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Reduction of CO2 Eemissions

Reduction of CO2 Eemissions

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MSc Energy Assignment Cover Sheet

Surname Forename(s) Registration No. Institute or Dubai Campus Module code Module leader Coursework / module title

ABDEBAGI OSAMA AHMED 071271639 DUBAI CAMPUS B49DJ Dr W-G FRUH

NEED FOR REDUCTION OF CO2 EMISSIONS BY DEVELOPING NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Coursework due date

END OF JANUARY 2008

All students are advised to keep a duplicate copy of all work submitted for reference. 1 DECLARATION I certify that this assignment is my original work expressed in my own words. Any reference made to the work of other authors in any form (eg ideas, figures, text, tables) are acknowledged at their point of use.

Signature of student: O. A. ABDELBAGI

Date of submission: FEB 6th 2008

Reduction of CO2 Emissions

Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………. 3

1.

The Carbon Dioxide Problem………………………………………………………4 Imbalance Due to Human Activities The Consequences of Climate Change

2.

Solutions being implemented to reduce the greenhouse effect……………6 Energy Management Switching to Renewable Energies Use of Lower-Carbon Fossil Fuels

3. 4.

Why Do we Need New Technologies?...........................................................6 What is New?...................................................................................................8 Something special has happened in U.A.E.-Abu Dhabi. Sustainable Solution from the Sun: Photovoltaic Cells Cell Production Solar Panels and Systems The opportunities opened up by CCS Capture Techniques CO2 Transport Storage Techniques

5. 6.

Summary……………………………………………………………………………..13 Referevces…………………………………………………………...………………15

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Module: FOUNDATIONS OF ENERGY Assignment # 1 Date: January 2008

Need for reduction of CO2 emissions by developing new technologies
By Osama Abdelbagi

Introduction
When we think of daily activities that cause pollution we tend to think of driving to work, cooling the house or washing the clothes. But the biggest impact of individuals is through the products that they buy. Ultimately, it is consumers (including companies and government) buying products, that triggers the chain of events that leads to most pollution. If you buy a television set, you share responsibility for the energy used by the shop and for the transport of the TV set from its country of assembly. But it does not stop there. Components are typically produced in numerous other countries. Each component is produced in a factory, which requires electricity, chemicals, plastic or metals. If one traces the production system back to its origin it will end in areas such as a coal mine in China, an iron-ore mine in Australia, a bauxite mine in Brazil, and an oil well in Canada. The pollution from these mining activities in distant lands to the purchase of a TV set in a Norwegian shopping centre generates considerable pollution. This pollution lies behind most of our personal footprints. During the Rio Earth Summit[1] in 1992 many nations of the world came to the agreement to stabilize the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses to “prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” as they signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Bonn: UNFCCC). To this convention, the Kyoto Protocol (KP) was added in 1997, which states that the Annex 1 countries to the protocol should reduce their overall emissions of greenhouse gasses (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFC´s, PFC´s and SF6) by 5.2 % below 1990 level during the first commitment period 2008-2012. The KP has now entered into force as Russia signed the protocol in the fall of 2004. Carbon dioxide (has been pointed out as the most significant of these greenhouse gasses since it contributes to the largest radiative forcing. Three quarters of the CO2 comes from the burning of fossil fuels.The UNFCCC agreed to a set of a “common but differentiated responsibilities.” The parties agreed that:

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1. The largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries; 2. Per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low; 3. The share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet their social and development needs.

[1] The Rio Earth Summit: http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/BP/bp317-e.htm

In other words, China, India, and other developing countries were not included in any numerical limitation of the Kyoto Protocol because they were not the main contributors to the greenhouse gas emissions during the pre-treaty industrialization period. However, even without the commitment to reduce according to the Kyoto target, developing countries do share the common responsibility that all countries have in reducing emissions. The Protocol also reaffirms the principle that developed countries have to pay billions of dollars, and supply technology to other countries for climate-related studies and projects. We all wish to contribute to the establishment of a sustainable future based on energy from renewable resources. Solar, wind, hydro, ocean waves and tides, geothermal and biomass will become precious sources of energy. Consequently, energy must be distributed to the consumer with highest efficiency and used intelligently to provide high levels of comfort and services. Rational use of energy and energy conservation are the cornerstones of the Renewable Energy Economy.

1. The Carbon Dioxide Problem
The visible solar radiation mostly heats the surface, not the atmosphere, whereas most of the infrared radiation escaping to space is emitted from the upper atmosphere, not the surface. The infrared photons emitted by the surface are mostly absorbed in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases and clouds and do not escape directly to space. In the Earth’s atmosphere, the dominant infrared absorbing gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone (O3). The same molecules are also the dominant infrared emitting molecules. CO2 and O3 have “floppy” vibration motions whose quantum states can be excited by collisions at energies encountered in the atmosphere. For example, carbon dioxide is a linear molecule, but it has an important vibrational mode in which the 4

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molecule bends with the carbon in the middle moving one way and the oxygens on the ends moving the other way, creating some charge separation, a dipole moment, thus carbon dioxide molecules can absorb IR radiation. Collisions will immediately transfer this energy to heating the surrounding gas. On the other hand, other CO2 molecules will be vibrationally excited by collisions. Roughly 5% of CO2 molecules are vibrationally excited at room temperature and it is this 5% that radiates. A substantial part of the greenhouse effect due to carbon dioxide exists because this vibration is easily excited by infrared radiation. CO2 has two other vibrational modes. The symmetric stretch does not radiate, and the asymmetric stretch is at too high a frequency to be effectively excited by atmospheric temperature collisions, although it does contribute to absorption of IR radiation.

a. INBALANCE DUE TO HUMAN ACTIVITIES[1]
The circulation of carbon, either in gaseous form, dissolved in water or as a solid, is a key to the understanding of the earth's climate and the changes it may undergo. Carbon dioxide, made up of one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen, is absorbed by plants, bacteria and plankton. Plankton absorbs the carbon and releases the oxygen. And when organic matter[2] breathes or decomposes, the opposite process occurs. When biomass remains unchanged, this exchange cycle maintains a balance between the amount of CO2 absorbed and the amount released. CO2 exchange occurs in the oceans too, with the gas dissolving in water and being released into the atmosphere, depending on water temperature. If that temperature does not change, a balance between the two is maintained. But since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, human activities have begun to disrupt this cycle. This is mainly due to the increasing use of fossil fuels - coal, oil and natural gas - that are burned to provide heat, light, energy for transport and industrial processes. Fossil fuel combustion generates CO2 emissions. This increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has been so rapid that it appears our planet is capable of absorbing only half of the emissions now generated by human activities. The oceans and forests act as "carbon sinks", absorbing surplus CO2 from the atmosphere, but they are now unable to keep up with the pace of human-related emissions.

b. THE CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE [1]
The lifespan of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere varies considerably from one gas to another. Methane, for example, has a 'life expectancy' of only about 12 years, but carbon dioxide can remain for about 100. So it contributes to the greenhouse effect for a long time too. As a result of the increased greenhouse effect, the earth's temperature could rise by between 2°C and 5°C by the end of this century, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)[3]. This wide range in estimates can be explained on the one hand by uncertainty about emissions scenarios during the 21st century (which depend on future political decisions and technology breakthroughs) and on other hand by the difficulty of climate-change modelling (which must factor in complex phenomena). 5

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[1] TOTAL, January 2008, Project Information Dossier, Lacq CO2 Capture and Geological Storage, Pilot Project. [2] Organic matter: matter from organisms containing carbon, whether plant or animal, living or dead. [3]The IPCC is a body set up in 1988 by the United Nations. Its mission is to assess all available scientific, technical and socio-economic information relating to climate change and to provide information to decision-makers and the general public. The IPCC takes into account all points of view and uncertainties while trying to highlight elements that have consensus support among the scientific community. The IPCC was a joint winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for 2007.

2. Solutions being implemented to reduce the greenhouse effect [1]
The Kyoto Protocol sets GHG emissions reduction targets for signatory countries. They have several solutions to help them meet their international commitments. a. Energy Management The first solution for reducing GHG emissions is to reduce energy consumption, often referred to as energy management. The challenge here is to induce end users to change their behaviour and switch to equipment that uses less energy, and to persuade industrial companies to manufacture products that emit less CO2. b. SWITCHING TO RENEWABLE ENERGIES Renewable energy sources (solar power, hydro electricity, wind power, etc.) will be called on to make a greater contribution to the energy matrix because using them to generate electricity produces only very low CO2 emissions. c. USE OF LOWER-CARBON FOSSIL FUELS Another solution is to switch to more suitable fossil fuels. For example, using natural gas as a combustible instead of coal can reduce CO2 emissions by more than 40%. Starting in the 1970s, use of natural gas has increased faster than any other fossil fuel. Nevertheless, demand for coal is still growing strongly, particularly in the United States and China. About 70% of China's power stations are coal-fired plants.

3. Why Do we Need New Technologies: [2]
The good news first. Renewable energy, combined with the smart use of energy, can deliver half of the world’s energy needs by 2050. This new report, ‘Energy [R]evolution: A sustainable World Energy Outlook’, shows that it is economically feasible to cut global CO2 emissions by almost 50% within the next 43 years. It also concludes that a massive 6

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uptake of renewable energy sources is technically possible. All that is missing is the right policy support. The bad news is that time is running out. An overwhelming consensus of scientific opinion now agrees that climate change is happening, is caused in large part by human activities (such as burning fossil fuels), and if left un-checked, will have disastrous consequences. Furthermore, there is solid scientific evidence that we should act now. This is reflected in the conclusions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a UN institution of more than 1,000 scientists providing advice to policy makers. Its next report, due for release in 2007, is unlikely to make any better reading. In the Reference Scenario of the International Energy Outlook 2007[3], oil production (including natural gas liquids) is projected to rise from 29 mb/d in 2004 to 33 mb/d in 2010 and to 50 mb/d by 2030. In some countries, this may require opening up the upstream sector to foreign investment. The contribution of giant oilfields to total production will drop sharply, from 75% today to 40% in 2030, as mature giant fields decline and new developments focus more on smaller fields. Production in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, especially in the Middle East, increases more rapidly than elsewhere because their resources are
[1] TOTAL, January 2008, Project Information Dossier, Lacq CO2 Capture and Geological Storage, Pilot Project. [2] European Renewable Energy Council (EREC), January 2007, Energy Revolution, A sustainable World Energy Outlook, Greenpeace International. [3] International Energy Outlook 2007, Highlights.

greater and their production costs lower. Growth in aggregate production outside MENA is expected to slow over the Outlook period. Saudi Arabia, which has the largest proven reserves of oil in the world, will remain by far the largest supplier. Its output will rise from 10.4 mb/d in 2004 to 11.9 mb/d in 2010 and just over 18 mb/d in 2030. Iraq is expected to see the fastest rate of production growth, and the biggest increase in volume terms after Saudi Arabia. In some countries, including Iraq, increased production will hinge on largescale foreign investment. On this basis, MENA’s share of world oil production would jump from 35% in 2004 to 44% in 2030. Almost all the increase comes from the Middle East. Saudi Arabia’s share of total MENA oil output in 2030 will be much the same as today, at about 36%. Four countries will see their share in MENA output increase: Iraq, Kuwait, the UAE and Libya. World coal consumption is projected to increase from 114.5 quadrillion Btu in 2004 to 199.1 quadrillion Btu in 2030, at an average annual rate of 2.2 percent. World coal consumption increased sharply from 2003 to 2004, largely because of a 17-percent increase on a Btu basis in non-OECD Asia. Moreover, the electric power sector accounts for about two-thirds of the world’s coal consumption throughout the projection period, and the industrial sector accounts for most of the remainder. World net electricity generation grows by 85 percent in the IEO2007 reference case, from 16,424 billion kilo-watthours in 2004 to 22,289 billion kilowatthours in 2015 and 30,364 billion kilowatthours in 2030. Most of the projected increase in electricity demand is in the non-OECD nations, where electricity generation increases on average by 3.5 percent per year from 2004 to 2030, as compared with 1.3 percent per year in the OECD nations. 7

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To meet the increment in world liquids demand in the reference case, total supply in 2030 is projected to be 35 million barrels per day higher than the 2004 level of 83 million barrels per day. Natural gas consumption increases on average by 1.9 percent per year in the reference case, from a world total of 99.6 trillion cubic feet in 2004 to 129.0 trillion cubic feet in 2015 and 163.2 trillion cubic feet in 2030. We all wish to contribute to the establishment of a sustainable future based on energy from renewable resources. Solar, wind, hydro, ocean waves and tides, geothermal and biomass will become precious sources of energy. Consequently, energy must be distributed to the consumer with highest efficiency and used intelligently to provide high levels of comfort and services. Rational use of energy and energy conservation are the cornerstones of the Renewable Energy Economy.

4. What is New? a. Something special has happened in U.A.E.-Abu Dhabi..
As we all Know, the politics of the majority Middle East countries now headed towards the renewable energy which inconsistent with the World Energy Outlook 2005 that expected more production during the next two decades. Moreover, the role of Iraq as large oil production country is declining regarding the political worries. The World Future Energy Summit 2008 (WFES) in United Arab Emirates-Abu Dhabi held on January 21st–23rd which brought together the world’s leading innovators, educators, scientists, venture capitalists and experts in the field of future energy - people who are champions and catalysts in creating real and sustainable Solutions. The ambitious programme will lead to investment in: renewable energy infrastructure projects based on solar, wind and hydrogen power generation; carbon reduction and management; sustainable development and planning; research and development; education; and the manufacturing of future energy solutions.[1] Today, as the global demand for the energy continues to expand and as climate change becomes a real and growing concern, the time has come to look to the future. The Middle East countries -as large oil and gas producers- are responsible for large part of the CO2 emissions, beside that, the appetite for energy is is inexorably growing in the absence of new policies, in fact the great industrial countries polices are motivate the production cycle of the ME, because their economy is increasingly depending on the ME oil and gas production. A World Alternative Policy Scenario demonstrates that if governments around the world were to implement new policies they are considering today, aimed at addressing 8

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environmental and energy-security concerns, fossil-fuel demand and carbon-dioxide emissions would be significantly lower[2]. But even in this scenario, global energy demand in 2030 would still be 37% higher than today and the volume of MENA hydrocarbon exports would still grow significantly, so the needs for new polices are increasing and it is necessary to be effectively associated by new technologies of renewable energies. No doubt that the new technologies are the most suitable solution to the CO2 problem, especially when the efficiency appears as a complementary factor. The large firms are racing towards the best efficiencies; I had the opportunity to experience the latest new technologies in the World Future Energy Summit 2008. Together, the Photovoltaic Cells, and the Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage technologies-introduced by Total - persuade me to write about them for what I think they will participate effectively in reducing the CO2 emissions.

[1] World Future Energy Summit 2008 (WFES), DAILY NEWS, Day2, 22nd January 2008 [2] World Energy Outlook 2005, Executive Summary.

b. Sustainable Solution from the Sun: Photovoltaic Cells [1]
Solar power, which is clean, abundant and inexhaustible. The sun constantly sends 10,000 times more energy to earth than people use. What’s more, it offers remarkable development prospects. One of the greatest solar technologies is the use of the Photovoltaic Cells to produce electricity. Photovoltaic cells are generally made from monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon wafers or amorphous silicon films. When combined, they form solar panels that convert around 15% of the solar energy they receive into electricity. A one-square-meter panel can supply 100 watts and generate 80 to 150 kWh per year. The panels are wired to a receiver. The amount of electricity generated depends on the amount of sunlight received. The panels’ electrical performance is guaranteed for 25 years. To meet demand, they can be assembled and interconnected to form a photovoltaic field. A 20 to 30-square-meter array, for example, can provide enough power for an entire household in Southern Europe. Photovoltaic solar power systems are particularly useful for pumping water into storage tanks. Very often, however, 9

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people need electricity when there is no sunlight or for applications such as lighting or refrigeration that require an uninterrupted supply. To get around this, the electricity can be stored in batteries for use when needed. A charge controller is also installed to protect the batteries from damage that can be caused by overcharging or excessive drawdown. An inverter is often added to convert the direct current produced by the photovoltaic cells into alternating current for use by household appliances and other equipment. In industrialized nations, solar panels are used for radio relays, beacons and time clocks. Although they do supply isolated, off-grid sites such as mountain shelters, they are primarily installed at grid-connected locations.

i. Cell Production:
To make a photovoltaic cell, ultra-pure electronics-grade silicon is melted and formed into ingots with a cross-section of 100 to 250 square centimetres. The ingots are sliced into wafers that are 200 to 300 microns thick. The silicon is then doped with boron or phosphorous to make the wafers light sensitive by modifying their electron balance. Electrical contacts are then deposited on the cells to collect the electricity. The cells are wired together and covered with glass. Currently available panels offer ratings of up to 200-watts peak (Wp). Since it was commissioned in late 2003, the Photovoltech plant in Belgium has made a name for itself as a highly effective photovoltaic cell manufacturer. Production capacity stood at 20 MWp at the end of 2005 and is scheduled to rise to 80 MWp by the end of 2008. Photovoltech’s cells are made from polycrystalline silicon, a material that offers several advantages: there is little cutting waste, manufacturing requires two to three times less energy than with monocrystalline silicon, and the cells are more than twice as efficient as their amorphous silicon cousins. Photovoltech’s cells deliver a conversion efficiency of 15 to 16%, one of the highest in the world for polycrystalline silicon-based cells made with similar industrial technologies. To achieve these results, Photovoltech has deployed an innovative process on an industrial scale in which the wafers’ surface is treated by isotropic texturing to limit sunlight reflection and energy loss.
[1] TOTAL, January 2008, Solar Energy, Photovoltaic Technology: Proficiency and perform.

To increase the cells’ conversion efficiency, their anti-reflective coating has been optimized with silicon nitride. The metal contactors have also been made more effective. Accelerated 10

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aging tests have demonstrated that the modules maintain more than 80% of their efficiency after 25 years. Research is currently being conducted with Interuniversity MicroElectronics Center (IMEC) to enhance the cells’ conversion efficiency and appearance while reducing their production cost and the amount of silicon needed. ii. Solar Panels and Systems Equally owned by Total and EDF since May 2005, when it was renamed Tenesol, the company is a major player in photovoltaic solar power. Tenesol designs, installs and maintains photovoltaic equipment. The company designs customized systems and, since 1999, manufactures its own solar panels, giving it greater technical proficiency and financial control over projects. Solar Panel Production Tenesol has two production subsidiaries: Tenesa and Tenesol Technologies based in South Africa, Tenesa offers an annual production capacity of 35 MWp. Its photovoltaic panels are used for all types of systems devised by Tenesol. Tenesol Technologies is based in Toulouse, France. The 15 MWp plant was commissioned on a temporary site in June 2005. Its panels are primarily used for roofs and siding in Europe. Tenesol Technologies’ output should be sufficient to equip 7,500 European homes a year. Photovoltaic Systems With operations on four continents, Tenesol has installed tens of thousands of solar power systems. Thanks to their reliability and longevity, these systems are profitable. Tenesol has electrified homes and water pumping systems in sites that could not be connected to the grid. It holds the management concession for decentralized rural electrification programs in Morocco and participates in programs led by such international organizations as the World Bank, European Development Fund, UNIDO, South Pacific Commission, Caisse Française de Développement, French Global Environment Facility and KfW Förderbank. The company also electrifies professional installations such as telecommunication relays and isolated sites that can be difficult to access.

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c. The opportunities opened up by CCS [1]
CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS), offers a solution that complement energy efficiency programmes and greater use of lower-carbon energies. CCS technology can be regarded as a transition solution, to be implemented rapidly so that it can have a positive effect on the overall amount of CO2in the atmosphere within the next few decades. Because of the capital investment involved and the technical specificities of CCS, the optimum targets are CO2sources that exceed 100,000 tons of CO2per year. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCG), this covers about 7,000 sites worldwide. This technology could capture 80% - 90% of the CO2produced (albeit with higher than normal energy consumption). And by 2050 this technology could be processing 20% - 40% of all world CO2emissions. Whether or not this is achieved will of course depend on the political will of the countries involved and the technological resources devoted to the effort. By the end of the century, CCS technology could account for anything from 10% to 55% of the overall reduction in emissions. If this is to happen, then pilot facilities need to be set up now. CCS involves three stages: capture, transport and storage. CO2is captured at a large, fixed source then concentrated and transported to a suitable storage site. For each of these stages, various techniques are either already available or being evaluated. i. CAPTURE TECHNIQUES The first phase of CCS is to capture the CO2in the combustion smoke/fumes and separate it from the other main gases, i.e. water vapour and nitrogen. The techniques used here mostly involve tried and tested physical and chemical processes. Separation and recovery of CO2 is already carried out in a number of major 12

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industrial plants, particularly those engaged in natural gas processing, ammonia extraction or fertilizer manufacture. But in most cases the CO2 is subsequently released into the atmosphere. There are three possible techniques for capturing CO2, and all are compatible with most of today's energy-production facilities: > Capture by precombustion. This involves using a chemical process to produce a synthetic gas from the carbon-based combustible, then separating the CO2 and burning the remaining hydrogen to produce energy. This combustion then produces only water vapour. In this case, the C02 is captured upstream of the energy-production plant. > Capture by postcombustion. The CO2 is extracted from the smoke/fumes produced by normal combustion of coal, gas or oil - or even biomass. In this case extraction occurs downstream of energy production. The processes used may be physical or chemical, depending on the type of solvent used. This technique has now been fully mastered, but at the present stage of development it is expensive and energy intensive; new developments are ongoing to improve efficiency.

[1] TOTAL, January 2008, Project Information Dossier, Lacq CO2 Capture and Geological Storage, Pilot Project.

> Capture by oxycombustion. This is the process involves combustion of the fossil fuel in pure oxygen rather than air so that the smoke/fumes have a very high CO2 content, 90% or even 95%. Combustion in the presence of pure oxygen has been used for a number of years (particularly in glass-making) to enhance the performance of industrial processes, but its use in C02 capture is still being evaluated. CO2 TRANSPORT After the CO2 has been captured it must be transported to the storage site. The two options for large-scale transport are maritime transport and gas pipeline. As gas is very voluminous, it will be transported in its "dense phase", i.e. either compressed or cooled in order to reduce its volume. > Maritime transport. The vessels used will be similar to those used to ship liquefied natural gas (LNG). > Gas pipeline. This technology is not new: gas pipelines were first used to transport CO2 in the United States at the 13

ii.

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start of the 1970s, but for oil production and for projects valorising the gas in coal mines. These pipelines make up a network of more than 5,800 kilometres and they transport more than 40 million tons of CO2 per year. The challenge for CCS is the cost of developing a network able to transport large volumes of CO2 from where the emissions are generated to the storage sites. iii. STORAGE TECHNIQUES Once the CO2 has been captured and transported, it must be stored for long periods - hundreds or even thousands of years so that it does not contribute to climate change. The basic technology required here is already used by the oil and gas industry. CO2 is often injected into oil reservoirs already producing so as to make the oil less viscous: the gas dissolves in the crude oil, so making it more fluid so that it flows better towards the producing wells. This increases the oil recovery rate. The CCS storage option preferred by most industrialised countries is underground, or geological storage. This involves injecting CO2 into some sort of underground reservoir. There are a number of natural structures that could be suitable, as there are numerous reservoirs containing CO2 that have existed for millions of years. There are three types of geological formation that are suitable for storing CO2. > Hydrocarbon reservoirs that are either already depleted or in production decline. The International Energy Agency (lEA) estimates that the worldwide storage potential of this type of reservoir amounts to some 930 billion tons of CO2. In comparison, human activities are responsible for releasing 29 billion tons of CO2 into the atmosphere each year, and CSS projects are expected to handle 20%-40% of the emissions generated by large industrial facilities and power stations. Unfortunately the suitable geological formations are not conveniently spread across the planet close to major sources of CO2 emissions. > Deep saline formations. These are aquifers containing very salty water - with up to three times the salt content of seawater that is quite unsuitable for consumption or even irrigation. These aquifers are found in sedimentary basins either onshore or offshore, throughout the world. The formations can extend for hundreds and sometimes thousands of kilometres and the aquifers are sometimes several kilometres thick. 14

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The International Energy Agency (lEA) estimates world CO2 storage capacity in these formations at between 400 billion and 10,000 billion metric tons. But little is known about these sites and extensive research will have to be done on the detailed makeup of the aquifers and their behaviour over the long term. > Coal seams that are either too deep or too thin to mine. CO2 is absorbed and retained by coal. Indeed this mechanism also frees the methane that is fixed naturally on the surface of the coal, and this hydrocarbon gas can then be recovered and valorised. World CO2 storage capacity in coal seams is estimated to be about 40 billion tons. For the purposes of CCS, work needs to be done on the porosity and permeability of the coal seams. If these are too low, CO2 will not be fixed in volumes large enough to be worthwhile.

Summary
In recent years, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide—one of the most important greenhouse gases in the atmosphere—have been increasing at a rate of about 0.5 percent annually. Because anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide result primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy, energy use has emerged at the centre of the climate change debate. World carbon dioxide emissions continue to increase steadily in the IEO2007 reference case, from 26.9 billion metric tons in 2004 to 33.9 billion metric tons in 2015 and 42.9 billion metric tons in 2030, an increase of 59 percent over the projection period. Hence, the dire need to a new technologies increasing day after day, and the companies on the field are racing to introduce new technologies to the market. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol allows Annex B countries (countries with emission obligations under the Kyoto Protocol) to offset CO2 emissions through investing in CO2 reducing activities in developing countries. This is an effective way to reach the goals for reducing 15

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CO2 emissions, with MENA as a main producers. The CDM mechanism typically helps developing countries approach Western standards in energy efficiency and pollution control. Whilst beneficial, the CDM is not enough to solve the climate change problem. Therefore, offsetting through CDM must be accompanied by active promotion of new sustainable low carbon solutions in developing countries. Although the worldwide PV market has been growing at over 40% per annum in recent years, the contribution it makes to electricity generation is still very small. Development work is focused on improving existing modules and system components and developing new types of cells in the thin-film sector and new materials for crystalline cells. It is expected that the efficiency of commercial crystalline cells will improve by between 15 and 20% in the next few years, and that thin-film cells using less raw material will become commercially available. The learning factor for PV modules has been fairly constant over a period of 30 years at around 0.8, indicating a continuously high rate of technical learning and cost reduction. Assuming a globally installed capacity of 2,000 GW in 2050, and a decrease in the learning rate after 2030, we can expect that electricity generation costs of around 5-9 cents/kWh will be possible by 2030. Compared with other technologies for utilising renewables, photovoltaic power must therefore be classified as a long-term option. Its importance derives from its great flexibility and its enormous technical potential for rural electrification for the 2 billion people currently having no access to electricity. The introduced Photovoltaic systems-as an example of new technology- are attractive options for MENA countries especially the Middle East countries for their huge amount of wasted solar energy. These quiet, reliable systems cost less, are easier to deploy and require less maintenance. They provide between 50 and 150 Wp - enough to meet an isolated community’s basic needs. These include water pumping and purification, lighting, refrigeration for vaccines and food, TV and telecommunications. Even though a lot of research is being done on CCS, a lot more is needed before the technology is fully optimized on a large scale. One of the main problems is the efficiency penalty when capturing CO2. In a power plant the penalty is expected to be in the order of 10 %, which makes the technology costly. Consequently other ways of mitigating climate change, e.g. efficiency improvement, may be more successful initially. In the long run however, CCS is expected to play an important roll, 16

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since it can contribute a lot to the long term goal that e.g. EU has of a 70 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels. Whether CCS will become a reality on a global scale or not, does not only depend on cost, but also on the development of international policy. Today it is not even clear how CCS is going to be handled under the KP. However, CCS may still become a reality in the North Sea since the oil companies will need CO2 for Enhanced Oil Recovery, and the benefits of Enhanced Oil Recovery may pay most of the costs for the CO2 capture.

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References: 1. Greenpeace
International, September 2005; Energy Revolution: A sustainable pathway to clean energy future for Europe.

2. L.J.Anthony, Information Sources in Energy Technology, Butterworth. 3. Ramage, J.(1997). Energy: A guidebook (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

4. Rasmus Reinvang and Glen Peters, January 2008
“Norwegian Consumption, Chinese pollution. An example of how OECD imports generate CO2 emissions in developing countries.”

5. Science and Technology Division, November 1992, The
Rio Earth Summit: Summery of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

6. Scientific American, January 2008, Ken Zweibel, James
Mason and Vasilis Fthenakis, A Solar Grand Plan.

7. TOTAL, January 2008, Project Information Dossier, Lacq CO2 Capture and Geological Storage, Pilot Project. 8. TOTAL, January 2008, Solar Energy, Photovoltaic Technology: Proficiency and perform. 9. Ulf Bossel, August 2003, We Need a Renewable Energy
Economy, Not a Hydrogen Economy.

10. IEA( International Energy Agency), World Energy Outlook 2005. 11. IEA( International Energy Agency), World Energy Outlook
2007.

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