup material such as resin-bonded cork. but these can be of a width to coincide with the joint widths of the tiles. British Cement Association.Figure 7.6.4. joints (contraction and stress relief joints) should also be carried through. It is recommended that apart from the desirability of lining-up movement joints in the pool shell with joints in the rendering and tiling. movement joints in the tiling should be carried down through the rendering to the base concrete. 7. Joint decisions between all parties concerned should be undertaken as early as possible in the design process. A discussion with recommendations for tiling is given in Section 7.2.5 Combing freshly applied undercoat to provide key for subsequent coat.2 Curing the rendering There is no need to wet-cure rendering apart from the spatter-dash coat as recommended in Section 7. rendering and tiling is complicated and it has to be decided by experience. and practical consideration. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .1. The whole question of making provision for movement in the pool shell. The joints in the rendering can be saw cut or wet formed.

Generally. to be fit to receive the rendering. and construction joints are intended to be monolithic. it is sometimes thought that there is no need to protect the rendering as recommended above. 7. 10 litres of SBR to 50 kg cement. 3. very smooth faced blocks should be given a spatter-dash coat.2. Dense.5 or 5.5 parts clean sharp sand Class A. 7. Sprayed concrete pools are normally constructed without movement joints.1. A funnel effect can be created and the resulting blast of air can have a most adverse effect on the rendering resulting in serious drying shrinkage cracking.3. The mix proportions recommended by volume are: First coat:1 part SRPC. and at other locations as recommended in Section 7. The first coat of rendering should be 10–15 mm thick and each subsequent coat should be thinner than the preceding one. The panel lengths can therefore line up with the panel sizes for the tiling. The joints can be wet formed or cut with a disc. but this type of block is unlikely to be used for the walls of swimming pools. The only other preparation needed is for the mortar joints to be recessed about 10 mm as the wall is built.3 and curing in Section 7.2. The fact is that in a building under construction it is likely that doors and windows will not be fixed at the time the pool shell is rendered. and damping.2 Cement-sand rendering to sprayed concrete walls The ‘as gunned’ surface of sprayed concrete is rough and only requires brushing down to remove all loose material. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . A limited amount of dubbing-out may be required. When swimming pools are constructed inside buildings. and debonding. namely at about 4.0 m centres. there should be at least two coats. In most cases. to BS 1199 Table 1.4.1.It is strongly recommended that rendering should not be carried out in very cold weather as the 10–15 mm thickness is very vulnerable to low temperature especially when it is applied to cold concrete. two coats should be adequate and the mix proportions should be as set out in Section 7.6.3 Cement-sand rendering to concrete block walls Dense aggregate concrete blocks provide a good key for cement-sand rendering provided they are first well brushed down to remove all grit and loose particles and then damped down immediately prior to the application of the rendering.

reduce permeability and improve workability. The mixing should be by pan mixer as concrete mixers give wide variations in the proportions of the resulting mix. insitu concrete floors are generally not finished with sufficient accuracy for the laying of tiles and mosaic directly on them if thin or thick bed cement-based adhesives are used for tile bedding.1.2 Preparation of the concrete The surface of the concrete should be prepared by exposure of the coarse aggregate as detailed in Section 7. this will assist bond. 4 parts sand to BS 1199 (as for first coat).4. The rendering should be finished. and whenever possible the batching should be by weight/mass.1.3 Mix proportions and laying The mix proportions recommended are set out below.5.4 Cement-sand screeds on insitu concrete floors 7. 7. Code of Practice for Ceramic Tiling and Mosaics in Specific Conditions. The mortar should be laid between screeding boards and well tamped down either by a mechanical tamper or other suitable Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Also.The addition of the SBR (styrene butadiene rubber latex) improves workability and reduces water penetration. 7.4. See paragraph 7. protected and cured as recommended for rendering on to insitu concrete. The w/c ratio should not exceed 0.4. 1 part SRPC.1. The addition of 10 litres of SBR latex to 50 kg cement is recommended. High-quality dense concrete does not provide adequate suction to secure the standard of bond needed in a swimming pool if ordinary cement-sand mortar is used for bedding the tiles. Reference can usefully be made to BS 5385 Part 4 1986 Wall and Floor Tiling. 4 parts clean concreting sand to grading limits C or M in Table 3 of BS 882.1 Introduction Screeds are laid to provide a true and level surface with good suction on which to lay ceramic tiles and mosaic. Section 13 of the Code covers swimming pools. 7. 10 litres of SBR to 50 kg cement. Second coat:1 part SRPC.

these joints are usually at 4.5 Cement-sand screeds on sprayed concrete floors The recommendations given in Section 7. compaction. 7.1 Introduction It is important that before any tiles/mosaic are fixed that the substrate (rendering and screed) should be carefully checked for bond to the pool shell. For all practical purposes.4. 7.4 apply here with the exception of the preparation of the surface of the sprayed concrete floor.6 Ceramic tiles and mosaic 7. The ‘as gunned’ surface of the sprayed concrete provides an adequate key for the mortar screed provided all dust. All hollow sounding areas should be clearly marked and the extent of each defined. 7. should be carried through the screed. mix proportions.5 Curing the screed The screed should be properly cured for a minimum period of seven days by covering with polythene sheeting held down around the perimeter and placed in position as soon as possible after the finishing operations are completed.3. Any cutting out of the rendering or screed should be kept to a minimum and should be done by sawing.4. can be grouted in with a low-viscosity polymer resin.4 Joints Movement joints. the recommendations relating to the installation of ceramic tiles also apply to the installation of ceramic mosaics.6. loose particles are first removed by light wet blasting. This can be detected by tapping with a light hammer or rod. treatment of joints and curing are all as recommended for screeds laid on insitu concrete.0 m centres. Movement joints in tiling should be carried down through the screed.means to secure good bond with the base concrete and to ensure good compaction. percussion tools should not be used as the vibration is liable to reduce the bond in adjacent areas. Areas of defective bond. a hollow sound indicates loss of bond (adhesion). provided they are not extensive. The screed can be finished with a screed board. The tapping should be done systematically. Monolithic joints can be ignored. but this is not adequate for use as a compacting tool.6. The laying of the screed. both full and partial. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .5–5. with particular attention to the edges of the bays. Significant differences are drawn to the readers attention in Section 7. 7.

For tiles continuously immersed (e. Also relevant is BS 5385 Wall and Floor Tiling.7. 7.6.8 for effective water treatment. Part 4 of this Standard is a Code of Practice for Ceramic Tiling and Mosaics in Specific Conditions.2 The tiles 7. Tables 3 and 4 list the suitability of wall and floor tiles in specific conditions. The tiles must be fully bedded. The floor tiles in the shallow end of the pool should have a slip resistant finish.g. and the tiles being firmly pressed and tamped into position.16 for additional information on ceramic tiles. Suitable thick-bed adhesives should be Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .6.2 Laying the tiles The tiles should be laid with joints 3–4 mm wide and fixed with a proprietary cement-based adhesive suitable for continuous immersion.6. For swimming pools.1 that the pH of the pool water should be strictly maintained in the range 7. there is a risk that acid attack on the grouted joints between the tiles will take place (Figure 7. such as Ardipox WS or BAL Epoxy LV.2. This type of tile is frost-proof and can be used for open-air pools.2 to 7. users are advised to ‘refer to manufacturers to confirm suitability’. which is a comprehensive document in 23 parts.0. could be used.6. this recommendation also applies to the walkways and wet changing areas and other areas which are frequently washed down and used by bathers with bare feet. such as Ardex Arduflex 5000 or BAL High polymer modified adhesive. the tiles should be vitrified extruded tiles with a water absorption not exceeding 3% by mass when measured in accordance with Part 11 of BS 6431 Ceramic Floor and Wall Tiles.1 General considerations The relevant British Standard is BS 6431 EN87 Ceramic Wall and Floor Tiles. For greater resistance to sulphate attack and leaching of lime from the cement as a result of a negative Langelier Index. should the pool water prove more aggressive than originally anticipated. swimming pools). The adhesive should be mixed as directed by the manufacturers. Reference should be made to Section 2. but may be worth the extra compared with the cost and great inconvenience of closing down a pool for extensive remedial work to the tiling. It is emphasised in Section 8.2. There are various finishes which are slip-resistant and the choice is largely a matter of experience and personal preference. the adhesive being applied to the back of the tiles with a toothed and notched trowel. If the pH falls below 7. Thin-bed adhesives should be used when the substrate checked with a 2 m straight edge does not reveal any gaps behind the straightedge which exceed 3 mm in depth. The cost of an epoxy-based adhesive is significantly higher than a cement-based one. a proprietary epoxy-based adhesive.6). The thickness of the bed will depend on the regularity of the substrate to which the tiles are fixed.

7.6 View of erosion of grouted joints by pool water of low pH (acidic). Grouting the tiles should not be carried out earlier than three days after completion of fixing. As movement joints in the pool shell must be carried up through the rendering/ screed and tiling. and in the floor. According to Table Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .5 m to 5. at changes of gradient. Figures 7.7 and 7. Movement joints in the tiling are normally 6 mm wide. All movement joints must be sealed with a suitable sealant. It can be seen that the regularity/ trueness of the substrate is of great importance. it follows that there must be close co-operation between the tile suppliers. carried down through the rendering/screed to the structural pool shell.2. tile layers and pool designer if these basic requirements are to be properly met.3 Movement joints Movement joints should be provided in the tiling at 4.6.8 show pools completed with high-quality ceramic tiles and mosaic. The grout should be a proprietary product from the same manufacturer as the adhesive and compatible with the adhesive. Movement joints are also required at all internal angles and changes of direction. The relevant British Standard is BS 6213 1982 Selection of Constructional Sealants. used when the gaps are between 3 mm and 6 mm.0 m centres.Figure 7.

Courtesy.Figure 7.8 View of part of leisure centre pool and walkway slab finished with high-quality ceramic mosaic and ceramic tiles. Figure 7. Pilkington’s Tiles Ltd.7 View of leisure centre pool finished with high-quality ceramic mosaic. Pilkington’s Tiles Ltd. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Courtesy.

2 mm for joints exceeding 6 mm wide.15.6. 3 mm under a 2 m straightedge. subject to reference to the manufacturers for their suitability. It is particularly suitable for free-formed pools and pools constructed in sprayed concrete when there is a wide cove at the junction of the walls and floor. 7.6. difference in level across joints including movement joints: 1 mm for joints not exceeding 6 mm wide.2. ceramic mosaic and glass mosaic.2.4). but Table 2 of BS 6213 suggests that the ‘expected service life’ of the silicone. With deck level pools. Water circulation is dealt with in Chapter 8. 7. The estimated ‘life’ of the flexible epoxy sealants is not given. the only material recommended without reservation is a flexible epoxy. but it would be reasonable to anticipate an appreciably longer life than 20 years. the former being the type mostly used. polysulphide and polyurethane type sealants is about 20 years. Reference should be made to Section 2. This indicates a fairly wide choice. The British Standards for polysulphide and silicone based sealants are listed by BSI as obsolete.4. The internal surface of the concrete channel should not be left with the bare concrete as this becomes dirty and almost impossible to keep clean.10. Other materials are recommended. The ceramic mosaic are fully vitrified and are Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 7. the perimeter channel usually discharges to a balancing tank and it is strongly recommended that the internal surface should also be finished with a suitable coating.4 Tolerances on finished surface Acceptable tolerances on surface regularity are: 1. They should be securely bedded on the shelf formed in the pool wall.5 Scum channels and deck level pools Ceramic scum channels provide better circulation of the pool water than skimmer outlets.3 Mosaic There are two types of mosaic. The perimeter channel which are an essential feature of deck level pools should be either glazed ceramic or finished with a smooth. 2. impervious and durable coating such as chlorinated rubber paint (see Section 7.6. or epoxy resin. The provision of movement joints recommended for ceramic tiling is also applicable to ceramic mosaics.

slip resistant. 7. sizes and colours. it is recommended that a waterproof membrane be incorporated in the floor.12. The second coat can be sprinkled with coarse sand to provide a key for the cement—sand screed. The floors must be laid to falls to drainage channels which discharge to the drainage system and not to the water circulation system of the pool. See Section 4. The basic recommendations for laying ceramic mosaic are similar to those for ceramic tiles and are covered by BS 5385 Part 4 Code of Practice for Ceramic Tiling and Mosaic in Specific Conditions.therefore frost proof. For the best results. The length of the bay is less important than the width as the fine transverse cracks which occur can be readily grouted in before the tiles/mosaic are laid. Such a construction would increase the dead load of the floor. The experience of the author is that the use of a nylon or other mesh embedded on the back of the mosaic can reduce the bond between the mosaic and the substrate (screed and rendering). but the requirement for complete watertightness requires special attention to design. Very attractive patterns can be formed with mosaic as can be seen in Figure 7. The design should be based on the water retaining Code (BS 8007). and all openings in the slab for pipes and gulleys must be carefully detailed so as to be watertight. specification and execution. Because the key provided is not as good as that obtained by exposure of the coarse aggregate in the concrete slab. The tesserae (pieces of mosaic) can be obtained in a variety of shapes. It is better if the sheets of mosaic have paper on the face which is removed after laying. In view of the serious trouble which has occurred in a number of public pools where these floor areas have not been watertight. the work should only be entrusted to experienced firms.e. A gradient of Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . It is essential that the surface of these areas should be ‘non-slip’. If a sheet membrane is used this will completely debond the screed from the base concrete and the screed should be not less than 75 mm thick and should be concrete with 10 mm maximum size coarse aggregate. i. the floors must be completely watertight to the same standard as the roof of a building. The non-slip requirement can be readily met by the provision of slip resistant tiles. An insitu brush or spray applied coating in two coats is recommended. The membrane should be carried up walls which are built directly from the slab.7 Walkways and wet changing areas The recommendations given for screeds and tiling for insitu reinforced concrete pool shells apply to walkways around the pool and wet changing areas and shower rooms.8. standard sizes are 20 mm×20 mm and 25 mm× 25 mm. the screed should be not less than 30 mm thick and laid in bays not exceeding 3 m in width. and when the floor slabs are suspended and use made of the space below.

Marble and Mosaic Specialists have issued a specification for the material. Package deal swimming pool contractors appear to favour this material for small pools. It should only be entrusted to contractors who specialise in the application of insitu terrazzo. The mix proportions are generally in the range of 1 part cement to 2–2½ parts marble. The marbelite should be applied to cement-sand rendering and screed to ensure an even base.9 Marbelite Marbelite is a white terrazzo applied insitu to the walls and floor of swimming pools in the private sector. The following list outlines some of the important points in its application: 1. 7. The marbelite should be applied in one coat to the required thickness (6–10 mm). 7. and with a good ‘track record’ for the use of the material in swimming pools. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . but the National Federation of Terrazzo.9). mainly for use as flooring.50 m) is recommended. but for safety reasons (to prevent slipping) a gradient of 1 in 60 (25 mm in 1. It is not advisable to have the work carried out by an ordinary plasterer. especially for private houses (Figure 7.1 in 40 (25 mm in 1. The decision requires considerable experience as the vibration caused by the removal of defective tiles may increase the debonded area. particularly as the defects in adhesion may only extend over part of the area of individual tiles.00 m) should be adequate to prevent ponding. white marble chippings. Difficulty can arise in the interpretation of results and the fixing of a line between acceptance and rejection. There is no Code of Practice for the use of insitu terrazzo as a finish to swimming pools.8 Testing the completed tiling The whole of the tiling should be tested for adhesion (detection of hollow sounding tiles by tapping with a rod) in the same way and for the same reason as recommended for rendering and screeds. usually graded from 3 mm down and should be free from dust. The surface of the substrate should be combed or scratched to provide a key for the marbelite which is usually applied in one coat to a finished thickness of 6 mm on the walls and about 10 mm on the floor. A minimum period of 21 days should elapse between the completion of the rendering/screed and the application of the marbelite. It is composed of white Portland cement.

Shrinkage can then take place along the line of the panel joints instead of forming random cracks. the surface is absorbent and stains are very difficult to remove and usually require grinding.5 mix is very rich in cement and liable to shrinkage cracking and crazing. 3. as polished merbelite is very slippery particularly to wet feet. Some applicators will try to finish the whole of a small pool in one day. which is not advisable.2. The marbelite must be protected for at least 48 hours by means of damp sacking or polythene sheets properly secured to prevent sun and wind impinging on the newly applied marbelite. the stains from leaves and other organic matter are virtually impossible to remove without grinding. Marbelite stains easily because. in spite of the polishing. Care must be taken to ensure that the surface of the floor and of steps leading into the pool are not too smooth. it is usual to provide a row of ceramic tiles or mosaic about Figure 7.9 Application of marbelite to wall of private swimming pool. The marbelite should be applied in panels. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . This applies particularly to open-air pools. otherwise the length/height should not exceed 1. Even a 1:2.5 times the width. 4. square if possible. To combat staining.

Figure 7. and the effect of frost. screed) and the coating must not be adversely affected by the alkalies in the cement. Marbelite is particularly vulnerable to acid attack which can occur if the pH of the pool water is not maintained consistently in the recommended range of 7. the coating must be resistant to weathering. cleaning is relatively easy. changes in temperature and foundation movement.1 Introduction In cases where shortage of funds prevent the use of ceramic tiles/mosaic.1 and 7. ultra-violet light. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .2 to 7. The marbelite should be subjected to a test to detect defective bond as described in Sections 7. The coating must be durable under the conditions in which it has to exist. It must have a smooth impermeable surface which can be readily cleaned. The coating must be capable of forming a good bond to the substrate.8. as the pool shell to which it is applied will move to some extent during filling and emptying. namely warm chlorinated water containing solutions of chemicals used in water treatment. C5 Determination of Film Thickness. Reference should be made to BS 3900 Methods of Tests for Paints.10 Coatings and paints 7. the alternative is to use a proprietary coating (also referred to as paints). 4.10. The normal substrate is cement based (concrete. 7. In the case of open-air pools. E2 Scratch Test. E6 Cross-cut Test.2 Desirable characteristics The main features include the following: 1.300 mm wide at the water line as these are less liable to become stained. It should possess some degree of elasticity (elastomeric).10. 5. 3. and for swimming pools the desirable characteristics are set out below: 7. rendering. E10 Pull-off Test for Adhesion.8. The following Parts are of special interest: Part Part Part Part Part C3 Through Dry Test for Multi-coat Systems. There is a fairly wide choice of materials. 2. 6. and if this does occur. The coating must be attractive in colour and appearance.9 shows marbelite being applied to the wall of a small pool.

The useful life of chlorinated rubber is very difficult to predict and depends on many factors such as whether the pool is indoors or open-air. Immediately prior to the application of the acid. both covered and open air. The best results are obtained when the paint is applied to good quality cement/sand rendering/screed which has been finished with a wood float. The paint should be the high-build type and generally consists of chlorinated rubber.15 mm. a useful Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Chlorinated rubber paint. the second coat being applied at right angles to the first to eliminate pin holes. epoxies and polyurethanes. A minimum of 24 hours should elapse between coats. and 48 hours is better.10–0. the surface should be well washed down with water and the damp surface tested by a pH indicator. Cement-based paints. A period of 14 days should elapse between the completion of the final coat and the filling of the pool with water.10. 3. The paint should be applied in three coats. the pH should be in the range recommended by the paint supplier. inert pigments and a thickening or thixotropic agent. The above information is intended as a general guide. The substrate must be clean and dry and it is advisable to neutralise the surface by means of a dilute acidic wash (1 part hydrochloric acid to 10 parts water). A reasonable period must elapse between the completion of the substrate and the application of the coating and also before the admission of water into the pool. this can be particularly difficult with open-air pools. the surface should be washed down with water as this will help prevent the acid being absorbed into the substrate. Polymers such as acrylics. However. 2. One disadvantage with chlorinated rubber is that the makers usually recommend that it be applied within a fairly narrow range of temperature and humidity.7.3 Material types The basic types of available materials may be summarised as follows: 1. and the amount of back-pressure (if any) arising from moisture and/or vapour trapped behind the coating. Directions for these two periods should be obtained from the manufacturers.4 Chlorinated rubber paint This type of paint is very popular for swimming pools. and the detailed directions of the supplier should be followed. It should be applied to a dry film thickness of 0. the wood float gives a dense even surface without laitance. the standard of water treatment and cleaning and maintenance. After about five minutes.10. Some types of coatings are vulnerable to blistering if there is moisture or vapour trapped behind the coating. 7. a plasticiser.

Figure 10. waterproofers. a gloss can be imparted to the surface. With good-quality concrete about 1 mm is all that should be removed. (c) Epoxy resins can now be formulated to bond to damp concrete and it is advisable to select such a resin for external application. proper mechanical mixing is essential. It is usual to apply a primer before the first coat.13. rendering and screeds.life of four years would be a reasonable average for open-air pools and seven years for indoor pools. the following indicates the steps which are generally recommended: (a) Grit blasting is advisable. Two coats should eliminate ‘holidays’ (pin holes). However. These paints can be obtained in a standard range of colours and when properly applied give very satisfactory results and should have a useful life of 5 to 7 years for open-air pools and 7–10 years for indoor pools. 2. 7. The correct preparation of the substrate is of primary importance and the manufacturer’s directions should be carefully followed. but three coats are preferred. There is a distinct advantage if the supplier of the material is also responsible for its application as this avoids divided responsibility if something goes wrong. These resins are normally used with a primer which should be supplied with the resin. but three coats will certainly do so. When applied by brush. By the addition of a glaze. The following factors are important: 1. they give a matt finish and are available in a range of colours including white.6 Cement-based paints These paints are based on white or pigmented Portland cement. (b) A minimum of two coats is required.8 shows a pool completed with chlorinated rubber paint. (e) If the material is two pack (resin plus accelerator). to which are usually added accelerators. Epoxies and polyurethanes bond strongly to concrete. 7. The material must be of the highest quality and a statement should be obtained from the manufacturer on the percentage of resin in the paint.10. and inert fillers. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . As normally used.10. the second and subsequent coats should be applied at right angles to the preceding coat. (d) Manufacturers supply information on the temperature and ‘shelf life’ of the resin and this information should be noted and adhered to. but this should be very light as it is only required to remove the thin layer weak laitance.5 Epoxy resins and polyurethanes For basic information on epoxies and polyurethanes the reader is referred to Section 2.

7. it is advisable to apply first a priming coat or stabilising liquid supplied by the paint manufacturer. to rectify this. A minimum of two coats is recommended. However. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . When a new liner is fitted. Approximate coverage on different surfaces is also given. It is likely that an openair pool would need repainting each year if the owner required a high standard of finish. the pool shell should also be watertight against infiltration of ground water. A minimum period of 24 hours should elapse between successive coats and in cool weather this may have to be extended to 48 hours. friable or absorbent surfaces. The ‘life’ of a high-quality PVC liner which has been correctly installed and carefully used is likely to be in the range of six to ten years. Unless this is taken into account. if not impossible. the type of material which is used almost exclusively in the private swimming pool market is polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The suppplier of the liner should also provide detailed instructions for cleaning the pool and for advice on the treatment of the pool water. Figure 7. The PVC liner can be obtained in a variety of attractive colours and patterns. it is ‘stretched’ and fits tightly against the inside surface of the pool shell.This type of paint is particularly suitable for cementitious backgrounds such as concrete. The paint is mostly used for private and club pools as it has the great merit of low cost and ease of application and it can be applied over many types of existing decorated surfaces provided these are clean and sound.11 Sheet linings to swimming pools There are various types of flexible sheeting materials which can be used to provide a waterproof lining to small swimming pools. Reference can be made to BS 4764 Specification for Powder-cement Paints. The manufacturers always give detailed directions for the mixing and application of the paint which should always be followed. For satisfactory service. These pools are known as liner pools. In the case of dusty. it is essential that the liner should be supplied and fitted by the same firm as this eliminates divided responsibility. a different colour and/or pattern can be selected. When the liner is originally fitted. dense concrete blocks and rendering and screeds.10 shows a pool completed with PVC sheet lining. the number of persons using the pool and the standard of maintenance. then if the pool is emptied. The pool shell must be structurally sound and if ground water rises above the level of the underside of the floor of the pool. ground water pressure may force the liner out of position and it will prove very difficult. It is not possible to say how long such a coating should last as many factors are involved such as the location of the pool (open-air or indoors).

The polyester resin. The concrete surface should be prepared by grit blasting to lightly expose the coarse aggregate.Sales and Services Ltd.Figure 7.12 Glass-fibre polyester resin linings This type of lining was originally introduced into the UK in the 1960s and was first used for the renovation of old swimming pools. but the details vary from one specialist applicator to another. The following is a brief description of how the material is generally applied. This requirement does not apply when the material is used to renovate an old existing pool. As far as public pools were concerned. 7.10 Pool completed with liner of PVC sheeting. glass fibre and a catalyst are applied by compressed air through a three-nozzle gun. All loose grit and dust must be removed.G. the results were not up to the original expectations in most cases. It is consolidated by metal rollers to ensure that the glass fibres are completely embedded in the Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . to a first coat thickness of about 1 mm. Courtesy. This type of lining is intended to be fully bonded to the pool shell (floor and walls) and this normally requires the shell to be constructed of insitu reinforced concrete or sprayed reinforced concrete. The pool shell should be watertight against loss of water from the pool and against infiltration of ground water when the pool is empty. The use was extended to new private and club pools and then it was used for for a limited number of new public pools. P.

blistering and flaking sometimes occurs. 4. Good-quality Portland cement concrete will not suffer deterioration by the atmosphere in swimming pool halls. resulting in internal stresses in the laminate. These are summarised below: 1. but certain facts should be kept in mind when considering its use.1 General considerations The selection of attractive and durable finishes to the inside surface of swimming pool halls requires careful consideration due to the conditions under which the finishes have to operate. there have been some instances of serious trouble. debonding can occur and spread over a considerable area.13 Finishes to the walls of pool halls 7.13. There is a considerable difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the resin and the glass fibres. The first coat is immediately followed by the application of glass tissue sheet about 0. resulting in formation of cracks. The notes which follow are intended to highlight the problems and offer practical solutions. The overall thickness of the laminate is between 3–5 mm. Special care should be taken in drawing up the contract documents to help ensure guarantees of satisfactory performance. 7.13. while this type of laminate lining has performed well in many cases. A second gel coat is then applied and contains pigments. This applies particularly to insitu and precast concrete. relatively high temperature and the presence of chlorine compounds will have no corrosive effect on the concrete. The high humidity. 3. this coat is allowed to semi-cure (the time taken depending on the formulation of the resin) and can be modified to suit the execution of the work. 7. When properly executed this type of lining can be very attractive. 2. Some staining will occur but this will Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . If water penetrates through cracks in the lining. The next stage consists of the application of a gel coat of polyester resin. It can be difficult to secure good bond between the concrete/ rendering/screed and the laminate. Briefly. Polyester resins have high shrinkage characteristics and this can lead to a build-up of stress at angles.2 The use of the natural (unprotected) surface of the structural material The increase in cost of both labour and materials in recent years has led to the search for structural materials which can be produced with a finish which is aesthetically satisfying and has a long maintenance-free life.3 mm thick to seal in completely any glass fibres which may be projecting through the resin.resin. As the gel coats are of different composition to the body of the laminate. corners and points of entry of pipework.

this type of finish is not recommended in any position where it can come into contact with persons using the pool as serious staining by grease and dirt will result from such contact.3 Applied finishes The finishes briefly described here are all considered suitable for the walls. For the reasons given above this is not recommended. This is not recommended for reasons given in the text. However. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .11 Wall of pool hall left in its ‘natural state’.not generally be noticeable if it is above eye level. Figure 7. 7. The untreated surface of concrete is absorbent and this type of staining cannot be removed without grinding and this changes the light reflecting properties of the surface making the areas clearly visible. columns and similar structures of swimming pool halls and some for the walls of shower rooms: Figure 7. and the effect can be mitigated by the application of a good-quality silicone water repellent at about five-yearly intervals.11 shows the wall of a pool hall left in its ‘natural state’.13.

1 Ceramic tiles and mosaic The relevant UK Code of Practice is BS 5385 Part 4 Code of Practice for Ceramic Tiling and Mosaics in Specific Conditions. The principal points to note are: 1. Thin bed adhesives should not be used. For detailed recommendations for the fixing of terrazzo and marble. It is recommended that this Part of the main Code be followed rather than Part 1 which gives recommendations for normal internal tiling. for the full height of the walls. Part 4 contains detailed recommendations for tiling which will have to operate under wet and damp conditions. Coatings normally do not exceed about a millimetre in thickness are likely to be adequate for private and hotel pools. The tiling should be fixed to concrete or dense aggregate concrete blocks.13.13. but not essential if the walls are ‘tanked’. and can be obtained in a range of Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 3.4 Toppings and coatings for plant rooms and stores for chemicals High-quality insitu or precast concrete is not really suitable as a finish for the floors of plant rooms and chemical stores.3. 7.Ceramic tiles and mosaic. Marble.1 apply to terrazzo and marble.5 m. 7. See the note in Section 7. Marble and Mosaic Specialists.3.1 on tanking the walls behind the tiles. in shower rooms. Cement-based and organic-based adhesives can be used. which covers pool halls. These are applied in two coats on a primer.3. reference should be made to the National Federation of Terrazzo. or to cement/sand rendering. 2.3. In the case of the walls of pool halls. The structure behind the tiles must be watertight. these materials can be used on the walls of the pool hall but not in shower rooms. Detailed advice for waterproofing/tanking the substrate to which the tiles are fixed can be obtained from the manufacturers of the tiles and adhesives. This ‘tanking’ must be carried up from the floor to an appropriate height.13. Generally.13. shower rooms etc.2 Terrazzo and marble The same basic principles as described in Section 7. 7. and organic-based adhesives are not recommended. It is better from the point of view of long-term durability to provide an applied finish (coating or thin topping) of a polymer resin such as epoxy or polyurethane. Terrazzo.13. It is advisable. for the grout used for the tile joints to be impervious. not less than 2.

In this system. If chlorine is used in the water treatment process.14 General considerations As mentioned in Section 1.6. should be included in the Contract Specification. A vapour barrier must be provided at ceiling level so as to reduce to a practical minimum the size and power consumption of the fans. Such an installation requires very expert design and necessitates the use of fans which must operate continuously. The 3 mm thick toppings are often self-levelling. The result can be condensation in the roof space. the extra expense of providing a resinbased topping 3–4 mm thick is usually justified. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The material consists of selected aggregates and fillers and the resin and accelerator/activator. leading to corrosion of ferrous metals. If. Records of all such inspections should be kept. A high standard of operation and maintenance. 7. In a swimming pool hall this problem can be overcome in two basic ways: (1) The provision of a pressurised roof void. deterioration of electrical equipment and timber used in the roof structure. or (2) The provision of a ‘warm deck’ roof. for reasons of economy. Cases have been reported where stainless steel has suffered serious corrosion when highly stressed in roof voids. The details of construction depend on the design of the roof structure. the air in the roof space/void is maintained at a pressure in excess of that in the pool hall so that the air moves outwards into the hall and thus prevents the warm humid air in the hall moving up into the roof void. For larger pools (clubs and public pools). there are serious problems associated with roofs of swimming pool halls arising from the comparatively high air temperature and high humidity in the pool hall.15 Pressurised roof voids The provision of a pressurised roof construction is only suitable for large installations. and E10 Adhesion. The base concrete must be good quality and laitence should be removed and the surface left free of dust and grit. Thermal insulation is required to prevent unacceptable heat loss and a vapour barrier is needed to avoid interstitial condensation.colours. this will aggravate the situation from the point of view of corrosion of any unprotected ferrous metal. it is decided to use a coating. The surface of the concrete should be wire brushed and all grit and dust removed prior to the application of the primer. plus regular and careful inspection are required. The principle is that the vapour barrier should be on the warm side of the thermal insulation. then the tests for paints set out in BS 3900 Part E6 Cross-cut Test. THE ROOFS OF SWIMMING POOL HALLS 7.

In this method. Digest 312. Building Research Establishment. 1992. and a vapour barrier is located between the deck and the thermal insulation. the Technical Options. International Standards Organisation. This method of roof construction is basically different to that known as the cold-deck roof in which the thermal insulation is located below the roof deck and it is not recommended for the roofs of swimming pool halls. warm-deck construction of the roof is a satisfactory and practical solution. Building Research Establishment. 1986. the result of all such inspections should be recorded.7. BS 5250. Waterproof Membranes. If there is a roof void then it is essential that this should be inspected at regular intervals. Further reading British Standards Institution. say. with the insulation above it. followed by the waterproof membrane for the roof. and BS 5250 Code of Practice for Control of Condensation in Buildings. Readers are referred to Building Research Establishment Digests. Building Research Establishment.16 The warm-deck roof For the majority of cases. 1988. This can be achieved by increasing the air temperature in the pool hall and improving the ventilation/dehumidification. to check for signs of deterioration. thermal insulation is located above the roof deck. Swimming Pool Roofs. Digest 373. Building Construction Sealants—Classification and Requirements. A major design objective is to ensure that the temperature at the vapour barrier is not below the dew point temperature. listed under Further Reading at the end of this chapter. the deck provides a satisfactory surface on which the vapour barrier can be laid. Flat Roof Design. ISO 11600. Flat Roof Design. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Digest 336. Code of Practice for Control of Condensation in Buildings. every 12 months. In the warm-deck roof.

There are two basic systems of water circulation: Figure 8. an efficient system of water circulation is essential for the health and safety of the users. to ensure relative freedom from pathogenic bacteria and maintenance of a high standard of clarity in the pool water. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .1 Diagram of flow-through pool.Chapter 8 Water circulation and water treatment WATER CIRCULATION For swimming pools.

9A. At predetermined intervals which can vary from a year or longer. the pool is emptied for general cleaning. The screens require regular inspection. lake or the sea. filter(s). treated water main to pool. coagulant dosing. detailed inspection and repairs. Screens should be provided at appropriate locations. certain principles should be adhered to. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . This requires inlets to the pool and outlets from the pool connected to a pump so that the pool water is kept in continuous circulation. The normal method for the vast majority of pools is the provision of a system of pumped water circulation.1. strainer. These are often referred to as flow-through pools (Figure 8. See Figure 8. the whole of the water in the pool is changed at a calculated rate. 2. so that the water in the pool is continuously changed. 2. 6. 8. 5. See Section 8. 4.1 Flow-through pools Even with this simple type of water circulation.1).2 Diagram of typical layout of water treatment plant for small pool.2 for general layout of treatment plant for small pools. circulating pump. aerator. 8. alternative position for disinfecting equipment. 9. 1. The simplest method is where a pool draws its water from a stream.Figure 8. 1.3 shows a stream used as a swimming pool in Switzerland. and fresh water is only added to make up ‘losses’. water disinfecting equipment. Figure 8. 3. outlet main from pool.5. and there are no ‘dead’ pockets of uncirculated water. 10. 7. heater. The inlets and outlets should be located so that as far as practical. It is essential that a reasonable standard of clarity of the water in the pool be maintained for the safety of the bathers. pH regulator. with special attention after heavy rain (for pools fed from a stream) and after storms for sea water pools.

Figure 8.3 View of a natural flow-through pool in Switzerland. Courtesy, Edward Schwartz.

Figure 8.4 View of one of a series of three main circulating pumps for pools in a private leisure centre. Courtesy, Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

8.2 Pools where the pool water is in continuous circulation
It is a basic principle that the inlets and outlets should be designed and located so that the circulation is as complete as possible and that there are no pockets of ‘dead’ water. The maximum contamination is in the surface water and in the area of the pool where the bathing load is heaviest. The methods adopted to achieve adequate circulation will depend on the size and shape of the pool and the use to which it is put. That is, whether the pool is used by members of one family and their friends, when the maximum bathing load is likely to be very light, or whether it is a hotel, club, school or public pool when the loading can vary from very light to very heavy. Success depends largely on the experience of the designer; the system must be in reasonable balance, i.e. the inflow of water must keep pace with the withdrawal of water. With heated pools, particularly open-air ones, the even distribution of the heated water throughout the whole pool is important for the comfort of the bathers (Figure 8.4). The principal factors relating to the efficiency of water circulation in swimming pools are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. the turn-over period. See Section 8.2.1; the pool loading. See Section 8.2.4; the amount of make-up of fresh water used. See Section 8.2.5; the hydraulic design of the system (size of pumps and size and layout of pipework); the type and location of outlets and location of inlets. See Section 8.2.6 and 8.2.7.

8.2.1 The turn-over period
Typical turn-over periods are set out below:

Private house pools Hotel and club pools School pools Public pools Teaching/learner pools Diving pools

6–8 hours 2.5–4 hours 2.0–3 hours 2.0–3 hours 1.0–1.5 hours 4–6 hours

The circulation rate is the volume of water in the pool divided by the turn-over period. The effect of the turn-over period is largely governed by the mixing efficiency which depends on the location and number of the inlets and the method of drawoff from the pool to the filters.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

Figure 8.5 Sketch of skimmer outlet.

Figure 8.6 Sketch of standard scum channel. Courtesy, Pilkington’s Tiles Ltd.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

8.2.2 Circulation systems for small pools for private houses
The bulk of the contamination in the pool water is in the surface layers and this is why it is most important to remove effectively this surface water. Usually the shallow end of the pool is the more heavily loaded and consequently the water is more contaminated. The system in general use consists of skimmer-weir outlets and one outlet in the floor at the deep end; the incoming water from the treatment plant is distributed through spreader inlets. Provided there is an adequate number of inlets and outlets properly located, this constitutes an effective method of circulation. Figures 8.5 and 8.6 show a skimmer-weir outlet and a scum channel. The following are suggestions for location of outlets and inlets for relatively small private pools using skimmer outlets. However, the circulation system must be in balance and the number of outlets and inlets should be calculated by the designer of the circulation system and treatment plant. 1. Rectangular Pools (a) Water area 40 m2 say 10 m×4 m (i) Outlets: Two skimmer-weirs in each long wall towards the shallow end of the pool (should be a reasonable distance from the inlets) and one skimmer outlet in the centre of the short wall at the deeper end of the pool. One outlet in the floor at the deeper end of the pool. Total: five surface outlets and one floor outlet. (ii) Inlets: Two inlets in each long wall towards the shallow end and one in the short wall at the shallow end. The inlets should not be close to the outlets as this can result in short-circuiting. Total: five inlets. (b) Water area 133 m2, say 16.67 m×8.00 m (i) Outlets: Three skimmer-weirs in each long wall towards the shallow end, one skimmer outlet in the short wall at the deeper end of the pool, and one outlet in the floor at the deeper end of the pool. Total: seven surface outlets and one floor outlet. (ii) Inlets: Two inlets in the short wall at the shallow end, and two in each long wall towards the deeper end of the pool. Total: six inlets. 2. Free-Formed Pools The outlets and inlets should be located in accordance with the principle that the heaviest contamination is in the area of shallow water, that short circuiting should not occur, and that the turn-over period is generally as given in Section 8.2.1.

8.2.3 Circulation systems for larger pools for hotels, clubs and schools and public pools
For hotels, clubs and schools, it is recommended that either scum channels are used for the outlet of the pool water or the pool is designed as a deck-level pool

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

Some information on water treatment is given elsewhere in this chapter. The term clarity includes turbidity and colour. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . physical safety of those using the pool. Unfortunately. It has been mentioned previously in this chapter that it is of the utmost importance that the system for the withdrawal of contaminated water and the distribution of the purified water should ensure that the whole of the pool water is circulated during the turn-over period. finished with a smooth surface which is then finished with two coats of chlorinated rubber paint or an epoxy-based coating. For an acceptable standard of physical safety: 1.6). and the removal of this contamination is related to the turn-over period/circulation rate. The water treatment system (filters and water disinfection plant) should maintain the whole of the pool water at the required standard of purity (and temperature if the water is heated). Bathing loads should be controlled under two main headings. It is recommended that the design of the water circulation system and the water treatment plant should be the responsibility of one firm. Notes on heating swimming pools and energy conservation are given in Chapter 9. the perimeter channel of deck-level pools is sometimes left as unlined concrete which is certainly not satisfactory.4 Pool loading It is obvious that the number of persons using the pool at any one time is directly related to the contamination entering the pool water. either as a ‘package deal’ or by a firm of independent consultants experienced in this field. The clarity of water from a public supply is not necessarily adequate for use in a swimming pool. A high standard of clarity is maintained in the pool water. It is essential that a bather who 2. The amount of this contamination affects the quality and clarity of the pool water. Their use is recommended for pools where a heavy bathing load is anticipated.2. The best finish is obtained by the use of special glazed ceramic units. filters and treatment plant. a rather less satisfactory method is to form the channel in insitu concrete. Scum channels consist of heavy glazed ceramic units (Figure 8. The HSE booklet Managing Health and Safety in Swimming Pools recommends 3 m2 per person. The inlets for the treated water would discharge the water through spreaders. 8. Scum channels. and the provision of a perimeter channel in deck-level pools are appreciably more effective in removing surface contamination than skimmer weirs. The maximum number of persons in the pool at any one time should be limited.with a properly designed perimeter channel and balancing tank. and the maintenance of water quality. The water circulation system for a large free-formed pool incorporating wavemaking equipment requires careful design by an experienced firm.

2. 8.2. say. There must also be an outlet or outlets in the deeper end of the pool which are also used for emptying the pool for general maintenance and cleaning. 300 mm. For the actual dimensions of the tank. this is the amount of fresh water introduced into the pool at intervals.2).is in trouble on the floor of the pool should be clearly seen from the pool sides. This channel discharges into a balancing tank. This is referred to by the Institute of Baths and Recreation Management as ‘progressive dilution’. particularly in leisure centres. the admission of large quantities of fresh water can increase the heating cost. There is no generally recognised method for calculating the size of the balancing tank. The scum channel/deck-level overflow should take at least 60% of the circulating water. the remaining 40% (maximum) being removed through the outlet in the floor at the deep end of the pool. The amount of water discharging to the perimeter channel can vary considerably due to wave action which depends on the activities of the bathers. an adequate allowance should be made for ‘free-board’. The circulating water flows over the side of the pool into a continuous perimeter channel. a large group doing exercises would create more wave action than persons swimming. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . In Europe. inlets for fresh water are invariably located in the pool walls. 8.5 Make-up water An important factor in the water purification sytem is the amount of ‘make-up’ water used.6 Inlets and outlets While with smaller pools (referred to in Section 8. Outlets should be in the form of either scum channels or a deck-level pool with a perimeter channel. In larger pools for local authorities. Gratings must have small openings to prevent injury to bathers’ toes. treatment plant manufacturers develop their own design and are reluctant to divulge the details.2.7 Deck-level pools This type of pool has become very popular. the amount of fresh water is appreciably greater than that used on the average in the UK. Depending on the design of the system. inlets are sometimes located along the centre line of the floor. Sometimes more than one floor outlet is provided to help ensure that dangerous suction does not develop.2. 8. but this can result in the incoming water which is under pressure from the circulating pumps finding its way under the floor screed resulting in lifting and damage to the tiling. These systems are much more efficient in removing the heavily contaminated surface water than individual skimmer outlets used for smaller pools.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Both perimeter channel and balancing tank should be finished with a smooth. Courtesy.Figure 8. and CP 312 Code of Practice for Plastics Pipework (Thermoplastics Material). The perimeter channel is closed at the top with a removable grating which is usually made of extruded PVC. Pilkington’s Tiles Ltd. 8.7 Sketch of perimeter/circulating channel for deck-level pool. It is recommended that all pipework should be in accessible ducts unless otherwise laid/fixed so as to be reasonably accessible for inspection and repair. but stainless steel (austenitic) is sometimes used in high-class installations.3 Ducts for pipework These days. The openings in the grating must be toe and finger ‘proof’ (Figure 8. The dimensions and gradient of the perimeter channel has also to be calculated as it forms an essential part of the circulation system.7). pipework for the circulating water system is almost always unplasticised PVC. durable coating or glazed ceramic units. reference should be made to BS 3505 Unplasticized PVC Pressure Pipes for Cold Water and BS 3506 Unplasticized PVC Pipe for Industrial Uses.

including the pipework and fittings. Courtesy. is not aggressive to the materials of which the pool is constructed and finished. However. USF Stranco. and in the concentrations used. A further point is that it is extremely difficult to repair an opening made in the floor or wall of a water-retaining structure so that it is watertight. this increase is far less than that incurred for repairs/replacement of leaking pipes necessitating breaking up of floors etc. Also that the combination of chemicals used in the treatment of the water does not result in distress to the pool users. there can be no doubt about the moral obligation of every one responsible for the operation of a swimming pool to ensure that the water in the pool is clear and is good quality.Although this may add a significant amount to the first cost of the installation.8 Diagram of complete treatment control for swimming pool water. Figure 8. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . There are no detailed unambiguous standards laid down by law which apply to all classes of swimming pools. mainly local authority pools. WATER TREATMENT It was stated in Chapter 1 that in the UK legislation directly relating to the purity of water in swimming pools only applies to pools which are open to the public. This cost has to include the loss suffered by the closure of the pool for a fairly long period.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Courtesy. Figure 8. Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group. Buckingham Swimming Pools Ltd.10 View of plant room with fully automatic water treatment equipment.Figure 8. Courtesy.9 View of three air blowers forming part of the complete water treatment plant for pools in a private leisure centre.

The size and type of plant required depends on the size and use to which the pool is put. considerable practical experience supported by sound theoretical knowledge of the chemistry of water treatment is necessary.4). The plant would consist of: 1. all methods of satisfactory treatment have much in common (Figures 8. The recommendations which follow are intended to refer to plant rooms generally. It will be appreciated that the proper control of swimming pool water is complicated even for small pools with a low bathing load.1 Plant rooms The equipment is expensive and needs to be properly maintained. Reference should be made to the requirements of the Health and Safety Executive and to the brief comments in Appendix 5. The coagulant dosing equipment may be omitted for small private house pools. clay brick or concrete block walls.10). and the heater may not be included in the owners brief. 8. For the large public pools. there is the private house pool used only by the owner and his family and friends. circulating pump and electric motor. there is the large public pool with heavy pool loading (see Section 8. Reference should be made to the publication Swimming Pool Watertreatment and Quality Standards prepared by the Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group. which should also provide space for the storage of chemicals used in the coagulant dosing equipment and the disinfecting equipment and as well as tools and spares. At the other extreme. 2. However. All the above should be installed in a properly constructed plant house/ room. and to the publications of The Institute of Baths and Recreation Management. irrespective of size. 6. 5.2.4 Layout of treatment plant The equipment recommended for a small pool is shown in the diagram at Figure 8. strainer. 4.8–8. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . heater. disinfecting equipment. Many of the chemicals used in water treatment are potentially hazardous to health and special care is needed in their use and storage. 3. pressure filter. coagulant dosing equipment. The plant room should have a concrete floor.2.4. 8. At one extreme.

While many plant rooms have plain concrete floors. Bunds should be provided around tanks containing chemicals in liquid form.adequate windows and permanent ventilation which in small plant rooms can consist of two louvered openings each about 250 mm×76 mm covered with wire mesh. the plant room is often below the pool walkways and the changing accommodation. For large installations. operating on AC 3-phase. three or four operating in parallel. They must ensure that the water leaving the filters has a high degree of clarity by reducing the matter in suspension and.5 Filtration and filters The basic requirements for a satisfactory swimming pool water are closely connected and have been discussed in the Introduction. polyurethane or epoxy which is resistant to the chemicals used as these are certain to be spilt on floor. it may be necessary to install a gantry for the moving of heavy items of plant. The floor should be laid to a gradient of about 1 in 60 discharging either to the drainage system via a floor gulley or to outside the building. see Sections 4. The filters have two functions.7. the pumps are in sets of two. it is better if the concrete floor is finished with a high-quality durable paint. pumps and motors can be taken out of operation for maintenance without an undue effect on the water circulation. The recommendations of the Institution of Electrical Engineers should be followed. 8.4. usually a piston/ displacement type. The roof should be of durable materials and completely weathertight.2 Notes on circulating pumps Centrifugal pumps are used for water circulation with directly coupled electric motors. The walkway slabs and floors of the wet changing areas must be completely watertight. It must be designed with easy access and adequate floor space so that the plant can be installed. Electrical wiring and equipment should be of the best quality and there should be an accessible control panel with fuses/circuit-breakers. usually 440 V. serviced and removed without difficulty. but very small capacity pumps may operate on 220 V. The ‘characteristics’ of the pumps should be such that delivery does not fall off significantly with increase in delivery head caused by build-up of deposits in the filters. a different type of pump is used. it is an advantage if they are of the split casing type as this enables the top half of the casing to be removed for inspection of the bearings and impeller. For large installations. The pumps should be self-priming. For solution feed of chemicals. In this way. In large municipal pools. With the larger pumps. 8. as Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .12 and 7. such as chlorinated rubber. depending on the circumstances of each case.

5.3.these particles are mainly organic and some may contain micro-organisms. The material in general use is aluminium sulphate which when dissolved in water forms an acidic solution.5. In fact. and by colour. 8. If a bather gets into difficulties and sinks below the surface of the water. For public pools. This pH control can be manual or automatic. the type of filter in general use is the pressure sand filter and these are described briefly in Section 8. In practice.3 Pressure sand filters The principal type of filter in use for the treatment of swimming pool water in the UK is the pressure sand filter. There are two principal reasons for requiring that water in a swimming pool should possess a high standard of clarity: user safety and public health.4. 8. The pH should be maintained in the range 7.5.5. In the UK. the water should be sufficiently clear that the bottom of the pool can be easily seen at the deepest part by persons on the walkway around the pool. or more accurately by a pH meter. pH correction is usually needed.7).8. shown at 2 in Figure 8.1 Clarity of pool water Clarity is reduced by suspended and colloidal matter in the water.5. it can be very difficult for other users to notice what has occurred and to locate the body unless the water has a high standard of clarity. There is also the precoat type of filter which is also commented on in Section 8.6 and 3. 3. the user safety aspect can be more important as the cases of water-borne disease which are established as originating from a swimming pool hardly ever occur in the UK and other developed countries with a similar climate. As acidic solutions are aggressive to ferrous metals and to cement-based materials (see Sections 3. The filters are assisted by the strainer. The purpose of these chemicals is to form a ‘floc’ (a gelatinous precipitate) which is retained in the upper layers of the filter and assists the filtration process. The same cannot be claimed for fatalities due to bathing in a swimming pool containing water of sub-standard clarity. filtration assists the disinfection of the water. The pH can be measured approximately by indicator papers.2 Aids to efficient filtration There are differences of opinion on the type of floculent/coagulant which should be introduced into the circulating water before it enters the filters. automatic pH control should be adopted. Pressure sand filters use graded sand as the filter medium in circular steel Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .5. 8.2 as this holds back the coarser material in suspension.2 to 7.

one near the top of the filter and the other near the bottom. the filter medium is a very fine powder mixed with water and deposited on ‘carriers’ known as candles.5 m diameter filter. These vary in size from small single units for private house pools to a battery of large units for public pools. 8. There are two types. would use about 16 m3 (3590 gal) of water. The steel shell requires a high-quality protective lining. steel shells have been replaced by glass fibre shells which are cheaper in first cost but appear to have a shorter life.or glass-reinforced plastic (grp) tanks. high-rate filters are usually installed. medium and high. The only advantage with this type of filter is a considerable saving of space. Unfired. medium flow rate. In many installations.5. Precoat filters also require cleaning from time to time as the coat on the candles becomes blocked. Filters are normally rated on the basis of m3/m2/hour. there should be at least two filters. there is a loss of head through the filter which is measured by two pressure gauges on the two main connections to the filter. the back-washing is assisted by the agitation of the filter media (sand).4. the back-washing would take about 8 minutes.1 for design of plant rooms with particular reference to provision of adequate access for installation and removal. The former are considered more efficient.4 Precoot filters In a precoat filter. They have not found favour for use in public pools in the UK nor in Europe. Pressure sand filters have to be ‘back-washed’. filter area 4. For a 2. As the deposit on the filter increases. Filters have a viewing window on the outlet and the clarity of the wash water should be checked before back-washing is stopped. High-rate filters operate in the range 30–50 m3/m2/hour and medium-rate filters in the range 20–30 m3/m2/hour. and should comply with the relevant clauses in BS 5500 Steel Pressure Vessels. either by mechanical rakes or by compressed air. The discharge to the drainage system would be about 2000 litres/minute (440 gal/minute) per filter. See Section 8. and the rate is classified as low. In recent years. the frequency depending mainly on the efficiency of the filter in removing suspended and coloidal matter and the bathing load.9 m2. For all except small pools for private houses. This cleaning is done by compressed air as directed by the manufacturers of the filter. while for public pools and school pools medium-rate filters are usually selected. hotel and private pools. hotels etc. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . an average flow rate is about 25 m3/m2/hour. This figure is determined by the filter manufacturer and should be followed. For club. and horizontal. vertical downward flow. The amount of water used in back-washing filters can be considerable. which may be attractive for small installations for private houses. Fusion Welded.

8. see Sections 3. The control of the pH is essential for efficient water treatment.1 Control of the pH. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The pH scale is logarithmic. 3.8.0 has 100 times the hydrogen ion concentration of a water with a pH of 7.11 View of three small and one large dosing pumps for sodium hypochlorite solution for pools in a private leisure centre.7 and 3. 8. alkalinity and a balanced water control of the pH The chemical characteristics of the incoming fresh water. Courtesy. values less than 7. may also influence the pH.0.8 (slightly alkaline).6 Chemical dosing of the pool water The addition of chemicals to the pool water (in addition to those needed to form a floc prior to filtration) is required for the following reasons: 1. the neutral point is 7. to disinfect the water to ensure a reasonable standard of bacterial purity. The pH is the hydrogen ion concentration.0 indicate that the solution is alkaline.2 to 7.6.0. to maintain the water in proper ‘balance’.0 indicate an acidic solution and values above 7. Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group. This may be Figure 8. The main disinfecting agent used in swimming pools is chlorine. usually from a public supply. so that a water with a pH of 5. to control the pH so that it is maintained in the range 7. 2.

2–7.1. 7. the total alkalinity.1. the higher the concentration of hypochlorous acid.8. Hypochlorous acid is very effective in destroying bacteria and the formation of this acid lowers the pH.8. hypochlorous acid and hydrochloric acid are formed. Both sodium and calcium hypochlorite are strongly alkaline. the lower the pH and the more effective is the solution in killing bacteria. the pH is lowered as alum in solution is acidic. The formation of hydrochloric acid (which is a strong acid) is undesirable as it lowers the pH still further. Acidic solutions attack ferrous metals and cement-based materials and therefore the pH must be controlled and kept within the range previously mentioned. and indicates the amount of alkaline compounds in solution in the 3 pool water. or derived from a salt containing chlorine such as calcium or sodium hypochlorite or from an organic compound containing chlorine (Figure 8. All these are related. 8. usually in the form of sodium carbonate (soda ash). it is often necessary to add an acid salt such as sodium hydrogen sulphate (known as ‘dry acid’). and if the pH is raised too high and the water is hard. High values can cause difficulty in maintaining the pH in the range of 7. If aluminium sulphate (alum) is used as a coagulant (to form a floc) before the water enters the filters. Chlorine reacts with ammonia to form compounds known as chloramines. When chlorine gas is dissolved in water.2 Maintaining balance in the pool water There is need to maintain the pool water in ‘balance’ and the main factors which determine whether or not a water is in ‘balance’ are the total hardness expressed as calcium carbonate (CaCO ). These are unstable and in the presence of chlorine break down to produce hydrochloric acid. Therefore. To counteract the effect of the high alkalinity of sodium and calcium hypochlorite. and the pH. 3 but in a complex way. The Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group recommend a general minimum level of alkalinity at 75 mg/litre which is value required for effective coagulation. calcium compounds may be deposited.6.6. There are two principal tests which can be used to Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . which as stated above is undesirable as it is aggressive and is not effective in destroying bacteria. and it is not a very effective bactericide. 8. A balanced water is not corrosive to cement-based materials but will corrode unprotected ferrous metals.11). To raise the pH to the required level alkali is added. The amount of soda ash added has to be determined by the pH. It can be seen from the brief comments above that there are many factors involved in effective treatment of pool water.in the form of chlorine gas.1 Alkalinity Alkalinity is expressed as mg/litre (ppm) of equivalent calcium carbonate (CaCO ).2 to 7.

It is generally agreed that the disinfecting agent used should remain active in the pool water after passing through the treatment plant. 8. and the Palin test.determine whether a water is in balance. The water was not in balance and the joints were seriously attacked and large-scale remedial work was required. The DoE publication The Treatment and Quality of Swimming Pool Water states ‘that when coliforms are absent and a satisfactory level of free residual chlorine is maintained throughout the pool. the word disinfection is used. In this book. The Langelier Index has been briefly discussed in Section 3. sterilisation and disinfection are used for the process which is aimed at the destruction of bacteria in the pool water. The Palin test is the simpler to apply and is favoured by pool operators. coli in 1 millilitre.1.2. while sterilisation suggests the complete elimination of all bacteria which is certainly not practical nor necessary. There are a number of methods for disinfecting swimming pool water and these are briefly described in the following sections. the total hardness (as calcium carbonate. three variables are considered: the pH.7 The disinfection of pool water The words purification. the total alkalinity. the risk of infection to bathers from the small number of organisms remaining in the pool water is minimal. Purification really refers to the work of the whole treatment. See Turnover Period in Section 8. In this test. CaCO ).8. 3 The adverse effect of a soft moorland water on the cement-based grouted joints in a public swimming pool is shown in Figure 7. The following table indicates a classification of water based on the Langelier Index by the International Standards Organisation (ISO).6. This stipulation is necessary because as soon as the treated water enters the pool fresh contamination occurs and this will remain (and increase) as the water is circulated in the pool until it again passes through the treatment plant which may take several hours. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .’ The PWTAG in their treatise Swimming Pool Water and Quality Standards recommend that a reasonable bacterial standard for pool water is that the number of bacterial colonies in 1 ml should not exceed ten and there should be no E. These are the Langelier Index.

can cause irritation to the eyes and throat of bathers. Ammonia is present in pool water as it is introduced by the bathers by the decomposition of nitrogenous compounds. a ‘residual’ remains in the pool water. A concentrated solution of sodium hypochlorite will attack Portland cement concrete and it is advisable. Modern dosing equipment makes control easy and safe. dichloramine.8. if this compound is used. that the concrete floor of the storage area be protected by a high-quality epoxy-based coating. particularly as this can happen accidentally in a storage area. sodium hydrogen sulphate. Sodium hypochlorite is normally supplied as a solution.8. This virtual elimination of the use of gaseous chlorine lead to the extensive use of solution feed using sodium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite.2 to 7. 8. This residual is not elemental chlorine but consists of compounds containing available chlorine. Hydrochloric acid is highly corrosive and if it comes into contact with the ‘raw’ sodium or calcium hypochlorite chlorine gas is liberated which can be very dangerous and special precautions must be taken to ensure that this contact does not occur. In the UK. as it is very efficient and effective. Chlorine reacts with ammonia to form chloramines which are to a limited extent bactericidal but are slow reacting and are therefore more stable than free chlorine which reacts very rapidly.8.1 Break-point chlorination Chlorine dissolves in water forming hypochlorous acid and hydrochloric acid: Cl +H O=HOCl+HCl 2 2 Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .8 Chlorination The most effective disinfectant for pool water is chlorine as it is not only very effective in the destruction of bacteria. while calcium hypochlorite is supplied as a powder. and acidic solutions have to be added to correct the pH and maintain it in the range 7. This correction of the pH is achieved by the use of either hydochloric acid. With proper dosing. or carbon dioxide. One such compound. This equipment automatically controls the chlorine residual in the pool water at a predetermined level. Both compounds are strongly alkaline. chlorine gas compressed in steel cylinders is no longer used for the disinfection of pool water but is still used in Europe and in the USA. This is usually expressed as ‘free residual’ chlorine. The smell of chlorine in pool halls is not due to a very low concentration of chlorine gas but arises from complex chlorine compounds. and regulates the pH of the water within acceptable limits. but it is also a powerful oxidising agent and can deal effectively with organic matter in solution and in suspension.

This may be increased to a maximum of 1. the number of public pools using ozone as the main disinfectant has increased considerably in recent years.9 Ozone Ozone (O ) is a very effective bactericide and a powerful oxidising agent. but reliable information on the number is not available. These are not used much in public pools but are popular in the private sector. In Switzerland. a procedure which is unsatisfactory and is not recommended.5 ppm. it starts to become contaminated by the bathers and as there is no residual. The disinfection of swimming pool water with ozone is very popular in Europe. It effects a very rapid ‘kill’ of bacteria and oxidises organic matter in the water as it passes through the plant but there is virtually no residual ozone left in the water when it is returned to the pool. it is mandatory to provide for the injection of a small amount of chlorine to ensure a free residual chlorine in the water in the pool. In Germany.g. When 3 correctly used it produces a water with no unpleasant taste nor smell. the chlorine is derived from sodium or calcium hypochlorite and is injected immediately before the treated water enters the pool.8. Germany. The point at which the chloramines start to be broken down is called the ‘break-point’ and the technique of achieving this is called ‘break-point chlorination’. An activated carbon filter is sometimes provided to remove excess ozone before the treated water enters the pool. A free chlorine residual of 1. cyanuric acid is formed and this lowers the pH and adjustment is required to obtain the necessary balance. 8. and the USA.0 ppm should be adequate to maintain satisfactory bactericidal conditions in pool water. which are often fed by hand directly into the pool. 8. The compounds can be in the form of tablets or as a solution. this is not generally considered Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . This disadvantage of ozone can be overcome by the injection of a comparatively low dose of chlorine. Switzerland and France. With both types. breaks down to form hydrochloric acid and nitrogen. When ozonised water enters the pool from the treatment plant. the newly introduced bacteria and organic matter are not ‘dealt with’ until the water again passes through the treatment plant. In the UK. the free residual chlorine can be maintained at a low level of about 0.The hypochlorous acid reacts with ammonia in a complex reaction and in the presence of excess chlorine.5 ppm when the pool loading is very high.2 Chlorinated isocyanurates Another source of chlorine is compounds in which the chlorine is combined as in chlorinated isocyanurates. e. With disinfection by ozone.

Krause of Munich in 1929.0 mg/litre using DPD tests. including generous use of make-up water. Ozone is a poisonous gas and therefore safety warning signals should be installed to operate when the concentration of ozone in the plant room exceeds a predetermined level.8°C. It is claimed that the use of bromine does not cause any irritation to the eyes.12 Metallic ions (silver and copper) Probably the first reference to the use of metallic ions for the sterilisation/disinfection of water was work by Dr. This safety system should include an automatic plant shutdown device. 8. An account of experimental work on this process Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . See also Section 8.2. It can be dispensed into swimming pools by means of tablets introduced into the pool water by a brominator. Two stable forms of chlorine dioxide are Ultrazon and Dichlor. It can now be prepared in patented stable solutions. It is used to a limited extent in hotel and private pools in Europe. but is not used in public pools in the UK. it reacts with ammonia to form bromamines (in a similar way to chlorine-forming chloramines). Bromine is claimed to be popular for use in small swimming pools for private houses. bromine is a liquid which freezes at -7. This method became known as the ‘Catadyn Silver Process’. In solution in water.5. It is a red liquid with a pungent smell and is very soluble in water. nose or throat and does not give rise to objectionable odours. 8. there is some reason to suspect that it can cause irritation to the skin of some bathers. The concentration of bromine residual is recommended by the PWTAG to be in the range 4. 8. It is a strong oxyidising agent and powerful germicide. To overcome this. However.10 Bromine Bromine (Br ) is in the same group of elements as chlorine (the halogens) which it 2 closely resembles in chemical properties. While chlorine is a gas at normal temperature and pressure. When used on its own. It is a strong oxidising agent and is claimed to have powerful germicidal properties.11 Chlorine dioxide Chlorine dioxide (ClO ) is a heavy yellow gas which in its pure form is unstable 2 and explodes violently on heating.entirely necessary provided the pool is properly operated. clubs and hotels. it is usual practice to dose with chlorine as often as necessary to maintain the necessary clarity and good appearance of the water. there is a tendency for the pool water to become rather cloudy and develop a yellowish-green colour.3 °C and its boiling point is 58.0 to 6.

Bulletins issued by the Federal Institute for Water Supplies in Zurich showed that silver ions do have a significant destructive effect on E. An essential feature for the disinfection of water is that the UV radiation must secure maximum penetration of the water being treated. It was used to a very limited extent in Europe for purifying small quantities of water.is contained in a paper by E. It is important that the pH of the water is controlled within fairly narrow limits and for small pools for private houses. Ions are derived from atoms. There is very little information on the use of this system of swimming pool water treatment in the UK. After filtration. The electric current liberates silver ions and these have a strong sterilising/disinfecting effect. There is no simple test for detecting copper and silver ions in pool water. In addition.V. Switzerland. This optimum wave-length band is claimed by the suppliers of the UV equipment to be 2500–2800 angstroms (250–280 nm). hotels and clubs this can present practical difficulties in overall control.Suckling in the Proceedings of the British Water Works Association in 1932. the water is passed through a battery of silver plates similar to the copper plates used for the micro-floc formation. A considerable amount of work has been carried out in Switzerland on the bactericidal effect of silver ions in water. At this time it was known as the ‘Vellos Casanovas’ process and a brief description of the installation is given below. it was used for treating water in the swimming pool of a large hotel in Flims Waldhaus. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The suspended and colloidal matter in the water are attracted to the liberated ions and form what the patentees term a micro-floc which is much finer than the floc formed by coagulants (see Section 8. while ions from non metals and acid radicals have a negative charge.5. coli in water. 8. but unlike atoms they possess electrical charges.2). Ions derived from hydrogen and metals have a positive charge. there is an optimum wave-length band for effecting maximum kill of the bacteria and viruses. A pulsating electric current passes through the plates and due to the difference in potential between the plates metallic ions are liberated into the circulating water. Water is drawn from the pool and passes through a strainer and then through a series of copper plates. In the early 1960s. It is also claimed that the silver ions remain in the water as it is returned to the pool and thus have an effect similar to that of free residual chlorine. The micro-floc penetrates into the filter medium and this is claimed to increase its efficiency so that the rate of flow is about double that through a high pressure sand filter.13 Ultra-violet radiation Ultra-violet (UV) radiation for the sterilisation of small quantities of water has been known since the early part of the 20th century.

Also. a sulphonated carbonaceous material. The UV radiation is produced by low. especially if it is heated.8. prove difficult. Nevertheless. No chemicals are added to the water. up to about 50 m3/hour (11 000 gal/hour) can be treated. compliance with the tight control procedures can. The pH of the water should be in the range 7. Most domestic and small industrial water softeners operate on the base-exchange (or ion-exchange) process which removes both bicarbonate and sulphate hardness. 8. Boiling will reduce the bicarbonate hardness but not that due to sulphates. A serious disadvantage for its use in the treatment of pool water is that there is no residual in the water after the water has passed the treatment point. Water flows through a bed of the active material and the calcium and magnesium ions combine with the zeolite as shown: Calcium bicarbonate+sodium zeolite=calcium zeolite +sodium bicarbonate Magnesium sulphate+sodium zeolite=magnesium zeolite +sodium sulphate After a time all the sodium zeolite is used and the softener needs to be regenerated by the addition of common salt (sodium chloride) as follows: Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .2 to 7. it can be an attractive method of water disinfection for small pools for private houses. This requires an effective check on the chemical characteristics of the water supply to the treatment plant and the filters must operate at maximum efficiency. The advantages claimed for this method are: Over-dosage is impossible. When correctly designed the plant obtains a very high percentage of ‘kill’ (over 90%). or a synthetic resin which has ion-exchange properties.14 The base-exchange process for softening pool water The purpose of softening water is to reduce the hardness and this has many advantages for swimming pool water. The bicarbonate hardness is known as temporary hardness and the sulphate hardness as permanent hardness. In this process. in practice. medium and high pressure mercury vapour discharge lamps. particularly iron salts and nitrates. the active material is a natural or artificial zeolite.The need for maximum penetration of the water means that suspended and colloidal matter must be at a minimum and the total dissolved solids (tds) must also be low. Hardness is due mainly to the presence in solution of bicarbonates and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. clubs and hotels.

Treatment of Swimming Pool Water with Sodium Hypochlorite. To prevent this happening. There is no change in the total dissolved solids (tds) in the water.’ It is recommended that when compounds containing a sulphate radical are used in the treatment process. HMSO. Elphick. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Recommendations for mitigating or preventing sulphate attack by the use of appropriate materials in the finishes of the pool shell are given in Chapter 7. For use in swimming pools the Langelier Index should be positive and the pH in the range 7. The process is expensive and it is not used when large volumes of softened water are required.Sodium chloride+calcium zeolite=sodium zeolite+calcium chloride Sodium chloride+magnesium zeolite=sodium zeolite+magnesium chloride The calcium and magnesium chlorides are in solution in the wash water which goes to waste. London.2 to 7. 8. Wallace & Tiernan. the softened water should be blended with a percentage of the ‘raw’ water to give the required degree of hardness. British Standard BS 5385 Part 4 Code of Practice for Ceramic Tiling and Mosaics in Specific Conditions.15 Sulphates in swimming pool water A further matter to be considered is the possible build-up of sulphates in the pool water arising from the use of aluminium sulphate and sodium hydrogen sulphate. Treatment and Quality of Swimming Pool Water.1 states: ‘Ideally. Sulphates in solution are aggressive to Portland cement and therefore tile joints. the sulphate concentration (expressed as SO ) in the water of 3 swimming pools should not exceed 300 ppm. clause 13. Where this level cannot be achieved. 1984. rendering and screeds are vulnerable to attack.8. Acceptability of Swimming Pool Disinfection by Different Methods. Further reading Amateur Swimming Association. Department of the Environment. 1984. regular testing for the concentration of the sulphate ions should be part of the control tests. 1978. consideration should be given to the use of impermeable adhesives and grouting materials that are not affected by sulphates. Water of almost zero hardness can be obtained which is not desirable for most purposes including water for swimming pools. for reasons previously given. Tonbridge. A.

W. 142. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 2. Investigations into the bactericidal action of silver in water. 1999. K. Vol. and Zobrist. Wuhrman. pp. F.H. 1958 (translation). Information Bulletin No. Journal AWWA. 28(1). Langelier. Practical Leisure Centre Management. October 1936. The analytical control of anti-corrosion water treatment. Zurich. 1500–21.Institute Of Baths and Recreation Management. Swimming Pool Water Treatment and Quality Standards. Federal Institute of Water Supplies. Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group.

except one. hours of sunshine. If the pool is 16. and direction.Chapter 9 Notes on heating swimming pools and energy conservation It is usual practice to provide heating for indoor swimming pools. The heat loss from the water surface depends on a large number of factors all of which.15. The simplified calculation which follows assumes that the pool is covered at night with a proper cover and thus the fall in temperature during the time when the heating is turned off is 3 °C. changing rooms etc. i. and during this period there are many days when only the most determined swimmers will be willing to use the pool unless the water is heated. and wind protection provided.0 m wide with a minimum depth of 0. See Section 4. 9. 1 °C per hour. The calculation is intended as an illustration. say. both for the pool water and for the pool hall.67 m long. The term pool heating means a properly designed and installed heating system connected to the water circulation system of the pool. with only a comparatively small percentage through the walls and floor to the surrounding ground. an open-air pool can only be used in reasonable comfort for about 4–5 months during the year. is: Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . When the boiler is switched on in the morning. 3 hours.1 Heating open-air swimming pools By far the greatest loss of heat is from the surface of the water. In the UK and countries with a similar climate. unless the ground water level is high.90 m and a maximum depth of 1. the water surface will be 133 m2 and the volume of water about 160 m3. A formula which seeks to take into account all relevant factors may well turn out to be more inaccurate than a simplified version and experience. 8. On the other hand. are closely associated with weather conditions. wind velocity.50 m. Weather conditions include ambient air temperature. The exceptional factor is whether the pool has a thermal insulating cover for use at night and other times when the pool is not in use. and the selection of a suitable type of boiler should always be left to experienced firms. assuming 80% efficiency. it will be required to raise the temperature of the 160 m3 of water 3 °C in.e. all of which change during the day and from day to day. Boiler capacity. the heating of the water in open-air pools is rather less common in the UK.

The boiler would be gas or oil fired. Air pressure in the pool hall should be slightly lower than in adjoining areas so as to induce a flow of air towards the pool hall.3. thus making an estimated boiler capacity of say 245 kWh (or 924 000 Btu/hour). To this figure of 232 kWh should be added a percentage to cover heat loss during the warming-up period of. 2. or by experienced and reliable contractors on a package deal basis. In Europe. say.00)×4.18÷0. but will not eliminate the diffusion of ‘chlorine smell’ to other parts of the building when chlorine is used as the main disinfectant in the pool water.80=836 000 kJ=836 000÷3600=232 kWh (1 calorie=4. In spite of the wide differences in design approach and client requirements. assuming this is not less than 26°C.2 Heating the water in indoor swimming pools The temperature of the water in indoor swimming pools is generally higher than in open-air pools. This will help reduce. and floors of changing rooms. The ‘smell of Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Mechanical ventilation is considered essential in indoor public swimming pools as it helps to control condensation and adds to the comfort of the pool users. a water temperature of 28 °C is considered a minimum. Condensation should be reduced to the maximum practical extent. the temperature is often 30 °C. In Europe.18 J). in hydrotherapy pools. The heating of the water and the heating and ventilation of the pool hall and adjacent rooms are all part of the same problem which has to be resolved by experienced firms of consulting engineers. In private house. 9. 9. while in public pools in the UK it is 26–28 °C. it is quite usual to find that benches around the pool are heated and underfloor heating is provided to the walkways. the water is usually maintained at about 32 °C. in public pools. 5%. See comments about roof construction in Chapter 7. The details of heating and ventilating systems vary from one building to another and to the requirements of the client who is naturally concerned with both the capital cost and the operating costs. it is generally agreed that the following principles apply: 1. club and hotel pools.1 General considerations For comfort.(160×l000×l. the air temperature in the pool hall and changing rooms should be at least 1 °C above the water temperature.3 Heating and ventilation of pool halls and adjoining areas 9.

There is an excellent and comprehensive publication from the Energy Efficiency Office entitled Energy Efficiency Technologies for Swimming Pools (details are given under Further Reading at the end of this chapter). the U value should not exceed 0. say. chlorine’ is not caused by the presence of elemental chlorine. but should be discharged. The energy used operates on two distinct levels.6 (W/m2K). when the bodies are in direct contact. but by chlorine compounds. It can be seen that the amount of heat energy required to convert water to vapour/ steam is very high. For the pool hall. When chlorine is used as the main disinfecting agent in the pool water. 60– 70%. by convection through a liquid and by radiation by which heat can be transferred through a vacuum. preferably in total. As far as heating and ventilation is concerned. and this is equivalent to 4. There are a number Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . such as nitrogen trichloride. All reasonable steps should be taken to reduce heat loss and thus reduce energy consumption. the latent heat of the fusion of ice and the latent heat of evaporation. The main factor which controls the use of energy in maintaining satisfactory conditions in an indoor swimming pool is the evaporation of water from the pool surface. Heat can be transferred from one body to another by conduction. The Building Regulations 1985 Approved Document L Conservation of Fuel and Power requires that the U value of exposed walls. and the energy used by the mechanical ventilation system which is needed to reduce the relative humidity to an acceptable level. It is claimed in this publication that. and dichloramine. The latent heat of the fusion of ice is about 80 calories (360 J) and the latent heat of evaporation of water is about 540 calories or 2260 J (2. It has been established that the energy used at these two levels is over 60% of the total energy used for the whole building and its operation. The unit of heat is the amount of heat required to raise 1 g of water 1 °C and is known as a calorie. the temperature remains constant. For semi-exposed walls and floors. The air changes per hour (ventilation rate) will normally vary in different parts of the building. There are two forms of heat. the annual cost of energy consumed can be reduced by a significant figure by the adoption of well-tried techniques. Heat is a form of energy and exists in a body in the form of motion of the molecules. the air should not be recirculated. to the external air. there are many systems available to conserve energy.45 (W/m2K).18 J.3. namely the heat used up in the evaporation process. walls and roof have appropriate low U values. 4. exposed floors and ground floors for industrial buildings should not exceed 0. in a typical indoor public swimming pool.26 kJ). the ventilation rate will be closely related to the area of the pool and the area of surrounding walkways as it is from these areas that evaporation takes place. During the change of state (ice to water and water to steam). The first principle is to ensure that the floor.

of methods which will make a material contribution to the conservation of energy and these include the following: 1. 2. The provision of a thermal insulating cover to the pool for use when the pool is not in use, e.g. at night; The reduction of the mechanical ventilation (rate of air change) when the pool is not in use and the pool hall not occupied. This can effect a saving of 10– 12% in the energy consumed, with of course, a corresponding reduction in operating cost. However, if the pool hall has a pressurised roof void, the closing down of the ventilation system can cause problems (see Sections 7.14–7.16); Accurate and effective control of temperature and humidity; The use of heat recovery and/or heat reclaim techniques.

3. 4.

9.3.2 Heat conservation techniques
Briefly, heat recovery uses heat exchangers, and heat reclaim uses heat pumps. Heat exchangers collect waste heat for reuse, while heat pumps reclaim and regenerate heat from lower energy sources. The installation of an efficient system of energy conservation is said to reduce energy consumption for pool hall heating by up to about 30%. Heat pumps are ideal for heat energy conservation. A heat pump operates to extract heat from a low temperature heat source and up-grade it to a higher temperature. For example, a heat pump can be used to extract heat from a large volume of relatively cool water and use this heat to raise the temperature of a comparatively small volume of water. A heat pump is similar in principle to a refrigerator, but working in the reverse; it requires an external source of power, electricity or gas, to drive the compressor. A ‘simple’ heat exchanger will extract heat from warm air which is being discharged to waste, and transfer this heat to fresh incoming air, without external energy input, and the same principle applies to out-going and incoming water. More complex heat exchangers do the same thing but with an external energy source in addition.

9.4 Solar heating of swimming pools
The sun provides heat energy free of charge, the only cost being that required to put this energy to practical use. It appears that the large-scale use of solar energy to heat water for domestic use was probably started in Israel in the 1950s. As far as the UK is concerned, it was not until the oil crisis of the early 1970s that serious attention was given to the possible use of solar heating for open-air swimming pools. In 1986, the British Standards Institution published a Code of Practice for the

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

Solar Heating of Swimming Pools. The Code makes recommendations for components, design and installation of equipment, performance and commissioning. In addition, a great deal of useful information is included. Contrary to general opinion, properly designed and installed solar panels can collect a significant amount of heat energy on overcast days. The temperature of the water in an average unheated open-air pool in the UK during the four summer months (mid-May to mid-September) is likely to be about 18 °C. With properly designed and installed solar heating, this could average about 23 °C. This is undoubtedly very useful from the point of conservation of energy (fuel) and money, but for those people who like warmer water (the 23 °C is an average figure), it is necessary to install a conventional heating installation in addition to the solar heating. The boiler can have a smaller output and the operating costs would show a considerable saving compared with an installation without solar heating. The conventional system should be considered as a back-up to the solar heating. The two systems should be controlled thermostatically to obtain the best results. The solar collectors are in the form of panels made from a patented form of polypropylene which has a black matt surface. To secure the best results, they have to be correctly sited and orientated; they are connected to the water circulation system of the pool.

Further reading
Acoustics & Environmetrics Ltd. Some Ways of Saving Energy—the Nature of Heat and Cold Energy, 1988. British Standards Institution. Code of Practice for the Solar Heating of Swimming Pools, BS6785, 1986. Department of the Environment. The Building Regulations 1985, Approved Document L, Conservation of Fuel and Power, 1989. Energy Efficiency Office and Sports Council. Energy Efficiency Technologies for Swimming Pools, January 1985. Sports Council. Energy Data Sheets 1–21. Towler, P.A. Protection of buildings from hazardous gases, Journal of the Institute of Water and Environmental Management, 1993, No. 7, June, pp. 283–94.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

Chapter 10

Maintenance and repairs to swimming pools

MAINTENANCE OF SWIMMING POOLS

10.1 General considerations
The term swimming pool in this context includes paving and walling described under External Works in Chapter 6. The recommendations relating to maintainance are intended mainly for the private pool owner and the owners of swimming pools where full-time technical personnel are not available for daily supervision and maintenance of the pool and equipment. The following factors are relevant to the operation of any of the types of swimming pool referred to in this book: 1. 2. 3. 4. whether the pool is open-air or inside a building; the length of time the pool is in use each day; the details of the water circulation system and the treatment plant with special reference to the chemicals used; the type and quality of finish to the inside of the pool.

10.2 Routine supervision: smaller pools
There is no such thing as a fully automatic pool system which operates without regular attention, and the following routine is recommended: 1. A visit should be paid every day to the plant room to check the equipment including the screen and circulating pump(s). 2. The pool water should be checked for pH at least twice a day (morning and evening). When the disinfectant is chlorine, metallic ions, or UV radiation, the pH should be in the range 7.2 to 7.8. If bromine is used as the disinfectant, the PWTAG recommend the pH should be in the range 7.8 to 8.2. The PWTAG is the Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group. The maintenance of the correct pH value is fundamental to the efficient operation of the treatment process. See Chapter 8, particularly Section 8.6.1.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

3. If chlorine is the main disinfectant, the water should be checked for ‘free’ chlorine by the use of a standard test kit which is normally provided by the suppliers of the equipment. The ‘free’ chlorine should be in the range 1.00 to 1.5 mg/litre. 4. If bromine is the main disinfectant, the PWTAG recommend that total bromine should be maintained in the range 1.5 to 3.5 mg/litre. 5. The pool should be cleaned regularly; leaves and ferrous objects can cause severe staining. With a marbelite finish, such stains are very difficult to remove. 6. A watch should be kept for algal growths at and near the water line and on adjacent paving. Information on the removal of algal growths is given in Section 10.4. 7. The checking and servicing of all equipment should be carried out as recommended by the suppliers. The frequent blowing of a fuse indicates that something is wrong and this should be attended to. 8. If pressure sand filters are installed, back-washing should be carried out as required to maintain a high standard of clarity in the pool water; see Section 8.5. Detailed directions are usually provided by the suppliers. 9. Chemicals for water treatment and such items as fuse wire, and cleaning materials should not be allowed to go out of stock. 10. Thermal insulating covers should be installed wherever practical on all openair pools. Covers are also very useful for indoor pools as the major heat loss is from the water surface. The installation and regular use of such covers substantially reduces evaporation and for indoor pools reduces humidity in the pool hall.

10.3 Shut-down periods
While indoor public pools are normally open all the year round, they are usually shut down for general inspection etc. every 18 months to two years. It may be convenient to close other pools for short or long periods. For short periods, e.g. for a few weeks, the following procedure would be satisfactory: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The pool should be thoroughly cleaned and given a strong dose of the disinfectant used, and the filter(s) should be back-washed. All containers holding chemicals should be properly closed. All switches should be closed and fuses removed. Proper ventilation of the plant room should be ensured. The pool should be covered (assuming a cover is provided).

For long periods, including winterisation, rather more precautions should be taken. The details depend on whether the pool is open-air or indoors, and location and construction of the plant room.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

All movable pool equipment should be cleaned and carefully stored.10. If there is a diving board it would be advisable to remove it. All switches should be left in the closed position and all fuses removed. it would be advisable to remove the pump motor. emptied. If thick ice is anticipated. as recommended in Appendix 2. give a generous dose of disinfectant. 2. With a complete shut-down. Unless the plant room is well ventilated and comparatively warm. cleaned and refitted. 4. the pool should be thoroughly cleaned. with the heater operating on a thermostat set to ensure the water temperature does fall below about 7 °C. An alternative to the above suggestions is to carry out the general cleaning. a ‘buffer’ of thick timber should be provided around the perimeter to reduce the pressure of the ice on the walls. 3. The emptying and refilling should be carried out carefully in accordance with the recommendations given in Appendix 2. and leave the whole installation ‘ticking over’ during the winter. Their presence in the pool does indicate some short-coming in the Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . All metal fixtures and fittings should be cleaned and well greased. 10. the filter should be drained (after back-washing).2 Putting a pool back into operation The pool should be emptied and thoroughly cleaned.3. Refilling should be done slowly and the temperature raised slowly.1 Winterisation: open-air pools Two important parts of winterisation are the closing-down and re-opening. The pool should be given a heavy dose of algicide and then.4 Algal growths: prevention and removal Algal growths have a habit of suddenly appearing on the upper part of the walls of the pool and on adjoining paving despite reasonable efforts to operate the pool satisfactorily. 1. after a period depending on the algicide used. and the disinfecting equipment dealt with as directed by the suppliers. and refilled and given a strong dose of the disinfectant used.3. All plant and equipment removed for the winter should be inspected. The water level should be just below the outlets. It is not advisable to leave the pool empty during the winter. The whole installation should be given a trial run well in advance of the ‘opening party’. The walls and floor should be carefully inspected for damage and all defects made good. The provision of an efficient thermal insulating cover would ensure that thick ice does not form unless the winters are generally severe. heater and disinfecting equipment to a warm dry store. 10. the heater drained.

Therefore.30 ppm) of copper is required. this is equivalent to 1. However.way the pool is operated. 10. An efficient and reasonably inexpensive method is to use a solution of copper sulphate crystals (the chemical formula is CuSO . about 0. However. such growths cause the surface to be very slippery especially to bare feet.5H O). mainly of the skin. One m3 of water weighs 1000 kg. Advice should be sought from the suppliers of the finishes (tiles.5 g of copper sulphate. If the ‘free’ chlorine is maintained in the range 1. For a cool hard water.2 mg/litre of copper sulphate crystal. The concentrations suggested for copper sulphate can be calculated as follows: One litre of water weighs 1000 g. The skin infections are usually on the feet.g. about 2. It is very important that cleaning materials should be non-aggressive to the finishes to the floors of walkways and changing rooms.30 mg/litre (0. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .5 mg/litre may be needed.). Thorough and regular cleaning with mild disinfectant will help reduce the risk of infection but is unlikely to prevent it entirely.5 Foot infections Various infections. e. The dosage depends largely on the hardness and temperature of the pool water. The details of the repair will depend largely on the area involved and the cause of the defects. REPAIRS TO EXTERNAL WORKS: PAVING Information and recommendations for various types of paving in general use have been given in Chapter 6 and if these are followed the amount of repairs required should be small. These arise from contact with floor surfaces. The risk of infection from pathogenic bacteria is very small indeed in a properly run swimming pool. there is little chance of algae establishing themselves in the pool. can be picked up in swimming pools.25 mg/litre.0 to 1. verrucae. It is the 4 2 copper which is the active part of the compound. but the price of immunity from such infection is constant vigilance over all parts of the water treatment process. grouted joints etc. once found they should be removed by the use of an algaelcide of which there are a large number of proprietary compounds on the market. generally due to low chlorine residuals. Bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) solution is also effective and can be used in a strong solution on paving. 1 m3 of the cool hard water would require 2. circumstances arise when repairs are necessary. 1 mg is 1/1000 of a gramme. and athlete’s foot. On paving. For a warm soft water.

The repaired areas should be cured for at least three days by covering with polythene sheets held down by concrete blocks or similar. A coat of cement/styrene butadiene (SBR) emulsion.1). Figure 10. the practical solution is to remove and relay it in accordance with good practice. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 3 parts clean concreting sand and 10 litres of SBR emulsion to 50 kg cement. The surface of the concrete around the cut-out patches should be cleaned and wire brushed for a distance of at least 75 mm. As long as possible after the completion of the patch repairs. Small areas damaged by frost attack (spalling of the surface) or wear can be repaired as follows: 1.10. mix proportions of 1 part OPC. 25–30 litres of SBR to 50kg cement should be well brushed into the cleaned area and this should be followed within 30 minutes with a cement/sand/SBR mortar.40 should be adequate as the SBR acts as a workability aid. All loose particles should be removed by the light use of a bolster and wire brush down to sound concrete.6 Remedial work to insitu concrete paving for pedestrians If the concrete is badly cracked due to settlement/subsidence. 3. a coat of cement/SBR grout should be brushed into the surface.1 Sketch showing patch repair to insitu concrete paving. The damaged area should be cut out as square as practical (Figure 10. 2. The brush coat of grout should also be cured as above. The mix can be quite stiff and a w/c ratio of 0.

Reference can also be made to the relevant sections in Chapter 6. Whichever is selected reference should be made to the relevant paragraphs in Chapter 6.7 Remedial work to insitu concrete paving for light commercial vehicles Small isolated defective areas can be repaired by a similar method to that described above. issued by the Quarry Products Association. followed by a wearing course of cloe-graded dense macadam to BS 4987. The following comments indicate the main points which require attention. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . A base course of dense macadam to BS 4987 would be suitable. precast concrete paving blocks. or change to precast concrete flags. If a careful inspection and diagnosis indicated that the existing concrete can be retained then the provision of a new surface of asphalt could be a practical solution. The existing concrete should be cleaned and all potholes and defective areas repaired.8 Remedial work to precast concrete flags Precast concrete flags are normally laid for pedestrian use and defects usually consist of cracking of individual flags and ‘steps’ or ‘lipping’ between adjacent flags caused by uneven settlement of the sub-base. See BS 434 Bitumen Road Emulsions. cracked flags should be replaced and uneven flags should be removed and the bedding/sub-base adjusted and the flags relaid so that the difference in level between adjacent flags does not exceed 3 mm (see BS 7263 Precast Concrete Flags Part 2 Code of Practice for Laying). a practical solution is to remove and relay in insitu concrete. With badly cracked areas. More detailed information is contained in Information Sheet 3 Resurfacing of Roads and Other Paved Areas Using Asphalt. Repair is relatively simple. Part 3 of BS 6717 makes recommendations for laying and these should be followed when carrying out remedial work.10. A bitumen emulsion tack coat should be applied by spray and must be allowed to ‘break’ (change from brown to black) before the wearing course is laid. but it may be advisable to use small aggregate concrete instead of a mortar if the depth of the cut-out areas exceed 50 mm. 10. 10.9 Remedial work to precast concrete paving blocks Precast concrete blocks complying with BS 6717 Precast Concrete Paving Blocks normally only need adjusting due to settlement of the foundation on which they were laid. or clay pavers.

The latter is a mixture of white cement and marble chippings and the acid will attack both cement and marble. The diluted acid is applied and brushed in and allowed to remain in contact with the concrete for about 10 minutes.11 Remedial work to slippery paving Paving around and giving access to the pool should have a non-slip (slip-resistant) surface. 10. complying with BS 6677 Part 1. 2.10. but care is needed. 10. The treatment should be repeated until a satisfactory depth of exposure of the coarse aggregate is obtained. 3. Riven natural stone paving is also reasonably slip-resistant. It is inexpensive and relatively easy to carry out. 1–1.1 Acid etching The results can be quite satisfactory. Acid etching should not be used on marble nor on terrazzo. there is no authoritative recommendation for friction coefficients between wet bare feet and floor surfaces. The methods in general use are: 1.5 mm should be adequate. acid etching. At the time of writing. The area treated is then well washed down. Thorough washing down after each application of the acid is essential. Reference can also be made to the relevant sections in Chapter 6. should only need adjusting in level arising from settlement of the foundation on which they were laid. Persons walking with bare wet feet are more likely to slip than those with dry bare feet. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .10 Remedial work to clay pavers Clay pavers. Dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) is used.11. provision of resin-based coatings. The acid attacks the cement paste (and the aggregate if this is calcareous). The author’s experience is that the best surface is that provided by high-quality slip-resistant ceramic tiles. cutting of shallow grooves. A considerable amount of work has been put into the problem of slipping at work and means to assess a ‘safe’ coefficient of friction between various types of foot wear and different floor surfacing materials. one part of commercial acid to ten parts water. The relaying should be carried out in accordance with BS 6677 Part 3. can become slippery with use and then steps should be taken to deal with it. These methods are not suitable for paving used by bare feet. precast slabs and insitu. Concrete. Rubber gloves and an eye shield must be worn. care being taken to remedy any faults in the sub-base and sub-grade. or grit blasting. slight roughening of the surface by mechanical scabbling.

but can be caused by uplift of the pool shell. Repairs to screeds is discussed in Section 10. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . as fairly large areas of screed would have to be replaced. The recommended minimum thicknesses for precast paving flags is 50 mm and for insitu concrete 100 mm. The recommendation for floor tiles is 1 mm where the joint does not exceed 6 mm wide and 2 mm when the joint exceeds 6 mm wide. The surface of the concrete has to be prepared first by light scabbling or grit blasting.11. 10.5 Slip-resistant resin-based coatings These coatings are usually based on two pack epoxies or two-pack polyurethanes. The whole operation is expensive. Noise. it is a much bigger job to correct.11. 10. grit blasting and high-pressure water jets can be a practical solution.2 shows an area treated in this way. The resins can be pigmented. Unevenness in paving flags can be readily corrected by lifting the flags and adjusting the bedding so that the difference in level between adjacent flags does not exceed 3 mm (see BS 7263 Code of Practice for Precast Concrete Flags). While this can occur to paving around an indoor pool it is much more likely to happen with external paving around open-air pools.26. this method should only be used on good-quality concrete of adequate thickness. due mainly to subsidence.11. with appropriate primers.11. 10. The primer and resin must be applied in accordance with the directions of the supplier. 10. a fine. and then all grit and dust must be removed.4 Grooving This is an effective method for improving slip resistance of concrete paving. If tiling becomes sufficiently uneven to cause tripping.10.2 Scabbling Owing to the effect of impact and vibration caused by the hard steel heads. vibration and dust is eliminated by the use of highvelocity water jets. Figure 10.12 Preventing trips and falls Uneven paved surfaces can result in trips and falls to persons walking on the paving. When the final coat of resin is still tacky.3 Grit blasting and high-pressure water jets If the area to be treated is a large one. hard grit is sprinkled on the surface to provide the desired slip resistance.

A limited degree of out-of-plumbness can often be accepted provided a periodic check is made to determine whether further movement has taken place. However. the only repair likely to be necessary is repointing at intervals depending on the degree of exposure. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . a careful assessment by an experienced architect or engineer may conclude that part rebuilding is a reasonable solution.14 Remedial work to earth-retaining walls When correctly designed and constructed. and the growth of the roots of large trees. 10. REPAIRS TO EXTERNAL WORKS: WALLING 10.Figure 10. a very severe gale or a tornado (UK type) may cause part of the wall to become significantly out of plumb or even partly demolished.4. They sometimes develop a bow due to ground and ground water pressure.2 Concrete paving grooved to improve slip resistance. While complete rebuilding may at first sight seem the only remedy.2).13 Remedial work to free-standing walls On the assumption that the wall has been built in accordance with good practice (see Section 6. these walls should be virtually maintenance free over many years.

3.15 General comments Remedial work to the pool shell may be required as a result of failure to pass a leakage test on a new pool before any finishes are applied. both vertically and horizontally. or has become static. but repair is recommended. 10. The height of the wall is an important factor in deciding what action is needed. it is reasonable to assume that there will be no infiltration when the pool is completed and put into operation. so that while it can be seen.15– 10. If the shell is constructed in sprayed concrete it may not be possible to do this for the reasons given in Chapter 5.20–10. for example. If the leakage test is satisfactory. This repair work would be simpler to carry out than repair work to a pool shell to which finishes have been applied. 10. failure to pass a leakage test. Trees on the earth side of the retaining wall need special attention. deficiency of concrete cover to the rebars. 2.When this occurs. it cannot be measured.16 Remedial work to thermal contraction cracks Thermal contraction cracks penetrate right through the wall but are very narrow. It is recommended that provided it is practical to do so. shrinkage cracks in the floor. 4. There is a discussion on the former in Sections 10. detected by a cover meter survey. seldom exceeding 1 mm. and the latter in Sections 10. thermal contraction cracks in the walls. intermittent.19. preferably by an experienced person. Sometimes these cracks are self-sealing (known as autogenous healing).26. back-filling around the walls should not be carried out until the leakage test has been satisfactorily completed. When defects are found in the shell of a new reinforced concrete pool they are likely to be of the following types: 1. should be recorded at intervals to establish whether the movement is continuous. REMEDIAL WORK TO POOLS UNDER CONSTRUCTION Repairs may be needed to pools which are under construction. areas of honeycombed concrete. The amount of leakage through this type of crack is usually small. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . more extensive repairs may be required to existing pools after many years in service. the extent of the displacement.

The repaired area should be cured by covering with polythene sheeting held down around the perimeter.00 mm wide. the use of crack injection may be required (Figure 10. or whether they are wider but less frequent. The shallower cracks can be repaired as described for thermal Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 10. for four days. The suggested method of repair is shown in the sketch at Figure 10.3. remove all dust and grit and well brush in a cement/SBR grout with a mix of about 25 litres of SBR to 50 kg cement. All grit and dust should be removed and an epoxy primer well brushed in.17 Remedial work to drying shrinkage cracks These cracks are usually confined to floor slabs rather than walls.4). right through the slab.3 Sketch showing repair of fine thermal crack in wall of pool. Wider cracks usually penetrate down to the reinforcement and in extreme cases. and the surface of the concrete for a distance of 300 mm on both sides of the crack should be wire brushed. and this should be followed by two coats of epoxy resin. The former are very narrow and usually penetrate only a few millimetres. The surface of the crack should be opened up by light tapping with a hammer and bolster. Remedial work to drying shrinkage cracks will depend on whether the cracks are due to plastic shrinkage (as shown in Figure 4. For cracks exceeding 1.Figure 10.1). A suitable method of repair is to wire brush the surface of the area over which cracking has occurred.

The latter has many advantages as vibration is eliminated and the concrete is left with a clean. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The repair consists in the removal of weak. The deeper cracks may require crack injection by a specialist firm.4 Sketch showing repair of serious thermal crack in wall of pool by crack injection.5). the newly placed concrete should be cured for four days by covering it with polythene sheets properly secured against wind. or errors in mix design which are sometimes aggravated by loss of water and fines at defective joints in the formwork. this can be done by percussion tools but for larger and/or deeper areas of honeycombing.contract cracks in walls. See Section 10. the use of high-velocity water jets is recommended. Figure 10.23. honeycombed concrete.3. 10. For small isolated area(s). and removal of all grit and dust. damp exposed aggregate surface which is ideal for securing bond with the new mortar or concrete. a cement/sand/SBR mortar can be used after preparation of the concrete as described above and the application of a cement/SBR grout to assist in securing a good bond (Figure 10. For shallow areas. When concrete is used in a wall repair. a collapse slump with a low w/c ratio is required to help ensure full compaction.18 Remedial work to honeycombed concrete Honeycombing of concrete is usually due to lack of care in compaction of the concrete. After removal of the formwork.

In this case. mosaic or marbelite as the coating would seriously interfere with the bond at the concrete-finish interface. it may be necessary Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . if any.5 Sketch showing repair of honeycombed concrete in wall of pool. A properly applied cement/sand rendering not less than 15 mm thick. to be taken when the cover revealed by the cover-meter survey is less than the minimum required rests with the professional man responsible for supervising the contract. The options are limited and usually are restricted to the selection of a suitable material to apply to the concrete to restore the protection lost by the inadequacy of the cover. preferably as soon as practical after casting. The actual cover should not be less than the prescribed/nominal cover minus 5 mm.Figure 10. The decision as to the action. containing 10 litres of SBR to 50 kg cement should provide adequate protection unless the actual cover is grossly inadequate over large areas.19 Inadequate concrete cover to the reinforcement It has been recommended in Chapters 4 and 5 that the prescribed cover to reinforcement should be checked by means of an electro-magnetic cover-meter. The use of coatings is unlikely to be satisfactory if the finish to the pool is tiles. 10.

for a structural lining of sprayed reinforced concrete, 75 mm thick to be specified. However, such a lining on the walls will reduce the inside dimensions of the pool, and if on the floor will reduce the water depth. The surface of the concrete should be prepared by high-velocity water jets as previously described. Further information on the use of cover meters is given in Section 10.22.2. There may be some evidence of debonding of either the rendering, screed or tiling while the work is still in progress; recommendations for testing the bond are given in Section 7.8, and reference should be made to Section 10.26 for remedial work to this type of defect.

REMEDIAL WORK TO EXISTING POOLS: TRACING LEAKS AND INVESTIGATIONS

10.20 Introduction
Remedial work to existing pools is usually initiated because leakage is found to be taking place and/or serious visible defects have appeared (Figures 10.6–10.7).

Figure 10.6 Defects in floor of old open-air pool. Courtesy, Colebrand Ltd.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

Figure 10.7 Defects in wall of old open-air pool. Courtesy, Colebrand Ltd.

Figure 10.8 View of old open-air pool after completion of repairs and decoration with chlorinated rubber paint. Courtesy, Colebrand Ltd.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

The first step is to ascertain the amount of leakage and whether it is loss of water from the pool or infiltration of ground water, or some combination of both. A careful investigation has to be put in hand which is likely to be time consuming and expensive. If the leakage is serious it is usually accompanied by other defects in which case a detailed investigation should be carried out. The cost of investigating the loss of water can be high and before undertaking such an investigation, the ‘costbenefit’ aspect should be given careful consideration. The recommendations which follow are based on the assumption that the cost of the investigation is considered worthwhile.

10.21 Tracing leaks
Experience shows that leaks mainly occur through cracks and joints and less frequently through honeycombed concrete. Unfortunately, there is no practical and simple method of locating points of leakage unless there are clear visible defects on the inside of the pool. Figures 10.6 and 10.7 show major defects in the floor and wall of an old open-air pool where in fact serious loss of water was taking place. In most cases, the location of leakage is difficult to establish. From time to time, ingenious suggestions are put forward for locating leaks by means of tracer dyes, concentrated salt solutions and radio-active tracers. These may be useful in special cases where the water loss is large and the ground water is below the underside of the floor of the pool. It would be necessary to excavate inspection pits at close centres around the pool carried down to below the pool floor. When loss of water is suspected, the following procedure is recommended: 1. 2. A drawing should be prepared showing the location and extent of all major visible defects. A water test should be carried out as described in Appendix 2; but if the pool has been empty for less than about three months at the time of the test, the initial soakage period can be omitted. It is particularly important that the drop in water level should be recorded for each 24 hour period. If the water level virtually ceased to drop below a certain level, then this would indicate that a major leak was at, or close to, this level. With a major leak in the floor or lower part of a wall, the rate of fall in water level would decrease as this level was approached due to the reduction in the head of water over the leak. A decision has to be taken as to what loss of water can be accepted, and this depends on a number of factors including the age of the pool, its method of construction, and whether the water is heated. It would be unrealistic to expect a pool which was more than 10 years old, constructed in other than reinforced concrete to achieve a standard of water loss similar to that of a new pool.

3.

4.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

5.

6.

For a new pool, 25 m×13m, the acceptable water loss excluding evaporation would constitute a drop in level of 10mm in seven days; this is 3.225 m3=705 gal, or 102 gal per day. For an old pool of similar size, the drop in level could well be 25 mm in 24 hours, resulting in an outflow from the pool of 8.125 m3 per day (1787 gal). When the rate of fall of the water level indicates that a major source of leakage has been reached, this should be recorded and the test should be continued until the rate of loss is considered acceptable, or the pool is virtually empty. The latter would indicate a major leak probably in the floor at the deep end.

Suggestions for repairing leaks are given in Sections 10.23–10.26.

10.22 General investigations
When it is considered that the sources of leakage have been established, it is necessary to decide whether it is desirable to carry out investigations into the general condition of the pool. The details of such an investigation will obviously depend on the materials used for the construction of the pool, its age, and on the visible defects. For the purpose of this chapter it will be assumed that the pool was constructed in reinforced concrete (insitu or sprayed) and finished with cement/sand rendering/ screed and ceramic tiles. The tests briefly described in paragraphs 10.22.2, 10.22.3 and 10.22.4 are what are known as Non-Destructive Tests (NDT). They are very useful and are now accepted as satisfactory methods provided they are interpreted by experienced personnel and are verified by an adequate number of visual inspections which would usually need small holes down to the reinforcement, or in the case of an impulse radar survey, down to the level where inadequate support was indicated.

10.22.1 Checking for loss of bond between finishes and the pool shell
On areas suffering from lack of adhesion, a hollow sound will be given out when the surface is tapped with a light hammer or rod. These areas should be marked on the tiles and a drawing prepared showing their location. It will be necessary to establish whether the loss of bond is located between the tiles and the substrate (rendering/screed) or whether it is between the substrate and the concrete shell. All relevant information must be recorded.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins

or ±15% could be reasonable. i. Reference should be made to Section 3. 10.10. Immediately prior to the test. and consists of a reservoir containing a saturated solution of copper sulphate (CuSO ). but if the pool holds saline water. Pitting corrosion can severely damage rebars without spalling occurring.2 Cover-meter survey It is generally advisable to carry out a cover-meter survey as part of the general investigation even though there are no visible signs of damage to the concrete caused by corrosion of the reinforcement. The voltmeter is connected to a rebar in the concrete.4. it does not indicate the rate of corrosion nor the amount of corrosion Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .e. when used on an average site by an average operative. At one end of the container is a sponge plug which remains continuously saturated with the copper sulphate solution. a battery. An alternative is to move the search head about so as to locate lines of equal potential (contour lines). the nominal cover should be increased to 50 mm. the concrete cover is substantially less than required to protect the reinforcement. It measures the potential of an embedded rebar relative to a half-cell.3 Half-cell potential survey If the results of the cover-meter survey are unsatisfactory. the surface of the concrete is sprayed with water. With an experienced operative. The surface of the concrete to be examined is divided into squares about 300 mm×300 mm and this grid is marked in chalk on the surface of the concrete. However. The saturated sponge can be considered as the search head of the apparatus. Detailed recommendations for the use of this equipment are given in BS 1881 Part 201. a reduced accuracy of ±5 mm. a correctly calibrated cover-meter should indicate the depth of cover (the distance from the surface of the concrete or of the applied finishes. The search head is placed on the surface of the concrete in the centre of each grid and the readings are recorded on a drawing. to the surface of the reinforcement to an accuracy of ±2 mm or ±5% whichever is the greater. The half-cell indicates the intensity at which corrosion is taking place at the time of test. An electro-magnetic cover-meter is used to check the depth of cover to the reinforcement. This method appears to have been developed in the USA in the early 1960s and is covered by ASTM Specification C876–80 Standard Test method for Half-cell Potentials for Reinforcing Steel. a meter showing the depth of cover and a length of cable.22. Secured centrally 4 within the container is a copper rod connected by an electric lead to a high impedance voltmeter. The nominal cover for water-retaining structures is generally specified as 40 mm. There is no British Standard for this technique but it is described in BS 1881 Part 204. The cover-meter consists of a search-head. it would be advisable to carry out a half-cell survey.22. or there are signs of spalling of the concrete and disruption of the tiling due to the rusting of the rebars.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .B. The implications of the readings are as follows: 1. Figure 10. There are a number of factors which can influence the readings and these include the moisture content of the concrete and the presence of salts in the concrete. 3. There is always some electro-chemical activity between the steel and the concrete. there is a 90% probability that corrosion is not taking place. there is a 90% probability that corrosion is taking place. This equipment should only be used in circumstances where the search head can be in direct contact with the surface of the concrete. For potentials less negative than -200 mV. there is a 50% probability of corrosion. Courtesy. It is therefore advisable to check a few readings by exposing the rebars and seeing whether the readings follow the usual pattern. For potentials numerically greater than -350 mV.Geotechnics. 2. G.9 Diagram showing part of assessment of the construction of an old swimming pool using impulse radar.which has occurred. For potentials between -200 mV and -350 mV.

12. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . It has been stated that when leakage has occurred it is usually found to be taking place through joints and cracks. especially when leakage has occurred over a considerable time.10. Figure 10. or inwards into the pool (infiltration) when the pool is empty or partly empty and the water level in the pool is below the level of the ground water. The use of ultra-rapid setting compounds or grouts which set almost instantaneously when they come into contact with water. expert advice should be obtained as this may have a serious effect on the foundations of the pool and adjoining structures.1 Controlling infiltration To repair defects which allow infiltration.22. These can be applied 2. Leakage can take place outwards from the pool (loss of water).23 Remedial work to leakage Repairs to points of leakage would normally follow after the completion of the Investigation which has been detailed in Section 10. there is no British Standard for this. However. The methods used for this work include: 1. 10. investigations by impulse radar.22. Areas of inadequate support are clearly revealed. before a decision is taken to lower the water table. REMEDIAL WORK TO EXISTING POOLS: REPAIRS FOLLOWING LEAK TRACING AND INVESTIGATIONS 10. It was first introduced into the UK in the early 1980s and has a variety of uses including the location of voids in concrete and in the sub-grade below slabs. With old pools. Recommendations for these repairs are given below. but it is briefly described in BS 1881 Part 201 Section 2.9 shows part of such a survey of a large. Control of ground water level by pumping so that the leaks can be repaired in the ‘dry’. and to a lesser extent through honeycombed concrete. The work should only be entrusted to experienced contractors with a proven record of successful work in this field. At present. the inflow of ground water must be sealed off first. open-air swimming pool.4 Impulse radar survey This technique is also known as pulsed radio echo sounding. may reveal that adequate support to the floor is missing in a number of locations.23. The method to be employed to seal off the inflowing water will depend on many factors including the rate of inflow and the hydrostatic head.

when successful. 10. Its important characteristics depend on the clay minerals. It has been found that for successful grouting. the joints. The sealant selected should bond to the sides of the joint but should not bond to the back-up material and a separating strip may be required. Information on sealants is given in Section 2.2. and is a complex material. The joint should be opened up by sawing. to a depth and width of about 10 mm. well trowelled in.2 Remedial work to joints A decision has to be taken on whether the defective joint allows movement to take place a (‘live’ joint) or whether it is static such as a construction or daywork joint. the calcium and sodium montmorillonites are particularly useful in forming a gel which fills the voids in the sub-soil and substantially reduces the flow of water.15. will greatly reduce the inflow of ground water but is unlikely to form a complete cut-off.23. cracks or areas of honeycombed concrete can be dealt with as described below. and percussion tools. this work is highly specialised.1 Movement joints They should be cleaned out and all old sealant completely removed. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . it should only be entrusted to specialist firms. When the infiltration has been sufficiently controlled. This work may necessitate some repair to the sides of the joint before the new sealant is inserted. The author has come across this unfortunate state of affairs on more than one occasion. If there is doubt about possible movement across the joint then the repair material should be flexible and the repair carried out in a similar manner to that described for cracks in the following paragraph.23. Grouting the sub-soil by the use of special grouts to form a ‘curtain’ which. 10. an epoxy mortar can be used for this repair work. grouting can be suitable for cohesionless soils with a particle size in excess of about 0. then a rigid repair mortar can be used. The objective is to fill the voids in the sub-soil with the grouted barrier.by hand or by crack injection. Clay forms a major constituent of many of these grouts.23. Needless to say.2 Construction/day-work joints If it is assumed that movement does not take place across these joints. All dust and grit must be removed and the joint filled with an epoxy mortar.002 mm (2 microns). 3. Unsuccessful crack injection by one firm can result in another (more experienced firm) being unable to rectify the situation. 10.2. Whichever method is adopted.

18. otherwise it means cutting away the concrete for the full thickness of the floor or wall. For cracks wider than about 1. a semi-flexible epoxy resin is usually suitable.5 Remedial work around pipework Circulating pipework has to pass through the pool shell below top water level and loss of water and infiltration can occur at these perforations in the pool shell. The mesh can be omitted if the crack is less than 0. tiling etc.5 mm.). The crack should be opened up by light tapping with a chisel.23. the material used to seal the crack must possess some degree of flexibility.4). especially at the deep end. When dealing with old pools. For ‘live’ cracks.23. are particularly vulnerable to leakage due to the increase in hydrostatic head. Prior to the crack injection the crack and the surrounding concrete should be prepared in the manner described above (Figure 10. Cast iron and steel pipes have been largely replaced by plastic which has resulted in a decrease in bond between the concrete and the pipe surface. even slight seepage over the long term can cause loss of bond between the base concrete and the finish (rendering. 10. The semiflexible epoxy should be applied to the crack and this should be followed by a glass-fibre mesh extending for the 600 mm width of the prepared concrete. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . providing a new section of pipe.4 Remedial work to honeycombed concrete While it is unusual to find significant seepage through honeycombed concrete. the mesh will be embedded in the first coat of resin and then a second coat applied. A coat of low viscosity epoxy primer should be well brushed into the crack and the prepared surface on each side. it is worthwhile to consider crack injection using specially formulated epoxy resin which has low viscosity (for maximum penetration into the concrete) and is semi-flexible. The concrete on each side of the crack should be wire brushed for a distance of 300 mm and then all grit and dust removed. screed. 10.3 Remedial work to cracks A decision should be made on whether there is movement across the crack. repair can be very difficult. Outlets in the floor of the pool. in which case it is considered as ‘live’ and the repair must take this into account.3 mm wide. and viewing windows. The same comment applies to under-water light fittings. Pressure grouting or injection can be tried.10. it can be very difficult to know whether a crack is ‘live’ or static and therefore when this doubt exists it is prudent to assume that some movement will occur across all cracks which need repair. Honeycombing can occur during construction of the pool shell and a method of repair has been described in Section 10.23. When it is found that water is seeping past these pipes.

reference should be made to Chapter 5.26 Remedial work to finishes The method of carrying out the repair will depend on a correct diagnosis of the cause of the deterioration and its extent.4. the term does not apply to the regular renewal of coatings which have a limited life compared with ceramic tiles and mosaic. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .9. The provision of a surface flange and the acceptance of a reduction in the seepage. can be a practical solution. Remedial work to finishes is only likely to be required after the pool has been in use for some time and in this context. 10. From the above. especially when leakage has been taking place for some considerable time. This technique has been described briefly in Section 22. If the seepage is considerable and the subgrade is found to be unsuitable for pressure grouting.25 Structural lining to the pool shell This is a costly undertaking as all the circulating water pipe connections have to be remade. an investigation into the water treatment system may show that it does not meet present day requirements. The state of affairs shown in Figure 10.and then making good after steps have been taken to provide a roughened surface on the plastic pipe to increase bond. A decision will be required on whether to bond the new shell to the existing one.10. and also needs upgrading. As far as the sprayed concrete lining is concerned. and illustrated in Figure 10. it is prudent to have the sub-base and sub-grade beneath floor checked by means of an impulse radar survey. 10. The whole system may require upgrading to bring it into line with present day standards.9 can often be rectified by pressure grouting of the sub-base and sub-grade. or whether to fix a slip membrane to the floor and walls and thus completely debond the new sprayed concrete from the old structure. instead of complete elimination. it will be seen that remedial work to old swimming pools requires very careful thought as all matters relating to the operation of the pool have to be taken into account before large sums of money are spent on repairs to the pool itself. 10. Reference should be made to Section 7.24 Improving support to the pool floor With old pools. At the same time. then consideration has to be given to breaking out part(s) of the pool floor and filling in the voids with concrete and then providing a new structural lining of reinforced sprayed concrete over the whole floor.

If there is widespread loss of bond between the rendering/screed and the concrete shell.1 Remedial work to tiling The remedial work can vary from the refixing of a few tiles or the regrouting of a few joints to complete removal of large areas of tiling. Care must be exercised in removing the tiles to minimise damage to the substrate. then the only practical solution is to remove all defective tiling. rendering/screed. A movement joint should be incorporated into the new tiling to line up with the joint. Marble and Mosaic Specialists. Assuming that the substrate is. High-velocity water jets should be used in preference to percussion tools. as far as this is practical. Sometimes cracks appear in the tiling and investigation shows that the tiles and substrate were laid over a joint or crack in the pool shell. then all defective rendering/screed should be removed and relaid as described for new work in Chapter 7.26. or a negative Langelier Index. The usual defects are shrinkage cracks.26. A few loose or detached tiles can usually be refixed without the necessity of lowering the water level.5. Advice on repairs to marbelite should be sought from the National Association of Terrazzo. or a high concentration of sulphate in the pool water. Percussion tools should not be used for removal of defective areas as this will increase the area of defective bond.10. The grouted joints between the tiles are sometimes eroded by chemical attack by the pool water. the substrate should be repaired where it has been damaged by the removal of the tiles. and/ or regrouting of a large number of tile joints. well bonded to the concrete. loss of bond with the substrate and severe staining. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . or crack. overall. and all grit and dust and contamination removed and the tiles refixed as described in Chapter 7. across which movement has taken place. Percussion tools should not be used for the removal of the defective areas as the vibration caused by these tools will extend the loss of bond to adjacent. Marbelite is a special type of insitu terrazzo and is difficult to repair. Epoxy resins can be formulated so as to cure under water.2 Remedial work to marbelite This material is briefly described in Section 7. 10. relatively sound areas. or an epoxy resin-based grout.9. The main causes of this attack are a pH below about 6. If investigation shows that there is widespread loss of bond between the tiles and the substrate (rendering and/or screed). The first action to be taken is to ascertain the reasons for the attack and to remedy the faults in the operation of the water treatment plant. The affected joints should be cleaned out and regrouted using a special proprietary polymer grout.

London. Note 128. Construction Industry Research and Information Association. see also Sections 7. Further reading Bowan. The same comment applies to defects in the PVC lining of liner pools.11.3 Remedial work to coatings and sheet linings When the pool shell has been finished with a decorative coating. London.L. Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group. such as chlorinated rubber paint. P. London.10 and 7.10. Grouting in Engineering Practice.J. Tech. Repair. Institute of Baths and Recreation Management. Construction Industry Research and Information Association. Report 139. Domone. E & FN Spon. 2. 1987. Applied Science. Swimming Pool Guide. Swimming Pool and Allied Trades Association. Water Resisting Basement Construction—A Guide.26. S. 1995. Swimming Pool Water Treatment and Quality Standards. Practical Leisure Centre Management. Perkins. 1975. Protection and Waterproofing of Concrete Structures. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 1997. and Jefferis. such as physical damage. Civil Engineering Sealants in Wet Conditions.H. Vol. and this has suffered premature deterioration it would be prudent to contact the coating supplier for advice before attempting to carry out repairs unless the cause is obvious. P. R. 3rd edn. (eds) Structural Grouts.A. 1993. 1995. 1998. E & FN Spon.

435 lb/in2 102 m head of water 145 lb/in2 65.8 N 4.454 kg 700 kg/m2 4.55 litres 0.205 lb 0.3 ft3 220 gal (Imp.Appendix 1 Conversion factors and coefficients 1 m2 = 1 ft2 = 1 inch = 1m = 1 ft = 1 kg = 1 lb = 1 lb/in2 = 1 lb/ft2 = 1 ft3 = 1 m3 = 1 m3 = 1 gal (Imp.75 kg/in2 = 9468 kg/ft2 1 MN/m2 = 1 MPa 9.) = 1 gal (Imp.062 lb/ft3 Density of structural reinforced concrete made with natural aggregates: 148 lb/ft3 = 2376 kg/m3 = 2400 kg/m3 (approximately) Bulk densities of concreting materials (very approximate): Cement 1450 kg/m3 = 91 lb/ft3 Sand 1675 kg/m3 = 105 lb/ft3 Coarse Aggregate 1500 kg/m3 = 94 lb/ft3 Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .) = 1 ft head of water = 1 N/mm2 = 1 N/mm2 = 1 N/mm2 = 1 N/mm2 = 1 kgf = 1 lbf = 1 N/mm2 = 10.28 ft 0.4 mm 3.) 1.86 kg/m2 0.0 kg/m3 1 kg/m3 = 0.20 US gal 4.7 ft2 0.0283 m3 35.305 m 2.093 m2 25.45 N 1 MPa Density: 1 lb/ft3 = 16.

18 J Transmittance (U value): 1 Btu/ft2/hour/°F = 5.055kJ 1 Btu/hour = 0.Conversion factors and coefficients 207 Temperature: °F to °C (°F-32)×5/9 = °C °C to °F (°C×9/5)+32 = °F Heat: 1 Btu = 1.293 W 1 calorie = 4.678 W/m2/°C Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .

The two criteria mentioned above apply to new pools and existing ones.Appendix 2 Testing swimming pool shells. Testing new pools It is advisable for back-filling around the walls to be delayed until the water test has been passed successfully. Leaks in the floor are always particularly difficult to locate. Commissioning swimming pools Introduction A swimming pool is a water-retaining structure and must be watertight so that there is no unacceptable loss of water from the pool. There is a difference of opinion among engineers. walkway slabs and other wet areas for watertightness. a clear and practical leakage test must be carried out. For pools constructed with walls of hollow concrete blocks and insitu concrete floor. The requirement for infiltration of ground water can be checked when the pool is empty and ground water level is not lowered by pumping. The recommendations are: 1. the test should be carried out before the application of rendering and screed. and pools with the walls constructed of an insitu reinforced Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . architects and contractors as to whether the leakage test should be carried out before or after the application of rendering and screed and some contractors even prefer to carry out the test after the completion of applied finishes. the location(s) of the leak(s) must be traced and this will be very difficult and time consuming if the outside of the walls are not visible. If the pool is wholly or partly below ground. there must be no unacceptable infiltration of ground water when the pool is partly or completely empty. For pools constructed of reinforced insitu concrete or reinforced sprayed concrete. but the assessment of the results is likely to be different for new and existing pools. For checking the loss of water from the pool. 2. If the test is not passed.

Existing pools which have been in constant use should be filled to top water level in preparation for the start of the test. or 1/500 of the average water depth.20 mm. then the test should be as for a pool constructed in insitu reinforced concrete. The Code BS 8007 recommends the following water loss over a test period of seven days as acceptable for reinforced concrete water retaining structures: 10 mm. 2.concrete core with concrete blocks as permanent formwork. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 1. However. taking into account evaporation and rainfall. if the pool has been standing empty for more than about three months. However.75 m depth per day. readers should refer to Chapters 4 and 5. should be incorporated into the contract for new pools. but before the final finishings. 3. 4. These recommendations. the test should be carried out after the application of the rendering and screed. an initial soakage period of seven days as described below for new pools should be adhered to. and/or there is an unacceptable amount of infiltration of ground water. if the pool walls are designed to comply with the Code BS 8007. When the result of a water test is satisfactory. The same precautions should be taken for new pools. there is certain to be a rather heated discussion which may end up in a legal dispute. the preliminary soakage period should be seven days. The leakage test procedure The recommended procedure is set out below. Loss due to evaporation. However. For details of the construction of the types of pools mentioned in 1 and 2 above. or some other specified amount. It is recommended that a water loss of 10 mm over seven days be accepted. about 0. such as tiling. For new pools in insitu reinforced concrete with a design maximum crack width of 0. if the design maximum crack width is 0. Therefore the clearer the test requirements are the better. and addition due to rainfall must be taken into account. when the test result does not meet the specified figure. see Chapter 7. All valves on outlet pipes should be closed. It is advisable for the filling to take place slowly.10 mm. and an insitu concrete floor. For information on rendering and screeds. the soakage period can be extended to 21 days. no arguments arise. Testing existing pools Existing pools have to be tested with finishings intact as the objective is to find out whether the pool as it stands is losing an unacceptable quantity of water. at the discretion of the designer. marbelite and decorative coatings are applied. or others which are deemed satisfactory.

Even if they persist to the end of the test period. wet patches where the concrete has not been thoroughly compacted. For existing pools. It is likely that signs of slight seepage at joints and cracks are detected. These are often self sealing. but this is unlikely to be practical even for large public pools. During this soakage period.0 m3 (660 gallons or 3000 litres). the water level in the pool should be recorded each day at the same time. this is to prevent a strong wind blowing water over the rim of the container. After the end of the soakage period.5. and rather less likely. For pools constructed in reinforced sprayed concrete and the other types of construction described above. The test period then begins. 8. while rainfall should be added. 12. The drop in water level in the drum can be considered as due to evaporation. The permitted water loss of 10 mm is quite small but measurable. the soakage period can be omitted. An allowance for evaporation loss should be made and a satisfactory method of measuring this is to anchor in the pool a drum or similar container which is filled with water to within about 75 mm of the rim (the freeboard). 7. For existing pools which are in constant use. 9. with an allowance for rainfall. and accepted as reasonably valid for the site in question. Evaporation should be deducted from the measured drop in level. For a pool 25 m×12 m. The rainfall should be measured by a rain gauge. which is about 93 gal (430 litres) a day. it is most likely that a higher figure for water loss than those given above would have to be accepted. the water level in the pool should be kept topped up daily to top water level. The actual loss which is considered reasonable will depend on a number of factors of which the following are the more important: Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . 6. General comments on testing It is recommended that with new pools the outside of the walls should be inspected during the test. The amount the water level drops each day should be recorded. The test should last for seven days and during this period the water level should not drop more than 10 mm from causes other than evaporation. the actual loss of water is very small and cannot be measured. the loss on the 10 mm basis would amount to 3. the soakage period can be 21 days. the water level should be raised to top water level and carefully marked in some satisfactory way and all inlet valves closed. Rainfall figures from the nearest meteorological station should be obtained. During the period of test. The use of formula to calculate the evaporation loss is unlikely to provide a practical result as so many factors are involved. 10. 11.

flood the slab to a minimum depth of 25 mm and maintain this depth for 72 hours. the condition of the pool hall and associated structures and equipment. 2. The water test recommended is as follows: 1. The remainder of the work can proceed but the pool shell must be allowed to dry out before finishings are applied. Remedial work is difficult and costly as it usually entails closing down part of the centre. 4. the space below the walkways around the pool and below the wet changing areas is sometimes utilised for plant rooms. These floor slabs should be as watertight as the roof of a building. method of construction and general condition of the pool. Not less than 28 days after completion of the floor slabs and before any screed or finishes are applied. this is an economic consideration. Watertightness test for walkway slabs and other wet areas In large pool complexes. and causes considerable consternation. Comments on this are given in Chapter 7. In such cases. the age. and availability of funds should also be considered. whether the water is heated. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . consideration should be given to major up-grading as part of the refurbishment. 3. and the funds likely to be available. Commissioning swimming pools (filling and emptying) Once the pool shell has passed the leakage test. it can be emptied slowly. storage or other purposes which require a dry environment. 2. at a rate of about 0. if the water circulation system and treatment plant does not meet presentday requirements. 5. this important requirement is sometimes overlooked. Unfortunately.75 m depth of water per day.1. especially when water is dripping onto plant and equipment. The floor slabs can be considered as satisfactory if no seepage or damp patches appear on the soffits during the test and for a period of seven days after completion of the test. for closed pools. the estimated cost of remedial work required to reduce water loss to an acceptable figure. seepage of water through the floors can appear some years after completion. with the result that these floor slabs are not designed for watertightness and are not subjected to a water test before acceptance.

75 m per day. This is usually done in winter when temperatures are low. the water level rising at about 0.After all the finishings have been completed and given time to dry out and mature. The pool has thus been filled with heated water (about 26– 28 °C) for at least 12 months and the pool shell and finishings are correspondingly warm. The emptying should be carried out slowly. the temperature of the incoming fresh water should likewise be raised slowly. and the air in the pool hall should be maintained at a reasonable temperature. If the pool water is heated.75 m per day. The recommendations for rate of emptying and refilling. the temperature should be raised slowly. the rate of filling being the same as when it was originally filled for the leakage test. about 1 °C per hour. for the duration of the maintenance work. say. are particularly important when the pool shell is elevated/suspended in a structural void in the building. The refilling should also be carried out slowly. and the restriction on the rate of increase in temperature of the fresh water. the pool can be filled with fresh water. at a rate not exceeding about 1 °C per hour.75 m per day. and the maintenance of a reasonable air temperature in the pool hall. at 0. Public swimming pools are generally emptied about once a year or 18 months for general inspection and maintenance. 20 °C. 0. say. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .

This would include sampling and testing the concrete and mortar used in the construction of the pool. The cores are tested to assess the compressive strength of the concrete and examined visually to assess the voidage and standard of compaction. For testing mortars. Reference can be made to Chapter 1. Screeds and Plasters. The pieces of concrete resulting from the compressive tests can be used to determine the cement content. and the laboratory which will carry out the tests. The samples of concrete would normally be taken by means of 100 mm diameter cores. and the Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .Appendix 3 Investigations. This may apply to tests on the concrete. Sampling and laboratory testing It is very important that every effort be made to obtain agreement by all the parties on the proposed sampling procedure. The testing should be carried out by a laboratory accredited by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS). paragraph 10. The type of tests should be restricted to obtaining information on the alleged defects in the Statement of Claim. Reference should be made to the comments in Chapter 10. and may bring into question the specification and matters arising from the execution of the contract. The principal British Standard for testing concrete is BS 1881 Testing Concrete.22 on Non-Destructive Testing. if a dispute arises which results in litigation. Reference may also be made to BS 6089 Assessment of Concrete Strength in Existing Structures. This Appendix will be confined to practical matters relating to sampling and testing. The details of the investigation would depend largely on the nature and extent of the alleged defects. details of the testing. sampling and testing General considerations While the majority of defects in swimming pools involve leakage and/or infiltration of ground water. and the allegations made in the defence to the claim. a detailed investigation is likely to be required. chloride content and sulphate content of the concrete. the Standard is BS 4551 Methods of Testing Mortars.

marbelite or a decorative coating. Chemical analysis to establish the probable cement content uses only about 5 g of powdered concrete/mortar for the actual analysis which entails a considerable reduction in size from the original sample which is likely to weigh 1 kg or more. Reference can also be made to Sections 10. mosaic. For example. then the testing should be carried out on blocks before they are incorporated in the construction. The above emphasises the need to ensure that the sampling provides samples which are truly representative of the concrete/mortar being investigated. A correctly calibrated cover-meter should indicate the cover (depth from the surface to the rebar) to an accuracy of ±2 mm or ±5% whichever is the greater. The results should be used with caution to supplement a general assessment of the quality of the concrete/mortar. The approximate grading of aggregate can be obtained by sieve analysis of the broken concrete/mortar. Care and experience are needed in the interpretation of the test results.22. There is testing variability on samples tested within one laboratory and between laboratories even though they are accredited by UKAS. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . for depth of cover not exceeding 100 mm. In the case of a swimming pool. the accuracy is likely to be ±5 mm or ±15% whichever is the greater.mortar used for rendering. A cover-meter usually consists of a search head. ceramic tiles should be sampled and tested in accordance with BS 6431 EN 121. Cover-meter survey A cover-meter survey to check the depth of cover to reinforcement is a standard part of an investigation of a reinforced-concrete structure. If the specification includes a compressive strength requirement for concrete blocks used in pool wall construction. Concrete Society Technical Report 32 Analysis of Hardened Concrete suggests sampling variability of ±25 kg/m3 and testing variability as ±30 kg/m3. a meter showing depth of cover and a cable. If the quality of other materials used is suspect then these materials should be sampled and tested in accordance with the relevant National Standard. a battery. However. thus making a combined variation of ±40 kg/m3 (the square root of 252+302=40). in the UK. the concrete is hidden from view by rendering. and the interpretation of the test results must take this into account. The samples analysed must be truly representative of the original combined samples and of the concrete as a whole. screed and building mortar.15–10. screed and tiling. Detailed recommendations for the use of electromagnetic cover-meters are given in BS 1881 Part 204. and possibly on other materials used in the construction of the pool. the Standard emphasises that on site when used by an average operator. The actual grading of the aggregate used can only be obtained by sieve analysis of the aggregate stock piles used for the concrete.

These reforms came into effect on 26 April 1999. Provided he has had no connection with the project before the dispute arose. with the approval of the solicitor’s client. The expert is usually. the object being to obtain an independent assessment of the technical issues. the expert’s duty is to provide a report which is impartial and which will assist the court or arbitrator in determining the case. instructed by a firm of solicitors representing one of the parties to the action. Sometimes the EW is called in by one of the parties to the dispute before legal action is initiated. The information given on the duties of an expert witness are modified by the new High Court procedures contained in the Woolf Report on ‘Access to Justice’. but not necessarily.Appendix 4 The consultant/designer as an expert witness Introduction It is possible that a consultant who is experienced in the design. The EW would be prudent. This is of fundamental importance and has been emphasised on a number of occasions by High Court judges and barristers. to recommend his client to obtain legal advice from a firm of Solicitors experienced in construction disputes. in court and arbitration proceedings. he should feel free to accept the appointment. It is sometimes thought that the expert’s duty is to ensure that his report is worded as favourably as possible in the interests of his client. The following notes are intended to summarise the duties and responsibilities of an expert witness. Another important fact which should be kept in mind is that the expert should be experienced in the technical matters on which he is asked to report. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . construction and operation of swimming pools may be asked to act as an Expert Witness (EW) in a court action or arbitration arising from a dispute over defects or shortcomings in a swimming pool. when submitting his preliminary findings. But this is not the case. and he should be careful not to become involved in matters outside his field of expertise. and include an important change in the way evidence is given by experts. normally experts will not be allowed to give oral evidence but will provide a written report and answers to written questions put to them by the opposing party.

They also provide information on their fee scale which should be accepted in writing by the appointing solicitors. Resulting from a preliminary telephone enquiry which determined that the necessary expertise was available. and the engineer or other professional was then invited by the solicitors to act as an expert witness in a construction dispute. unambiguous answers. It will also normally be appropriate for the expert to visit the site to carry out both preliminary and detailed inspections. The expert then prepares an initial report summarising the facts as he sees them and giving a preliminary technical opinion on the merits of the case. It is usually found that agreement on important matters cannot be achieved. give conclusions. the expert would probably have one or more meetings with solicitors and council to discuss various matters arising from his report. express their opinion. Prior to the ‘exchange’. accepting the invitation and confirming that he or she possesses the required level of expertise. In court actions. The solicitors then send to the expert additional documents relating to the case and set out the matters which they require the expert to consider in detail. This often takes the form of questions on which the solicitors want as far as possible. the experts are usually directed by the judge/ arbitrator to meet and try to agree on as many relevant matters as possible in order to limit the technical points at issue. Each sample must be clearly labelled and its source precisely identified (see Appendix 3 on sampling and testing). but such meeetings can be very useful. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . based on the ‘balance of probabilities’. If it is necessary to take samples of materials for testing then it is important to ensure that they are representative and that when appropriate that sampling and testing is carried out in accordance with recognised procedures. It is always desirable to try to arrange for the other parties to the dispute to agree on the procedure for sampling and testing. as well as for their experience in arbitration. In a case of any importance (usually judged on the amount of the claim and/or counter claim). The report should set out all the pros and cons of the technical issues in order to ensure that the solicitors are fully briefed on the strengths and weaknesses of their client’s case. Arbitrators should be selected for their technical knowledge of the matters which form the basis of the dispute.The following is an example of procedure in a typical case. The engineer replies. The letter of invitation outlines the case and may include a copy of the writ and a few of the more relevant documents. The reports from the various experts are ‘exchanged’ simultaneously on a date directed by the judge/arbitrator which is usually a few months before the date of the hearing. but such attempts are seldom successful. A comprehensive set of notes supported by photographs will be helpful in both preparing the report and dealing with further questions which inevitably arise. it is usual for the case to be heard by an official referee who is a judge with special experience in technical matters.

Grant and Regeneration Act 1996 (known as the Construction Act) which came into force on 1 May 1998.3. etc. The Conclusions can be at the beginning of the report or at the end. The expert witness would then be appointed by or for the adjudicator. site construction methods. The expert witness should not attempt to apportion responsibility/liability as this is best left to the Court. Brief information has been given on some of the important provisions of the Act in Section 1. One short section of the report should provide a summary of the expert’s qualifications and experience. structural design. once appointed to a contract. and will need to have advice/ opinions from experts in the relevant fields.16. there is no provision in the Act for the appointment by the adjudicator of experts to assist him in his duties. If appointed by an adjudicator. It is reasonable to assume that an adjudicator. will be required to adjudicate on all disputes arising under the contract. This contains provisions for the appointment of an adjudicator when a dispute arises in a construction contract entered into after 1 May 1998. disputes may arise from electrical and mechanical work. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The report should list the instructions received from the solicitors and then proceed to deal with them in a logical order. as it will have far reaching implications to construction contracts.The form of the expert’s report It is suggested that the adoption of a standard format is very useful. and a contents list included. At the time of writing. The paragraphs and pages should be numbered. The adjudicator is unlikely to have extensive knowledge and experience in all these subjects. in a contract for a large leisure centre/swimming pool complex. The expert witness and the Construction Act 1996 The appointment of expert witnesses outlined above may be modified by the implementation of the Housing. however. For example. there is little reported experience in the operation of this Act which is unfortunate. under the 1996 Act he would be expected to give clear and impartial technical advice/opinion to the adjudicator on the particular matter arising from his expert knowledge. heating and ventilating work.

there has been a substantial increase in litigation arising out of personal accidents in swimming pools. and Dangerous Occurrencies Regulations. issued jointly by the Sports Council and the Health and Safety Commission. As far as can be ascertained. and school pools. slipped or fell. In recent years. slipping and tripping on external paving forming part of the pool complex. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . The basic legal requirement to report accidents is limited in scope. 2. Reference should be made to the HSE booklet Reporting an Injury of Dangerous Occurrence HSE (11).Appendix 5 Notes on safety in swimming pools Introduction For the purpose of these notes. In practice. It has been said that in the past when some one tripped. 3. Hotel pools come under the control of the local authority. 6. The safety aspects which are dealt with here are: 1. water depths for diving. the pool hall. 4. An essential publication on this subject is Safety in Swimming Pools. other signs giving essential information on the proper use of the pool and its facilities. 7. the term swimming pools includes the pool. slipping and tripping on floors of walkways. Diseases. outlets for water in the floor of the pool. changing rooms and shower rooms. friends expressed their sorrow at the injured party’s bad luck. revised. water slides and play equipment. information signs for water depths in pools used by swimmers and nonswimmers. now the injured party is said to be lucky because he/she can sue some one alleged to be responsible for the accident. 5. such as car parks and landscaped areas. the HSE are only concerned with ‘serious’ accidents and they decide what is serious. plant rooms. and external areas used by the public. The enforcing authority is the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for pools under the control of a local authority. changing rooms and shower rooms. there is not a complete record of all accidents in swimming pools. and is contained in a Home Office publication Reporting of Injuries.

Outlets for water in the pool floor There is normally a comparatively large outlet for water in the deep end of the pool. as it may be for emptying or lowering the water level. Both Parts give detailed recommendations for safe construction and use and are essential reading for designers and operators. Signs for water depths in the pool The depth of water in the pool. 2 and 3 Safety Signs and Colours. BS EN 1069–1 and BS EN 1069–2 1996. such as prohibiting certain dangerous or undesirable activities and these signs should comply with BS 5378 Parts 1.3. some of them serious. particularly changes in depth must be clearly marked on both long sides of rectangular pools and at appropriate locations in free-formed pools.2. and by FINA regulations for International competitions. The main objective of the regulations is to ensure safety of the persons diving. Slides are divided into six types according to whether they are individual (single) or multi-track. The signs should be clearly visible to persons using the pool as well as to those intending to enter the pool. See also Section 8. Other safety signs There are a number of signs required for safety purposes. Reference should be made to the HSE booklet HS(R) 7 A Guide to the Safety Signs Regulations. Water slides and play equipment Water slides These are now a standard feature of leisure centre pools and have introduced problems of safety to the users who are often young children. which have arisen from the use of water slides is cause for concern. Reference should be made to Section 1.Water depths for diving These are covered by the regulations of ASA for National competitions.4. and the average Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . This forms part of the water circulation system and also for the emptying of the pool when this is required.6. Part 1 of the Standard deals with safety requirements and test methods and Part 2 deals with instructions for safe operation. There is a British and European Standard for water slides over 2 m height. Bathers should be excluded from the pool when the outlet valves are being operated to adjust the water level. This is covered with a grating and can be a source of danger to bathers if they are in the pool when the outlet valve is fully opened. The number of injuries.

It is particularly important that the entrance to the slide should be under continuous experienced supervision. Other types of floor finishes. Slipping and tripping on floors of walkways. Reference should be made to the publication of the Institute of Baths and Recreation Management A Suggested Code of Practice for the Use of Play Equipment in Swimming Pools. the difference in level across joints in precast/preformed units should not exceed that given in BS 5385 Part 3 Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Ceramic Floor Tiles and Mosaics. namely 1 mm across joints less than 6 mm wide and 2 mm across joints exceeding 6 mm wide. it is suggested that the coefficient of friction of slip resistant ceramic floor tiles when measured by a prescribed procedure should be used as the acceptable standard. at the same time.. To combat tripping on uneven surfaces.1). such as polymer resins. The floors of all ‘wet’ areas must be laid to falls so that the water drains off to outlets. At the time of writing. Play equipment There is a great variety of play equipment which is mostly used (or intended to be used) by young children. have carried out research in this area and have developed suitable friction measuring equipment (Figure A5. The problems arising from the conflicting requirements for ‘no ponding’ and a ‘safe gradient’ have been discussed in Chapter 7. There do not appear to be any authoritative recommendations for this. The water depth in the play area needs careful consideration. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .and maximum speed of descent. synthetic rubber etc. It is preferable for slides to discharge into a pool separated from the main pool (this is known as a splash-down area) and it should have the dimensions set out in the Standard. changing rooms etc. Ceramic Research Limited of Stoke-on-Trent. Detailed recommendations are given for the structural design of slides. The speed of descent can vary from about 7– 14m/s (25–50 km/hour). there was no recognised and authoritative guidance on acceptable slip resistance/coefficient of friction for floors of ‘wet’ areas. should be required to meet this standard. it should not be too deep for children who cannot swim. A depth of 1. It should be sufficiently deep to act as a ‘buffer’ when children fall off the equipment to help prevent injury caused by hitting the pool floor with the head. In the absence of such formal recommendations.00 m appears to be a reasonable compromise. Another factor which should be taken into account in dealing with slipperiness is the gradient of the floor surface. UK.

Reference should be made to the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and to the recommendations of the Health and Safety Executive. and special care is needed in storage areas and plant rooms. Chemicals in water treatment Many of the chemicals used in the treatment of swimming pool water can be potentially dangerous. Ceramic Research Ltd.1 View of TORTUS floor friction tester. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . General unevenness should meet the detailed requirements set out in the Clause 23. Appendix 1 of this booklet deals with floors. specifically to the HSE publication and Trips HSG 155. Stokeon-Trent.Figure A5. but the concept of slipperiness is related to the floor surface and the type of footware used by persons walking on the floor. Courtesy.4 of BS 5385 Part 3. There is no reference to persons walking bare-foot on a wet surface.

Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins .9 and the publication by the Health and Safety Executive Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 1994.For example. if hydrochloric acid comes into contact with sodium or calcium hypochlorite chlorine gas is given off. See Section 8. Ozone which is used in many swimming pools is poisonous in concentrations exceeding about 1 part to 50 000 parts of air by volume.

USA. LE13 1XJ. 156 Buckingham Palace Road. 1 Chepstow Place. Junction Road. Windsor. Crowthorne. Norfolk IP21 4BU. Penkhull. Swimming Pool and Allied Trades Association (SPATA). Brick Development Association. Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group. Crowthorne. Institute of Baths and Recreation Management. Telford Avenue.Appendix 6 List of organisations relevant to this book American Concrete Institute. RG45 6YS. Health and Safety Executive. Garston. 235 Ash Road. PA 19428. Leicester LE1 1FB. Telford Avenue. Federation for the Repair and Protection of Structures (FeRFA). Thrandeston Near Diss. P. 60 Charles Street. London SW1P 3AU. P. Century House. Berks. London W2 4TF. 16 Upper Woburn Place. London WC1H 0QP. Ceram Research Ltd. GU12 4DD. 36–38 Sherrard Street. Box 9094. Association House. Leeds LS18 2DZ. Hants. Quarry Products Association. Westminster. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. Andover. Marble and Mosaic Specialists. RG45 6YS Construction Industry Research and Information Association. Woodside House. Watford.O. Melton Mowbray. Century House. Copyright 2000 Philip H Perkins . Federation of Terrazzo. WD2 7JR. The Concrete Society. 389 Chiswick High Road. Aldershot. Field House. Building Research Establishment. SL4 2DX. Hants. Box 117. 6 Storey’s Gate. Spata House.O. British Cement Association. Berks. West Conshohocen. Westbourne Grove. USA. Queens Road. The Sports Council. Stoke-on-Trent ST4 7LQ. Farmington Hills MI 48333–9094. American Society for Testing Materials. Winkfield. Baynards House. Berks. Leics. Gifford House. London W4 4AL. Precast Concrete Paving and Kerb Association (INTERPAVE). London SW1W 9TR. Library and Information Services. SP10 3QT. British Standards Institution.

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