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Innovative Solutions for Controlling Slagging and Fouling in Coal Fired BFBC and CFBC Boilers K.K.

Parthiban Venus energy audit system India

SYNOPSIS Coal is widely used fuel in a thermal power plant / process steam boilers. Coal has combustibles and non combustibles. Non combustible is moisture and mineral matter. The mineral matter after combustion is termed as ash. This ash can slag and / or foul over the heat transfer surfaces affecting the heat transfer to tubes and sometimes lead to corrosion as well. Slagging of ash means sticking of ash in the molten form over the furnace wall tubes and in some cases, on the superheaters located in the high temperature zone. Fouling occurs on low temperature zones, where some minerals which get vaporized at furnace condense at temperatures below 750 deg C. Since the mineral fractions of coal ash varies, not all the coals behave in the same manner in a boiler. Again depending on the combustion technology adopted, the ash behaves in a different manner from one boiler to another boiler. CASE STUDY 1 This plant has 3 x 95 TPH BFBC boilers with under bed feeding arrangement. The boilers are used for captive power requirement of the cement plant. The coal used was an E grade Indian coal with 40% ash. The loss on ignition of fly ash used to be 5.5% to 6%. In order to reduce the LOI to less than 2%, one of the boilers was converted from BFBC to CFBC in the year 2009. The conversion resulted in following problems. The problems 1. The steam temperature was reduced to 450 deg C as against rated temperature of 490 deg C. 2. Less steam generation as limited by ID fan draft. The steam flow was about 80 TPH as against the earlier design of 95 TPH. 3. The gas temperature at ID inlet touched 195 deg C as against 140 deg C at lesser load itself. First visit The first visit was made when the boiler was in operation. The second visit was made when the boiler was in shut down. DESIGN REVIEW A new external CFB combustor with three hot refractory cyclones was provided. See figure 1.1. The external combustor was with In-bed & free board coils. The dip legs of three hot cyclones were connected back to combustor. There was no SH coil addition. The flue gas from the cyclone outlet was connected to the old boiler bottom where earlier BFB combustor was there. Basically the CFB combustor was found to be a BFB combustor with ash recycling facility. A complete review of design was done. The following were the summary of findings. 1. The new furnace was with a bed area of 67.67 m2. With 20% excess air & with a bed temperature of 900 deg C, the fluidization velocity worked out to be 1.85 m/s. The new furnace

was provided with over bed feeding. 2. The bed coil length required to restrict the combustion temperature to 900 deg C was 908 m. The equivalent available length of bed coil was 940 m. 3. The bed coil was laid out at 550 mm above bed bottom and ended at 1515 mm. This meant that the bed height inside had to be at 750 mmWC. The DP drop was expected to be of the order of 1040 mmWC. That meant for full load the air box pressure should be at 1790 mmWC for MCR steam generation. The new FD fans were selected considering this high head pressure drop. 4. The over bed coils could pick up radiation heat transfer and compensate for the waterwall pickup which was available prior to conversion. 5. Assuming 10 % over fire air port velocity worked out to be 60 m/s. 6. The new bed coils were with independent downcomers & independent risers. The outlet of bed coils (both inbed & over bed) were not connected to old waterwall section. The heat pick up by the old boiler would be less and hence its circulation would not be as good as before. Poor circulation could give deposit induced corrosion occasionally. 7. The new combustor was provided 4.5 meter free board height above the bed coil top. Since the new combustor was provided with over bed feed system, the finer particles would first travel to cyclone and return via dip leg. Yet the cyclones do have a cut off particle size, which may be 135 microns as indicated by ash particle analysis. That meant the carbon particles of size less than 135 microns could leave the furnace and reach the SH without much time for combustion. In traditional CBFC boiler, the intense mixing available in the lower and upper furnace helps in better carbon burn up. The turbulence was absent in this furnace. 8. The furnace volume above the lower bed coil was found to be 360 m3 including the gas pipes to cyclones. The residence time was calculated to be to be 3 seconds. 9. No compartments were envisaged and hence the turndown had to be done using the entire bed. The startup would consume huge amount of oil when the entire bed has to be heated for coal feeding. The new hot air generator was feeding hot gas to the entire bed. In the earlier BFB combustor, the hot gas generator was connected to start up compartment which was only onefourth of the total bed. 10. The refractory lining adopted for the combustor was 300 mm only. The skin temperature ranged from 85 to 125 deg C when measured by an IR Camera. 11. The superheater now did not receive the direct radiation component from bed. Direct radiation would add a steam temperature raise of 25 deg C. Hence the superheater surface should have been increased. It was checked that the other boilers were capable of achieving steam

The ESP outlet draft is measured to be -185 mmWC.5% to 3. The O2 level in APH inlet was maintained at 4.0%. OPERATIONAL INSPECTION 1.4. The air velocity in compartment opening is 17. Further air pumping was not possible and hence the boiler got stuck at about 75 TPH load. The boiler load was about 75 TPH at the time of visit. conclusion could not be drawn as to whether the tubes were coated with soot or fly ash. There was good response in steam generation to coal feed in last compartment. They were.The air duct tapping from the HAG (hot air generator) to windbox was from a manifold in which the air velocity was calculated to be 19 m/s. 12. The SA air was full open. The exit gas temperature touched 198 deg C. The limitation was by ID fan at this high gas temperature. The LOI of fly ash was around 2. 5. In ideal condition. The ID fans were found to run at full damper open position. 4. The ID fan design head was 180 mmWC at 140 deg C.3 m/s for an air temperature of 190 deg C. 7. See photo 1. Four interim suggestions were given.3 & 1. Prior to conversion.10. See figure . This could cause high draft loss. . The FD fan dampers were open to 50% & 30%.5%. the boiler draft loss was only 95 mmWC. the volatile / powder combustion should have been completed in the furnace itself. The ID fans were connected in series to make up for draft loss across the cyclone & connecting gas ducts to old boiler. The last compartment was getting more air. Hence a shut down inspection was requested. The interconnection gas duct between two ID fans was found to be with abrupt bends instead of with smooth curved inlet & outlet. It was seen that the cross over duct gas temperature was more than the bed temperature & cyclone outlet temperature. From the study.temperature with 20% excess air and with a bed temperature of even 850 deg C even at a load of 70 TPH. In addition the gas duct had two successive 90 deg duct bends very close by. It proved that there had been fouling of ash. The ID fans were designed for 140 deg C gas temperature. CO ppm at APH inlet & economiser outlet was about 2400 ppm. See fig 1. Combustion was extending beyond the combustor. The first air box should be getting a disturbed air supply because its tapping was at the bend itself. 2. SH & Economiser thermal performance of CFBC boiler was compared AFBC boiler. The ID fan head would be less due to high gas temperature. The air distribution arrangement was checked. The bed temperature was running higher in first compartment though one feeder was down. This implied the combustion was not complete in the furnace. 3. The finer particle or volatile matter should not burn in the cross over duct. Now the both ID fans are found to do a duty of 110 mmWC each. 6. This resulted in high LOI.

these were recommended. The fly ash is formed by fragmentation of ash particles and also due to condensation of vaporized alkalis in coal.  We suggested that the bed ash cooler outlet ash could be injected in to the flue path of the old boiler at the ash hopper below the old furnace. In fact. there were no soot blowers in BFBC boilers. See figure 1. See photo 1. APH showed ash mounts over the tube sheet. in the case of high ash coals (here 40% ash). THE SHUT DOWN INSPECTION The boiler heating surfaces were inspected before any cleaning was done. Incorporating steam operated soot blowers needed lot of change in boiler pressure parts. Extra air ducts between the main duct to the air plenum to reduce the flow unbalance between windbox chambers. In BFBC all the ash constituents leave the bed simultaneously without any enrichment of alkalis. It was important to note that the same coal was being fired for several years before conversion and in the other two boilers and there was no such fouling problems reported in the BFBC boilers.1 to 1. Reasoning of Fly ash depositions over the convection pass tubes The coal was the same in all the three boilers. SA pipe size of 100 mm with tips of 50 mm dia was recommended.4.     Use of fireside additive Use of sonic horns Steam operated soot blower Use of air blaster Sonic horns / air blasters could be fitted in the inspection doors in I pass and II pass.    ID duct layout modification was suggested to minimize draft loss. We recommended another solution which was little innovative. It became clear that the fly ash had fouling constituents. Refractory lining over the waterwall portion below the final SH in old furnace. The fineness of fly ash coupled with condensation of volatilized alkalis is the cause for the increased fouling as compared to BFBC. The idea was simply to simulate the condition as . In CFBC the particles are recycled in to the furnace and the major ash removal is from the furnace. SOLUTIONS TO REMOVE THE DEPOSITS The following four solutions are well known among the boiler designers and users. Ash was scraped and no soot was seen anywhere in SH coils and economiser coils. in order to make more SA available. In BFBC the relatively coarse ash particles leaving with flue gas clean up the convective heating surfaces and there is no enrichment of fly ash by volatile species.2. Since the ash was little softer.

6. The baffles were removed as the eroded baffles create unnecessary pressure drop otherwise.4 m/s. The APH was never re-tubed in the past. This could lead to leakage of SH tubes over a period. This was attended in the shut down. Air leak test was done by closing the furnace side dampers and pressurizing the APH with only FD fan.before. APH leaks& blockage There were tube failures in APH – upper block. The high back end temperature and low main steam temperature problems remained.7. gas side baffles in APH to ESP inlet duct  The gas side baffles were eroded badly. Leakage around the SH tubes of Sealbox of SH header  There was air ingress through the annular gap around the SH tubes that penetrate through the waterwall. since the tubes must have worn out already. Gas side velocity check at cyclone    The gas inlet arrangement to cyclone was with an opening of 2056 x 700. This was arrested in the shut down. FEED BACK AFTER MODIFICATIONS & THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WILD SOLUTION There was improvement in ID draft and steam generation after the duct modification & after arresting air ingress. FURTHER FINDINGS ON SHUT DOWN INSPECTION. 5.  The ash accumulated inside the APH increase the pressure drop. See photo 1. ID fan duct system   The ID duct system was modified as per the recommendations given in first visit.5. The gas outlet velocity was worked out to be 20.6. It was advised to replace the APH cold block tubes in full at the earliest. This could result in very finer fly ash. This was nothing but injecting the bed ash from bed ash coolers directly in to the flue path of old boiler.8. See photo 1.9 m/s. Subsequent to modification to CFBC. The gas velocity worked out to be 27. See photograph 1. The cyclone configuration is a standard Stairmand cyclone. The leakages could be seen by the shining wall plates. 4. The call came in a morning from the plant manager that all their problems were solved in a . This should have led to further tube failures. Roof air ingress  The seal box inside the boiler roof had developed leaks. The plant engineers wanted our concurrence to implement the innovative suggestion. It did not have a volute inlet. See photo 1. 3. the air side pressure had nearly doubled. 2.RELATED TO ID DRAFT 1. It revealed the extent of leakage.

It could be identified that some blockage was occurring downstream of economiser. coal is selected. It coincided with the lean period for cement production and power export. decreasing main steam temperature and . The boiler started tripping 5 to 7 times in a day due the high furnace pressure. One was the fouling and the other was sudden boiler pressurization in gas side. The AFBC boilers were not provided with any Soot blower system. When the petcoke price & availability scenario change.2. two problems were experienced. CASE STUDY 2 This is a cement manufacturing unit having captive power plants. The fouling of pressure parts was sensed and the soot blowers were put to operation at least two times in a shift. Some coals do have high alkalis and hence pose problems by way of decreasing steam generation. 1. In a nut shell. The boiler exit temperature went up by 15 deg C at AFBC boiler. The plant had been in operation with petcoke. 3. It was clear that there was ash fouling in superheater area. Fouling in general Fouling of the boiler heat transfer surfaces in convective sections are due to chemistry of ash.matter of 2 hrs after the bed ash cooler ash was injected in to the ash hopper below final superheater. another strange phenomenon started occurring.see figure 2. It was also seen that the economiser inlet gas temperature was alarmingly high. DURING THE VISIT Furnace pressurization The furnace pressurization was analyzed through the DCS trend profile. The CFBC boiler no 3 was alone in operation due to lesser power demand. See figure 2. In CFBC boiler. At times the tripping occurred during steam blowing cycle as well.1. The Na2O and K2O (alkalis) present in fuel ash vaporize at furnace and condense at flue path at temperatures ranging from 750 to 650 deg C. In this boiler also. The following problems were reported from plant.3. Recently the plant had to change over to firing South African coal in AFBC and CFBC boilers. The combustor pressure ( lower ) at times gone up from + 80 mmWC to + 125 mmWC in few seconds and returned normal after some time without any reason. 2. the ESP inlet gas temperature went up by 20 deg C. See figure 2. The plant has 4 x 85 TPH AFBC boiler and 3 x 85 TPH CFBC boilers. The boiler is in operation till date with the above solution. One AFBC boiler & one CFBC boiler were in operation.

increasing the boiler exit gas temperature. CFBC handled additional Na2O due to AFBC ash being fired additionally. Table 1: Fly ash particle distribution at silo ash +850 µm +500 µm +180 µm + 90 µm +75 µm +45 µm . By analysing the ash nature by empirical relations. ash deposit collected from Final superheater. Sodium + Potassium less than 1% would pose less fouling. then the ash characteristics remained as that of Coal ash itself. A material balance was worked out on sodium loading in flue gas for the case of Petcoke firing and South African coal firing.34 % 1. Since SA coal was being used without any other inert material.34 . The same coal used in BFBC did lead to higher exhaust temperature. CFBC cyclone design will decide the particle size.68 % 3.54 % 12. Interestingly the sodium content was more in the deposits confirming the deposits were caused by sodium. See analysis attached. A good input is covered in the book. When petcoke was used. More the ash was refired in CFBC. Ashes have been characterized and fouling potential is predicted by empirical relations.B&W Steam generation & use. In BFBC there were no soot blowers. This causes to form deposits by particle adhesion. in which the South African Coal ash. The soot blowing cycles had to be more for refiring AFBC ash.52 % 79. Hence the fouling rate was high. it was always mixed with limestone and predominantly the ash was created from limestone. Severity of fouling / rate of fouling The rate at which fouling occurred was dependent on how much Na2O+K2O passed through the furnace and second pass. Particle size & cyclone cut off. which is very fine cut off. faster would be the fouling rate. it was confirmed that the south african ash coal ash was fouling nature.difference between BFBC & CFBC CFBC produces ash of very fine particles.45 µm % Nil % 0. The difference between the CFBC and the BFBC is the difference in fineness of ash. See table 1 & 2.   Yet fouling cannot be avoided as the coal ash can foul due to higher sodium content.58 % 2. Limestone and Petcoke ash were compared. coal ash analysis was carried out. Almost 90% of the particles were less than 75 microns. An earlier data on CFBC particle analysis report indicated that the CFBC was filtering a very high percentage of finer particles. It was estimated that the Alkali content in fly ash during South African coal firing could be 5 times than that of Petcoke firing case. Coal ash analysis of South African coal To confirm that the ash is fouling. Average particles could be around 50 microns.

9 Sudden pressurization & boiler tripping It was suggested to start the second boiler in order to find where exactly the choking was occurring.3 Nil Nil 2.2 10. This would avoid the .2 3.2 43.8 1. After the boiler was cooled.8 4.1 6. See photographs 2.4 39.2 2.5 mm.6 4.  ECO / APH hopper modifications It was advised to modify the gas side interconnecting duct between the APH hoppers as it was a 3 meter long horizontal duct.5 Nil Nil 2.1 36.2 4.7 30. the boiler was inspected physically. the gas flow was through the tubes of dia 63.6 2. Horizontal ducts always trap ash.  Addition of air blasters for APH cleaning It was advised to fit air blasters below & in between APH blocks. 3 and the tubes were pitched at 80 mm.4 Nil 1.6 Nil 3.2 38.2 66. In BFBC the particles leaving the furnace are coarser as compared to CFBC. Actions to counter sudden pressurization & boiler tripping We had given three suggestions for countering the superheater fouling and blocking of airpreheater block.5 42.5 35.Table 2: Fly ash particle distribution in CFBC boilers Boiler no ESP field no CFBC boiler no 1 ESP field 1 +500 µm +180 µm +90 µm +75 µm +45 µm -45 µm Nil 2.2 61. The ash deposits over superheater. The fouled ash from SH & Eco could suddenly fall on the APH block and might act as block for the flue path.8 2.5 54.6 70. The fineness of coal ash could cause plugging. This was the main reason for furnace tripping.2 Nil 2.4 Nil 2.8 22.6 18. In CFBC boiler.5 4.4 7.4.1 Nil Nil 2.1 51. Since the ash was of severely fouling characteristics this would help.3 9. In BFBC air preheater.4 ESP ESP CFBC boiler 2 ESP ESP ESP CFBC boiler 3 ESP ESP ESP field 2 field 3 field 1 field 2 field 3 field 1 field 2 field 3 Nil Nil 2.6 2. economiser and airpreheater blocks were to an alarming level.9 88.1 57.2 3. APH was designed for the flue gas flow over the tubes.1 52. The tube to tube clearance was 20 mm only. There was no soot blower system provided for APH.1 to 2. The APH tube OD was 60. Bottom plates of the ducts were to be provided with inclined plates directing the ash flow towards the hopper.

The boiler could not run for more than a week with the available lignite. The boiler was designed for lignite available from nearby mines.1. The unit was inspected nearly after a year to check whether there was any erosion or not. The dense phase line going to bed ash silo was to be provided with a ‘Y’ diverter. . The photographs 3. the combustion temperature is only 900 deg C maximum.1 to 3. Few days of operation in petcoke or any non fouling fuel could clean up the boiler. It was advised to add sand / low grade limestone for generation of more bed ash. When the bed ash was injected in second pass.  Feed back after the incorporation of recommendations The tripping continued even after addition of large size air blasters on both sides of APH blocks. called Barmer lignite. there was no problem with respect to erosion. The ash released from the soot blowing operation / sudden self dislodging would not block the gas path. This was advised based on experience in case study 1.  Injection of bed ash in to second pass In CFBC boiler all the Na2O+K2O would leave the furnace by volatilization. whereas in FBC. the fuel & ash were analyzed immediately. One would say there is no problem with the coal as the ash fusion temperature is well above 1200 deg C. The boiler did not show any sign of erosion.temporary plugging of interconnection duct. The boiler was commissioned about 3 months back. This was the simplest solution for cleaning the boiler.  Refiring of ash It was advised to stop re-firing at CFBC. Remaining ash at furnace / or the bed ash would be containing less Na2O + K2O. The bed ash should be injected through the manhole available above the superheater. See table 3. The boiler had been clinkering heavily.4 exhibit the extent of clinkering & slagging. Since the average particle size in bed ash was about 600 microns. SOLVING THE PROBLEM Barmer lignite fuel & ash analysis As it could be seen that the bed ash was clinkering. But there was no alternate fuel available at plant. CASE STUDY 3 This captive power plant had a 38 TPH BFBC boiler. the problem vanished.

FINAL WORD Boilers with BFBC are quite large in population in India. the bed material becomes replaced with ash from lignite. The iron content in the startup bed material was less than 1%. Sooner the bed becomes heavier. The plant went on to consume all the Barmer lignite that was purchased for next six months. This must have been due to self cleaning effect by the coarse ash.Ratio of magnetic content versus non magnetic content The percent of iron oxides present in bed was found to exceed more that 50%. which was available at an affordable price. a case with high iron Indonesian coal in BFBC.2. The ash content in barmer lignite being 23%. crushed refractory and fine sand. As days go by. and do not leave the bed as well. For start up of the bed. The increase in amount iron oxide increases the slagging potential. As the bed height increases.6. The bulk density goes up as high as 1300 kg/m3. There had not been a case of heavy fouling of flue path. See table 3. Indonesian coals of some mines had posed problem in bed ash chemistry control in few other boilers. . DILUTION WITH BED MATERIAL / SAND While we looked in to the possibility of dilution of iron with alternate bed material. The particles which contain iron being high in density do not break down much.5. we had the choice of limestone. Now the plant found that petcoke is the better fuel as its ash with high unburnt (4000 kcal/kg) is usable as a supplement fuel in the cement kiln. Such boilers had to use more of fresh bed material to prevent the bed from clinkering. See photo 3. the bed ash inventory keeps increasing. The only alternate material was sand. the bed material chosen was crushed refractory grog. Crushed refractory pricing was higher than the fuel cost. Slagging of bed was also not experienced and the case referred here was a typical one. The limestone available at the industry was very pure and was being used to make white cement. See photo 3. There was a mechanism of iron concentration in the bed. the ash is drained out maintaining a windbox pressure of 550 mmWC. An estimate on quantity of fresh bed material for dilution purpose was worked out.

  Figure 1. The coal was good with respect to slagging characteristics.1: General arrangement of the new CFBC combustor and hook-up to existing combustor. Photo 1.1: On shut down inspection the bed coils were found to be clear of ash deposits. .

.2: The ash deposition in FSH area. Photo 1.3: Ash Deposits over the Primary SH tubes. The ash was found to bridge between the SH coils.Photo1.

Photo 1. The polishing mark on the casing confirmed the APH tubes had failed.5: The difference on color of APH tubes confirmed the extent of air leaks / blocks. Photo 1. .4: Ash fouling at economiser area.

6: Air ingress through seal box. Photo 1. .7: APH choking and ash build up.Photo 1.

9: Inside view of the cyclone confirms that the ash was not slagging type but only fouling type. Iron containing ash would slag in the furnace itself. Photo 1. This can cause higher pressure drop. .8: Eroded gas baffles at APH inlet.Photo 1. It was removed during the shutdown.

which would practically have higher leakage level. Improper ducting engineered during the conversion. Abrupt 90 deg bend was seen.11: The 2 x 100% ID fans were put in series to handle the additional draft loss.10: Air manifold modification done. . Photo 1. 2 no 90 deg bends were seen very closely placed. Multilouver damper was used for isolation purpose.Photo 1.

.2: The modification included straightening the duct as shown with smooth bends.Figure 1.

the thermal performance of secondary SH was checked. It was clear that there was abnormal fouling in secondary SH.Figure 1. Since the boiler no 2 was running around the same load. which is about 6. The performance was as per general design practice. thermal performance analysis was done.013.002 to 0.3: During the first visit. it was clear that the boiler had fouled by soot / ash. Based on the above.4: In order to ascertain whether there was fouling of economiser. The fouling factor had to be increased from 0. its thermal performance was analysed.5 times the normal value. . Figure 1.

1: General arrangement of the CFBC boiler with FSH. The fouling was extensive at FSH and LTSH. Steam operated soot blowers were available at second pass for Superheater and economiser and not for APH blocks. . The ash which got dislodged during soot blowing plugged APH block. Economiser and APH hot blocks in the second pass.  Figure 2. LTSH. This led to tripping of the boiler.

At times the combustor pressures went highly positive and the boiler got tripped. Eco inlet flue gas temperature Figure 2. Gas temperature at economiser inlet showed that three was fouling of superheater coils above. In fact the secondary SH was in the furnace and only FSH and LTSH were in the second pass.2: A screen shot on gas side draft profile at the time of draft upset. .Combustor pressures Gas pr at eco outlet Gas pr at eco inlet Gas pr after APH Figure 2.3: The trend on various flue gas temperatures.

2: Fouling of LTSH superheater and second pass. Photo 2. .1: Fouling of final superheater at second pass.Photo 2.

4: Fouling of airpreheater at second pass.Photo 2.3: Fouling of economiser at second pass. . Photo 2.

Photo 2. . air blasters were installed.5: Since the APH block did not have a soot blowing arrangement.6: Installation of bed ash injection at superheater. It could not stop the tripping of the boiler.Photo 2. This resolved the problem of gas temperature profile and plugging of air preheater.

fouling potential is medium.03 Low 72. CASE STUDY 2 Fouling Index calculation . B = CaO+MgO+Fe2O3+Na2O+K2O A=SiO2+Al2O3+TiO2 Na2O = weight % from ash analysis For Rf < 0.08 48. fouling potential is severe.2< Rf < 0.91 2. Rf is calculated from an expression B/A * Na2O. Otherwise it is called lignitic Fouling index for bituminous ash.89 100 4. where. For 1.04 Fe2O3 Iron oxide 2.25 36. For 1.72 Magnesium oxide MgO 0.43 Total 100 100 Type of ash. Acid SiO2+Al2O3+TiO2 B/A ratio B/A ratio x Na2O Fouling potential is Fouling index for lignitic ash CaO+MgO+Fe2O3 6.79 0.23 67. For 0.0 < Rf. fouling potential is high.05 8.25 TiO2 Titanium oxide 1. For Na2O > 6.33 Fouling potential is Severe Severe Lime 15.43 Na2O 3.24 low .57 Calcium oxide CaO 3.62 0.46 42.Ash classification & fouling index – as per B&W steam generation & use When Fe2O3 > CaO + MgO. fouling potential is high.2.5 2. When CaO+MgO+Fe2O3 > 20% by wt. For 3.72 0.13 100 0.8 1.14 Bitumin 63.86 1.3 1. Fouling index.56 17. fouling potential is severe.6 1.0 < Na2O < 6.58 0. the ash is termed as bituminous.69 0.5. fouling potential is high. fouling potential is low to medium. fouling potential is low to For Na2O < 1.33 K2O Pottasium oxide 0.05 Lignitic Petcoke 33. Base CaO+MgO+Fe2O3+Na2O+K2O A.9 1.23 3.based on B&W steam generation & use Coal ash chemical constituents SA coal Fouled SiO2 Silica 54.0.13 28.73 Lignitic / Bituminous Lignitic Lignitic Fouling Index for bituminous ash B.46 4.14 Na2O Sodium oxide 3.2 < Na2O < 3.5< Rf < 1. medium. fouling potential is severe.53 3.24 0.36 0.62 9.52 Al2O3 Alumina 34. fouling potential is low. For 0.75 1.87 1. Fouling index for lignitic ash When CaO+MgO+Fe2O3 < 20% by wt.2. For Na2O > 3.Lignitic / Bituminous Fe2O3 / CaO+MgO 0.56 17. For Na2O < 3.86 8.

630 1.580 0.580 0.000 0.000 0.230 Total alkali input to boiler TPD 0.165 TPD % TPD TPD TPD % 93.302 38.060 3.666 2.01 TPD 0.043 Fly ash alkali in AFBC boilers Petcoke fired TPD Ash percent in petcoke % Ash from petcoke TPD Alkali percent in ash % Total alkali input to boiler TPD 1.658 0.CASE STUDY 2 Alkali loading in CFBC boiler during petcoke firing & South African coal firing Alkali loading in CFBC boiler during petcoke firing Petcoke firing in CFBC Petcoke fired TPD Ash percent in petcoke % Ash from petcoke TPD Alkali percent in ash % Total alkali input to boilerTPD Limestone addition Ratio of LS to petcoke no Limestone added TPD Alkali percent in LS % Total alkali input to boilerTPD 166.010 2.163428 TPD TPD % 0.570 4.000 28.000 1.8 TPD % TPD % TPD 204.096 Ash fed from AFBC Alkali load from AFBC Combined effect Total alkali input to CFBC Total fly ash produced % Alkali in fly ash South African coal firing in CFBC SA coal fired Ash percent in SA coal Ash from coal Alkali percent in ash Total alkali input to boiler Fly ash from AFBC boilers Ash added Alkali percent Alkali input from AFBC Total alkali input Total ash produced Alkali percent in fly ash Limestone addition in AFBC boiler Ratio of LS to petcoke no 0.230 0.060 1.0 122.38 0.799 5.000 1.320 TPD 51.001 Alklai percent after firing % 0.683 4.3 4.1 .880 14.250 Alkali percent in LS % 0.250 Limestone added TPD 0.250 41.

. Photo 3.1: Fused ash coating over the bed Superheater coils.  Photo 3.2: Fused clinkers of the entire bed.

Photo 3.Photo 3.3: Fused ash capping the air nozzles.4: The fused layers of fly ash over the radiant SH placed above the furnace. . The blockage would the air flow and bed temperature would shoot up.

Table 3.1: Barmer fuel & ash chemical analysis & prediction of slagging.5: Ratio of magnetic to non-magnetic material in bed ash. fouling nature. It was over 50%. .Photo 3.

Photo 3.6: Slagging nature of high iron Indonesian coal in another BFBC boiler.2: Calculation for dilution of iron in bed ash by fresh iron-free bed material.Table 3. .