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Contains: Linear Playing· Jazz & Rock Styles Melodic & Harmonic Coordination

THE PATTERNS SERIES
The four books contained L"I1. Patterns series have been designed to the help students in developing an awareness of the types of materials current1y being used in contemporary drum performance. Trlroughout the books, ma..."T1Y suggestions will be made concerning bow these materials can be applied to the drum set. Students should feel free to exper-iment with these POSSibilities, as well as any other ideas tha.t they may come up with. It is important to understand that the books are not sequential and can be worked on in any order. Also, it is not necessary to complete one book before moving on to the next. The various topics that are presented can be worked on in whatever order is the most appropriate for the individual student.
RHYTHM AND METER PATI'ERNS - Deals with a comprehensive exa.mrnation of rhythmic and metric materials, including such things as odd-rhythms. 'oolyrnytnms, mixed meters, metric modulation and trie like.
bTICKING PATTERNS - Presents

a new approach to stickmgs with specific emphasis on their application to drum set performance. Also includes materials for accented single strokes, as well as exercises dealing with the use of doubles on the set.
TIME FUNCTIONING PATTERNS - Focuses on time functioning skills in both thejazz and rock areas. Topics include cymbal cstinatos

and Linear phrasing

as well asmelodic and harrncnicjazz

coordinatton.

ilECHNIQUE PATTERNS - Contains materials that are designed to help students in developing basic technical skills. Includes a wide

variety of exercises for the hands, as well as materials for the feet.
Copyrlght © 198() by l3C Mus,c All ~h~~ RtlS!'J"lieC E...:cIUSiveWOI'ldwide f)L<;t.JiDution hy :~ppSelwin. Inc .. Mla.r..:. fl33C

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Cover Art: 1;. r reri O:>nwa...v Proc!ilctJon CaorllL·.~!.or:Sonja Pocrmez

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ABOUT GARY CH.AFFEE
Originally from upstate New York, Gary VJas educated at the State University of New York at Potsdam, (Bachelor of Science, 1966), and. DePaw University in Chicago, (Master of Music, 1968). From 1968 to 1972 Gary was the percussion instructor at Vvestern Illinois University. In 1972 he joined the facul ty ofthe Ber klee School of MUSic in Boston, Massachusetts, and was appointed head of the Percussion Department in 1973.
During his stay at Berklee Gary was instrumental
I

in developing many

new' and creative programs for the department, as v1e11 as a number of highly successful performance ensembles.
in 1977, Gary rias establisneo rnrnsejf as one of the finest player/teachers in the Boston area. He has performed \-\Yit.b many top artists, rncruaing Dave Samuels, Pat Metheny, Mick Goodrick, Steve SvvailO\i\:r, Abe Laboriel, Jaco Pastorius, Mir:c Stern, Bill Frrsssn, John Abercrombie, Harvey SchwaFi2 and Gary Burton.

Since leaVing Berklee

the teaching sid€),a Jist of Gary's students reads like a 1V ho' s '~~ ho of the contemporary drum scc~e and includes such people as Virinie Colaiut.a, Steve Smith, Casey 8cheureU, Jonathan Mover, :!)avid Beal, Joey Kramer and rnany others.
FrOD'

Gary is also in great demand as a cl.rucian and has perfoz-mc '! throughout the United States and Eur .-:pe. is .artaoles and :!nteI·vie'V;.~. H can be seen in lvfodern Drummer. Percussioner International, Drum
~ Rimshot (Germ: ny), and

Rnytr.m

~"lagazj_ne ·CEngla..,.'l.d).

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iri cr,:!lt..acting Gary can write to hun H1 care of GC MUSiC:, 16 V\T})ic; Oak HDCI.d, VV"est&")xburjT, I'lL;' 02132, telephone: (~17)

Thos·:;interested

323-1154.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION SECTION I __ _. . . . . . . .. 4 CYMBAL OSTINATO TIME FEELS

Cymbal Ostinato Possibilities _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Practice Procedures _ ' Fat-Back Exercises _.. , .. _ _. . . . . . . . . . . Snare Drum/Bass Drum Combinations _. . . . . . . . . . .. Improvising With Snare Drum.Bass Drum Combinations Alternate Accent Posaibihues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

5 6 9 11 j_ 5 17 18

Hi-Hat Exercises
gECTION IT - JAZZ !NDEPENDENC:iS

19
25

Snare Drum/Bass Drum Exercises . _. . Hi-Hat Exercises , _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Types OfJazz Time _ How To Work On Broken Time Two-Voice Harmonic Independence Three-Voice Harmonic Independence (various unisons) Three-Voice Harmonic Independence (no unisons) IECTION LINEAR PHRASING Using Linear Phrases To PlayTime Basic Linear Phrases .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dsing Lmear Phrases To Play Solos .. _ Extensions of Basic Linear Phrasing Triplet Linear Phrases Linear Time Feels \flTithSingle And Doi.ble Strokes

26 27 28 29
30 33

36

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40
41 44 48 49 50 51

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INTRODUCTION
The materials contained in this text are designed to help students in developing a high degree of independence and coordination for both rock andjazz time. The materials are organized as follows:
Section One Cymbal Ostinato Time Feels

This first section deals with the most common type of rock time feel, (i.e. cymbal ostinatc). The term 'cymbal ostinato' refers to a repeated rhytlun that is played on the hi-hat or ride cymbal. Marry different cymbal rhythms are available and the student needs to

develop a relatively equal amount of facility and control with each. The exercises contained in this section will help:in this process.
Section Two - Jazz Time Fu.nctloning In this section, the various independence and coordination that are available in jazz time are explored L"'1etail. d

figures

as a soloing and time functionmg device. The use of Iinear (stngle line) ideas to play time, as well as solos, is a relatively TIe'''' concept and offers a great deal of potential.

Section Three - Linear Ideas In Section Three, me concept of linear phrasing is introduced, both

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
to understand that the var-ious sections of ti.is book CaT] and should be worked on Simultaneously. The reason for trus is the total content in each area ts very long. Therefore, rather than trying to complete one section before moving to the next, I
suggest Ylor}.:..L"'1C all of them at the same time. on

It is important

(N ate - You may want .to spend a week or two on each section indiVidually at first, in order to become familiar with the basic mater-ials that are presented. However, once this has been done, incorporate all three sections into your daily practice rout.tne.) be ceietully reed and tborougiuy understood: This LS absolutely necessary if you are t") gain full benefit of the rnatcria' s tria; are presented.
and explanations

Finally, it is extremely important that all of the introductions

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SECTION I - CYMBAl. OSTINATOTIME FEELS
The exercises contained in this section have been divided into three groups which are as follows:
Group 1 - Fat-Back-Exercises The Fat-Back exercises deal with situations L'Tl which the snare

always playing an accent on two and-four. All of the independence figures are in the bass drum. The first set of examples outlines the possible figures that the bass drum could play 0:1 one and three. The second set deals with the bass drum on two and four. 'Combinations between figures are then examined :in the final . .~. exercises.
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GraUl?2 - Snare Drum/Bass Drum

Linear Exercises

The Snare Drum/Bass Drum Linear exercises examine the types of figures that are available when the snare drum is not playing a constant accent on two and four. Each exerciSe deals with a different rhythm and demonstrates 't.D...e possible ways in which that rhythm could be played on the snare drum and/or bass drum.
GrOUl? 3 - Hi-Hat Exercises

The Hi-Hat exercises continue the same process as above with L"'18 addition of a third voice. First the hi-hat is dealt with separately, then combinations between it and the snare drum and bass drum are explored,

does net totaJly define the time. If. with this . rather than a time feel. you only have a few independence/ coordination figures that you can play against a given cymbal ostinato.. .t. on the other hand. in and of itself. The exercises contained in this section will help in d... The most common cymbal ostinato rhythms are as follows: t..the greater your chances will be for performin. bass drum and hi-hat).g interesting sounding time feels. in recent years. • t. your choices are obviously going to be very limited and what you are going to wind up with is a fairly static 'beat'. a number of other rhythms have gained popularity... "" . It is important to understand that the cymbal rhythm... Among these are: n JJ 5 :.eaJiIlg problem and should be carefulJy studied and practiced. ~. J J J o J.. . •• ~ " ~ •••• ftlQ Cymbal Ostinato Possibilities All of the exercises in this section are to be worked on using a variety of cymbal ostinatos. This is more a result of the figures that are played in the other voices (snare drum. The more flexibility you have with these VOices. "" n oj _j J JUJ J J However.

! I suggest you keep some type of list in a separate muste notebook of the various versions you have worked waugh Use one page 'for each cymbal rlzythm.at the notes are short.going to give you a. In other words. org'aniz'€ your practice routine using an outline stmilar to the example on the next page. on the hi-hat. osranato.Ways Of Playblg Cymbal Ostinatos Each of the cymbal ostmatos in the list on the previous page can be played in a number of different waY$. but also to have many different ways of playing the osttnato itself. Since. Playing the ostinato on the ride cymbal while playingq_u. For example. I would suggest working en at least four different . ustng 8th note time: II. I" n t p n p :~II t Playir:lg the ostmato on the ride cymbal wblle playing the hi-nat on 2 and 4. versions ot each cymbal. the idea is not only to develop a high degree of independence and coordination against 8Mh cymbal osttnato rhythm. thiS is .a general rule. there are about twelve basic rbythms. On the front.lot of posstbilttaes.) t:uuuu:1 p]ayirlg the ostmato on the bi-hat. ~ud U U :1 Playing taeostanato on the hi-hat. opening it on the 'and' of 2 and 4. (The dots tndtcate tb.rurbeF notes. Therefore. - AB.

I~.! would suggest experimenting with various combinations...o -----. . (h loll i 0 U \~I2·<·. (For example.'I.R:u~. FAT-BACK e iSNARE DRUM/BASS DRUM Ji ~ HI-HAT' . sounds good aga.... For' example: II JJ J J JJ ~ Ilnmnull 'Th. NarATION ..) - After all of the individual oymbal rhythmS have been worked... I tJU • ~ . o~ "..q.Feelfree to expertment with any that are of mterest to you... a certain sequence of figures that . you have to ltsten carefully to what you are playing in order to make sure an of the notes are being performed correctly. ... 1'4 c·~J.<..._ ~J-'lC)~ . particular version of the cymbal rhythm.- I () \( I etc. through.. I On trie back of the page.. 12 In ~ ~ .Cymbal Rbythm - ~~~- n I VEBSION I ·_ 1.written record of any specific ideas you come up With..Bass .. I I \~·I~.. "" D .Hi-Hat II J J II • I The cymbal osnnatos are not written with the exercises" Therefore...ere are many possible combinations .) I I jl_I_~ . keep a...:inst a..The exercises in this seeuon are notated as foflows: Snare and Bass Drum Hi-Hat Only Snare . \( I~Hq .I • 'O~ .v · .

step 4 .) Step a- Decide how and where you want to play the cymbal rhythm. However. . you will be deciding which figures are into an However.. all of the possible figures are dealt with. think about the line you want to play. • Practice Procedures There is a definite practice procedure that you should follow when working on the materials contained in this section.) Each exercise is to be repeated many times until it feels comfortable. ~ . The same figure is to be repeated on the third and fourth beats... move directly to the next exercise with no pause. Once this happens. (For example.• 111 ~ ~ ~ ft t. (For example. '• • t.) Step 3 . In each group of exercises. play1ng the straight eighth notes on a closed hi-hat.lin. move directly improvisation using the same materials.At a moderate tempo. you still may not be able to play interesting sounding time feels because what these exercises do not cover is the virtually limitless number of ways in which these individual figures can be combined and mixed and this is really how you are going to be USing them The practice routine that follows is designed to help the student in dea. this case.All of the exercises are two beats long.Once aJl of the exercises are done. (Nate . Rather. set up the cymbal rhythm and then begin working through the exercises. try not to look at the exercises. The reason for this is the nature of the materials themselves. ABmuch as possible.g with this problem and should be carefully studied Step 1 . ~ . there are no other figures available. no matter how well you can play these exercises.Pick the cymbal rhythm you wish to work on. in played and in what order they are played. t. • . • fI • • fI • • • . In the context being used.. straight eighth notes. Q t.

the exercises serve as a kind of warm-up routine for the improvisation. Initially. Secondly. . all of the exercises in that group must be done as a unit. FinaJly. They take your body physically through all of the types of figures that are available in a particular area and they give your ears a chance to hear each of these figures. choose the version you can play the best. begin to experiment with other possibilities. First of all. Then. their job is complete. There are three final POints I would like to make. A balance between these two routines is essential for maximum development. it may take you 20 or 30 minutes just to get through the exercises. when initiaJly working with a given cymbal ostinato. I would suggest playing it in the easiest possible fashion. However. after working through the materials a few times with this version.Basically speaking. In other words. once you begin to learn them. It is now up to you to come up with interesting ideas to play. it should only take 5 or 10 minutes to do a quick run-through. when working on a given group of materials. you should be spending at least as much time on the improvisations as you are on the exercises. Once this is done.

1 4·11:: ~if' 7. :1 t-----~=-I--r-----.1\:'1 IS.IH fJ J j :11 .~:~ g. 19.1: g] J ' :11 :11 12. ~z--I::. On 2 And 4 .-- 1 ·r II. ~:~ J ='11 D :11 C· f '~ J J J J g~ I :~ 9. 11: l 1 t m q ~41 IJ 1!a 18·11.: t 21.1: ~ r ~ 14·[11: ~ IW J r IJ :11 :11 Is·l: U rr J Bass Drum.1 ~ :11 :11 20.Fat'-Ba.11: t j n :11 22. j ¥ :11 3·11: 6~11: if ~ j j ~ :11.11: t j~ .jJI _.1: !1'. II: :11 :11 11.111 17.16.r :11 10.ck Exercises Bass Drum On 1 And 3 jI J ( . r fP J jI ' :11 \ 2·11: ~ ~. III: :I~ :11 s·ll! g 8.

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_. iJj ~ -ffl ~ ··111· q ~ I ...ns (conttnued) 12 '.. . ffl I I I. ... .111· i l j 11 ~ ·11 -----.j . -.ll[0 b rIc r. :111: :../<Bass Drum Combin~a-tiO.r . _ ....-"~' -. _-.._'-~ ~ .. . • - J:.1 ·111· ~ - .fJ j fJ j .___ . 1 I· ~. ~ .!.. ffi ~ ffl !.j ~. Jij :.. ... ·11· l fJ j ·II~fJ j ·111· IJ "j fJ j ·11 f• • . ~!1 ..". - ' ~ ~ Ejj :111: :. · .. I cJ _~_l. '_ 14...Snare" Drum.t --.0111. . :11: . .' • • ••• I n 41 • Y .. L~..' -I '.- m in -_ I - ' : ~ ~.11 • ·111· ~ bY I I _ ~ iW - . :11 - .. - ~ . fft~ . .• ' m fiJ _ .

when cymbal ostinato time feels are played. Having the correct balance between these two voices is essential if the time is to have the right feel.. lft----J'"-U ~ JJ _____.~+--I m_______. the idea is to pass various phrases back and forth between the two voices. ~ q.Back and Snare Drum/Bass Drum Linear materials are used. ~ ~ ~ W. ~ V Improvising With Snare Bass Drum. You can either repeat the same phrase or use two different phrases. After work:ing through this routine.. t# t. The purpose of this routine is to make sure you have good control1n each of the separate voices. Combinations DrumJ When initiaJly improvising with the linear materials. .~ _ J =rr r r -+O~.nlL. r ur ~ IIJ J lJJ 1~~~64Ir t I "f ~ etc. Norrnaliy.. BasicalJy speaking. . In other words..' ~ ~~ ~ Q 111 ~ ~ t. but there is also other activity (unaccented notes) in the snare drum part. there is one particular routine I suggest you experiment with. a combination of Fat. f.J"----------+---11 r----------. The main technical problem here is getting good balance between the accented and unaccented notes. you can spend some time improvising in a more traditional time functioning fashion.~ f(. BasicalJy speaking. there is a basic two and four accent happening. w i.-O-~r____. the unaccented notes in the snare drum should be at the same level as the cymbal notes..

One of the more common types of situations involves substituting either the 'all' before the 'e' after a normal accent point. Accenting the first note of a double or triple stroke is no problem. However. . Some of these (as in the examples above) have the accents on single strokes. ~ ~ \oj Ct " ~ ~ ~ ~ fj • ~ fa ~ tt ~ " ~ V ~ t. other figures may have an accent on a double or triple stroke. :> II ••[ 1 g"1 ¥ >- Another common substitution is the 'and' of two or four. j? ¥ There are many different linear figures that can be used to develop such accent lines. but putting accents on the second or third note is technically more difficult and will have to be carefully practiced.t. ~ ~ Alternate Accent Possibilities There are many accent patterns other than two and four which are used in rock-time feels.

II:Q .ll: ~.0/ :111 Combina:tion.1\:' J.." "-I. Q :111: nn :II!: q R ·:111: n Jd=i .ti '1 in tf :11 9·11= ~ !fi J~ . '~=\:I a. J J. at Only H 7.Hi .s 2.

' El 9 '. .Hi-HatE'xercises (continued) 4.~.{d4II._ ·tl rf ):1 - .' - - 1 ¥ ·.. ~ ~~B.11 F if ~ ~~ . • • __ _ -.' ~'X .-' _ . _ .' •. :t ~:.?/ ~ '. ' . ~.= r ·lfl· "I F ._ -. L: 1 __ .-' ._ . _- ~ :t J_ . .

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· · Jj · }OI b. : : jJ J~IFJJ j jJ j J :I~ J JJ 1j~I 12a._j]J) 11J j ~I~ lW J"j J j~l: Jj Jj !J t~~IJJ ~ J1D . 7<.Ila. ~. : : J J J 1J J J J :llf J jJ J m~ji=j: I~J ]J J J ~~--:':=!11 b. I 13a. · J · J l' )< J x J J< ~I: J J j J J J J j :111: J j J j J j :t~W J J J j ~ l i I. c. · J ]I M tblfJJ J j JJ1~I:n j j JJ~t-!WJJ11~ ~fl: JJJJ~: JjJJJJP :H~JjJJJJ :~ ~ JJ ~ 7<.

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~ ~ • fjii..------J _E. All of the exercises are one beat long. . 3 3 ~JJdJJd Written as: rt::11: :::j"f~n~I:::=:::tI:11 Played as: As in the previous exercises. when practictng them.e.fI •• • ~ • t. In playing exercises that do not involve the hi-hat. each of which deals with a certain type of independencecoordination situation. you will be playing ostinatos in two limbs: M-i-"f 3 ---1l--~ 3 -". only the ride cymbal will be performing an ostinato.. • • • ~ rr - JAZZ INDEPENDENCE The materials in this section deal With various types of independence and coordination in relationship to the basic jazz ride cymbal rhythm. practice each exercise separately at first. they should be played on all four beats.-t J---!I In exercises involving the hi-hat. I suggest using it in the traditional manner (on 2 and 4). . However.~ t. the ostinato parts are not written with the exercises. follow the same general practice procedure as described for the cymbal ostinato time feels (i. Therefore. then move directly into an improvisation using the same materials ). When working on a given group of exercises.__i -------". The materials are organized into four parts: Part Part Part Part 1 2 3 4 - Linear Independence Two-VoiceHarmonic Independence Three-Voice Harmonic Independence (with unisons) Three-Voice Harmonic Independence (without unisons) The exercises contained in these parts are divided into various groups. • • " " • 46 SECTION ~ .

Exer.cise~s Bass Drum 'Only Combinations .Snare Drum/Bas's Drum.

t Only Snare Drum.s .i-Hat Exercisi.H. and Hi-Hat 11·11: ill ill ill :1 :111: :111: 12·1~ ill PJ :111: ~II: m ":1 Bass Drum And Hi-Hat T'bree-VoiceMixture.es Hl"Ha.

During this same period. it is the result of a mixture of ideas which are constantly changi. Snare drum. the hi-hat is again playing the 2 and 4 pattern. more flexible type of time playing. Basically speaking. you will undoubtedly play in situations where different types of time are called for. The snare drum and bass drum were the only voices available to perform other :figures. Traditionally. rather than a time keeper. a lot .. so the more flexibility you have in this regard. I want to make it clear that this in no way implies any quality judgment on a certain type of time. the better off you are going to be. it should be understood .. that there are many gradations between completely straight and completely broken time.) Semi·Straight Time . the ride cymbal and hi-hat were always kept constant.ng.) Semi-Broken Time . by the beginning of the sixties.. Broken time is not better than straight time or vice versa.Ride cymbal playing the traditional cymbal pattern with ill-hat on 2 and 4.. Most drummers these days actually use a mix of materials from both areas and this is probably what you will find yourself doing.. the direction has been toward a looser. However. progression that has taken place injazz time functioning. In a general sense. there are no ostinatos. Finally..In semi-broken time. Besides that. rather than developing the time through the use of repeated ostinatos in certain voices. ~ Other Types Of Jazz Time There are basically four different ways jazz time can be performed. (This was the form used in the preceding snare drum-bass drum exercises. The ride cymbal is varied and the other three voices all have free parts.Ride cymbal playing the traditional cymbal pattern. Broken Time . They are as follows: Straight Time . but the ride cymbal is varied. the concept of breaking up the ride cymbal rhythm began to gain popularity and these same trends are continuing today.. bass drum and hi-hat all have free parts.In broken time.~t. of people were starting to experiment with using the hi-hat as an additional voice. In other words.. They are simply different. (This WaB the form used in the hi-hat exeroises. ~ ~ '&'l. these four versions outline the basic historical ~.

JSr practice routine.. using thesa. they will begin to blend tog~ether and this is probably how you are going 00be using them..ai. • • .. you can rnove into broken time. but the cymbal rhyyhm'wffi be broken. Ttle hi-halt will be b playing a 2 ~ 4 ostmato... is a very long r~e goal.However. J 7 J II IIWJ J J l 3 3 3 3 II J~i 3 WWII 3 The idea is to keep changtng the order of tJles€..~ . with the two types or stJ>aight time. I would 'SUggest using the fbIlowing approach: 1. snare drum. but this is extremely difficult to do and.patterns to get a constantly varied cymbaliine. you would tn straight tbne. in this case. Broken time must be worked on reom a <ilfferent standpoint. .. .. Experiment with semi. roken time at first. . Eventua:J1y. 114 t r i~ 3 11. The Juea is to be working regularly with both straight. HypotheticaJJy. J 3 ete: Once thiS begins to feel comfortable. the various voices are work::1ngin coordination with one another . Gradually... ..) 'lhese methods should be incorporated into your d.. ~ :~ ~ II ~ ''PI ~ '81 ~ How To Wo:.. 2. between the various Itmbewillalso change. eliminating the hi-hat ostinatoand using:it instead as another free part. and broken type:s of time.:k On Broken 'lime All of the preceding exercises (as well as those that foN!ow) deal • " • . '.you ( could have independence With constantly changing figureS in au orthe voices. Four different :figures can be derived from the basic ride cymbal pattern. In other words. Jt J 1. . More than likely. j IJi t r_JJ l J 1. since the Cymbal rhythm is cJlanging. there will be a lot of connections between which cymbal rlzythm you are :pl~ and which figUres you play against it.me types of figures. start adcting the bass drum' and. " • . • . the relationslllps. 3 ~ l J ~ :f. Iatmer than be1ng independent. • .

r~ A :111: ~ \.Two-Voice Harmonic Indep. . - 19.end.~: Pc r :1111b :111: aJt~ ··II:~.en.ce Unisons Combinations S·II: R A. I~ :11 10 . ~I :111: . _1_ .11: . 9 :111: :11 9·11: ~ . :111 1'7·11: Ifnilll: m :111: ~ :~ 20.II~W m~~--I -.

11 Combinatlons ---- _- .11 "II 1 a IF .~ if :11 3·11:: ¥ ¥ ~ ~I4. : '. --- a_I'~...Unisons lod It:: 'j "f . 1°·~1!~ . H: Q *i :.•~ i~-..~~ 18 0111: .' a~ I . " '. . I: an I :111: .=:11: : ..:~ n 1 11r..~'1: A 1 I 9°~ll_~.

1-~~'"..• 'f " "f ~ " 'f -I - . - : - - .' . . -:11 3·n!. " . tr .rf :111: :11 17'~. :111: :11 12.i ¥ ~ b :11 4·1~ i :U 11·1[. .b .' ~ " "1 -:t • .~: .Unisons ~ b . t6R :111: {]] :111: ~ . ' - 18.~: bJ uJ :I~: :11 13. d'. - - ." .

Snare Drum _. -.Bas's Drum Uni'sons 2.H 1> ~I' ~~.' . f. ( . :111. .'.-..~ " b~ d :111: ~ '-.~ :11l:C 3·II:p 1 4.1 .~. -.n 6.111~U • "1' ¥ 1 ". f :111: '~Il: ti f·:IIH .1&-% ~' :III'~'·.-~_. '.(vartous unrsons) Three-Voice U'nisons T:hr'ee-Voice Harmonic Independence.'_ .~ 7·1-~·.-." . ~~' - :'11 .h~'.~:--'~ . 0. 1.\-." '• :.. ~:111:l]r .·1~-·'-..-'·"I~~·-' .-i . '1IlJ~UI..~..-.- ~I~ _.1 _'. ~U r r ~r ~IIHt1 r r r :~ fr :111: :111: C ~ :11 :111: :111: ~~'~Ir.._.' . '~~'~~ :P.~~rll.~~~_ f :111:~ f ~ :II~t!. •.'.u=1l~--r( ~ .. ~Il: Hr -r }:~ .

Snare Drum . U ~I: t r ~ C a'll: 6'1= C {} :~I+~I~ ~[} :ru: r B t B :~ :111: .r t r1~1.Hi-Hat Umsons 1. J :~I: U =HII: ~ ~ l :"1: E rJ~ t1~:111:~ U :~I:t1~:111.. ~: tJ HI!: E .

'.' .. _- - t - - - - f :jl~: '..:.~ ~ . at..Hi .-"-.~-.--'-. .11-.Bass Drum. ---._ ~ ..-~~.\~~jdl4Jr-!I Ilil ..'1:. tJnisons H S·li>t ~ ~I~rl~ -'.

" . I --"'I' I -.One .I _:11[:="1B~.-'.. .'ll'~~Y '!I:. I~ I 10 11 A r I _r :!& .II!' "11' C]- 'I .' ~ I ".II'~~ .~~ .Harmonic Independence Two .-x--r :~II: 1" ~II'~~'I -:tl~.i-ll'~~+81 p~. ~'---~l-~~ I -~ 1-:'1. r- r "' I 9.~ Q . iift:~:.". .~ . -. -.' I r-T-: 'LJ" ' ·111' ~. .1' . . - 'I - .~I LJ '1 "f . --. 'I J!= 'I'I'I~" .!I~· - . -.. .~-or-.e.' '11) r ~'1t1 J' ..(no unisons) Thr.e'e-'Voic.-----. ~" .~:t-Lr r ~ f :1~~TPr R ._ '"1 ""'.. 1 I'l~~-_'i _. . '4f _ . .~:..Jtj -] _L ..One Ratios Two In Snare • '~~-i ..- - Two In Bass Drum 7~ II' "-'~ 8.'" -. P ~.

J~d J~.i f . c. r('=t~I!+fJ -c:~rr: _f.'~.lli+~~ :II~ ~ ~:III: ~ ~! ~ :111: ~.r r ~IF ffn:E r :al:r-rfl t ~[ 111rJ-.'·'-1 ~ll: .r :111: JI :111: Or :111: :111: :111: :In: ~ . _tr~ _f'.. 1 .Two ..~~ :11 One In Bass Dl'UDl 4·11:8 5·11: r r 0--1 ru f B U -J {f} {r f r 8: J U·:~ ..Two .~ 111: :11 - :111: :111: :111: 6.. . '~'_~--l: 9· t .III:C -r-} ~11: r ! :1~1rr:lllttr :11111· f---li! .. One Ratios One In H*-Hat 1·1~·~·~ !II¥~~~I~ 2.. ~ ~ '11r. . I· [_ One lnS:nare 8.• _ ..-4 r .'II~I~: r~ WI wW. ~ t41: .1.

i" i__) i11m':-~ i' _' - -f. ~.~__ .0·l._.J .- ~ -I -i I Three In Hi-Hat .-I I _:.-LTI-~~I .~tIJ-~: ~~~-:i'IIr'f=T~1=:T!' ~: rTl II~I~ Three In Bass Drum (j. ~l ._ %-----f--4' .Three ..-"/'.I:_~fJ..f!1. . -~'!~ ~-----1' .'W· ____.-'-.: __IlhttJ-t -'If ~._ .'-i 0 0 • .--' I -i:t--ii -r---' .c ..II!iUi -.:. _Al_ .j" I I-~-IJ c' i' tl.-" l~ ~~.»...Two .h~.-----. - :. f I' -_ n '-ry=Ml ._]J --or '~~=::::!H "~' :II~.J] j#_ -.. . .One Ratios Three In Snare 1·11. -~~.p. ~- 'j' I~"i _IOf [ ." i i-.-~...-.IJ "! ~'.

rwo .~ ~. -1·II' . -.J 1 . . .One Ratios 'Three .. -_""~" "i.OTHE·R RATIO.~. ._' III .--.u~ ttJfl --rLb~'I~'" ~-i"I' ._". -1-.J. .Two Ratios Three .One..Two Ratio.S Two..--' "! -. ._ 6.'--="-1It ------.- lfij'~IW' .~~'--~--tal C-.r.f- l -- -- _.~ I .Two .

By expanding on this concept.~R.J . In other words. with eiltheF one or two note'S in the foot. The phrasing is the result of playing whi'Ch notes as well as where these notes are being played.J--J_--LJ ~II -. "LINEAR PHBASING The term 'linear phrasing' refers to the idea of developing musical phrases through the use: of Single line fligures. What we will be doIng is taking tAese groupings and fmding ways 'they can be usedin varaous rbythlnic schemes.' L. .~_J1-11 L___ 3< _. .<.LL L R L LRL 7- j ..ms._J_J_:J_ ._____ .- C . but simply groups .gI'1t otes COuJ.ION III . you will.. a group of eight sixteenth notes Gould be played matching linear group.of notes. It is important to understand that these grouping'S are not rhyt:p.. which voice is all of the notes are played tndrvtdually..el..LJ-4 j_ II _J. I ._LJi I :- l •• IT .::.3 - JJ RL J 5- _J_' 'H J_' L.lpt. be developing a wide variety of ways of phrasing the 16th notes and tills same technique can be used with other rhythms as well...SECT. The first set of linea]' g."l6s vre will be examining consists of single strokes in the hands. 'it cambe seen that the odd groupings contain one note in the bass drum.L 4- _j~~J J J RL 6- _O_. either two fours or one eight: with a Il.1 ____j However..].J i-___ Ii -----' 5 _----' This is the basic premise behind linear phrasing. JI RL LI_J_J_ R. the game ....d also be played using a n cornbinatton of the three and frve note linear figures: l:jJ:-"J_J--I_1_J_. J::j_ _J R 8- J J. For example. J l-]-_J_r~ RLRLRL In the figures above.·vi. . while the even groupings have two..

. time feels..~ ~ G (~ \J ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1.nstration. Aecentl!ng' on the 'all. we need to get some into these phrases. '~ ~ ~~ .play them as 32nd.1 '~ t. right hand on the hihat. RLRLRL R. we will. Since most rock time feels haeeaccenta.RLRLRL Once the basic accents are In place.. RLRLRL RLRLRL step. For example: a. step' #1 .Play the pattern as it lays. be exarrumng hDW these phrases can be made into.there are about . two . For purposes of demo. Embellishments. #2.simply replace the 16th .~ ~ ~ 'G ~ .) . ote ..(Right handoQrnes over frornhr-hat) RI~RtRL step #3. of one.YOll . The process t:t:at is used to do this co sists of a number of steps. Accents.single stroke "C..s. method that we have been describIDg. (When doing trus.. using the.I G e ~ V ~ ~ ~ 0 Using L.forty phrases that can be made from these basic linear figures.. left hand on the snare. In this section. n a 32nd note double stroke. YOU should try to have a few different ones for each phrase.inear Phrases To Play Thne u:smg the. I vIlilluse the linear 8~norefigure. ' V.LRLRL b. Accenting on. there are :8:.. OnE)' these is to double up on some of of the notes and . number of dilierent things you can do to emoelhsh the phrases to make them mare mteresttng..~ritl1. the sticki:ng does not cllan~e .

What this means is that you will have a number of different ways of playing any given linear phrase.e. all IlgUI'es start with the right and use singles). Doubling the second and third notes. the sticking should always remain the same ( i. This will make it easier to war k 'With the phrases.:rjJ-J~+[JJJj J £j_j 5 LJillijj_~ RLRLRL RLRLRL RLLRRLRL RLRLRL This is the basic process that should be used on all of the linear >- >- >- 0 >- + phrases. so that when you use it in performance. Simply put. you will be able to adjust it to specifically meet that particular situation. ~J J j J51j L. you figure out a few basic accents for each phrase and then add some embellishments to make it more interesting. Doubling the first note. H~JJJ UJ j J j J J Jj ~ ~ 0 o >- + >- + RLRLRL RLRLRL These embellishments can then be combined and mixed to make a longer phrase. RRLRLRL RRLRLRL b. It is important to remember that when initially working on these linear phrases. RLLRRLRL RLLRRLRL Another type of embellishment is to open the hi-hat for a longer sound.a. .

. Feel free to experiment with these as well as other possibilities.~t@~~ '.._l~ snare and hi-hat.. One of these involves stepping the hi-hat in place of the bass drum notes. Another' option would be to move some of the hand notes to other drums and cymbaJ s. there are some additional possibilities that you may want to experiment with... -. As . OtherPossibilities you work your way through these phrases. as opposed to always keeping them O"_j t!. which can result in some interesting lines.

Ol'Above 8/4/4 II: ll.ear Phrases A. 8/3 b.c L. 4/8/~ c. 4/4 ~:JJj J j J j ~j Jj J J J ~ l 3a.Basi.11 B.in. eatl'ig'ure~ b 8 (repeated to make one measure phrase) L 2.. 4/4/8 .. ~OneMeas. Two .111 __ 3/3/5/B b.ure Mixtures 4a. 3/5 II: J j j J J j J j J j jJ l J j 5 :11 J j J J J j J j 1J j j l J j j .IJ 15 J j 1 j J l1J~ FM==I I~·· ~--'l .. 6/8/3/3 .

4/4/5/3 c. _-------'- 8/3//5 -_ illJ:I=J--1If5 __ LI fj J _J_)_)_?C'j-_j__:~1 J :'1 c.-D-n-LiiJ-J11: J-~:J J :il :1 :'1 e. 1:JJlj_.~ LJ J f.J J JJ rI~._lJJ5_LLD.J___j_IT55 e.U __ .-LoJ-. 4/3/4/5 J J J j J j_)S'IJ :1 J__L_J d. 5/8/3 1!:Lu_j-.wI 1!.__.rm .FTn-JTIl.EL1J ~ :I :I d. 3/5/8 II:n jj JJ J J JJ JJ fj J ~ 7a.6a.J_ b.u55:j-'fl 11.EijjJJ-J __ . 4/4/3/5 II:hjj_._. 8/B/3 -- 1~1 ~J J J J_LD -LJJ:J5__ ~ . 8/3/8 J J J J j J L.tI J 5 jJ b. -- 3t8/S I) J jJ J J J J . 4/S/4/3 4/3/S/4 4/5/3/4 Ir.1 f. J J ]l-rrn__ j-.

: Co . Othe'r Measure Phrases 8a.tffj ~~ j.} ~1._.L-''-_''__''~I1' 1-' = J: '==F f . 3/4/5/4 ~:J j J J fTTJ Jj JJ.. 6/6/4 ._ :r . '_.5/5' 1'1' I I'______J_____J.~' .3/4/4/5 '5/4/4/3 i.1~Jj·:jJjJJJ J] j :11 b~ - c.4 ".~iI1--J~-J--. 9a.~- .~. 5/5/8 b.' . 5/4/3/4 c. 5/6l5 6/.

tl--J.-=-----~ ~_ _~6171.:I J_J5:J J :._LJ JJ L.WJ_J r:J-JJ-Uj_. 5/4/7 I. b.11 .jJ_UJ_LJ_.1 16. d.Q~ IJJ_D fJ_Qt:u_j__L4._3 IIJ-iJ J f J ..lOa. -_ '1/5/6 .Q_)_J J b. 3/7/6 -- 11' I*! I~' .1.rJ:~.7/'--4 _ 1~S:LJ_. 3/6/7 il!:_[L}J~J J j J " !JJJ J J TLll . II: J J J lLJ J J !j_W_j_j~~ lla. __ 7/5_:__/4_~~_ 1r.-L"JJ_l±p_1 LJj1LJ J~lll II.J~-'~~II f.fi=F9)~ ~..1.--~ __ ~~_ii_>t1-J~-~~~-~ 6/3/7 e. ------=----=-----4/5/7~-- J j j j ) J tlJ J JJ_J~J"j :11 f. __ 5___:_1______.:J_J-J-m &: 4/7/5 e.11 II'_£LLJ_JI. 7/4/5 ~-- c.~~.

Another problem has to do with motion. The goal is to develop as much flexibility as possible with the figure.followed by . What follows are some basic suggestions as to how this can be done. It is very much like a horn player learning a chord scale. T would suggest using one of the following: Play 3 measures of time . one hand moving). but rather to develop enough flexibility with those notes so that they can be played in any wa.Using Linear Phrases To Play Solos The linear phrases that we have been working on for tune functioning can also be used to develop solo ideas. This in turn has a lot to do with what the musical idea actually sounds like. Each of the linear phrases should be worked on separately at first. I would suggest working at a moderate tempo and using a medium level dYllaJIDC (around mf).one measure fill Play 2 measures of time .followed by . For openers.C8S. In initial stages of practice. In working with a given pattern. When working with these phrases. you are going to be working on various vlays in which the fjgure can be played on the set. The point is not simply to learn the notes of the scale in a specific order.followed by . This should be done in the context of some time scheme. Concentrate priJnarily on getting good balance between the instruments that are being played.four measure fill In the fill measurer s).two measure fill Play 4 measures of time . but where those notes are played. (Additional musical considerattons will he dealt with at a later t. Therefore.) . there are a few general ideas I would bear in mind. The use of such motions can definitely aid in the development of a more musical style of soloing.y. First of all. I suggest spending some time specifically on playing ideas that involve other types of motions: either contrary (where the hands are moving in opposite directions) or oblique (one hand stationary. 'I'he type of circular'.irne. parallel motion that most drummers usc in moving around the set can definitely be jl1hibiting in many respects. In our case. you should deflnitely make it a point to start some of the ideas in other pl8. most drummers tend to begin all their ideas from the snare drum. we are not rearranging the order of the notes.

Various phrases can be combined and mixed to develop longer ideas.ruations . the ideas are played in a rnore broken fasaton. it should be understood that "inmost playing situations.1ld carefully worked on. Dynamics can play a very important part. types of s]. The followIDg are some suggestions concerning tb. In other words. the musteal potential makes c c it well worth the effort. Fmally. Although this may take some time to get under control. Having the control to use a wide· varietY of dynamics is an invaluable aloin drum set performance and shou. Experiment ·With both. be modified and expanded in a variety of ways. Space is another musical element that can "beused to expand the basic lmear concept. different versions of ". 4. RJrYTHM & METIDR PATrERNS. This can De done by using. c~ When using space in this mariner.~f#~':. rather than having a constant stream of events. 2. (A mirnber of dynamic exercises be are included in the nrst part of the book. but rather i to mix them in with all of the otner types of things you do. These exercises will help develop the technical skills necessary for good dynamic control.at have been presented can. the idea.j ~{~ Extensions Ocf Basic Linear Phrases The basic linear phrases tb:.) 3. M you become more familiar with these mater-tala. - the same phrase or by using entirely different phrases.s not to use linear materials exclusively. the mdrvidual phrases tend to get broken up into smaller units... 1. in he~ping to shape musjcal events. you will begin to notice this happening and trns is really trie main goaL .ese posssbtlities.

~ ~ ~ '.4/5/7/8 1. 7/7/7/3 12a. Expertraent ·with these as well &S oth·er poss:Lbilities.ng list represents 1>. !L Four-Beat 8a. '7/7/5/5 b. Many of them will alsc wor-kwel..5/8/4/7 p.4/3/5 e'.5/4/3 b. 4/~/8/5 4. ~ Triplet Linear Phrases the basic phrasing possibilities> for tr-iplets. d. 'tWo Measwre Mixtures 1.6/3/3 'C'..5/B/7/7 c. W' .8/4 b.3/4/5 [315/4 u.I ~. These phrases can be used for soloing irijaza time.Ii . d 7/8/'4/5.5/B/5/4/5 0..5/4/5/5/5 e'.7/8/5/4 e.5/4/8/7 f. 8/5/7/4 j.~ ":.7/7/3/7 c.8/414/8 ga.3/6/3 G.8/714/5 c.e. ~ ~ The folloW'). 4/5/6i5!5 .5/7 d.4/7/5/8 m.7/4/5/8 0. :.7/4/8/5 k. ~.~ ~ :. The iridividual figtn'es have not been written out.l for setttng' up regular or half-time shuffle feels..5/3/4 c.3/3 2. .4/4/4 5a. Figures ~ ~ .8/3/6 b.4/5/8/4Mixtures Of Above roa.4/8 Sa.. 5f8/7/4 1. 7/5 b.. since they are the same as they were for 16thB. 8/7/5/4 h.t 'oJ 'oJ .5/5/4/5/5 d.g. 1~ Two-Beat.4/5/3 h.8/5/4/7 I 1a. '3/7/7/7 b.B/7/7/5 d..5/4/7/8 7/6/5/7 Other' One Measw:e Phrases' 7a. .5/5/5/:5/4 b.B/8/4/4 hy4/4/8/8 c.4/5/8/7 3a.7/3/7/7' d.

) is 3-3-2-4-4.:f-~_c.<: vm h::ll ph vt.: ::ITA ::IJ~t.h ~ Tn <: Q('I th.lla. In other words. begin to develop your OWl)' ideas. #1. (The AXArc i c.The phrasing is 4-4-3-3-2. decide what the cymbal rhythm is going to be for the entire phrase and then fill in the other voices. c .ExaJ'>. (Notice the open hi-hat on beats 3 #3 .ar fJ:ime Feels With Singles And Doubles The preceding figures can be combined and mixed in many ways to develop various time feels. After working on these examples.The phrasing and 4. 1would suggest starting with the cymbal r-hy t.The actual phrasing of this line is 4-3-4-3-2.ples Of J'~inE. As a general rule. The examples that follow indicate some of the basic possiblilites.hrn.ll V hrl_<:Arl nn V::l pi m 1. I~ J J J j J J J j J J J J 1fJ J] J EJ ] J J J] J J J J :11 j ~ #2 .1..

double as wen as single strokes.FP*~! . Then move directly to th~:'next) with no pause.11.Iil _. 3·11:J j j j :111) jp :111: j J j :111: D~ J J J J~I ~ ftl:l. An of the cymbal notes are played with theTight.) 1. !99:1_-II'c._ •.Lin. exerctses. are used in all three voices.!i '~II .FFi9 .d Double: Str..e..'=9 :111 II~J-Jd~11 7. .~ Ij jj~~JJ Jj :~~Ir.' ·.fFT1 ~Il.g.·JJ--::r-·m!-~-~. '!_. . i~~lt!"-~~. The left hand plays the snare drum notes.FTi=i~ltl~~)'II •. I L illLI'lj'~--U.~I'I.~~--1. hand. In this case. until it feels comfor-table. III~_L+ ~ j-.11-. Each pattern should be repeased many times.!' l~" FTi=i. ..ar Time Feels With Single An.J'tl'~#_.~~J~I~~ ~_ffR.oke's The followin..'.!11. (Additional suggesttons wiU follow the. JJ J1a I] JJ :11~lJJ :11~LJj) :11 Ii: J 2·1~~1r.exercises represent another type of Itnear phrasing.

#2 .) . As a general rule.ExamJ_Jles. I would suggest starting With the cymbal rnytnrn.».. Linear Time Feels With Singles And Doubles Of figures can be combined and mixed in many ways to nAvAlnT" "IT!:IT'ioUS time feels.The phrasing is 4-4-3-3-2 . . begin to develop your own Ideas. decide what the cymbal rr.The actual phrasing of this line 15 Tile preceding 4-3-4-3-8. ythrn is gOhJ..) is 3-3-2-4-4. eN otice the open hi-hat on beats 3 #3 . After w-orking on these examples. The examples that follow indicate some of the basic possibilities..g to be for the entire lJh!'ase and then fill ill the otr er vorc. (The exercises are actually based en various cymbal thy trims.The phrasing and 4. In other words. so trus should be fairly easy to do.#1 .