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1. Which of the following is true about most adolescents today? a. They have a positive self-image and outlook. b.

They have a more cynical view of themselves and others. c. They are at significant risk for juvenile delinquency. d. They experience greater family stability than in past decades. 2. Which theorist believed that adolescence is a time of storm and stress? 3. The period of biological change that takes place during early adolescence is called: 4. Puberty refers to a period of: a. declining abstract thought and emotional maturation during late adolescence. b. declining gross motor development during late childhood. c. rapid psychological and emotional maturation during adolescence. d. rapid skeletal and sexual maturation during adolescence. 5. Ms. Chang is trying to prepare her health-class students for the onset of puberty. What should she tell the boys that they are likely to experience FIRST? a. the first ejaculation b. changes in voice c. increased penis size d. growth of facial hair 6. Ms. Chang is trying to prepare her health-class students for the onset of puberty. What should she tell the girls that they are likely to experience FIRST? a. widening of the hips b. growth of pubic hair c. first menstrual cycle d. growth of armpit hair 7. ________ is the dominant hormone in males, whereas ________ is the dominant hormone in females. a. Testosterone; estradiol b. Estrogen; androgen c. Estradiol; estrogen d. Androgen; estradiol 8. Recent research about hormones and behavior have found the relationship to be: 9. During adolescence, boys have an increase in ________, whereas girls have an increase in ________. 10. Adolescents tend to respond with gut reactions to emotional stimuli, while adults are more likely to respond in more rational, reasoned ways. Recent research suggests that this may be because: a. adults have a more completely developed prefrontal cortex. b. adults have a more completely developed amygdala. c. adolescents have a less completely developed cerebellum. d. adolescents have a less completely developed occipital lobe. 11. According to research by Diamond in 2003, most gay or lesbian individuals recognize that they are gay or lesbian in:

a. b. c. d.

early childhood. early adolescence. mid- to late adolescence. late childhood.

12. Which of the following BEST describes a difference in male and female sexual behavior? a. Most boys engage in sexual behavior about 1 year earlier than most girls do. b. Boys engage in more sexual activities per year than girls do. c. Girls tend to lose their virginity earlier than boys do. d. Girls engage in sexual activity with older boys, and boys choose partners about their own age. 13. In 1998, the Alan Guttmacher Institute reported that about ________ of girls and about ________ of American boys are virgins at age 15. 14. Juanita engaged in sexual intercourse at the age of 13. Research indicates that Juanita is likely to: a. develop a more positive sexual identity. b. drink, use drugs, and be delinquent. c. marry much earlier than other girls. d. abstain from sex later in adolescence. 15. Approximately what percentage of adolescents who have unprotected sex will acquire a sexually transmitted disease? 16. Which statement BEST describes U.S. adolescent pregnancy rates in the year 2004? a. They have steadily risen since 1950. b. They have risen, but only among ethnic minorities. c. They are unchanged from the rates of 20 years ago. d. They hit a record low, dropping 30% since 1991. 17. The second leading cause of death for American adolescents is/are: 18. According to Jean Piaget, adolescents differ from younger children in that younger children cannot: a. solve problems. b. develop hypotheses. c. deal with concrete experiences. d. systematically test hypotheses. 19. The cognitive ability to solve problems that develops in adolescence is termed ________ by Jean Piaget. a. trial-and-error reasoning b. hypothetical-deductive reasoning c. formal thinking d. logical reasoning 20. Contrary to Jean Piagets views, the development of formal operational thought is: a. universal. b. significantly affected by ones culture. c. only minimally affected by the type of education one receives. d. fairly stable regardless of socioeconomic status.

21. For teens to develop critical thinking skills, they must first develop: 22. According to Erik Erikson, the adolescent identity crisis is: a. a natural and healthy part of development. b. an abnormal and unhealthy state that occurs when development goes awry. c. a simple problem to resolve for well-adjusted adolescents. d. something that develops when parents put too much pressure on adolescents to grow up. 23. According to Erik Erikson, adolescents who become withdrawn and isolated from their peers and family are suffering from: a. recognition confusion. b. identity confusion. c. recognition moratorium. d. identity moratorium. 24. According to James Marcia, the term _______ refers to the part of identity development in which adolescents show a personal investment in what they are going to do. 25. Identity _______ is James Marcia's term for the status of adolescents who are in the midst of a crisis, and whose commitment levels are either absent or only vaguely defined. a. confusion b. stagnation c. diffusion d. moratorium 26. Unlike with Erik Erikson's traditional view of identity formation, contemporary theorists believe that identity is formed by: a. a gradual process of discovery and development that continues through adulthood. b. the time an adolescent reaches the age of 18 or is graduated from high school. c. the resolution of a series of crises that emerge during adolescent development. d. development that takes place in a series of discontinuous stages throughout life. 27. Self-assertion and separateness are two dimensions of: a. foreclosure. b. achievement. c. individuality. d. connectedness. 28. Mutuality and permeability are two dimensions of: a. foreclosure. b. achievement. c. individuality. d. connectedness. 29. Research shows that the adolescents who deal best with separation from parents are the ones who have ________ attachment to their parents. 30. A key way in which the old and new models of parent-adolescent relationships DIFFER is that the: a. old model suggests that a close relationship exists between adolescents and their parents. b. new model suggests that a close relationship exists between adolescents and their

parents. c. old model indicates that parent-child conflicts are greatest early in adolescence. d. new model recommends that parents detach from their adolescent children. 31. Harry Stack Sullivan believes most adolescent friendships are built on a need for: 32. Investigators have found that conformity to peer standards peaks around which grade level? a. sixth to seventh grade b. eighth to ninth grade c. 10th to 11th grade d. 12th grade 33. In view of what you have learned about adolescent social development, which of the following is a likely reason for the commonness of cliques during adolescence? a. Cliques provide a place for adolescents to learn antisocial behaviors. b. Cliques provide a transition between close dependence on family and adult independence. c. Cliques provide an opportunity for social interaction among those who have few close friends. d. Cliques encourage adolescents to become more aware of their own personal values and opinions. 34. In most cultures, the rite of passage is designed to: a. maintain a controlled and responsible level of birth rate. b. test whether adolescents are ready for adult responsibilities. c. test whether adolescents know enough about sexuality to begin selecting mates. d. help adolescents separate from parents and make the transition to adult status. 35. _______ refers to the coexistence of distinct ethnic and cultural groups in the same society. 36. The process by which minority groups are absorbed into the dominant society is called: 37. Ethnic families who have been fully assimilated into American culture tend to: a. lose their traditional ethnic customs. b. practice the ethnic traditions and customs of their ancestors. c. see their traditional customs incorporated into the American culture. d. accommodate their traditional customs to better fit with mainstream society. 38. The double disadvantage suffered by ethnic minority adolescents consists of: a. the lack of clear rites of passage and identity confusion. b. diversity and difference. c. prejudice and poverty. d. bias and assimilation. 39. Emerging adulthood, a term coined by Jeffrey Arnett, refers to the age range from: 40. In the United States, the most widely recognized marker of entry into adulthood is: 41. In developing countries, the most widely recognized marker of entry into adulthood is: a. holding a permanent, full-time job. b. moving into ones own home. c. getting married. d. having a child.

42. Which of the following is the biggest health risk that most young adults face? a. use of cocaine b. cardiovascular disease c. high levels of cholesterol d. establishing poor health habits 43. Studies of families consistently find a ____ frequency of alcoholism in the first-degree relatives of an alcoholic. a. low b. high c. 50% d. 100% 44. Nicotine is a: a. depressant. b. stimulant. c. narcotic. d. sedative. 45. What do researchers believe today about the causes of sexual orientation? a. Sexual orientation is primarily caused by biology. b. Sexual orientation is primarily caused by learning and experience. c. Sexual orientation is primarily caused by social and emotional factors. d. Sexual orientation is primarily caused by a combination of factors. 46. What advice about bicultural identity would the psychologist Laura Brown give to a gay or lesbian couple? a. You will cope best if you isolate yourselves as a couple and avoid contact with other people. b. You will cope best if you maintain strong contact with both the gay community and the heterosexual mainstream. c. You will cope best if you stay within your circle of gay and lesbian friends and avoid frequent contact with heterosexual people. d. You will cope best if you stay within your circle of heterosexual friends and avoid strong associations with the gay community. 47. Lauren was recently a victim of rape and is receiving counseling. Knowing the effects of rape, her counselor can predict that there is a 1 in _________ chance that Lauren will suffer some type of sexual dysfunction or reduced sexual desire if she does not receive effective counseling. a. 2 b. 5 c. 10 d. 20 48. Which of the following is increasing both in rate of occurrence and in the attention it receives on college campuses? a. assault b. date or acquaintance rape c. sexual assaults by strangers d. rape associated with burglaries 49. The only necessary criterion for sexual harassment is: a. inappropriate physical contact. b. inappropriate sexual remarks. c. blatant propositions or assaults. d. a victims sense of exploitation.

50. In developing a theory of adult cognition, which theorist focused more on how thinking evolves from being concrete to being abstract, hypothetical, and systematic? 51. According to William Perry (1999), the development of cognitive processing during the early adult years involves an evolution from _________ to _________. a. idealism; pragmatics. b. pragmatics; idealism. c. absolutism; relativism. d. relativism; absolutism. List and briefly describe the two dimensions that are used to classify adult attachments with romantic partners. DIMENSIONS OF ADULT ATTACHMENTS WITH ROMANTIC PARTNERS NAME OF DIMENSION BRIEF DEFINITION/DESCRIPTION OF DIMENSION 1. 1. 2. 2. List three relationship characteristics in adults that are associated with secure attachment styles with a romantic partner. THREE RELATIONSHIP CHARACTERISICS ASSOCIATED WITH A SECURE ROMANTIC ATTACHMENT STYLE 1. 2. 3. 70. List and briefly describe the three dimensions of love that have been proposed by Robert J. Sternberg (1988) in his triarchic theory of love. THE THREE DIMENSIONS OF LOVE PROPOSED BY ROBERT J. STERNBERG NAME OF BRIEF DEFINITION/DESCRIPTION DIMENSION (TYPE OF LOVE) 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. List three of the benefits of a good marriage. THREE OF THE BENEFITS OF A GOOD MARRIAGE 1. 2. 3. List five principles, identified by Gottman, that make a marriage work. FIVE PRINCIPLES, IDENTIFIED BY GOTTMAN, THAT MAKE MARRIAGE WORK 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

List two strategies remarried couples can use to cope with the stress of living in a stepfamily. TWO COPING STRATEGIES FOR REMARRIED COUPLES 1. 2. Identify five common negative effects of separation and divorce on both women and men. FIVE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF SEPARATION AND DIVORCE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.