Homogeneous Linear Equations with Constant Coefficients

Second-Order Homogeneous DE: ay + by + cy = 0 Characteristic Equation: am2 + bm + c = 0 Case 1: Distinct Roots (m1 = m2 ) y = c1 em1 x + c2 em2 x

Case 2: Repeated Roots (m1 = m2 ) y = c1 em1 x + c2 xem1 x

Case 3: Conjugate Complex Roots (m1 = α + iβ and m2 = α − iβ ) y = c1 eαx cos βx + c2 eαx sin βx (β=0)

n-order Homogeneous DE: an y n + an−1 y n−1 + · · · + a2 y + a1 y + a0 y = 0 Characteristic Equation: an mn + an−1 mn−1 + · · · + a2 m2 + a1 m + a0 = 0

Case 1: Roots are real and distinct: y = c1 em1 x + c2 em2 x + · · · + cn emn x

Case 2: m1 is a root of multiplicity k: y = c1 em1 x + c2 xem1 x + c3 x2 em1 x + · · · + ck xk−1 em1 x

Case 3: Complex Roots of Multiplicity k:

Linear Combination of 2k Linearly Independent Solutions

eαk cosβx, xeαk cosβx, x2 eαk cosβx, . . . , xk−1 eαk cosβx eαk sinβx, xeαk sinβx, x2 eαk sinβx, . . . , xk−1 eαk sinβx

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