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Reading mathematics: An understanding of mathematical More than words literacy draws on many of the same skills as print literacy. can say

y colleagues often discuss in faculty meetings the various components of teaching children to read with fluency, proficiency, and comprehension. When I visit these colleagues’ offices, I notice that their shelves are lined with books about teaching children to read, children reading and being read to, helping children with reading difficulties, providing strategies for struggling readers, and reading in the content areas as an integral part of the school experience. The notion of reading in content areas, specifically mathematics, is the impetus for this article. However, many people limit such reading to activities like reading biographies of mathematicians, reading the history of mathematics concepts, and reading mathematics word problems with real-life contexts. While these activities are important to students’ school mathematics experiences, what is often excluded or given little attention is the basic notion of reading mathematics as a language. Reading mathematics is a multifaceted task because the reader is challenged to acquire comprehension and mathematical understanding with fluency and proficiency through the reading of numerals and symbols, in addition to words. Although numerals (written numbers) are technically symbols, the use of the word symbol in this article refers to symbols other than numerals (e.g., signs of operation). For students across all grade levels, weakness in their mathematics ability is often due in part to the obstacles they face in focusing on these symbols as they attempt to read the “language of mathematics.” Some scholars might include graphics, diagrams, and illustrations in addition to words, numerals, and symbols, in the sense that “signs”

M

of all types express and construct meaning—see Berghoff (1998)—but this would involve students’ abilities to visualize, an additional and major topic. I omit them from this discussion. Mathematics is a language that people use to communicate, to solve problems, to engage in recreation, and to create works of art and mechanical tools. It is a language of words, numerals, and symbols that are at times interrelated and interdependent and at other times disjointed and autonomous. In fact, Wakefield (2000) suggested that the following characteristics of mathematics do indeed qualify it as a language:

1. Abstractions (verbal or written symbols representing ideas or images) are used to communicate. 2. Symbols and rules are uniform and consistent. 3. Expressions are linear and serial. 4. Understanding increases with practice. 5. Success requires memorization of symbols and rules. 6. Translations and interpretations are required for novice learners. 7. Meaning is influenced by symbol order. 8. Communication requires encoding and decoding. 9. Intuition, insightfulness, and “speaking without thinking” accompany fluency. 10. Experiences from childhood supply the foundation for future development. 11. The possibilities for expressions are infinite. (pp. 272–273)

A significant factor for children in the elementary grades as they begin to learn the intricacies involved in reading their first language (for example, English) is that it also serves as a conduit for the language of mathematics. Specifically, the skill of reading mathematics is

©2003 International Reading Association (pp. 786–795)

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related to children’s metalinguistic awareness— their ability to reflect on and analyze a language. MacGregor and Price (1999) suggested

metalinguistic awareness enables the language user to reflect on the structural and functional features of text as an object, to make choices about how to communicate information, and to manipulate perceived units of language.… [A]nalyzing structure, making choices about representation, and manipulating expressions are intrinsic to mathematics. (p. 452)

Hence, when we pass up opportunities to focus children’s attention on mathematics as a language and not just as something we do, children may miss the underlying concepts of mathematics that would enhance and reinforce their understanding. The purpose of this article is to provide impetus for teaching children to read mathematics. This entails reading words, numerals, and symbols to successfully uncover the messages of and about mathematics. Furthermore, the perspective of mathematics as a language is supported by the order governing the discipline. I provide a variety of examples related to reading mathematics through words, numerals, and symbols and also suggestions that transcend particular mathematics topics and are applicable across grade levels.

**Reading words in mathematics
**

Each discipline has its own code of communication, the particular terminology that is used to communicate ideas within the discipline. These are the words that carry meanings that may or may not make sense outside of the discipline. The words, terminology, and vocabulary used in mathematics are key factors in the communication process. The following sections explore a variety of factors related to reading words in mathematics.

Definitions

In order to make communication clearer when reading words in mathematics, the reader has to develop meaningful, correct, and applicable definitions of mathematical terminology. In mathematics, it is acceptable for students to use informal definitions as an introduction to formal definitions. For example, a child may initially define square as a shape with all equal sides. While at the outset this is beneficial for the child, it is a definition that will by necessity un-

dergo a transformation, as there are many polygons with all equal sides. These regular polygons include pentagons, octagons, and nonagons. A student might later say that a square is a foursided shape with all equal sides. This, too, will eventually undergo transformation, as a rhombus is a four-sided shape with all equal sides, but not all rhombi are squares. These informal definitions help children construct their own understandings, and these are the definitions students might use when reading an instruction such as “Draw a square.” On the other hand, a major learning objective in mathematics is for students to demonstrate understanding of formal definitions. For example, “a square is a rectangle with all equal sides” or “a square is a quadrilateral with all 90-degree angles and all equal sides.” A student’s ability to recognize and employ the formal definition is key to understanding and applying concepts when reading mathematical text. One way to help students develop definitions in mathematics is to ask them to examine examples that do or do not fit the definition of a concept to discern differences that might lead to a formal definition (see the Figure). It is helpful for students to know a formal definition of polygon when asked to respond to the following: “Is a circle a polygon? Explain.” A student not empowered by a formal definition might respond with, “No. Because squares are polygons and circles are not squares.” Though the explanation is true, the student has only a limited understanding of polygons. A formal definition for polygon provides a justification that accounts for all polygons, not just squares. Definitions, whether informal or formal, enable students to appropriately apply the mathematics vocabulary they encounter when reading mathematics. The model presented in the Figure can be used for very simple concepts appropriate for the elementary grades as well as more complex concepts found in middle or high school mathematics (e.g., function graphs).

Multiple meanings

Another issue in reading mathematics is mathematics vocabulary that has multiple meanings. Consider the examples listed in Table 1. These are just a few words that are used in mathematics that also have meaning in everyday contexts and interactions. The importance of attending to the presence of multiple meanings is

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Developing definitions

These are polygons. These are not polygons. What are polygons? Draw examples of polygons.

supported by the fact that “the pre-adolescent child has multiple meanings for words used in the interactions and is comfortable with moving between meanings even in the same interaction” (Berenson, 1997, p. 4). It is important to know which meaning of a word students are using when trying to make sense of mathematics because words used in everyday language may confuse their understanding of mathematics (MacGregor, 2002).

When students are challenged by words with multiple meanings, it is helpful to make connections between children’s prior understandings of the word and the mathematical meaning of the word so that children can develop definitions from their own experiences (Berenson, 1997). For example, one everyday meaning of the word base means the place a baseball player runs or walks to when the player has hit the ball. In an everyday context, base also refers to the bottom

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**Table 1 Multiple meanings
**

Word Volume Graduated Product Net Ruler Plot Yard Mass Cubed Count Face Fair Range Mathematical meaning Amount of space taken up by an object Marked with degrees of measurement Result of multiplying numbers A two-dimensional pattern for a three-dimensional object Tool for measuring length To locate and make a point on a grid Three feet Amount of matter in an object Raised to the third power To enumerate Flat surface on a solid Equal chance of happening Numerical difference between two values Everyday meaning Noise level of electronic equipment Received an academic degree Items produced by a company A finely meshed hair covering Person in authority Place to build a house Grassy area around a house A church service Form for a piece of steak To rely or depend on The front of something A temporary amusement park Cooking equipment (stove)

of an object such as a statue, mountain, or lamp. In mathematics, base means the perceived horizontal side on which a plane figure rests or a number equal to the number of units in a given number system required to move one group of values to the next highest place, such as the base10 number system. Hence, for a child who presents a baseball understanding of the word base, a connection between the everyday meaning of base and one mathematical meaning can be made as follows: When a baseball player waits for play to resume, he or she stays or rests at the base. So baseball players and mathematical shapes both rest on bases at given times. In addition, there is a condition that must be met before the player moves from one base to another. Likewise, in the base-10 number system, a condition must be met (must have a group of 10) before one can move from one place to the next place. The goal of any connection should be to develop opportunities for students to strengthen their understanding of mathematics terminology and concepts.

**Homophones and similar-sounding words
**

Another challenge of reading mathematics involves homophones—words with identical pronunciations—and similar-sounding words. In each category, though pronounced alike, these words may have different meanings and

spellings. “Vocabulary in the mathematics classroom not only includes specialized terms such as quotient, multiplication, divisor, denominator, minuend, and subtraction but also everyday terms that take on new meaning when used in a mathematical context” (Mather & Chiodo, 1994, p. 2). Consider Tables 2 and 3. These are words that may interfere with comprehension of what students read, or understand when read to, in the classroom. Without thought to the mathematical context, students may attach the incorrect meaning to the word if they confuse it with its homonymic partner or partners. Drawing students’ attention to the fact that there are words in mathematics that sound like everyday words is one way to deal with this issue. One suggestion is to design a homonymic bulletin board or list of homophones and similar-sounding words for students to add to as they study. In addition, journal writing prompts can be developed to learn how students perceive specific words that have homophonic or sound-alike partners. For example, a prompt for the word altitude might read, “If I were to compare two triangles by their altitude, I would....”

Reading passages

As students advance through the elementary grades, they need increased opportunities to read mathematics in textual and often abstract form.

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**Table 2 Homophones (exact pronunciation)
**

Mathematics word Plane One Whole Sum Two Weight Weigh Eight Symbol Hour Cent Real Gram Chord Everyday word Plain Won Hole Some To Wait Way Ate Cymbal Our Scent or sent Reel Graham Cord

Box lid Compass

Ruler ID card

Protractor Soda can

Book File folder

Ink pen

2. Can a straightedge be used to construct an angle? If so, how? 3. If more than two points are given (say three points) and one can still construct a line, ray, or segment using the three points, what must be true? 4. What is the difference between constructing and drawing? 5. Construct a square using only a straightedge and/or compass according to the passage.

To address students’ difficulties with mathematics vocabulary such as that found in the previous passage, instructional strategies modified from those presented by Garbe (1985) include the following:

1. Establish a list of mathematics vocabulary for each such subject area (e.g., geometry). 2. Evaluate students’ comprehension of mathematics vocabulary on a periodic basis (e.g., end of a passage, lesson, or unit). 3. Make inquiries into students’ previous knowledge or usages of mathematics vocabulary before it is introduced in instruction (e.g., straightedge) and use this knowledge to help students develop meanings. 4. Frame the context for new mathematics vocabulary (e.g., “Construct is not limited to three dimensions”). 5. Develop an environment where mathematics vocabulary is a normal part of instruction, curriculum, and assessment— not an add-on.

These opportunities will be beneficial for students when they are confronted with mathematics in middle school. Consider the following passage from a middle school mathematics text:

The only instruments used for construction in geometry are a straightedge and a compass. A straightedge is used to construct a line, ray, or segment when two points are given. The straightedge’s marks may not be used for measurement. A compass is used to construct an arc or a circle, given a center point and a radius length. (Kalin & Corbitt, 1993, p. 396)

Students must be able to recognize the individual concepts as well as the relationships between the concepts in order to obtain full meaning from the passage. The density of the mathematics vocabulary (e.g., line, ray, segment, arc, radius) adds to the complexity of the passage. With mathematics as with other disciplines, students are expected to integrate their linguistic, cognitive, and metacognitive skills to comprehend text (Mather & Chiodo, 1994). However, Garbe (1985) stated “perhaps we do not spend enough time teaching the vocabulary necessary for students to read and understand mathematics” (p. 39). Following are examples that can be used to examine students’ understanding of the passage:

1. Consider the list below. Which items can or cannot be used as a straightedge? Explain.

**Two additional suggestions I would make are as follows:
**

6. For particular passages, instruct students to indicate the vocabulary they do not understand and collaborate in small groups to discuss these terms and share their understandings of other terms. After the small-group engagement, address any remaining vocabulary as a whole class. 7. When students’ efforts at acquiring meanings and understandings have been exhausted, provide them an opportunity to employ a mathematics dictionary, a useful tool for the classroom.

Word problems

Word problems are mathematical problems presented in the context of a story or real-life scenario. Because the mathematical nature of the problem may not be obvious to the reader, the

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reader has to have some skill at decoding text so that the information needed to solve the problem or answer the question can be gathered. Students need opportunities to read word problems and examine them for necessary, extraneous, or missing information so they can develop their skills for solving word problems. George Polya, commonly known as the “father of problem solving” (1945) is noted for his four-step problem-solving process as follows: 1. Read the problem. This first phase involves the student reading the problem in its entirety without focusing on such things as key words and the question(s). In many instances, students target the key words and question(s) of a problem without actually reading the problem, often missing or skipping important information. 2. Understand the problem. In this second phase, the student should attend to vocabulary, context/setting, question(s) of the problem, needed information, and extraneous information. This phase should leave the student understanding the problem. Questions such as “Do you know what this problem is asking?” and “Can you restate the problem in your own words?” are typical questions to pose to students or for students to pose to themselves. In many instances, students may have to return to the first process, reading the problem, in order to support this second process. 3. Solve the problem. Students must select and use appropriate strategies to respond to the problem. These strategies may be studentcreated or introduced by the teacher. In either case, there are myriad strategies that students can rely on to solve problems (e.g., use trial and error; look for patterns; make a model; eliminate possibilities; use simpler numbers; make a table, chart, or diagram; draw a picture; work backward; estimate). For a more detailed discussion on specific strategies see Dolan and Williamson (1983) and Meyer and Sallee (1983). Again, the student may need to return to either of the first two phases to be successful in this phase. 4. Look back. In the traditional sense, a problem-solving process is complete when the solution is obtained. However, looking back provides an opportunity to check the validity and accuracy of the solution. By viewing the solution in the context of the problem, students can find errors in understanding the problem, the procedures, or even in the recording of the solution.

In addition, looking back lets students engage in discussions about the problem-solving process to further enhance their reasoning skills and abilities to explain and justify solutions. The look back phase also stimulates additional instruction by incorporating extension problems and requests for students to solve the problem in a different way. This approach to problem solving “makes use of the diversity of approaches to the problem in order to give students experiences in finding or discovering new things by combining all the knowledge, skills, and mathematical ways of thinking they have previously learned” (Sawada, 1997, p. 23). There are many other models for providing guidance for students’ problem-solving experiences. For an additional example that uses a graphic organizer approach, see Braselton and Decker (1994).

**Reading numerals in context
**

When reading mathematics, students must be able to read numerals in context. Often the contexts are embedded, and by reading the numerals with or without any additional symbols, the meanings of the numerals are apparent. Students simply need examples and experiences that use these socially accepted numeral formats so that when they read mathematics in which these types of numerals are used, they will be familiar with the embedded context. Consider the examples in Table 4. These examples are not meant to indicate that the meanings for these numerals will always be obvious and apparent, but these are mere examples of how numerals and their structure have roles in everyday communication. Perhaps the most obvious way to direct students’ attention to numerals in context is to examine numerals within their contexts. I ask my

Table 3 Sound-alike words

Mathematics word Quart Altitude Sphere Tenths Half Cents Everyday sound-alike word Court Attitude Spear Tents Have Sense

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**Table 4 Embedded contexts
**

Numerals 123-45-6789 08-17-01 or 08/17/01 352-555-1212 32601-7049 1.599 Embedded context Social security number Date Phone number Zip code Gas price

students to work in groups to write on a large piece of paper all of the numbers each has used that day. If there are standard contextual symbols such as dollar signs and weight abbreviations, they may include those signs and abbreviations. Then I introduce number contexts to the students (see Table 5) and ask the students to classify all of their numbers into the various contexts. They have to discuss and justify their classifications and consider other examples of numbers that they may not have initially listed. This helps students to recognize numbers and their uses in their own environments, and I use this experience to guide their recognition of numbers and their uses in the context of mathematics.

**Reading symbols in context
**

Symbols have important roles in mathematics, and the reader must be able to decipher them when reading mathematics. Symbols are used to indicate an operation to be performed, such as in 45 6 = ? The “ ” is a standard symbol that, in this context, indicates one should perform the operation of multiplication. Symbols communicate meaning and messages. Consider this example: #8. The “#” symbol communicates that the focus might be on a list and the eighth item on the list is to be noticed. Symbols also provide organization and management. In the expression (4 (2+3))3, the first operation to be performed is the addition within the internal parentheses, followed by the multiplication of four with this sum and then the raising of this product to the third power. The parentheses inform the reader how the expression is to be handled. Students must be able to decipher the meanings of symbols in order to effectively read mathematics.

As words are used differently in different spoken languages, symbols are used differently as well (Hirigoyen, 1997). For example, in countries around the world, the comma (e.g., 236,69) or a raised dot (e.g., 236.69) is used to separate a whole number and a fractional part, whereas in the English language, we use a decimal point to make this indication (e.g., 236.69). This is just one example that reflects the need to acquire information about students’ prior knowledge of mathematics, particularly for those whose first language is not English and who may not recognize the different ways mathematical symbols are used within that context. Three simple instructional activities that support students’ learning of mathematical symbols are modifications of two games. For the first, write as many symbols as desired, depending on the grade level, on index cards. Write the symbol words on other index cards and then proceed to play matching games or draw cards to get a pair. This works very well to help students learn symbol names. In another activity using either symbols or words for symbols, students draw one card from the deck of index cards. The card is won only if the student can create a “mathematical sentence” that includes the symbol. For example, if a student draws absolute value, the student can win the card by writing or saying “The absolute value of negative two is two.” A third activity can be made on other index cards by writing various numerals on them that are appropriate for the specific grade level. Combine the numerals and symbols into one deck and allow students to draw five cards to start the game. As students draw individual cards from the deck, the goal is for the student to be able to use the numerals and symbols to make a mathematical expression to which they must know the answer in order to win the cards.

**Approaching the abstract
**

Without a context, students must, at a minimum, be familiar with various aspects of number theory. To be equipped to read numerals, students must first know basic number words (e.g., one, two, ten, hundred) and have an understanding of place value. Consider the numeral 4,327,785,650,409. As a stand-alone numeral without a context, at the very least, it can be

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**Table 5 Numerals in contexts
**

Context Cardinal (quantity, measurement) Nominal Ordinal Rational Sequence pattern Example 2 (I ate two pancakes for breakfast.) 3342 (The serial number on the pan is 3342.) 4th (John won 4th place in the shot-put contest.) 1, 2, 3,… (I heard my niece counting 1, 2, 3,…today.) 6, 7, 6, 7, 6,… (The pattern for the beat was 6, 7, 6, 7, 6….)

recognized by its magnitude as one examines its place-value characteristics. For example, it has five place-value periods (e.g., 785 is in the millions period). The digit 8 is in the 10 millions place and has a value of 80 million. The numeral can also be analyzed by number-theory classifications like odd, even, positive, negative, prime, and divisibility by other numbers. When reading mathematics and encountering numerals in the abstract, students need to recognize important characteristics.

**Relationships between words, numerals, and symbols
**

Reading mathematics requires that students navigate the relationship(s) between words, numerals, and symbols. This is exemplified by word problems, such as the following.

Mr. Johns and Mr. Sams are taking their classes on a field trip to the Ocean View Aquarium. There are a total of 57 children in the two classes. The teachers need to request buses for the trip. Each bus seats 25 persons. How many buses should Mr. Johnson and Mr. Sams request?

(e.g., seats). From this point, a successful solution strategy is to represent the word problem by mathematical symbols (including numerals). Students also need to see the interaction of words (the word problem itself), numerals, and symbols as a necessary process in mathematics. In fact, students should have experiences in translating from either representation to the other two to support their conceptual understandings. The totality of the mathematical message is often embedded in the context of this three-way relationship. I liken it to this phrase: “Words tell. Numerals listen. Symbols show.” Words, explicitly or implicitly, tell the reader what is to be known and done. The reader’s response to numerals is guided by what the words tell. Symbols are efficient means of showing what the words say and how the numerals are to be responded to according to the words. In the case of word problems, if there is a breakdown at any junction of the interaction, there is an increased chance of students having difficulty succeeding with the mathematics.

**Mathematics is a language of order
**

First of all, students need to be made aware that they should attend to the relationship between words, numerals, and symbols. This may not be automatically apparent to all students. Once they recognize that this is something that improves their reading of mathematics, they will be more likely to do so. Students also have to be encouraged to see “sense making” as an important part of reading information presented in the word problem. This sense making is dependent on students’ comprehension of some mathematical terminology (e.g., total) as well as on general terminology Mathematics is a language of order, and reading mathematics requires that one pay attention to several principles that guide how the reading must take place if accurate interpretation, comprehension, and communication are to result.

Principle 1

Mathematical operations are performed within a binary framework between only two numbers at a time. For example, when students are reading a string or list of numerals to be added, remembering that only two numbers can

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be added at a time decreases anxiety and makes the task seem easier.

Principle 2

The order in which operations are written or read is not necessarily the order in which they are performed. We read mathematics from left to right, right to left, top to bottom, and bottom to top (e.g., vertical multiplication, long division). Consider this simple exercise: 3 (5 + 2) = ? One might read it initially from left to right, but the nature of the exercise requires that the operations be performed from right to left, that is, 5 + 2 must be completed first. However, the following exercise might be read and performed from top to bottom or bottom to top: 78 64

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics posited that knowing mathematics is doing mathematics (1989). In other words, to know mathematics means that one is able to apply mathematics. With this philosophy one can pair the position that doing mathematics necessitates reading mathematics. The words, symbols, and numerals that give the discipline its substance, framework, and power are the same words, symbols, and numerals that students must use to communicate ideas, perform procedures, explain processes, and solve problems. Hence a knower of mathematics is a doer of mathematics, and a doer of mathematics is a reader of mathematics. Adams teaches at the University of Florida (School of Teaching & Learning, 2403 Norman Hall, Box 117048, Gainesville, FL 32611-7048, USA). She may be contacted by e-mail at tla@coe.ufl.edu.

References

Berenson, S.B. (1997). Language, diversity, and assessment in mathematics learning. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 19(4), 1–9. Berghoff, B. (1998). Multiple sign systems and reading. The Reading Teacher, 51, 520–523. Braselton, S., & Decker, B.C. (1994). Using graphic organizers to improve the reading of mathematics. The Reading Teacher, 48, 276–281. Dolan, D.T., & Williamson, J. (1983). Teaching problemsolving strategies. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley. Garbe, D.G. (1985). Mathematics vocabulary and the culturally different student. Arithmetic Teacher, 33, 39–42. Hirigoyen, H. (1997). Dialectal variations in the language of mathematics: A source of multicultural experiences. In J. Trentacosta & M.J. Kenney (Eds.), 1997 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics yearbook (pp. 164–173). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Kalin, R., & Corbitt, M.K. (1993). Geometry. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. MacGregor, M. (2002). Using words to explain mathematical ideas. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 25(1), 78–89. MacGregor, M., & Price, E. (1999). An exploration of aspects of language proficiency and algebra learning. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, 30, 449–467. Mather, J.R.C., & Chiodo, J.J. (1994). A mathematical problem: How do we teach mathematics to LEP elementary students? The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 13, 1–12. Meyer, C., & Sallee, T. (1983). Make it simpler: A practical guide to problem solving in mathematics. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1989). Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics. Reston,VA: Author.

Principle 3

There is order in mathematical language, and it is well grounded in concept, theory, and procedure, but there are still variations and changes in content, style, and representation over time. For example, as I read a newspaper several months ago, I noticed that the new phone number for a local hospital was 265.0111. I didn’t realize that the hospital had adopted a new format for its telephone number. On first glance, it simply looked like a decimal numeral, but the context required it to be comprehended as a telephone number. On a drive on a major street in the city, I noticed that prices were displayed in the format of $1.599 at one gas station and in the format of $1.599/10 at another. These are just two examples of how formats and presentation of numbers can change and vary with the trends of society.

**Doing mathematics is reading mathematics
**

Reading mathematics can be interesting if readers are committed to learning. It is paramount that learners develop a purpose for communicating mathematically through words, symbols, and numerals. Instruction that helps learners view mathematics as a tool for solving problems, participating in recreation and other pleasurable activities, and making sense of the world as the learner sees it is instruction that motivates students to read mathematics.

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Polya, G. (1945). How to solve it. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Sawada, T. (1997). Developing lesson plans. In J.P. Becker & S. Shimada (Eds.), The open-ended approach: A new proposal for teaching mathematics (pp. 23–35). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Wakefield, D.V. (2000). Math as a second language. The Educational Forum, 64, 272–279.

Additional resources

Borowski, E.J., & Borwein, J.M. (1991). The HarperCollins mathematics dictionary. New York, NY: HarperPerennial. Whitin, D.J., & Whitin, P. (2000). Math is language too: Talking and writing in the mathematics classroom. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (Copublished with the National Council of Teachers of English).

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