# Chapter 4

Digital Transmission

4.1

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4-1 DIGITAL-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION
In this section, we see how we can represent digital data by using digital signals. The conversion involves three techniques: line coding, block coding, and scrambling. Line coding is always needed; block coding and scrambling may or may not be needed.
Topics discussed in this section:  Line Coding  Line Coding Schemes  Block Coding  Scrambling
4.2

Line Coding

Converting a string of 1‟s and 0‟s (digital data) into a sequence of signals that denote the 1‟s and 0‟s. For example a high voltage level (+V) could represent a “1” and a low voltage level (0 or -V) could represent a “0”.

4.3

Figure 4.1 Line coding and decoding 4.4 .

01. 4. ……  A data symbol can be coded into a single signal element or multiple signal elements   1 -> +V. 10. 0 or 11. 0 -> -V 1 -> +V and -V.5 . 0 -> -V and +V  The ratio „r‟ is the number of data elements carried by a signal element.Mapping Data symbols onto Signal levels  A data symbol (or element) can consist of a number of data bits:   1 .

6 . It is also referred to as the modulation rate.bps.Relationship between data rate and signal rate    The data rate defines the number of bits sent per sec . The signal rate is the number of signal elements sent in a second and is measured in bauds. Goal is to increase the data rate whilst reducing the baud rate. It is often referred to the bit rate. 4.

Figure 4.7 .2 Signal element versus data element 4.

8 .) r is the ratio between data element & signal element 4.Data rate and Baud rate  The baud or signal rate can be expressed as: S = c x N x 1/r bauds where N is data rate c is the case factor (worst. best & avg.

Example 4. If the bit rate is 100 kbps. what is the average value of the baud rate if c is between 0 and 1? Solution We assume that the average value of c is 1/2 .9 .1 A signal is carrying data in which one data element is encoded as one signal element ( r = 1). The baud rate is then 4.

the effective bandwidth is finite. 4.10 .Note Although the actual bandwidth of a digital signal is infinite.

Does this agree with the previous formula for Nmax? Solution A signal with L levels actually can carry log2L bits per level.Example 4. then we have 4.2 The maximum data rate of a channel (see Chapter 3) is Nmax = 2 × B × log2 L (defined by the Nyquist formula). If each level corresponds to one signal element and we assume the average case (c = 1/2).11 .

Considerations for choosing a good signal element referred to as line encoding   Baseline wandering .a receiver will evaluate the average power of the received signal (called the baseline) and use that to determine the value of the incoming data elements.12 . If the incoming signal does not vary over a long period of time. 4. A good line encoding scheme will prevent long runs of fixed amplitude. the baseline will drift and thus cause errors in detection of incoming data elements.

Most channels are bandpass and may not support the low frequencies.13 . 4.when the voltage level remains constant for long periods of time. This will require the removal of the dc component of a transmitted signal.Line encoding C/Cs   DC components . there is an increase in the low frequencies of the signal.

4.14 .the clocks at the sender and the receiver must have the same bit interval.Line encoding C/Cs   Self synchronization . If the receiver clock is faster or slower it will misinterpret the incoming bit stream.

15 .Figure 4.3 Effect of lack of synchronization 4.

the receiver receives 1001 bps instead of 1000 bps. At 1 Mbps. 4.1 percent faster than the sender clock.000 bps.000.000 bps instead of 1.Example 4. the receiver receives 1.16 .001. How many extra bits per second does the receiver receive if the data rate is 1 kbps? How many if the data rate is 1 Mbps? Solution At 1 kbps. the receiver clock is 0.3 In a digital transmission.

4. For example: a particular signal transition is not part of the code.errors occur during transmission due to line impairments. the receiver will know that a symbol error has occurred. Some codes are constructed such that when an error occurs it can be detected. When it occurs.17 .Line encoding C/Cs   Error detection .

Line encoding C/Cs   Noise and interference .18 .there are line encoding techniques that make the transmitted signal “immune” to noise and interference. This means that the signal cannot be corrupted. 4. it is stronger than error detection.

Line encoding C/Cs  Complexity .the more robust and resilient the code. the more complex it is to implement and the price is often paid in baud rate or required bandwidth. 4.19 .

4 Line coding schemes 4.Figure 4.20 .

Unipolar    All signal levels are on one side of the time axis . Scheme is prone to baseline wandering and DC components. It has no synchronization or any error detection.21 . The signal level does not return to zero during a symbol transmission. It is simple but costly in power consumption. 4.either above or below NRZ .Non Return to Zero scheme is an example of this code.

Figure 4.5 Unipolar NRZ scheme 4.22 .

Level (NRZ-L) . a “1” symbol inverts the polarity a “0” does not. E. E.g. 4.g.23 .Inversion (NRZ-I) . There are two versions:   NZR .the change or lack of change in polarity determines the value of a symbol. +V for 1 and -V for 0.NRZ    The voltages are on both sides of the time axis.Polar . Polar NRZ scheme can be implemented with two voltages.positive voltage for one symbol and negative for the other NRZ .

Figure 4.6 Polar NRZ-L and NRZ-I schemes

4.24

Note

In NRZ-L the level of the voltage determines the value of the bit. In NRZ-I the inversion or the lack of inversion determines the value of the bit.

4.25

Note

NRZ-L and NRZ-I both have an average signal rate of N/2 Bd.

4.26

4. Both are relatively simple to implement.Note NRZ-L and NRZ-I both have a DC component problem and baseline wandering. Both have no self synchronization &no error detection. it is worse for NRZ-L.27 .

The minimum bandwidth for this average baud rate is Bmin = S = 500 kHz. Note c = 1/2 for the avg.Example 4. case as worst case is 1 and best case is 0 4.28 .4 A system is using NRZ-I to transfer 1-Mbps data. What are the average signal rate and minimum bandwidth? Solution The average signal rate is S= c x N x R = 1/2 x N x 1 = 500 kbaud.

Polar . 0. More complex as it uses three voltage level. Either from high to zero or from low to zero. +. This scheme has more signal transitions (two per symbol) and therefore requires a wider bandwidth. It has no error detection capability.29 . -. No DC components or baseline wandering.RZ       The Return to Zero (RZ) scheme uses three voltage values. Self synchronization . Each symbol has a transition in the middle.transition indicates symbol value. 4.

Figure 4.7 Polar RZ scheme 4.30 .

Polar .  Differential Manchester coding consists of combining the NRZ-I and RZ schemes.Biphase: Manchester and Differential Manchester  Manchester coding consists of combining the NRZ-L and RZ schemes.  Every symbol has a level transition in the middle. One symbol causes a level change the other does not.  Every symbol has a level transition in the middle: from high to low or low to high. 4. But the level at the beginning of the symbol is determined by the symbol value.31 . Uses only two voltage levels.

Figure 4.32 .8 Polar biphase: Manchester and differential Manchester schemes 4.

the transition at the middle of the bit is used for synchronization. 4.Note In Manchester and differential Manchester encoding.33 .

4. The is no DC component and no baseline wandering.34 . None of these codes has error detection.Note The minimum bandwidth of Manchester and differential Manchester is 2 times that of NRZ.

Bipolar . to represent the symbols (note not transitions to zero as in RZ). Bipolar Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) .AMI and Pseudoternary     Code uses 3 voltage levels: .35 . 4. 0.the “0” symbol is represented by zero voltage and the “1” symbol alternates between +V and -V. Pseudoternary is the reverse of AMI. -.+. Voltage level for one symbol is at “0” and the other alternates between + & -.

Figure 4.9 Bipolar schemes: AMI and pseudoternary 4.36 .

Has no self synchronization because long runs of “0”s results in no signal transitions. 4. Has no DC component or baseline wandering.37 .Bipolar C/Cs     It is a better alternative to NRZ. No error detection.

If we have L signal levels.38 . 4. Since we are dealing with binary data we only have 2 types of data element a 1 or a 0. we can use “n” signal elements to create Ln signal elements.Multilevel Schemes     In these schemes we increase the number of data bits per symbol thereby increasing the bit rate. We can combine the 2 data elements into a pattern of “m” elements to create “2m” symbols.

If 2m = Ln then we have an exact mapping of one symbol on one signal. we don‟t have enough signals.Code C/Cs     Now we have 2m symbols and Ln signals. 4.39 . If 2m < Ln then we have more signals than symbols and we can choose the signals that are more distinct to represent the symbols and therefore have better noise immunity and error detection as some signals are not valid. If 2m > Ln then we cannot represent the data elements.

a pattern of m data elements is encoded as a pattern of n signal elements in which 2m ≤ Ln.Note In mBnL schemes. 4.40 .

Representing Multilevel Codes   We use the notation mBnL. L = B binary. n represents the length of the signal pattern and L the number of levels. where m is the length of the binary pattern. B represents binary data.41 . 4. L = Q for 4 quaternary. L = T for 3 ternary.

10 Multilevel: 2B1Q scheme 4.42 .Figure 4.

4.43 . If we use a code with redundancy we can decide to use only “0” or “+” weighted codes (more +‟s than -‟s in the signal element) and invert any code that would create a DC component. „+00++-‟ -> „-00--+‟ Receiver will know when it receives a “-” weighted code that it should invert it as it doesn‟t represent any valid symbol.Redundancy    In the 2B1Q scheme we have no redundancy and we see that a DC component is present.g. E.

Figure 4.11 Multilevel: 8B6T scheme 4.44 .

mod. we split the signal transmission up and distribute it over several links. Codes are represented as: xD-YYYz 4.45 .Multilevel using multiple channels       In some cases. The separate segments are transmitted simultaneously. xD: means that we use „x‟ links YYYz: We use „z‟ levels of modulation where YYY represents the type of modulation (e. pulse ampl.g. This requires all bits for a code to be stored. This reduces the signalling rate per link -> lower bandwidth. PAM).

12 Multilevel: 4D-PAM5 scheme 4.46 .Figure 4.

Multitransition Coding    Because of synchronization requirements we force transitions. 4. Codes can be created that are differential at the bit level forcing transitions at bit boundaries.g. mid bit transition with inversion). due to repetitive patterns resulting in a periodic signal.47 . This results in a bandwidth requirement that is equivalent to the bit rate. This can result in very high bandwidth requirements -> more transitions than are bits (e. the bandwidth requirement may even be lower. In some instances.

Figure 4.48 .13 Multitransition: MLT-3 scheme 4.

MLT-3    Signal rate is same as NRZ-I But because of the resulting bit pattern.49 . we have a periodic signal for worst case bit pattern: 1111 This can be approximated as an analog signal a frequency 1/4 the bit rate! 4.

50 .1 Summary of line coding schemes 4.Table 4.

Synchronization also requires redundancy transitions are important in the signal flow and must occur frequently. The resulting bit stream prevents certain bit combinations that when used with line encoding would result in DC components or poor sync. i.. It is distinguished from multilevel coding by use of the slash . quality. Block coding is done in three steps: division.xB/yB. extra bits to the data bits.e.Block Coding      For a code to be capable of error detection. substitution and combination. 4.51 . we need to add redundancy.

Note Block coding is normally referred to as mB/nB coding.52 . it replaces each m-bit group with an n-bit group. 4.

Figure 4.53 .14 Block coding concept 4.

Figure 4.54 .15 Using block coding 4B/5B with NRZ-I line coding scheme 4.

55 .2 4B/5B mapping codes 4.Table 4.

56 .Figure 4.16 Substitution in 4B/5B block coding 4.

Redundancy     A 4 bit data word can have 24 combinations. Some of the extra words are used for control/signalling purposes. A 5 bit word can have 25=32 combinations. 4.26 = 16 extra words. We therefore have 32 .57 .

the second choice needs a higher bandwidth. The first choice needs a lower bandwidth.5 We need to send data at a 1-Mbps rate. What is the minimum required bandwidth.25 MHz.Example 4. The Manchester scheme needs a minimum bandwidth of 1.25 Mbps. The minimum bandwidth using NRZ-I is N/2 or 625 kHz. but does not have a DC component problem.58 . using a combination of 4B/5B and NRZ-I or Manchester coding? Solution First 4B/5B block coding increases the bit rate to 1. 4. but has a DC component problem.

17 8B/10B block encoding 4.59 .Figure 4.

4.better error detection  The 8B10B block code adds more redundant bits and can thereby choose code words that would prevent a long run of a voltage level that would cause DC components.60 .More bits .

4.Scrambling     The best code is one that does not increase the bandwidth for synchronization and has no DC components. It replaces „unfriendly‟ runs of bits with a violation code that is easy to recognize and removes the unfriendly c/c. no wide bandwidth.61 . the bit stream is created on the fly. no low frequencies.self clocking. It is implemented at the same time as encoding. Scrambling is a technique used to create a sequence of bits that has the required c/c‟s for transmission .

62 .Figure 4.18 AMI used with scrambling 4.

63 . it violates the line encoding rule B stands for bipolar.For example: B8ZS substitutes eight consecutive zeros with 000VB0VB. it implements the bipolar line encoding rule 4. The V stands for violation.

Figure 4.64 .19 Two cases of B8ZS scrambling technique 4.

HDB3 substitutes four consecutive zeros with 000V or B00V depending on the number of nonzero pulses after the last substitution.65 . If # of non zero pulses is odd the substitution is 000V to make total # of non zero pulses even. If # of non zero pulses is even the substitution is B00V to make total # of non zero pulse even. 4.

Figure 4.20 Different situations in HDB3 scrambling technique 4.66 .

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