Typical examination data sheet

NB: The Foundations of Energy is a 2-hour exam which is a closed-book exam. Apart from an approved calculator and writing utensils the only permitted material is a standard dictionary for those whose main language is not English. All dictionaries will need to be presented to the invigilators for checking. However, this data sheet (or a modification thereof) will be provided as part of the exam paper.

Prefixes and conversions
kilo: 103, mega: 106, giga: 109, tera: 1012, peta: 1015, exa: 1018, 1 toe = 42 GJ; 1kWh = 3.6 MJ

Fluid and fuel properties
Water at 5 to 20° : density 1000 kg m C
–3

; specific heat 4.2 kJ kg– 1 K– 1

Air at ground level and 0 to 40° density 1.225 kg m – 3 ; specific heat at constant C: pressure 1.01 kJ kg– 1 K– 1, specific heat at constant volume 0.72 kJ kg– 1 K– 1,
Name Methane Ethane Octane Cetane Anthracite Lignite Biomass Carbon dioxide Composition CH4 C2H6 C8H18 C16H34 >~80% C ~ 60% C ~ Cx(H2O)y CO2 Molecular weight 16 30 114 226 12 12 44 Energy content (MJ / kg) 55 51 48 48 ~30 ~20 ~10 – ~20

Typical ranges of the heat transfer coefficient Type of convection Free convection of gases Free convection of liquids Forced convection of gases Forced convection of liquids Boiling and condensation

h W/m2/K 2 - 25 10 - 1000 25 - 250 50 - 20,000 2,500 - 100,000

Useful equations
Ideal gas p = ρ RT with Isentropic processes p2 / p1 = ( ρ2 / ρ1 ) γ ; T2 / T1 = ( ρ2 / ρ1 ) γ Cp / CV Stefan-Boltzmann law: Q = ε σ A T 4 Hydraulic power PH = ρ g H Q Fluid current power P = ½ ρ A U3 Nondimensional specific speed: KN = Ω (P/ρ) 1/2 (gH) – 5/4
−1

R = Cp – CV ; T2 / T1 = ( p2 / p1 ) ( γ
−1)/γ

with

γ=

with σ= 5.67×10 – 8 W m–2 K–4