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TN19-21

TN19-21

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Terminology Notebook-Ch.

19-21
Chapter 19 Respiratory System Understanding words p735 Prefix AlveolBronchCarcinCricDefinition Small cavity Windpipe Spreading sore Ring Example Alveolus-microscopic air sac in a lung Bronchus-primary branch of the trachea Carcinoma-type of cancer Cricoid cartilage-ring shaped mass of cartilage at the base of the larynx Carina-ridge of cartilage between the right and left bronchi Epiglottis-flaplike structure that partially covers the opening into the larynx during swallowing Hemoglobin-pigment in RBCs Inhalation-to take air into the lungs Phrenic nerve-nerve associated with the cervical plexuses that stimulates the muscle fibers of the diaphragm to contract Tuberculosis-disease in which fibrous masses form in the lungs

Carin-

Keel-like

Epi-

Upon

HemInhalPhren-

Blood to breathe in Diaphragm

Tuber-

Swelling

Table 19.1 parts of the respiratory system p747 Part nose Description Part of face centered above the mouth and inferior to the space between the eyes Hollow space behind nose Function Nostrils provide entrance to nasal cavity; internal hairs begin to filter incoming air Conducts air to pharynx; mucous lining filters, warms, and moistens incoming air Reduce weight of the skull; serve as a resonant chambers Passageway for air moving from nasal cavity to larynx and for food moving oral cavity to esophagus Passageway for air, prevents foreign objects from entering trachea; houses vocal cords

Nasal cavity

Sinuses Pharynx

Hollow spaces in various bones of the skull Chamber posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx

Larynx

Enlargement at the top of the trachea 1

Terminology Notebook-Ch. 19-21
Trachea Bronchial tree Flexible tube that connects larynx with bronchial tree Branched tubes that lead from the trachea to the alveoli Soft, cone-shaped organs that occupy a large portion of the thoracic cavity Passageway for air; mucous lining continuous to filter air Conducts air to the alveoli; mucous lining continues to filter incoming air Contain the air passages, alveoli, blood vessels, CTs, lymphatic vessels, and nerves of the lower respiratory tract

Lungs

Table 19.2 major events in inspiration p751 1. Nerve impulses travel on phrenic nerves to muscle fibers in the diaphragm, contracting them. 2. As the dome-shaped diaphragm moves downward, the thoracic cavity expands. 3. At the same time, the external intercostal muscle may contract, raising the ribs and expanding the thoracic cavity further. 4. The intra-alveolar pressure decreases. 5. Atmospheric pressure, greater on the outside, forces air into the respiratory tract through the air passages 6. The lungs will with air Table 19.3 major events in expiration p752 1. The diaphragm and external respiratory muscles relax 2. Elastic tissues of the lungs and thoracic cage, stretched during inspiration, suddenly recoil, and surface tension collapses alveolar walls 3. Tissues recoiling around the lungs increase the intra-alveolar pressure 4. Air is squeezed out of the lungs Table 19.4 Respiratory air volumes and capacities Name Tidal volume (TV) Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) Residual volume (RV) Inspiratory capacity (IC) Description Volume moved in or out of the lungs during a respiratory cycle Volume that can be inhaled during forced breathing in addition to resting tidal volume Volume that can be exhaled during forced breathing in addition to resting tidal volume Volume that remains in the lungs at all times Maximum volume of air that can be inhaled following exhalation of resting tidal volume: IC=TV+IRV Volume of air that remains in the lungs following exhalation of resting tidal volume: FRC=ERV+RV 2

Functional residual capacity (FRC)

Terminology Notebook-Ch. 19-21
Vital capacity (VC) Maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible: VC=TV+IRV+ERV Total volume of air that the lungs can hold: TLC=VC+RV

Total lung capacity (TLC)

Table 19.7 gases transported in blood Gas Oxygen Carbon dioxide Reaction Combines with iron atoms of hemoglobin molecules About 7% dissolves in plasma About 23% combines with the amino groups of hemoglobin molecules About 70% reacts with water to form carbonic acid then dissociates to release hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions Substance transported Oxyhemoglobin Carbon dioxide Carbaminohemoglobin

Bicarbonate ions

Innerconnections p768 Respiratory system Integumentary system Cardiovascular system Provides oxygen for the internal environment and excretes carbon dioxide Stimulation of skin receptors may later respiratory rate As the heart pumps blood through the lungs, the lungs oxygenate the blood and excrete carbon dioxide Bones provide attachments for muscles involved in breathing Cells of the immune system patrol the lungs and defend against infection The respiratory system eliminates carbon dioxide produced by exercising muscles DS & RS share openings to the outside Brain controls the respiratory system. RS helps control pH of the internal environment Kidneys and the RS work together to maintain blood pH. Kidneys compensate for water lost through breathing Hormonelike substances control the production of RBCs that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide Respiration increases during sexual activity. Fetal 3

Skeletal system Lymphatic system Muscular system Digestive system Nervous system Urinary system

Endocrine system Reproductive system

Terminology Notebook-Ch. 19-21
respiration begins before birth

Chapter 20 urinary system Understanding words p774 Prefix AfExample Afferent arteriole-arteriole that leads to a nephron CalycSmall cup Major calyces-cuplike subdivisions of the renal pelvis CortCovering Renal cortex-shell of tissue surrounding the inner region of a kidney CystBladder Cystitis-inflammation of the bladder DetrusTo force away Detrusor muscle-muscle in the bladder wall that causes urine to be expelled GlomLittle ball Glomerulus-cluster of capillaries in a renal corpuscle JuxtaNear to Juxtamedullary nephronnephron located near the renal medulla MictTo pass urine Micturitition-expelling urine from the bladder NephrPertaining to the kidney Nephron-functional unit of a kidney PapillNipple Renal papillae-small elevations that project into a renal calyx ProxNearest Proximal tubule-coiled portion of the renal tubule leading from the glomerular capsule RenKidney Renal cortex-outer region of a kidney TrigonTriangular shape Trigone-triangular on the internal floor of the bladder Table 20.3 role of ADH in regulating urine concentration and volume p796 1. Concentration of water in the blood decreases 2. Increase in the osmotic pressure of body fluids stimulates osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus. 3. Hypothalamus signals the posterior pituitary gland to release ADH 4. Blood carries ADH to the kidneys 5. ADH causes the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts to increase water reabsorption by osmosis 4 Definition To

Terminology Notebook-Ch. 19-21
6. Urine becomes more concentrated, and urine volume decreases Table 20.5 major events of micturition p.802 1. Urinary bladder distends as it fills with urine 2. Stretch receptors in the bladder wall are stimulated, and they signal the micturition center in the sacral spinal cord 3. Parasympathetic nerve impulses travel to the detrusor muscle, which responds by contracting rhythmically 4. The need to urinate is urgent 5. Voluntary contraction of the external urethral sphincter and inhibition of the micturition reflex impulses from the brainstem and the cerebral cortex prevent urination 6. Following the decision to urinate, the external urethral sphincter is relaxed, and impulses from the pons and the hypothalamus facilitate micturition reflex 7. The detrusor muscle contracts, and urine is expelled through the urethra 8. Neurons of the micturition reflex center fatigue, the detrusor muscle relaxes, and the bladder begins to fill with urine again Table 20.6 Developmental abnormalities of the Urinary system Condition Crossed fused ectopia Horseshoe kidney Nephrotic syndrome Oligomeganephronia Polycystic kidney disease Renal agenesis Renal dysplasia Renal hypoplasia Tubular dysgenesis Vesicoureteral reflux Innerconnections p804 Urinary system Integumentary system Description Fused kidneys that lie on one side of the midline Fusion of kidneys at one pole, usually lower, with most of each kidney on opposing side of midline Proteinuria (protein in urine) due to abnormal glomeruli Reduced number of nephrons that are abnormally large Cysts form in renal tubules and/or collecting ducts Absence of kidney Abnormal kidney structure Small kidney with fewer nephrons, but development normal Abnormal formation of proximal tubules Urine backs up from bladder to ureter or kidney

Cardiovascular system

Skeletal system 5

Controls the composition of the internal environment US compensates for water loss due to sweating. The kidneys and skin both play a role in vitamin D production US controls blood volume. Blood volume and blood pressure play a role in determining water and solute excretion Kidneys and bone tissue work together to control

Terminology Notebook-Ch. 19-21
Lymphatic system Muscular system plasma calcium levels Kidneys control extracellular fluid volume and composition (including lymph) Muscle tissue controls urine elimination from the bladder. Kidneys excrete creatinine produced by muscle metabolism Kidneys compensate for fluids lost by the DS Influences urine production and elimination Kidneys and the lungs work together to control the pH of the internal environment Influences urine production US in males shares organs with the reproductive system. The kidneys compensate for fluids lost from the male and female reproductive systems

Digestive system Nervous system Respiratory system Endocrine system Reproductive system

Chapter 21 water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance Understanding words p810 Prefix DeEdemDefinition Separation from Swelling Example Dehydration-removal of water from the cells or body fluids Edema-swelling due to abnormal accumulation of extracellular fluid Extracellular fluid-fluid outside of the body cells Imbalance-condition in which factors are not in equilibrium Intracellular fluid-fluid in body cells Neutral-solution that is neither acidic nor basic

ExtraIm-/inIntraNeutr-

Outside Not Within Neither one nor the other

Suffix -emia

Definition A blood condition

-osis

A state of

-uria

Urine condition

Example Hypoproteinemia-abnormally low concentration of blood plasma proteins Acidosis-condition in which hydrogen ion concentration is abnormally high Ketouria-ketone bodies in the urine

6

Terminology Notebook-Ch. 19-21
Table 21.1 regulation of water intake p814 1. The body loses as little as 1% of its water 2. An increase in the osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid due to water loss stimulates osmoreceptors in the thirst center 3. Activity in the hypothalamus causes the person to feel thirsty and to seek water 4. Drinking and the resulting distension of the stomach by water stimulate nerve impulses that inhibit the thirst center 5. Water is absorbed through the walls of the stomach and small intestine 6. The osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid returns to normal Table 21.2 events in regulation of water output p815 Dehydration 1. Extracellular fluid becomes osmotically more concentrated 2. Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are stimulated by the increase in the osmotic pressure of body fluids 3. The hypothalamus signals the posterior pituitary gland to release ADH into the blood 4. Blood carries ADH to kidneys 5. ADH causes the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts to increase water reabsorption 6. Urine output decreases, and further loss is minimized Table 21A factors associated with edema Factor Low plasma protein concentration Excess water intake 1. Extracellular fluid becomes osmotically less concentrated 2. This change stimulates osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus 3. The posterior pituitary gland decreases ADH release 4. Renal tubules decrease water reabsorption 5. Urine output increases and excess water is excreted

Obstruction of lymph vessels

Cause Liver disease and failure to synthesize proteins; kidney disease and loss of proteins in urine; lack of proteins in diet due to starvation Surgical removal of portions of lymphatic pathways; certain parasitic infections Venous obstructions or faulty venous valves

Effect Plasma osmotic pressure decreases; less fluid enters venular ends of capillaries by osmosis Back pressure in lymph vessels interferes with movement of fluid from interstitial spaces lymph capillaries Back pressure in veins increases capillary filtration and interferes with return of fluid from interstitial spaces into venular ends of capillaries Capillaries become abnormally

Increased venous pressure

Inflammation

Tissue damage 7

Terminology Notebook-Ch. 19-21
permeable; fluid leaks from plasma into interstitial spaces Clinical applications: sodium and potassium imbalances p820 Extracellular fluids usually have high sodium ion concentrations, and intracellular fluid usually has high potassium ion concentration. The renal regulation of sodium is closely related to that of potassium because active reabsorption of sodium (under the influence of aldosterone) is accompanied by secretion (and excretion) of potassium. Thus, it is not surprising that conditions that alter sodium ion balance also affect potassium ion balance. Such disorders can be summarized as follows: 1. Low sodium concentration (hyponatremia): a. possible causes include prolonged sweating, vomiting or diarrhea; renal disease in which sodium is inadequately reabsorbed; adrenal cortex disorders in which aldosterone secretion is insufficient to promote the reabsorption of sodium (addison’s disease); and drinking too much water. b. Possible effects include development of fluid that is hypotonic and promotes the movement of water into the cells by osmosis. This is accompanied by the symptoms of water intoxication. 2. High sodium concentration (hypernatremia): a. Possible causes include excessive water loss by evaporation and diffusion, as may occur during high fever, or increased water loss accompanying diabetes insipidus, in one form of which ADH secretion is insufficient to maintain water conservation by the renal tubules and collecting ducts. b. Possible effects include disturbances of the CNS, such as confusion, stupor, and coma 3. Low potassium concentration(hypokalemia): a. Possible causes include excessive release of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex (cushing syndrome), which increases renal excretion of potassium; use of diuretic drugs that promote potassium excretion; kidney disease; and prolonged vomiting or diarrhea b. Possible effects include muscular weakness or paralysis, respiratory difficulty, and severe cardiac disturbances, such as atrial or ventricular arrhythmias 4. High potassium concentration (hyperkalemia): a. Possible causes include renal disease, which decreases potassium excretion; use of drugs that promote renal conservation of potassium; insufficient secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex (Addison disease); or a shift of potassium from the intracellular fluid to the extracellular fluid, a change that accompanies an increase in plasma hydrogen ion concentration (acidosis). b. Possible effects include paralysis of the skeletal muscles and severe cardiac disturbances, such as cardiac arrest.

8

Terminology Notebook-Ch. 19-21
Figure 21.15 Factors that lead to respiratory acidosis Decreased rate and depth of breathing Obstruction of air passages Decreased gas exchange

Accumulation of CO2

Respiratory acidosis
Figure 21.16 factors that lead to metabolic acidosis Kidney failure to excrete acids Excessive production of acidic ketones as in

Accumulation of nonrespiratory acids

Metabolic acidosis

Excessive loss of bases

Prolonged diarrhea with loss of alkaline intestinal secretions

Prolonged vomiting with loss of intestinal secretions

9

Terminology Notebook-Ch. 19-21
Figure 21.17 factors that lead to respiratory alkalosis     Anxiety Fever Poisoning High altitude

Hyperventilation

Excessive loss of CO2

Decrease in concentration of H2CO3 Decrease in concentration of H+

Respiratory alkalosis

Figure 21.18 factors that lead to metabolic alkalosis Gastric drainage Vomiting with loss of gastric secretions

Loss of acids

Net increase in alkaline substances

Metabolic alkalosis

10

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