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Topic 15

Topic 15

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Published by: Venkata Rama on Oct 14, 2011
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Basic Principles of Microbial Control, and Control by Heat

Chapter 11

A. Definition of Terms: Know/look up meaning of:

• • • • • •

1.Sterilization 2. Disinfection 3. Sanitization – 4. Sepsis5. Asepsis6. Antiseptic-

A. Definition of Terms (cont.)

A. Definition of terms (cont.)

• 7. Germicide - A substance that kills "germs". – Bactericide - A substance that kills bacteria. – Algicide - A substance that kills algae. – Fungicide - A substance that kills fungi. – Viricide - A substance that "kills" viruses.

• 8. Microbistat (Germistat) - A substance that inhibits but does not kill microbes. –a. Bacteriostat - A substance that inhibits bacteria. –b. Fungistat - A substance that inhibits fungi. –c. Algistat - A substance that inhibits algae.

Cellular targets of antimicrobial agents:

Fig. 11.4: Modes of action affecting protein structure

• 1. Cell wall • 2. Cell membrane • 3. Cellular synthetic processes (= synthesis of DNA, RNA, protein, etc.) • 4. Proteins


) D. surviving cells in stationary phase of growth are more resistant to antimicrobial agents than are log-phase cells C.) • Actively dividing cells (as in log phase of growth) are usually the most vulnerable to killing with antimicrobial agents • Sometimes. 11. damages membranes. Killing Curve (cont. Physical Cleanliness Fig.2: Factors affecting rate at which microbes are killed by antimicrobial agents • **See p. Moist heat is the most effective form of heat for microbial control • -Denatures proteins. Killing curve: shows exponential reduction in microbial numbers • Only a fraction of microbial targets “die” in a certain time interval –So antimicrobial agents have gradual effect –Longer exposure time results in more lethal hits –The more microbial targets. soil. 15A packet • “Dirt” such as blood. Use of heat to control microbes • Antimicrobial agents tested under defined conditions to determine microbial death rates • This information can permit prediction of exposure time needed (under defined conditions) to kill a certain number of microbes • **See p. the longer time needed to hit all targets C. 326-330 • 1.B. Killing curve (cont. & causes other types of cell damage • (Moisture transmits heat more effectively than dry conditions) 2 . pus. 15A packet. or other extraneous matter can reduce the effectiveness of antimicrobials • “Dirt” can also protect microbes from exposure to antimicrobial agents • C. & pp.

1. dehydration. but will kill pathogens and reduce number of spoilage microbes D. 1. protein denaturation 3 .5: Steam sterilization with autoclave • c) Compressed steam: at greater than 0. Dry Heat ** See p.1. 15-20 min). 2. comparable to pressure cooker • Allows reliable killing of endospores in reasonable amount of time D. Moist Heat (cont. is 100oC. 121oC. Moist Heat (cont.0 psi (elevated pressure). oven at same temperature • Dry heat causes cell oxidation. 1. (1) Tyndallization: –Heat material to kill vegetative cells –Incubate material to allow endospore germination –Heat material to kill new vegetative cells (that germinated from endospores) D.) • a) Boiling water. but won’t reliably destroy endospores • b.D.) Fig. Types of Moist Heat D. temperatures above 100oC can be achieved • Autoclave (standard conditions to achieve sterilization are 15 psi. 15B lecture packet • Moist heat kills faster than dry heat • Dry heat must be used in some situations to sterilize substances that cannot be sterilized with steam • Less efficient heat transmission with dry heat: compare hands in boiling water vs. 11. (212oF) at sea level • Both these conditions will kill vegetative cells. Moist Heat (cont.) • d) Pasteurization: uses temperature and time of exposure that will not harm product (beverage) quality. is 100oC (212oF) at sea level • b) Free-flowing live steam.

Age of organisms. more susceptible types • e. for glassware. medical waste 3. 160oC –b) Flame. 2.D. Dry heat (cont.) • To achieve sterilization with dry heat.) D. Kind of medium conditions 1) Presence or absence of moisture a) Dissolved materials (interfere with killing) 2) pH. metallic materials sterilized by incineration –Incinerators. Factors affecting heat sterilization (cont. other thermodurics vs. 1. spore formers. Time of exposure c.e. temperature of 160o C or higher must be applied for 2 hours (or longer) • Higher temperature needed to denature proteins with dry heat than with moist heat • Examples of use of dry heat: –a) Oven. i. Temperature • b. Killing more effective at pH extremes 3.) • d. Dry Heat (cont. Factors Affecting Heat Sterilization • a. 2.870oC max. Kind of organisms. growth stage • f. Load of organisms (numbers): greater numbers require longer exposure and/or higher temperatures 4 .

Cold (cont.) –b. Low temperatures .• Forms of heat provide broadspectrum. Freezing: -20o C ( -4o F ) • (1) Slow die-off of microbes due to ice crystal formation which disrupts structures (membranes) or alters protein structure 5 . non-selective control of microbes Cold E. Refrigeration: 5oC (41oF) slows metabolism and can be used for culture preservation Cold (continued…) E. Cold • 1. but do not kill reliably –a.decrease microbial activity.

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