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fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi

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ratomaa fsiqologia unikaluri

gansazRvrebebi fsiqologiis miznebi


fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: ratomaa saWiro fsiqologiis Seswavla Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTareba

fsiqologiis istoriuli safuZvlebi Tanamedrove fsiqologiis mimdinareobebi


ras akeTeben fsiqologebi fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: vifiqroT momavalze sakvanZo sakiTxebi

ZiriTadi cnebebi

eerTebuli Statebis uzenaesma sasamarTlom 1954 wels brauni topekas ganaTlebis sabWos winaaRmdeg saqmeSi ganaCeni gamoitana, romlis mixedviTac Savkaniani da TeTrkaniani bavSvebis skolebis segregacia ukanonod gamocxadda. uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebaze araviTari zemoqmedeba ar mouxdenia fsiqologebis da sxva socialuri mecnierebebis warmomadgenlebis Cvenebebs, romlebmac sasamarTlos kvlevis Sedegebi warudgines. Sedegebi naTlad metyvelebda imaze, rom segregirebuli swavleba Savkanian bavSvebze uaryofiTad moqmedebda. mogvyavs erT-erTi fsiqologis, kenet klarkis Cveneba, romelmac Savkanian bavSvTa jgufi ikvlia (Whiteman, 1993, gv. 49-51): testireba Tqveni moTxovnis mixedviT gasuli kviris xuTSabaTs da paraskevs Cavatare skot branCis dawyebiT skolaSi, ZiriTadad, pirvel klasSi. gamoviyene meTodi, romelzec adre gesaubreT _ yavisferi da TeTri Tojinebi, romlebic kanis feris garda sxva mxriv absoluturad identuria. moswavleebs furclebi vaCvene, romlebzec es Tojinebi exata... bavSvebs am Tojinebs vaCvenebdi da Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT vusvamdi am kiTxvebs: maCveneT, romeli Tojina mogwonT yvelaze metad? an romliT TamaSi gindaT yve-

Tavi 1 / fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi

laze metad?, maCveneT cudi Tojina... sul 6-9 wlis 16 bavSvi gamovkiTxe. maTgan aTma airCia TeTri Tojina. is yvelaze metad moewonaT, Tanac maT es Tojina daaxasiaTes, rogorc sasiamovno. ar dagaviwydeT, rom es ori Tojina absoluturad identuria, kanis feris garda. 11-ma bavSvma miiCnia, rom yavisferi Tojina cudad gamoiyureba. es Sedegebi Tanxvdeba adre miRebul rezultatebs, romelic 300ze met bavSvze Catarebulma gamokvlevam gviCvena. Sedegebi ase avxseniT: Savkaniani bavSvi ukve 6, 7 an 8 wlis asakSi eqceva sakuTari jgufis Sesaxeb arsebuli negatiuri stereotipebis tyveobaSi... iZulebuli var davaskvna, rom klarendonis sagrafos es bavSvebi iseve, rogorc nebismieri sxva adamiani, romelic aSkarad daqvemdebarebul statuss atarebs sazogadoebaSi, pirovnuli ganviTarebis procesSi daziandnen. maTSi naTlad SeimCneva arastabilurobis niSnebi da, vfiqrob, rom yvela fsiqologi swored amgvarad axsnida miRebul Sedegebs. xedavT, ratom hqonda am Cvenebas _ fsiqologiuri kvlevis monaTxrobs _ didi gavlena uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebaze da imaze, Tu rogor aRiqva mTeli qveynis mosaxleobam segregaciis fsiqologiuri Sedegebi? Zalebi, romlebic Cvens cxovrebas ayalibebs. `fsiqologia da cxovreba~ tvinis da fsiqikis Sinagani sivrcidan adamianis qcevis garegan ganzomilebamde migviyvans. SeviswavliT iseT procesebs, romlebic azris mqone struqturas mianiWeben Tqvens gamocdilebas; magaliTad, iseT sakiTxebs, rogoricaa: rogor aRviqvamT samyaros, rogor vswavlobT, vurTierTobT sxveb-

kenet klarkis Cveneba miuTiTebs fsiqologiuri kvlevis potenciur gavlenaze rogorc calkeuli adamianebis, aseve sazogadoebis cxovrebaze. es magaliTi am saxelmZRvanelos ZiriTad miznebze miuTiTebs: wagiyvanoT mogzaurobaSi, sadac adamianuri gamocdilebis sirTuleebs daxvewili kvleviT gamovavlenT, es ki saSualebas mogvcems ukeT vakontroloT is

ratomaa fsiqologia unikaluri?


fsiqologiis unikalobisa da erTianobis dasafaseblad unda gaarkvioT, rogor esmiT

ratomaa fsiqologia unikaluri?

Tan, vazrovnebT, vimaxsovrebT. SevecdebiT gavarkvioT adamianis cxovrebis iseTi gamovlinebebi, rogoricaa, Tu rogor da ratom naxuloben sizmrebs adamianebi, rogor uyvardebaT erTmaneTi, ratom morcxvoben, ratom arian agresiulebi, ratom avaddebian fsiqikurad. da bolos, vaCvenebT, rogor SeiZleba gamoviyenoT fsiqologiuri codna, raTa gavigoT da zogierT, magaliTad, segregaciis, SemTxvevaSi SevcvaloT kidec Cvens cxovrebaSi moqmedi kulturuli Zalebi. Cven, `fsiqologiis da cxovrebis~ avtorebs, fsiqologiis kompetenturobis gvjera. pedagogiuri da samecniero karieris manZilze fsiqologia sul ufro da ufro momxibvleli gaxda CvenTvis. bolo wlebSi fsiqikuri da qcevis procesebis warmmarTveli ZiriTadi meqanizmebis Sesaxeb informaciis mozRvaveba moxda. Zveli Sexedulebebi axali ideebiT icvleba, magram adamianis bunebis mravali momajadoebeli mxare jer kidev amoucnobi rCeba. imedi gvaqvs, rom am mogzaurobis dasasrul Tqvenc saTuTad moepyrobiT fsiqologiuri codnis sakuTar marags. mogzaurobis ZiriTadi mizani wvdomis mecnieruli wyurvili iqneba. davsvamT kiTxvebs adamianis qcevis Sesaxeb _ rogor, ratom, ra, rodis da im qcevis mizezebis da Sedegebis Sesaxeb, romelsac Tqven sakuTar TavSi, sxva adamianebsa da cxovelebSi aRmoaCenT; avxsniT, ratom fiqrobT, grZnobT da iqceviT ase; riTi gansxvavdebiT sxvebisagan, ra qmnis Tqvens unikalobas da mainc, ratom iqceviT xSirad sxvebis msgavsad? Tqvens CamoyalibebaSi memkvidreobam iTamaSa roli, Tu piradma gamocdilebam? rogor Tanacxovrobs am rTul qmnilebaSi _ adamianur cxovelSi _ agresia da altruizmi, siyvaruli da siZulvili, sigiJe da Semoqmedeba? am TavSi ganvixilavT, rogor da ratom gaxda yvela es kiTxva mniSvnelovani fsiqologiis, rogorc disciplinis miznebisaTvis.

fsiqologebs kvlevis da praqtikis miznebi da areali. wignis damTavrebis Semdeg Tqven unda iazrovnoT, rogorc fsiqologma, xolo am TavSi pirvelad gaecnobiT seriozulad, Tu ras unda niSnavdes es.

gansazRvrebebi
mravali fsiqologi eZebs pasuxs fundamentur kiTxvaze: rogoria adamianis buneba? am kiTxvas fsiqologia imiT pasuxobs, rom swavlobs rogorc individSi mimdinare procesebs, ise fizikur da socialur garemoSi aRmocenebul Zalebs. am TvalsazrisiT, fsiqologias formalurad ganvmartavT, rogorc individis qcevis da fsiqikuri procesebis mecnierul Seswavlas. ganvixiloT am ganmartebis mniSvnelovani nawilebi. mecnieruli, qceva, individi da fsiqikuri. fsiqologiis mecnieruli aspeqti moiTxovs, rom fsiqologiuri daskvnebi mecnieruli meTodis principebis mixedviT mopovebul monacemebs efuZnebodes. mecnieruli meTodi moicavs problemis analizisa da gadaWrisaTvis saWiro Tanmimdevrul nabijebs. es meTodi daskvnebis gamosatanad obieqturad Segrovebul monacemebs iyenebs. mecnieruli meTodis maxasiaTeblebs ufro dawvrilebiT me-2 TavSi ganvixilavT, rodesac gavecnobiT, Tu rogor atareben fsiqologebi kvlevas. qceva is iaraRia, romlis saSualebiTac organizmi garemos ergeba. qceva moqmedebaa. fsiqologiis sagani, ZiriTadad, adamianis da cxovelis dakvirvebadi qcevaa. sicili, tirili, sirbili, Sexeba qcevis is magaliTebia, romlebsac SeiZleba daakvirde. fsiqologebi ikvleven, ras da rogor akeTebs individi mocemul garemoSi da ufro farTo socialur da kulturul konteqstSi. fsiqologiuri analizis sagani yvelaze xSirad aris individi _ axalSobili, mozardi sportsmeni, kolejis studenti, romelic studentur saerTo sacxovrebelSi cxovrebas egueba; Suaxnis mamakaci, romelic karieras icvlis, an qali, romelmac unda gadalaxos alchaimeris daavadebiT Sepyrobili meuRlis TandaTanobiTi ukusvliT gamowveuli stresi. amave dros, kvlevis sagani SeiZleba iyos Simpanze, romelic komunikaciisaTvis saWiro sim-

Tavi 1 / fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi

boloebs swavlobs, labirinTSi mosiarule TeTri virTxa, an safrTxis signalze moreagire zRvis loqora. individi mis bunebriv garemoSi, an kvleviT laboratoriaSi, kontorlirebad pirobebSi unda SeviswavloT. mravali mkvlevari fsiqologi aRiarebs, rom adamianis moqmedebas fsiqikuri procesebis, anu adamianis fsiqikis muSaobis axsnis gareSe ver gavigebT. adamianuri aqtivobis didi nawili Sinagania _ azrovneba, dagegmva, msjeloba, Semoqmedeba, ocneba. mravali fsiqologisaTvis swored fsiqikuri procesebia fsiqologiuri Ziebis yvelaze saintereso aspeqtebi. male gaigebT, rom fsiqologma mkvlevrebma daxvewili teqnikebi gamoigones fsiqikuri movlenebis da procesebis Sesaswavlad, raTa es piradi gamocdileba sazogado gaxadon. am sakiTxebis kombinacia fsiqologias unikalur sferod aqcevs. maSin, rodesac fsiqologebi ZiriTadad individebis qcevaze arian fokusirebuli, sociologebi swavloben adamianTa qcevas jgufebSi an organizaciebSi, xolo anTropologebi yuradRebas amaxvileben qcevis ufro farTo konteqstze sxvadasxva kulturaSi. miuxedavad amisa, fsiqologebi farTod iyeneben sxva mecnierebebis miRwevebs. rogorc erT-erTi socialuri mecniereba, fsiqologia iyenebs ekonomikas, politologias, sociologias da eTnologias. fsiqologebs bevri saerTo interesi aqvT biologebTan, gansakuTrebiT maTTan, vinc tvinis procesebs da qcevis bioqimiur safuZvlebs swavlobs. fsiqologebs ainteresebT, Tu rogor muSaobs adamianis fsiqika, rac axlad warmoSobili kognituri mecnierebebis _ kompiuteruli mecnierebis, xelovnuri inteleqtis da gamoyenebiTi maTematikis kvlevasa da TeoriasTanaa dakavSirebuli. rogorc janmrTelobis mecniereba _ medicinasTan, ganaTlebasTan, iurisprudenfsiqologia (psychology) _ individebis qcevis da fsiqikuri procesebis mecnieruli Seswavla. mecnieruli meTodi (scientific method) _ im procedurebis wyeba, romlebic obieqturi informaciis Segrovebisa da interpretaciisaTvis gamoiyeneba, Tanac imgvarad, rom Secdoma minimumamdea dayvanili da ganzogadeba sandoa. qceva (behavior) _ is moqmedebebi, romlis saSualebiTac organizmi garemos ergeba.

ciasTan da ekologiasTan dakavSirebuli fsiqologia _ cdilobs gaaumjobesos TiTeuli individisa da koleqtivis cxovrebis done. fsiqologia inarCunebs kavSirebs filosofiasa da sxva humanitarul mecnierebebTan, xelovnebasTan, rogorebicaa literatura da dramaturgia. miuxedavad imisa, rom Tanamedrove fsiqologiis RirsSesaniSnavi (aRsaniSnavi) siRrme da farTo Tvalsawieri siamovnebis wyaroa ukve Camoyalibebuli specialistebisaTvis, studentebisaTvis, vinc pirvelad ecnoba fsiqologias, is erTgvar sirTules warmoadgens. fsiqologiis saganze kidev bevria saTqmeli, magram, bevri Rirebuli informaciis waReba SegiZliaT am Sesavali Tavidan. fsiqologiis sferos Seswavlis saukeTeso gzad fsiqologTa miznebis garkveva migvaCnia. modiT, ganvixiloT es miznebi.

fsiqologiis miznebi
im fsiqologebis mizani, romlebic fundamentur kvlevas axorcieleben, aris qcevis aRwera, axsna, winaswarmetyveleba da gakontroleba. gamoyenebiTi fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebs kidev erTi, mexuTe mizani aqvT _ adamianis cxovrebis gaumjobeseba. es miznebi fsiqologiuri saqmianobis safuZvels Seadgens. ra igulisxmeba TiToeul am mizanSi?

movlenis aRwera
fsiqologiis pirveli amocanaa zusti dakvirveba qcevaze. Cveulebriv, fsiqologebi aseTi dakvirvebis Sedegad miRebul masalas monacemebs uwodeben. qceviTi monacemebi aris organizmis qcevis da im pirobebis aRwera, romelSic es qceva xorcieldeba. monacemebis Segrovebisas mkvlevrebma unda airCion analizis saTanado done da SeimuSavon qcevis is sazomebi, romlebic misi obeqturad Seswavlis garantias gvaZleven. individis qcevis kvlevis mizniT analizis sxvadasxva donis gamoyeneba SeiZleba _ yveqcevis monacemebi (Behavioral data) _ organizmis qcevis da im pirobebis aRwera, romlebSic es qceva mimdinareobs, an icvleba.

laze farTo, globaluri donidan yvelaze detalur, specifikur donemde. fsiqologiuri aRweris gansxvavebuli doneebic sxvadasxva kiTxvas pasuxobs. fsiqologiuri analizis yvelaze farTo doneze mkvlevrebi swavloben mTliani pirovnebis qcevas rTul socialur da kulturul konteqstSi. am doneze mkvlevrebma SeiZleba Seiswavlon Zaladobis kros-kulturuli sxvaobebi, crurwmenebis mizezebi, fsiqikuri daavadebis Sedegebi. Semdeg doneze fsiqologebi qcevis ufro natif erTeulebs swavloben, rogoricaa SuqniSnis sinaTleze reaqciis siCqare, Tvalebis moZraoba kiTxvis dros, bavSvebis mier daSvebuli gramatikuli Secdomebi enis Seswavlisas. mkvlevrebs qcevis kidev ufro mcire erTeulebis Seswavla SeuZliaT. isini cdiloben Seiswavlon qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi, anu daadginon tvinis is ubnebi, romlebic pasuxismgebelni arian sxvadasxva tipis mogonebis Senaxvaze; daswavlis dros warmoSobili bioqimiuri cvlilebebi, smenaze an mxedvelobaze pasuxismgebeli sensoruli gzebi. ana-

aqvs _ esenia mikerZoeba, crurwmena, molodini _ aucilebelia, rom am Tvalsazrisma ar daamaxinjos monacemebi. rogorc Semdeg TavSi naxavT, fsiqologma mkvlevrebma mravalgvari meqanizmi Seqmnes obieqturobis SesanarCuneblad.

movlenis axsna
maSin, rodesac aRwera TvalsaCino informacias unda eyrdnobodes, axsna aRqmulis

ratomaa fsiqologia unikaluri?

lizis TiTueuli done gvaZlevs im arsebiT informacias, romlis saSualebiTac dgeba adamianis bunebis saboloo saerTo portreti, risi miRwevis imedic aqvT fsiqologebs. rac ar unda farTo an viwro iyos dakvirvebis fokusi, fsiqologebi cdiloben, rom qceva obieqturad aRweron. im faqtebis Segroveba, romlebic realurad arsebobs da ara iseTebisa, rogorsac mkvlevari moelis, an surs, rom iyos, upirvelesi mniSvnelobisaa. vinaidan yovel damkvirvebels dakvirvebis procesSi sakuTari, subieqturi Tvalsazrisi Se-

suraTi

1.1

Tavi 1 / fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi

miRma unda ixedebodes. qceviT da fsiqikur procesebSi kanonzomierebebis aRmoCena fsiqologiis mravali dargis mTavari mizania. fsiqologebs surT aRmoaCinon, rogor muSaobs qceva. ratom iciniT moulodnel situaciebSi? ra garemoebebi ubiZgebs adamians Caidinos suicidi, an danaSauli? fsiqologiuri axsna, ZiriTadad, aRiarebs, rom qcevaTa umetesobaze gavlenas faqtorTa kombinacia axdens. zogierTi faqtori individis SigniT moqmedebs, rogoricaa genetikuri mocemuloba, motivacia, inteleqtis done, an TviTSefaseba. qcevebis am Sinagan determinantebs organizmuli cvladebi ewodeba, radgan isini organizmis Sesaxeb gvawvdis informacias. adamianis SemTxvevaSi am determinantebs dispoziciuri cvladebi ewodeba. arsebobs, agreTve, garegani faqtorebi. warmoidgineT, rom bavSvi cdilobs asiamovnos maswavlebeli, raTa prizi moigos, an transportis sacobSi moxvedrili mZRoli agresiuli da mtruli xdeba. am qcevebze did gavlenas pirovnebis gareT arsebuli movlenebi axdens. qcevaze garegan zegavlenas garemos anu situaciuri cvladebi ewoorganizmuli cvladebi (organizamic variables) _ organizmis qcevis Sinagani determinanti. dispoziciuri cvladebi (dispozitional variables) _ organizmis cvladi, anu qcevis Sinagani determinanti, romelic adamianebSi Cndeba. garemos cvladebi (environmental variables) garegani zemoqmedeba qcevaze. situaciuri cvladebi (situational variables) garegani zemoqmedeba qcevaze.

deba. rodesac fsiqologebs qcevis axsna surT, isini TiTqmis yovelTvis iTvaliswineben axsnis orive tips. warmoidgineT, rom fsiqologs surs axsnas, ratom iwyebs adamiani sigaretis mowevas. SesaZlebelia individi gansakuTrebiT midrekilia riskisaken (dispoziciuri axsna), an zogierTi individi ganicdis TanatolTa zewolas (situaciuri axsna) _ an, rom orive aucilebelia (kombinirebuli axsna). xSirad fsiqologis mizania qcevis farTo diapazoni safuZvlad mdebare erTi mizeziT axsnas. warmoidgineT situacia, romelSic Tqveni maswavlebeli ambobs, rom kargi niSnis misaRebad aucilebelia gakveTilze diskusiaSi aqtiuri monawileobis miReba. Tqveni megobari yovelTvis kargad swavlobs, magram gakveTilze ar aqtiurobs, xels ar iwevs da ar gamoTqvams Tavis azrebs da Sexedulebebs. maswavlebeli sayvedurobs, rom saTanadod motivirebuli araa da miiCnevs, rom igi gonieri ar aris. igive adamiani dadis wveulebaze, magram arasodes iwvevs vinmes sacekvaod, Riad ar icavs sakuTar azrs, Tuki vinme sakiTxSi masze nakleb Caxeduli ekamaTeba, iSviaTad erTveba saubarSi sufrasTan. ra diagnozs dasvamdiT? safuZvlad mdebare romeli mizezia am tipis qcevebze pasuxismgebeli? mravali sxva morcxvi adamianiviT, Tqveni megobaric ver axerxebs ise moiqces, rogorc saWiroa (Cheek, 1989, Zimbardo, 1990). aq SegviZlia morcxvobis cneba gamoviyenoT da Tqveni megobris qcevaTa mTeli diapazoni amiTi avxsnaT. amgvari mizez-Sedegobrivi axsnebis mosapoveblad mkvlevrebi xSirad sxvadasxva tipis monacemebis Segrovebis SemoqmedebiT process

axorcieleben. daxelovnebuli deteqtivi Serlok holmsi nawyvet-nawyveti monacemebis safuZvelze akeTebda gamWriax daskvnebs. amis msgavsad, yovelma mkvlevarma unda gamoiyenos warmosaxva da SemoqmedebiTad Serwyas is, rac icis, da is, rac jer ar icis. kargad ganswavlul fsiqologs SeuZlia monacemebi adamianis gamocdilebis sakuTari wvdomisa da sxva mecnierebis mier aRmoCenili faqtebis safuZvelze axsnas. fsiqologiuri kvlevis umetesoba cdilobs gansazRvros, mravali SesaZlo variantidan romeli xsnis yvelaze zustad mocemul qcevas.

winaswarmetyveleba
fsiqologiaSi winaswarmetyveleba niSnavs, rom garkveuli qceva an mocemuli kavSiri raRac albaTobiT gamovlindeba. xSirad qcevis romelime formis safuZvlad mdebare mizezebis zusti axsna saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevars zustad iwinaswarmetyvelos momavali qceva. magaliTad, Tu migvaCnia, rom Tqveni megobari morcxvia, SegviZlia darwmunebiT viwinaswarmetyveloT, rom is uxerxulad igrZnobs Tavs, Tu ucnob adamianTan gasaubrebas vTxovT. rodesac romelime qcevis an kavSiris asaxsnelad sxvadasxva axsna arsebobs, maT imis mixedviT Seafaseben, ramdenad kargad SeuZliaT zusti da amomwuravi winaswarmetyveleba. Tqven megobars warmatebiT rom daemyarebina ucnobTan kontaqti, diagnozi unda Segvecvala. zustad iseve, rogorc dakvirveba, mecnieruli winaswarmetyvelebac obieqturi da naTlad Camoyalibebuli unda iyos ise, rom SesaZlebeli iyos misi Semowmeba da uaryofa, Tu faqtebi mas ar adasturebs. mecnieruli

winaswarmetyveleba imis gagebas emyareba, Tu rogor aris dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan movlenebi da varaudobs, romeli meqanizmebi akavSirebs am movlenebs garkveul winapirobebTan. mizez-Sedegobrivi winaswarmetyveleba azustebs im pirobebs, romelSic qceva Seicvleba. magaliTad, garkveuli asakis Semdeg bavSvebsa da maimunebSi ucnobi piris Tandaswreba SfoTvis niSnebs iwvevs. dakvirvebul qcevaSi gamowveuli cvlilebebi ki SeiZleba damokidebuli iyos situaciis SigniT variaciebze, magaliTad, ucnobobis xarisxi. ucnobi imave asakis rom yofiliyo, ramdenic bavSvi da maimunia, nakleb SfoTvas miviRebdiT? kauzaluri winaswarmetyvelebis gaumjobesebis mizniT mkvlevari sistematurad cvlis garemo pirobebs da maT bavSvis reaqciaze gavlenas akvirdeba.

kontroli
mravali fsiqologisaTvis kontroli centraluri, yvelaze mniSvnelovani mizania. kontroli niSnavs, rom qceva an moxdeba, an ar moxdeba _ daviwyoT, SevinarCunoT, SevaCeroT da zemoqmedeba movaxdinoT mis formaze, Zlierebaze an gamovlenis sixSireze. qcevis mizez-Sedegobrivi axsna damajerebelia, Tu is qcevis gakontrolebis saSualebas qmnis. qcevis gakontrolebis unari mniSvnelovania, radgan is fsiqologebs saSualebas aZlevs adamianebs cxovrebis donis gaumjobesebaSi daexmaros. am wignSi periodulad SexvdebiT fsiqologebis mier gamogonil sxvadasxva tipis Carevas im mizniT, rom daexmaron adamianebs TavianTi cxovrebis problemuri aspeqtebis gakontorlebaSi. me-16 Tavi, magaliTad, fsi-

ratomaa fsiqologia unikaluri?

qikuri daavadebebis mkurnalobas exeba. wignSi agreTve aRwerilia, rogor SeuZliaT adamianebs aRmofxvran arajansaRi qcevebi, rogoricaa magaliTad, sigaretis moweva; wamoiwyon jansaRi qcevebi, rogoricaa regularuli varjiSi (Tavi 13). Tqven SeityobT aRzrdis ra stili exmareba mSoblebs SvilebTan myari kavSiris SenarCunebaSi (Tavi 11). ris gamo ar surs ucxo adamians daexmaros sxvas ubeduri SemTxvevis dros da rogor SeiZleba am xelisSemSleli faqtorebis gadalaxva (Tavi 18). aq moyvanilia mxolod ramdenime magaliTi im uricxvi situaciidan, romelSic fsiqologebi TavianT codnas iyeneben, raTa gaaumjobeson da gaakontrolon adamianebis cxovreba. am TvalsazrisiT, fsiqologebi sakmaod optimistebi arian. mraval maTgans sjera, rom praqtikulad nebismieri arasasurveli qceva SeiZleba Seicvalos saTanado CareviT. `fsiqologia da cxovreba~ iziarebs am optimizms.

interess moklebuli ar iqneba aRvniSnoT, rom gageba da ara kontroli warmoadgens mravali aziuri da afrikuli qveynis fsiqologebis saboloo mizans (Nobles 1980, Triandis 1990). kritikosebs miaCniaT, rom kontrolze yuradRebis gamaxvileba dasavlur fsiqologiaSi im kulturuli mikerZoebis amsaxvelia, romelic industrializaciis, evropelTa kolonializmis da aSS-Si arsebuli dampyrobluri mentalitetis Sedegia. dasavluri fsiqologiis kontrolze fokusireba, agreTve, mamakacur midgomad iTvleba. is aseTi dominanturi ar iqneboda, qalebs rom eTamaSaT wamyvani roli fsiqologiis ganviTarebaSi (Bornstein, Quina, 1989; Riger, 1992).

Sejameba
am Sesaval TavSi warmovadgenT `fsiqologiis da cxovrebis~ zogierT qveTavs, romlebic specialurad SevadgineT, raTa ufro efeq-

fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi

ratomaa saWiro fsiqologiis Seswavla


Tavi 1 / fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi

am Sesavali Tavis kiTxvisas SeiZleba dainteresdeT, ra saWiroa fsiqologia? Cveni pasuxi am kiTxvaze sakmaod pirdapiria: gvjera, rom fsiqologiur kvlevas dauyovneblivi da mniSvnelovani gamoyeneba aqvs yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. `fsiqologiis da cxovrebis~ erTerTi umTavresi mizania fsiqologiuri gamocdilebis pirovnuli da sazogadoebrivi mniSvneloba gaaSuqos. yovel semestrSi vxvdebiT studentebs, romlebic fsiqologiis disciplinis Sesaval kurss eswrebian da garkveuli kiTxvebi uCndebaT. xandaxan es kiTxvebi maTi sakuTari gamocdilebiTaa gamowveuli (ro-

gor unda moviqce, Tu vfiqrob, rom deda fsiqikurad daavadebuli myavs? es sagani maswavlis, rogor unda miviRo ukeTesi niSnebi?); xandaxan es kiTxvebi presis saSualebiT gavrcelebuli fsiqologiuri informaciiTaa gamowveuli (marTalia, rom rac ufro didia bavSvi, miT ufro konservatulia igi? qalebi yovelTvis ukeTesi mSoblebi arian, vidre kacebi?). CvenTvis am kursis swavlebis sirTule swored isaa, rom mecnieruli kvlevis is Sedegebi warmoavaCinoT, romlebic mniSvnelovania studentebisaTvis. `fsiqologiisa da cxovre-

bis~ TiTqmis yvela Tavi da qveTavi cdilobs swored amgvar kiTxvebs upasuxos. am gamocemaSi specialuri CanarTebi movaTavseT _ fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi. TiToeuli aseTi CanarTi pasuxobs kiTxvas, romelic araerTxel gvsmenia studentebisagan. Cvens mizans warmoadgenda im sakiTxebis mecnierulad axsna, romlebic yvelaze metad aRelvebT studentebs. imedi gvaqvs dagveTanxmebiT, rom fsiqologiis Seswavla gaamdidrebs Tqvens cxovrebiseul gamocdilebas.

turad aiTvisoT teqsti. Sejamebis qveTavi Tan sdevs yoveli Tavis garkveul, msxvil informacias. amgvari Sejameba ganvlili masalis sakvanZo sakiTxebis ukeT gagebaSi dagexmarebaT. yovel Tavs boloSi darTuli aqvs seqcia, romelsac sakvanZo sakiTxebi ewodeba. es qveTavi teqstis wvdomis Sesamowmeblad unda gamoiyenoT. Tu aRmoaCenT, rom ar gesmiT Sejameba, teqsts daubrundiT da Sesabamisi masala Tavidan waikiTxeT, sanam ar darwmundebiT, rom namdvilad gesmiT teqsti. amgvari qveTavebi testirebisaTvis mzadebaSi dagexmarebaT.

leqtualuri vneba, romliTac Cndeboda es Teoriebi.

fsiqologiis istoriuli safuZvlebi


fsiqologias xangrZlivi warsuli, magram mokle istoria aqvs, werda eqsperimentuli fsiqologiis erT-erTi warmomadgeneli herman ebinhausi (Hermann Ebbinghaus, 1908). mecnierebs saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi ainteresebdaT adamianis bunebis mravali saidumlo: rogor aRiqvams adamiani realobas, rogoria cnobierebis buneba, saidan modis sigiJe, magram amgvar kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemis SesaZlebloba kvlevis saTanado iaraRis ararsebobis gamo ar gaaCndaT. gavixsenoT Cvens welTaRricxvamde IV da V saukuneebSi berZeni filosofosebis: sokrates, platonis da aristoteles mier dasmuli fundamenturi SekiTxvebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom fsiqologiis garkveuli formebi induri iogas uZveles tradiciaSic arsebobda, dasavluri fsiqologiis safuZvlebi swored did berZen moazrovneTa dialogebSi unda veZeboT, sadac midioda msjeloba imaze, Tu rogor muSaobs goneba, ra aris Tavisufali neba, ra mimarTebaa calkeul moqalaqeebsa da maT saxelmwifos Soris. XIX saukunis bolosTvis mkvlevrebma sxva mecnierebebidan, rogorebicaa fiziologia da fizika, kvlevis laboratoriuli meTodebis fsiqologiaSi gadmotana daiwyes, raTa pasuxi gaecaT filosofosebis mier dasmul am fundamentur kiTxvebze. Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTarebaSi gadamwyveti roli vilhelm vundtma (Wilhelm Wundt) Seasrula, romelmac 1879 wels laipcigSi eqsperimentuli fsiqologiis pirveli laboratoria daaarsa. marTalia, vundti ganaTlebiT fiziologi iyo, magram samecniero karieris manZilze misma interesebma sxeulis Seswvlidan fsiqikis Seswavlaze gadainacvla. mas surda Seeswavla SegrZnebis da aRqmis ZiriTadi procesebi da martivi fsiqikuri procesebis siCqare. im droisaTvis, rodesac vundtma fsiqologiuri laboratoria daaarsa, mas ukve ganxorcielebuli hqonda kvlevaTa seria da gamoqveynebuli Tavisi `fiziologi-

Sejameba
fsiqologebi mecnierul meTods imisaTvis iyeneben, rom individebis qcevisa da fsiqikuri procesebis Sesaxeb daskvna gaakeTon. fsiqologebs ramdenime mizani aqvT: obieqturad da saTanado doneze aRweron qceva, axsnan misi aRmZvreli Zalebi, iwinaswarmetyvelon rodis ganxorcieldeba qceva da gaakontrolon is, raTa cxovrebis done gaaumjobeson.

Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTareba


XXI saukuneSi CvenTvis SedarebiT advilia ganvmartoT, ras niSnavs fsiqologia da ra aris fsiqologiuri kvlevis miznebi. Tumca, fsiqologiis Seswavlis dawyebisas mniSvnelovania gesmodeT is mravali Zala, romelmac Tanamedrove fsiqologiis gaCena ganapiroba. es istoriuli mimoxilva erT martiv princips emyareba: mniSvneloba aqvs ideebs. fsiqologiis mecnierebis ganviTarebis mTel manZilze gacxarebuli kamaTi mimdinareobda fsiqologiis sagnisa da kvlevis meTodebis Sesaxeb. Cveni istoriuli mimoxilva analizis or doneze ganxorcieldeba. pirvel ganyofilebaSi mimovixilavT istoriis im periods, roca fsiqologias safuZveli Caeyara, xolo meore ganyofilebaSi farTod aRvwerT amJamad arsebul Svid mimdinareobas. fokusirebis orive donisaTvis SeecadeT warmoidginoT is inte-

ratomaa fsiqologia unikaluri?

rac ar kargavs mniSvnelobas. ganvixiloT dava struqturalizmsa da funqcionalizms Soris.

struqturalizmi: fsiqikis Sinaarsi


rodesac fsiqologia laboratoriuli mecniereba gaxda da eqsperimentuli kvlevebis Catareba daiwyo, naTlad gamoCnda misi potenciali _ unikaluri wvlili Seetana codnis SeZenaSi. vundtis laboratoriaSi cdis pirebi martiv reaqciebs (ki-s, an ara-s Tqma, Rilakze TiTis daWera) iZleodnen sxvadasxva pirobaSi aRqmul stimulebze. radganac monacemebi sistematuri da obieqturi procedurebis saSualebiT iyo Segrovili, sxvebsac SeeZloT am eqsperimentebis gameoreba. vundtis fsiqologiuri tradiciis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebia aqcenti mecnierul meTodze, zust gazomvebsa da monacemTa statistikur analizze. rodesac titCenerma vundtis fsiqologia aSSSi Caitana, igi amtkicebda, rom cnobierebis sakvlevad swored amgvari mecnieruli meTodebi unda gamoeyenebinaT. cnobieri fsiqikuri cxovrebis elementebis Seswavlis miseuli meTodi introspeqcia _ individis mier konkretuli sensoruli gancdiT gamowveuli azrebis da grZnobebis ganxilva iyo. titCeneri aqcents fsiqikis Sinaarsis raobaze akeTebda da naklebad ainteresebda kiTxvebi ratom da rogor. mis midgomas struqturalizmi, anu swavleba fsiqikis da qcevis struqturis Sesaxeb ewodeba. struqturalizmi efuZneba varauds, rom adamianis fsiqikuri gancda SeiZleba gavigoT, rogorc ZiriTadi komponentebis kombinacia. am midgomis mizani iyo fsiqikis struqtura SegrZnebis da fsiqikuri cxovrebis sxva gancdebis Semadgeneli elementebis analizis gziT ekvlia. mravali fsiqologi struqturalizms sam frontze daesxa Tavs: (1) is reduqcionistuli iyo, radganac adamianis gancdis mTeli sirTule martiv SegrZnebebamde daiyvana; (2) is elementaruli iyo, radgan nawilebs anu elementebs erT mTelSi aerTebda da uSualod am mTel qcevas ar swavlobda; (3) is mentalisturi iyo, radgan adamianis cnobieri gancdis mxolod verbalur aRweras swavlobda da ar iTvaliswinebda maT gamocdilebas, visac ar SeeZlo Tavisi introspeqciis aRwera, maT Soris, cxovelebs, bavSvebs da fsiqikurad daavadebul adamianebs.

10

uri fsiqologiis safuZvlebis~ pirveli gamocema (sul 7 aseTi gamocema iyo) (Kendler, 1987). laboratoriis gaxsnis Semdeg vundtma fsiqologiis studentebis aRzrda daiwyo, misma mowafeTa didma raodenobam Semdeg TavianT samSobloSi daaarsa msgavsi laboratoriebi. raki fsiqologia damoukidebel disciplinad Camoyalibda, CrdiloeT amerikis mraval universitetSi fsiqologiuri laboratoriebi gaCnda: pirveli maTgani _ jons hopkinsis universitetSi, 1883 wels. am adreul laboratoriebs vundtis gavlena etyoboda. magaliTad, eduard titCeneri (Edward Titchener), vundtis mowafe, erT-erTi pirveli fsiqologi iyo aSS-Si, romelmac 1892 wels kornelis universitetis laboratoria daaarsa. Tumca, daaxloebiT amave dros, harvardis universitetis filosofiis axalgazrda profesorma, romelic medicinas swavlobda da literatura da religia ainteresebda, wminda amerikuli xedva SeimuSava. uiliam jemsma (William James), didi romanistis, henri jemsis Zmam, or tomad gamosca fsiqologiis safuZvlebi (1890-1950), romelic, mravali eqspertis azriT, yvelaze mniSvnelovani fsiqologiuri naSromia. maleve, 1892 wels, h. stenli holma amerikis fsiqologTa asociacia daaarsa. 1900 wlisTvis CrdiloeT amerikaSi 40-ze meti fsiqologiuri laboratoria funqcionirebda (Hilgard, 1986). fsiqologiis gaCenisTanave daiwyo debatebi misi kvlevis sagnisa da meTodebis Sesaxeb. am debatebSi gamokveTili zogierTi sakiTxi je-

Tavi 1 / fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi

struqturalizmis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani alternativa gelStalt fsiqologia iyo, romlis fuZemdebeli germaneli fsiqologi maqs verthaimeri (Max Wertheimer) gaxldaT. misi azriT, mraval movlenas fsiqika aRiqvams, rogorc geStalts _ organizebul mTels da ara martivi nawilebis erTianobas. rodesac, magaliTad, naxats aRviqvamT, is ufro metia, vidre saRebavis calkeuli monasmebis erToblioba. rogorc me-5 TavSi vnaxavT, geStalt fsiqologias kvlavac aqvs gavlena aRqmis Seswavlaze. struqturalizmis kidev erTi sapirispiro mimdinareobaa funqcionalizmi.

funqcionalizmi: mizanmimarTuli fsiqika


uiliam jemsi titCeners eTanxmeboda, rom fsiqologiis Seswavlis sagani cnobiereba unda iyos, magram misTvis cnobiereba ar daiyvaneboda elementebze, Sinaarssa da struqturebze. cnobiereba aris nakadi, fsiqikis Tviseba, romelic mudmiv urTierTqmedebaSi imyofeba garemosTan. adamianis cnobiereba mis garemosTan morgebas aadvilebs, amdenad, mniSvnelovania fsiqikuri procesebis moqmedebebi da funqciebi da ara Sinaarsi. funqcionalizmisaTvis umniSvnelovanesia daswavlili Cvevebi, romlebic organizms garemosTan morgebis da efeqturad funqcionirebis saSualebas aZlevs. kvlevam pasuxi unda gasces kiTxvas: ra aris nebismieri qceviTi aqtis funqcia an mizani? funqcionalizmis skolis damaarsebeli iyo amerikeli filosofosi jon diui. mis mier fsiqikuri procesebis praqtikuli gamoyenebis mcdelobam ganaTlebis sferoSi mniSvnelovan warmatebas miaRwia. misma msjelobam impulsi misca progresul ganaTlebas sakuTar laboratoriul skolaSi da Semdgom mTel aSS-Si: meqanikuri
struqturalizmi (Srtucturalism) _ swavleba fsiqikisa da qcevis Sesaxeb, sadac fsiqikuri gamocdileba gaigeba, rogorc martivi elementebis an movlenebis kombinacia. funqcionalizmi (Functionalism) _ swavleba, romelic fokusirdeba organizmis garemosTan urTierTqmedebis dros fsiqikisa da qcevis funqciebze.

daswavla uaryves da praqtikiT swavlaze gadavidnen im imediT, rom es inteleqtualur cnobismoyvareobas aRZravda da Sedegad masalis ukeTesi wvdoma miiReboda (Kendler, 1987, gv. 124). miuxedavad imisa, jemss dakvirvebis sjeroda, vundtis mier SemuSavebul daxvewil laboratorul meTodebs is mcire mniSvnelobas aniWebda. jemsis fsiqologiaSi arsebobda adgili emociebis, me-s, nebisyofis, Rirebulebebis, religiuri da mistikuri gancdebisTvisac ki. misi Tbilsisxliani fsiqologia aRiarebda, rom TiToeuli individi unikaluria da ver daiyvaneba formulebze an testis qulebze. jemsisTvis fsiqologiis mizans axsna warmoadgenda da ara _ eqsperimentuli kontroli (Arkin, 1990).

am mimdinareobebis memkvidreoba
miuxedavad maT Soris gansxvavebisa, struqturalizmis da funqcionalizmis praqtikosTa aRmoCenebma is inteleqtualuri konteqsti Seqmnes, romelSic Tanamedrove fsiqologia ganviTarda. amJamad fsiqologebi swavloben qcevis rogorc struqturas, ise funqcias, magaliTad, ganvixiloT metyvelebis procesi. warmoidgineT, rom megobris kinoSi dapatiJeba gsurT. amisaTvis Tqvens mier warmoTqmulma sityvebma sworad unda Seasrulos Tavisi funqcia. amave dros winadadebas unda hqondes swori struqtura: swori ar iqneba Tu ityviT: ginda `varskvlavuri omebi~ erTad CemTan am saRamos wamosvla? metyvelebis procesis gagebis mizniT mecnierebi swavloben, Tu rogor axerxebs mosaubre erTmaneTs moargos sityvis mniSvneloba (funqcia) da enis gramatikuli struqtura (Bock 1990). (enis da metyvelebis zogierT process me-9 TavSi aRvwerT). am wignSi aqcents gavakeTebT rogorc struqturaze, ise _ funqciaze, ganvixilavT rogorc klasikur, ise Tanamedrove kvlevebs. fsiqologebi mraval sxvadasxva meTods iyneben yvela individisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli zogadi movlenebisa da TiToeuli individis unikaluri aspeqtebis Sesaswavlad.

Tanamedrove fsiqologiis mimdinareobebi


ganvixiloT Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ZiriTad mimdinareobebi. TiToeuli maTgani: _ biologiuri, fsiqodinamikuri, bihevioristuli,

Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTareba

11

humanisturi, kognituri, ganviTarebis da fsiqo-kulturuli _ iZleva xedvis kuTxesa da daSvebebs, romelic gavlenas axdens imaze, Tu ras Seiswavlian fsiqologebi da rogor: adamianebs Tavisufali neba gaaCniaT, Tu memkvidreobiT miRebul (biologiuri determinizmi), an garemoTi ganpirobebul (garemos determinizmi) scenars asruleben? organizmi aqtiuri da SemoqmedebiTia, Tu meqanikuri da reaqtiuli? SesaZlebelia fsiqologiuri da socialuri fenomenebi fiziologiuri procesebiT aixsnas? rTuli qceva mravali ufro mcire komponentis jamia, Tu mas axali da gansxvavebuli Tvisebebi aqvs? fsiqologiis mimdinareoba ganapirobebs, ra eZebos, sad da ra meTodebiT. yoveli momdevno Tavis wakiTxvisas miadevneT Tvali, Tu rogor gansazRvravs qcevis mizezebs da Sedegebs TiToeuli aseTi mimdinareoba. marTalia, fsiqologiis centralur sakiTxebs TiToeuli es mimdinareoba gansxvavebulad udgeba, mravali fsiqologi sesxulobs da erTmaneTs uTavsebs sxvadasxva mimarTulebis cnebebs. TiToeuli mimdinareoba saSualebas gvaZlevs ukeT gavigoT adamianis gamocdileba. amitom, aq TiToeuli mimarTulebis wvlils ganvixilavT, xolo mTlianobaSi isini Tanamedrove fsiqologias asaxaven.

am mimarTulebis warmomadgenlebi Tvlian, rom fsiqologiuri da socialuri fenomenebi SeiZleba bioqimiuri procesebis terminebiT aixsnas. yvelaze rTuli fenomenic ki SeiZleba gagebul iqnes ufro mcire, ufro specifikur erTeulebze dayvaniT. magaliTad, isini Seecdebian axsnan, rogor kiTxulobT am winadadebis Semadgenel sityvebs tvinis ujredebSi mimdinare zusti fizikuri procesebis aRweris gziT. aq qceva misi fizikuri struqturiT da memkvidreobiTi procesebiT ganisazRvreba. safuZvlad mdebare biologiuri struqturebis da procesebis SecvliT gamocdilebam SeiZleba qcevac Secvalos. mkvlevrebma SeiZleba gkiTxon: ra cvlilebebi xdeba Tqvens tvinSi, roca kiTxvas swavlobT? fsiqobiologiuri mimarTulebis amocana qcevis analizis yvelaze zust doneze gagebaa. mravali aseTi mkvlevari universitetebsa da samedicino laboratoriebSi muSaobs, sxvebi ki _ klinikebSi. pirvelebi swavloben, SeiZleba Tu ara gavaumjobesoT asakovani virTxebis mexsiereba Canasaxovani virTxebis qsovilebis gadanergviT, xolo meoreni _ avtosagzao SemTxvevis an daavadebis Sedegad gamowveuli mexsierebis dakargvas. am mkvlevrebis gamaerTianebelia biologiuri Zalebisagan warmoSobili qcevis aspeqtebis Seswavla. fsiqodinamikuri mimdinareoba

biologiuri mimdinareoba
Tavi 1 / fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi

biologiuri mimidnareobis warmomadgenlebi qcevis mizezs genebis, tvinis, nervuli da endokrinuli sistemebis funqcionirebaSi eZeben. organizmis funqcionireba axsnilia mis safuZvlad mdebare fizikuri struqturebis da bioqimiuri procesebis terminebiT. gancda da qceva gaigeba, rogorc nervul ujredebs Soris da SigniT qimiuri da eleqtruli aqtivobis Sedegi.

biologiuri perspeqtiva aa

fsiqologiuri perspeqtiva

12

fsiqodinamikuri mimarTulebis mixedviT qcevas marTavs, an mis motivs warmoadgens Zlieri Sinagani Zalebi. adamianis qcevebi Tandayolili instinqtebidan, biologiuri ltolvebidan, pirovnul moTxovnilebebsa da sazogadoebis moTxovnebs Soris konfliqtis gadaWris mcdelobidan momdinareobs. deprivaciis mdgomareoba, fiziologiuri aRgzneba da konfliqtebi qcevis ganxorcielebis energias zustad iseve iZleva, rogorc naxSiri _ sawvavs orTqlis lokomotivisaTvis. am modelis mixedviT, organizmi wyvets reagirebas, Tu misi moTxovnilebebi dakmayofilebulia, misi ltolvebi ki _ Semcirebuli. qcevis mTavari mizani daZabulobis Semcirebaa. motivaciis fsiqodinamikuri principebi yvelaze srulad venelma eqimma zigmund froidma (zigmund Freud) ganaviTara XIX saukunis bo-

analituri Terapiis sakiTxebs. amasTanave, gakvirvebiT aRmoaCenT, rom misi ideebi arasodes yofila sistematuri mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegi. nacvlad amisa, es iyo gamorCeuli SemoqmedebiTi gonebis nayofi, romelic Sepyrobili iyo adamianis azrebis, grZnobebisa da moqmedebebis Rrmad dafaruli saidumlos amocnobis surviliT.

bihevioristuli mimdinareoba
am mimdinareobis warmomadgenlebi swavloben, Tu rogor akontrolebs konkretuli tipis qcevas garemos konkretuli stimuli. upirveles yovlisa, bihevioristebi aanalizeben garemos winapirobebs, im pirobebs, romlebic win uswrebs qcevas da organizms imisaTvis amzadebs, moaxdinos Tu ara reagireba. Semdeg isini ganixilaven qceviT reaqcias, romelic maTi kvlevis mTavar obieqts warmoadgens. qceva unda gavigoT, viwinaswarmetyveloT da gavakontroloT. bolos, ikvleven reaqciis dakvirvebad Sedegebs. bihevioristis interesis sagania, magaliTad, rogor cvlis sagzao jarimebi (Sedegi) motocikletistis marTvis stils, aiZulebs mas ufro frTxilad iaros, an saerTod Tavi daanebos tarebas (qceviTi reaqcia). monacemebs bihevioristebi kontrolirebadi laboratoriuli eqsperimentebidan iReben. maT SeiZleba eleqtronuli aparatura da kompiuterebi gamoiyenon stimulis warsadgenad da reaqciis dasafiqsireblad. isini miiCneven, rom Sesaswavli fenomeni zustad unda iyos ganmartebuli da raodenobrivad gamoxatuli. xSirad isini cxovelebs swavloben (umetes SemTxvevabihevioristuli mimdinareoba (Behaviorists perspective) _ am mimdinareobas ainteresebs dakvirvebadi qceva, romelic obieqturad fiqsirdeba da dakvirvebadi qcevis mimarTeba garemos stimulebTan. biheviorizmi (Behaviorism) _ mecnieruli midgoma, romelic fsiqologiis Seswavlas mxolod gazomvadi an dakvirvebadi qceviT farglavs. humanisturi mimdinareoba (Humanistic perspective) _ fsiqologiuri modeli, romelic aqcents individis fenomenur samyaroze, racionaluri arCevanis gakeTebisa da maqsimaluri potencialis ganviTarebis Tandayolil unarze akeTebs.

los da XX saukunis dasawyisSi. froidis ideebi fsiqikurad daavadebul pacientebTan muSaobis Sedegad warmoiSva, magram, misi azriT, is principebi, romlebic man avadmyofebTan aRmoaCina, vrceldeba rogorc normalur, jansaR, ise _ paTologiur qcevaze. froidis fsiqodinamikuri Teoriis mixedviT, pirovnebas aqeTiqeT eqaCeba Sinagani da garegani Zalebi. froidis modelSi pirvelad iyo naCvenebi, rom adamianis buneba yovelTvis ar aris racionaluri; rom qcevebi SeiZleba iseTi motivebiT iyos gamowveuli, romlebic ar aris gacnobierebuli. froidis Semdeg es Teoria misma mimdevrebma sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT ganaviTares. froidis mixedviT, pirovnebis Camoyalibebis periodi adreuli bavSvobaa, neofroidianelebma gaafarToves misi Teoria da masSi socialuri zemoqmedeba da urTierTqmedeba CarTes, romelic indvidis sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi iCens Tavs. froidis ideebs didi gavlena hqonda fsiqologiis mraval sferoze. misi wvlilis sxvadasxva aspeqts waawydebiT, rodesac gaecnobiT bavSvis ganviTarebis, sizmris, daviwyebis, aracnobieri motivaciis, pirovnebis da fsiqo-

Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTareba

13

Si mtredebs da virTxebs), radgan eqsperimentis pirobebs aq ufro srulad gaakontroleben, vidre adamianebis SemTxvevaSi. bihevioristebi Tvlian, rom cxovelebze Seswavlili ZiriTadi procesebi igivenairad mimdinareobs sxva saxeobebSic. biheviorizmi farTod gamoiyeneba fsiqologiis praqtikaSi. mis mier moTxovnili zusti eqsperimentireba da cvladebis zedmiwevniTi dadgena fsiqologiis sferoTa umetesobaSi gaiziares. bihevioristebis mier cxovelebze aRmoCenili kanozomierebebi adamianis problemebzec gamoiyenes. bihevioristulma principebma ganaTlebisadmi ufro humanur midgomamde migviyvana (dasjis nacvlad dadebiTi ganmtkicebis gamoyeneba), Seiqmna qceviTi darReevebis axali tipis Terapia da utopiuri sazogadoebis modelis Seqmnis instruqciebi.

listur midgomas aRiareben. maTi azriT, namdvili wvdoma niSnavs individis fsiqikis, sxeulis da qcevis codnas socialuri da kulturuli faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT. humanisturi midgoma afarToebs fsiqologiis sferos da masSi literaturis, istoriis, xelovnebis Seswavlidan miRebul gakveTilebs rTavs. amgvarad, fsiqologia ufro savse disciplina xdeba. humanisturi fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebi amboben, rom maTi midgoma aris is safuari, romelic exmareba fsiqologias adamianis bunebis cxovelur aspeqtebze da uaryofiT Zalebze zemoT dadges. rogorc me-16 TavSi vnaxavT, humanisturma mimdinareobam didi gavlena iqonia fsiqoTerapiaSi axali midgomebis gaCenaze.

kognituri mimdinareoba
kognituri revolucia fsiqologiaSi gaCnda, rogorc biheviorizmis SezRudulobis kidev erTi gamowveva. kognituri mimdinareobis centrSi dgas adamianis Semecneba da codnis SeZenis yvela procesi: yuradReba, azrovneba, damaxsovreba da gageba. kognituri mimarTulebis mixedviT adamianebi moqmedeben, radgan isini azrovneben, xolo azrovneben, radgan adamianebi arian. kognitur modelSi qceva mxolod nawilobrivadaa ganpirobebuli garemos winmswrebi movlenebiT da warsuli qcevebis SedegebiT, rogorc es bihevioristebs miaCniaT. zogierTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani qceva azrovnebis sruliad axali da ara warsulSi gamoyenebuli gzebidan Cndeba. im alternativebis warmodgenis unari, romlebic sruliad gansxvavdeba imisgan, rac aris, an iyo, saSualebas aZlevs adamians momavlisken iswrafos da awmyo situacia gadalaxos. individi realobaze reagirebs ara ise, TiTqos is obieqturi samyaro iyos, aramed ise, rogorc is misi fiqrebis da warmosaxvis Sinagani samyaros subieqtur realobaSi aisaxeba. kognituri fsiqologebisaTvis azrebi qcevebis rogorc Sedegi, aseve mizezia. Tu viRacas awyenineT da nanobT, es azria, romelic qcevis Sedegad gagiCndaT, xolo sinanulis gancdis Semdeg bodiSis moxda azris, rogorc qcevis mizezis magaliTia. kognituri fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebi iseT umaRles fsiqikur procesebs swavloben,

humanisturi mimdinareoba
humanisturi fsiqologia 1950-ian wlebSi gaCnda, rogorc fsiqodinamikuri da bihevioristuli modelebis alternativa. humanisturi fsiqologiis mixedviT, adamianebis qcevas ar ganapirobebs arc Sinagani, instinqturi Zalebi, rogorc amas froidianelebi miiCneven da arc garegani Zalebi, rogorc bihevioristebs miaCndaT. adamianebi aqtiuri qmnilebebi arian, Sinaganad kargebi da arCevanis gakeTebis unari aqvT. humanisturi mimdinareobis mixedviT, adamianis ZiriTadi amocanaa swrafva sakuTari potenciis, SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebisken. humanisti fsiqologebi swavloben qcevas, magram ara laboratoriul pirobebSi da ara mis Semadgenel elementebze an komponentebze dayvaniT. isini adamianTa cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi gamovlenil cxovrebiseuli istoriebis paternebs akvirdebian. biheviorisitebisgan mkveTrad gansxvavebiT, humanisturi fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebi individis mier gancdil subieqtur samyaros swavloben da ara garegani damkvirveblis da mkvlevris TvaliT danaxul obieqtur samyaros. amitom, isini fenomenologiuri fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebadac iTvlebian, radgan movlenebze calkeuli moqmedi subieqtis (actor) pirad Sexedulebas swavloben. garda amisa, humanisti fsiqologebi cdiloben mTliani pirovneba Seiswavlon da ho-

14

Tavi 1 / fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi

rogoricaa aRqma, mexsiereba, enis gamoyeneba, problemis gadaWra da gadawyvetilebis miReba sxvadasxva doneze. maT SeiZleba ikvlion tvinSi sisxlis moZraobis sqema sxvadasxva tipis kognituri amocanis gadawyvetisas, studentis mogonebebi adreuli bavSvobis SemTxvevaze, an sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi mexsierebis unaris cvlilebebi. fsiqikur procesebze fokusirebis gamo mravali mkvlevrisaTvis kognituri mimdinareoba dRes fsiqologiaSi dominanturia.

evoluciuri mimdinareoba
evoluciuri mimdinareoba cdilobs Tanamedrove fsiqologia biologiuri mecnierebebis ZiriTad ideebs, Carlz darvinis bunebrivi SerCevis gziT evoluciis Teorias daukavSiros. bunebrivi SerCevis idea sakmaod martivia: garemosTan ukeT Seguebuli organizmebi ukeTes STamomavlobas iZlevian (da gadascemen Tavis genebs), vidre cudad Seguebulebi. mravali Taobis manZilze adaptaciis unari sul ufro da ufro Zlierdeba da ixveweba. fsiqologiaSi evoluciuri mimdinareoba gulisxmobs, rom, rogorc fsiqikuri, ise fizikuri unarebi milionobiT wlis ganmavlobaSi viTardeboda, raTa konkretul adaptaciur miznebs momsaxureboda. mkvlevrebi im garemo pirobebs swavloben, romlebSic adamianis tvini ganviTarda. adamianis ganviTarebis istoriis 99% pleistocenis eraSi mcire jgufebad cxovrebas, nadirobasa da SemgroveblobaSi mimdinareobda (uxeSad, ormilionwliani periodi, romelic 10 000
kognituri mimdinareoba (Cognitive perspective) _ fsiqologiis mimdinareoba, romelic aqcents akeTebs adamianis azrovnebis da codnis SeZenis procesebze, rogoricaa yuradReba, azrovneba, damaxsovreba, molodini, problemis gadaWra, fantazia da cnobiereba. evoluciuri mimdinareoba (Evolutionary perspective) _ fsiqologiis midgoma, romelic xazs usvams qceviT da adapturobis mniSvnelovnebas im varaudis safuZvelze, rom fsiqikuri unarebi milionobiT wlis ganmavlobaSi viTardeboda, raTa konkretul adaptur miznebs momsaxureboda. kulturuli mimdinareoba (Cultural perspective) _ aqcents qcevis mizezebis da Sedegebis kros-kulturul sxvaobaze akeTebs.

wlis win damTavrda). evoluciuri fsiqologia evoluciuri biologiis mdidar Teoriul gamocdilebas iyenebs, raTa is centraluri adaptaciuri problemebi daadginos, romlebic cocxali arsebebis winaSe dgas: mtaceblebisa da parazitebis Tavidan acileba, sakvebis Segroveba da gacvla, mewyvilis mopoveba da SenarCuneba, janmrTeli bavSvebis gazrda. adaptaciuri problemebis dadgenis Semdeg evoluciuri fsiqologia daskvnebs akeTebs im fsiqikuri meqanizmebis an fsiqologiuri adaptaciis Sesaxeb, romelic SeiZleba am problemebis gadasWrelad gaCeniliyo. evoluciuri fsiqologia sxva mimarTulebebisagan, upirvels yovlisa, imiT gansxvavdeba, rom misi ZiriTadi amxsneli principi evoluciis ukiduresad xangrZlivi procesia. am mimarTulebis warmomadgenlebi cdiloben gaigon qalisa da mamakacis mier aRebuli gansxvavebuli sqesobrivi rolebi, rogorc evoluciis da ara Tanamedrove sazogadoebis gavlenis produqti. imis gamo, rom evoluciuri fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebs ar SeuZliaT eqsperimentebis Catareba, radgan evoluciis process ver Secvlian, maT araordinaruli gzebis Zieba uwevT, raTa Teoriis damamtkicebeli sabuTebi moipovon.

15

Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTareba

kulturuli mimdinareoba
am mimdinareobis warmomadgenlebi qcevis mizezebisa da Sedegebis kros-kulturul sxvaobebs swavloben. kulturuli mimdinareoba mniSvnelovani pasuxia im kritikaze, rom fsiqologiuri kvleva xSirad zedmetad emyareba adamianis bunebis gagebis dasavlur koncefcias da ikvlevs mxolod TeTrkanian, saSualo klasis amerikelebs (Gergen et al; 1996). kulturuli Zalebis saTanado gaTvaliswineba erTi da imave eris SigniT jgufebis Sedarebasac gulisxmobs. magaliTad, mkvlevrebma SeiZleba Seiswavlon kvebiTi aSlilobebi aSS-is TeTrkanian da Savkanian amerikel mozardebSi (ixileT me-12 Tavi). kulturuli Zalebi SeiZleba aseve Sefasdes sxvadasxva erSi, magaliTad, moraluri msjelobebis Sedareba aSS-sa da indoeTSi (Tavi me-11). kros-kulturuli fsiqologiis warmomadgenlebs ainteresebT, yvela adamians exeba arsebuli Teoriebi, Tu ufro viwro, specifikur populaciebs. kros-kulturuli mimdinareoba fsiqologiuri kvlevis TiTqmis yvela sferoze vrceldeba: zemoqmedebs Tu ara kultura adamianis mier samyaros aRqmaze? ganapirobebs Tu ara ena samyaros aRqmas? rogor zemoqmedebs kultura bavSvis ganviTarebaze? rogor zemoqmedebs kulturuli ganwyobebi moxucebulobis asakis gamocdilebaze? ganapirobebs kultura sakuTari Tavis aRqmas? zemoqmedebs kultura imaze, Tu rogor gamoxatavs adamiani emociebs? ganapirobebs Tu ara kultura imas, Tu ra qcevebs ganaxorcielebs individi? zemoqmedebs Tu ara kultura imaze, Tu ra zomiT ganicdian adamianebi fsiqikur aSlilobebs? amgvari kiTxvebis dasmiT kulturuli mimdinareoba xSirad iseT daskvnebs gvaZlevs, romlebic sxva mimarTulebis mier wamoyenebul Tezisebs ewinaaRmdegeba. magaliTad, mkvlevarTa azriT, froidis Teoriis mravali aspeqti ar miesadageba venis kulturisagan Sors mdgom sazogadoebebs. amgvari idea jer kidev anTropologma bronislav malinovskim (Bronislav Malinowski) gamoTqva 1927 wels da froidis mamaze centrirebuli Teoria axali gvineis magaliTis safuZvelze gaakritika, sadac ojaxebi dedazea centrirebuli. amrigad, kulturuli mimdinareoba miiCnevs, rom fsiqodinamikuri mimdinareo-

bis zogierTi debuleba arasworia. kulturis sxvadasxvaoba da simdidre gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos, rodesac adamianis gamocdilebis Sesaxeb daskvnebis ganzogadebas vaxdenT.

mimdinareobebis Sedareba:
agresiis magaliTi
Svidive mimdinareoba s\xvadasxva daSvebazea agebuli da gansxvavebulad esmis qceva. cxrilSi 1.1 Sejamebulia es mimdinareobebi. magaliTisaTvis mokled ganvixiloT, rogor axsnida TiToeuli es Teoria agresiis faqts; imas, Tu ratom iqcevian adamianebi agresiulad. yvela es midgoma iyo gamoyenebuli agresiisa da Zaladobis bunebis gagebis mcdelobisas. TiToeuli mimarTulebisaTvis mogvyavs mkvlevrebis mier SesaZlod gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi da SesaZlod ganxorcielebuli eqsperimentebi. biologiuri. ikvleven tvinis konkretuli sistemebis rols agresiaSi. isini sxvadasxva regions astimulireben da Semdeg amiT gamowveul destruqciul moqmedebebs afiqsireben. agreTve, swavloben, raime normidan gadaxra xom ar aris seriuli mkvlelebis tvinSi, xom ar aris dakavSirebuli qalis agresia menstrualur ciklTan. fsiqodinamikuri. aanalizeben agresias, rogorc reaqcias frustraciaze, romelsac siamovnebis miRwevis procesSi Seqmnili dabrkolebebi iwvevs, rogoricaa, magaliTad, usamarTlo xelmZRvaneli. es mimdinareoba agresias uyurebs, rogorc bavSvobaSi mSoblebis mimarT gancdili mtrulobis gadatanas zrdasrul asakSi. bihevioristuli. adgens warsulSi Cadenili agresiuli qcevebis ganmtkicebis faqtebs, vTqvaT, moswavlem klaselebs, an Tanatolebs daartya da es zedmeti yuradRebis sagani gaxda. es midgoma amtkicebs, rom bavSvebi mSoblebisagan agresiul mopyrobas swavloben da Semdeg Tavis Svilebsac aseve epyrobian. humanisturi. ikvlevs im pirovnul Rirebulebebs da socialur pirobebs, romlebic xels uwyobs agresiul da TviTSemzRudav gamocdilebas da ara harmoniul ganviTarebas. kognituri. swavlobs mtrul azrebs da fantaziebs, romelsac adamiani Zaladobis aq-

16

Tavi 1 / fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi

cxrili

1.1

Tanamedrove fsiqologiis Svidi mimdinareobis Sedareba


mimdinareoba rogor esmis adamianis buneba pasiuri meqanisturi qcevis determinantebi memkvidreoba, bioqimiuri procesebi memkvidreoba, adreuli gamocdileba kvlevis fokusi kvlevis ZiriTadi Temebi qcevis da fsiqikuri procesebis bioqimiuri safuZveli qceva, rogorc aracnobieri motivebis garegani gamoxatva qceva da misi stimulebi, mizezebi da Sedegebi cxovrebis paternebi faseulobebi, miznebi qceviTi indikatorebis saSualebiT Seswavlili fsiqikuri procesebi ganviTarebis adapturi funqciebis TvalsazrisiT ganxiluli fsiqikuri meqanizmebi adamianis gamocdilebis universaluri da kulturulad specifikuri aspeqtebi
Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTareba

biologiuri

tvini da nervuli sistemis procesebi aracnobieri ltolvebi, konfliqtebi

fsiqodinamikuri instinqtiT marTuli

bihevioristuli

reagirebs stimulze, SeiZleba misi Secvla aqtiuri, usazRvro potencialis mqone SemoqmedebiTad aqtiuri, reagirebs stimulze plesitocenis eris problemebis gadaWraze adaptirebuli icvleba kulturis zegavleniT

garemo, konkretuli stimulis Semcveli garegani reqciebi pirobebi potenciurad sakuTari Tavisadmi mimarTuli stimulis Semcveli pirobebi, fsiqikuri procesebi adaptacia gadarCenis mizniT adamianis gamocdileba da potenciali fsiqikuri procesebi, ena

humanisturi

kognituri

evoluciuri

ganviTarebuli fisqologiuri adaptacia

kulturuli

kulturuli normebi

damokidebulebebisa (attitudes) da qcevebis kroskulturuli sqemebi

tis yurebisas ganicdis. ikvlevs filmebSi arsebuli agresiis, maT Soris pornografiuli Zaladobis gavlenas iaraRis xmarebisadmi, gaupatiurebisadmi da omisadmi damokidebulebaze. evoluciuri. ganixilavs, ra pirobebis gamo gaxda agresia adapturi qceva adreuli adamianebisaTvis. adgens fsiqologiur meqanizmebs, romlebic pasuxismgebelia agresiuli qcevis seleqciur warmoSobaze. kulturuli. ganixilavs, rogor avlenen da xsnian agresias sxvadasxva kulturis warmomadgenlebi. rogor zemoqmedeben kulturuli Zalebi agresiuli qcevis sxvadasxva tipis gamovlenis albaTobaze.

ras akeTeben fsiqologebi


ukve sakmarisi iciT fsiqologiis Sesaxeb, raTa is kiTxvebi CamoayaliboT, romlebic fsiqologiuri kv levis mTel diapazons moicavs. kiTxvebis amgvari sia rom mogemzadebinaT, sxvadasxva dargis fsiqologis saeqsperto sferos SeexebodiT. 1.2 cxrilSi amgvari kiTxvebis Cveneuli versiaa moyvanili Sesabamisi dargis fsiqologebis miTiTebiT. Tu dro gaqvT, Tqveni sakuTari kiTxvebis sia CamowereT. gadaxazeT TiToeuli kiTxva, rogorc ki mis pasuxs amoikiTxavT am wignSi.

17

cxrili

1.2
vin pasuxobs am kiTxvas klinikuri fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli fsiqiatri fsiqologi konsultanti (counceling psychologist) Temis fsiqologi (community psychologist) bio-fsiqologi fsiqofarmakologi eqsperimentuli fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli qcevis analitikosi kognituri fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli kognituri mecnierebis warmomadgeneli pirovnebis fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli qcevis genetikosi socialuri fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli ganviTarebis fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli Sromis fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli adamianis faqtoris fsiqologi ganaTlebis fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli skolis fsiqologi janmrTelobis fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli sasamarTlo fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli

fsiqologiuri kvlevis mravalferovneba


kiTxva rogor unda gadaWran adamianebma ukeT TavianTi yoveldRiuri problemebi?

rogor inaxeba mogonebebi tvinSi? rogor SegviZlia vaswavloT ZaRls brZanebebis Sesruleba? ratom ver vixseneb yovelTvis informacias, romelic namdvilad vici? ratom gansxvavdebian adamianebi erTmaneTisagan? rogor muSaobs `TanatolTa zewola~ ra ician Cvilebma samyaros Sesaxeb? ratom iwvevs CemSi depresias Cemi samuSao?

rogor unda moepyras maswavlebeli `amrev~moswavles? ratom vxdebi cudad yoveli gamocdis win? Seuracxadi iyo braldebuli danaSaulis Cadenis dros?
Tavi 1 / fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi

ratom miWirs sunTqva kalaTburTis mniSvnelovani matCebis dros?

sportis fsiqologiis warmomadgeneli

18

albaT ukve mixvdiT, rom msoflioSi Zalian bevri fsiqologia. gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom maTi raodenoba 500 000-s aWarbebs, maTgan 62-dan 82 aTasamde fsiqologiuri kvlevis sferoSi moRvaweobs (ix. sur. 1.1). miuxedavad imisa, rom fsiqologebis raodenoba dasavleTis industriul qveynebSi metia, mraval sxva qveyanaSic izrdeba interesi fsiqologiis mimarT. fsiqologiuri mecnierebis saerTaSoriso kavSirSi 64 qveynis fsiqologia gaerTianebuli (Rozenzweig, 1999). amerikis fsiqologTa asociacias (APA) 1998 wlis bolos 155 000 wevri hyavda msoflios yvela kuTxidan (Fowler, 1999). kidev erTi saerTaSoriso organizacia, amerikis fsiqologTa sazogadoeba (APS), 16 000-ze met wevrs aerTianebs da fsiqo-

logiis ufro samecniero aspeqtebzea fokusirebuli, vidre klinikur, mkurnalobis mxareze. ar gagikvirdebaT imis gageba, rom fsiqologiis kvlevac da praqtikac mamakacebis dominirebiT mimdinareobda, Tumca mcire raodenobiT qalma fsiqologebma arsebiTi wvlili Seitanes am sferoSi (Russo and Denmark, 1987; Scarborough and Furomoto, 1987). 1894 wels margaret uoSbornma (Margaret Washburn) kornelis universiteti daamTavra da qalebSi pirvelma miiRo doqtoris xarisxi. man dawera cnobili saxelmZRvanelo cxovelis goneba. 1895 wels meri kalkinsma (Mary Calkins) warCinebiT daamTavra harvardis universitetis doqtorantura, magram administracia mas ar aZlevda doq-

suraTi

1.2

suraTi

1.3

fsiqologTa samuSao garemo


naCvenebia sxvadasxva adgilas momuSave fsiqologTa procenti amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciis fsilogiis doqtoris akademiuri xarisxis mqone wevrTa Soris Catrebuli gamokiTxvis mixedviT

qalebisaTvis miniWebuli fsiqologiis doqtoris xarisxi


gasuli 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi am mxriv qalebi upiratesobas floben

toris xarisxs. miuxedavad amisa, kalkinsi warmatebuli mkvlevari da amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciis pirveli qali prezidenti gaxda. ana froidma (Anna Freud) mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana fsiqoanalizis praqtikaSi. wamyvani qali mkvlevrebis Sromebs saxelmZRvaneloSi araerTxel SexvdebiT. Tanamedrove fsiqologiaSi qalebi da mamakacebi erToblivad iziareben Teoriis da praqti-

Sejameba
adre fsiqologebs miaCndaT, rom fsiqologiuri procesebi detreminizmis doqtriniTaa marTuli _ fsiqikuri da fizikuri movlenebi ganpirobebulia konkretuli mizezebiT. erT-erTi adreuli midgoma, struqturalizmi, aqcents fsiqikur Sinaarsebsa da qcevis struqturaze akeTebda meore midgoma, funqcionalizi ki _ qcevis funqciaze. Tanamedrove fsiqologia Svid ZiriTad mimdinareobas moicavs. biologiuri mimdinareoba swavlobs mimarTebas qcevasa da tvinis meqa-

Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTareba

kis warmatebebs. rogorc 1.2 suraTzea naCvenebi, doqtoris xarisxis umetesoba amJamad qalebs aqvT (Pion et al; 1996) da es tendencia XXI saukuneSi myarad narCundeba (Murray and Williams, 1999). rac ufro meti wvlili Seaqvs fsiqologias adamianis Seswavlis saqmeSi, miT meti da meti adamiani _ qali da kaci, sazogadoebis yvela segmentis warmomadgeneli misdevs am karieras. Tqven gzas adgaxarT. imedi gvaqvs, rom `fsiqologia da cxovreba~ Rirs mogzaurobad, romelic savsea moulodneli siamovnebebiT da samaxsovro momentebiT. daviwyoT, an, rogorc italielebi ityvian: wavediT! (andiamo!)

19

nizmebs Soris; fsiqodinamikuri mimarTulebisaTvis qceva cnobieri da aracnobieri motivaciebiTaa gamowveuli; bihevioristuli mimarTulebisaTvis qceva garegani stimuluri pirobebiTaa ganpirobebuli, humanisturi mimarTulebisaTvis aqcenti keTdeba individis piradi zrdis Sinagan unarze; kognituri mimarTulebisaTvis mTavaria is fsiqikuri procesebi, romlebic qceviT

reaqciebze zemoqmedebs; evoluciuri mimarTu-

lebisaTvis qceva gadarCenisaTvis brZolisas garemosTan Seguebis Sedegia, xolo, kulturuli mimarTulebisaTvis qceva da misi interpretacia kulturis konteqstSi ganixileba. fsiqologebi kiTxvaTa did diapazons pasuxoben. fsiqologis profesia gasuli ramdenime aTwleulis manZilze Seicvala, misi Tvalsawieri ufro internacionaluri gaxda da met qals moiTvlis.

fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi

vifiqroT momavalze
bani. Cven ver viwinaswarmetyvelebT, romeli sazogadoebrivi moZraoba Seipyrobs msoflios XXI saukuneSi, magram danamdvilebiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom fsiqologebi dauyovnebliv reagirebas moaxdenen am sakiTxebze da maT Seswavlas daiwyeben. fsiqologiur kvlevaze, agreTve, did gavlenas moaxdens is teqnologiuri siaxleeebi, romlebic adamianebsa da kulturebs Soris manZils amcirebs. internetis gamo XXI saukuneSi didi mniSvneloba mieniWeba sxvadasxva kulturis msgavsebisa da sxvaobis sakiTxs. teqnologiuri siaxleni fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebzec iqoniebs gavlenas, radgan fsiqikuri procesebis kvlevisas ukve XX saukunis bolos farTod gamoiyeneboda kompiuterebi da tvinis Sesaswavli sxva mowyobilobebi, romlebzec vundts da mis kolegebs warmodgenac ki ar hqondaT. kidev ufro daxvewili teqnologiuri miRwevebis Sedegad mkvlevrebs saSualeba miecemaT zedmiwevniT zustad gaarkvion, ra mimarTebaa fsiqikur procesebsa da tvinis aqtivobas Soris. aseve, genetikuri kvlevis teqnologiuri iaraRebis ganviTarebam SesaZloa swrafad Secvalos is gzebi, romlebiTac mkvlevrebi acalkeveben bunebisa da aRzrdis zegavlenas TiToeuli individis cxovrebaSi. am tipis sakiTxebs _ inovaciebi fsiqologiis Sinaarssa da praqtikaSi _ mivmarTavT swored specialur qveTavebSi _ fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi.
veb-gverdebi:

`fsiqologiis da cxovrebis~ am gamocemas mokle eseebi davamateT, romlebic fsiqologiaSi, rogorc mecnierebaSi, momxdar clilebebs aRwers XXI saukuneSi gadasvlasTan erTad. am TavSi mokled aRvwereT, Tu rogor Seicvala es disciplina gasuli 100 wlis ganmavlobaSi, gansakuTrebiT, Teoriuli mimdinareobebis kuTxiT. ras mogvitans Semdegi 100 weli? aSkaraa, rom fsiqologiis Sinaarsi da praqtika momavalSi Seicvleba. marTalia, zogierTi sakiTxi, romelsac fsiqologebi swavloben, droze ar aris damokidebuli, magaliTad, rogoria enis aTvisebis ZiriTadi procesebi, magram arsebobs iseTi sakiTxebic, romlebic konkretul dros moaqvs. magaliTad, me-17 da me-18 TavebSi ganxiluli socialuri fsiqologiis kvlevebis umetesoba im mecnierebma wamoiwyes, vinc cdilobda gaego, ra Zalebma ganapiroba meore msoflio omis saSinele-

Tavi 1 / fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi

www.apa.org _ amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciis gverdi www.psychologicalscience.org _ amerikis fsiqologTa sazogadoebis gverdi

20

sakvanZo sakiTxebi
ratomaa fsiqologia unikaluri
fsiqologia aris individebis qcevis da fsiqikuri procesebis mecnieruli Seswavla. fsiqologiis mizania qcevis aRwera, axsna, winaswarmetyveleba da gakontrolebis xelSewyoba. fsiqodinamikuri mimarTulebisaTvis qceva instinqturi ZalebiTa da Sinagani konfliqtebiT, cnobieri da aracnobieri motivebiTaa ganpirobebuli. biheviorizisaTvis qceva ganpirobebulia garegani stimulebiT. humanisturi mimarTulebisaTvis mniSvnelovania racionaluri arCevanis gakeTebis Tandayolili unari individSi. kognituri mimdinareoba xazs usvams im fsiqikur procesebs, romlebic qceviT reaqciebze zemoqmedebs. evoluciuri mimdinareoba Tvlis, rom qceva gadarCenis procesSi Seguebis Sedegad ganviTarda. kulturuli mimdinareoba qcevas da mis interpretacias kulturul konteqstSi ganixilavs. XXI saukunis dasawyisisaTvis fsiqologis profesia moculobiT ufro internacionaluri da praqtikosebisa da mkvlevrebis SemadgenlobiT ufro mravalferovani gaxda.

ZiriTadi cnebebi
ZiriTadi cnebebi yvela TavSi muqi SriftiTaa gamoyofili, rom advilad SeamCnioT, xolo yoveli Tavis bolos igive terminebi ganmeorebiTaa mocemuli. garda amisa, yvela ZiriTadi cneba wignis bolos, leqsikonSi mocemuli, anbanis mixedviT da ganmartebulia. biheviorizmi bihevioristuli mimdinareoba biologiuri mimdinareoba garemos cvladebi dispoziciuri cvladebi evoluciuri mimdinareoba kognituri mimdinareoba kulturuli mimdinareoba mecnieruli meTodi organizmuli cvladebi situaciis cvladebi struqturalizmi funqcionalizmi fsiqodinamikuri mimdinareoba fsiqologia qceva qcevis monacemebi humanisturi mimdinareoba
Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTareba

Tanamedrove fsiqologiis ganviTareba


vundtis da titCeneris Sromebidan ganviTarda struqturalizmi, romelic aqcents elementaruli SegrZnebebisagan agebuli fsiqikisa da qcevis struqturaze akeTebs. jemsisa da diuis mier ganviTarebuli funqcionalizmi aqcents qcevis miRma arsebul mizanze akeTebs. am Teoriebma Seqmnes Tanamedrove fsiqologiis safuZvlebi. fsiqologiis Seswavlis Svidive Tanamedrove midgoma gansxvavebulad xedavs adamianis bunebas, qcevis determinantebs, kvlevis sferosa da meTodebs. biologiuri mimdinareoba qcevasa da tvinis meqanizmebs Soris mimarTebas swavlobs.

ras akeTeben fsiqologebi


fsiqologebi sxvadasxva sferoSi muSaoben da sxvadasxva specialobis gamocdilebas eyrdnobian. fsiqologiis profesiis warmomadgeneli pasuxs scems TiTqmis yvela kiTxvas, romelic realur cxovrebiseul gamocdilebas exeba.

21

fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebi

2
aRmoCenis etapi dasabuTebis etapi: obieqturobis dacvis saSualebebi

damkvirveblis
tendenciuroba da operaciuli gansazRvrebebi eqsperimentuli meTodi: alternatiuli axsna da kontrolis saWiroeba korelaciis meTodi qvezRurblovani zemoqmedeba
fsiqologiuri gazomva

sandooba da TviTangariSi qcevis dakvirveba da


gazomva
kvlevis eTikuri sakiTxebi

validoba

informirebuli riskis/sargeblis ganzrax motyueba kvlevis Semdgomi cxovelTa kvleva:


mecniereba, eTika, politika
rogor gamoviyenoT sworad mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegebi fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: fsiqologiuri kvleva da informaciis afeTqeba sakvanZo sakiTxebi

Tanxmoba Sefaseba

interviu

22

ZiriTadi cnebebi

avis avtobiografiaSi (namdvilad xumrobT, mister feinman) (1985) nobelis premiis laureatma fizikosma riCard feinmanma (Richard Feynman) WianWvelebis navigaciis unaris araformaluri kvlevis programa aRwera (gv. 93-95): prinstonis universitetis oTaxSi nalis formis rafiani fanjara mqonda. erT mSvenier dRes WianWvelebi gamoCndnen. davinteresdi, rogor moZraoben WianWvelebi; rogor xvdebian, saiT unda wavidnen? SeuZliaT erTmaneTs uTxran, sad aris saWmeli, rogorc amas futkrebi akeTeben? aqvT geometriis raime SegrZneba? axalbedasaviT viqceodi, dRes yvelam icis pasuxi am kiTxvebze, magram maSin ar vicodi... erT eqsperimentSi fanjris rafaze SuSis bevri mikroskopuli slaidi davalage, romlebzec WianWvelebi win da ukan dadiodnen winaswar dayrili Saqris mosapoveblad. Semdeg, Zveli slaidi axliT Sevcvale da am-

gvarad SevZeli meCvenebina, rom WianWvelebs geometriis araviTari SegrZneba ar aqvT _ isini ver xvdebodnen, sad iyo raime moTavsebuli. Tu raRac erTi gziT midiodnen Saqrisaken, ukanac aucileblad imave gziT brundebodnen, sxva, ufro mokle gzas ar irCevdnen. amave dros, WianWvelebma garkveuli kvali datoves SuSis slaidebze, rasac eqsperimentebis mTeli seriebi mohyva imis Sesamowmeblad, Tu ramden xans narCundeba es kvali, SeiZleba Tu ara misi advilad waSla da a.S. aRmovaCine, rom kvals mimarTuleba ar gaaCnda. rom ameyvana WianWvela, Semetrialebina da missave kvalze damebrunebina, is araswor gzas daadgeboda, Tanac amas ver xvdeboda, sanam sxva WianWvelas ar Sexvdeboda. feinmanis martivi, magram gonivruli eqsperimentebi saSualebas aZlevdnen mas WianWvelebis qcevis Sesaxeb cnobismoyvareoba daekmayofilebina.

SesaZloa, Tqven arasodes gagCeniaT kiTxvebi WianWvelebis qcevis Sesaxeb, magram sxva tipis kiTxvebi namdvilad gagiCndebodaT adamianis an cxovelis qcevasTan dakavSirebiT. am TavSi visaubrebT imaze, Tu rogor pasuxoben fsiqologebi kiTxvebs, romlebic TqvenTvisac sainteresoa. vnaxavT, rogor iynebs fsiqologia mecnierul meTodebs kvlevisaTvis. gvinda, rom gaigoT, rogor gegmaven fsiqologebi TavianT kvlevas: rogor SeiZleba rTuli da xSirad ablurduli monacemebidan azrovnebis, grZnobebis da qcevebis Sesaxeb myari, seriozuli daskvnebis gakeTeba.

am TavSi mowodebuli informaciis daufleba Zalian sasargeblo iqneba TqvenTvis im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu arasodes ganaxorcielebT mecnierul kvlevas. Cveni mizania dagexmaroT kritikuli azrovnebis gaumjobesebaSi imiT, rom gaswavloT, rogor unda dasvaT swori kiTxvebi da SeafasoT fsiqologiuri movlenebis mizezebis, Sedegebis da korelatebis Sesaxeb miRebuli pasuxebi. masmediaSi gamudmebiT SexvdebiT amgvar frazas: kvleva aCvenebs, rom~... Tqveni inteleqtualuri skepticizmis daxvewis gziT dagexmarebiT kvlevis Sedegebi ufro brZnulad moixmaroT. gaCvenebT, rogor gadaWraT kamaTi faqtebTan da ara polemikasTan~ (Miller, 1992).

23

aRmoCenis etapi

aRmoCenis etapi
fsiqologiuri kvlevis procesi SeiZleba or Semadgenel nawilad davyoT, Tanac am TanmimdevrobiT: ideis Camoyalibeba (aRmoCena) da misi Semowmeba (dasabuTeba). aRmoCenis etapi kvlevis sawyisi fazaa, romlis ganmavlobaSic dakvirvebas, Sexedulebas, informacias da zogad codnas movlenis axleburi xedvisken mivyavarT. saidan uCndeba kiTxvebi mkvlevars? zogierTi maTgani movlenaTa, adamianTa da cxovelTa uSualo dakvirvebidan modis, zogierTi ukve tradiciad qceul sakiTxebs swavlobs, romlebic fsiqologiaSi did, gadauWrel problemebad iTvleba. xSirad mkvlevrebi Zvel ideebs da maT kombinaciebs axleburad warmoadgenen. WeSmaritad Semoqmedi moazrovnis sinji axali WeSmaritebis aRmoCenaa, romelic mecnierebas da sazogadoebas ukeTesi mimarTulebiT amoZravebs. fsiqologiuri Teoriebi cdiloben gaarkvion, rogor funqcionirebs tvini, fsiqika, qceva da garemo da ra kavSiria maT Soris. Teoria aris cnebebis organizebuli wyeba, romelic movlenas an movlenaTa erTobliobas xsnis. fsiqologiuri TeoriebisTvis saerTo isaa, rom isini determinizmis poziciaze dganan. determinizmi gulisxmobs, rom yvela movlena _ fizikuri, fsiqikuri da qceviTi _ ganpirobebulia konkretuli mizeziT, anu mis Sedegs warmoadgens. es mizezebi SeiZleba Tavad adamianSi, an garemoSi iyos. amave dros, mkvlevrebi uSveben, rom qcevac da fsiqikuri procesebic mimarTebaTa kanonzoTavi 2 / fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebi

mierebebs avlens da maTi aRmoCena kvlevis saSualebiTaa SesaZlebeli. amitom fsiqologiuri Teoria, Cveulebriv, amgvar kanonzomierebaTa mizezebs eZebs. Teoriam ukve cnobili faqtebi unda axsnas da, amave dros, axali ideebi da hipoTezebi wamoayenos. hipoTeza aris mizezebsa da Sedegebs Soris mimarTebis Sesaxeb arsebuli Semowmebadi debuleba. hipoTezebs xSirad Tu-maSin~ winaswarmetyvelebis formiT ayalibeben, konkretuli pirobebidan gansazRvruli Sedegebis miRebis mizniT. SegviZlia, magaliTad, viwinaswarmetyveloT, rom, Tu bavSvebi bevr Zaladobas uyureben televiziiT, maSin isini ufro agresiulad moiqcevian TavianT TanatolebTan. kvlevam Tu-maSin~ mimarTeba unda Seamowmos. Teoriebi ukiduresad mniSvnelovania axali hipoTezebis CamoyalibebisaTvis. rodesac mecnieruli monacemebi ar adasturebs hipoTezas, mkvlevarma unda gadasinjos Tavisi Teoria. amrigad, Teoriasa da kvlevas Soris mudmivi urTierTqmedebaa. aRmoCenis etapis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani nawilia kvlevisaTvis saWiro saTanado Rirebulebebi da damokidebuleba. mecniereba moiTxovs Ria _ kritikul da skeptikur _ damokidebulebas nebismieri daskvnisadmi manam, sanam is ar aris miRebuli damoukidebeli mkvlevrebis mier. Riaoba or mizans emsaxureba. pirveli: WeSmariteba absoluturi ar aris, is damokidebulia garkveul pirobebze da axali monacemebis gaCenis SemTxvevaSi misi gadasinjva SesaZlebeli unda iyos. meore: Ria orientaciis gamo mkvlevrebi

aRmoCenis etapi (context of discovery) _ kvlevis sawyisi fazaa, romlis ganmavlobaSic dakvirvebas, Sexedulebas, informacias da zogad codnas movlenis axleburi xedvisaken mivyavarT. Teoria (Theory) _ cnebaTa organizebuli wyeba, romelic movlenas an movlenaTa erTobliobas xsnis. determinizmi (Determinism) _ es doqtrina gulisxmobs, rom yvela movlena _ fizikuri, fsiqikuri da qceviTi _ ganpirobebulia konkretuli mizezebiT, romelTa dadgena SesaZlebelia. hipoTeza (Hypothesis) _ Semowmebadi debuleba mizezebsa da Sedegebs Soris mimarTebis Taobaze, xSirad is gamoxatulia winaswarmetyvelebis formiT, konkretul pirobas gansazRvruli Sedegi mohyveba.

24

imisaTvis, rom Teoria damtkicebulad CaiTvalos, man unda gaiaros mkacri Semowmeba, romlis Sedegi unda daemTxves damoukidebel eqspertTa Sedegebs.

seriozulad udgebian iseT fenomenebsac ki, romlebisac Tavad ar sjeraT, rogoricaa, magaliTad, eqstrasensoruli aRqma (Bem, Honorton, 1994). mecnieruli praqtika im monacemebs emyareba, romlebic gakontrolebuli dakvirvebiTa da frTxili gazomviTaa miRebuli. mecnierebis samyaroSi, roca kargi monacemebi eqspertebis azrs upirispirdeba, sakiTxi monacemebis sasargeblod wydeba. saidumloeba gaZevebulia kvlevis proceduridan, is Riaa SemowmebisaTvis, anu sxva mkvlevrebs unda hqondeT SesaZlebloba Seamowmon, gaakritikon, gaimeoron, an uaryon monacemebi da meTodebi. monacemebis, Sedegebisa da monacemebis Segrovebis meTodis aRwera maTgan gakeTebuli daksvnebisagan calke dgas. samecniero publikaciebSi kvlevis TiToeuli nawili calke qveTavSia moyvanili da amiT mkiTxvels saSualebas aZlevs erTmaneTisagan ganasxvavos obieqturi monacemebi da maTi subieqturi interpretacia. dabolos, kvleva unda gamoqveyndes, radgan kvlevis Sedegebi da monacemebi ar unda daikargos, Tanac sxva mecnierebs unda mieceT saSualeba, rom gaimeoron is.

meTods. mecnieruli meTodi aris monacemTa Segrovebisa da interpretaciis procedurebis erToblioba, romlis saSualebiTac minimumamdea dayvanili Secdomis wyaro da sando daskvnebia miRebuli. fsiqologia mecnierebad imdenad iTvleba, ramdenadac is mecnieruli meTodis mier damkvidrebul wesebs misdevs. radganac mecnieruli kvlevis monacmebis Segrovebisa da maTi analizis fazebze subieqturoba minimumamde unda iqnes dayvanili, amitom obieqturobis gasazrdelad gamoiyeneba specialuri damcavi saSualebebi. erT-erT maTgans axsnac ki ar sWirdeba: mkvlevrebma srulad unda daafiqsiron monacemTa Segrovebisa da analizis stadiebi iseTi formiT, rom sxva mkvlevars maTi gageba da Sefaseba SeeZlos. amitom jer aRvwerT, ra safrTxe aqvs obieqturobas da Semdeg ganvixilavT masTan brZolis gzebs.

damkvirveblis tendenciuroba da operaciuli gansazRvrebebi


erTi da igive movlenebze dakvirvebisas adamianebi yovelTvis erTsa da imaves ar xedaven~. am qveTavSi damkvirveblis tendeciurobis problemas da misi gadaWris gzebs ganvixilavT.

Sejameba
aRmoCenis etapi kvlevis is fazaa, romelSic mkvlevrebi dakvirvebas, informacias da codnas iyeneben, raTa axali ideebi da Teoriebi Camoayalibon. fsiqologiuri Teoriebi cdiloben gaarkvion tvins, fsiqikas, qcevasa da garemos Soris arsebuli deterministuli mimarTeba.

obieqturobis sirTule
damkvirveblis tendenciuroba pirovnuli motivebisa da molodinebisagan gamomdinare Secdomaa. xSirad adamianebs is esmiT da imas xedaven, rasac moelian da ara imas, rac sinamdvileSi xdeba (ix. sur. 2.1). ganvixiloT damkvirveblis tendenciurobis saintereso magaliTi: XX saukunis dasawyisSi erT-erTma wamyvanma fsiqologma, hiugo miunsterbergma (Hugo Munsterberg) mSvidobis Temaze warmoTqva sityva didi auditoriis winaSe, romelSic Jurnalistebic Sediodnen. man Semdegnairad aRwera Tavisi sityvis gaSuqeba mediaSi: reportiorebi dauyovnebliv moTavsdnen platformis garSemo. erT-erTma Jurnalistma dawera, rom auditoria imdenad iyo gaocebuli misi sityviT, rom srul siCumeSi moismina is. meorem aRniSna, rom Cems gamos-

dasabuTebis etapi: obieqturobis dacvis saSualebebi


umetes SemTxvevaSi mkvlevrebi aRmoCenidan Teoriebis Semowmebaze gadadian. dasabuTebis etapi kvlevis is fazaa, romelSic hipoTezis Sesamowmeblad faqtebis mopovebaa saWiro. es ki sakmaod rTulia. fsiqologebma iseTi monacemebi unda Seagrovon, romlebic validuri daskvnebis gakeTebis saSualebas miscemT. amisaTvis fsiqologebi iyeneben mokavSires: mecnierul

25

dasabuTebis etapi: obieqturobis dacvis saSualebebi

belma SesaZloa gansxvavebuli daskvnebi gamoitanos erTi da igive monacemebis safuZvelze. damkvirveblis tendenciuroba filtria, romelSic informaciis nawili mniSvnelovnad iTvleba, xolo danarCenis ugulvebelyofa xdeba, radgan irelevanturad da uazrodaa miCneuli. mkvlevrebi xSirad akvirdebian movlenebs. yovel damkvirvebels Tavisi gamocdileba Semoaqvs dakvirvebaSi, iseve rogorc simpatiebi romelime Teoriisadmi. axla xedavT, ratom aCens problemas damkvirveblis tendenciuroba. ra SeuZliaT gaakeTon mkvlevrebma am tendenciurobis minimumamde dasayvanad?

problemis gadaWris saSualeba


vlas gamudmebiT wyvetda mquxare aplodismentebi, xolo sityvis dasrulebisas taSi wuTebis ganmavlobaSi ar wydebodao; kidev erTma dawera, rom Cemi oponentis gamosvlisas gamudmebiT viRimebodio; sxvam ki aRniSna, rom saxe sruliad uZravi (utyvi) mqonda da erTic ki ar gamiRimiao; erTma miuTiTa, rom aRelvebisagan Zlierad gavwiTldi, xolo meorem, rom qaRaldiviT gavTeTrdio (1908, gv. 35-36). saintereso iqneboda marTlac gvenaxa imdroindeli gazeTebi da Segvemowmebina, ra kavSirSi iyo reportaJebi avtorebis politikur SexedulebebTan. SesaZloa, maSin mivmxvdariyaviT, ratom dainaxes~ Jurnalistebma ase da ara sxvagvarad. fsiqologiur eqsperimentSi damkvirveblebs Soris sxvaoba iseTi radikaluri ar unda iyos, rogorc minusterbergis SemTxvevaSi iyo, magram es magaliTi gvaCvenebs, rom sxvadasxva damkvirvedasabuTebis etapi (context of justification) _ kvlevis is fazaa, romelSic hipoTezis SemowmebisaTvis faqtebia mosapovebeli. mecnieruli meTodi (Scientific method) _ monacemTa Segrovebisa da interpretaciis procedurebis erToblioba, romlis saSualebiTac minimumamdea dayvanili Secdomis wyaro da sando daskvnebia miRebuli. damkvirveblis tendenciuroba (observer bias) _ realobis damaxinjeba, romelic damkvirveblis pirovnuli motivebisa da molodinebisagan momdinareobs.
suraTi

damkvirveblis tendenciurobis minimumamde dayvanis mizniT mkvlevrebi standartizacias da operaciul gansazRvrebebs iyeneben. standartizacia niSnavs monacemTa Segrovebis yvela fazaze Tanmimdevrulad dalagebuli da yvela-

Tavi 2 / fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebi

2.1

damkvirveblis tendenciuroba
Wiqa naxevrad carielia Tu naxevrad savse?

26

standartizacia (standardization) _ testSi, interviuSi an eqsperimentSi monawilisadmi mopyrobis an monacemebis dafiqsirebis unificirebuli procedura. operaciuli gansazRvreba (operational definition) _ axdens cvladis an pirobis definicias konkretuli operaciebis an procedurebis terminebiT. cvladi (variable) _ nebismieri faqtori, romelic raodenobrivad an Tvisebrivad icvleba damoukidebeli cvladi (independent variable) _ eqsperimentul garemoSi stimulis piroba, romelic sxva nebismieri cvladisagan damoukideblad icvleba. damokidebuli cvladi (dependent variable) _ eqsperimentul garemoSi nebismieri cvladi, romlis mniSvneloba erTi an meti damoukidebeli cvladis cvlilebis Sedegia.

eqsperimentuli meTodi: alternatiuli axsna da kontrolis saWiroeba


yoveldRiuri gamocdilebiT iciT, rom adamianebi erTi da igive Sedegis mraval mizezs dagisaxeleben. fsiqologebi imave problemis winaSe dganan, roca mizez-Sedegobriobis dadgenaze aqvT pretenzia. mizez-Sedegobrivi orazrovnebis gadasalaxad mkvlevrebi eqsperimentul meTods iyeneben. isini damoukidebeli cvladis manipulirebas axdenen, raTa naxon, ra zemoqmedeba eqneba amas damokidebul cvladze. am meTodis mizania, dadgindes erTi cvladis mizezSedegobrivi kavSiri meoresTan. am qveTavSi ganvixilavT alternatiuli axsnis problemas da misi gadaWris gzebs.

27

dasabuTebis etapi: obieqturobis dacvis saSualebebi

saTvis saerTo procedurebis gamoyenebas. testis an eqsperimentis yvela faza standartuli unda iyos, anu kvlevis yvela monawile erTsa da imave pirobaSi unda imyofebodes. standartizacia niSnavs, rom kiTxvebs erTnairad svamT da pasuxebs winaswar dadgenili wesebiT aniWebT qulebs. Sedegebis Cawera (dafiqsireba) saSualebas gvaZlevs SevadaroT isini sxva dros da adgilas, sxva cdis pirebze da sxva mkvlevrebis mier miRebul monacemebs. Tavad dakvirvebis procedurac unda iyos standartuli. mecnierebma unda SeZlon TavianTi Teoriebi iseT cnebebad Targmnon, rom maT SeTanxmebuli mniSvneloba hqondeT. cnebebis mniSvnelobis standartizaciis strategias operacionalizacia ewodeba. operaciuli gansazRvreba cnebas konkretuli operaciebis an procedurebis terminebiT ganmartavs. eqsperimentis yvela cvlads unda hqondes operaciuli gansazRvreba. cvladi aris nebismieri faqtori, romelic raodenobrivad an Tvisebrivad icvleba. stimulis piroba, romlic sxva nebismieri cvladisagan damoukideblad icvleba eqsperimentul garemoSi, aris damoukidebeli cvladi. nebismieri cvladi, romlis mniSvneloba erTi an meti damoukidebeli cvladis cvlilebis Sedegia, aris damokidebuli cvladi _ is damokidebulia stimulis pirobebis cvlaze. warmovidginoT, rom gvsurs adre moyvanili hopoTezis Semowmeba: is bavSvebi, romlebic bevr

Zaladobas uyureben telviziiT, ufro agresiulni iqnebian TavianT TanatolebTan. SegiZliaT dagegmoT eqsperimenti, sadac agresiis siZlieris manipulirebas moaxdendiT (damoukidebeli cvladi) da Semdeg naxavT, ra zomiT avlens bavSvi agresias (damokidebuli cvladi). Tqveni eqsperimentisaTvis mniSvnelovania, rom orive cvladis _ sxvadasxva teleprogramaSi arsebuli Zaladobis raodenoba da Tqveni eqsperimentis monawileebis mier gamovlenili agresiis zoma _ operacionalizacia moaxdinoT. ra procedurebi unda gamoiyenoT, rom zustad gazomoT es ori cvladi? fsiqologebisaTvis xSirad problemaa zogierTi rTuli cvladis operacionalizacia. rogor moaxdendiT, vTqvaT, bavSvis mSobelTan urTierTobis xarisxis operacionalizacias? (pasuxs me-11 TavSi ixilavT). fsiqologebs, agreTve, iseTi cvladebis operacionalizacia uxdebaT, romelTa uSualod dakvirveba SeuZlebelia. rogor moaxdenT TviTpativiscemis operacionalizacias? (ix. Tavi 14). Tu Tqven fsiqologi mkvlevari xarT da cvladis operacionalizacia moaxdineT, Tqveni kolegebi SeiZleba ar dageTanxmon da CaTvalon, rom TviTpativiscemis Tqveneuli operacionalizacia arasworia, magram Tu Tqveni operaciuli gansazRvreba zustia, maT ecodinebaT, rogor gaimeoron da Seafason Tqveni Sroma.

obieqturobis sirTule
rodesac fsiqologebi hipoTezas amowmeben, ukve winaswar aqvT garkveuli warmodgena imaze, Tu ratom SeiZleba Secvalos damoukidebeli cvladis cvlilebam damokidebuli cvladi ase da ara sxvagvarad. magaliTad, SeiZleba iwinaswarmetyveloT da eqsperimentulad aCvenoT, rom televiziiT Zaladobis yureba agresiis maRal dones iwvevs. magram saidan iciT, rom namdvilad Zaladobis yurebaa agresiis mizezi? hipoTezis yvelaze Zlieri SesaZlo mizezis dasadgenad fsiqologebi yovelTvis unda eZebdnen alternatiul axsnebs. SesaZlo Sedegis rac meti alternatiuli axsna arsebobs, miT naklebad viqnebiT darwmunebuli Tavdapirvel varaudSi. Tu kvlevis procesSi eqsperimentatoris mier specialurad Semotanili damoukidebeli cvladis garda raRac sxva ereva da monacemebis interpretacias arTulebs, mas damatebiTi cvladi ewodeba. rodesac romelime qcevis efeqtis realur mizezs damatebiTi cvladi Seereva, eqsperimentatoris mier monacemTa interpretacia sarisko
eqsperimentuli meTodi (experimental method) _ kvlevis meTodi, romelic damoukidebeli cvladiT manipulacias gulisxmobs, raTa dadgindes misi efeqti damokidebul cvladze. damatebiTi cvladi (confounding variable) _ cvladi, romelic monawilis qcevaze zemoqmedebs eqsperimentatoris mier Semotanili damoukidebeli cvladis garda. molodinis efeqti (Expentancy effects) _ Sedegi, romelic maSin Cndeba, roca mkvlevari Zalauneburad mianiSnebs monawileebs, ra tipis qcevas moelis maTgan, riTic mosalodnel reaqcias iRebs.

xdeba. warmovidginoT, magaliTad, rom televiziiT naCvenebi Zaladobis scenebi ufro xmamaRla da meti moZraobiT mimdinareobs, vidre sxva tipis scenebi. aseT SemTxvevaSi, Zaladobas~ ereva am scenebis sxva, zedapiruli aspeqtebi. mkvlevars aRar SeuZlia gaarkvios, romeli faqtori ganapirobebs agresiul qcevas. miuxedavad imisa, rom TiToeuli eqpserimentuli meTodi potenciurad alternatiul axsnaTa unikalur wyebas iwvevs, SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT ori tipis damatebiTi cvladi, romelic TiTqmis yvela eqsperimentSi gvxvdeba. esenia molodinis efeqti da placebo efeqti. molodinis efeqti Cndeba maSin, roca mkvlevari Zalauneburad mianiSnebs monawileebs, ra tipis

28

Tavi 2 / fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebi

qcevas moelis maTgan, riTic sasurvel reaqcias iRebs. am dros, gamomwvevi mizezi ara damoukidebeli cvladi, aramed eqsperimentatoris molodinia. robert rozentalma (Robert Rothental) molodinis tendenciurobis fenomeni Seiswavla da naxa, rogor amaxinjebs is kvlevis Sedegebs (Rosental, 1966).

saidan viciT
virTxebi Tqvens molodins gaamarTleben am saxelmZRvaneloSi fsiqologiuri kvlevis Sedegebs gagiziarebT. Cveni daskvnebi xSirad swored mTels msoflioSi Catarebuli amgvari kvlevebis Sedegebs daeyrdnoba. am seqciis mizania gaecnoT eqsperimentebs, romlebic pirdapir pasuxoben konkretul kiTxvebs. TiToeuli saidan viciT saSualebas gvaZlevs davinaxoT kavSiri eqsperimentsa da mignebas Soris. aq mokled ganvixlavT eqsperiments, sadac Cans, rogor SeiZleba eqsperimentatorma zemoqmedeba moaxdinos kvlevis Sedegze. klasikur eqsperimentSi 12 students misces virTxebis jgufebi, romlebisTvisac labirinTSi gasvla unda eswavlebinaT. studentebis naxevars uTxres, rom maTi virTxebi labirinTSi kargad gamsvlel jiSs miekuTvneba, xolo meore naxevars, rom maTi virTxebi labirinTSi cudad gamsvlel jiSs miekuTvneba. sinamdvileSi, orive jgufisaTvis gadacemuli virTxebi sruliad erTnairi iyo. Sedegebi Seesabameboda studentebis molodins. karg gamsvlelebad dasaxelebuli virTxebi cud gamsvlelebad dasaxelebul virTxebze ukeT swavlobdnen (Rosenthal & Fode, 1963).

problemis gadaWris saSualeba


radgan adamianis da cxovelis qceva rTulia da xSirad mravali gamomwvevi mizezi aqvs, kargi kvlevis gegma yvela damatebiT cvlads iTvaliswinebs da maT gauvnebelyofas cdilobs. aseT strategias kontrolis procedurebi ewodeba _ meTodebi, romlebiTac mkvlevari
placebo efeqti (Placebo effect) _ maSin Cndeba, roca eqsperimentis monawileebi eqsperimentuli manipulaciis Carevis gareSe icvlian qcevas. kontrolis procedurebi (Control procedures) _ meTodebi, romelTa saSualebiTac eqsperimentatori cdilobs mudmivi hqondes yvela cvladi da piroba, garda ganzrax Semotanili damoukidebeli cvladisa.

rogor fiqrobT, rogor Seatyobines studentebma TavianTi molodinebi virTxebs? albaT xvdebiT, rom saqme kidev ufro rTuladaa, roca adamianebze vatarebT kvlevas da ara cxovelebze. molodinis efeqti aRmoCenis Sinaarss amaxinjebs. placebo efeqti maSin Cndeba, roca eqsperimentis monawileebi eqsperimentuli manipula-

dasabuTebis etapi: obieqturobis dacvis saSualebebi

ciis Carevis gareSe icvlian qcevas. es termini medicinidan modis, im SemTxvevebis aRsaniSnavad, rodesac pacientis janmrTelobis mdgomareoba qimiurad inertuli wamlis miRebis Semdeg mainc umjobesdeboda. janmrTelobis mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba xdeba rwmenis gamo, rom mkurnaloba efeqturi iqneba. kvlevebiT aRmoCnda, rom zogierTma arasamedicino efeqtis mqone mkurnalobam pacientTa 70%-Si gamoiwvia placebo efeqti (Roberts et al., 1993). fsiqologiuri kvlevis situaciaSi placebo efeqti Cndeba yovelTvis, roca qceviT reaqciaze zemoqmedebas axdens pirovnebis molodini, Tu ra gaakeTos, an ra igrZnos da ara realuri gamomwvevi mizezi. gavixsenoT televiziiT Zaladobis yurebisa da momatebuli agresiis eqsperimenti. vTqvaT, aRmoCnda, rom im cdis pirebmac maRali agresia aCvenes, visac ar uyurebia amgvari gadacemebisaTvis. SeiZleba vivarudoT, rom es adamianebi xvdebian, rom, radgan agresiis gamosavlen situaciaSi moaTavses, maTgan agresiis gamovlenas moelian da amitom iqcevian ase. eqsperimentatorma yovelTvis unda icodes, rom cdis pirebi icvlian qcevas, roca ician, rom viRac ucxo uyurebs, akvirdeba, amowmebs maT. magaliTad, monawileebi gansakuTrebulad grZnoben Tavs, roca kvlevaSi monawileobisaTvis SearCeven da amitom gansxvavebulad iqcevian da ara Cveulebrivad. amgvari efeqtic moqmedebs kvlevis Sedegebze.

29

30

cdilobs mudmivi hqondes yvela cvladi da piroba, garda ganzrax Semotanili damoukidebeli cvladisa. instruqciebi, oTaxis temperatura, davalebebi, eqsperimentatoris Cacmuloba, gamoyofili dro, monacemTa Caweris xerxi da situaciis sxva mravali detali eqsperimentis yvela monawilisaTvis erTnairi unda iyos. erTaderTi sxvaoba monawilis gamocdilebaSi unda iyos damoukidebeli cvladis mier Semotanili. vnaxoT, rogor cdiloben fsiqologebi gadaWran molodinis da placebo efeqtiT gamowveuli problemebi. warmoidgineT, rom agresiis eqsperimenti gaamdidreT da masSi kidev erTi jgufi CarTeT, romelic komediur gadacemebs uyurebda. frTxilad unda iyoT, rom, Tqveni molodinebidan gamomdinare, gansxvavebulad ar moepyraT komediis da Zaladobis mayurebel monawileebs. amdenad, sasurvelia, rom kvlevis asistentma, romelmac unda Seafasos cdis pirTa agresia, ar icodes, romel jgufs miekuTvneba cdis piri. saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, tendenciurobis aRmofxvra SesaZlebelia maSin, roca arc asistents da arc monawileebs ar ecodinebaT, romel pirobaSi moxvdnen isini. am teqnikas ormagad brma kontroli ewodeba. mraval eqsperimentSi monawileobis ufleba ar eZlevaT maT, visTvisac cnobilia kvlevis hipoTeza. placebo efeqtis aRmosafxvrelad mkvlevrebs kidev erTi sakontrolo piroba SeaqvT eqsperimentSi, am dros Careva ar xdeba. amas placebo kontrols vuwodebT. placebo kontroli kontrolis zogad kategoriaSi Sedis, romelic Sedarebis saSualebas aZlevs eqsperimentators. gaixseneT gogonas istoria, romelsac hkiTxes, uyvarda ufrosi da, Tu ara. man ki upasuxa: rasTan SedarebiT?~ es kiTxva unda daisvas da pasuxic unda gqondeT, radgan sxvagvarad ver gaigebT, ras niSnavs kvlevis Sedegebi. davuSvaT, gaecaniT kvlevis Sedegebs, romlis mixedviTac, mowevis danebebis msurvelTa 3/4-ze metma nikotinis salbuniT miaRwia warmatebas~ (Andrews, 1990). ki magram, rasTan SedarebiT? sad aris sakontrolo jgufi? am kvlevaSi sakontrolo jgufis wevrebi nikotinis gareSe salbuns atarebdnen da maTma 39%-ac Tavi daaneba mowevas! metic, rac ufro didxans atarebdnen isini samedicino TvalsazrisiT absoluturad usargeblo

Tavi 2 / fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebi

salbuns, miT ufro meti albaTobiT anebebden Tavs mowevas (Abelin et al., 1989). amrigad, nikotinis salbuni efeqturi saSualeba aRmoCnda, magram misi zemoqmedebis naxevari placebo efeqtis damsaxurebaa, radgan mwevlebs molodini hqondaT, rom es salbuni maT uSvelidaT. sakontrolo pirobaSi miRebuli monacemebi mniSvnelovan safuZvels gvaZlevs, romelsac eqsperimentis efeqts vadarebT. kvlevis zogierT sqemaSi, romelsac cdis pirTa Soris sqemas uwodeben, cdis pirebs SemTxveviTad anawileben eqsperimentul (erTi an meti eqsperimentuli CareviT) da sakontrolo (eqsperimentuli Carevis gareSe) pirobebSi. cdis pirebis SemTxveviTi ganawileba erT-erTi yvelaze efeqturi saSualebaa im damatebiTi cvladebis aRmosafxvrelad, romlebic cdis pirebs Soris arsebuli individualuri gansxvavebebis gamo iCens Tavs. swored amgvar sqemas vgulisxmobdiT agresiis eqsperimentSi. eqsperimentul da sakontrolo pirobaSi cdis pirebis SemTxveviTi ganawileba imis did Sanss gvaZlevs, rom orive jgufSi msgavsi cdis pirebi moxvdebian, radgan SemTxveviTi ganawilebisas TiToeul cdis pirs rogorc sakontrolo, aseve eqsperimentul jgufSi moxvedris erTi da igive albaToba aqvs. aseT SemTxvevaSi ar gamova ise, rom eqsperimentul jgufSi mxolod Zaladobis scenebis moyvaruli cdis pirebi moxvdebian da sakontroloSi _ Zaladobis scenebis moZule cdis pirebi. SemTxveviTma ganawilebam orive tipis adamiani unda moaxvedros TiToeul jgufSi. Tu Sedegad jgufebis Sedegebs Soris sxvaobas miviRebT, ufro darwmunebuli viqnebiT, rom am sxvaobas Cveni Careva iwvevs da ara cdis pirebs Soris gansxvaveba.
ormagad brma kontroli (Double-blind control) _ eqsperimentuli teqnika, romelic saSualebas gvaZlevs Tavidan aviciloT eqsperimentatoris molodinis efeqti imiT, rom arc asistentma da arc monawileebma ar ician, romel pirobaSi moxvdnen isini. placebo kontroli (Placebo control) _ eqsperimentuli pirobaa, rodesac Careva ar xdeba da im SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba, roca placebo efeqtis saSiSroeba Cndeba. cdis pirTa Soris sqema (between subjects design) _ cdis pirebs SemTxveviTad anawileben eqsperimentul da sakontrolo pirobebSi.

suraTi

2.3
da Carevis Semdeg. A-B-A sqemaSi cdis pirebi jer xvdebian safuZvlis pirobaSi (A), Semdeg eqsperimentul CarevaSi (B), xolo Semdeg isev ubrundebian safuZvlis pirobas (A). ukan, safuZvlis pirobaSi dabruneba mkvlevars saSualebas aZlevs sabolood darwmundes, rom cvlileba mxolod misi Carevis da ara romelime damatebiTi cvladis, magaliTad, drois gasvlis, Sedegia.

anonimurobiT gamowveuli agresia


anonimurobis efeqti mniSvnelovania: erTi da igive bavSvebi bevrad maRal agresias avlenen anonimur pirobebSi, vidre manam da Semdeg araanonimur pirobebSi.

mkvlevrebi cdiloben SemTxveviT SerCevas miuaxlovdnen, roca cdis pirebs kvlevaSi monawileobis misaRebad iwveven. Cveulebriv, fsiqologiur eqsperimentSi 20-dan 100-mde cdis piri monawileobs. SerCevaze miRebul Sedegebs ki mkvlevari im populaciaze azogadebs, saidanc miiRo es SerCeva. davuSvaT, gsurT SeamowmoT hipoTeza, rom 6 wlis bavSvebi ufro mets ityuebian, vidre 4 wlisebi. kvlevaSi msoflios am asakis bavSvTa mxolod mcire nawils Tu CarTavT, margam ganzogadebis gasakeTeblad darwmunebuli unda iyoT, rom Tqvens mier SerCeuli bavSvTa jgufebi nebismieri SemTxveviT SerCeuli jgufis Sesabamisi iqneba. SerCeva populaciis reprezentatulia, Tu is imeorebs populaciis zogad maxasiaTeblebs, rogorebicaa, magaliTad, sqesi, asaki da sxva. SerCevaSi mxolod biWebi rom gyavdeT, ufleba ar geqnebaT, rom gogonebze gaakeToT daskvna da a. S. eqsperimentuli sqemis kidev erTi tipia cdis pirebs SigniT sqema _ aq TiToeuli cdis piri sakuTari Tavis kontrolia. magaliTad, SeiZleba erTmaneTs SevadaroT cdis pirTa qceva Carevamde

SerCeva (Sample) _ populaciis nawili, romelic eqsperimentSi monawileobisaTvis gadaarCies. populacia (Population) _ individTa sruli erToblioba, romelzec, eqsperimentul SerCevaze dayrdnobiT, generalizacia keTdeba. reprezentatuli SerCeva (representative sample) _ SerCeva populaciis reprezentatulia, Tu is imeorebs populaciis zogad maxasiaTeblebs, rogorebicaa, magaliTad, sqesi, asaki da sxva. cdis pirTa SigniT sqema (within subjects design) _ kvlevis sqema, sadac TiToeuli cdis piri sakuTari Tavis kontrolia. cdis piris eqsperimentul pirobaSi qceva SeiZleba SevadaroT missave qcevas am pirobamde, an mis Semdeg. A-B-A sqemaSi cdis pirebi jer xvdebian safuZvlis pirobaSi (A), Semdeg eqsperimentul CarevaSi (B), xolo Semdeg ubrundebian safuZvlis pirobas.

dasabuTebis etapi: obieqturobis dacvis saSualebebi

31

saidan viciT
bavSvebis agresiuli TamaSi A-B-A sqemaSi amgvari sqema iyo gamoyenebuli kvlevaSi, sadac fsiqologs Semdegi hipoTezis Semowmeba surda: Tu bavSvebs ecodinebaT, rom anonimurebi arian, isini ufro advilad gamoavlenen agresiul qcevas. skolis moswavleebi dapatiJes maskaradze, iseT wveulebaze, sadac yvela specialur kostiumSi gadacmuli modioda. bavSvebs mravalgvar TamaSs sTavazobdenen. rig maTgans agresiuli qcevis gamowveva SeeZlo, rigs _ araagresiulis. safuZvlis pirobaSi (A) bavSvebi kostiumebis gareSe TamaSobdnen, Carevis pirobaSi (B) kostiumebi Caicves da Tavisi surviliT irCevdnen TamaSebs. bolos, safuZvlis pirobaSi (A) dabrunebisas, maT kostiumebi kvlav gaxades, oRond TamaSis gagrZeleba SeeZloT. rogorc 2.2 suraTze xedavT, Sedegebma daadastura kvlevis hipoTeza. bavSvebi bevrad ufro agresiulad iqceodnen, roca anonimurebi iyvnen (B) (Fraser, 1974). aqamde aRweril kvleviT meTodologiebSi damoukidebeli cvladiT manipulireba da damokidebul cvladze misi efeqtis gazomva xdeboda. marTalia, eqsperimentuli meTodi saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevrebs cvladebs Soris kauzaluri kavSiris Sesaxeb daskvna gamoitanon, zogierT situaciaSi am meTodis gamoyeneba arc ise sasurvelia. upirveles yovlisa, qcevas xSirad xelovnurad Seqmnil garemoSi swavloben, raTa advilad gaakontrolon yovelgvari situaciuri faqtori, samagierod, xSirad aseTi situacia realurisagan sakmaod Sors dgas. kritikosebis azriT, gakontrolebul eqsperimentul pirobebSi kvlevisas qcevis mTeli simdidre da mravalferovneba ikargeba, radgan is mxolod erTi, an mcire raodenobiT cvladis da reaqciis gamartivebul kvlevas ewireba. meore, cdis pirebma ician, rom eqsperimentSi monawileoben da maT cdian da zomaven. isini cdiloben imgvari reagireba moaxdnon, rogoric eqsperimentators esiamovneba da, saerTod, maTi qceva gansxvavebuli iqneba Cveulisagan, radgan ician, rom sxva

akvirdebaT. mesame, arsebobs mniSvnelovani eTikuri sakiTxebi, romelTa gamoc eqsperimentis Catareba SeuZlebeli xdeba. magaliTad, ver vikvlevT, memkvidreobiT gadaecema Tu ara bavSvis Cagvris tendencia, radgan daCagruli bavSvebis eqsperimentuli jgufi da aradaCagrulebis sakontrolo jgufi unda gvqondes. Semdeg qveTavSi kvlevis iseT meTods ganvixilavT, romelic xSirad awydeba amgvar problemebs.

korelaciis meTodi
kavSirSia inteleqti kreatulobasTan? optimistebi ufro janmrTelebi arian Tu pesimistebi? aris kavSiri bavSvobaSi Cagvris gancdasa da Semdeg fsiqikuri daavadebis gaCenas Soris? es kiTxvebi iseT cvladebs moicavs, romlebiT manipulirebas fsiqologi ase martivad ver moaxerxebs, Tanac aq eTikuri mosazrebebic erTveba. amitom, amgvar kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad iyeneben korelaciis meTods. fsiqologebi korelaciis meTodebs iyeneben, roca surT gansazRvron, ra zomiTaa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli ori cvladi. or cvlads Soris korelaciis ufro zustad gansazRvrisaTvis fsiqologebi iyeneben statistikur sazoms, romelsac korelaciis koeficienti ewodeba (r). korelaciis koeficienti icvleba +1-dan _1-mde, sadac +1 aris sruli dadebiTi korelacia, _1 _ sruli uaryofiTi korelacia, xolo 0 niSnavs, rom korelacia ar arsebobs. dadebiTi korelaciis koeficienti niSnavs, rom, Tu izrdeba erTi cvladis maCveneblebi, izrdeba meore cvladis maCveneblebic. uaryofiTi korelacia niSnavs, rom erTi cvladis maCveneblebis zrdas meore cvladis maCveneblebis Semcireba mohyveba (ix. sur. 2.3). nulTan axlos myofi korelacia niSnavs, rom ori sazomis qulebs Soris susti kavSiria, an is saerTod ar aris. rac ufro uaxlovdeba korelaciis koeficienti 1-s, miT ufro Zlieria
korelaciis meTodi (correlational method) _ gansazRvravs, Tu ra zomiTaa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli ori cvladi. korelaciis koeficienti (r) (correlation coefficient) _ statistika, romelic or cvlads Soris kavSiris xarisxs aCvenebs.

32

Tavi 2 / fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebi

suraTi

2.4

dadebiTi da uaryofiTi korelaciebi


es warmosaxviTi monacemebi dadebiT da uaryofiT korelaciebs Soris sxvaobas aCvenebs. TiToeuli wertili erT fexburTels asaxavs. (a) zogadad, rac ufro met burTs gaitans fexburTeli, miT met fuls gamoimuSavebs. ese igi, am or cvlads Soris dadebiTi korelaciaa. (b) uaryofiTi korelaciis magaliTi. rac ufro nakleb jarimas daimsaxurebs fexburTeli, miT met fuls gamoimuSavebs.

kavSiri or cvlads Soris. magaliTad, Tu mkvlevari ikvlevs muSakis produqtulobasa da stress Soris kavSirs, man unda gazomos, ra zomis stress ganicdian adamianebi cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi da rogor aisaxeba es maT muSaobaze. operaciulad stresi SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT, rogorc stresis kiTxvarze miRebuli qula, xolo produqtuloba, rogorc produqciis, saqonlis is raodenoba, romelsac adamiani dReSi amzadebs. Semdeg mkvlevari am cvladebs mraval adamianze gazomavs da maT Soris korelaciis koeficients gamoTvlis. Zlieri uaryofiTi korelacia imis maCvenebli iqneba, rom stresis zrdas produqtulobis Semcireba moyveba. Sesabamisad, Tu mkvlevarma icis romelime adamianis stresis qula, mas SeuZlia iwinaswarmetyvelos misi produqtuloba. mkvlevarma SeiZleba kidev erTi nabiji gadadgas da Tqvas, rom stresis Semcireba produqtulobis gazrdas gamoiwvevs. amgvari

daskvna arasworia. Zlieri korelacia mxolod imas miuTiTebs, rom monacemTa ori jgufi sistematuradaa dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan, magram ar gveubneba, rom erTi cvladi iwvevs meores. korelacia mizez-Sedegobrioba ar aris. korelaciam SeiZleba asaxos SesaZlo mizez-Sedegobrivi efeqtidan nebismieri, an arc erTi. magaliTad, stressa da produqtulobas Soris arsebuli uaryofiTi korelacia SeiZleba niSnavdes, rom (1) saxlSi gancdili stresis gamo adamianebi uaresad muSaoben, (2) dabali produqutuloba iwvevs stress adamianebSi, (3) garkveuli tipis adamianebi ufro metad ganicdian stress da uaresad muSaoben. yuradReba miaqcieT, rom ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi mesame cvladi iwvevs danarCen ors. dabolos, davuSvaT, rom axali teqnologiis gamo samsaxurSi bevrad meti xmauria, rac, Tavis mxriv, ufro met stress (radganac adamianebi ver axdenen koncentracias) da ufro dabal produqtulobas iwvevs (radgan TanamSromlebi erTmaneTTan ver urTierToben). korelacia isev darCeba, magram mizez-Sedegobrioba ki _ aRar. korelacia, SesaZloa mcdari iyos, radgan mkvlevarma saTanado sakontrolo Sedarebebi ar ganaxorciela. ganvixiloT savaraudo kavSiri 1965 wels niu iorkSi momxdar sinaTlis Caqrobasa da cxra Tvis Semdeg Sobadobis maCveneblis zrdas Soris. `niu iorkelebi Zalian romantiulebi arian, es sanTlis arqonis gamo moxda~, _ Tqva erT-erTma mamam. saxelmwifo moxelem ki

dasabuTebis etapi: obieqturobis dacvis saSualebebi

33

es faqti amgvarad axsna: im saRamos seqsis Canacvlebis yvela saSualeba _ Teatri, saloni, Sexvedra, kartis TamaSi _ moispo da sxva raRa darCenodaT?~ (niu iork Taimsi~, 8/11/1966). msgavsi korelaciaa aRmoCenili, agreTve, qariSxlis da sxva bunebrivi katastrofebis Semdeg. miwisZvram SeiZleba Sobadobis afeTqeba gamoiwvios~, _ werda san francisko qronikli (Chen, 1990), magram Tu ar davizarebT da am Sedegebs Sobadobis sezonur maCveneblebs SevadarebT, aRmoCndeba, rom korelacia mizez-Sedegobriobad SeniRbuli damTxveva aRmoCndeba. anu, sezonsa da Sobadobis maCvenebels Soris namdvilad aris korelacia da swored esaa katastrofasa da Sobadobis maCvenebels Soris korelaciis sakontrolo piroba. naTelia, rom korelaciis Sedegebs imave sifrTxliT unda movekidoT, rogorc eqsperimentis meTodis gamoyenebisas miRebul Sedegebs. ar gvinda iseTi STabeWdileba dagrCeT, TiTqos korelaciis meTodi usargebloa. wignSi xSirad SevxvdebiT korelaciur kvlevebs, romlebmac mniSvnelovani aRmoCenebi Semates fsiqologias. madaze mosayvanad kidev erT magaliTs gTavazobT:

xedavT, ratomaa saWiro korelaciuri kvlevis gamoyeneba am SemTxvevaSi? jgufebSi SemTxveviTad ver gaanawilebT bavSvebs, romlebsac cota an bevri konfliqti aqvT da-ZmasTan, unda daicadoT da mxolod Semdeg dainaxavT, gamovlindeba Tu ara raime sxvaoba situaciebs Soris.

qvezRurblovani zemoqmedeba
am qveTavis dasasruls gTavazobT imis konkretul magaliTs, Tu rogor gamoiyenes fsiqologiuri kvleva reklamis gamomSvebTa saqmianobis Sesafaseblad, romlebsac didi survili aqvT dagarwmunoT, rom maTi produqcia saukeTesoa. albaT, SegxvedriaT qvezRurblovani reklamebi, romlebic gpirdebian, rom amieridan Tqveni cxovreba sruliad Seicvleba. erTi reklama ukeTes seqsualur cxovrebas gpirdebaT, meore _ dabali TviTSefasebis swraf gazrdas gTavazobT, mesame _ wonis swraf da efeqtur daklebas, rogor? Zalian martivad, gamudmebiT unda usminoT kasetas, romelzec qviSian napirze okeanis talRebis nazi Sxapunis xmaa~ Cawerili. qvezRurblovan zemoqmedebas xangrZlivi istoria aqvs. miuxedavad imisa, rom es praqtikulad xriki iyo, 1957 wels Catarebulma gamokvlevam didi aJiotaJi gamoiwvia presis furclebze. qvezRurblovani reklamis gamomgonebeli~ amtkicebda, rom kinofilmis msvlelobisas ekranze gaelvebulma warweram iyideT batibuti!~ 58%-iT meti batibutis gayidva gamoiwvia (Rogers, 1993). uol stritis JurnalSi ewera, rom niu orleanis supermarketma mniSvnelovnad Seamcira qurdoba sistemaSi Semdegi qvezRurblovani teqstis ganTavsebiT: Tu moviparav, cixeSi Cavjdebi~. ohaios StatSi, toledoSi Catarebulma satelefono gamokiTxvam aCvena, rom gamokiTxuli 400 mozardis 75%-s sjera, rom qvezRurblovani reklama warmatebiT gamoiyeneba marketingis specialistebis mier. rac ufro metad ganaTlebulni iyvnen respondentebi, miT ufro metad sjerodaT maT qvezRurblovani reklamis. axla ukve gaqvT sakmarisi codna, rom upasuxoT kiTxvas: namdvilad zemoqmedebs qvezRurblovani kasetebi fsiqikur mdgomareobasa da qcevaze? pasuxs Cven mier aRwerili eqsperimentuli meTodis saSualebiT gavcemT (ix. sur. 2.5).

saidan viciT
biWebis cudi yofaqcevis saTaveebi garemos romeli faqtorebi xsnis, Tu ratom avlenen zogierTi 5 wlis asakis biWebi problemur qcevas, xolo sxvebi ara? mkvlevarTa gundis azriT, amgvari sxvaobis safuZvlebi, nawilobriv, da-Zmebs Soris destruqciul konfliqtSi unda veZeboT (Garcia et al., 2000). maTi azriT, da-ZmebTan gancdili konfliqtis done ganamtkicebs sxva situaciebSi gamovlenil agresiul qcevas. am mizniT, mkvlevrebma videokameriT gadaiRes 180 biWis da-ZmasTan TamaSi. es TamaSebi da-Zmebs Soris konfliqtis raodenobisa da intensiurobis mxriv Seafases. korelaciurma analizma daadastura varaudi, rom da-ZmasTan konfliqtis maRali donis mqone biWebi ufro metad avlendnen agresiul da destruqciul qcevas.

34

Tavi 2 / fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebi

suraTi

2.5

qvezRurblovani kasetebis efeqturobis Sesamowmebeli kvlevis eqsperimentuli gegma


eqsperimentis am gamartivebul versiaSi SerCeva populaciidanaa gakeTebuli. cdis pirebs jer winaswar uzomaven damoukidebel cvlads, Semdeg SemTxveviTad anawileben jgufebSi, sadac isini usmenen mexsierebis, an TviTSefasebis teqstis Semcvel qvezRurblovan kasetas. Semdeg maT kvlav uzomaven saTanado Tvisebebs, raTa ipovon raime Sresazlo cvlileba damokidebul cvladSi; mexierebasa da TviTSefasebaSi. kvlevam qvezRurblovani darwmunebis sando zemoqmedeba ver aRmoaCina.

saidan viciT
qvezRurblovani efeqtis Sefaseba mkvlevarTa gundma gadawyvita mexsierebis da TviTSefasebis gaumjobesebaze qvezRurblovani teqstis mosmenis efeqti Seefasebina. kvlevaSi 18-dan 60 wlamde 237 qali da mamakaci monawileobda. jer maT mexsiereba da TviTSefaseba Seumowmes saTanado testebis da kiTxvarebis meSveobiT da Semdeg SemTxveviTad gaanawiles or jgufSi. erT jgufs moasmenines mexsierebis kaseta, meores _ TviTSefasebis. isini regularulad usmendnen kasetebs 5 kviris ganmavlobaSi da Semdeg laboratorias daubrundnen, rom xelmeored gaezomaT maTi mexsiereba (oTxi testiT) da TviTSefaseba (sami skaliT). mkvlevrebma ar icodnen (brma sqema), romeli cdis piri romel pirobaSi moxvda (Greenwald et al., 1991). am gakontrolebuli eqsperimentis Sedegebi miuTiTebs, rom arc TviTSefaseba da arc mexsiereba sandod ar gaumjobesebula, Tumca gaCnda erTi, Zalian Zlieri

es daxvewili eqsperimenti sakmod konkretuli rCevis micemis saSualebas gvaZlevs: nu daxarjavT fuls tyuilad, qvezRurblovani kasetebi placebo efeqtis garda arafers gvTavazobs. `fsiqologia da cxovrebis~ mniSvnelovani mizania myar eqsperimentul meTodebze damyarebuli amgvari konkretuli daskvnebi mogawodoT. es eqsperimenti, agreTve, specifikur magaliTs gaZlevT cvladebis im tipebis Sesaxeb, romlebsac fsiqologebi zomaven. am SemTxvevaSi saqme gvqonda cdis pirebis rwmenasTan, rom maTi mexsiereba da TviTSefaseba gaizrdeboda. Sem-

dasabuTebis etapi: obieqturobis dacvis saSualebebi

efeqti: placebo efeqti _ cdis pirebi moelodnen, rom maT daexmarebodnen. mkvlevrebma gaiTvaliswines es efeqti da kidev erTi damoukidebeli cvladi daamates. orive jgufis cdis pirTa naxevars mexsierebis kasetaze arasworad ewera TviTSefaseba~, xolo TviTSefasebis kasetaze mexsiereba~. cdis pirebs sjerodaT, rom TviTSefaseba gaumjobesdeboda, Tu Sesabamisi warweris mqone kasetas mousmendnen da mexsiereba gaumjobesdeboda, Tu kasetebs eqnebodaT warwera mexsiereba~, Tumca sinamdvileSi, isini sxva kasetas usmendnen!

35

deg qveTavSi ufro zogadad ganvixilavT, Tu rogor zomaven fsiqologebi gamocdilebis sxvadasxva ganzomilebas da mniSvnelovan procesebs.

Sejameba
kvlevis procesis meore fazaa dasabuTeba. amisaTvis fsiqologebi mecnierul meTods iyeneben. damkvirveblis tendenciuroba daZleulia, roca monacemTa Segrovebis procedurebis standartizacia da cnebebis operaciuli gansazRvra xdeba. eqsperimentuli meTodi mkvlevrebs mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiris kvlevis saSualebas aZlevs. agreTve, mkvlevrebma unda gaacnobieron alternatiuli axsnis arsebobis faqtic, rogoricaa molodinis da placebo efeqtebi. myari daskvnebis misaRebad isini iseT procedurebs iyeneben, rogoricaa: ormagad brma kontroli da placebos kontroli. cdis pirTa Soris sqemis dros jgufebSi cdis pirTa SemTxveviT ganawileba kontrolis mniSvnelovani iaraRia da sakontrolo da eqsperimentul jgufebs Soris msgavsebis garantias gvaZlevs. cdis pirTa SigniT sqema moicavs A-B-A sqemas, sadac monawileebi sakuTari Tavis kontrolad gamodgebian. mkvlevrebi korelaciis meTodebs iyeneben, raTa gansazRvron, ra zomiT arian erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli cvladebi. korelaciis mniSvnelovani SezRudva isaa, rom is ar gulisxmobs mizez-Sedegobriobas. eqsperimentuli meTodebi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT realuri samyaros zemoqmedebis SeswavlisaTvis, rogoricaa, magaliTad, qvezRurblovani kasetebis efeqti.

gani movlenebi da procesebi _ garegani, xolo piradi gamocdileba _ sazogado. Tqven ukve naxeT, ramdenad mniSvnelovania sakvlevi fenomenis operaciuli gansazRvreba. es gansazRvrebebi im proceduras gvaZlevs, romliTac xdeba sxvadasxva donis, zomis, intensiurobis an raodenobis cvladisaTvis raodenobrivi mniSvnelobis mikuTvneba. arsebobs gazomvis mravali meTodi, yovel maTgans Tavisi upiratesobani da nakli gaaCnia. fsiqologiuri gazomvis ganxilvas gazomvis sizustis or indikators Soris gansxvavebis ganxilviT viwyebT, esenia sandooba da validoba. Semdeg ganvixilavT monacemTa Segrovebis sxvadasxva teqnikas. rogorc ar unda agrovebdes fsiqologi monacemebs, hipoTezis Sesamowmeblad igi saTanado statistikur monacemebs unda iyenebdes. statistikur damatebaSi aRwerilia, Tu rogor aanalizeben fsiqologebi monacemebs. statistikuri damateba am TavTan erTad unda ganixiloT.

sandooba da validoba
fsiqologiuri gazomvis mizania sando da validuri daskvnebis miReba. sandooba niSnavs fsiqologiuri testirebis an eqsperimentuli kvlevis Sedegad miRebuli qcevis monacemebis Sesabamisobas da sarwmunoebas. sando Sedegi sxva dros, msgavs pirobebSi Semowmebisas unda gameordes. Tu sazomi instrumenti sandoa, misi ganmeorebiT gamoyenebisas msgavsi qulebi unda miviRoT. ganvixiloT eqsperimenti, romelmac aCvena, rom qvezRurblovani kasetebi mxolod placebo efeqts iZleva. am eqsperimentSi 237 cdis piri iyo. eqsperimentatoris pretenzia, rom Sedegi sandoa, niSnavs, rom daaxloebiT igive zomis jgufze eqsperimentis gameorebis Semdeg msgavsi Sedegebi unda miviRoT. validoba niSnavs, rom kvleva an testireba im fsiqologiur cvlads an Tvisebas zomavs, romlis gazomvasac apirebda. magaliTad, bednierebis validuri sazomi saSualebas unda gvaZlevdes viwinaswarmetyveloT, ramdenad bednieri iqnebiT Tqven ama Tu im situaciaSi. validuri eqsperimenti niSnavs, rom mkvlevars ganzogadebis gakeTeba SeuZlia, anu Sedegebis gavrcoba laboratoriidan realur samyaroze.

Tavi 2 / fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebi

fsiqologiuri gazomva
radgan fsiqologiuri procesebi mravalferovani da rTulia, maTi gazomva siZneleebTanaa dakavSirebuli. zogierTi qceva advilad dakvirvebadia, xolo sxvebi, magaliTad, SfoTva da sizmari _ ara. amdenad, mkvlevris erTerTi amocanaa uxilavi xiluli gaxados, Sina-

36

rodesac kasetebis eqsperimentze dayrdnobiT rCeva mogeciT, vicodiT, rom kvlevis Sedegebi validuria. SesaZloa eqsperimenti da testi sando iyos, magram ara _ validuri. magaliTad, Tqveni bednierebis maCveneblad SegviZlia Tqveni fexsacmlis zoma gamoviyenoT. es sazomi sando iqneba (yovelTvis igive pasuxs miviRebT), magram ara validuri. SeecadeT sandoobis da validobis TvalsazrisiT SeafasoT is sazomebi, romlebsac am wignSi SexvdebiT.

TviTangariSi
mkvlevrebs xSirad ainteresebT imgvari gamocdilebis kvleva, romelsac uSualod ver daakvirdebi. esenia Sinagani fsiqologiuri mdgomareobebi _ grZnobebi, damokidebulebebi (attitudes), Sexedulebebi. SesaZloa, es gamocdileba garegani qcevac iyos, magram fsiqologi mainc ver daakvirdes mas, magaliTad, seqsualuri aqtivoba an kriminaluri qceva. aseT SemTxvevebSi kvlevebi TviTangariSs (self-report measures) eyrdnoba. es aris mkvlevris mier dasmul kiTxvebze miRebuli werilobiTi an zepiri verbaluri pasuxebi. arsebobs amgvari Sefasebebis raodenobrivi saxiT gadmocemis sando xerxebi. ase rom, fsiqologebs SeuZliaT sxvadasxva adamianis pasuxebi Seadaron erTmaneTs. TviTangariSi intervius dros an kiTxvarze miRebul pasuxebs gulisxmobs. kiTxvari an anketa kiTxvebis werilobiTi krebulia. kiTxvebis Sinaarsi SeiZleba iyos: faqtobrivi (Tqven amomrCeveli xarT?~); warsuli an awmyo qcevis Sesaxeb (ramdens eweviT?); damokidebulebebisa da grZnobebis Sesaxeb (ramdenad gakmayofilebT Tqveni samuSao?~). Ria kiTxvebi saSualebas aZlevs respondents Tavisuflad, sakuTari sityvebiT gasces pasuxi SekiTxvas.
sandooba (reliability) _ xarisxi, romliTac testi msgavs Sedegebs iZleva yoveli gamoyenebisas, instrumentis gamoyenebiT miRebuli qulebis stabiluroba da Sesabamisoba validoba (validity) _ testi zustad imas zomavs, ris gazomvasac apirebda. TviTangariSi (self-report measures) _ adamianis mier sakuTar Tavze dakvirvebis Sedegad miRebuli monacemebi.

arsebobs, agreTve, daxuruli kiTxvebi, sadac pasuxis variantebi mocemulia, magaliTad, diax, ara, ar vici. interviu aris mkvlevarsa da individs Soris dialogi detaluri informaciis miRebis mizniT. mTlianad standartizebuli kiTxvarisagan gansxvavebiT, interviu interaqtiulia. interviuerma SeiZleba Secvalos kiTxvebi imisda mixedviT, Tu ras pasuxobs respondenti. kargi interviuerebi socialuri interaqciis processac iTvaliswineben da amyareben raports _ dadebiT socialur urTierTobas respondentTan, romelic ndobas da piradi informaciis gaziarebis survils iwvevs. mkvlevrebi sakuTari TviTangariSis mravalgvar sazoms iyeneben. maT umetesobas ver gamoviyenebT patara bavSvebTan, wera-kiTxvis ucodinar zrdasrulebTan, sxva enaze molaparakeebTan, gonebrivad CamorCenil adamianebTan da cxovelebTan, xolo iq, sadac maTi gamoyeneba SeiZleba, SesaZloa gaCndes sandoobis da validobis problema. monawileebma SeiZleba ver gaigon kiTxvebi an zustad ver gaixsenon TavianTi warsuli gamocdileba. ufro metic, sakuTari Tavis Sefasebaze, SesaZloa, imoqmedos socialuri sasurvelobis efeqtma. rodesac adamiani araswor pasuxs iZleva, raTa sakuTar Tavze sasurveli (xandaxan arasasurveli) STabeWdileba Seqmnas, mas SeiZleba moeridos namdvili grZnobebis gamoxatva. Tu respondentebma ician intervius an kiTxvaris mizani, maT

fsiqologiuri gazomva

37

SeiZleba tyuili Tqvan, raTa miiRon samuSao, gamovidnen saavadmyofodan an raime sxva mizans miaRwion. intervius situacia, aseve, imis saSualebas iZleva, rom tendenciurobam da mikerZoebulobam gavlena moaxdinos interviueris mier dasmul kiTxvebze da respondentis mier gacemul pasuxebze.

qcevis dakvirveba da gazomva


fsiqologebs qcevaTa farTo speqtri ainteresebT. isini swavloben virTxis labirinTSi gavlas; bavSvs, romelic suraTs xatavs; students, romelic leqss izepirebs, an muSas, romelic raRac davalebas asrulebs. qcevis sazomi garegan, dakvirvebad da dafiqsirebad qcevebs da reaqciebs swavlobs. qcevis Seswavlis erT-erTi ZiriTadi gzaa dakvirveba. dakvirveba unda iyos dagegmili, zusti da sistematuri. dakvirveba fokusirdeba qcevis procesze an produqtze. magaliTad, daswavlis eqsperimentSi mkvlevari akvirdeba ramdenjer imeorebs cdis piri sityvebis CamonaTvals (procesi) da Semdeg ramden sityvas aRadgens igi (produqti). uSualo dakvirvebisaTvis sakvlevi qceva advilad dasanaxi da Casaweri unda iyos. magaliTad, emociebis laboratoriul eqsperimentSi vakvirdebiT cdis piris saxis gamometyvelebas, rodesac is emociis gamomwvev stimuls xedavs. uSualo dakvirvebas xSirad teqnikas axmaren. magaliTad, Tanamedrove fsiqologebi xSirad iyeneben kompiuterebs, raTa zustad gazomon is dro, romelic kvlevis monawileebs sWirdebaT, raTa sxvadasxva davaleba Seasrulon, rogoricaa, magaliTad, winadadebis wakiTxva, an problemis gadaWra. marTalia, zusti gazomvis zogi forma kompiuteris gaCenamdec arsebobda, kompiuterebi araCveulebrivi moqnilobis saSualebas iZleva zusti informaciis Segrovebisa da analizisaTvis. mesame TavSi uaxloes teqnologiebs aRvwerT, romlebic saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevrebs qcevis RirsSesaniSnavi gazomva ganaxorcielon da naxon, rogor muSaobs tvini.
qcevis gazomva (Behavioral measures) _ garegani qcevebi da reaqciebi, romlebsac akvirdebian da iweren, eqskluziuri an TviTangariSiT aRwerili qceva.

Tavi 2 / fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebi

bunebrivi dakvirvebis dros mkvlevari bunebrivad gaCenil qcevas akvirdeba, magram ar ereva masSi. magaliTad, mkvlevari SeiZleba calmxrivi sarkidan akvirdebodes bavSvebis TamaSs, romlebmac ar ician, rom maT uyureben. adamianis qcevis zogierTi saxis Seswavla mxolod bunebrivi dakvirvebiTaa SesaZlebeli, radgan araeTikuri an arapraqtikuli iqneba sxvagvarad moqceva. magaliTad, araeTikuri iqneba bavSvi mkacri deprivaciis pirobebSi movaTavsoT, raTa bavSvis Semdgom ganviTarebaze misi zemoqmedeba SeviswavloT. laboratoriaSi qcevis Seswavlisas mkvlevari ver dainaxavs, Tu ra xangrZlivi efeqti aqvs adamianis bunebriv garemos misi qcevis rTuli paternis formirebaze. bunebrivi dakvirvebis erT-erTi yvelaze Rirebuli magaliTia jein gudalis (Jane Goodall) Sroma (1986-1990; Paterson and Goodall, 1993). gudali 30 wlis manZilze swavlobda Simpanzeebis qcevas afrikaSi, tanganikis tbaze. igi aRniSnavs, rom 10 weliwadSi rom daemTavrebina Sroma, rogorc amas Tavdapirvelad apirebda, swor daskvnebs ver gaakeTebda:
Simpanzeebis da adamianebis qcevaSi mraval saerTos davinaxavdiT, magram dagvrCeboda STabeWdileba, rom Simpanzeebi bevrad ufro mSvidobiani arsebebi arian, vidre adamianebi. vinaidan kvleva pirveli dekadis Semdegac gavagrZeleT, SevZeliT

38

dagvefiqsirebina socialuri jgufis dayofa da am or axal jgufs Soris warmoSobili sastiki agresia. aRmoCnda, rom zogierT SemTxvevaSi Simpanzeebma SeiZleba moklan da SeWamon kidec Tavisi saxeobis warmomadgenlebi. meore mxriv, Simpanzeebma ojaxis wevrebisadmi ukiduresad xangrZlivi emociuri kavSirebi gamoavlines _ kargad ganviTarebuli kognituri unarebi da kulturuli tradiciebis ganviTareba (Goodall, 1986, gv. 3-4).

kvlevis eTikuri sakiTxebi


qvezRurblovani Setyobinebis efeqturobis Sesamowmebel kvlevaSi mkvlevrebma monawileebi moatyues, radgan kasetebze araswori warwerebi gaakeTes. maT es ganzrax Caidines,

kvlevis eTikuri sakiTxebi

kvlevis sawyis etapze bunebrivi dakvirveba gansakuTrebiT sasargebloa. is mkvlevrebs movlenis sazRvrebis dadgenaSi exmareba, an warmodgenas uqmnis, romeli iqneba mniSvnelovani cvladi, an kavSiri. bunebrivi dakvirvebis monacemebi mkvlevars xSirad miniSnebebs aZlevs konkretuli hipoTezis, an kvlevis gegmis CamoyalibebisaTvis. sanam fsiqologiuri gazomvis Temas davamTavrebT, xazi unda gavusvaT imas, rom mravali kvleviTi proeqti TviTangariSisa da qcevis dakvirvebis meTodebis kombinacias iyenebs. magaliTad, mkvlevarma SeiZleba Seiswavlos, ras ambobs adamiani momavali qcevis Sesaxeb da realurad rogor iqceva (ixileT me-17 Tavi). kidev erTi: zogierTi kvleva SemTxvevis Seswavlas warmoadgens, anu erT individze tardeba. calke aRebuli individis intensiurma analizma xandaxan SeiZleba bevrad meti sayuradRebo informacia mogvces, vidre didi raodenobiT adamianebis kvlevam. magaliTad, me-3 TavSi SeityobT, rom tvinis dazianebis mqone calkeuli pacientebis yuradRebiT Seswavlam tvinSi enis funqciis lokalizaciis Sesaxeb Teoriebis warmoSobas daudo safuZveli. Cven aRvwereT mkvlevrebis mier gamoyenebuli sxvadasxva tipis procedura da sazomi instrumenti. Semdeg qveTavSi im eTikur standartebs ganvixilavT, romlebic am meTodebis da procedurebis gamoyenebas marTavs.

rom enaxaT, xom ar iwvevs monawilis molodini, rom daexmarebian, daijeros, rom Setyobineba sasargebloa maSinac ki, roca mexsierebisa da TviTSefasebis obieqturi sazomebi aCvenebda, rom es ase ar iyo. motyueba arsodes aris kargi, magram rogor Seafasebdnen mkvlevrebi am SemTxvevaSi araswori rwmenis placebo efeqts? rogor unda SevadaroT kvlevis SesaZlo sargebeli im xarjTan, romelsac swevs kvlevis monawile, Tu procedura riskiani, tkivilis, an stresis momyenebeli da motyuebiTia? fsiqologebi amgvar kiTxvebs gamudmebiT usvamen sakuTar Tavs (Rosentall, 1994). adamianebis da cxovelebis ZiriTadi uflebebis pativiscema yvela mkvlevris aucilebeli movaleobaa. am uflebebis dacvisaTvis arsebobs specialuri komitetebi, romlebic kvlevis yvela proeqts ixilavs da SesabamisobaSi mohyavs is aSS-is janmrTelobis departamentis mier gamoqveynebul mkacr instruqciebTan. universitetebs, kolejebs, saavadmyofoebs da kvleviT dawesebulebebs reviziis sabWoebi hyavT, romlebic amgvar proeqtebs ixilaven. amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciam (1992) detaluri eTikuri standartebi SeimuSava. ganvixiloT zogierTi maTgani.

informirebuli Tanxmoba
adamianebze Catarebuli laboratoriuli kvlevis dasawyisSi monawileebs aRuweren proceduras, masTan dakavSirebul potenciur risks da im Sedegebs, romlis miRebasac moelian kvlevis dasasrul. monawileebs arwmuneben, rom maTgan miRebuli informacia daculi da xelSeuxebeli iqneba gareSe pirTaTvis. maTi monacemebi dafiqsirdeba da specialur adgilze Seinaxeba; xelmisawvdomi iqneba mxolod mkvlevrebisaTvis, xolo, Tu mkvlevars kvlevis Sedegebis moxsenebis survili gauCndeba, monawileTa Tanxmobis gareSe amas ver gaakeTebs. monawileebs xels awerineben gancxadebaze, sadac weria, rom kvlevis Sesaxeb sruli informacia miawodes da isini Tanaxma arian monawileobaze. garda amisa, monawileebs afrTxileben, rom maT nebismier momentSi SeuZliaT datovon kvleva da oficialuri pirebis sakontaqto monacemebs aZleven, Tu maT Civilis survili gauCndebaT.

39

riskis/sargeblis Sefaseba
fsiqologiuri kvlevis umetesoba ar aris dakavSirebuli raime riskTan, miT umetes, roca mis monawileebs rutinuli davalebebi eZlevaT, magram aris iseTi eqsperimentebi, romlebic adamianis bunebis ufro pirad aspeqtebs swavlobs, rogoricaa emociuri reaqcia, me-s xati, konformuloba, stresi an agresia, romlebmac SeiZleba aaRelvos, an fsiqologiurad Seawuxos adamiani. amitom amgvari kvlevisas riski minimumamde unda iyos dayvanili. monawileebs unda SevatyobinoT riskis Sesaxeb da winaswari zomebi unda miviRoT, rom Zlier reaqciebs gavumklavdeT. aseT riskian SemTxvevebSi sabWoebi yuradRebiT ixilaven, aucilebelia kvleva Tu ara, SesaZlebelia Tu ara riskis gareSe misi Catareba, ramdenad bevris momtania amgvari kvleva mecnierebisa da sazogadoebisaTvis.

reqciebidan da pasuxebidan mkvlevari raRac axals igebs im movlenis Sesaxeb, romelsac swavlobs, xolo monawiles unda SevatyobinoT kvlevis miznebi, hipoTeza, SesaZlo Sedegebi da kvlevis mosalodneli sargeblianoba. eqsperimentis dasasrul yovel monawiles unda CavutaroT kvlevis Semdgomi interviu, sadac mkvlevari maqsimalur informacias miawodebs kvlevis Sesaxeb da ar gauSvebs monawiles, sanam ar darwmundeba, rom is aRelvebuli, dabneuli, an damorcxvebuli ar aris. Tu kvlevis romelime etapze monawilis motyueba aucilebelia, eqsperimentatori dawvrilebiT uxsnis mas, ratom gaakeTa es. dabolos, monawileebs ufleba aqvT gaauqmon TavianTi monacemebi, Tu miaCniaT, rom maTi uflebebi dairRva.

cxovelTa kvleva: mecniereba, eTika, politika


SeiZleba Tu ara cxovelebis gamoyeneba fsiqologiur da samedicino kvlevebSi? es kiTxva xSirad Zalian polarizebul pasuxebs iwvevda. erT mxares arian mkvlevrebi, romlebic miuTiTeben, rom cxovelebze Catarebulma kvlevebma umniSvnelovanesi aRmoCenebi misces mecnierebas (Domjan and Purdy, 1995; Petrinovich, 1998). cxovelebze Catarebuli kvlevebis miRwevebia iseTi wamlebis gamogoneba da gamocda, romlebic SfoTvas da fsiqikur daavadebebs mkurnaloben, narkomaniis Sesaxeb mniSvenlovani codnis miReba (Miller, 1985) da sxv. cxovelebze Catarebuli kvlevebi Tavad cxovelebisaTvisac gamosadegia. magaliTad, fsiqologiurma kvlevebma aCvena, rogor unda SevamciroT zooparkSi, galiebSi myofi cxovelebis stresi. cxovelTa daswavlisa da socialuri organizaciis sferoSi gakeTebulma mignebebma maTi volierebis ukeTesi dagegmareba da janmrTelobisaTvis ufro sasikeTo garemo pirobebis Seqmna gamoiwvia (Nicoll et al., 1988). miRwevaTa amgvari CamonaTvali ar aris sakmarisi sabuTi cxovelTa uflebebis damcvekvlevis Semdgomi interviu (Debriefing) _ mkvlevari maqsimalur informacias miawodebs kvlevis Sesaxeb da ar gauSvebs monawiles, sanam ar darwmundeba, rom is aRelvebuli, dabneuli, an damorcxvebuli ar aris.

ganzrax motyueba
zogierT kvlevaSi monawileebisaTvis sruli informaciis miwodeba SeuZlebelia, radgan es kvlevis Sedegebze imoqmedebs. magaliTad, roca agresiaze televiziiT Zaladobis yurebis zemoqmedebas swavlobT, ar unda uTxraT Tqveni mizani kvlevis monawiles. zogierT mkvlevars miaCnia, rom monawilis motyueba arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar aris gamarTlebuli (Korn, 1987). amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciis (1992) instruqciebi amis Taobaze sakmaod naTelia: (1) kvlevas sakmarisi mecnieruli da saganmanaTleblo mniSvneloba unda hqondes, rom motyueba gavamarTloT, (2) mkvlevarma unda aCvenos, rom motyuebis gaereSe mizans ver miaRwevs, (3) monawileebi arasodes unda movatyuoT im sakiTxebSi, ris gamoc maT SeiZleba saerTod uari Tqvan monawileobaze, (4) kvlevis dasasrul monawileebs unda avuxsnaT, ratom movatyueT. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, amgvari eqpserimentebi SesaZloa sabWom SezRudos, an saerTod ar miiRos ( Steininger et al; 1984).

Tavi 2 / fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebi

kvlevis Semdgomi interviu


fsiqologiur kvlevaSi monawileoba yovelTvis mkvlevarsa da monawiles Soris informaciis ormxriv gacvlas gulisxmobs. monawilis

40

gamokiTxulTa daaxloebiT 80%-s miaCnia, rom bunebriv garemoSi Catarebuli dakvirveba dasaSvebia. ufro naklebi (30-dan 70%-mde) mxars uWers iseT kvlevebs, romlebic galiaSi Casmul cxovelebze tardeba, rac nawilobriv cxovelis tipzea damokidebuli (magaliTad, virTxebi, mtredebi, ZaRlebi, an primatebi). rogorc studentebma, ise, leqtorebma uaryves tkivilis mimyenebli an sikvdilis gamowvevi kvlevebi cxovelebze. orive jgufis umravlesobam (daaxloebiT 60%-ma) mxari dauWira fsiqologiis saswavlo kursebSi cxovelebis gamoyenebas, magram orive jgufSi mxolod erTma mesamedma CaTvala, rom cxovelebTan laboratoriuli muSaoba bakalavris xarisxis mosapovebel aucilebel moTxovnad unda iyos miCneuli.

rogor gamoviyenoT sworad mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegebi


am Tavis bolo qveTavSi ganvixilavT kritikuli azrovnebis im unarebs, romlebic imisaTvis gWirdebaT, rom fsiqologiuri codna brZnulad moixmaroT. es nebismieri pirovnebisaTvisaa aucilebeli Cvens dinamikur sazogadoebaSi, im situaciaSi, romelic aRsavsea WeSmaritebaze pretenziebiT, saRi gonebis~ mcdari miTebiTa da konkretuli interesebis

rogor gamoviyenoT sworad mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegebi

lebisaTvis. maTi azriT, adamianebs jer kidev mcdarad miaCniaT, rom homo sapiensis sxva qmnilebebisagan gamoyofa moralurad gamarTlebulia~ (Bowd and Shapiro, 1993, gv. 136; Shapiro, 1998). am Secdomis gamosasworeblad gvTavazoben laboratoriuli kvlevebidan minimalurad manipulaciur kvlevebze gadavideT, romlebic bunebriv da naxevrad bunebriv garemoSi tardeba~ (Bowd and Shapiro, 1993, gv. 140). yoveli specialisti gansakuTrebuli sifrTxiliT unda miudges cxovelebis kvlevas. cxovelebis kvlevaSi gansakuTrebul sifrTxileze miuTiTebs, agreTve, gamokiTxvis Sedegebi, romelSic fsiqologiis fakultetis 1188 studenti da amerikis fisoqologTa asociaciis 3982 wevri monawileobda (Plous, 1996a, 1996b):

Tqven ras fiqrobT? rogor SeafasebdiT cxovelebze Catarebuli kvlevis sargebels da xarjs?

Sejameba
fsiqologiurma gazomvam imgvari Sedegebi unda mogvces, romlebic erTdroulad sandocaa da validuric. sakuTari Tavis Sefasebis gazomva kiTxvarebis da interviuebis saSualebiT xdeba. fsiqologi iyenebs, agreTve, qcevis sazomebs, rogoricaa uSualo dakvirveba da bunebrivi dakvirveba. adamianis kvlevis mniSvnelovani eTikuri sakiTxebia informirebuli Tanxmoba, kvlevis riskis da mogebis Sefaseba, ganzrax motyuebis gamoyeneba da kvlevis Semdgomi intervius aucilebloba. mkvlevrebma frTxilad unda ganixilon cxovelebze Catarebuli kvlevebis eTikuri Sedegebi.

41

fsiqologia

XXI saukuneSi

fsiqologiuri kvleva da informaciis afeTqeba


internetSi fsiqologiisadmi miZRvnil uamrav gverds waawydebiT. magaliTad, Sizofrenia erT-erT misamarTze 83.760 gverdze iyo naxsenebi (ix. Tavi 15). sxva misamarTze imave Temaze 63.812 gverdi vipoveT. ueWvelia, am wignis gamosvlamde es raodenoba kidev ufro gaizrdeba. es monacemebi naTlad aCvenebs, ratom uwodeben Tanamedroveobas informaciis afeTqebis periods. yvela CvenganisaTvis namdvili gamowvevaa am informaciis brZnuli moxmareba. rogor ganvsazRvroT, internetSi ganTavsebul romel informacias vendoT da romels ara? biblioTekaSi bevrad ufro advilia informaciis wyaros gansazRvra, radgan aq Z i r i Ta d a d s e r i o z u l i samecniero Jurnalebia mo-

Tavsebuli, romelTa umetesoba amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciis, an amerikis fsiqologiuri sazogadoebis gamocemulia. rodesac kvleva JurnalSi igzavneba, is Semowmebis rTul process gadis. redaqcia mas 2-dan 5-mde aRiarebul specialists ugzavnis, romlebic naSroms detalurad ixilaven misi Te o r i u l i s a f u Z v l e b i s , meTodologiis da Sedegebis TvalsazrisiT. Tu eqspertebi moiwoneben kvlevas, is qveyndeba. magaliTad, 1998 wels amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciis mier (1999) gamoqveynebulma Jurnalebma mowodebuli naSromebis 69% uaryves. ra Tqma unda, es procesi srulyofili ar aris, zogierTi Rirebuli Sroma usamarTlod ukuigdeba, xolo zogi SedarebiT susti rogorRac gaZ-

vreba~, magram, zogadad, es procesi garantias gvaZlevs, rom JurnalTa umetesoba maRal standartebs akmayofilebs. amitom, rodesac informacias internetSi naxavT, yovelTvis dainteresdiT, saidan modis is, ra aris misi wyaro. SegiZliaT internetSi seriozuli samecniero Jurnalebis eleqtronuli versiebi ixiloT. aseve, nebismieri informacia unda Seicavdes gamoyenebuli literaturis CamonaTvals da aqedanac mixvdebiT, ramdenad seriozul wyarosTan gaqvT saqme. `fsiqologia da cxovrebaSi~. moyvanili informaciis sandoobaSi eWvi ar unda SegeparoT, radgan yvelgnaa m i Ti Te b u l i s a Ta n a d o samecniero wyaro, amitom, internetSi muSaobisas imave principiT imoqmedeT!

Tavi 2 / fsiqologiis kvlevis meTodebi

42

samsaxurSi Camdgari mikerZoebuli daskvnebiT. kritikuli azrovneba niSnavs informaciis miRma xedvas, imis siRrmeSi Wvretas, rac zedapirze ar Cans, arsSi Cawvdomas, rom garegnulma mxarem ar mogatyuoT. fsiqologiuri codna fsiqologiurad daxvewili sazogadoebis moazrovne, mgrZnobiare subieqtis yoveldRiuri cxovrebis mudmivad Tanmdevi aspeqtia. samwuxarod, fsiqologiuri informaciis didi raodenoba ara mecnieruli wignebidan, statiebidan da kvlevebidan, aramed gazeTebis furclebidan, tele da radio gadacemebidan, popularuli fsiqologiis bulvaruli~ wignebidan modis. davubrundeT fsiqikis qvezRurblovani kontrolis ideas. marTalia, is mogebaze orientirebuli marketingis

konsultantis jeims vikaris motyuebiTi propagandiT daiwyo (Rogers, 1993) da, rogorc vnaxeT, laboratoriulma kvlevam uaryo, magram es idea jer kidev muSaobs da adamianebi isev xarjaven fuls amgvar kasetebSi! fsiqologiis codna monacemebze dayrdnobiT brZnuli daskvnebis gakeTebaSi dagexmarebaT. yovelTvis unda ecadoT fsiqologiis Seswavlidan miRebuli formaluri codna im araformalur fsiqologiur informacias miuyenoT, romelic gars gartyiaT. dasviT kiTxvebi Tqveni sakuTari, an sxva adamianebis qcevis Sesaxeb, pasuxebi racionaluri fsiqologiuri Teorebis safuZvleze eZebeT da TqvenTvis xelmisawvdom faqtebze dayrdnobiT SeamowmeT es pasuxebi.

yovelTvis unda gaxsovdeT ramdenime zogadi wesi, romelic informaciis zRvaSi garkvevaSi dagexmarebaT: korelacia mizez-Sdegobrioba ar aris. mniSvnelovani terminebi da cnebebi operaciulad unda iyos gansazRvruli ise, rom yvelas erTnairad esmodes maTi mniSvneloba. sanam Teoriis, hipoTezis an Sexedulebis damamtkicebel sabuTebs dauwyebT Zebnas, ifiqreT, rogor SeiZleba misi uaryofa. yovelTvis eZebeT SemoTavazebuli axsnis alternatiuli variantebi, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca axsna avtors aZlevs xels. gaxsovdeT, rom pirovnul tendenciurobas SeuZlia daamaxinjos realobis aRqma.

eWvi SeitaneT kompleqsuri kiTxvebis martiv pasuxebSi, an rTuli problemebis da movlenebis martiv mizezebsa da gadaWris gzebSi. eWvi SeitaneT raime mkurnalobis, Carevis, an produqtis efeqturobaSi, aucileblad SeadreT is ukve arsebul saSualebas. Ria da, amave dros, skeptikuri iyaviT: aRiareT, rom daskvnaTa umetesoba ar aris naTeli da xelSesaxebi, axali damamtkicebeli sabuTebi eZebeT, mzad iyaviT sakuTari azris SecvlisaTvis. gvinda, amave Ria skeptikuri midgomiT ganixiloT es wigni, ar gvinda, fsiqologiis Seswavla TqvenTvis mxolod faqtebis aTviseba iyos. imedi gvaqvs, rom monawileobas miiRebT ideebis aRmoCenaSi, maT SemowmebaSi da es siamovnebas moganiWebT.
rogor gamoviyenoT sworad mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegebi

sakvanZo sakiTxebi
aRmoCenis etapi
kvlevis aRmoCenis stadiaze dakvirvebas, Sexedulebas, informacias da zogad codnas movlenis axleburi xedvisaken mivyavarT. mkvlevari Teorias da hipoTezas ayalibebs.

obieqturobis dacvis saSualebebi


es is fazaa, romelzec ideebi mowmdeba da dasturdeba, an uariyofa.

dasabuTebis etapi:

43

ideebis SemowmebisaTvis mkvlevrebi mecnierul meTods iyeneben. es aris monacemebis imgvarad Segroveba da interpretireba, rom Secdomebi minimumamde iqnes dayvanili. mkvlevrebi ebrZvian damkvirveblis tendenciurobas procedurebis standartizaciis da operaciuli gansazRvrebebis gamoyenebis gziT. kvlevis eqsperimentuli meTodebi gansazRvravs, arsebobs Tu ara cvladebs Soris mizez-Sedegobrivi mimarTeba. mkvlevrebi alternatiul axsnebs kontrolis saTanado procedurebis gamoyenebiT gamoricxaven. kvlevis korelaciuri meTodi gansazRvravs, ramdenad aris ori cvladi dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan. korelacia ar gulisxmobs mizez-Sedegobriobas.

fsiqologiuri gazomva
fsiqologebi cdiloben ise gazomon monacemebi, rom isini sando da validuri iyos. fsiqologiuri kvleva moicavs sakuTari Tavis Sefasebis da qcevis gazomvas.

ZiriTadi cnebebi
A-B-A sqema aRmoCenis etapi TviTangariSi dasabuTebis etapi damatebiTi cvladi damokidebuli cvladi damoukidebeli cvladi damkvirveblis tendenciuroba determinizmi eqsperimentuli meTodi validoba Teoria kvlevis Semdegi interviu kontrolis procedura korelaciis koeficienti korelaciuri meTodi mecnieruli meTodi molodinis efeqti operaciuli gansazRvreba ormagad brma kontroli placebo efeqti placebo kontroli populacia reprezentatuli SerCeva sandooba-standartizacia qcevis gazomva SemTxvevis Seswavla SerCeva cvladi cdis pirTa Soris sqema cdis pirTa SigniT sqema hipoTeza

kvlevis eTikuri sakiTxebi


yvela mkvlevari valdebulia pativi sces kvlevis m o n a w i l e Ta , a r a a q v s mniSvneloba, adamianis, Tu cxovelis, ZiriTad uflebebs. eTikuri da humanuri mopyrobis garantirebisaTvis SemuSavebulia mTeli igi damcveli saSualebebi.

rogor gamoviyenoT sworad mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegebi


imisaTvis, rom kvlevis Sedegebi sworad gamoviyenoT, unda vicodeT, rogor viazrovnoT kritikulad da rogor SevafasoT kvlevis Sedegebi.

44

statistikuri damateba
statistikis gageba: monacemebis analizi da daskvnebis Camoyalibeba

monacemebis analizi

aRweriTi statistika daskvniTi statistika


rogor gamoviyenoT sworad mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegebi

Ziritadi terminebi

45

statistikuri damateba / statistikis gageba: monacemebis analizi da daskvnebis Camoyalibeba

ogorc rogorc meore TavSi aRvniSneT, fsiqologebi statistikas imisaTvis iyeneben, rom Segrovebul monacemebs azri mianiWon. statistika, agreTve, saWiroa miRebuli daskvnebisaTvis raodenobrivi safuZvlis Sesaqmnelad. amdenad, statistikis codna dagexmarebaT daafasoT is procesi, romlis saSualebiTac iqmneba fsiqologiuri codna. pirovnul doneze, statistikis principebis gageba ukeTesi gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi dagexmarebaT, rodesac sxvebi monacemTa gamoyenebiT Seecdebian Segacvlevinon azrebi da moqmedebebi. studentTa umetesobisaTvis statistika mSrali, uintereso sagania. miuxedavad amisa, statitikas Cvens cxovrebaSi mravalgvari gamoyeneba aqvs. amis saCveneblad moviyvanT mxolod erT proeqts, dawyebuls realuri problemiT da damTavrebuls statistikuri argumentebiT, romlebic zogadi daskvnebisaTvis moiSvelies. misi ganxorcieleba presis pirvel gverdebze moTavsebulma informaciebma gamoiw-

vies im morcxvi adamianebis Sesaxeb, romlebic uecrad mkvlelebi gaxdnen. magaliTi: naTesavebi, TanamSromlebi da nacnobebi fred kovans wynar, sasiamovno, bavSvebis moyvarul, keTil~ kacad axasiaTebdnen. fredis skolis yofilma direqtorma ganacxada, rom kovans saukeTeso niSnebi hqonda yofaqcevaSi, TanamSromlobasa da religiaSi. TanamSromlis mixedviT, kovani aravis elaparakeboda, magram xalisiT asrulebda sxvebis davalebebsa da Txovnebs~. erTxel, valentinis dRes, kovani naxevrad avtomaturi iaraRiT Sevida samsaxurSi, mokla oTxi TanamSromeli, policieli da Semdeg Tavi moikla. es istoria sakmaod xSir movlenas asaxavs: morcxvi, wynari adamiani uecrad Zaladobas Cadis da SokSi agdebs yvelas, vinc mas icnobda. ra saerTo aqvs fred kovans maTTan, vinc moulodnelad wynari da mzrunveli adamianidan moZaladed da umowyalod gardaiqmna? ra pirovnuli TvisebebiT gamoirCevian amgvari adamianebi Cvengan?

46

mkvlevarTa gunds hqonda varaudi, rom morcxvobas, sxva pirovnul maxasiaTeblebsa da Zaladobis qcevas Soris kavSiri unda arsebobdes (Lee et al., 1977). amitom maT daiwyes monacemebis Segroveba, romlebic amgvar kavSirs gamoavlenda. mkvlevrebma igulisxmes, rom erTi SexedviT aramoZalade adamianebi, romlebic uecrad Cadian mkvlelobas, Cveulebriv, morcxvebi da araagresiulebi arian, TavianT vnebebs da agresiebs mkacrad akontroleben. marTalia, cxovrebis manZilze isini mraval travmas iReben, magram iSviaTad, an saerTod ar gamoxataven brazss, Tumca ganicdian mas. garegnulad isini TiTqosda mSvidi adamianebi arian, magram SigniT brZola mimdinareobs gamalebuli

emociebis gasakontroleblad. isini wynari, pasiuri, pasuxismgebliani adamianebis STabeWdilebas toveben rogorc bavSvobisas, aseve mozardobaSi. simorcxvis gamo maT Zalian axlobeli adamianebi ar hyavT da aravin icis, sinamdvileSi ras ganicdian. Semdeg, uecrad raRac feTqdeba. kidev erTi mcire wyena, kidev erTi mcire socialuri wnexi sakmarisia, rom naperwklis roli iTamaSos da gamoaTavisuflos wlebis ganmavlobaSi Cakluli Zaladoba. radgan am adamianebs ar uswavliaT, rogor SeiZleba pirovnebaTaSorisi konfliqtis gadaWra problemis ganxilvisa da molaparakebis gziT, fizikurad amJRavneben TavianT agresias.

mkvlevrebma Camoayalibes hipoTeza, rom simorcxve ufro metad axasiaTebT uecar mkvlelebs _ maT, visac manamde ar CaudeniaT raime danaSauli, an antisocialuri qceva, vidre kriminal mkvlelebs, visac mkvlelobamde hqoniaT Zaladobis kriminaluri qcevebis SemTxvevebi. garda amisa, uecari mkvlelebi TavianTi impulsebis ufro maRali donis kontroliT gamoirCevian, vidre Zaladobis Cadenas Cveuli adamianebi. dabolos, maTi pasiuroba da sxvebze damokidebuleba sqesobrivi rolebis kiTxvarSi gamovlindeba ufro feminur da androginul (qalis da mamakacis erTdroulad) TvisebebSi, vidre kriminali mkvlelebisa. am ideebis Sesamowmeblad mkvlevrebma kaliforniis cixeebSi testebis da kiTxvarebis Catarebis nebarTva miiRes. 19 patimari (yvela mamakaci) daTanxmda kvlevaSi monawileobis miRebaze. mkvlelobamde rig maTgans danaSaulebis mTeli seria hqonda Cadenili, xolo sxvebs ar gaaCndaT kriminaluri warsuli. am ori tipis cdis pirebisagan mkvlevrebma sami tipis monacemi moagroves: simorcxvis qula, sqesobrivi rolis identifikaciis qula da impulsis kontrolis qula. simorcxvis qula stenfordis simorcxvis kiTxvaris saSualebiT Sefasda. am kiTxvaris yvelaze mniSvnelovani punqti iyo kiTxva: morcxvi xarT Tu ara?~, razec mocemuli iyo pasuxis ori varianti: ki~, an ara~. sxva kiTxvebi exeboda simorcxvis saxeebs da xarisxebs, simorcxvis mizezebsa da sababs. meore kiTxvari iyo sandra bemis (Sandra Bem) sqesobrivi rolebis kiTxvari, romelic warmoadgens zedsarTavi saxelebis sias, magaliTad, agresiuli, mosiyvarule. cdis pirma unda upasuxos, ramdenad Seesabameba es Tvisebebi mas (Bem, 1974, 1981). zogierTi zedsarTavi feminur, anu qalis Tvisebebs asaxavda da maTi jami iZleoda qalis sqesobriv rols. zogierTi zedsarTavi mamakacis Tvisebebs asaxavda da maTi jami iZleoda mamakacis sqesobriv rols. individis sqesobrivi rolis saboloo qulis, romelic feminurobasa da maskulinobas Soris sxvaobas asaxavda, gamoTvla Semdegnairad xdeboda: feminurs akldeboda maskulinuri qulebi, xolo maskulinuri da feminuri qulebis kombinacia individis androginulobas aCvenebda.

mesame kiTxvari minesotis mravalfaziani pirovnebis sakvlevi kiTxvari iyo, romelic pirovnebis mraval ganzomilebas swavlobs (ix. Tavi 14), magram amJamad misi mxolod erTi, egos zekontrolis~, anu ipoqondriulobis skala gamoiyenes, romelic aCvenebs, ramdenad akontrolebs adamiani impulsebs. rac ufro maRalia qula, miT metia egos kontroli. mkvlevrebma iwinaswarmetyveles, rom kriminal mkvlelebTan SedarebiT, uecari mkvlelebi (1) ufro xSirad daaxasiaTebdnen sakuTar Tavs, rogorc morcxvs, (2) ufro metad airCevdnen qalis Tvisebebs, vidre mamakacisas da (3) egos zekontrolis ufro maRal qulas miiRebdnen. sanam Sedegebze gadavalT, unda ganvixiloT ramdenime procedura, romlebic am monacemebis gasaanalizeblad gamoiyenes. mkvlevrebis mier Segrovil realur monacemebs masalad gamoviyenebT, raTa Tqven statistikuri analizis sxvadasxva tipi SegaswavloT.

monacemebis analizi
mravali fsiqologi mklevrisaTvis monacemTa analizi amaRelvebeli proceduraa, radgan swored aq mJRavndeba swori iyo Tu ara misi varaudi. am qveTavSi nabij-nabij gavivliT uecari mkvlelebis kvlevis zogierT monacems. Tu ukve gadaaTvaliereT wigni, ricxvebi da gantolebebi nanaxi geqnebaT. gaxsovdeT, rom maTematika iaraRia, maTematikuri simboloebi ki _ ideebisa da konceptualuri operaciebis warmodgenis mokle gza. S.1 cxrilSi mocemulia 19 cdis pirTa monacemebi, anu nedli qulebi _ realuri, namdvili qulebi, an sxva sazomebi. rogorc xedavT, 10 cdis piri uecar mkvlelebs miekuTvneboda, xolo 9 _ kriminal mkvlelebs. am monacemebidan raimes gageba Zalian rTulia, aq ubralod raRac ricxvebis grovaa mocemuli. nebismieri mkvlevari imasve igrZnobda, rasac Tqven _ dabneulobas. ras niSnavs es qulebi? gansxvavdeba Tu ara erTmaneTisagan mkvlelTa es ori jgufi? am araorganizebuli monacemebiT kiTxvaze pasuxis gacema Zalian rTulia. swored am monacemebisaTvis azris miniWebis mizniT gamoiyeneba statistika. aRweriTi sta-

monacemTa analizi

47

cxrili

s.1

uecari mkvlelebis kvlevis nedli monacemebi


BSRI MMPI

feminurobaegos patimrebi simorcxve maskulinoba zekontroli jgufi 1: uecari mkvlelebi

am monacemebis tipur maxasiaTeblebs warmogvidgens. garda amisa, aRweriTi statistika aCvenebs, ramdenad icvleba qulebi tipuri qulis mimarT, anu monacemebis variabilobas _ gafantulia qulebi, Tu erTmaneTTan axlosaa dajgufebuli. modiT, vnaxoT, rogor iReben mkvlevrebi am sazomebs.

sixSireTa ganawileba
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ki ara ki ki ki ki ara ki ki ki +5 -1 +4 +61 +19 +41 -29 +23 -13 +5 17 17 13 17 13 19 14 9 11 14

statistikuri damateba / statistikis gageba: monacemebis analizi da daskvnebis Camoyalibeba

jgufi 2: kriminali mkvlelebi 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 ara ara ki ara ara ara ara ara ara -12 -14 +33 -8 -7 +3 -17 +6 -10 15 11 14 10 16 11 6 9 2

tistika ricxobrivi monacemebis sxvadasxva aspeqtis obieqturad aRweras niSnavs maTematikuri procedurebis gamoyenebiT. Tu odesme gamogiTvliaT Tqveni niSnebis saSualo maCvenebeli, maSin aRweriTi statistika gamogiyenebiaT. axsniTi statistika albaTobis Teorias iyenebs, raTa sandod aCvenos, romeli Sedegebia SemTxveviT miRebuli.

qulaTa ganawilebis naTlad warmosaCenad unda avagoT sixSireTa ganawilebis mrudi, anu imis Sejameba, Tu ramdenad xSirad Cndeba sxvadasxva qula. simorcxvis monacemebis Sejameba advilia: 9-jer gvxvdeba pasuxi diax da 10-jer _ pasuxi ara. TiTqmis yvela dadebiTi pasuxi pirvel jgufs ekuTvnis, xolo TiTqmis yvela uaryofiTi pasuxi _ meores, magram sqesobrivi rolis da egos zekontrolis monacemebi ar xvdeba ki~-s da ara~-s martiv kategoriebSi. jer ganvixiloT sqesobrivi rolis monacemebi. yvelaze maRali qulaa +61 (maqsimalurad feminuri) da yvelaze dabali _33 (maqsimalurad maskulinuri). 19 qulidan 9 dadebiTia d 10 uaryofiTi, rac niSnavs, rom 9 mkvleli SedarebiT feminuria, xolo 10 _ maskulinuri; magram rogor nawildeba es qulebi jgufebSi? sixSireTa ganawilebis mrudis agebisken gadadgmuli pirveli nabiji iqneba qulebis TanmimdevrobiT dalageba yvelaze maRlidan yvelaze dablisaken. qulebis aseT dalagebas rangebis mixedviT mowesrigeba ewodeba, rac S.2 cxrilSia naCvenebi.
cxrili

s.2

aRweriTi statistika
aRweriTi statistika monacemebSi arsebuli kanonzomierebis Sejamebul suraTs gvaZlevs. is cdis piris an cdis pirTa monacemebs, an cvladebs Soris kavSirs aRwers. amitom mkvlevari ara calkeuli cdis piris monacems, aramed
aRweriTi statistika (Descriptive statistics) _ statistikuri procedurebi, romlebic qulebs maTi centraluri tendenciis, variabilobis da korelaciebis TvalsazrisiT ajamebs.

sqesobrivi rolis qulebis rangis mixedviT dalageba


yvelaze maRali +61 +41 +23 +19 +6 +5 +5 +4 +3 -1 -7 -8 -10 -12 -13 -14 -17 -29 -33

yvelaze dabali

48

SeniSvna: + qulebi ufro feminuria; - qulebi ki, ufro maskulinuri.

Semdegi nabijia amgvarad dalagebuli qulebis ufro mcire jgufebSi gaerTianeba. am jgufebs anu kategoriebs intervalebi ewodeba. mocemul kvlevaSi 10 kategoria gamoyves, TiToeulSi 10 qula moxvda. mesame nabijia sixSireTa ganawilebis cxrilis ageba, sadac intervalebi yvelaze maRlidan yvelaze dablisaken iqneba CamoTvlili da miTiTebuli iqneba, ramdeni qula moxvda TiToeul intervalSi, anu miTiTebuli iqneba sixSire. Cveni sixSireTa ganawileba gvaCvenebs, rom sqesobrivi rolebis qulebi meryeobs _20-sa da +9-s Soris (ix. cxrili S.3), xolo patimarTa qulebis umetesoba nulisagan didad ar aris daSorebuli, rac niSnavs imas, rom isini arc Zlierad uaryofiTia da arc Zlierad dadebiTi. monacemebi ukve gamoyenebadi saxiTaa warmodegnili, axla SeiZleba maTi grafikulad warmodgena.

grafikebi
ganawilebaTa aRqma xSirad bevrad advilia, roca isini grafikebis saxiTaa warmodgenili. grafikis yvelaze martivi formaa svetebiani grafiki. svetebiani grafiki saSualebas gvaZlevs monacemebSi arsebuli kanonzomiereba davinaxoT. misi gamoyenebiT SegviZlia vaCvenoT, ramdenad metma uecarma mkvlelma daaxasiaTa sakuTari Tavi, rogorc ufro morcxvi, kriminal mkvlelTan SedarebiT (ix. sur. S.1).

cxrili

suraTi

s.3

s.1

sqesobrivi rolebis qulebis sixSireTa ganawileba


kategoria +60-dan -69-mde +50-dan +59-mde +40-dan +49-mde +30-dan +39-mde +20-dan +29-mde +10-dan +19-mde 0-dan +9-mde -10-dan -1-mde -20-dan -11-mde -30-dan -21-mde -40-dan -31-mde sixSire 1 0 1 0 1 1 5 4 4 1 1

mkvlelTa ori jgufis simorcxve


(svetebiani grafiki)

daskvniTi statistika (Inferential statistics) _ statistikuri procedurebi, romlebic mkvlevars saSualebas aZlevs gansazRvros, adasturebs mis hipoTzas Sedegi, Tu is mxolod SemTxveviTaa miRebuli. sixSireTa ganawileba (Frequency distribution) _ imis Sejameba, Tu ramdenad xSirad Cndeba TiToeuli qula monacemTa mwkrivSi.

ufro rTuli monacemebisaTvis, rogoricaa sqesobrivi rolis qulebi, SegviZlia gamoviyenoT histograma, romelic Zalian hgavs svetebian grafiks, mxolod erTi gansxvavebiT, aq warmodgenili kategoriebi intervalebia, anu TiToeuli sveti raodenobriv kategorias asaxavs da ara saxelwodebis kategorias. histograma gvaZlevs ganawilebaSi qulebis vizualur suraTs, romlebic intervalebSia moTavsebuli. S.2 suraTidan naTlad Cans, rom mkvlelTa ori jgufis sqesobrivi rolebis qulebi gansxvavebulia. S.1 da S.2 suraTebidan Cans, rom simorcxvisa da sqesobrivi rolebis TvalsazrisiT mkvlevarTa hipoTeza dadasturda: uecarma mkvlelebma meti albaTobiT daaxasiaTes sakuTari Tavi, rogorc morcxvi da ufro meti albaTobiT gamoiyenes feminuri niSnebi sakuTari Tavis aRwerisas, vidre kriminalma mkvlelebma.

monacemTa analizi

49

statistikuri damateba / statistikis gageba: monacemebis analizi da daskvnebis Camoyalibeba

suraTi

s.2
sqesobrivi rolebis qulebi

centraluri tendenciis sazomebi


aqamde qulebis ganawilebis mxolod zogadi suraTi SevqmeniT. cxrilebi da grafikebi Sedegebis ukeT gagebaSi gvexmareba, magram Cven meti gvinda vicodeT, magaliTad, erTi qula, romelic mTeli jgufis tipuri warmomadgenelia. es qula gansakuTrebiT sasargeblo xdeba, roca ori an meti jgufis Sedareba gvsurs, radgan bevrad ufro advilia ori jgufis tipuri qulis Sedareba, vidre mTeli ganawilebebis. erT amgvar tipur qulas, romelic mTeli ganawilebis reprezentaciulia, centraluri tendenciis sazomi ewodeba (is ganawilebis centrSia moTavsebuli da sxva

qulebi mis garSemo jgufdeba). Cveulebriv, fsiqologebi centraluri tendenciis sam gansxvavebul sazoms iyeneben: modas, medianas da saSualos. moda iseTi qulaa, romelic bevrad ufro xSirad Cndeba, vidre sxvebi. simorcxvis sazomis mixedviT, uecari mkvlelebis yvelaze xSiri pasuxi iyo diax~ - aTi cdis piridan cxram Tqva, rom morcxvi iyo. kriminal mkvlelebs Soris modaluri pasuxi iyo ara~. sqesobrivi rolebis modaluri qula uecari mkvlelebisaTvis +5 iyo. SegiZliaT gviTxraT, ramdenia egos zekontrolis qulebis moda uecari mkvlelebisaTvis? moda aris centraluri tendenciis yvelaze advilad gansasazRvri maCvenebeli, magram xSirad is naklebad gamosadegia. am gamousadegobis erT-erT mizezs maSin dainaxavT, roca yuradRebas miaqcevT imas, rom egos zekontrolis modis _17-is zemoT mxolod erTi qulaa moTavsebuli, xolo 6 monacemi mis qvemoTaa. miuxedavad imisa, rom 17 yvelaze xSiri qulaa am ganawilebaSi, is SeiZleba ver asaxavdes tipur anu centralur maCvenebels. mediana namdvilad centraluri qulaa, radgan ganawilebis zeda naxevars qveda naxevrisagan gamoyofs, anu medianis zemoT da qvemoT qulaTa erTi da igive raodenoba Tavsdeba. medianaze maRali qulebis raodenoba igivea, rac medianaze dabali qulebisa. rodesac qulebis raodenoba kentia, mediana zustad Sua qulaa, xolo luwi raodenobis SemTxvevaSi, ori SuaSi mdebare ori qulis gaSualeba xdeba. Tu, magaliTad, kriminali mkvlelebis sqesobrivi rolebis qulebs daalagebT, naxavT, rom mediana _10-ia, mis zemoT da qvemoT Tanabari raodenobis, oTx-oTxi monacemi xvdeba. uecari mkvlelebisaTvis mediana +5-ia _ rigiT mexuTe da meeqvse qulis saSualo, maTgan TiToeuli +5-ia. medianaze ar zemoqmedebs ukiduresi qulebi, magaliTad, uecari mkvlelebis sqesobrivi rolis qula +129 rom yofiliyo +61-is nacvlad, mediana mainc +5 darCeboda da isev zeda da qveda naxevris gamyofi iqneboda. martivad, mediana ganawilebis SuaSi myofi qulaa.
mediana (Median) _ qula, romlis zemoT da qvemoT Tanabari raodenobiT qulebia moTavsebuli, centraluri tendenciis sazomi.

50

monacemTa wyebis aRsawerad yvelaze xSirad saSualo gamoiyeneba. mis gamosaTvlelad ganawilebis yvela qula ikribeba da iyofa maT raodenobaze. saSualos gamosaTvleli formula Semdegia: M=(X)/N am formulaSi M saSualoa, X TiToeuli individis qula, (berZnuli aso sigma) mis Semdeg moTavsebuli wevrebis jamia, xolo N qulaTa mTliani raodenobaa. radgan sqesobrivi rolebis yvela qulis jami (X)/115-ia, xolo maTi raodenoba (N) 10, uecari mkvlelebis sqesobrivi rolis qulebis saSualo (M) iqneba: M=115/10=11.5 SeecadeT, Tavad gamoTvaloT egos zekontrolis qula, saSualo 11.4-is toli unda iyos. medianasagan gansxvavebiT, saSualos mniSvnelobaze ganawilebis yvela qulis mniSvneloba zemoqmedebs. ukiduresi qulis mniSvnelobis cvlileba saSualos mniSvnelobas cvlis. magaliTad, meoTxe cdis piris sqesobrivi rolis qula +61-is nacvlad +101 rom yofiliyo, mTeli jgufis saSualo 11.5-dan 15.6-mde gaizrdeboda.

variabiloba
ganawilebis, rogorc mTelis reprezentaciuli qulis, codnis garda, saWiroa agreTve vicodeT, ramdenad reprezentaciulia centraluri tendenciis es sazomi. danarCeni qulebi masTan axlosaa, Tu gafantulia? variabilobis sazomebi is statistikebia, romlebic centraluri tendenciis romelime sazomis irgvliv qulebis ganawilebas aCvenebs.
saSualo (Mean) _ qulaTa ariTmetikuli saSualo, centraluri tendenciis yvelaze xSirad gamoyenebuli maCvenebeli. variabilobis sazomebi (Measures of variability) _ statistikebi, rogorebicaa diapazoni, an standartuli gadaxra, romelic aCvenebs, ramdenad mWidrodaa ganlagebuli qulebi ganawilebaSi. diapazoni (Range) _ ganawilebaSi yvelaze maRal da yvelaze dabal qulebs Soris sxvaoba, variabilobis martivi sazomi. standartuli gadaxra (Standard deviation SD) _ qulaTa wyebis saSualo sxvaoba maTi saSualodan, variabilobis sazomi

(X M )
N

simboloebis umetesobas ukve unda cnobdeT saSualos gamosaTvleli formulidan. (X-M) niSnavs individualur qulas gamovakloT saSualo~ da mas, Cveulebriv, gadaxris qulas

monacemTa analizi

magaliTi migaxvedrebT, ratomaa saWiro variabilobis sazomebi. warmoidgineT, rom skolis maswavlebeli xarT. wlis dasawyisia da 30 meoreklasels kiTxva unda aswavloT. iciT, rom klasSi saSualo moswavles pirveli klasis donis wignis wakiTxva unda SeeZlos da amis mixedviT dagegmavT gakveTilebs. magram imisTvis, rom ukeT aagoT swavlebis procesi, umjobesia icodeT, ramdenad msgavsia an gansxvavebuli 30 moswavlis kiTxvis unari. Tu isini daaxloebiT erT doneze arian (dabali variabiloba), SegiZliaT meore klasis standartuli gakveTili dagegmoT. magram, iqneb ramdenime moswavles bevrad rTuli masalis kiTxva SeuZlia, sxvebi ki Zlivs kiTxuloben (maRali variabiloba) aseT SemTxvevaSi, saSualo done ar iqneba klasis reprezentaciuli da sxvadasxva tipis gakveTili unda dagegmoT moswavleTa mravalferovani moTxovnebis dasakmayofileblad. variabilobis yvelaze martivi sazomi diapazonia, anu sixSireTa ganawilebaSi yvelaze maRal da yvelaze dabal maCvenebls Soris sxvaoba. uecari mkvlelebis sqesobrivi rolis qulebisaTvis diapazoni 90-ia: (+61) _ (-29). egos kontrolis qulebis diapazoni ki 10-ia: (+19) _ (+9). diapazonis gamosaTvlelad mxolod ori qulis codna gWirdebaT _ yvelaze maRlis da yvelaze dablis. diapazonis gamoTvla Zalian advilia, magram mkvlevrebi variabilobis sxva, ufro daxvewil sazomebs amjobineben, romlebic yvela qulas iTvaliswinebs da ara mxolod ukidures maCveneblebs. erT-erTi yvelaze farTod gamoyenebuli sazomia standartuli gadaxra, romelic qulebsa da maT saSualos Soris sxvaobis saSualos aCvenebs. ganawilebis standartuli gadaxris gamosaTvlelad ganawilebis saSualo da TiToeuli qula unda icodeT. procedura Semdegia: TiToeul qulas aklebT saSualos, Semdeg am gadaxrebis saSualos iTvliT. qvemoT mocemulia formula:

51

statistikuri damateba / statistikis gageba: monacemebis analizi da daskvnebis Camoyalibeba

uwodeben. saSualos yovel qulas akleben da Sedegad miRebuli qula kvadratSi ahyavT (uaryofiTi mniSvnelobebis gasabaTileblad). Semdeg am gadaxrebis saSualos iTvlian maTi SejamebiT () da monacemTa raodenobaze (N) gayofiT. simbolo miuTiTebs, rom kvadratuli fesvia amosaRebi masSi moTavsebuli sidididan. es manamde ganxorcielebuli kvadratSi ayvanis gasabaTilebladaa gakeTebuli. S.4 cxrilSi gamoTvlilia uecari mkvlelebis egos kontrolis qulebis standartuli gadaxra. gaixseneT, rom am qulebis saSualo 14.4-ia, e.i. swored es sidide unda gamovakloT TiToeul qulas, raTa Sesabamisi gadaxris qulebi miviRoT.
cxrili

standartuli gadaxra mcirea, saSualo kargad asaxavs mTel ganawilebas. rodesac standartuli gadaxra didia, saSualo naklebad tipuria. saSualo naklebad tipuria mTeli jgufisaTvis. korelacia fsiqologiuri monacemebis interpretaciis kidev erTi sasargeblo iaraRia korelaciis koeficienti, romelic or cvlads Soris kavSiris bunebas da siZlieres zomavs (magaliTad, simaRle da wona, an sqesobrivi rolis da egos zekontrolis qulebi). is gveubneba, Tu ra zomiTaa dakavSirebuli erTi cvladis qulebi meore cvladis qulebTan. Tu adamianebs erT cvladze maRali qulebi aqvT da meore cvladzec imave tendencias avlenen, korelaciis koeficienti dadebiTi iqneba (nulze meti). Tu adamianebs erT cvladze maRali qulebi aqvT, xolo meoreze _ dabali, korelaciis koeficienti uaryofiTi iqneba (nulze naklebi). Tu qulebs Soris kavSiri ar arsebobs, korelacia nuls uaxlovdeba (ix. Tavi 2). korelaciis koeficienti +1-dan (sruli dadebiTi korelacia) _1-mde (sruli uaryofiTi korelacia) icvleba. rac ufro Sorsaa koeficienti nulidan nebismieri mimarTulebiT, miT ufro mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli ori cvladi dadebiTad, an uaryofiTad. rac ufro maRalia koeficienti, miT ukeTesad viwinaswarmetyvelebT cvlads, Tu meore viciT. uecari mkvlelebis kvlevaSi korelaciis koeficienti (aRiniSneba r-iT) sqesobrivi rolebis qulebsa da egos kontrolis qulebs Soris aris +0. 35, e.i. es qulebi dadebiTad korelirebs, anu is adamianebi, romlebic ufro feminurad aRiqvamen Tavs, egos ufro maRal kontrols avlenen. Tumca korelacia rom zomieria, es imas niSnavs, rom am kavSirSi mravali gamonaklisia. patimrebis TviTSefaseba rom gagvezoma da misi egos kontrolis qulebTan korelacia _0.68 rom yofiliyo, maT Soris iqneboda uaryofiTi korelacia. maSin vityodiT, rom egos maRali kontrolis mqone adamianebs dabali TviTSefaseba aqvT, xolo kavSiri ufro
korelaciis koeficienti (r) (correlation coefficient) aris statistika, romelic or cvlads Soris kavSiris xarisxs aCvenebs.

s.4

uecari mkvlelebis egos-zekontrolis qulebis standartuli gadaxris gamoTvla


kvadratSi ayvanili gadaxra (qulas minus saSualo) gadaxrebi (qulas minus saSualo)2 (X-M)2 (X-M) 2.6 2.6 -1.4 2.6 -1.4 4.6 -0.4 -5.6 -3.4 -0.4 6.76 6.76 1.96 6.76 1.96 21.16 0.16 29.16 11.56 0.16

qula (X)

17 17 13 17 13 19 14 9 11 14 standartuli gadaxra = SD=

(X M)2
N

( 864 = X M)2 .

86.40 = 86.40 = 2.94 10


SD=2.94

52

standartuli gadaxra gveubneba, ramdenad cvalebadia qulaTa erToblioba. rac ufro metia standartuli gadaxra, miT metadaa qulebi gafantuli. sqesobrivi rolebis qulebis standartuli gadaxra uecari mkvlelebisaTvis 24.6, xolo kriminali mkvlelebisaTvis mxolod 10.7-ia. es aCvenebs, rom kriminalTa jgufSi variabiloba naklebia. aq qulebi saSualos garSemo mWidrodaa dajgufebuli. rodesac

Zlieri iqneboda, vidre wina SemTxvevaSi, radgan _0.68 ufro Sorsaa nulidan, kavSiris ararsebobis maCvenebeli wertilidan, vidre +0.35.

daskvniTi statistika
uecari mkvlelebis kvlevis monacemebis dasaxasiaTeblad aRweriTi statistika gamoviyeneT da axla ukve gvaqvs warmodgena Sedegebis Sesaxeb. miuxedavad amisa, yvela ZiriTad kiTxvaze pasuxi jer mainc ar gagvicia. hipoTeza gulisxmobda, rom uecari mkvlelebi ufro morcxvi, feminuri da maRali zekontrolis mqoneebi iqnebodnen, vidre kriminali mkvlelebi. am ori jgufis saSualo pasuxebis da variabilobis Sesadareblad aRweriTi statistika gamoviyeneT da aRmoCnda, rom am jgufebs Soris marTlac aris gansxvaveba, magram sakmarisad didia es gansxvavebebi? es kvleva rom gagvemeorebina sxva cdis pirebze, igive Sedegebs miviRebdiT, Tu miRebuli Sedegi mxolod SemTxvevis gamoa? rogorRac rom mogvexerxebina da uecari da kriminali mkvlelebis mTeli populacia Segveswavla, saSualoebisa da standartuli gadaxrebis mniSvnelobebi igive iqneboda?

swored am tipis kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad gamoiyeneba daskvniTi statistika. is gveubneba, Cveni monacemebidan da Cvens SerCevaze ra daskvnebis gakeTeba SegviZlia. daskvniTi statistika iyenebs albaTobis Teorias, raTa gansazRvros albaToba imisa, rom monacemebis esa Tu is erToblioba SemTxveviTi variaciis Sedegia.

normaluri mrudi
imisTvis, rom gavigoT, rogor muSaobs daskvniTi statistika, unda ganvixiloT im ganawilebis Tvisebebi, romelsac normaluri mrudi ewodeba. rodesac cvladis monacemebi (magaliTad, simaRle, egos kontroli an inteleqtis koeficienti) didi raodenobiT individebisagan miiReba, Sedegebi xSirad ise nawildeba, rogorc S.3 suraTze naCveneb mrudzea gamosaxuli. yuradReba miaqcieT, rom mrudi simetriulia (marcxena naxevari marjvenas sarkisebuli asaxvaa) da zaris forma aqvs _ maRalia SuaSi, sadac qulebis umetesobaa moTavsebuli da dabldeba, rac ufro vSordebiT saSualos. am tipis mruds normaluri mrudi, an normaluri ganawileba ewodeba (gadaxril ganawilebaSi

suraTi

s. 3

monacemTa analizi

53

statistikuri damateba / statistikis gageba: monacemebis analizi da daskvnebis Camoyalibeba

qulebi romelime erT bolos lagdeba, SuaSi ganTavsebis nacvlad). normalur mrudze medianis, modis da saSualos mniSvnelobebi erTi da igivea. mrudis sxvadasxva nawilSi monacemTa garkveuli procenti xvdeba. suraTi S.3 stenford-bines inteleqtis testis IQ qulebs aCvenebs. am qulebis saSualo 100-ia, standartuli gadaxra ki _ 16. Tu standartul gadaxrebs X RerZze moaTavsebT saSualodan manZilebis aRsaniSnad, aRmoaCenT, rom moncemebis 68%-ze odnav meti Tavsdeba saSualosa (100) da erT standartul gadaxras Soris orive mimarTulebiT (IQ 84-sa da 116-s Soris). qulaTa kidev daaxloebiT 27% xvdeba meore da pirveli standartuli gadaxris farglebSi (IQ 68-sa da 84-s Soris) saSualos qvemoT da saSualos zemoT (IQ 116-sa da 132-s Soris).Q 5%-ze naklebi xvdeba saSualodan sami standartuli gadaxris farglebSi da Zalian mcire raodenobiT qulebi rCeba am sazRvrebs miRma _ 1%-is 1/4-mde. daskvniTi statistika aCvenebs imis albaTobas, rom qulebi namd-vilad asaxavs imas, risi gazomvac gsurT da ar aris SemTxveviTad miRebuli. magaliTad, meti albaTobaa, rom viRacas eqneba 105 IQ da ara 140, magram 140 IQ-s qona ufro mosalodnelia, vidre 35-is. normaluri mrudi maSinac miiReba, roca monacemebi SemTxveviTi variaciis gamoa Segrovebuli. Tu monetas 10-jer aagdebT da CaiwerT, ramdenjer gamovida aversi da ramdenjer reversi, aRmoCndeba, rom erTic da meorec 5-jer gamodis. Tu ganagrZobT monetis agdebas da 1010 agdebis 100 serias daafiqsirebT, aRmoCndeba, rom zogierT seriaSi sul aversi geqnebaT, zogierTSi _ sul reversi, magram, umravles SemTxvevaSi, geqnebaT Tanabari gayofa. yvela 1000 agdebis grafiki rom agegoT, normaluri ganawilebis mruds miiRebdiT.

statistikuri sandooba
mkvlevarma, romelmac aRmoaCina, rom monacemTa ori mwkrivis saSualos Soris gansxvavebaa,
normaluri mrudi (Normal curve) _ simetriuli mrudia, romelic mravali fsiqologiuri Tvisebis amsaxveli qulebis ganawilebas aCvenebs, saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevrebs imsjelon, ramdenad araCveulebrivia movlena, an Sedegi.

54

unda Seamowmos, namdvilia es gansxvaveba, Tu mxolod SemTxvevis gamoa. radgan SemTxvevis gamo miRebul gansxvavebebs normaluri ganawileba aqvT, mkvlevars SeuZlia normaluri mrudi gamoiyenos. sailustraciod movitanoT martivi magaliTi. davuSvaT, Tqvens fsiqologiis leqtors ainteresebs, ganapirobebs Tu ara gamomcdelis sqesi imas, gansxvavebuli iqneba Tu ara miRebuli niSnebi student qalebTan da mamakacebTan. amisaTvis, leqtori studentebs Tanabrad yofs or jgufad, erT jgufs qal gamomcdels amagrebs, xolo meores _ mamakacs. Semdeg jgufebis saSualo qulas adarebs. es saSualo qulebi, albaT, msgavsi, xolo maT Soris raime mcire gansxvaveba SemTxvevis Sedegi iqneba. ratom? imitom rom, Tu es mxolod SemTxvevis gamoa da orive jgufi erTi da igive populaciidanaa (gansxvaveba ar aris), maTi saSualo erTmaneTTan axlos unda iyos. viciT, rom normaluri ganawilebis mrudis qveS moTavsebuli sivrcis sxvadasxva nawilSi monacemebis garkveuli procenti xvdeba, amitom mamakaci gamomcdelis jgufis niSnebis mesamedze naklebi unda aRematebodes qali Camtareblis jgufis saSualodan erTi standartuli gadaxriT qvemoT da zemoT moTavsebul qulebs. albaToba imisa, rom mamakaci gamomcdelis jgufis saSualo qula qali gamomcdelis jgufis saSualo qulebis umetesobaze sami standartuli gadaxris (orive mimarTulebiT) miRma moTavsdeba, Zalian mcirea. aseTi sididis gansxvaveba rom migveRo, namdvilad darwmunebuli viqnebodiT imaSi, rom sxvaoba namdvilia da, rogorc Cans, kavSirSia gamomcdelis sqesTan. Semdegi kiTxva iqneboda, rogor zemoqmedebs es cvladi gamocdis qulaze. qali da mamakaci studentebi SemTxveviTad rom gagvenawilebina TiToeul jgufSi, SesaZlebeli gaxdeboda analizi imisa, zemoqmedebs Tu ara gamomcdelebs Soris arsebuli gansxvaveba mxolod erT sqesze Tu oriveze. davuSvaT, iseTi monacemebi miviReT, romlebic aCvenebs, rom mamakaci gamomcdelebi qal studentebs ufro maRal niSnebs uweren, vidre qali gamomcdelebi, magram mamakac studentebs orive erTnairad afasebs. Tqvens leqtors SeuZlia statistikuri daskvnis procedura gamoiyenos, raTa Seafasos is albaToba, romliTac miRebuli sxvaobebi mxolod SemTxvevis Sedegi SeiZleba yofiliyo.

sando gansxvaveba (Signifficant difference) _ eqsperimentul jgufebs an pirobebs Soris sxvaoba, romlis SemTxveviT moxdenis albaToba naklebia, vidre miRebuli sandoobis done; fsiqologiaSi aseT doned iyeneben 100-dan 5-ze nakleb albaTobas, anu p<0.05.

monacemTa analizi

gamoTvla sxvaobis zomas da qulebis gafantvas emyareba. SeTanxmebis safuZvelze sxvaobas fsiqologebi namdvilad~ miiCneven, Tu albaToba imisa, rom is SemTxveviT moxda, 100-dan 5-ze naklebia (Semdegnairad aRiniSneba: p<0.05). Tu sxvaoba am kriteriums daakmayofilebs, is sandoa. Tumca, zogierT SemTxvevaSi, ufro mkacri albaTobis doneebi gamoiyeneba, rogoricaa p<0.01 (100-dan 1ze naklebi) da p<0.001 (1000-dan 1-ze naklebi). statistikurad sando gansxvavebiT mkvlevars SeuZlia daskvnis gakeTeba sakvlevi qcevis Sesaxeb. monacemTa statistikuri sandoobis Sesamowmeblad mravali gansxvavebuli kriteriumi arsebobs. konkretuli kriteriumis SerCeva damokidebulia kvlevis gegmaze, monacemTa formasa da jgufebis zomaze. aq mxolod erTerT yvelaze gavrcelebul kriteriums, t-kriteriums ganvixilavT, romelic SeiZleba gamoviyenoT maSin, roca mkvlevars ainteresebs, statistikurad sandoa Tu ara ori jgufis saSualoebs Soris sxvaoba. Cvens magaliTSi SegviZlia t-kriteriumi gamoviyenoT imis Sesamowmeblad, sandod gansxvavdeba Tu ara kriminali mkvlelebisa da uecari mkvlelebis sqesobrivi rolebis qulebi erTmaneTisagan. S.2 suraTi aCvenebs, rom sqesobrivi rolebis qulebis ganawileba sakmarisad gansxvavdeba imisaTvis, rom namdvili~ iyos. Tu saTanado gamoTvlebs CavatarebT, romlebic Seafasebs sxvaobas or saSualos Soris, rogorc am or saSualos garSemo variabilobis funqcias, vnaxavT, rom Zalian mcire Sansia _ 100-dan 5-ze naklebi (p<0.05), rom aseTi maRali t-s mniSvneloba miviRoT, Tu ar arsebobs araviTari namdvili sxvaoba. amdenad, sxvaoba statistikurad sandoa; anu uecarma mkvlelebma sakuTari Tavi Seafases rogorc ufro feminuri, vidre kriminalma mkvlelebma, xolo mkvlelebs Soris sxvaoba egos zekontrolis qulebSi sando ar aRmoCnda (p<0.10), amitom ufro frTxilad unda visaubroT am sxvaobaze. nawinaswarmetyveleb mimarTulebaSi

aris tendencia: sxvaoba isaa, rac SemTxveviT mxolod 100-dan 10-jer moxdeba, magram es sxvaoba ver eteva standartSi, romlis mixedviTac is SemTxveviT 100-dan mxolod 5-jer unda moxdes (sxvaoba simorcxveSi, romelic sxva, sixSiris qulebisaTvis saTanado statisikuri kriteriumiT iqna gaanalizebuli, maRali sandoobiT gamoirCeva). amrigad, daskvniTi statistikis gamoyenebiT SegviZlia pasuxi gavceT im arsebiT kiTxvebs, romlebiTac daviwyeT. axla TiTqmis gavarkvieT im adamianebis buneba, vinc uecrad morcxvi, zomieri adamianidan uecar mkvlelad iqceva. Tumca, nebismieri daskvna mxolod debulebaa imis Sesaxeb, rom gamokvleul movlenebs Soris SesaZlo kavSiri arsebobs. zustad amisi mtkiceba arasodes SegviZlia. mecnierebaSi miRebuli Sedegebi yovelTvis Riaa Semdeg Catarebuli da ukeTesi kvlevebis SedegebisaTvis.

rogor gamoviyenoT sworad mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegebi


axla ukve viciT, ra aris statistika, rogor da sad unda gamoviyenoT is, magram isic unda vicodeT, rom xandaxan mas arasworad iyeneben. xSirad adamianebi arasando monacemebs mxolod imitom endobian, rom isini statistikurad damuSavebulad iTvleba. sxvebi ki ujereben, an ar ujereben statistikosebis mier mowodebul informacias raime produqciis, romelime politikosis, an winadadebis Sesaxeb, magram ar esmiT, ras asaxaven moyvanili ricxvebi. meore Tavis bolos ramdenime rCeva mogeciT imis Taobaze, Tu rogor gaxdeT kvlevis brZeni momxmarebeli. statistikis am mokle mimoxilvaze dayrdnobiT SegviZlia es rCeva im situaciebzec ganvavrcoT, romlebSic adamianebi konkretul statistikur mosazrebebs gamoTqvamen. statistikis arasworad gamoyenebis mravali gza arsebobs. kvlevis nebismier safexurze miRebul gadawyvetilebas _ dawyebuli iqidan, vin arian cdis pirebi, rogoraa dagegmili kvleva, romeli statistikebi gamoiyeneba da rogor _ Rrma efeqti SeiZleba hqondes im daskvnebze, romlebsac monacemebze dayrdnobiT vakeTebT.

55

statistikuri damateba / statistikis gageba: monacemebis analizi da daskvnebis Camoyalibeba

cdis pirebis SerCevas didi mniSvneloba aqvs da ar unda gamogveparos, roca kvlevis Sedegebs vecnobiT. magaliTad, abortis uflebisadmi damokidebulebis kvleva gansxvavebul Sedegebs mogvcems imisda mixedviT, sad CavatarebT mas _ samxreTis patara fundamentalistur qalaqSi, Tu niu iorkis universitetSi. aseve, erTi da igive gamokiTxvis Sedegebis mixedviT SeiZleba ori gansxvavebuli Sexedulebis mqone jgufma _ abortis uflebis momxreebisa da mowinaaRmdegeebis _ sxvadasxva daskvna gamoitanos. maSinac ki, roca cdis pirebi SemTxveviTadaa SerCeuli da meTodi sworadaa gamoyenebuli, raTa mikerZoebas ar hqondes adgili, statistikam SeiZleba mainc araswori Sedegi mogvces, Tu statisitikis ZiriTad daSvebebs davarRvevT. magaliTad, warmovidginoT, rom 20 adamians vutarebT inteleqtis tests, maTgan 19 iRebs 90dan 110-mde qulas, xolo erTi _ 220-s. mTeli jgufis saSualo maCveneblze Zlier zemoqmedebas moaxdens es erTi calke mdgomi Zalian maRali monacemi. amgvari monacemebisaTvis umjobesia medianis an modis gamoyeneba, romelic ufro reprezentaciuli iqneba jgufis saSualo inteleqtisa, vidre saSualosi. am SemTxvevaSi saSualo Seqmnis suraTs, rom jgufis tipur wevrs maRali IQ aqvs. amgvari mikerZoeba gansakuTrebiT kargad Cans, roca SerCevis zoma mcirea, magram 20-is nacvlad 2000 cdis piri rom gvyoloda, erTi calke mdgomi monacemi

ver moaxdenda aseT did gavlenas da saSualo jgufis monacemebis reprezentaciuli iqneboda. amgvari motyuebis Tavidan acilebis kargi gzaa SerCevis zomis gaTvaliswineba. didi zomis SerCevisas Secdomis albaToba naklebia. kidev erTi dazRvevaa centraluri tendenciis yvela sazomis _ medianis, modis da saSualos naxva. Tu isini msgavsia, Sedegebis axsna ufro sando iqneba. kvlevis meTodologia da Sedegebi yovelTvis yuradRebiT unda gaaanalizoT. SeamowmeT, moyvanilia Tu ara eqsperimentis angariSSi ra zomisaa SerCeva, rogoraa gazomili variabiloba da sandoobis done. naxeT, ramdenad Seesabameba gamoyenebuli meTodi kvlevis miznebs. statistika fsiqologiuri kvlevis xerxemalia. is gamoiyeneba imisaTvis, rom gavigoT monacemebi da ganvsazRvroT, sworia Tu ara Sedegebi. fsiqologebi monacemTa sixSiris ganawilebas amzadeben, iTvlian centraluri tendenciisa da variabilobis sazomebs. iyeneben korelaciis koefiecients qulaTa nakrebs Soris kavSiris siZlieris da mimarTulebis gansasazRvravad; naxuloben, ramdenad reprezentaciulia miRebuli Sedegebi da sandod gansxvavdebian Tu ara populaciisagan. statistika SeiZleba arasworad, an SecdomiTac iyos gamoyenebuli da SecdomaSi Seiyvanos isini, visac is ar esmis. magram, roca statistika sworad da eTikurad aris gamoyenebuli, mkvlevars fsiqologiuri codnis gafarToebis saSualebas aZlevs.

ZiriTadi cnebebi
aRweriTi statistika axsniTi statistika diapazoni

variabilobis sazomebi korelaciis koeficienti mediana moda normaluri mrudi

sando gansxvaveba saSualo sixSireTa ganawileba standartuli gadaxra centraluri tendenciis sazomebi

56

qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

3
memkvidreobiToba da qceva

evolucia da adamianis genotipis


cvalebadoba
biologia da qceva

bunebrivi gadarCeva

movusminoT tvins nervuli sistema Tavis tvinis


struqturebi da maTi funqciebi hemisferoTa lateralizacia endokrinuli sistema
fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: miRwevebi tvinis funqciebis lokalizaciis sferoSi nervuli sistema moqmedebaSi

neironi moqmedebis sinafsuri gadacema neirotransmiterebi


da maTi funqciebi
fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: ra gavlenas axdens cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba tvinze sakvanZo sakiTxebi

potenciali

ZiriTadi cnebebi

57

kinigzis muSas, fineas geijs, 1948 wlis 13 seqtembers ubeduri SemTxveva mouvida _ moulodneli afeTqebis Sedegad daaxloebiT erTi metri sigrZis palo TavSi SeerWo. srul gonebaze myofi geiji etliT miiyvanes sastumromde, sadac man kibeebze Tavad SeZlo asvla. momdevno ori-sami kviris ganmavlobaSi igi sikvdils ebrZoda, oqtombris Sua ricxvebidan ki misi mdgomareoba mudmivad umjobesdeboda. jon harlou, eqimi, romelmac es SemTxveva masaCusetis samedicino sazogadoebas 1968 wels moaxsena, aRniSnavda, rom geijis gadarCena samedicino TvalsazrisiT saswauli iyo: es SemTxveva daaxloebiT oci wlis win moxda naklebad cnobil qalaqSi (kavendiSi, vermonti). SemTxveva naklebad cnobilma soflis eqimma aRwera da metropolitenis eqimebmac Zalian didi sifrTxiliT miiRes. mravali maTgani uars ambobda daejerebina am adamianis gadarCena, vidre maT TiTebi mis TavSi arsebul xvrelSi ar Cayves (harlou, 1968, gv. 329). sinamdvileSi geijs saocrad msubuqi fizikuri dazianebebi hqonda Tumca man dakarga mxedveloba marcxena TvalSi da misi saxis marcxena mxare nawilobriv paralizebuli iyo, magram misi sxeulis poza, moZraoba da metyveleba ucvleli darCa. Tumca, fsiqologiuri Tvalsaz-

risiT, es iyo sxva adamiani, rogorc amas misi eqimis angariSi adasturebs: balansi mis inteleqtualur SesaZleblobebsa da cxovelur midrekilebebs Soris dairRva. is gaxda meryevi, mouridebeli, RvTisgmobis gamovlenebis momTmeni adamiani (rac mas adre ar sCveoda). Tavisi megobrebisa da kolegebis mimarT araviTar pativiscemas ar amJRavnebs; ver itans veranair SezRudvebs, an rCevebs, Tu es mis survilebs ar eTanxmeba. zogjer Zalian jiuti da meryevi uamrav gegmas awyobs da vidre maT ganxorcielebas daiwyebs, ukve sxva gegmebze gadadis. Tavis travmamde is cnobili iyo, rogorc moxerxebuli da Wkviani biznesmeni, Zalian energiuli da Tanmimdevruli sakuTari gegmebis aRsrulebaSi. am TvalsazrisiT, misi goneba radikalurad Seicvala, imdenad cxadad, rom misi megobrebi erTxmad aRniSnavdnen: es aRar iyo geiji~ (gv. 339-340). geijis Semoxveva moxda maSin, rodesac mecnierebi mxolod iwyebdnen hipoTezebis Seqmnas tvinis funqciebsa da kompleqsur qcevas Soris kavSirebis arsebobis Sesaxeb. Tumca aravin isurvebda geijis saxelganTqmulobis gaziarebas, misi SemTxveva dRemde SemorCa istorias, radganac is warmoadgens yvelaze ufro adreul dokumentirebul cnobas imis Sesaxeb, rom fsiqologiur procesebs tvinis cxovelqmedeba gansazRvravs.

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

58

ratom aris TiToeuli Cvengani unikaluri individi? fineas geijis istoriidan gamomdinare, pasuxs am kiTxvaze nawilobriv Tavis tvini da, ufro zogadad, Tqveni biologiuri Taviseburebebi gansazRvravs. imis gagebaSi rom dagexmaroT, Tu ra gangasxvavebT Tqven gar-

SemomyofTagan, Cven aRvwerT, ra rols TamaSobs memkvidreobiToba Tqveni cxovrebis Camoyalibebisa da Tqveni tvinis formirebis saqmeSi. dafiqrdiT, qcevis ra SesaZleblobebi gaaCniaT adamianebs da rogor vlindeba es SesaZleblobebi TiToeul CvenganSi?

wignis es Tavi, garkveulwilad, Tqveni biologiuri potencialis mniSvnelovani aspeqtis dadasturebas warmoadgens. Tqveni tvini sakmarisad kompleqsuria imisaTvis, rom sakuTari funqciebis sistematuri kontroli da koordinireba ganaxorcielos. ratom aris is aseTi mniSvnelovani? adamianis tvins xSirad kompiuters adareben. iwonis ra mxolod 1500 grams, Tqveni tvini met ujreds Seicavs, vidre varskvlavia Cvens galaqtikaSi 100 miliardi ujredi, romelic erTmaneTTanaa dakavSirebuli da informaciis gacvlasa da Senaxvas saocari efeqturobiT axerxebs. magram msoflioSi yvelaze ufro Zlieri kompiuteric ki ver SeZlebs im wesebis asaxvas, romlebic mis sakuTar operaciebs gansazRvraven. ase rom, Tqven nebismier kompiuterze bevrad ufro rTuli agebulebisa xarT; Tqveni cnobiereba saSualebas gaZlevT gansazRvroT is wesebi, romlebic Tqvens cxovelqmedebas uzrunvelyofen. kvleva, romelsac Cven wignis am TavSi aRvwerT, warmoiqmna adamianis survilidan _ Seicnos sakuTari Tavi. bevri studentisaTvis es Tavi ufro did sirTules warmoadgens, vidre mTeli am wignis darCenili nawili. is moiTxovs Tqvengan anatomiisa da mravali axali terminis swavlas, romelic TiTqos Zalian Sorsaa im informaciisagan, romelsac Tqven fsiqologiis Sesavlis kursSi moelodiT. miuxedavad yvelafrisa, Tqveni biologiuri bunebis gageba dagexmarebaT ufro kompleqsurad SeigrZnoT urTierTkavSiri tvins, gonebas, qcevasa da garemos Soris, romelic im gansakuTrebul SegrZnebas gansazRvravs, romelsac adamianad yofna hqvia. am Tavis mizania, agixsnaT, Tu rogor monawileobs biologia unikaluri individebis SeqmnaSi. am miznis misaRwevad Cven jer aRvwerT, rogor gansazRvravs evolucia da memkvidreobiToba Tqvens biologiasa da qcevas; Semdeg vnaxavT, rogor gvexmareba laboratoriuli da klinikuri kvleva tvinis, nervuli da endokrinuli sistemebis muSaobis SeswavlaSi; amis Semdgom ganvixilavT saintereso kavSirebs biologiur funqciebsa da cxovrebiseul gamocdilebas Soris. dabolos, Cven SeviswavliT individebs Soris gansxvavebas tvinsa da qcevas Soris kavSiris fonze.

memkvidreobiToba da qceva
pirvel TavSi Cven ganvsazRvreT, rom fsiqologiis erT-erTi umTavresi amocanaa, Seiswavlos adamianis qcevis mravalferovnebis gamomwvevi mizezebi. am mizezebis dadgenaSi dagvexmareba kavSir-gansxvaveba iseT punqtebs Soris, rogoricaa: buneba aRzrda; memkvidreobiToba garemo. Tqven SegiZliaT warmoidginoT, rom individebi agresiulni arian maTi biologiuri Taviseburebebis gamo. SesaZloa maT romelime mSoblisagan memkvidreobiT ergoT agresiulobisaken midrekileba. alternatiuli variantia imis daSveba, rom yvela adamianSi agresiuloba Tanabradaa warmodgenili da misi gamomJRavnebis xarisxi damokidebulia im garemoze, sadac es adamianebi aRizardnen. swori pasuxi am kiTxvaze Zireulad gansazRvravs imas, Tu rogor unda moepyros sazogadoeba agresiul individs garemos garkveuli pirobebis Zalisxmeva moaxmaros mas Tu Tavad adamianebis Tvisebebis Secvlas. Tqven unda SegeZloT ganasxvavoT garemos gavlena memkvidreobiTobisagan. radganac garemoze dakvirveba pirdapir SeiZleba, ufro advilia imis dadgena, Tu

memkvidreobiToba da qceva

59

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

rogor axdens is gavlenas adamianis qcevaze. magaliTad, Tqven SegiZliaT daakvirdeT mSoblis agresiul qcevas bavSvis mimarT da warmoidginoT, ra gavlenas moaxdens es momavalSi bavSvis agresiulobaze; Tqven SegiZliaT daakvirdeT Warbad dasaxlebul da Rarib garemocvas, romelSic bavSvebi izrdebian da dainteresdeT, SeuZlia Tu ara am garemo pirobebs agresiuli qcevis gamowveva. biologiur Zalebs, romlebic qcevas gansazRvraven, SeuiaraRebeli TvaliT verasdros davakvirdebiT. qcevis biologia rom ukeT gaiTavisoT, Cven daviwyebT zogierTi iseTi principis aRweriT, romelic saxeobebis qcevis potenciur repertuars gansazRvravs (evoluciis Teoriis elementebi) da Semdeg aRvwerT, Tu rogor gadaecema qceviTi variaciebi Taobidan Taobas.

vlad daedo wigns, romelic moicavda sakiTxebs, dawyebuli geologiidan zoologiisa da emociebis CaTvliT. wigni, romelmac mas sayovelTaod gauTqva saxeli, aris 1859 wels gamocemuli `saxeobaTa warmoSoba~. am naSromSi darvinma Camoayaliba mecnierebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi Teoria _ moZRvreba dedamiwaze sicocxlis evoluciis Sesaxeb. bunebrivi gadarCeva darvinma Camoayaliba moZRvreba evoluciis Sesaxeb, romelSic mogzaurobis dros Segrovili dakvirvebebis Sedegebi aisaxa. erT-erTi im mravalricxovan adgilTa Soris, romelic biglma~ moinaxula, iyo galapagosis kunZulebi _ vulkanuri arqipelagi samxreT amerikis dasavleT sanapirosTan. am kunZulebze uamravi cxoveli binadrobs, maT Soris amJamad `darvinis skvinCad~ cnobili frinvelis 13 saxeoba. darvini dainteresda, Tu ratom arsebobda skvinCas amdeni sxvadasxva saxeoba arqipelagze. cxadi iyo, rom isini kontinentidan ver gadmovidodnen, radganac iq es saxeobebi ar binadrobdnen. man
bunebrivi gadarCeva (Natural selection) darvinis Teoriis mixedviT, saxeobis zogierTi warmomadgenlis ukeTesi Segueba garemosadmi, saSualebas aZlevs mas sxvasTan SedarebiT ufro warmatebulad gamravldes.

evolucia da bunebrivi gadarCeva


1831 wels Carlz darvini, romelmac koleji Teologiis ganxriT daamTavra, inglisidan gem bigliT~ gaemgzavra xuTwlian eqspediciaSi samxreT amerikis sanapiros Sesaswavlad. mogzaurobis dros darvini agrovebda yvelafers, rac ki mas gzad xvdeboda: zRvis cxovelebs, frinvelebs, mcenareebs, namarxebs, niJarebsa da qvebs. misi dakvirvebebis Sedegebi safuZ-

60

ivarauda, rom saxeobaTa es sxvadasxvaoba garkveuli procesis Sedegi iyo, romelsac mogvianebiT bunebrivi gadarCeva uwoda. darvinis Teoriis Tanaxmad, skvinCas yoveli saxeoba saerTo winaprisagan warmoiSva. Tavidan frinvelebis patara gundma daido bina kunZulebze. isini gamravldnen erTmaneTTan Sejvarebis gziT. droTa ganmavlobaSi, zogierTi frinveli arqipelagis sxva kunZulze gadavida. procesi, romelic Semdgom etapze ganviTarda, bunebrivi gadarCeva iyo. sakvebi resursebi da sacxovrebeli pirobebi bunebrivi pirobebi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba sxvadasxva kunZulze. zogan uxvadaa kenkra da Teslovani mcenareebi, zogi kunZuli kaqtusebiTaa dafaruli, xolo zogan uamravi mweria. erTi SexedviT, populaciebi sxvadasxva kunZulze msgavsi iyo, magram yovel kunZulze frinvelebs Soris garkveuli araerTgvarovneba SeiniSneboda. imis gamo, rom kunZulebze sakvebi resursebis raodenoba SezRuduli iyo, skvinCebis gadarCenis Sansi izrdeboda, Tu maTi niskartis forma ukeT iyo misadagebuli am kunZulze arsebuli sakvebis mopovebasTan. magaliTad, skvinCebi, romlebic kenkriTa da Teslovani mcenareebiT mdidar kunZulebze binadrobdnen, gadarCebodnen, Tu msxvili niskarti eqnebodaT. frinvelebi wvrili, wawvetebuli niskartiT, romelic mouxerxebelia Teslis gatexvisa Tu gaxsnisaTvis, aseT kunZulebze iRupebodnen. yoveli kunZulis garemo pirobebi gansazRvravda, frinvelebis sawyisi populaciidan romeli gadarCeboda da gamravldeboda da romeli daiRupeboda STamomavlobis gareSe. droTa ganmavlobaSi aman gamoiwvia kunZulebze Zalian gansxvavebuli populaciebis Camoyalibeba da xeli Seuwyo saerTo winaprisagan `darvinis skvinCebis~ sxvadasxva saxeobebis ganviTarebas. zogadad, bunebrivi gadarCevis Teoria gulisxmobs, rom organizmi, romelic kargad aris Seguebuli bunebriv garemos, rogoric ar unda iyos is, ufro met STamomavlobas tovebs, vidre naklebad Seguebuli. droTa ganmavlobaSi, organizmebi, romelTac gadarCenisaTvis saWiro niSan-Tvisebebi gaaCniaT, ricxobrivad imateben imaTTan SedarebiT, romelTac es niSan-Tvisebebi ar aqvT. evoluciisaTvis individis warmateba izomeba mis mier datovebuli STamomavlobis raodenobiT.

genotipi da fenotipi
skvinCebis populaciis zrda-Semcirebis magaliTi cxadyofs, Tu ratom uwodebda darvini evoluciis process ukeT Seguebulis gadarCenas. warmoidgineT, rom yoveli saxeobisaTvis nebismier garemoSi uamravi saarsebo sirTule moiZebneba. saxeobis is warmomadgenlebi, romelTac garemosTan ukeT Sexamebuli fizikuri da fsiqologiuri atributebi gaaCniaT,

memkvidreobiToba da qceva

Tanamedrove gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom bunebriv gadarCevas mokle drois ganmavlobaSic ki dramatuli efeqtebis gamowveva SeuZlia. peter da rozmari grantebis mier (Grant & Grant, 1989; Grant, 1986; Weiner, 1994) galapagosis arqipelagis erT-erT kunZulze `darvinis skvinCebze~ Catarebul iqna gamokvlevaTa seria, romlis drosac registrirebul iqna naleqebis raodenoba, sakvebis miwodeba da frinvelebis populaciis zoma. 1976 wels populacia moicavda aTasze met skvinCas. momdevno wels gamanadgurebelma gvalvam mospo sakvebis maragi. patara zomis Teslebi gamoifita, darCa mxolod didi da uxeSi. im wels frinvelTa populacia Semcirda 80%-ze metiT, Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom patara niskartebis mqone mcire zomis skvinCebi ufro meti daiRupa, vidre mozrdili zomis frinveli msxvili niskartiT. Sesabamisad, rogorc amas darvini winaswarmetyvelebda, momdevno wels didi zomis frinvelTa raodenobam imata. ratom? imitom, rom mxolod eseni, didi sxeulebiTa da msxvili niskartebiT iyvnen sakmarisad Zlierni imisaTvis, rom epasuxaT gvalviT gamowveuli garemos cvlilebebisaTvis. sainteresoa, rom 1983 wels naleqebis raodenoba Warbi iyo da Teslebi, gansakuTrebiT mcire zomis, uxvad ganviTarda. Sedegad, mcire zomis frinvelebma raodenobiT ajobes didi zomis frinvelebs imitom, rom maTi niskartebi ukeT iyo morgebuli mcire zomis Teslebis mopovebasTan. peter da rozmari grantebis kvlevam aCvena, rom bunebrivi gadarCeva mniSvnelovan efeqtebs drois mokle periodSic iZleva. mkvlevrebi dResac agrZeleben sxvadasxva saxeobebis bunebriv gadarCevaze garemo pirobebis gavlenis Seswavlas, maT Soris evropul xilis buzze (Huey et al., 200) da Tevzebis sxvadasxva saxeobaze (Rundle et. al., 2000).

61

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

ufro advilad gadarCebian. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom am atributebis gadacema SesaZloa Taobidan TaobaSi (da garemoSi es sirTuleebi droTa ganmavlobaSi narCundeba), saxeobis evoluciis Sansi izrdeba. bunebrivi gadarCevis procesis detaluri Seswavlis mizniT, Cven unda SemovitanoT evoluciuri Teoriis ramdenime mniSvnelovani cneba. modiT, SevCerdeT calkeul skvinCaze, kerZodDki im faqtze, rom am skvinCam misi mSoblebisgan memkvidreobiT genotipi, anu genetikuri struqtura miiRo. konkretuli garemos konteqstSi am genotipma gansazRvra skvinCis ganviTareba da qceva. skvinCis garegnoba da misi qcevis repertuari ganixileba, rogorc fenotipi. Cveni skvinCas SemTxvevaSi genotipi gansazRvravs mocemul garemo pirobebTan erTad mokle niskartis fenotips. am niskartiT SesaZlebelia patara Teslebis akrefa. yvela tipis Tesli mravlad rom yofiliyo, maSin am fenotips gadarCenisaTvis araviTari mniSvneloba eqneboda, magram, Tu davuSvebdiT, rom mxolod mcire zomis Teslebis mopoveba yofiliyo SesaZlebeli, maSin Cvens skvinCas msxvili niskartis mqone skvinCebTan SedarebiT seleqciuri upiratesoba eqneboda. mxolod didi zomis Teslebis arsebobis pirobebSi iqneboda Cveni skvinCa araxelsayrel mdgomareobaSi. mxolod gadarCenil skvinCebs SeuZliaT gamravleba. memkvidreobiT TavianTi genotipis gadacema SeuZliaT mxolod im cxovelebs, romlebic mravldeba. Sesabamisad, Tuki garemoSi mxolod mcire zomis Teslebi moipoveba, mravali Taobis Semdeg mxolod mcireniskartian skvinCebs miviRebT, Sesabamisad, mxolod mcire zomis Teslebis mopovebis unariT. ase cvlis garemo saxeobis qcevis SesaZlo repertuars. suraTi 3.1 warmogvidgens bunebrivi gadarCevis gamartivebul models. Cven SegviZlia es idea adamianis evoluciasac mivusadagoT.

suraTi

3.1

rogor muSaobs bunebrivi gadarCeva


garemo pirobebis cvlileba ganapirobebs saxeobis wevrebs Soris konkurencias resursebisaTvis brZolaSi. mxolod im individebs, romelTac am cvlilebebTan ukeT Seguebuli Tvisebebi gaaCniaT, eqnebaT gadarCenisa da gamravlebis Sansi. momdevno TaobaSi Seguebul genetikuri struqturis mqone individTa raodenoba meti iqneba.

adamianis evolucia
Tuki gadavxedavT im garemoebebs, romlebSic adamianis saxeobis evolucia moxda, mivxvdebiT, Tu ratom warmoadgenen garkveuli fizikuri da qceviTi Tvisebebi adamianis saxeobis biologiuri kapitalis nawils. adamianis evoluciaSi bunebrivi gadarCevisTvis ori umTavresi Tviseba bipedalizmi da encefalizacia iyo gadamwyveti. orivem erTad ganapiroba kacobriobis civilizaciis warmoqmna. bipedalizmi niSnavs or fexze amarTulad siarulis unars,

genotipi (Genotype) organizmis genetikuri struqtura, romelsac is mSoblebisagan memkvidreobiT iRebs. fenotipi (Phenotype) organizmis xiluli niSanTvisebebi, romlebic misi genotipisa da garemos urTierTqmedebis Sedegad yalibdeba.

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xolo encefalizacia Tavis tvinis zomis momatebas. es ori adaptacia pasuxismgebelia adamianis evoluciis umravles Tu ara, yvela miRwevaze, kulturuli ganviTarebis CaTvliT. rodesac Cvenma winaprebma SeZles or fexze amarTuli siaruli, maT SeiZines garemos Seswavlisa da axali resursebis eqspluataciis unari. Tavis tvinis zomis momatebasTan erTad ki maTi inteleqti gaumjobesda, maT SeiZines kompleqsuri azrovnebis, msjelobis, damaxsovrebisa da dagegmvis unari (Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom ufro didi tvinis evolucia ar warmoadgens ufro didi inteleqtis garantias mniSvnelovani iyo is, Tu ra tipis tvinis qsovili viTardeboda da ra adgils ikavebda is tvinis farglebSi). genotipma, romelic gansazRvravda Wkvian da mobilur fenotips, nel-nela gandevna naklebad warmatebulad adaptirebuli genotipebi adamianTa genuri fondidan, ramac gamravlebis unari ufro Wkvian orfexa arsebebs misca. bipedalizmisa da encefalizaciis Semdeg, Cveni saxeobis evoluciis gzaze yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovani etapi iyo metyvelebis warmoqmna (Bicketron, 1990; Holden, 1998). ifiqreT, ra SeguebiTi upiratesoba SeeZlo moetana metyvelebis ganviTarebas adreuli periodis adamianebisaTvis. iaraRebis gakeTebisaTvis saWiro martivi miTiTebebi, kargi sanadiro Tu saTevzao adgilebis povna da saSiSroebis Tavidan acileba zogavda dros, Zalas da sicocxles. imis magivrad, rom yovel jerze Tavidan eswavlaT sakuTari gamocdilebidan cdisa da Secdomis meTodiT, adamianebma SeZles sxvaTa gamocdilebis gamoyeneba. saubari, iumoric ki, aZlierebda socialur kavSirebs bunebrivad isedac sazogadoebrivi saxeobis wevrebs Soris. yvelaze mniSvnelovania is, rom metyvelebis warmoqmnaganviTarebam SesaZlo gaxada dagrovili codnis gadacema Taobidan Taobaze. metyveleba warmoadgens kulturuli evoluciis bazas _ kulturebis tendencias, daswavlis gziT adapturad upasuxos garemos cvlilebebs. kulturulma evoluciam ganapiroba iaraRebis warmoebis warmateba, soflis meurneobis gaumjobeseba da industriisa da teqnologiebis ganviTareba da daxvewa. kulturuli evolucia saSualebas gvaZlevs Zalian swrafad SeveguoT garemo pirobebis cvlilebebs. personaluri kompiuteris gamoyenebis Segueba,

magaliTad, bolo 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi ganviTarda. miuxedavad amisa, kulturuli evolucia ver iarsebebs genotipis gareSe, romelic kodirebs daswavlisa da abstraqtuli azrovnebis unars. kulturis arseboba xelovnebis, literaturis, musikis, samecniero codnisa da filantropiuli aqtivobebis CaTvliT SesaZlebelia mxolod adamianis genotipis potencialis gamo.

adamianis genotipis cvalebadoba


Tqven naxeT, rom adamianis evoluciis dros upiratesoba saziaro biologiur potencials eniWeboda _ bipedalizmi da azrovnebisa da metyvelebis unari. magram am saziaro potencialSic rCeba adgili sagrZnobi variaciebisaTvis. Tqvenma ded-mamam gadmogcaT mxolod nawili imisa, rac maT mSoblebisgan, bebia-babuisagan da Tqveni ojaxis yvela sxva wina Taobisagan hqondaT miRebuli, ramac Sedegad mogvca Tqveni ganviTarebis unikaluri biologiuri gegma. memkvidreobiTobis (winaprebis fizikuri da fsiqologiuri niSan-Tvisebebis miReba) meqanizmis Semswavlel mecnierebas genetika ewodeba.

genetikis safuZvlebi
Tqveni yoveli ujredis birTvSi moTavsebulia genetikuri masala, romelsac dnm (dezoqsiribonukleinis mJava) ewodeba. dnm organizebulia umcires nawilakebad, genebad. genebis zusti raodenoba adamianis genomSi (genTa erToblioba) dRemde araa cnobili; asaxeleben ricxvs 30 000-dan 150 000-mde (Pennisi, 2000). genebi Seicaven cilebis sinTezisaTvis saWiro in-

memkvidreobiToba da qceva

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struqciebs. es cilebi aregulireben sxeulSi mimdinare fiziologiur procesebs da ganapirobeben fenotipis eqspresias: sxeulis formas, fizikur Zalas da bevr sxva qceviT Tvisebas. genebi moTavsebulia struqturebze, romelTac qromosomebi ewodebaT. Casaxvis momentSi Tqven iRebT mSoblebisagan 46 qromosomas 23s dedisgan da 23-s mamisgan. yoveli qromosoma aTasobiT gens Seicavs. spermisa da kvercxujredis Serwyma Sedegad gvaZlevs genTa mravali milioni SesaZlo kombinaciidan mxolod erTs. sasqeso qromosomebi Seicaven informacias mamrisa Tu mdedris fizikuri ganviTarebis Sesaxeb. Tqven iRebT X qromosomas dedisgan da X an Y qromosomas mamisgan. XX kombinacia ganapirobebs mdedrobiTi Tvisebebis ganviTarebas, xolo XY kombinacia mamrobiTi Tvisebebisas. miuxedavad imisa, rom Tqvens dedmamiSvilebTan Tqven daaxloebiT genTa 50% saerTo gaqvT, genTa Tqveni kombinacia absoluturad unikaluria, Tuki Tqven ar gyavT erTkvercxiani tyupi. genebs Soris sxvaoba aris erT-erTi mizezi, Tu ratom gansxvavdebiT Tqven fizikurad da qceviTac Tqveni Zmebisa da debisagan. sxva mizezi ki isaa, rom Tqven ar cxovrobT absoluturad identur garemoSi. fsiqologiis mniSvnelovani mizania, zemoqmedebis am or wyaros Soris wonasworobis (balansis) gageba.

genebi da qceva
Cven vnaxeT, rom evoluciurma procesma SesaZlo gaxada adamianis genotipSi uamravi cvalebadobis arseboba. am genotipTa urTierTqmedeba garemosTan qmnis cvalebadobas adamianTa fenotipSi. adamianTa qcevis genetikis sferoSi mkvlevrebi Tanabrad iyeneben genetikisa da fsiqologiis meTodebs, raTa Seiswavlon mizezobrivi urTierTkavSiri niSan-TvisebaTa memkvidreobiTobasa da qcevas Soris (Maccoby, 2000; Plomin & Rende, 1991; Plomin et al., 1994). qceviTi genetikis logikis Sesaswavlad Cven unda aRvweroT saocari aRmoCena: Tqveni subieqturi kargad yofnis bednierebis, romelsac Tqven Tqveni cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi ganicdiT safuZvels, SesaZloa, genetikuri komponenti gansazRvravdes.

saidan viciT
bednierebis memkvidreobiToba bednierebis genetikuri komponentis Sesaswavlad mkvlevrebma qceviTi genetikis klasikuri meTodi gamoiyenes. maT Seiswavles monozigoturi (genetikurad identuri, MZ) da dizigoturi (e.w. fraternuli anu sibsebis msgavsi, DZ) tyupebis mier sakuTari bednierebis Sefaseba. tyupebis bednierebis done fasdeboda specialuri kiTxvariT, romelSic iyo aseTi tipis kiTxvebic, magaliTad, sxvebTan SedarebiT, ramdenad bednieri xarT?~mkvlevrebma Seiswavles MZ da DZ pasuxebis ori seria, rodesac respondentebi Sesabamisad 20 da 30 wlisa iyvnen. maT Caatares e.w. jvaredini analizi (sur. 3.2): 30 wlis respondentis gamonaTqvami Seadares misi tyupiscalis gamonaTqvams 20 wlis asakSi. gamoirkva, rom TiTqmis ar arsebobda korelacia DZ tyupebis pasuxebs Soris maSin, rodesac MZ tyupebSi pasuxebis 80%-is korelacia jvaredini analizis Sedegad dadasturda. mecnierebis warmodgeniT, es maRali korelacia SeiZleba aixsnas mxolod im daSvebiT, rom bednierebas genetikuri komponenti aqvs (Lykken & Tellegen, 1996).

memkvidreobiToba (Heredity) niSan-Tvisebebis biologiuri gadacema mSoblebidan STamomavlobaze.


Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

genetika (Genetics) mecniereba winaprebisgan miRebuli fizikuri da fsiqologiuri Tvisebebis memkvidreobiTobis Sesaxeb. dnm (dezoqsiribonukleinis mJava) (DNA deoxyribonucleic acid) _ genetikuri informaciis gadacemis fizikuri baza. geni (Genes) memkvidreobiTobis fizikuri erTeuli; qromosomebis patara ubani, romelic pasuxismgebelia Tvisebebis gadacemaze. sasqeso qromosoma (Sex chrolosomes) qromosomebi, sadac Tavmoyrilia mamrobiTi Tu mdedrobiTi Tvisebebis matarebeli genebi. adamianis qcevis genetika (Human behavior genetics) mecniereba, romelic qcevisa da Tvisebebis individualuri gansxvavebebis genetikur komponentebs Seiswavlis.

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suraTi

3.2

bednierebis genetikis safuZvlis Semswvleli cdis sqema


mecnierebma Seiswavles korelacia erTi tyupis bednierebisdoneebs Soris 20 da 30 wlis asakSi

sociobiologia (Sociobiology) mecniereba, romelic Seiswavlis adamianTa da cxovelTa socialur sistemebs da sociualuri qcevis evoluciur safuZvlebs.

memkvidreobiToba da qceva

xom ar gagikvirdaT, rom bednierebasac ki SesaZloa Zlieri genetikuri komponenti hqondes? Tqven, albaT, fiqrobT, rom bednierebas garemo ufro metad gansazRvravs. Tqven romantiuli urTierToba gaqvT? ramdenad rTulia Tqveni swavlis procesi? romelia Tqveni cxovrebis mTavari winaaRmdegobebi? mkvlevrebs miaCniaT, rom garemos aseTi movlenebi dabadebis dros miRebuli bednierebis saSualo donis~ garkveul variaciebs iwvevs. analogiisaTvis gaixseneT rogor muSaobs Termostati. davuSvaT, Tqven temperatura daayeneT 20C-ze garemo garkveulad Secvlis am temperaturas, magram saSualo maCvenebeli igive darCeba. bednierebis sakiTxis kvlevam aCvena, rom yovel Cvengans aqvs bednierebis donis raRac sawyisi maCvenebeli (analogiiT, magaliTad, 20C, an 30C), romelic narCundeba mTeli cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi mimdinare movlenebis miuxedavad, magram aucilebelia, rom amas geni (an genebi) gansazRvravdes? gaixseneT wignis meore Tavidan: korelacia ar aris mizezobrioba~. SesaZloa, rom individis qcevis

sxva aspeqtebma, an gamocdilebam gansazRvros genetikurad ganpirobebuli bednierebis gamovlena. identuri da dizigoturi tyupebis magaliTi gviCvenebs, rom genomis elementebs aqvT gavlena bednierebaze. davuSvaT, rom Tqveni genetikuri memkvidreoba gansazRvravs, Tu rogor afasebT momxdar movlenebs rom Tqveni da an Zma genetikurad ganwyobilia ufro metad daiTrgunos umniSvnelo problemebisagan. Tqven, SesaZloa, ufro bednieri iyoT, magram genetika gansazRvravs, Tu rogor axdenT Tqven samyaros interpretacias, romelic, Tavis mxriv, ganapirobebs gansxvavebebs bednierebaSi, an, SesaZloa, saSualo keTildReoba warmoadgens balanss pozitiuri da negatiuri emociebis gamomwvev genebs Soris (Hamer, 1996). rogori axsnac ar unda moiZebnos, erTi ram cxadia: mSoblebisagan miRebuli genebi ufro farTo gavlenas axdenen Tqvenze, vidre mxolod Tvalis ferisa Tu Tqveni simaRlis gansazRvra. daimaxsovreT, rom genebSi Tqveni bedis kodi araa Cadebuli. is rom Tqven maRali xarT, ar niSnavs, rom kalaTburTi unda iTamaSoT; is, rom Tqven qali xarT, ar niSnavs, rom aucileblad bavSvebi unda gaaCinoT. yovelTvis gaxsovdeT, rom genotipis eqspresia mxolod garkveul konteqstSia SesaZlebeli. fizikuri zoma, magaliTad, ganpirobebulia genetikuri masaliTa da kvebis racioniT erToblivad. fizikuri Zala rogorc mamakacebSi, ise qalebSi, SesaZloa, ganviTarebul iqnes specialuri savarjiSoebis meSveobiT. inteleqtualuri ganviTareba ganpirobebulia rogorc genetikuri potencialiT, ise aRzrdis pirobebiT. verc marto genebi da verc marto garemo ver gansazRvravs, vin xarT Tqven da ra pirovnebad CamoyalibdebiT. adamianis qcevis genetikaSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba individualuri gansxvavebebis warmoSobis Seswavlas eTmoba: individualuri genetikuri masalis ra faqtorebi gansazRvraven Tqveni azrovnebisa da qcevis maneras? sociobiologebi cdiloben am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemas qcevis farTo speqtris fonze. es sfero Seiswavlis socialur qcevas da adamianebisa da sxva cxovelebis socialuri sistemebis evoluciur safuZvlebs. modiT bednierebaSi ufro meti vigulisxmoT. Cven mxolod qceviTi genetikis kvleva aRvwereT, romelic bednierebis sferoSi individualur gansxvavebebs Seis-

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puri Tvisebebisa da garemos Soris urTierTqmedebis gamo. adamianis evoluciaSi ori umTavresi Segueba iyo _ bipedalizmi da encefalizacia. metyvelebis ganviTarebam SesaZlo gaxada swrafi kulturuli evolucia. adamianis qceviTi genetikis mkvlevrebi Seiswavlian kavSirs memkvidreobiT miRebul genebsa da qcevas Soris. sociobiologebi iyeneben evoluciur midgomas saxeobebis socialuri qcevis gagebisaTvis.

biologia da qceva
modiT, axla Cveni yuradReba adamianis genotipis mniSvnelovan produqts mivapyroT _ im biologiur sistemebs, romelTa meSveobiTac azrovnebisa da qcevis mTel speqtrs vaxorcielebT. bevrad ufro adre darvinis mogzaurobamde, mecnierebi, filosofosebi da sxvebi msjelobdnen, Tu ra rols asruleben biologiuri sistemebi yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. tvinis Seswavlis istoriaSi erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi figura iyo rene dekarti (1596-1650), romelmac SemogvTavaza im droisaTvis Zalzed radikaluri idea: adamianis sxeuli aris cxoveluri manqana~, romelic SeiZleba mecnierulad SeviswavloT empiriuli dakvirvebis gziT bunebrivi kanonebis aRmoCenis meSveobiT. dekarti Tvlida, rom adamianis qmedeba aris meqanikuri refleqsi garemos mxridan stimulaciis sapasuxod. man ivarauda, rom fizikuri energia aagznebs grZnobis organos. stimulirebis Semdeg grZnobis organo gadascems tvins agznebas cxoveluri sulis~ meSveobiT; tvini, Tavis mxriv, gadascems cxovelur suls kunTebis Sesabamis jgufs, romelic moZraobiT refleqsur pasuxs axorcielebs. refleqsis dekartiseul cnebas mecnieruli dasabuTeba ar hqonda 1906 wlamde, rodesac ser Carlz Seringtonma aRmoaCina, rom refleqsebis safuZvels warmoadgenen pirdapiri kavSirebi sensorul da motorul nervul boWkoebs Soris zurgis tvinis doneze. Seringtonma wamoayena idea, rom nervuli sistema rogorc amagznebel (nervuli aqtivobis gaZliereba), ise Semakavebel (nervuli aqtivobis Semcireba) procesebs moicavs. XX saukunis dasawyisamde

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

wavlis, magram rogor SeiZleba aixsnas evoluciuri perspeqtividan adamianis saxeobis zogadi unari bednierebis gancdisa? basi (2000) uSvebs, rom adamianTa bednierebaSi garkveuli SezRudvebia Tanamedrove da Zvel garemoebebs Soris arsebuli Seusabamobebis~ gamo. magaliTad, miuxedavad imisa, rom adamianebi mcire zomis jgufebis konteqstSi ganviTardnen, bevri dRes did urbanul garemoSi cxovrobs, sadac didi raodenobiT ucxoebiT aris garemoculi. Cven aRar SegvrCa mWidro kavSirebi individTa im jgufebTan, romelTanac saarsebo sivrces viyofT; kavSirebi, romlebic gvexmareba bednieri cxovrebis gancdaSi. ra SeiZleba gakeTdes? miuxedavad imisa, rom Tqven ar SegiZliaT ukan daabrunoT am cvlilebebis gamomwvevi kulturuli evolucia, Tqven SegiZliaT arsebuli viTarebis kompensireba Tqvens ojaxTan da megobrebTan mWidro kavSirebis damyarebiT (Buss, 2000).

Sejameba
saxeobebi warmoiqmneba da icvleba drois ganmavlobaSi bunebrivi gadarCevis Sedegad, romelic warmoadgens organizmis unars, sxvadasxva intensivobiT gamravldes fenoti-

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mecnierebma araferi icodnen nervuli sistemis struqturuli erTeulis, neironis Sesaxeb. santiago ramon kaxali iyo pirveli, vinc aRmoaCina fizikuri zRvari mezobel neironebs Soris da ganaviTara Teoria neironebs Soris informaciis gadacemis Sesaxeb. 50 wlis Semdeg eleqtronuli mikroskopis gamoyenebam daadastura misi ideebi. 1948 wels donald hebma ivarauda, rom tvini ara mxolod nervuli qsovilis masaa, aramed integrirebuli struqturebis, e.w. ujreduli ansamblebis~ erToblioba, romelic specifikur funqciebs asrulebs. dekartis Semdeg moxseniebuli mkvlevrebi Tavs neiromecnierebs uwodeben. dRes, neiromecniereba kvlevis erT-erTi yvelaze ufro swrafad ganviTarebadi sferoa. mniSvnelovani aRmoCenebi gamaognebeli regularobiT xdeba. neiromecnierebis Sesaxeb Cveni saubari daiwyeba im teqnikuri meTodebis aRweriT, romlebsac mkvlevrebi axali aRmoCenebisaTvis iyeneben. Semdeg gavecnobiT nervuli sistemis zogad struqturas, romelsac tvinis ufro detaluri Seswavla mosdevs. dabolos, Cven gavecnobiT endokrinuli sistemis moqmedebas meore makontrolebel biologiur sistemas, romelic nervul sistemasTan erTad muSaobs.

movusminoT tvins
neiromecnierebi cdiloben sxvadasxva meTodebis meSveobiT Seiswavlon tvinis muSaoba dawyebuli operaciebiT did, TvalisaTvis dasanax struqturebze, damTavrebuli ujredebiT, romelTa danaxva mxolod Zlieri mikroskopis qveSaa SesaZlebeli. mkvlevrebis mier gamoyenebul teqnikas analizis garkveuli done Seesabameba. aq Cven ganvixilavT yvelaze ufro xSirad gamoyenebad meTodebs, romlebic Tavis tvinis ubnebis funqciebisa Tu qcevis gansazRvrisaTvisaa saWiro.

intervencia tvinSi
mravali kvleviTi meTodi neiromecnierebaSi tvinSi pirdapir intervencias gulisxmobs. es
neiromecniereba (Neuroscience) moZRvreba nervuli sistemisa da qcevaze misi gavlenis Sesaxeb.

brokas are (Brocas area) Tavis tvinis ubani, romelic azrebs metyvelebasa da/an JestebSi gardaqmnis. dazianeba (Lesions) tvinis qsovilis daSaveba.

biologia da qceva

meTodebi istoriul sawyiss fineas geijis SemTxvevidan iReben, romliTac wignis es Tavi daviwyeT. geijis Tavis tvinis dazianebis Semdeg qcevis dramatulma cvlilebebma eqimebs afiqrebina, rom tvini warmoadgens racionaluri qcevisa da pirovnuli Tvisebebis safuZvels. TiTqmis imave periodSi, rodesac geiji travmis Semdeg mdgomareobidan gamodioda, pol broka swavlobda tvinis rols metyvelebaSi. misi pirveli kvleva am sferoSi warmoadgenda adamianis autofsias, romelsac Searqves tan~ im erTaderTi sityvis mixedviT, romlis warmoTqmac mas SeeZlo. brokam naxa, rom tanis~ tvinis Sublis marcxena ubani Zlier dazianebuli iyo. am aRmoCenam ubiZga brokas Seeswavla im pacientebis tvini, romelTac metyvelebis darRveva hqondaT. yvela SemTxvevaSi broka poulobda msgavs dazianebas tvinis igive ubanSi, romelsac axla `brokas are~ ewodeba. Tanamedrove mkvlevrebi kvlavac cdiloben ipovon Sesabamisoba qcevis cvlilebebsa da tvinis dazianebas Soris.

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moZravi katis tvinSi. Rilakze TiTis daWeriT mas SeeZlo Canergil eleqtrodSi eleqtruli muxtis gamowveva. hesma daaxloebiT 500 kataze detalurad Seiswavla tvinis 4500 ubnis eleqtruli stimulaciis Sedegebi da aRmoaCina, rom eleqtrodis lokalizaciis mixedviT SesaZlebeli iyo Rilakze TiTis daWeriT Zilis, sqesobrivi aqtivobis, SiSisa Tu SfoTvis gamowveva an, Sesabamisad, gamorTva. magaliTad, tvinis gansazRvruli regionebis eleqtruli stimulacia iwvevda mSvidi katebis agresiulobas.

tvinis aqtivobis registracia da warmosaxva


zogi neiromecnieri tvinis funqciebis kartirebas axdens gareSe stimulaciaze tvinis eleqtruli aqtivobis eleqtrodebiT registraciis meSveobiT. tvinis eleqtruli aqtivoba SesaZloa sxvadasxva sizustiT iqnes Seswavlili. yvelaze ufro specifikur doneze mkvlevrebi tvinSi ultramgrZnobiare mikroeleqtrodebs aTavseben misi calkeuli ujredebis eleqtruli aqtivobis Caweris mizniT. aseTi registracia naTels hfens individualuri neironis aqtivobis cvlilebebs garemo stimulaciaze sapasuxod.

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SemTxveviT dazianebuli tvinis SeswavlaSi garkveul problemas warmoadgens is, rom mecnierebs ar SeuZliaT Tavad gansazRvron dazianebis ubani da zoma. tvinis safuZvliani Seswavlisa da qceviT Tu kognitur funqciebs Soris kavSirebis dadgenis mizniT mecnierebs sWirdebaT meTodebi, romlebic maT tvinis dazianebuli qsovilis zusti specifikaciis saSualebas miscems. mkvlevrebma ganaviTares meTodebi, romelTa saSualebiTac SesaZloa zustad gansazRvruli dazianebebis gamowveva. maT SeuZliaT, magaliTad, tvinis gansazRvruli ubnebis mocileba, am ubnebis neironuli kavSirebis gadaWra, an am ubnebis dazianeba sicxis, sicivisa Tu eleqtrobis gamoyenebiT. rogorc, albaT, mixvdiT, tvinis eqsperimentuli dazianeba mxolod sacdel cxovelebze, da ara adamianebze, xorcieldeba (gaixseneT Cveni diskusia wignis meore TavSi, rom cxovelebze aseTi tipis eqsperimentebis eTika amJamad umkacres kontrols eqvemdebareba). tvinis Cveneuli gageba radikalurad Seicvala, rodesac mecnierebma Seadares da Seiswavles cxovelebze dazianebiTi cdebis Sedegebi adamianebis klinikuri monacemebis Sedegebs. garkveul pirobebSi mecnierebs SeuZliaT tvinis funqciebis Seswavla misi ubnebis pirdapiri stimulaciis meSveobiT. magaliTad, XX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi, valter hesi iyo tvinis Rrma struqturebis eleqtruli stimulaciis pioneri. man Canerga eleqtrodebi Tavisuflad

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

suraTi

3.3

adamianebisaTvis mecnierebi xSirad iyeneben sxva tipis eleqtrodebs, romlebsac Tavis zedapirze aTavseben didi, integrirebuli eleqtruli aqtivobis registraciis mizniT. am eleqtrodebiT iwereba eleqtroencefalograma (eeg), anu tvinis aqtivobis gaZlierebuli Canaweri. eeg-s iyeneben fsiqologiur aqtivobasa da tvinis pasuxebs Soris kavSiris dasadgenad. magaliTad, erT eqsperimentSi pacients warmoudgenen saxeebis serias da sTxoven maT damaxsovrebas. eegze aRiniSneba am dros tvinis specifikuri aqtivoba (Sommer et al., 1995). yvelaze ufro SesaniSnavia is teqnikuri meTodebi, romlebic Tavdapirvelad neiroqirurgebisaTvis iyo SemuSavebuli insultisa Tu sxva daavadebebis mkurnalobaSi daxmarebis mizniT. es mowyobilobebi cocxal, aqtiur tvins aCveneben invaziuri procesebis gareSe, rac
eleqtroencefalograma (eeg) (Electroencephalogram - EEG) tvinis eleqtruli aqtivobis registracia. PET-skani (PET-scans) tvinis suraTebi, romlebic sxvadasxva kognitiuri Tu qceviTi aqtivobis dros cocxali tvinis aqtivobas uCveneben ujredebis mier STanTqmuli radioaqtivobis dafiqsirebis meSveobiT. magnitur-rezonansuli tomografia (MRI _ Magnetic resonance imaging) tvinis suraTebis Seqmnis meTodi, romelic magnitur velebsa da radiotalRebs iyenebs.

funqciuri magnitur-rezonansuli tomografia (fMRI Functional MRI) meTodi, romelic aerTianebs PET-skanisa da mrt-is upiratesobebs da aRricxavs tvinis sisxlis mimoqcevis magnitur cvlilebebs.

biologia da qceva

qsovilis dazianebis risks mniSvnelovnad amcirebs. tvinis warmosaxva Zalian imedismomcemi meTodia misi normaluri Tu paTologiuri funqciebis SeswavlisaTvis (Barinaga, 1997; Posner, 1993). pozitronul-emisiuri tomografiis (anu PETskani) gamoyenebis dros cdis pirs Seuyvanen radiaqtiur (magram ara mavne) substanciebs, romlebic tvins aRweven da garkveuli ujredebis mier STainTqmebian. Tavis gareT moTavsebuli Camweri xelsawyoebi am dros afiqsireben radiaqtiurad moniSnul ujredebs, romlebic sxvadasxva kognitiuri Tu qceviTi aqtivobis drosaa aqtiuri. es infromacia gadaecema kompiuters, romelSic tvinis dinamiuri ruka dgeba da romelic uCvenebs, Tu sad mimdinareobs fiziologiuri aqtivobis sxvadasxva tipi. magnitur-rezonansuli tomografia (MRI) iyenebs magnitur velebs da radiotalRebs tvinis SigniT energiis pulsebis warmoqmnisaTvis. radganac pulsebi sxvadasxva sixSiriTaa dayenebuli, zogi atomi magnituri velis paralelurad ganTavsdeba. rodesac magnituri pulsi iTiSeba, atomebi vibrirebas (rezonirebas) iwyeben sawyis mdgomareobaSi dabrunebis gamo. specialuri radio iWers am signalebs da gadaaqvs

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informacia kompiuterSi, romelic gviCvenebs sxvadasxva atomebis lokalizacias tvinSi. suraTis meSveobiT mkvlevrebs SeuZliaT tvinis struqturebis dakavSireba fiziologiur procesebTan. MRI anatomiuri detalebis warmosaxvisTvisaa gamosadegi; PET-skani ufro detalur informacias gvawvdis funqciis Sesaxeb. arsebobs axali meTodi, e.w. funqciuri mrt, anu fMRI, romelic iTavsebs orive meTodis upiratesobas tvinSi sisxlis mimoqcevis magnituri cvlilebebis registraciis meSveobiT. fMRI saSualebas iZleva ufro zustad SeviswavloT struqtura da funqcia. mkvlevrebi iyeneben fMRI-s iseTi kognitiuri funqciebis Seswavlisas, rogoricaa: yuradReba, aRqma, metyveleba da mexsiereba (Cabeza & Nyberg, 2000). 300 welze metma ganvlo mas Semdeg, rac dekartma daiwyo tvinis Seswavla; 100 weli gavida mas Semdeg, rac brokam daadgina, rom tvinis garkveuli ubnebi specifikur funqciebs asruleben. am aRmoCenebis Semdeg kulturulma evoluciam saSualeba misca mkvlevrebs gamoiyenon teqnologia tvinis saidumloebebis Sesaswavlad. wignis am Tavis darCenili nawili tvinis saidumloebebs eZRvneba.

sxeulTan. suraTi 3.5 warmoadgens kavSirs cnssa da pns-s Soris. cns-is amocanaa sxeulis yvela funqciis integrireba da koordinireba, Semosuli nervuli informaciis gadamuSaveba da sxeulis sxvadasxva nawilebSi pasuxebis gagzavna. cns iRebs da agzavnis nervul informacias zurgis tvinis (nervuli mili, romelic Tavis tvins pns-Tan akavSirebs) saSualebiT. Tavad es nervuli mili moTavsebulia xerxemlis arxSi. spinaluri nervebi gamodis zurgis tvinidan xerxemlis malTa wyvilebs Soris da ukavSirdeba mTel sxeulSi gabneul sensorul receptorebs, kunTebsa da jirkvlebs. zurgis tvini aregulirebs sxeulis marcxena da marjvena nawilebis aqtivobas da pasuxismgebelia im martivi, swrafi refleqsebis ganxorcielebaze, romelTa kontrolSi Tavis tvini araa CarTuli. magaliTad, organizms, romlis zurgisa da Tavis tvinebi gancalkevebulia, SeuZlia mtkivneul

suraTi

3.4

nervuli sistema
nervuli sistema Sedgeba miliardobiT specializebuli nervuli ujredisagan, neironisgan da nervuli boWkoebisagan, romlebic mTels sxeulSia gabneuli. nervuli sistema iyofa or mTavar nawilad: centraluri nervuli sistema (cns) da periferiuli nervuli sistema (pns). cns Sedgeba Tavisa da zurgis tvinisagan, xolo pns im neironebisagan, romlebic qmnian nervebs da akavSireben cns-s

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

centraluri nervuli sistema (cns) (Central nervius system - CNS) nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic Tavisa da zurgis tvinisagan Sedgeba. periferiuli nervuli sistema (pns) (Peripherical nervius system - PNS) nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic spinaluri da kranialuri nervebisagan Sedgeba, romelTa meSveobiTac xorcieldeba kavSiri cns-sa da sensorul receptorebs, kunTebsa da jirkvlebs Soris.

70

nervuli sistema

suraTi

3.5

centraluri nervuli sistema


(Tavisa da zurgis tvini)

periferiuli nervuli sistema


(nervuli qsovili Tavisa da zurgis tvinis farglebs gareT)

adamianis nervuli sistemis ierarqiuli agebuleba


centraluri nervuli sistema Sedgeba Tavisa da zurgis tvinisagan. periferiuli nervuli sistema funqciis mixedviT or nawilad iyofa: _ somaturi nervuli sistema akontrolebs nebiT moZraobebs, xolo avtonomiuri nervuli sistema Sida procesebs. avtonomiuri nervuli sistema aseve or nawilad iyofa: _ simpaTikuri nervuli sistema aregulirebs qcevas kritikul, daZabul situaciebSi, xolo parasimpaTikuri sistema akontrolebs qcevas Cveulebriv pirobebSi.

somaturi nervuli sistema


(sensoruli da motoruli nervuli, nebiTi)

avtonomiuri nervuli sistema


(Sinagani sistemebi, uneblie)

simpaTikuri nawili

parasimpaTikuri nawili

gamaRizianebelze sapasuxod kiduris ganrideba. miuxedavad imisa, rom intaqturi Tavis tvini Cveulebriv pirobebSi informirebuli iqneboda am qmedebis Sesaxeb, organizms am reaqciis ganxorcieleba misi Carevis gareSec SeuZlia. zurgis tvinis nervebis dazianeba iwvevs sxeulisa da qveda kidurebis damblas, rogorc es naCvenebia paraplegiur pacientebSi. damblis gavrceleba damokidebulia imaze, Tu ra doneze moxda zurgis tvinis dazianeba. zeda segmentebis dazianeba ufro farTo damblas iwvevs. miuxedavad Tavisi mmarTvelobiTi funqciisa, cns-s ar aqvs uSualo kontaqti gare samyarosTan; es pns-is funqciaa, miawodos mas informacia sensoruli receptorebis saSualebiT, magaliTad, Tvalebidan da yurebidan da aseve gaataros cns-is brZanebebi kunTebisa da sxeulis sxva organoebisaken. pns ZiriTadad boWkoTa ori tipisagan Sedgeba. somaturi nervuli sistema aregulirebs sxeulis ConCxis kunTebis moqsomaturi nervuli sistema (Somatic nervous system) periferiuli nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic akavSirebs centralur nervul sistemas kanisa da ConCxis kunTebTan. avtonomiuri nervuli sistema (ans) (Autonomic nervous system - ANS) periferiuli nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic akavSirebs centralur nervul sistemas gluv da gulis kunTebTan da jirkvlebTan da aregulirebs sxeulis uneblie motorul pasuxebs.

medebas. magaliTad, warmoidgineT rom beWdavT werils. Tqveni TiTebis moZraoba kompiuteris klaviaturaze regulirdeba somaturi nervuli sistemis meSveobiT. roca Tqven iRebT gadawyvetilebas, Tu ra daweroT, Tqveni Tavis tvini agzavnis brZanebas TiTebisaken, daaWiron Sesabamis Rilaks. amavdroulad TiTebidan Tavis tvinSi ukukavSiris saSualebiT igzavneba informacia maTi moZraobisa da poziciis Sesaxeb. Tuki Tqven araswor Rilaks daaWireT TiTi, somaturi nervuli sistema atyobinebs amis Sesaxeb Tavis tvins, romelic Sesabamis koreqcias ganaxorcielebs da Tqven myisierad waSliT Secdomas da daaWerT TiTs swor Rilaks. pns-is meore nawilia avtonomiuri nervuli sistema (ans), romelic ZiriTad sasicocxlo procesebs awesrigebs. es sistema 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi muSaobs, aregulirebs ra sxeulis iseT funqciebs, romlebic Cveulebriv nebiT kontrols ar eqvemdebareba, magaliTad, sunTqva, saWmlis moneleba da agzneba. ans maSinac muSaobs, rodesac Tqven gZinavT. is uzrunvelyofs sasicocxlo funqciebis ganxorcielebas anesTeziisa da xangrZlivi komis drosac. avtonomiuri nervuli sistema aregulirebs ori tipis reaqciebs: organizmis reaqciebs safrTxeze da organizmis cxovelqmedebas Cveulebriv pirobebSi. am funqciebis ganxorcielebisaTvis avtonomiuri nervuli sistema kidev or nawilad iyofa, esenia: simpaTikuri

biologia da qceva

71

da parasimpaTikuri nawilebi. es ganyofilebebi urTierTsawinaaRmdego funqciebs asruleben. simpaTikuri nawili aregulirebs organizmis reaqciebs daZabul situaciebSi, parasimpaTikuri ki sxeulis Sida funqciebs akontrolebs mSvid mdgomareobaSi. simpaTikuri sistema SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes, rogorc daZabuli mdgomareobebis momgvarebeli safrTxis, an stresis
simpaTikuri sistema (Sympathetic division) avtonomiuri nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic sagangaSo situaciaSi energiis mobilizacias axorcielebs. parasimpaTikuri sistema (Parasympathetic division) avtonomiuri nervuli sistemis nawili, romelic yoveldRiur funqciebs asrulebs da inaxavs sxeulis energias.

dros is amzadebs tvins brZolisaTvis~: saWmlis moneleba wydeba, sisxli Sida organoebidan kunTebisaken nawildeba, Jangbadis mowodeba Zlierdeba da guliscemis sixSire matulobs. safrTxis gavlis Semdeg erTveba parasimpaTikuri sistema, raTa ganmuxtos procesebi da organizmi wynardeba. saWmlis moneleba aRdgeba, guliscema wynardeba da sunTqva ufro mSviddeba. parasimpaTikuri nawili pasuxismgebelia organizmis Cveulebrivi mdgomareobis koordinirebaze, rogoricaa ZalTa danaxarjis gabaTileba, vizualuri sistemis dacva (cremlisa da gugis Seviwroebis meSveobiT) da sxeulis energiis xangrZlivi Senaxva. simpaTikuri da parasimpaTikuri sistemebis gansxvavebuli funqciebi 3.6 suraTzea asaxuli.

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

suraTi

3.6

avtonomiuri nervuli sistema


parasimpaTikuri nervuli sistema, romelic organizmis yoveldRiur Sida reaqciebsa da qcevas aregulirebs, marcxena mxaresaa gamosaxuli; simpaTikuri nervuli sistema, romelic imave funqciebs stresis dros axorcielebs, naCvenebia marjvena mxares. miaqcieT yuradReba imas, rom simpaTikuri nervuli sistema zurgis tvinis siaxloves nervuli kvanZebis erTobliobas, e. w. simpatikur vels qmnis.

72

tvinis Rero, Talamusi da naTxemi


tvinis Rero yvela xerxemlian cxovels gaaCnia. misi struqturebi aregulirebs sxeulis Sinagan mdgomareobas (sur. 3.8). zurgis tvinis zeda sazRvarze moTavsebuli mogrZo tvini warmoadgens sunTqvis, sisxlis wnevisa da guliscemis centrs. radganac es procesebi sicocxlisaTvis aucilebelia, mogrZo tvinis dazianeba SeiZleba fataluri iyos. sxeulidan
tvinis Rero (Brain stem) Tavis tvinis struqtura, romelic aregulirebs sxeulis ZiriTad sasicocxlo funqciebs. mogrZo tvini (Medulla) tvinis Reros ubani, romelic akontrolebs sunTqvas, sifxizles da guliscemas. xidi (Pons) tvinis Reros ubani, romelic akavSirebs zurgisa da Tavis tvins, aseve Tavis tvinis sxvadasxva nawilebs. retikuluri formacia (Reticular formation) tvinis Reros ubani, romelic gansazRvravs Tavis tvinis mzaobas, miiRos sensoruli informacia da pasuxismgebelia cnobierebis SenarCunebasa da gamofxizlebaze.

Tavis tvinis struqturebi da maTi funqciebi


Tavis tvini centraluri nervuli sistemis yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovani nawilia. adamianis Tavis tvini sami urTierTdakavSirebuli Srisagan Sedgeba. yvelaze ufro Rrma regionSi, romelsac tvinis Rero ewodeba, moTavsebulia iseT avtonomiur procesTa maregulirebeli centrebi, rogoricaa guliscema, sunTqva, ylapva da saWmlis moneleba. centralur Sres qmnis limburi sistema, romelic CarTulia motivaciis, emociisa da mexsierebis procesebis ganxorcielebasa da kontrolSi. am or regions gars ekvris cerebrumi didi tvini. tvinis swored es nawili ganagebs adamianis gonebas. didi tvini da misi gare Sre, qerqi (korteqsi) axdens sensoruli informaciis integrirebas, koordinacias uwevs moZraobas da axorcielebs abstraqtul azrovnebasa da msjelobas (sur. 3.7). axla ufro guldasmiT gavecnoT Tavis tvinis am sami ganyofilebis funqciebs. daviwyoT tvinis ReroTi, TalamusiTa da naTxemiT.

suraTi

3.7

Tavis tvinis struqturebi


Tavis tvinis ZiriTadi urTierTdakavSirebuli nawilebia: tvinis Rero, naTxemi, limburi sistema da didi tvinis qerqi.

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biologia da qceva

suraTi

3.8

tvinis Rero, Talamusi da naTxemi


es struqturebi ZiriTadad sasicocxlo procesebis regulaciaSia CarTuli: sunTqva, pulsi, agzneba, moZraoba, wonasworoba da sensoruli informaciis pirveladi gadamuSaveba Thalamus Talamusi Pons xidi Medulla mogrZo tvini Cerebllum naTxemi Reticular formation retikularuli formacia

aRmavali da tvinidan daRmavali nervuli boWkoebi mogrZo tvinSi jvaredindeba, rac imas niSnavs, rom sxeulis marcxena nawilis kontrols tvinis marjvena mxare axorcielebs da piriqiT, sxeulis marjvena nawili tvinis marcxena nawilTanaa dakavSirebuli. uSualod mogrZo tvinis Tavze moTavsebulia xidi, romelic agzavnis informacias tvinis Reros sxva struqturebSi da naTxemSi (misi saxeli swored am funqcias ukavSirdeba). retikuluri (badebrivi) formacia warmoadgens nervebis xSir qsels, romelic tvinis Reros darajis funqcias asrulebs. is ganapirobebs didi tvinis qerqis mzaobas, miiRos axali stimulacia da Zilis
Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

Talamusi (Thalamus) Tavis tvinis nawili, romelic sensorul informacias gadascems didi tvinis qerqs. naTxemi (Cerebellum) Tavis tvinis nawili, romelic ukavSirdeba tvinis Reros da akontrolebs motorul koordinacias, pozas da wonasworobas; aseve sxeulis moZraobis kontrolis daswavlis unars. limburi sistema (Limbic system) Tavis tvinis regioni, romelic aregulirebs emociur qcevas, ZiriTad motivaciur survilebs da mexsierebas, aseve mTavar fiziologiur funqciebs. hipokampi (Hippocampus) limburi sistemis nawili, romelic konkretuli mexsierebis CamoyalibebaSi monawileobs. nuSisebri kompleqsi (Amygdala) limburi sistemis nawili, romelic akontrolebs emocias, agresiasa da emociuri mexsierebis formirebas.

drosac inarCunebs sifxizlis garkveul dones (Kinomura et al., 1996). am ubnis seriozuli dazianeba komas iwvevs. retikuluri formaciis grZeli boWkoebi Talamuss ukavSirdeba, romelsac Semosuli sensoruli informacia didi tvinis qerqis Sesabamis ubanSi gadaaqvs, sadac es informacia muSavdeba. magaliTad, Talamusi gadascems informacias Tvalebidan mxedvelobis kortikalur ubans. neiromecnierTaTvis didi xania cnobilia, rom naTxemi, romelic tvinis RerosTanaa dakavSirebuli da tvinis fuZesTan mdebareobs, koordinirebas uwevs sxeulis moZraobas, akontrolebs pozas da xels uwyobs wonasworobis SenarCunebas. naTxemis dazianeba iwvevs moZraobis Cveuli ritmis darRvevas, is arakoordinirebuli da wyvetili xdeba. bolo drois gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom naTxemi aseve mniSvnelovania daswavlisaTvis, anu is xels uwyobs sxeulis moZraobis kontrolis swavlas (Baringa, 1996; Raymond et al., 1996). limburi sistema limburi sistema akontrolebs motivirebul qcevas, emociur mdgomareobasa da mexsierebas. is aseve aregulirebs sxeulis temperaturas, sisxlis wnevas da sisxlSi Saqris dones; axorcielebs sxva Sinagan funqciaTa kontrols. limburi sistema Sedgeba sami struqturisagan: hipokampi, amigdala (nuSisebri kompleqsi) da hipoTalamusi (sur. 3.9).

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suraTi

3.9

limburi sistema
limburi sistemis struqturebi mxolod ZuZumwovrebSia warmodgenili: isini monawileoben motivaciuri qcevis, emociuri mdgradobisa da mexsierebis procesebis regulaciaSi.

hipokampi, romelic limburi sistemis yvelaze ufro didi struqturaa, mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs eqsplicituri mexsierebis procesebSi (Eichenbaum, 1999; Squire, 1992) mexsierebis, romelic Tqvens cnobierebaSi aisaxeba (ix. Tavi 8). arsebobs uamravi klinikuri monacemi, romelic am Sexedulebas adasturebs, kerZod, fsiqologiis istoriaSi, albaT, yvelaze ufro cnobili pacientis, h.m-is istoria.

saidan viciT
hipokampis dazianebis zogierTi Sedegi 27 wlis asakSi h.m-s Cautarda operacia epilefsiuri Setevebis sixSiris Semcirebis mizniT. operaciis dros mas hipokampi amokveTes. Sedegad, h.m-s SeeZlo mxolod Soreuli warsulis gaxseneba. man dakarga axali informaciis Senaxvisa da misi grZelvadian mexsierebaSi gadatanis unari. operaciidan didi xnis Semdegac ki pacients egona, rom jer kidev 1953 weli iyo, weliwadi, rodesac mas operacia Cautarda.

hipokampis dazianebam, meore mxriv, ar gamoiwvia implicituri mexsierebis darRveva, anu h.m-s SenarCunebuli hqonda axali unar-Cvevebis

gamomuSavebis unari, romelic cnobierebasTan ar iyo dakavSirebuli. e.i., hipokampis dazianebis Semdeg Tqven SeinarCunebT axali amocanebis gadawyvetis unars, magram ar geqnebaT misi damaxsovrebis SesaZlebloba (ix. Tavi me-8). nuSisebri kompleqsi monawileobs emociebis kontrolSi da emociuri mexsierebis formirebaSi. makontrolebeli funqciis gamo, am ubnis dazianebam SeiZleba agresiuli pirebis dawynareba gamoiwvios (Cven fsiqoqirurgias me-16 TavSi ganvixilavT). garda amisa, nuSisebri kompleqsis dazianebis Sedegad ikargeba saxis emociuri gamometyvelebis amocnobis unari (Adolphs et al., 1994). im pirebSi, romlebsac nuSisebri kompleqsi aqvT dazianebuli, yvelaze ufro metad daqveiTebulia uaryofiTi emociebis, gansakuTrebiT ki, SiSis gamoxatuleba. mkvlevrebi varaudoben, rom nuSisebri kompleqsi SesaZloa gansakuTrebul rols TamaSobdes adamianebis mier SiSisa da safrTxis amocnobis unarSi (Adolphs et al., 1999). hipoTalamusi tvinis erT-erTi yvelaze ufro patara zomis struqturaa, Tumca umniSvnelovanes rols TamaSobs Tqvens yoveldRiur aqtivobebSi. is Sedgeba mravali birTvisagan _ neironTa patara grovebisgan, romlebic motivaciur qcevaSi CarTul fiziologiur procesebs aregulirebs (kveba, temperaturis regulireba da sqesobrivi qceva). hipoTalamusi inarCunebs sxeulis Sida aris mudmivobas, anu homeostazs. rodesac sxeulis energiis rezer-

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suraTi

3.10

qerqi
edidi tvinis qerqis TiToeul hemisferoze oTxi wilia. TiToeuli wili asrulebs sxvadasxva sensorul da motorul funqciebs

vebi dabalia, hipoTalamusi erTveba organizmis stimulaciaSi, raTa man sakvebi moipovos da
hipoTalamusi (Hypothalamus) tvinis struqtura, romelic aregulirebs motivaciur qcevas (rogoricaa kveba da daleva) da homeostazs.
Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

miiRos. rodesac sxeulis temperatura iklebs, hipoTalamusi sisxlZarRvTa SekumSvas, an mokle uneblie moZraobebs kankals iwvevs. hipoTalamusi aseve aregulirebs endokrinuli sistemis moqmedebas.

homeostazi (Homeostasis) sxeulis Sida aris mudmivoba. didi tvini (Cerebrum) tvinis nawili, romelic umaRles kognitur da emociur funqciebs aregulirebs. qerqi (Cerebral cortex) didi tvinis gare zedapiri. hemisferoebi (Cerebral hemispheres) didi tvinis ori naxevari, romlebic korZiani sxeuliTaa dakavSirebuli. korZiani sxeuli (Corpus callosum) nervul boWkoTa erToblioba, romelic tvinis or hemisferos akavSirebs. Sublis wili (Frontal lobe) tvinis ubani, romelic gverdiTi napralis zemoT da centraluri Raris winaa moTavsebuli; monawileobs motorul kontrolSi da kogntiur qmedebebSi.

didi tvini
adamianebSi didi tvini faravs tvinis darCenil nawils da misi masis or mesameds qmnis. misi funqciaa tvinis umaRlesi kognituri da emociuri funqciebis regulireba. didi tvinis gare fena, romelic miliardobiT neironisgan Sedgeba da daaxloebiT 2,5 mm sisqis Sres qmnis, iwodeba didi tvinis qerqad. didi tvini aseve iyofa or, TiTqmis simetriul naxevrad, cerebralur hemisferoebad (Cven hemisferoebs am Tavis momdevno nawilSi ganvixilavT). ori hemisfero dakavSirebulia erTmaneTTan nervuli boWkoebis msxvili masiT, romelsac korZiani sxeuli ewodeba. es kavSiri hemisferoebs Soris informaciis gacvlas emsaxureba.

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3.11

motoruli da somatosensoruli qerqi


sxeulis sxvadsxva nawilebi gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan mgrZnobelobiT garemo stimulaciisadmi da tvinis kontrolisadmi. mgrZnobeloba sxeulis garkveul nawilSi damokidebulia qerqis im umnis zomaze, romelic sxeulis am konkretul nawils akontrolebs. am suraTze adamianis sxeulis nawilebi qerqis Sesabamisi makontrolebeli ubnebis zomebis mixedviTaa warmodgenili. rac ufro didi zomisaa suraTze gamosaxuli sxeulis nawili, miT ufro maRalia misi mgrZnobeloba garemo stimulizaciisadmi da miT ufroZlieria tvinis kontroli mis moZraobaze.

neiromecnierebma moniSnes orive hemisfero, gamoiyenes ra ori mniSvnelovani orientiri. erTi Rrmuli, romelsac centraluri Rari ewodeba, yofs yovel hemisferos vertikalurad da meore, msgavsi Rrmuli, romelsac lateraluri naprali ewodeba, yofs TiToeul hemisferos horizontalurad (sur. 3.10). es vertikaluri da horizontaluri dayofa gvexmareba gamovyoT tvinis oTxi ubani, anu wili, TiToeul naxevarsferoSi. frontaluri (Sublis) wili, romelic CarTulia motorul kontrolsa da kognitur qmedebaSi, rogoricaa dagegmva, gadawyvetilebis miReba da miznebis dasaxva, moTavsebulia lateraluri napralis zemoT da centraluri Raris win. am ubnis dazianeba adamianis individualobis Secvlas iwvevs. es swored is ubani iyo, romlis dazianebamac fines geijis dramatuli cvlileba gamoiwvia (Damasio et al., 1994). parietaluri (Txemis)

wili pasuxismgebelia iseTi SegrZnebebis kontrolze, rogoricaa Sexeba, tkivili da temperatura moTavsebulia uSualod centraluri Raris ukan. ocipitaluri (kefis) wili, vizualuri informaciis bolo samizne, Tavis ukana nawilSia moTavsebuli. temporaluri (safeTTxemis wili (Parietal lobe) tvinis ubani Sublis wilis ukan da lateraluri napralis zemoT; Seicavs somatosensorul qerqs. kefis wili (Occipital lobe) tvinis yvelaze ufro ukana nawili; moicavs pirvelad mxedvelobiT qerqs. safeTqlis wili (Temporal lobe) tvinis ubani, romelic lateraluri napralis qvemoTaa moTavsebuli; Seicavs smenis qerqs. motoruli qerqi (Motor cortex) didi tvinis qerqis ubani, romelic akontrolebs sxeulis nebiT moZraobebs.

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78

qlis) wili, romelic pasuxismgebelia smenis ganxorcielebaze, moTavsebulia lateraluri napralis qvemoT, TiToeuli hemisferos gverdiT zedapirze. Secdoma iqneboda imis mtkiceba, rom romelime wili ama Tu im specifikur funqcias marto akontrolebs. tvinis struqturebi TavianT movaleobas erToblivad axorcieleben, muSaoben erTad, rogorc integrirebuli erTeuli; ise, rogorc simfoniuri orkestri. rodesac Tqven recxavT WurWels, angariSobT, an saubrobT megobarTan, Tqveni tvini muSaobs, rogorc erTiani sxeuli, TiToeuli wili sxvebTan TanamSromlobs. miuxedavad amisa, neiromecnierebs SeuZliaT tvinis oTx wilSi im ubnebis gansazRvra, romlebic iseTi specifikuri funqciebis ganxorcielebisTvisaa aucilebeli, rogoricaa: mxedveloba, smena, metyveleba da mexsiereba. maTi dazianebis SemTxvevaSi es funqciebic ziandeba, an sruliad ikargeba. sxeulis 600-ze meti nebiTi kunTis qmedeba kontroldeba motoruli qerqiT, romelic Sublis wilSi uSualod centraluri Raris winaa moTavsebuli. gaixseneT, rom tvinis erTi mxridan wamosuli brZanebebi sxeulis meore mxarisTvisaa gamiznuli. garda amisa, sxeulis qveda ubnebSi moTavsebuli kunTebi, magaliTad, fexis TiTebi, motoruli qerqis yvelaze ufro zemo nawilis neironebiT kontroldeba. sxeulis zeda nawilis kunTebi, rogoricaa yeli, kontroldeba motoruli qerqis qveda nawilis neironebiT. rogorc 3.9 suraTze xedavT, sxeulis zeda nawili bevrad ufro detalur motorul instruqciebs iRebs, vidre qveda. realurad, motoruli qerqis ori udidesi ubani xelis TiTebTanaa dakavSirebuli gansakuTrebiT cerasTan da im kunTebTan, romlebic metyvelebis procesSia CarTuli. qerqis ubnebis sidide im mniSvnelobis maCvenebelia, romelic adamianis xeliT manipulirebisa da metyvelebis unars gaaCnia. somatosensoruli qerqi uSualod centraluri Raris ukanaa moTavsebuli marcxena da marjvena Txemis wilebSi. tvinis am ubanSi gadamuSavdeba informacia temperaturis, Sexebis, sxeulis pozisa da tkivilis Sesaxeb. motoruli qerqis msgavsad, sensoruli qerqis zeda nawili sxeulis qveda nawils ukavSirdeba, xolo qveda nawili dakavSirebulia zedasTan. sensoruli

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

qerqis didi nawili dakavSirebulia tuCebTan, enasTan, cera da saCvenebel TiTebTan, anu sxeulis im nawilebTan, romlebic yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovan sensorul informacias atareben centrisken. aseve, motoruli qerqis msgavsad, somatosensoruli qerqis marjvena nawili dakavSirebulia sxeulis marcxena mxaresTan, xolo marcxena mxare _ marjvena nawilTan. smeniTi informacia muSavdeba smeniT qerqSi, romelic ori safeTqlis wiliTaa warmodgenili. auditoruli qerqi TiToeul hemisferoSi informacias orive yuridan iRebs. auditoruli qerqis erTi ubani metyvelebis ganxorcielebaSi monawileobs, xolo meore ubani metyvelebis gagebaSi. vizualuri informacia muSavdeba tvinis ukana nawilSi, vizualur qerqSi, romelic kefis wilSia moTavsebuli. aq udidesi nawili eTmoba informacias, romelic baduras centraluri ubnebidan modis, im adgilidan, romelic Tvalis ukana zedapirzea ganlagebuli da sadac yvelaze ufro detaluri mxedvelobiTi informacia aRiqmeba. qerqis yvela ubani araa CarTuli sensoruli informaciis gadamuSavebasa da kunTebisaTvis brZanebebis gacemaSi. sinamdvileSi, qerqis udidesi nawili CarTulia informaciis interpretaciisa da integraciis procesebSi. iseTi procesebi, rogoricaa dagegmva da gadawyvetilebis miReba, asociaciur qerqSi xorcieldeba. asociaciuri ubnebi qerqis sxvadasxva nawilebSia gabneuli (erTi regioni 3.9 suraTzea moniSnuli). asociaciuri qerqi gaZlevT sxvadasxva modalobis sensoruli informaciis kombinirebis saSualebas, raTa garemos stimulebis Sesabamisi sapasuxo reaqciebi daigegmos.
somatosensoruli qerqi (Somatosensory sortex) Txemis wilis nawili, sadac sxeulis sxvadasxva ubnebidan miRebuli sensoruli informacia muSavdeba. smeniTi qerqi (Auditory cortex) safeTqlis wilis nawili, sadac miiReba da muSavdeba smeniTi informacia. mxedvelobis qerqi (Visual cortex) kefis wilis nawili, sadac mxedvelobiTi informaciis gadamuSaveba mimdinareobs. asociaciuri qerqi (Association cortex) qerqis nawili, sadac umaRlesi nervuli procesebi xorcieldeba.

rogor muSaoben tvinis es sxvadasxva ubnebi erTad? warmoidgineT magaliTisaTvis, ra xdeba Tqvens tvinSi, rodesac daweril sityvas kiTxulobT (sur. 3.12). davuSvaT, Tqveni fsiqologiis maswavlebeli gaZlevT qaRaldis furcels, romelzedac sityva Sokoladi weria da gTxovT xmamaRla warmoTqvaT es sityva. biologiuri procesebi, romlebic am qmedebaSia CarTuli, saocrad natifi da kompleqsuria. neiromecnieri Tqvens verbalur qcevas ramdenime etapad dayofda. pirvel rigSi, vizualuri stimuli (dawerili sityva Sokoladi) aRiqmeba nervuli ujredebis mier Tvalis baduraSi, romlebic nervul impulsebs Talamusis gavliT vizualur korteqsSi agzavnian. vizualuri qerqidan nervuli impulsebi gadaigzavneba safeTqlis wilis ukana ubanSi (angularuli xveuli), sadac sityvis vizualuri kodireba mis akustikur kodirebas unda Seedaros. dadgindeba Tu ara Sesabamisi akustikuri kodireba, is gadaecema ubans auditorul qerqSi, romelsac `vernikes are~ ewodeba, sadac xdeba misi dekodireba da interpretacia: ah! Sokoladi! ar vityodi uars.~ nervuli impulsebi mere egzavneba brokas centrs, romelic Tavis mxriv agzavnis informacias motorul qerqSi, rac tuCebis, enisa da xorxis stimulacias iwvevs sityva Sokoladis warmosaTqmelad. es sakmaod didi mentaluri Zalisxmevaa mxolod erTi sityvis warmoTqmisaTvis. axla ki warmoidgineT, ra xdeba tvinSi, rodesac Tqven xmamaRla kiTxulobT wigns, an, Tundac, reklamas. yvelaze ufro gasaocari ki isaa, rom Tqveni tvini TiTqmis Zaldautaneblad da Zalian efeqturad umklavdeba am amocanas _ Targmnis ra qaRaldze arsebul aTasobiT niSans nervul kodad; gadascems informacias tvinis sxvadasxva ubnebs mimdinare amocanebis Sesaxeb; dabolos, am sityvebis gamoTqmis saSualebas gaZlevT. Cven ukve ganvixileT nervuli sistemis yvelaze mniSvnelovani struqturebi. rodesac did tvinze daviwyeT saubari, aRvniSneT, rom cerebraluri struqtura ori hemisferoTia warmodgenili. qcevebis farTo speqtrSi naxevarsferoebi gansxvavebul funqciebSi monawileoben. davubrundeT am gansxvavebebs Tqveni tvinis hemisferoebs Soris.

dawerili sityvis wakiTxva


suraTi

3.12

rogor vambobT wakiTxul sityvas


informacias dawerili sityvis Sesaxeb nervuli impulsebi Talamusis gavliT atareben Tvalis baduradan qerqis mxedvelobiTi asociaciuri ubnebisaken. vizualuri qerqi agzavnis nervul impulsebs safeTqlis wilis ukana nawilSi, angularul xveulSi, sadac xdeba sityvis vizualuri kodis (asoebis forma da ganlageba) Sedareba mis akustikur kodTan (JReradoba) Sesabamisis akustikuri kodis povnis Semdeg is gadaecema smeniT qerqSi e. w. vernikes ares, sadac xdeba am informaciis dekodireba da interpretireba. nervuli impulsebi egzavneba brokas ares, romelic Tavis mxriv agzavnis informacias motorul qerqSi. motoruli qerqi uzrunvelyofs sityvis warmoTqmas tuCebis, enisa da xorxis sinqronuli gaaqtivebis meSveobiT.

hemisferoTa lateralizacia
ra informaciam aiZula mecnierebi efiqraT, rom arsebobs garkveuli gansxvaveba Tavis tvinis hemisferoTa funqciebs Soris? gaixseneT, rodesac pol brokam tenis autofsia Cautara, man tvinis dazianeba marcxena naxevarsferoSi aRmoaCina. momdevno gamokvlevebSi brokam naxa, rom sxva pacientebSic, romelTac metyvelebis msgavsi darRveva hqondaT (daavadeba, romelsac dRes `brokas afazias~ uwodeben), dazianeba marcxena naxevarsferoSi iyo lokalizebuli. igive ubnebis dazianeba tvinis marjvena hemisferoSi msgavs efeqts ar iwvevda. ra daskvna SeiZleba gamovitanoT?

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suraTi

3.13

korZiani sxeuli
korziani sxeuli warmoadgens nervuli boWkoebis erTobliobas, romelic erTmaneTTan akavsirebs didi tvinis or hemisferos. korZiani sxeulis gadaWra azianebs hemosferoTa Soris komunikacias.

hemisferoTa Soris gansxvavebebis Seswavlis Sansi pirvelad epilefsiis qirurgiuli wesiT mkurnalobis dros gaCnda. mkurnalobis es meTodi gulisxmobs korZiani sxeulis (daaxloebiT 200 milioni nervuli boWkos erToblioba, romelic hemisferoTa Soris informaciis gacvlas emsaxureba) gadaWras (sur. 3.13). qirurgiuli Carevis mizania, xeli SeuSalos epilefsiis Tanamdevi agresiuli eleqtruli aqtivobis orive hemisferoze gavrcelebas. operacia, rogorc wesi, warmatebulia da pacientebis qcevac, ZiriTadad, ucvleli rCeba. pacientebs, romlebmac es operacia gadaitanes, xSirad uwodeben pacientebs gayofili tviniT~. gancalkevebuli hemisferoebis SesaZleblobaTa Semowmebis mizniT rojer sperim (1968) da maikl gazanigam (1970) SeimuSaves iseTi meTodika, romlis saSualebiTac SesaZlo iyo vizualuri informaciis wardgineba TiToeuli hemisferosaTvis cal-calke. speris da gazanigas meTodika vizualuri sistemis anatomiis Taviseburebebs emyareboda (sur. 3.14). yovel TvalSi, marjvena mxedvelobiTi velidan miRebuli informacia marcxena hemisferoSi xvdeba da, piriqiT, in-

suraTi

3.14

mxedvelobiTi informaciis nervuli gza


Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi
mxedvelobiTi informaciis nervuli gza, romelic TiToeuli Tvalis Sua zedapiridan iwyeba, jvaredinad gadadis tvinis erTi mxridan meoreze korZiani sxeulis meSveobiT. mxedvelobiTi informacia Tvalis gare ubnidan ar jvaredindeba. korZiani sxeulis gadaWra xels uSlis mxedvelobis marjvena velSi warmodgenili informaciis gadacemas marjvena hemisferoSi, xolo mxedvelobis marcxena velSi warmodgenili informacia ver aRwevs marcxena hemisferos.

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3.15

Tvalisa da xelis koordinacia


Tvalisa da xelis koordinacia normaluria, Tu pacienti `gayofili tviniT~ iyenebs marcxena xels im obieqtis sapovnelad, romelic mis marcxena mxedvelobiT velSia moqceuli, radganac orive procesis ganxorcielebas marjvena hemisfero akontrolebs. magram, rodesac Tqven sTxovT pacients, gamoiyenos marjvena xeli im obieqtis asaRebad, romelic mis marcxena mxedvelobiT velSia moqceuli, mas amis gakeTeba ar SeuZlia, radganac sensoruli informacia marjvena xelidan marcxena hemisferos veRar aRwevs gadaWrili kavSiris gamo. am SemTxvevaSi cdis piri msxlis magier Wiqas iRebs.

formacia marcxena mxedvelobiTi velidan gadaecema marjvena hemisferos. rogorc wesi, orive hemisferos Soris informaciis gacvla Zalian swrafad warmoebs korZiani sxeulis meSveobiT; magram, radganac am pacientebSi korZiani sxeuli gadaWrili iyo, marcxena da marjvena mxedvelobiT velebSi arsebuli informacia Sesabamisad mxolod marjvena da marcxena hemisferoebs gadaecemoda (sur. 3.15). radganac adamianTa umravlesobaSi metyvelebas marcxena hemisfero akontrolebs, mas SeuZlia mkvlevrebs elaparakos~ maSin, roca marjvena hemisfero am saSualebas moklebulia. komunikacia marjvena hemisferosTan miRweul iqna manualuri amocanebis Sesrulebis gziT: es amocanebi nivTebis identifikacias, SeTavsebas, an maTgan jgufebis Sedgenas gulisxmobda da maTi gadawyveta sityvebis gamoyenebas ar saWiroebda. ganixileT gayofili tvinis~ mqone pacientis SemTxveva, romelic marcxena hemisferos iyenebs misi marcxena xelis mier Catarebuli qmedebebis aRsawerad maSin, rodesac marcxena xels marjvena hemisfero akontrolebs.

arsebuli obieqtebidan am ori suraTis Sesabamisi nivTebi unda SeerCia. marjvena xeliT man miuTiTa qaTmis Tavze, xolo marcxena xeliT Tovlis niCabze. pacienti ambobda, rom niCabi saWiroa qaTmis narCenebis (da ara Tovlis) gasawmendad. radganac tvinis marcxena nawilma korZiani sxeulis gadaWris gamo ar icoda, Tu ras xedavda marjvena naxevarsfero, mas unda aexsna, Tu ratom uTiTebda marcxena xeli niCabze, rodesac marcxena hemisfero qaTmis fexs xedavda. marcxena hemisferos kogniturma sistemam SeimuSava Teoria, romelsac unda gaemarTlebina sxeulis sxva nawilebis moqmedeba (Gazzaniga, 1985). zemoaRwerilis garda, arsebobs mravali sxva meTodi, romelTa meSveobiTac Cven viciT, rom adamianTa umravlesobaSi metyvelebasTan dakavSirebuli funqciebi lateralizebulia marcxena hemisferoSi. funqcia lateralizebulad iTvleba, Tu mis ganxorcielebaSi Tavis tvinis mxolod erTi hemisfero TamaSobs wamyvan rols. metyveleba (enis gamoyenebis unari), albaT, yvelaze ufro metad lateralizebulia funqciaTa Soris. neiromecnierebma aRmoaCines, rom memarjveneebis mxolod daaxloebiT 5%-sa da caciebis 15%-Si metyvelebas marjvena hemisfero akontrolebs, xolo caciebis 15%-Si metyveleba orive hemisferoTi regulirdeba (Rasmussen & Milner, 1977). adamianTa umravlesobaSi, Sesabamisad, metyveleba marcxena hemi-

saidan viciT
hemisferoebi moqmedebaSi
marjvena hemisferos warudgines Tovliani peizaJi, xolo marcxenas qaTmis fexis gamosaxuleba. cdis pirs mis win

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sferos funqcias warmoadgens. Sedegad, marcxena naxevarsferos dazianeba iwvevs metyvelebis moSlas. sainteresoa, rom yru-munjTa enis gamoyenebisas (romelic xelis TiTebis poziciisa da moZraobis mixedviT gadmoscems azrs), marcxena hemisferos dazianeba aseve iwvevs darRvevebs (Corina, 1999; Hickok et al., 1996; Poizner et al., 1991). ase rom, lateralizebulia ara metyveleba, rogorc aseTi, aramed rogorc vokaluri, ise manualuri Jestebis warmoqmnis unari, romlebic komunikacias axorcieleben. ar unda gegonoT, rom marcxena hemisfero ukeTesia~, vidre marjvena. mkvlevrebma uCvenes, rom orive hemisferos erTi da igive amocanis amoxsnis gansxvavebuli stili~ aqvs. marcxena hemisfero ufro analitikuria da is informacias nabij-nabij amuSavebs; marjvena hemisfero ki ufro holisturia da is informacias mTlianad aRiqvams. orive hemisferos (misTvis damaxasiaTebeli muSaobis stiliT) kombinirebuli qmedeba ganapirobebs Cveni aRqmis srulyofilebas. magaliTad, Tqven ar gagikvirdebaT imis gageba, rom marcxena hemisfero, romelic mcire detalebs yuradRebas aqcevs, wamyvan rols TamaSobs problemaTa didi nawilis gadaWraSi. amavdroulad, marjvena hemisferos roli win iwevs, rodesac problemis gadaWras SemoqmedebiTi midgoma sWirdeba marjvena hemisfero gexmarebaT mexsierebis mobilizebaSi (Bowen & Beeman, 1998). miuxedavad imisa, rom mecnierebs SeuZliaT darwmunebiT ganasxvavon, Tu romeli funqciebia lateralizebuli saSualo~ tvinSi, gaTvaliswinebul unda iqnes individualuri gansxvavebebi. rodesac metyvelebis lateralizaciaze vsaubrobdiT, Cven, aseve, vaxseneT tvinis funqciaTa pirveli individualuri gansxvaveba:

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

caciebSi SesaZloa metyvelebas marjvena hemisfero, an orive hemisfero erTdroulad akontrolebdes. sxva gansxvavebebi, romlebic Tavis tvinis funqciaTa lateralizaciis dros unda ganvixiloT, sqesiTaa ganpirobebuli. arsebobs zogadi gansxvavebebi mamakacebisa da qalebis tvinis funqciebis principebSi (Breedlove, 1994; Kimura, 1999). Tanamedrove meTodebis saSualebiT SesaZlebeli gaxda dagvenaxa sxvaoba mamakacebis da qalebis tvinSi sxvadasxva amocanebis gadaWrisas. magaliTad, funqciuri mrtis saSualebiT Seiswavlidnen mamakacTa da qalTa tvinis aqtivobebs Soris gansxvavebebs, rodesac cdis pirebs enis mosmenisas unda gamoetanaT daskvnebi (eriTmeba erTmaneTs tani da kani?). mamakacebSi ZiriTadi aqtivoba marcxena hemisferoSi iyo lokalizebuli maSin, rodesac qalebSi am amocanis amoxsnaSi orive hemisfero TiTqmis Tanabrad monawileobda (Shaywitz et al., 1995). aseTi Sedegebi kidev erTxel gvabrunebs sakiTxebTan, romlebic bunebisa da aRzrdis Tanafardobas exeba. ibadebian mamakacebi da qalebi ukve gansxvavebuli tviniT, Tu es modifikacia cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis Sedegia? Semdgom wlebSi am kiTxvas neiromecnierTa xelT arsebuli teqnikis gamoyenebiT pasuxi unda gaeces. Cven ganvixileT nervuli sistemis bevri mniSvnelovani struqtura. axla ki ganvixiloT endokrinuli sistema, romelic nervul sistemasTan erTad sxeulis funqciebs aregulirebs.

endokrinuli sistema
adamianis genotipi gansazRvravs meore, Zalzed specifikur maregulirebel sistemas endokrinul sistemas, raTa nervuli sistemis muSaoba Seavsos. endokrinuli sistema jirkvle-

suraTi

3.15

Tvalisa da xelis koordinacia


hipofizi marjvniv aris warmodgenili; es mTavari jirkvalia, romelic marcxena mxares naCvenebi jirkvlebis moqmedebas aregulirebs. hipofizi, Tavis mxriv, kontroldeba hipoTalamusidan, romelic limburi sistemis mniSvnelovani nawilia.

bis erTobliobas warmoadgens, romlebic gamoimuSaveben da sisxlSi gamoyofen qimiur mesinjerebs hormonebs (sur. 3.16). hormonebi Zlier gavlenas axdenen organizmis yoveldRiur cxovelqmedebaze, Tumca isini gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania sicocxlis garkveul periodebSi da zogierTi gansakuTrebuli situaciis dros. hormonebi gavlenas axdenen sxeulis zrdaze; isini gansazRvraven da xels uwyoben pirveladi da meoradi sasqeso niSnebis ganviTarebas; gavlenas axdenen sifxizlesa da yuradRebaze; warmoadgenen guneba-ganwyobilebisa da xasiaTis Secvlis safuZvels; aregulireben metabolizms
endokrinuli sistema (Endocrine system) jirkvlebis qseli, romlebic gamoimuSaveben da sisxlSi gamoyofen hormonebs. hormonebi (Hormones) qimiuri mesenjerebi, romlebic gamomuSavdeba endokrinuli jirkvlebis mier, aregulireben metabolizms da gavlenas axdenen sxulis zrdaze, xasiaTsa da sasqeso niSan-Tvisebebze.

da sxeulis energetikul danaxarjebs. endokrinuli sistema uzrunvelyofs organizmis gadarCenas, exmareba ra mis brZolas infeqciisa da daavadebaTa winaaRmdeg. is xels uwyobs saxeobebis gadarCenas maTi seqsualuri agznebis regulirebis, reproduqciuli ujredebis warmoqmnis, meZuZur dedebSi rZis gamomuSavebis
hipofizi (Pituity gland) moTavsebulia tvinSi, gamoimuSavebs zrdis hormonebs da gavlenas axdens sxva endokrinuli jirkvlebis mier hormonebis sekreciaze.
biologia da qceva

testosteroni (Testosterone) mamakacTa sasqeso hormoni, romelic saTesleebSi gamomuSavdeba da astimulirebs spermis produqcias; aseve pasuxismgebelia mamakacTa meoradi sasqeso niSanTvisebebis Camoyalibebaze. estrogeni (Estrogen) qalTa sasqeso hormoni, romelic sakvercxeebSi gamomuSavdeba da pasuxismgebelia ovulaciis procesze, aseve qalebis reproduqciuli struqturebis ganviTarebasa da meoradi sasqeso niSnebis Camoyalibebaze.

83

cxrili

3.1

mTavari endokrinuli jirkvlebi da maT mier gamomuSavebuli hormonebis funqciebi

jirkvali hipoTalamusi wina hipofizi

regulirebadi funqciebi hipofizis hormonebis gamoyofa saTesleebi da sakvercxeebirZis gamomuSaveba metabolizmi reaqcia stresze wylis konservacia rZis gamoyofa saSvilosnos SekumSva metabolozmi zrda da ganviTareba kalciumis done saWmlis moneleba glukozis metabolizmi brZolisa da gaqcevis~ pasuxebi metabolizmi sqesobrivi ltolva qalebSi qalebis sasqeso niSnebis ganviTareba kvercxujredis warmoqmna mamakacis sasqeso niSnebis ganviTareba spermis gamomuSaveba sqesobrivi ltolva mamakacebSi

ukana hipofizi

farisebri jirkvali paraTireoiduli jirkvali nawlavi pankreasi Tirkmelzeda jirkvali

sakvercxe

saTesle

84

meSveobiT. ase rom, efeqturi endokrinuli sistemis gareSe Tqven ver gadarCebiT. endokrinuli jirkvlebi sisxlSi qimiuri nivTierebebis doneze reagireben an maTi stimulireba sxva hormonebisa Tu Tavis tvinidan momavali nervuli impulsebis mier xdeba. amis Sedegad hormonebi gamoiyofa sisxlSi da gadaadgildeba moSorebuli samizne ujredebisken, romelTac specifikuri receptorebi gaaCniaT. hormonebi qimiuri regulaciis programiT gaTvaliswinebul zemoqmedebas mxolod sxeulis genetikurad gansazRvrul adgilebSi gamoavlenen. sxvadasxva, magram specifikur organoebsa Tu qsovilebze gavleniT hormonebi uamrav bioqi-

miur process aregulireben, amis gamo maT sicocxlis mesinjerebi~ ewodebaT (Carpo, 1985). es mravalmxrivi sakomunikacio sistema akontrolebs organizmSi nela, mudmivad mimdinare procesebs, rogoricaa sisxlSi Saqris donis gansazRvra, kalciumis Semcveloba, naxSirwylebis metabolozmi da sxeulis zrda, magram ra xdeba krizis dros? endokrinuli sistema gamoyofs sisxlSi hormon adrenalins; adrenalini energias matebs sxeuls ise, rom mas unari Seswevs swrafad moaxdinos reagireba safrTxeze. rogorc adre ukve aRvniSneT, tvinis struqtura, hipoTalamusi, warmoadgens gadamrTvel ubans endokrinulsa da centralur nervul sistemebs Soris. hipoTalamusis specializebuli ujredebi informacias tvinis sxva ubnebidan iReben, romlebic mas ubrZaneben gamoyon sxvadasxva hormonebi hipofizSi, riTac isini astimulireben, an akaveben sxva hormonebis sekrecias. hormonebi sxeulis sxvadasxva ubnebSi gamomuSavdeba. es qarxnebi~ sxvadasxva hormonebs awarmoebs, romlebic sxeulis sxvadasxva funqciebs aregulireben, rogorc es 3.1 cxrilSia warmodgenili. axla ki yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovani procesebi ganvixiloT. hipofizs xSirad mTavar jirkvals~ uwodeben, radganac is 10 sxvadasxva saxis hormons gamoimuSavebs, romlebic yvela sxva endokrinuli jirkvlis sekretorul muSaobaze axdenen gavlenas. aseve, aq sinTezirdeba zrdis hormonebi. zrdis hormonis ararseboba iwvevs sxeulis zrdis Seferxebas qondriskacobas; misi siWarbe iwvevs gigantizms. mamakacebSi hipofizis sekreciis produqtebi aaqtiveben saTesleebSi testosteronis sinTezs, romelic, Tavis mxriv, spermis gamomuSavebas astimulirebs. hipofizi aseve monawileobs mamakacebis meoradi sasqeso niSnebis CamoyalibebaSi, rogoricaa sxeulis Tmis safarvelis ganviTareba, xmis Secvla da fizikuri simwife. testosteronma SesaZloa gamoiwvios agresiisa da seqsualuri ltolvis gaZliereba. qalebSi hipofizis hormonebi astimulireben estrogenis warmoebas. estrogeni im hormonaluri jaWvuri reaqciebis aucilebeli komponentia, romlebic ovulaciasa da qalis nayofierebas gansazRvraven. Casaxvis sawinaaRmdego zogierTi preparatis moqmedeba emyareba hipofizis specialuri aqtivobis daTrgunvas, romelic hormonebis gamomuSavebas da ganawilebas akon-

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

trolebs, amiT ki, saboloo jamSi, ovulaciis procesi irRveva.

nervuli sistema moqmedebaSi


adreuli periodis fiziologTa erT-erTi umTavresi amocana iyo nervuli sistemis muSaobis principebis gageba. Tanamedrove neiromecnierebma mniSvnelovan progress miaRwies, magram isini agrZeleben muSaobas, rom am mravalwaxnagovani problemis yvela nawili amoxsnan. wignis am qveTavSi Cveni mizania gavaanalizoT da gaverkveT, Tu rogor gadaecema Cveni grZnobaTa organoebis mier aRqmuli informacia sxeulis sxva nawilebsa da tvins nervuli impulsebis meSveobiT. Cven viwyebT nervuli sistemis ZiriTadi erTeulis, neironis, niSan-Tvisebebis ganxilviT.

Sejameba
neiromecniereba cdilobs pasuxi gasces saukunovan kiTxvas, Tu rogoria kavSiri tvinsa da qcevas Soris. neiromecnierebi uamrav meTods mimarTaven tvinis funqciebis ukeT Seswavlis mizniT. isini swavloben pacientebs tvinis dazianebebiT, iwveven tvinis gansazRvruli ubnebis dazianebas, astimulireben tvinis regionebs, iweren tvinis aqtivobas da kompiuteruli teqnikis daxmarebiT qmnian tvinis gamosaxulebebs misi muSaobis procesSi. nervuli sistema centralur da periferiul nawilebad iyofa. centraluri nervuli sistema Sedgeba Tavisa da zurgis tvinisagan; periferiuli nervuli sistema Sedgeba somaturi da avtonomiuri nervuli sistemebisagan. Tavis tvini SeiZleba daiyos tvinis Rerod, limbur sistemad da did tvinad. tvinis Rero aregulirebs ZiriTad sasicocxlo funqciebs, rogoricaa sunTqva, guliscema da saWmlis moneleba. naTxemi koordinirebas uwevs sxeulis moZraobas da gavlenas axdens daswavlis zogierT procesze. limburi sistema mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs motivaciis, emociebisa da mexsierebis procesebSi. didi tvini pasuxismgebelia metyvelebisa da azrovnebis umaRles funqciebze. kvlevam uCvena, rom didi tvinis ori hemisfero sxvadasxva rols TamaSobs yoveldRiuri funqciebis SesrulebaSi. magaliTad, adamianTa umravlesobaSi marcxena hemisfero metyvelebas akontrolebs. zogadad, marjvena hemisfero informacias ufro holisturad aRiqvams, marcxena ki ufro analitikuria. ori hemisferos funqciaTa Sesaxeb zogadi daskvnebis gakeTebisas unda gvaxsovdes individualuri da, maT Soris, sqesobrivi gansxvavebebi. endokrinuli sistema aris jirkvalTa qseli, romelic gamoimuSavebs hormonebs sasicocxlo procesebis regulirebisaTvis.
neironi (Neuron) nervuli sistemis ujredi, romelic specializebulia miiRos, gadaamuSavos da/an gadasces informacia sxva ujredebs.

neironi
neironi aris specializebuli ujredi, romlis funqciaa miiRos, gadaamuSavos da/an gadasces informacia sxva ujredebs sxeulis SigniT. arsebobs sxvadasxva formis, zomis, qimiuri Semadgenlobisa da funqciis neironebi (ZuZum-

suraTi

3.16

neironTa tipebi
yuradReba miaqcieT dendritebis gansxvavebul formas da datotvis xasiaTs. isrebiT naCvenebia informaciis moZraobis mimarTuleba. warmodgenilia interneironis ori tipi.

nervuli sistema moqmedebaSi

85

fsiqologia

XXI saukuneSi

miRwevebi tvinis funqciebis lokalizaciis saqmeSi

86

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

daafiqsireT TvalebiT nivTebi Tqvens garSemo, iqneb xe, romelic fanjaraSi Cans, an kompiuteri Tqvens magidaze. axla ki daxuWeT Tvalebi da SeecadeT warmoidginoT igive obieqtebi. ra xdeba Tqvens tvinSi am ori qmedebis dros? ramdenad SesaZlebelia, rom tvinis igive ubnebi iyos CarTuli orive procesSi, romlebic aRqmasa da vizualur warmosaxvas gulisxmobs? teqnologiurma progresma SesaZlo gaxada neiromecnierTaTvis am saintereso kiTxvas zusti pasuxi gascen. rogorc Tqven naxavT wignis me-4 TavSi, mecnierebma did warmatebebs miaRwies mxedvelobis nervuli safuZvlebis SeswavlaSi. maT SeuZliaT Tvali miadevnon vizualuri informaciis transformacias Tvalebis baduradan kefis wilis vizualur qerqamde. rogor unda gansazRvron mecnierebma, CarTulia Tu ara vizualuri qerqis erTi da igive ubnebi, rodesac adamiani axorcielebs vizualuri warmosaxvis da ara vizualuri aRqmis process? mkvlevarTa jgufma stiven koslinis xelmZRvanelobiT (Kosslyn et al., 1999) gamoiyena ori meTodi: pet-(pozitronul-emisiuri tomografia) skani, romelic Cven ukve warmogidgineT, da ganmeorebiTi transkrania-

luri magnituri stimulacia (rTMS), romelic sruliad axali teqnologiaa da sul ramodenime wlis winaT iqna gamoyenebuli adamianTa kognitur neiromecnierebaSi.

kvlevaTa am seriaSi, cdis pirebs sTxovdnen, daemaxsovraT oTxi kvadratuli gamosaxuleba da mere warmoedginaT isini daxuWuli TvalebiT. cdis pirTa amocana iyo, pasuxi gaecaT kiTxvebze sxvadasxva gamosaxulebaSi obieqtis zolebis fardobiTi siganis Sesaxeb. es amocana ise iyo SemuSavebuli, rom cdis pirebs aucileblad unda warmoedginaT vizualuri gamosaxuleba. pet-gamokvlevaSi monawileTa tvini Seswavlili iyo amocanis gadawyvetis momentSi. skanma uCvena, rom aqtiurobdnen vizualuri qerqis is ubnebi, romlebic mxedvelobiTi stimulaciis drosac iaqtiurebdnen. magram gaixseneT wignis meore Tavidan, rom korelacia ar aris

mizezobrioba: is, rom orive amocanis dros aqtiuria tvinis erTi da igive ubnebi, ar niSnavs, rom erTi da igive funqcia sruldeba. am etapze ki erTveba rTMS, romlis saSualebiTac SesaZlebelia ufro zusti daskvnebis gakeTeba. es axali teqnika magnituri stimulaciis pulsebs iyenebs droebiTi, Seqcevadi dazianebebis~ warmoqmnisaTvis. qsovilis faqtobrivi dazianebis gareSe SesaZloa tvinis regionebis inaqtivacia. ra xdeba zolebis Sedarebisas, rodesac rTMS gamoyenebis Sedegad cdis pirebs uzianebdnen~ pirvelad vizualur qerqs? iseve, rogorc Ria TvalebiT mxedvelobiTi aRqmisas, vizualuri warmosaxva seriozulad ferxdeba. es ki saSualebas gvaZlevs davaskvnaT, rom pirveladi vizualuri qerqi CarTulia vizualuri warmosaxvis procesSi. gagakvirvaT am monacemebma? Tqven ra kiTxvebi gaqvT tvinSi funqciebis ganawilebis Sesaxeb? radganac mecnierebi agrZeleben muSaobas axali teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT, didia imis albaToba, rom Tqvens kiTxvebsac male gaecema zusti pasuxebi.

wovarTa Tavis tvinSi 200-ze meti sxvadasxva saxis neironia napovni), magram yvelas aqvs saerTo ZiriTadi struqtura (sur. 3.17). adamianis Tavis tvinSi neironTa raodenoba 100 miliardsa da 1 trilions Soris meryeobs. rogorc wesi, neironebi iReben informacias erTi da gadascemen mas meore boloTi. ujredis datotvil morCebs, romlebic Semomaval signalebs iReben, dendritebi ewodebaT. dendritebis ZiriTadi funqciaa sensoruli receptorebidan an sxva ujredebidan stimulaciis miReba. ujredis sxeuli, anu soma, Seicavs birTvs da citoplazmas, romlebic mis sicocxlisunarianobas gansazRvraven. somaSi xdeba

dendritebis stimulaciis Sedegad (an zogierT SemTxvevaSi, uSualod sxva neironidan) miRebuli informaciis integrireba da misi gadadendritebi (Dendrites) neironis datotvili morCebi, romlebic Semosul informacias mimRebloben. soma (Soma) neironis ujredis sxeuli, romelic birTvsa da citoplazmas Seicavs. aqsoni (Axon) neironis wagrZelebuli boWko, romlis gaswvrivac nervuli impulsebi vrceldeba somidan terminaluri balTisaken. terminaluri balTa (Terminal buttons) bolqvismagvari struqtura aqsonis bolos, romelic Rebuloben savse buStukebs Seicavs.

suraTi

3.17

neironis mTavari struqturebi


neironi nervuli impulss dendritebis saSualebiT iRebs; Semdeg nervuli impulsi igzavneba aqsonis gaswvriv terminaluri balTisaken, sadac sxva neironebis stimulaciisaTvis neirotransmiterebis gamoyofa xdeba.

nervuli sistema moqmedebaSi

87

suraTi

3.18

tkivilis ganridebis refleqsi


am reflesis ganxorcielebaSi mxolod sami neironi monawileobs: sensoruli, motoruli da interneironi.

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

cema erTi, wagrZelebuli boWkosaTvis, romelsac aqsoni ewodeba. Tavis mxriv, aqsoni gadascems informacias mTel Tavis sigrZeze, romelic, magaliTad, zurgis tvinSi SeiZleba erT metrs aRematebodes, xolo Tavis tvinSi milimetrze naklebi iyos. aqsonis meore boloSi ganlagebulia Semsxvilebuli, bolqvismagvari struqtura, e.w. terminaluri balTa, romlis saSualebiTac neirons SeuZlia mimdebare jirkvlebis, kunTebisa da sxva neironebis stimulireba. rogorc wesi, neironebi
sensoruli neironi (Sensory neurons) neironi, romelic sensoruli receptorebidan informacias centraluri nervuli sistemisken atarebs. motoruli neironi (Motor neurons) _ neironi, romelic informacias centraluri nervuli sistemidan kunTebisken da jirkvlebisken atarebs. interneironi (Interneurons) _ tvinis neironi, romelic informacias sensorulidan sxva inter- an motorul neironebs gadascems.

88

informacias mxolod erTi mimarTulebiT gadascemen _ dendritebidan somis gavliT aqsonis gaswvriv terminaluri balTisaken (sur. 3.18). arsebobs neironTa sami mTavari jgufi. sensoruli (mgrZnobiare) neironebi iReben informacias sensoruli receptorebidan da atareben mas centraluri nervuli sistemisaken, receptoruli ujredebi Zalzed specializebulni da mgrZnobiareni arian, magaliTad, sinaTlisadmi, bgerisadmi, an sxeulis poziciisadmi; motoruli (mamoZravebeli) neironebi atareben informacias centraluri nervuli sistemidan kunTebisa da jirkvlebisaken. tvinis neironTa ZiriTad masas interneironebi qmnian, romlebic gadascemen informacias sensorulidan motorul an sxva interneironebs. TiToeul motorul neironze tvinSi daaxloebiT 5 aTasi interneironi modis, romlebic tvinis ZiriTad muSa masas qmnian (Nauta & Feirtag, 1979). imis saCveneblad, Tu rogor muSaobs es sami tipis neironi erTad, ganvixiloT tkivilisgan ganridebis refleqsi (sur. 3.19). rodesac kanis zedapiris siaxloves ganlagebuli tkivilis

moqmedebis potencialis bioqimiuri safuZveli


imis asaxsnelad, Tu rogor muSaobs moqmedebis potenciali, Cven unda is bioqimiuri garemo aRvweroT, romelSic neironi arsebobs da iRebs Semosul informacias. mTeli neironuli komunikacia eleqtrulad damuxtuli nawilakebis, ionebis, nakadiT xorcieldeba, romelic gamWolavs neironis membranas Txel kans~, romelic ujredis SigTavss garemomcveli ga-

glia (Glia) ujredi, romelic akavSirebs neironebs da aCqarebs nervul gadacemas, aSorebs dazianebul da daRupul neironebs da xels uSlis sisxlSi arsebul toqsiur substanciebs SeaRwion tvinSi. amgznebi Sesavali~ (Excitatory inputs) informacia, romelic neironSi aRwevs da iwvevs mis agznebas.

nervuli sistema moqmedebaSi

receptorebi stimulirdeba wvetiani obieqtiT, isini agzavnian informacias sensoruli neironebis saSualebiT zurgis tvinis interneironebisaken. interneironi sapasuxod aagznebs motorul neirons, romelic, Tavis mxriv, aagznebs sxeulis Sesabamisi ubnis kunTs da ganaridebs mas mtkivneul gamaRizianebels. mxolod mas Semdeg, rac es neironuli aqtivoba ganxorcieldeba da sxeuli mocildeba mtkivneul obieqts, Tavis tvini iRebs informacias situaciis Sesaxeb. msgavs SemTxvevebSi, rodesac gadarCena swraf reaqciebzea damokidebuli, tkivilis SegrZneba mxolod mas Semdeg Cndeba, rac Tqven ukve fizikurad upasuxeT safrTxes. cxadia, incidentis Sesaxeb informacia Seinaxeba tvinis mexsierebis sistemaSi ise, rom Semdeg jerze Tqven gaaridebT Tavs potenciurad mtkivneul obieqts manam, vidre is Tqven gatkenT. tvinis neironTa qselSi gabneulia maTze xuTjer Tu aTjer ufro meti raodenobis gliuri ujredebi (glia). Tavad es sityva momdinareobs berZnulidan da webos niSnavs; saxelwodeba ukve miganiSnebT am ujredebis mTavar funqciebze _ isini neironebis sayrdens warmoadgenen. xerxemlianebSi glias bevri mniSvnelovani funqcia aqvs. pirveli funqcia ganviTarebis safexurze Cndeba. gliuri ujredebi exmarebian axalSobil neironebs ipovon maTi Sesabamisi lokalizacia tvinSi, meore funqciaa cxovelqmedeba. rodesac neironebi ziandeba da iRupeba, dazianebis ubanSi gliuri ujredebi mravldeba da asufTavebs ujredul narCenebs; maT, aseve, SeuZliaT neironTaSoris napralebSi neirotransmiterebisa da sxva substanciebis STanTqma; mesame funqciaa izolacia. gliuri ujredebi zogierTi aqsonis irgvliv qmnian saizolacio safarvels, romelsac mielinis garsi ewodeba. es cximovani izolacia mniSvnelovnad zrdis nervuli signalis gadacemis siCqares; gliis meoTxe funqciaa tvinis mgrZnobiare neironebis dacva sisxlTan erTad Semosuli toqsinuri nivTierebebisgan. specialize-

buli gliuri ujredebi, romelTac astrocitebi ewodebaT, qmnian e.w. hemato-encefalur bariers, romelic warmoadgens tvinis sisxlZarRvTa irgvliv uwyvet cximovan Sres. cximSi uxsnadi substanciebi am bariers ver gadalaxaven, radganac mravali Sxami da sxva mavne nivTiereba cximSi ar ixsneba da, Sesabamisad, tvinSi SeRwevac ar SeuZliaT. dabolos, neiromecnierebi sul ufro xSirad fiqroben, rom glia gavlenas axdens neironTa Soris komunikaciaze im ionTa koncentraciaze zemoqmedebis gziT, romlebic nervuli impulsis gatarebas uzrunvelyofen.

moqmedebis potenciali
aqamde Cven vsaubrobdiT neironebze, romlebic agzavnian informacias~ da astimulireben~ erTmaneTs. movida dro, ufro detalurad aRvweroT eleqtoqimiuri signalebi, romelTac nervuli sistema iyenebs informaciis gadamuSavebisa da gadacemisaTvis. swored es signalebi warmoadgenen Tqveni codnis, grZnobebis, survilebisa da Semoqmedebis safuZvels. yoveli neironis mier dasmuli ZiriTadi kiTxvaa: ganimuxtos Tu ara (anu upasuxos Tu ara gamRizianebels)? martivad rom vTqvad, neironebi am gadawyvetilebas iReben maTi dendtrirebisa da somis mier miRebuli informaciis kombinirebis Sedegad da imis gansazRvrisas, es signalebi maT ganmuxtvas~ Tu arganmuxtvas~ ubrZaneben. ufro detalurad ki, yoveli neironi iRebs amgznebi ganimuxte! da Semakavebeli ar ganimuxto! signalebis balanss. neironebSi amgznebi impulsebi iwvevn moqmedebis potencials da neironi ganimuxteba.

89

suraTi

3.19

moqmedebis potencialis bioqimiuri safuZveli


aqsonuri membrana gamoyofs siTxeebs, romlebic gansxvavdeba natriumisa da kaliumis ionebis SemcvelobiT. gareSe are daaxloebiT aTjer ufro met natriumis ions Seicavs, vidre Sida. kaliumis ionebTan mimarTebaSi Tanafardoba sawinaaRmdegoa. membranas cilovani arxebi gamWolavs, romlebic rogorc seleqtiuri arxebi ise moqmedeben, atareben ra an mxolod natriumis, an mxolod kaliumis ionebs. mosvenebul mdgomareobaSi rodesac nervuli impulsi ar gadis, orive tipis arxi Caketilia da ionuri tumbo inarCunebs ionur gadanawilebas (Signidan gareT `gamotumbavs~ natriumis ionebs da `Catumbavs~ kaliumis ionebs). aqsonis Sida are uaryofiTadaa damuxtuli 70 milivoltis odenobiT. Tuki es Zabva Semcirdeba nervuli impulsis moaxloebis gamo, natriumis arxebi ixsneba da natriumis ionebi Semodis aqsonSi. odnav mogvianebiT, natriumis arxebi ixureba, ixsneba kaliumis arxebi da kaliumis ionebi gamodis

90

remosagan gamoyofs. warmoidgineT, rom nervuli boWkoebi makaronia, romelic mariliani wyliTaa savse da marilian supSi dacuravs. rogorc supi, ise makaronis SigniT arsebuli siTxe Seicavs ionebs natriumis (Na+), qloris (Cl-), kalciumisa (Ca+) da kaliumis (K+) atomebs, romelTac rogorc dadebiTi (+), ise uaryofiTi (-) muxtebi gaaCniaT (sur. 3.19). membrana, anu makaronis zedapiri, gadamwyvet rols TamaSobs orive siTxeSi ingredientebis Sesabamisi balansis SenarCunebaSi. rodesac ujredi ar aris aqtiuri, anu imyofeba mosvenebul mdgomareobaSi, mis Sida areSi daaxloebiT aTjer ufro meti kaliumis ionia, vidre gareT, xolo natriumis ionTa koncentracia piriqiT, gareT ufro metia. membrana srulyofili barieri araa, is saSualebas aZlevs natriumis ionebs SeaRwion ujredis SigniT. amis aRmosafxvrelad, bunebam Seqmna satransporto meqanizmebi membranis SigniT, romelic gamotumbavs~ natriums da Catumbavs~ kaliums. am tumboTa warmatebuli muSaobis Sedegad siTxe ujredis SigniT uaryofiTadaa damuxtuli (70/ 1 000 volti) ujredgare sivrcesTan SedarebiT. es ki niSnavs, rom ujredis Sida garemo polarizebulia. am polarizacias mosvenebis potenciali ewodeba. is qmnis im eleqtroqimiur

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

garemos, romelSic nervul ujreds SeuZlia moqmedebis potencialis warmoqmna. nervuli ujredi iwyebs gadasvlas mosvenebis potencialidan moqmedebis potencialze amagznebeli Tu Semakavebeli informaciis sapasuxod. nebismieri tipis Semosul informacias SeuZlia Secvalos ionuri balansi membranis Sida da gare areebs Soris. es, aseve, iwvevs cvlilebebs ionuri arxebis funqciebSic ujreduli membranis agznebadi nawilebi, romlebic SerCeviTad uzrunvelyofen zogierTi ionis moZraobas membranis gavliT. Semakavebeli informacia aiZulebs ionur arxebs ufro mZafrad imuSaon da SeinarCunon Sida aris uaryofiTi muxti, rac neirons ganmuxtvisagan daicavs. amagznebeli imSemakavebeli Sesavali~ (Inhibitory inputs) Semosuli informacia, romelic neirons ubrZanebs, ar ganimuxtos. moqmedebis potenciali (Action potential) nervuli impulsi, romelic neironSi warmoiqmneba, aqsonis gaswvriv vrceldeba da iwvevs sinafsSi neirotransmiterebis gamoTavisuflebas. mosvenebis potenciali (Restins potential) neironis Sida areSi arsebuli ujreduli siTxis polarizacia, romelic uzrunvelyofs moqmedebis potencialis warmoqmnis unars.

pulsacia ionuri arxebis gaxsnas iwvevs da natriumis ionebi ujredis Sida areSi Semodian, rac mas ganmuxtvis saSualebas aZlevs. radganac natriumis ionebi dadebiTi muxtis matarebelia, maTi Semosvla iwvevs dadebiTi da uaryofiTi muxtebis gadanawilebis Secvlas ujreduli membranis gaswvriv. moqmedebis potenciali aRmocendeba maSin, rodesac amagznebeli impulsacia sakmarisad Zlieria SemakavebelTan SedarebiT da iwvevs membranis depolarizacias 70 milivoltidan 55 milivoltamde. am dros sakmarisi raodenobis natriumi Sedis ujredSi, raTa es cvlileba gamoiwvios. iwyeba Tu ara moqmedebis potencialis aRmoceneba, natriumi iCqaris ujredis Sida areSi. Sedegad, ujredis Sida are dadebiTad imuxteba, rac neironis srul depolarizacias niSnavs. Semdgom dominos efeqti iwvevs moqmedebis potencialis gavrcelebas aqsonis gaswvriv; depolarizaciis mowinave ubani ki aqsonis mimdebare regionebSi natriumis arxebis gaxsnas ganapirobebs da ionebi Semodis ujredSi. am gziT Tanamimdevruli depolarizaciiT signali vrceldeba aqsonSi (sur. 3.19). rogor ubrundeba neironi mis sawyis mosvenebul mdgomareobas ganmuxtvis Semdeg? rodesac neironis Sida are dadebiTad imuxteba, natriumis arxebi ixureba da ixsneba kaliumis arxebi, kaliumis ionebi gamodian gareT. kaliumis gamosvla aRadgens neironis uaryofiT muxts. maSin, rodesac signali miaRwevs aqsonis bolos, ujredis is nawilebi, sadac moqmedebis potenciali warmoiqmna, ukve ubrundeba mosvenebul mdgomareobas da mzadaa momdevno stimulaciisaTvis.

moqmedebis potencialis maxasiaTeblebi


moqmedebis potencialis gavrcelebis bioqimiuri buneba mraval maxasiaTebels gansazRvravs. moqmedebis potenciali emorCileba sul an arafris kanons _ moqmedebis potencialis zoma ar aris damokidebuli stimulaciis intensivobaze, Tuki is gansazRvrul zRurbls aRwevs. miaRwevs Tu ara amagznebeli impulsi zRurbls, iwyeba potencialis generireba. Tuki gaRizianeba qvezRurblovania, potenciali ver aRmocendeba. sul an arafris kanonis damatebiTi Sedegia is, rom moqmedebis potencialis zoma ar icvleba aqsonis mTel sigrZeze _ moqmedebis potenciali

TviTgavrcelebadia, erTxel dawyebuls, mas ar sWirdeba gareSe stimulacia. sxvadasxva neironebSi aqsonis gaswvriv moqmedebis potencialis gavrcelebis siCqare gansxvavebulia. yvelaze ufro swrafebSi signali 200 m/wm-Si siCqariT moZraobs, yvelaze ufro nelSi ki 10 sm/wm-Si. swrafi neironebis aqsonebi dafarulia mWidrod Semoxveuli mielinis garsiT, romelic, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, gliuri ujredebisgan Sedgeba da aqsoni emsgavseba simze acmul mokle milTa erTobliobas. milakebs Soris arsebul sivrces ranvies Seviwroveba ewodeba (sur. 3.17). mielinis garsian neironebSi moqmedebis potenciali xtunavs~ erTi Seviwrovebidan meoreze, riTac zogavs aqsonis yvela ubanze ionuri arxebis gaxsna-daxurvisaTvis saWiro drosa da energias. mielinis garsis dazianeba iwvevs moqmedebis potencialis gavrcelebis Senelebas da bevri problemis safuZveli xdeba. gafantuli sklerozi (MS) erT-erTi im saSinel daavadebaTagania, romelic aqsonebis demielinizaciiTaa gamowveuli. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia ormagi gamosaxulebis aRqma, kankali, da, sabolood, dambla. gafantuli sklerozis dros sxeulis specializebuli imunuri ujredebi Slian mielinizebuli neironebis garss da azianeben normalur sinafsur gadacemas (Joyce, 1990). mas Semdeg, rac moqmedebis potenciali aqsonis garkveul ubans gaivlis, am segmentze yalibdeba e.w. refraqteruli periodi (sur. 3.20). absoluturi refraqteruli periodis dros momdevno stimulacia, rac ar unda intensiuri iyos is, ver iwvevs moqmedebis potencialis generirebas; SefardebiTi refraqteruli periodis dros neironi ganimuxteba mxolod normalurze ufro Zlieri impulsis sapasuxod. gicdiaT unitazis Carecxva, rodesac is wyliT ivseba? unitazSi unda arsebobdes wylis kritikuli done, rom mas Carecxvis saSualeba hqondes. amis msgavsad, imisaTvis, rom neironma aRidginos axali moqmedebis potencialis generirebis unari, is unda gadaimuxtos~ da Tavidan aicilos qvezRurblovani stimulacia. refraqteruli periodi uzrunvelyofs moqmedebis potencialis mxolod erTi mimarTulebiT gavrcelebas _ mas ar SeuZlia ukan dabruneba, radganac aqsonis winamdebare segmentebi refraqterul mdgomareobaSia.

nervuli sistema moqmedebaSi

91

suraTi

3.20

eleqtruli cvlilebebis droSi ganawileba moqmedebis potencialis dros


natriumis ionebi, romlebic neironSi Semodis, depolarizaciis gziT iwveven mosvenebis mdgomareobaSi arsebuli mosvenebis msubuqad uaryofiTi potencialis Secvlas msubuqad pozitiuriT. rodesac neironi depolarizebulia, masSi mokle refraqteruli periodi myardeba romlis drosac momdevno stimulacias axali moqmedebis potencialis gamowveva ar SeuZlia. axali moqmedebis potenciali SeiZleba aRmocendes mxolod maSin, rodesac aRdgeba ionuri balansi gare da Sida areebs Soris.

kebis, sinafsuri vezikulebis, moZraobas aqsonuri daboloebis Sida membranisaken da masTan mimagrebas. yoveli vezikulis SigniT neirotransmiteria moTavsebuli bioqimiuri nivTiereba, romelic sxva neironebis stimulirebas iwvevs. moqmedebis potenciali aseve iwvevs ionuri arxebis gaxsnas da kalciumis Semosvlas aqsonur daboloebaSi, rac sinafsuri vezikulebis gaskdomas da maTSi arsebuli neirotransmiteris gamoTavisuflebas ganapirobebs. amis Semdeg neirotransmiteri Zalian swrafad gadadis sinafsur napralSi da aRwevs postsinafsur membranas. sinafsuri gadacemis dasrulebisaTvis, neirotransmiterebi ukavSirdeba postsinafsur membranaze arsebul receptorul molekulebs. neirotransmiteri ukavSirdeba receptorul molekulas ori winapirobis Sesrulebis Semdeg. pirveli, sxva arc erTi neirotransmiteri, an qimiuri nivTiereba ar SeiZleba daukavSirdes receptorul molekulas; meore, neirotransmiteris forma unda Seesabamebodes receptoruli molekulis formas ise, rogorc gasaRebi ergeba klites. Tu romelime piroba darRveulia, neirotransmiteri ver daukavSirdeba receptors, rac imas niSnavs, rom postsinafsuri membranis stimulireba SeuZlebeli iqneba. Tuki neirotransmiteri daukavSirda receptorul molekulas, mas SeeZleba mezo-

sinafsuri gadacema
rodesac aqsonuri potenciali daasrulebs mis mogzaurobas aqsonis gaswvriv da miaRwevs terminalur balTas, man unda gadasces informacia mezobel neirons, magram rogor? neironebi xom erTmaneTs ar exeba. isini sinafsebs qmnian patara sinafsuri napraliT presinafsur membranasa (informaciis gadamcemi neironis terminaluri balTa) da postsinafsur membranas (mimRebi neironis dendtritis an somis zedapiri) Soris. rodesac moqmedebis potenciali terminalur balTas aRwevs, is moqmedebaTa mTeli jaWvis gaaqtivebas iwvevs, romelsac sinafsuri gadacema ewodeba da romelic warmoadgens informaciis gadacemas erTi neironidan meoreze sinafsuri napralis gavliT (sur. 3.21). sinafsuri gadacema iwyeba, rodesac moqmedebis potenciali aqsonur daboloebaSi iwvevs patara sferosebri buStuTavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

ionuri arxebi (Ion channels) nervuli ujredis membranis nawilebi, romlebic ionTa SerCeviT ganvladobas uzrunvelyofen. sul an arafris kanoni (All-or-none law) moqmedebis potencialis zoma ar aris stimulaciis intensivobaze damokidebuli garkveuli zRurblis Semdeg. refraqteruli periodi (Refractory period) mosvenebis periodi, romlis ganmavlobaSic axali nervuli impulsi ver warmoiqmneba aqsonis segmentSi. sinafsi (Synapse) or neirons Soris arsebuli. sinafsuri gadacema (Synaptic transmission) erTi neironidan meoreze informaciis gadacemis procesi sinafsuri napralis gaswvriv. neirotransmiterebi (Neurotransmitters) qimiuri mesenjerebi, romlebic neironebidan gamoiyofa, gaivlis sinafss, aRwevs meore neirons da mis stimulacias iwvevs.

92

suraTi

3.21

sinafsuri gadacema
moqmedebis potenciali presinafsur neironSi iwvevs neirotransmiterebis gamoTavisuflebas sinafsur napralSi, risi gadalaxvis Semdegac isini astimulireben postsinafsur membranaSi arsebul receptorul molekulebs. erTi da igive neironis SigniT SeiZleba mravali neirotransmiteri arsebobdes.

bel neirons gadasces informacia ganmuxtvis~ an arganmuxtvis~ Sesaxeb. Seasrulebs ra Tavis funqcias, neirotransmiteri Sordeba receptorul molekulas da ukan, sinafsur napralSi gadadis. aq is an iSleba enzimebis zemoqmedebis Sedegad, an ukuSeiwoveba aqsonuri daboloebis mier ganmeorebiTi gamoyenebis mizniT. receptorul molekulaze damokidebulebiT, neirotansmiters SeiZleba hqondes amgznebi, an Semakavebeli efeqti, e.i., erTi da igive neirotransmiteri SeiZleba iyos amgznebi erTi sinafsisaTvis da Semakavebeli meorisaTvis. TiToeuli neironi amuSavebs miRebul informacias aTasidan aTi aTas neironTan erTad imisaTvis, rom gadawyvitos, warmoqmnas Tu ara axali moqmedebis potenciali. swored am aTasobiT amgznebi da Semakavebeli informaciis integracia aZlevs saSualebas moqmedebis potencials Seqmnas adamianis gamocdilebis safuZveli.

Tqven, albaT, gsurT gaigoT, ratom ganvixilavT ase detalurad nervul sistemas. es xom fsiqologiis kursia, romelic Seiswavlis qcevas, azrovnebasa da emociebs. sinamdvileSi, sinafsebi swored is biologiuri mediumebia, romelTa meSveobiTac yvela es qmedeba xorcieldeba. Tuki Tqven SecvliT sinafsis normalur aqtivobas, Tqven cvliT adamianTa qcevas, maT azrovnebas da grZnobebs. sinafsis muSaobis principebis gagebam SesaZlebeli gaxada ukeT gagvego daswavlisa da mexsierebis meqanizmebi, emociebi, fsiqologiuri aSlilobebi, wamaldamokidebuleba da, zogadad, sulieri janmrTelobis qimiuri formula. am TavSi miRebuli codna Tqven dagexmarebaT gaigoT mTeli wigni _ `fsiqologia da cxovreba~.

nervuli sistema moqmedebaSi

93

neirotransmiterebi da maTi funqciebi


tvinSi neirotransmiteris funqcias 60-ze meti sxvadasxva qimiuri substancia asrulebs. intensiurad Seswavlili neirotransmiterebi garkveul teqnikur kriteriumebs akmayofileben. TiToeuli maTgani gamomuSavdeba presinafsur aqsonur daboloebaSi da gamoTavisufldeba, rodesac moqmedebis potenciali aRwevs am daboloebas. neirotransmiteris arseboba sinafsur napralSi iwvevs postsinafsuri membranis biologiur pasuxs da Tu misi gamoTavisufleba ar Sedga, Sesabamisi pasuxi ver gamoiwveva. imisaTvis, rom Tqven warmodgena SegeqmnaT, Tu ra gavlenas axdenen sxvadasxva neirotransmiterebi qcevis regulaciaze, Cven gansaxilvelad gTavazobT im neirotransmiterebs, romlebic miCneulia yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovnad nervuli sistemis warmatebuli yoveldRiuri funqcionirebisaTvis. mokle diskusia aseve SesaZlebels gaxdis imis gagebas, Tu ra xdeba, rodesac neirotransmiterebis moqmedeba irRveva.

kavebeli neirotransmiteria. gaemi tvinis sinafsebis daaxloebiT erT mesamedSi gamoiyeneba rogorc mesenjeri. gaem-mgrZnobiare neironebi tvinis iseT regionebSia lokalizebuli, rogorebicaa: Talamusi, hipoTalamusi da kefis wili. gaemi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs fsiqopaTologiis zogierT formaSi, akavebs ra neironul aqtivobas. rodesac am neirotransmiteris done iklebs, adamianebSi es damatebiT nervul aqtivobas iwvevs, romelic SfoTvaSi gamoixateba (Paul et al., 1986). SfoTvas xSirad benzodiazepinebis Semcveli wamlebiT mkurnaloben, rogoricaa valiumi da qsanaqsi, romlebic gaem dones zrdian (Ballenger, 1999). benzodiazepinebi pirdapir ar ukavSirdeba gaem receptorebs, samagierod isini xels uwyoben gaems Tavad ufro efeqturad daukavSirdes postsinafsur receptorul molekulebs.

dofamini, norepinefrini da serotonini


kateqolaminebi warmoadgenen qimiuri substanciebis klass, romelic or mniSvnelovan neirotransmiters, dofaminsa da norepinefrins Seicavs. orive maTgani umniSvnelovanes rols asrulebs iseT fsiqologiur daavadebebSi, rogoricaa guneba-ganwyobilebis aSlilobebi da Sizofrenia. norepinefrini CarTulia depresiis zogierT formaSi. wamlebi, romlebic tvinSi am neirotransmiteris donis momatebas uwyoben xels, guneba-ganwyobilebis gaumjobesebasa da depresiis Semsubuqebas iwveven. sawinaaRmdegod, normaze maRali dofaminis Semcveloba nanaxia SizofreniiT daavadebulebSi. rogorc Tqven, albaT, ggoniaT, am daavadebis mkurnalobis erT-erTi SesaZlebloba iqneboda iseTi wamlebis gamoyeneba, romlebic tvinSi dofaminis donis Semcirebas gamoiwvevda. medikamentozuri mkurnalobis adreul periodSi warmoiqmna saintereso, magram naklebad saxarbielo problema. wamlis maRali dozebis gamoyenebam Sizofreniis winaaRmdeg gamoiwvia parkinsonis daavadebis niSnebi progresuli da fataluri daavadebis, romelic moZraobis darRvevebs iwvevs (parkinsonis daavadebis mizezia dofaminis masinTezirebeli neironebis gamofitva). am monacemebma aiZula mecnierebi daewyoT kvleva Sizofreniisa da parkinsonis

acetilqolini
acetilqolini gvxvdeba rogorc centralur, ise periferiul nervul sistemaSi. alchaimeris daavadebis (degeneraciuli daavadeba, romelic ZiriTadad asakovan pacientebSi gvxvdeba) dros pacientebSi mexsierebis darRvevas iwvevs acetilqolinis sekretoruli neironebis dazianeba. acetilqolini aseve amgznebad moqmedebs nerv-kunTovan SeerTebaSi, sadac is kunTebis SekumSvas iwvevs. mraval toqsins SeuZlia acetilqolinis sinafsuri moqmedebis Secvla. magaliTad, botulinumis toqsini, romelic arasworad konservirebul sakvebSi xSirad gvxvdeba, wamlavs adamians, aferxebs ra acetilqolinis gamoTavisuflebas sasunTq sistemaSi; kurare, amazoniis indielebis mier gamoyenebuli Sxami, romliTac isini isrebis boloebs wamlaven, iwvevs sasunTqi kunTebis damblas acetilqolinis receptorebis blokirebis gziT, xels uSlis ra neirotransmiteris normalur sinafsur aqtivobas.

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

gaemi
gaemi (gama-amino-erbos-mJava) Tavis tvinSi yvelaze ufro farTod gavrcelebuli Sema-

94

fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi

ra gavlenas axdens cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba tvinze


wignis am Tavis wakiTxvisas Tqven axal informacias iZenT niSnavs Tu ara es, rom Tqveni tvini icvleba? savaraudoa! studentebi, romlebic pirvelad Sedian SexebaSi Tanamedrove neiromecnierebasTan, xSirad interesdebian, Tu rogor gavlenas axdens cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba maT tvinze. klasikuri cdebis seria, romelic mark rozencvaigisa da misi kolegebis mier iqna Catarebuli, aCvenebs gansxvavebebs virTagvebs Soris, romlebic gamdidrebul da gaRaribebul garemoSi aRizardnen (Rosenzweig, 1996, 1999b). gaRaribebul garemoSi virTagvebi marto iyvnen moTavsebuli galiaSi; gamdidrebul garemoSi isini mozrdil galiaSi sxvebTan erTad iyvnen da yoveldRiurad ecvlebodaT saTamaSoebi. garkveuli periodis (ramdenime kvira da Tve) Semdeg mecnierebma Seiswavles virTagvebis tvini. Sedegebi dramatuli iyo. gamdidrebul garemoSi gazrdili virTagvebis saSualo tvini ufro mZime da msxvili pozitiuri atributebi _ iyo, vidre gaRaribebul garemoSi gazrdili cxovelebisa. SesamCnevi sxvaoba miiRweoda maSinac ki, rodesac virTagvebi gamdidrebul garemoSi mxolod ramdenime dRiT Tavsdebodnen. sxvaoba zrdasrul virTagvebSic aRiniSneboda, anu, ara marto mzardi, aramed zrdasruli virTagvebic gamdidrebul areSi moTavsebis Semdeg uCvenebdnen upiratesobas. miuxedavad imisa, rom es gamokvleva virTagvebze Catarda, cdis Sedegebis gadatana adamianebzec SeiZleba: mdidar garemos dadebiTi gavlena aqvs tvinis ganviTarebasa da muSaobaze. tvinis damasuraTebeli teqnikiT SesaZlebelia Zalzed specifikuri gansxvavebebis aRmoCena, romlebic cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis Sedegad Camoyalibda. musikosebma, romlebic violinoze ukraven, Zalian natifad unda akontrolon marcxena xelis TiTebi. Tuki Tqven daubrundebiT 3.11 suraTs, naxavT rom sensoruli qerqis didi nawili TiTebs eZRvneba. tvinis skanirebam uCvena, rom qerqis ubnebi, pasuxismgebeli marcxena xelis TiTebze, meviolineebSi ufro didia, vidre sakontrolo jgufSi (Elbert et al., 1995). es efeqti araa nanaxi marjvena xelis TiTebisaTvis, romelTac ar aqvT aseTi mniSvnelovani datvirTva violinoze dakvrisas. marcxena TiTebis reprezentacia sensorul qerqSi yvelaze ufro didi iyo im musikosebSi, romelTac violinoze dakvra bavSvobaSi, 12 wlis asakamde daiwyes. Tqven, albaT, ukve ifiqreT imaze, rom cxovrebiseul gamocdilebas SeuZlia aseve uaryofiTi gavlena moaxdinos tvinis muSaobaze. gaixseneT tvinis struqtura, hipokampi, romelic Cven manamde aRvwereT, rogorc gadamwyveti struqtura konkretuli mexsierebis CamoyalibebisaTvis. mecnierebma uCvenes, rom qronikuli stresi mdgomareoba, rodesac organizmis fizikuri da fsiqologiuri resursebi maqsimaluradaa daZabuli (ix. Tavi 13) hipokampis neironTa dendritebis atrofias iwvevs (McEwen, 1999; Sapolsky, 1996). rogorc Tqven, albaT, ukve mixvdiT, amis Sedegia mexsierebis zogierTi formis darRveva. magaliTad, virTagvebi qronikuli stresis pirobebSi kargaven labirinTSi orientaciis unars (Conrad et al., 1996). neiromecnierebis Tanamedrove mimarTulebebis mniSvnelovani amocanaa im meTodebis aRmoCena, romlebic tvins uaryofiTi cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebisagan daicaven. aseTi kvlevis Sedegebi yvelasaTvis sasargeblo iqneba.

daavadebis medikamentozuri mkurnalobis gasaumjobeseblad. yvela neironi, romelic serotonins gamoimuSavebs, moTavsebulia tvinis ReroSi, romelic agznebisa da mravali sxva avtonomiuri procesis regulaciaSia CarTuli. halucinogenuri

nivTiereba LSD (lizerginis mJavas dieTilamidi) moqmedebs serotoninerguli neironebis efeqtebis daTrgunvis gziT. es serotoninerguli neironebi Cveulebriv sxva neironTa Sekavebas iwveven, magram LCD-Ti gamowveuli Sekavebis nakleboba iwvevs cocxal da uCveulo

nervuli sistema moqmedebaSi

95

emociebs, romelTagan zogi ramodenime saaTi grZeldeba. bevri antidepresanti, mag. prozaki, aZlierebs serotoninis aqtivobas, xels uSlis ra mis mocilebas sinafsuri napralidan (Barondes, 1994).

endorfinebi
endorfinebi qimiur nivTierebaTa jgufia, romelTac Cveulebriv neiromodulatorebs uwodeben. neiromodulatori aris substancia, romelic cvlis an amodulirebs postsinafsuri neironis aqtivobas. endorfinebi (Semoklebulia endogenuri morfinebi) mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben emociuri qcevisa (SfoTva, SiSi, daZabva, siamovneba) da tkivilis kontrolSi opiumisa da morfis msgavsi nivTierebebi tvinSi erTi da igive receptorebs ukavSirdeba. endorfinebs uwodeben samoTxis gasaRebs~ maTi siamovnebis gamomwvevi Tvisebis gamo. gamokvleul iqna SesaZlebloba, rom endorfinebi nawilobriv mainc pasuxismgebelia tkivilis Semamsubuqebel efeqtebze akupunqturisa da placebos dros (Fields & Levine, 1984; Murray, 1995; Watkins & Mayer, 1982). es testebi emyareba nivTiereba naloqsonis gamoyenebas, romelic morfinisa da endorfinebis receptorebis blokirebas iwvevs. nebismieri tkivilgamayuCebeli procedura, romelic endorfinebis gamoTaaRmoCenis etapi (context of discovery) _ kvlevis sawyisi fazaa, romlis ganmavlobaSic dakvirvebas, Sexedulebas, informacias da zogad codnas movlenis axleburi xedvisaken mivyavarT.

visuflebas iwvevs, araefeqturia naloqsonis miRebisas. naloqsonis ineqciis dros akupunqtura da placebo kargavs Tavis Zalas, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom swored endorfinebi ganapirobebdnen maT zemoqmedebas. mecnierebma uCvenes, rom iseTi airebi, rogoricaa naxSirbadis monooqsidi da azotis oqsidi, moqmedeben rogorc neirotransmiterebi (Barinaga, 1993). am axali klasis warmomadgenlebi ar emorCilebian neirotransmiterebis moqmedebis tradiciulad Camoyalibebul principebs. magaliTad, Cvens mier aRweril neirotransmiterTagan gansxvavebiT, imis magier, rom daukavSirdnen receptorul molekulebs, es airadi transmiterebi pirdapir gamWolaven mimRebi ujredis gare membranas. am gasaocarma aRmoCenam unda dagarwmunoT, rom Tavis tvinSi jer kidev bevri saidumlo unda gaixsnas. wignis am TavSi Cven mokled ganvixileT is SesaniSnavi da araCveulebrivi samyaro, Tqveni tvini, romelic mxolod kilonaxevars iwonis. erTia, imis Secnoba, rom tvini akontrolebs qcevas da Tqvens sulier procesebs, magram meorea imis gageba, Tu rogor axorcielebs tvini yvela am funqcias. neiromecnierebi CarTulni arian am gasaocari problemis amoxsnaSi, rom gaigon tvinis SigniT da garemosa da tvins Soris mimdinare procesebi. Tqven axla ukve gaqvT sabaziso codna, romelic dagexmarebaT damatebiTi codnis SeZenaSi.

Sejameba
neironTa ZiriTadi tipebia sensoruli, motoruli da interneironebi. Tavis tvinis neironTa umravlesoba interneironia, romlebic garSemortymulia gliuri ujredebiT. neironebi ganimuxteba amgznebi da Semakavebeli impulsebis Sesabamisi balansis miRebis sapasuxod. neironebi sul an arafris kanonis Sesabamisad agzavnian informacias moqmedebis potencialis saxiT aqsonis gaswvriv. neirotransmiterebi Tavisufldeba sinafsur napralSi da gadascemen informacias mezobeli neironis receptorul molekulasTan dakavSirebis gziT. mravali sasicocxlo procesia damokidebuli iseTi mniSvnelovani neirotransmiterebis moqmedebaze, rogorebicaa _ acetilqolamini, dofamini da serotonini.

96

Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

sakvanZo sakiTxebi
memkvidreobiToba da qceva
saxeobebi warmoiqmneba da icvleba drois ganmavlobaSi bunebrivi gadarCevis Sedegad. adamianTa evoluciaSi or fexze siarulma da encefalizaciam mniSvnelovani Sedegebi, maT Soris metyvelebisa da kulturis ganviTareba, gamoiwvia. memkvidreobiTobis mTavari erTeuli genia. genebi gansazRvraven im gavlenis CarCoebs, romelsac garemo faqtorebi iwvevs da romelic fenotipis cvlilebiT gamoixateba. (ans), romelic aregulirebs sasicocxlo procesebs. Tavis tvini Sedgeba sami urTierTdakavSirebuli Srisagan: tvinis Rero, limburi sistema da didi tvini. tvinis Rero pasuxismgebelia sunTqvaze, saWmlis monelebasa da guliscemaze. limburi sistema monawileobs grZelvadiani mexsierebis, agresiis, kvebiT da sqesobriv qcevebSi. didi tvini akontrolebs umaRles mentalur procesebs. zogi funqcia lateralizebulia Tavis tvinis erT romelime hemisferoSi. magaliTad, adamianTa umravlesobaSi metyvelebas marcxena hemisfero akontrolebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom orive hemisfero erTad muSaobs, maT funqcionirebis sxvadasxva tipi axasiaTebT _ marcxena hemisfero ufro analitikuria, marjvena ki holisturi. individualuri gansxvavebebis fonze zogadi daskvnebi SeiZleba Seicvalos. magaliTad, mamakacebsa da qalebs lateralizaciis gansxvavebuli saxeebi axasiaTebT. endokrinuli sistema gamoimuSavebs da sisxlis nakadSi gamoyofs hormonebs. hormonebi xels uwyoben zrdas, pirveladi da meoradi sasqeso niSnebis ganviTarebas, metabolizms, saWmlis monelebasa da agznebas. hipoTalamusi akontrolebs endokrinul sistemas hipofizis stimulirebis gziT.

nervuli sistema moqmedebaSi


neironi, nervuli sistemis ZiriTadi erTeuli, iRebs, amuSavebs da gadascems informacias sxva neironebs, jirkvlebsa da kunTebs. neironebi gadascemen informacias dendritebidan ujredis sxeulis (soma) gavliT aqsonis gaswvriv terminaluri balTisaken. sensoruli neironebi iReben informacias specializebuli receptoruli ujredebidan da agzavnian mas cns-ken. motoruli neironebi agzavnian informacias cns-dan kunTebisa da jirkvlebisaken. interneironebi gadascemen informacias sensoruli neironebidan sxva motorul an interneironebs. rodesac impulsaciis sumacia miaRwevs gansazRvrul zRurbls, moqmedebis potenciali igzavneba aqsonis gaswvriv aqsonuri daboloebisaken. sul an arafris kanons damorCilebuli moqmedebis potenciali aRmocendeba, rodesac gaxsnili ionuri arxebi ujredis membranis Sida da gare areebs Soris ionTa ganvladobas uzrunvelyofs.

biologia da qceva
neiromecnierebi uamrav sxvadasxva meTods iyeneben, rom tvinsa da qcevas Soris damokidebuleba gaarkvion: tvinis dazianebis mqone pacientTa Seswavla, tvinis garkveuli ubnebis dazianeba, tvinis eleqtruli stimulacia, tvinis aqtivobis registracia da kompiuteruli teqnikis meSveobiT tvinis gamosaxulebis miReba. Tavisa da zurgis tvini centralur nervul sistemas (cns) qmnian. periferiuli nervuli sistema (pns) Sedgeba neironebisagan, romlebic cns-sa da sxeuls akavSireben. pns Sedgeba somaturi nervuli sistemisagan, romelic ConCxis kunTebis moqmedebas aregulirebs da avtonomiuri nervuli sistemisagan

97

sakvanZo sakiTxebi

neirotransmiterebi gamoTavisufldeba sinafsur napralSi. napralis gadalaxvis Semdeg isini uerTdeba postsinafsuri membranis receptorul molekulebs. aagzneben Tu Seakaveben es neirotransmiterebi membranas, damokidebulia receptoruli molekulis bunebaze.

ZiriTadi cnebebi
adamianis qcevis genetika amagznebeli Sesavali~ asociaciuri qerqi avtonomiuri nervuli sistema (ans) aqsoni brokas are bunebrivi gadarCeva genebi genetika genotipi glia dazianeba dendritebi didi tvini didi tvinis qerqi dnm (dezoqsiribonukleinis mJava)

eleqtroencefalograma (eeg) endokrinuli sistema estrogeni Talamusi Txemis wili interneironi ionuri arxebi kefis wili korZiani sxeuli limburi sistema magnetur-rezonansuli tomografia (MRI) memkvidreobiToba mogrZo tvini mosvenebis potenciali motoruli neironi motoruli qerqi moqmedebis potenciali mxedvelobis qerqi naTxemi neiromecniereba neiromodulatori neironi neirotransmiterebi nuSisebri kompleqsi parasimpaTikuri sistema periferiuli nervuli sistema (pns) PET (pozitronulemisiuri tomografia) _ skani

retikuluri formacia refraqteruli periodi safeTqlis wili sasqeso qromosomebi sensoruli neironi simpaTikuri sistema sinafsi sinafsuri gadacema smeniTi qerqi soma somatosensoruli qerqi somaturi nervuli sistema sociobiologia sul an arafris kanoni tvinis Rero tvinis hemisferoebi terminaluri balTa testosteroni fenotipi funqciuri magneturrezonansuli tomografia (fMRI) Semakavebeli Sesavali~ Sublis wili centraluri nervuli sistema (cns) xidi hipoTalamusi hipokampi hipofizi homeostazi hormonebi

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Tavi 3 / qcevis biologiuri safuZvlebi

SegrZnebebi

4
samyaros sensoruli Semecneba

fsiqofizika fizikuri movlenebidan


fsiqikuri movlenebisaken
mxedvelobis sistema

adamianis Tvali guga da broli badura Tavis tvinisken mimavali ferTa SegrZneba vizualuri obieqtebis
kompleqsuri analizi
fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: SeuZlia Tu ara teqnologias dazianebuli mxedvelobis aRdgena smena

nervuli gzebi

bgeris fizika bgeris fsiqologiuri smenis fiziologia


sxva SegrZnebebi

ganzomilebebi

ynosva gemos SegrZneba Sexebisa da kanis wonasworobisa da


kinesTetikuri SegrZnebebi tkivili
fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: ratom iwvevs cxare saWmeli tkivils sakvanZo sakiTxebi

SegrZnebebi

ZiriTadi cnebebi

99

onaTan i. mxatvari iyo. man Tavisi warmatebuli SemoqmedebiTi karieris ganmavlobaSi mravali abstraqtuli tilo Seqmna, romelic kaSkaSa, cocxali ferebis didebul sinTezs warmoadgenda. samocdaxuTi wlis asakSi man sruliad dakarga ferTa SegrZnebis unari Tavis tvinis dazianebis gamo. roca is Tavis namuSevrebs uyurebda, yovelives mxolod rux, Sav da TeTr ferebSi xedavda; Tuki is adre aRiqvamda ferebs, romlebic misTvis Rrma pirovnuli asociaciebis matarebeli iyo, axla igi mxolod uswormasworo~ da WuWyian~ laqebs xedavda. es ar exeboda mxolod mis Semoqmedebas. cvlilebebi mis yoveldRiur cxovrebaSic moxda. magaliTad, man SezRuda Tavisi sakvebi meniu mxolod Savi da TeTri saWmelebiT _ Savi zeTisxili da TeTri brinji misTvis gacilebiT ufro jansaR, normalur sakvebad gamoiyureboda, vidre feradi sakvebi, romelsac is axla usiamovno rux ferebSi aRiqvamda da ugemuri eCveneboda.

miuxedavad yovelive amisa, jonaTan i-is istoria arc ise tragikuli aRmoCnda. droTa ganmavlobaSi igi Seegua am mdgomareobas; scada gaegrZelebina Tavisi Semoqmedeba da Savi da TeTri saRebavebiT daiwyo xatva. jonaTan i-is Tayvanismcemlebma es aRiqves, rogorc misi SemoqmedebiTi karieris axali da saintereso etapi. maT ar icodnen, rom mxatvruli mimarTulebis Secvla ganpirobebuli iyo Tavis tvinis dazianebiT. jonaTan i. mixvda, rom misma ucabedma ferTa sibrmavem vizualuri samyaros axali aspeqtebi gadauSala win: Tumca, jonaTan i. ar uaryofda imas, rom bevri ram dakarga da garkveulwilad swuxda amis gamo, magram man igrZno, rom misi mxedveloba uaRresad daxvewili~ da privilegirebuli gaxda, rom is uyurebs wminda formebis samyaros, romelsac ar uSlis xels feri~ (Sacks, 1995, p.38). amrigad, miuxedavad imisa, rom jonaTan i-ma ferTa SegrZnebis unari dakarga, misma sensorulma sistemam igi uzrunvelyo samyaros axali versiiT, romelic mas SeeZlo aReqva da xelovnebad gadaeqcia.

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dagafiqraT jonaTan i-is istoriam Tqvens sakuTar sensorul SesaZleblobebze? dainteresebulxarT odesme, Tu rogor axerxebs Tqveni Tavis tvini, romelic gamomwyvdeulia Tavis qalis bnel, mdumare sakanSi, gangacdevinoT van gogis naxatebis ferTa sisavse, rok-n-rolis swrafi melodiebi da riTmi, sazamTros macocxlebeli gemo cxel zafxulSi, bavSvis kocnis rbili Sexeba, an mindvris yvavilebis surneli gazafxulze? am TavSi Cven vecdebiT avxsnaT, Tu rogor axerxebs Cveni sxeuli da tvini gaerkves stimulaciis im nakadSi, romelic mudmivad aris Cven garSemo _ danaxuli obieqtebSi, mosmenili bgerebsa da sxva mravalSi. Tqven dainaxavT, Tu rogor aRgWurvaT evoluciam unariT, gamoav-

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

samyaros sensoruli Semecneba


gare samyaros gancda zusti da Secdomebisagan Tavisufali unda iyos. sxvagvarad Tqven ver SeZlebdiT gadarCenas; Tqven gWirdebaT: ikveboT, raTa SeinarCunoT arseboba; TavSesafari, romelic dagicavT; sxva adamianebTan urTier-

ramdenad Zlieri unda iyos saxanZro gangaSis xma qarxanaSi, raTa muSebma gaigonon is momuSave manqanebis xmaurSi? ramdenad kaSkaSa unda iyos sinaTlis gamafrTxilebeli signali pilotis sakontrolo panelze, raTa misi sikaSkaSe orjer aRematebodes sxva ganaTebuli obieqtebis sikaSkaSes? ramdeni Saqari gWirdebaT Wiqa yavaSi, raTa is TqvenTvis tkbili gaxdes? am
SegrZneba (sensation) _ procesi, roca sensoruli receptoris gaRizianeba dasabams aZlevs nervul impulsebs, rac iwvevs sxeulis SigniT Tu gareT arsebuli pirobebis gancdas, maT gacnobierebas.

samyaros sensoruli Semecneba

linoT gancdis sxvadasxva ganzomilebebi; Tqven aRmoaCenT, rom SegrZnebebs, romliTac dagajildovaT bunebam, Zalian rTuli meqanizmi aqvs. es Tavi Cveni gancdis ZiriTad biologiur elementebs exeba: SegrZneba aris procesi, rodesac sensoruli receptoris gaRizianeba dasabams aZlevs nervul impulsebs, rac sxeulis SigniT Tu gareT arsebuli pirobebis gancdas, maT gacnobierebas iwvevs. mexuTe Tavi ki exeba perceptul procesebs, romelic dakavSirebulia centraluri nervuli sistemis ufro maRali donis aqtivobasTan. is SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc sensoruli gancdis identifikacia, interpretacia, integracia da klasifikacia. Semdegi Tavis bolos Tqven gaigebT, Tu rogor axerxebs Tqveni Tavis tvini sxvadasxva informaciis gaerTianebas, raTa mogawodoT samyaros erTi mTliani suraTis gancda. SegrZnebebis samyaroSi mogzaurobis dawyebamde, neba mogveciT, yuradReba gavamaxviloT SegrZnebaTa ormag funqciaze: esaa TviTgadarCena da grZnobadoba (Sensuality). Tqveni SegrZnebebi, rogorc gamafrTxilebeli signali, ise gexmarebaT, gibiZgebT swrafad imoqmedoT safrTxis winaaRmdeg da warmarTavs Tqvens moqmedebas, raTa ganicadoT TqvenTvis ufro misaRebi SegrZnebebi. garda amisa, Tqveni SegrZnebebi gansazRvravs Tqvens grZnobadobas. gZrnobadia adamiani, romelic gatacebulia SegrZnebebisagan miRebuli siamovnebis gancdiT. grZnobadoba iwvevs swrafvas, miiRoT da isiamovnoT mravalferovani SegrZnebebiT _ mxedvelobis, smeniTi, Sexebis, gemosa Tu ynosvis. roca am Tavs waikiTxavT, Tqven SeZlebT imsjeloT imaze, Tu rogor gexmarebaT SegrZnebis meqanizmebis codna, raTa aRmoaCinoT grZnobadobis janmrTeli survili da iswavloT, Tu rogor SeiZleba bgerebis, ferebis, sunebis, gemosa da Sexebis samyaroSi siamovnebis miReba.

Toba, raTa daikmayofiloT socialuri moTxovnilebani da safrTxis gacnobiereba, raTa daicvaT Tavi. am moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebisaTvis Tqven sando informacia unda miiRoT samyaros Sesaxeb. cxovelTa yvela saxeobam ganaviTara informaciis Segrovebis garkveuli saxis specialuri meqanizmebi. adamiani ar aris specializebuli mxolod erT gansakuTrebul sensorul sferoze: Tqven ar gaqvT iseTive srulyofili mxedveloba, rogorc, magaliTad, Sevardens, iseTive maxvili smena, rogorc Ramuras da iseTive ynosva, rogorc mRrRnelebs, magram aRWurvilia sensoruli meqanizmiT, romelic mas Semomavali rTuli sensoruli signalebis farTo speqtris gadamuSavebis SesaZleblobas aZlevs. sakiTxis mniSvnelovnebis gamo, sensoruli procesebis Seswavla yovelTvis inarCunebda gansakuTrebul adgils fsiqologiuri mecnierebis mTeli istoriis ganmavlobaSi. rodesac vundti (Wundt, 1907) eqsperimentuli fsiqologiis safuZvlebs qmnida, man mecnierebas SesTavaza idea, romlis mixedviT, SegrZnebebi da grZnobebi elementaruli procesebia, romelTagan igeba ufro rTuli gancdebi. titCenerma (Titchener, 1898) es idea amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi Seitana da SegrZnebam centraluri adgili daikava mis introspeqciul kvlevebSi cnobierebis Sinaarsebis Sesaxeb. rogorc mogvianebiT vnaxavT, SegrZnebis adreul fsiqologiur kvlevebSi, ZiriTadad Seiswavleboda garemoSi mimdinare movlenebsa da adamianTa mier am movlenebis gancdas Soris kavSirebi.

fsiqofizika

101

kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad Cven sensoruli gancdis intensivobis gazomva unda SegveZlos. es aris fsiqofizikis ZiriTadi amocana _ Seiswavlos kavSiri fizikur gamRizianeblebsa da qcevas an im fsiqikur gancdebs Soris, romelsac es stimuli aRZravs. fsiqofizika fsiqologiuri mecnierebis uZvelesi sferoa (Levine & Shefner, 1981). yvelaze mniSvnelovani figura fsiqofizikis istoriaSi germaneli fizikosi gustav fexneri (Gustav Fechner, 1801-1887) iyo. man Semoitana termini fsiqofizika da Seqmna meTodika, romelic akavSirebda fizikuri gamRizianeblis intensivobas _ gazomils fizikur erTeulebSi sensoruli gancdis sididesTan _ gazomils fsiqologiur erTeulebSi (Fechner, 1860/1966). fexneris teqnika erTnairia nebismieri modalobis stimulisaTvis _ sinaTlis, bgeriTi, ynosviTi, gemos Tu SexebiTi gamRizianeblisaTvis. mkvlevrebi gansazRvraven SegrZnebis zRurblebs da qmnian fsiqofizikur skalebs, romelic SegrZnebis intensivobas gamRizianeblis intensivobasTan akavSirebs.

absoluturi zRurblebi da sensoruli adaptacia


rogoria gamRizianeblis is umciresi, usustesi energia, romlis SemCnevac SeuZlia organizms? magaliTad, ramdenad susti SeiZleba iyos toni, raTa SesaZlebeli iyos misi gagoneba? es kiTxvebi exeba stimulaciis absolutur zRurbls _ fizikuri energiis im minimalur raodenobas, romelic saWiroa sensoruli gancdis warmosaqmnelad. mkvlevrebi absoluturi zRurblis
fsiqofizika (psychophysics) mecniereba fizikuri stimulaciisa da fsiqologiuri SegrZnebis Sesatyvisobis Sesaxeb.
Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

absoluturi zRurbli (absolute threshold) fizikuri energiis is minimaluri raodenoba, romelic saWiroa sensoruli gancdis warmosaqmnelad; operacionalurad is ganisazRvreba, rogorc gamRizianeblis done, romelzec xdeba sensoruli signalis SemCneva SemTxvevaTa naxevarSi. fsiqometruli funqcia (psychometric function) grafiki, romelic asaxavs gamRizianeblis SemCnevaTa procents (vertikalur RerZze) gamRizianeblis TiToeuli intensivobisaTvis (horizontalur RerZze).

102

gazomvisas yuradRebiT myof damkvirveblebs sTxoven, Seasrulon SemCnevis amocana, magaliTad, SeamCnion mkrTali Suqi bnel oTaxSi an Seecadon gaigonon Zalian susti bgera srul siCumeSi. cdaTa mravali seriis ganmavlobaSi xdeba sxvadasxva intensivobis stimulebis gamoyeneba da TiToeul cdaSi damkvirveblebi aRniSnaven, SeamCnies Tu ara is (Tuki Tqven rodesme SegifasebiaT Tqveni smenis simaxvile, maSasadame, Tqven monawileoba migiRiaT absoluturi zRurblis gansazRvris testSi). absoluturi zRurblis Seswavlis Sedegebi SeiZleba fsiqometruli funqciis saxiT SevajamoT. horizontalur RerZze gadazomilia gamRizianeblis intensivobebi, xolo vertikalur RerZze _ aRebuli intensivobis mqone gamRizianeblebis SemCnevaTa procenti. tipuri fsiqometruli funqcia naCvenebia suraTze 4.1. sinaTlis Zalian susti gamRizianeblis pirobebSi SemCneva 0%-ia, xolo kaSkaSa gamRizianeblis pirobebSi _ 100%. erTaderTi, WeSmariti absoluturi zRurblis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, mosalodneli iqneboda SemCnevaTa procentis 0-dan 100-mde Zalian mkveTrad gadaxra da grafikic gaswordeboda wertilSi, sadac miaRwevda zRurbls. magram es ar xdeba, sul mcire, ori mizezis gamo: damkvirveblebi, nawilobriv, yo-

velTvis icvlebian mcirediT, roca cdiloben gamRizianeblis SemCnevas (yuradRebis cvlilebis, daRlilobis da sxva mizezebis gamo) da zogjer isini dadebiTad pasuxoben gamRizianeblis ararsebobis pirobebSic (mcdari gangaSis saxe, romelsac signalis SemCnevis Teoriis aRwerisas mokled SevexebiT). amrigad, fsiqo-

cxrili

4.1

miaxloebiTi zRurblis nacnobi movlenebisaTvis


sensoruli SemCnevis zRurbli modaloba sinaTle sanTlis ali 48km manZilze srul sibneleSi bgera saaTis wikwiki srul siCumeSi 6m manZilze gemo erTi Cais kovzi Saqari 9l wyalze ynosva sunamos erTi wveTi gafantuli samoTaxiani binis mTel sivrceSi Sexeba 1 santimetris simaRlidan loyaze daSvebuli futkris frTa

suraTi

4.1

absoluturi zRurblis gamoTvla


radganac gamRizianebli ar xdeba myseulad SesamCnevi garkveul wertilSi, absoluturi zRurbli ganisazRvreba, rogorc intensovoba, rodesac gamRizianebeli SesamCnevi xdeba SemTxvevaTa naxevarSi.

metruli mrudi yovelTvis gluvi, S-formis mrudia, romelSic aris monakveTi, sadac xdeba gadasvla sruli SeumCnevadobisagan gamRizianeblis drodadro SemCnevadobisaken da Semdgom sruli SemCnevadobisaken. radganac garkveuli intensivobis gamRizianebeli ar xdeba aSkarad SesamCnevi nebismier dros, absoluturi zRurblis operacionaluri gansazRvreba aseTi iqneba: es aris gamRizianeblis done, romelzec xdeba sensoruli signalis SemCneva SemTxvevaTa naxevarSi. cxrilSi 4.1 naCvenebia absoluturi zRurblis done ramdenime nacnobi bunebrivi gamRizianeblisaTvis. sxvadasxva sensoruli modalobis zRurblebi SeiZleba analogiuri proceduriT gaizomos, ubralod unda Seicvalos gamRizianeblis ganzomileba. Tumca, SesaZlebelia SemCnevis absoluturi zRurblis gansazRvra. mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom Tqveni sensoruli sistema ufro mgrZnobiarea sensoruli garemos cvlilebebisadmi, vidre myari mdgomareobebisadmi. sistemebi iseTnairad viTardebian, rom xels uwyoben axali

pasuxis sistematuri Secdoma da signalis SemCnevis Teoria


Cven mier zemoT ganxilul TavebSi vgulisxmobdiT, rom yvela damkvirvebeli erTnairia,
1

adaptacia aris ara mxolod mgrZnobiarobis daqve-

iTeba, aramed misi momatebac susti intensivobis gamRizianeblis zemoqmedebis pirobebSi (redaqtoris SeniSvna).

103

samyaros sensoruli Semecneba

garemo signalebisadmi SeCvevas adaptaciis procesis saSualebiT. sensoruli adaptacia aris sensoruli sistemebis mgrZnobiarobis daqveiTeba xangrZliv gaRizianebaze.1 magaliTad, albaT, SeginiSnavT, rom mzis kaSkaSa sinaTle naklebad damabrmaveblad Cans, roca garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi gareT imyofebiT. adaptaciis yvelaze sasurveli gamocdileba adamianebs ynosvis sferoSi aqvT: Tu SedixarT oTaxSi, sadac mZafri suni dgas, garkveuli drois Semdeg Tqveni ynosviTi sistema adaptirdeba da sunis SegrZnebac Semcirdeba. garemo, romelSic Tqven cxovrobT, yovelTvis savsea mravalferovani sensoruli gamRizianeblebiT. adaptaciis meqanizmi gaZlevT saSualebas, SeamCnioT da imoqmedoT ufro swrafad, informaciis axali wyaros moTxovnebis Sesatyvisad.

magram absoluturi zRurblis gazomvaze SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos, agreTve, pasuxis sistematurma Secdomam _ sistematurma tendenciam, romlis drosac damkvirvebeli gansakuTrebuli gziT reagirebs iseTi faqtorebis zemoqmedebis Sedegad, romlebic ar arian dakavSirebulni stimulis sensorul TvisebebTan. vTqvaT, monawileobT eqsperimentSi, romelSic susti sinaTlis SemCneva gevalebaT. eqsperimentis pirvel seriaSi mkvlevari gaZlevT 5 dolars, Tuki Tqven sworad upasuxebT: diax, aris sinaTle~. meore seriaSi, mkvlevari gaZlevT 5 dolars, Tuki sworad upasuxebT: ara, ar aris sinaTle~. TiToeul seriaSi Tqven jarimdebiT 2 dolariT nebismieri araswori pasuxisaTvis. SegiZliaT warmoidginoT dajildovebis es struqtura rogor Seqmnis gadaxras pasuxis sistematur SecdomaSi erTi seriidan meoreSi gadasvlisas? gana ar ityviT diax~-s ufro xSirad pirvel seriaSi, vidre meoreSi maSinac ki, Tu warmodgenili stimulebi erTnairi donis SemCnevadobiT xasiaTdebian?
sensoruli adaptacia (sensory adaptation) movlena, roca receptoruli ujredebi kargaven TavianT Zalas, moaxdinon reagireba garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi ucvlel gamRiazinebelze; is iZleva ufro swrafi reagirebis saSualebas informaciis axal wyaroze. pasuxis sistematuri Secdoma (response bias) sistematuri tendencia, romelic Sedegia arasensoruli xasiaTis faqtorebis zemoqmedebisa damkvirvebelze da garkveuli gziT reagirebas ganapirobebs.

signalis SemCnevis Teoria aris sistemuri midgoma pasuxis sistematuri Secdomis problemisadmi (Green & Swets, 1966). signalis SemCnevis Teoria sensorul procesebze mkacrad fokusirebis nacvlad, yuradRebas amaxvilebs Tavad msjelobis procesze gamRizianeblis arsebobisa Tu ararsebobis Sesaxeb. maSin, roca klasikuri fsiqofizika axdens erTaderTi absoluturi zRurblis gansazRvras, signalis SemCnevis Teoria gansazRvravs or gansxvavebul process sensorul deteqciaSi: (1) sawyisi sensoruli procesi, romelic asaxavs damkvirveblis mgrZnobiarobas gamRizianeblis siZlieris mimarT da (2) Semdgomi gadawyvetilebis miRebis damoukidebeli procesi, romelic asaxavs damkvirveblis pasuxis sistematur Secdomas. signalis SemCnevis Teoria gvTavazobs orive _ sensoruli da gadawyvetilebis _ procesis erTdrouli Sefasebis proceduras. ZiriTadi modeli mocemulia suraTze 4.2 susti stimuli warmodgenilia cdaTa naxevarSi; meore naxevarSi stimuli saerTod ar aris warmodgenili. TiToeul SemTxvevaSi damkvirveblebi pasuxoben diax~, roca isini fiqroben, rom stimuli warmodgenilia da ara~, roca isini fiqroben, rom
signalis SemCnevis Teoria (signal detection theory SDT) _ statistikuri midgoma pasuxis sistematuri Secdomisadmi, romelmac saSualeba misca eqsperimentators, ganesazRvra da ganecalkevebina sensoruli procesebisa da individis faqtoris roli erTmaneTisagan.

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

suraTi

4.2

signalis SemCnvis Teoria


matrica A gviCvenebs SesaZlo Sedegebs, roca subieqts ekiTxebian, aris Tu ara miznobrivi stimuli mocemul cdaSi; matricebi B da C _ tipur pasuxebs, roca subieqti midrekilia `diax~ da `ara~ pasuxebisaken.

104

stimuli ar aris. rogorc naCvenebia suraTis, A matricaze, TiToeuli pasuxi daTvlilia rogorc warmatebuli damTxveva, pasuxis gamotoveba, mcdari gangaSi, an swori reaqcia, imisda Sesabamisad, warmodgenili iyo Tu ara stimuli da pasuxobda Tu ara damkvirvebeli sworad. damkvirvebeli, romelic qronikulad ambobda diax~-s, iZleoda warmatebuli damTxvevebis did raodenobas da, agreTve, mcdari gangaSis did ricxvs, rogorc es naCvenebia B matricaze. is, vinc qronikulad ambobda ara~-s, iZleoda rogorc warmatebuli damTxvevebis, ise, mcdari gangaSis mcire raodenobas, rogorc es naCvenebia C matricaze. warmatebuli damTxvevebisa da mcdari gangaSis procentebze muSaobis procesSi mkvlevrebma gamoiyenes maTematikuri procedura, raTa gamoeTvalaT cal-calke damkvirveblis mgrZnobiarobisa da pasuxis sistematuri Secdomis maCveneblebi. es procedura SesaZleblobas iZleva davadginoT, aqvs Tu ara or damkvirvebels erTnairi mgrZnobiaroba, miuxedavad didi gansxvavebisa pasuxebSi. sensoruli procesebis gamoyofiT pasuxis sistemuri Secdomisagan, signalis SemCnevis Teoriam saSualeba misca eqsperimentators, ganesazRvra da ganecalkevebina sensoruli gamRizianeblisa da individis faqtoris roli erTmaneTisagan saboloo pasuxis Camoyalibebisas. signalis SemCnevis Teoriis midgoma gvTavazobs gadawyvetilebis miRebis models, romelic SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes gansxvavebul konteqstSic. Zalian xSirad gadawyvetilebebi Cvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi moicavs gansxvavebul jildoebs yoveli warmatebuli damTxvevisa da swori pasuxebisaTvis da dasjas yoveli gamotovebuli signalisa da mcdari gangaSisaTvis. magaliTad, Tuki Tqven uaryaviT kinoSi mipatiJeba, amiT Tavidan mosawyeni saRamo (swori uaryofa) aicileT, Tu siyvarulis gaxangrZlivebis Sansi gauSviT xelidan (signalis gamotoveba), Tqveni gadawyvetileba, albaT, ganpirobebuli iqneba prognozirebuli mogebisa da wagebis SefardebiT. magaliTad, Tuki aras~ Tqma stimulis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi (signalis gamotoveba) ufro Zvirad gvijdeba, vidre diax~ pasuxi stimulis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi (mcdari gangaSi), diax~ pasuxebi CvenTvis normad iqceva. qirurgebi xSirad arian msgavs situa-

ciaSi. isini, Cveulebriv, amjobineben gaakeTon operacia im SemTxvevebSic ki, roca ar arian darwmunebulni, rom simsivne avTvisebiania da, amgvarad, riskaven imiT, rom maTi pasuxi mcdari gangaSi iqneba; gamotovebuli signali ki _ avTvisebianoba, SeiZleba sikvdilis mizezi gaxdes. sazogadod, gadawyvetilebis miRebisas gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos arsebuli faqtebi, TiToeuli tipis Secdomis SefardebiTi Rirebuleba da TiToeuli swori gadawyvetilebis SefardebiTi mogeba. signalis SemCnevis Teoria warmoadgens mniSvnelovan instruments gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesebis kvlevisas.

sxvaobis zRurbli
warmoidgineT, rom dagiqiravaT sasmelebis kompaniam, romelsac arsebulze SesamCnevad ufro tkbili kolas produqtis warmoeba surs, Tumca, rac SeiZleba naklebi Saqris damatebiT (fulis ekonomiis mizniT). Tqven gTxoven gazomoT sxvaobis zRurbli, anu umciresi fizikuri sxvaoba or gamRizianebels Soris, romlebic SeiZleba gansazRvrul iqnes, rogorc gansxvavebulebi. sxvaobis zRurblis gasazomad Tqven unda gamoiyenoT gamRizianebelTa wyvili da SeekiTxoT damkvirveblebs, aris ori gamRizianebeli erTnairi Tu ara. sasmelis problemis SemTxvevaSi Tqven miawodebT damkvirveblebs or kolas TiToeul cdaSi, romelTagan erTi iqneba standartuli receptis, meore ki _ odnav ufro tkbili. TiToeuli wyvilisaTvis individma unda Tqvas: igivea~ an gansxvavebulia~. mravali aseTi cdis Semdeg Tqven daxazavT fsiqometruli funqciis grafiks, sadac abscisaTa RerZze gadazomavT realur gansxvavebebs da ordinataTa RerZze _ mis funqcias _ gansxvavebulia pasuxebis procentebs. sxvaobis zRurbli operacionalurad ganisazRvreba, rogorc wertili, romelzec gamRizianeblebi cnobierdebian, rogorc gansxvavebulni SemTxvevaTa naxevarSi. sxvaobis zRurblis sidide cnobilia, rogorc odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba. odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba aris nebismieri ori SegrZnebis fsiqologiuri gansxvavebis sididis sazomi raodenobrivi erTeuli. 1834 wels ernest veberma (Weber), sxvaobis zRurblis pirvelma mkvlevarma, aRmoaCina mniSvnelovani damokidebuleba, romelic mocemulia suraTze 4.3. davuSvaT, Tqven atarebT sxva-

105

samyaros sensoruli Semecneba

suraTi

4.3

odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba da veberis kanoni


rac ufro grZelia standartuli xazi, miT ufro didia is odenoba, romelic unda daamatoT (DL), raTa dainaxoT odnav sesamCnevi sxvaoba. sxvaobis zRurbli aris sigrZis namati, romlic SesamCnevia cdaTa 50% SemTxvevaSi. Tuki Cven am namats SevafardebT zrdadi stimulis sigrZesTan, proporcia darCeba igive _ 1/10 standartuli sigrZisa. es namati gadazomilia vertikalur RerZze, xolo standartuli xazis sigrZe _ horizontalurze. miRebuli damokidebuleba wrfivia, rac gamoixateba swori xaziT grafikze. Cven SegviZlia viwinaswarmetyveloT, rom DL iqneba 0.5, roca standartuli xazis sigrZe aris 5 milimetri.

obis zRurblis gansazRvris eqsperiments, romelSic gamoyenebulia 10mm sigrZis swori xazi _ standartuli nimuSi. am eqsperimentis Casatareblad cdis monawileebs warudgenT or xazs, romelTagan erTi aris 10mm standartuli sigrZisa, meoris sigrZe ki mcired gansxvavdeba standartulisagan. monawileTa amocanaa, upasuxon, aris Tu ara am ori xazis sigrZe toli. Tqven naxavT, rom sxvaobis zRurbli daaxloebiT 1 milimetria. 10 milimetris sigrZis xazs ganasxvaveben 11 milimetris sigrZis xazisagan SemTxvevaTa 50%-Si, magram 20 milimetris sigrZis standartuli xazisaTvis 1 milimetris namati ukve arasakmarisia. Tqven dagWirdebaT 2 milimetris damateba, raTa
sxvaobis zRurbli (difference threshold) _ umciresi fizikuri gansxvaveba or gamRizianebels Soris, romelic jer kidev SeiZleba gacnobierdes, rogorc gansxvavebulebi; sxvaobis zRurbli operacionalurad ganisazRvreba rogorc wertili, romelzec gamRizianeblebi arian gacnobierebuli, rogorc gansxvavebulni SemTxvevaTa naxevarSi. odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba (just noticeable difference _ JND) _ umciresi gansxvaveba or SegrZnebas Soris, romlebic SeiZleba miCneul iqnan gansxvavebulebad. veberis kanoni (Webers law) _ sxvaobis zRurblis sidide standartuli gamRizianeblis intensivobis proporciulia.

106

miiRoT odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba. 40 milimetri sigrZis standartuli xazis gamoyenebisas ki 4 milimetris damateba dagWirdebaT. suraTi 4.3 gviCvenebs, rom odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba izrdeba Tanabrad standartuli xazis sigrZis zrdasTan erTad. rac rCeba mudmivi orive grZeli da mokle xazebisaTvis, es aris namatis odenobis Sefardeba xazis sigrZesTan, romelic qmnis odnav SesamCnev sxvaobas. magaliTad, 1 mm/10 mm=0.1; 2 mm/20 mm=0.1. es damokidebuleba Sejamebulia veberis kanonSi: or stimuls Soris odnav SesamCnevi sxvaobis Sefardeba standartuli stimulis intensivobasTan mudmivi sididea. amrigad, rac ufro didia an ufro intensiuria standartuli stimuli, miT ufro didi namatia saWiro odnav SesamCnevi sxvaobis misaRebad. es kanoni marTebulia nebismieri sensoruli sistemisaTvis. formula veberis kanonisaTvis Semdegi saxis iqneba: I/I=k, sadac I standartuli intensivobaa, I ki namatia _ im sxvaobis odenobaa, romelic qmnis odnav SesamCnev sxvaobas. veberma aRmoaCina, rom TiToeuli stimulis parametrisaTvis arsebobs misTvis damaxasiaTebeli proporcia. am formulaSi k aris proporcia, anu veberis konstanta stimulis TiToeuli parametrisaTvis (yuradRebiT ganixileT suraTi 4.3, raTa darwmundeT, kargad gaigeT Tu, ara, ra aris odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba,

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

cxrili

4.2

fizikuri movlenebidan fsiqikuri movlenebisaken


fsiqofizikis ganxilvam gagvacnobierebina SegrZnebis umniSvnelovanesi saidumlo: rogor xdeba, rom fizikuri energia dasabams aZlevs specifikur fsiqologiur gancdas? magaliTad, rogor aRmocendeba sinaTlis talRis sxvadasxva sigrZisagan cisartyelas gancda? sanam specifikur sensorul sferoebs ganvixilavT, zedapirulad mimovixiloT informaciis gadasvla fizikuri movlenebidan _ sinaTlisa da bgeris talRebidan, rTuli qimiuri nivTierebebidan fsiqikuri movlenebisaken _ sinaTlis, bgeris, gemosa da ynosvis SegrZnebebisaken. sensoruli fiziologia Seiswavlis fizikuri movlenebis nervul movlenebad gardaqmnis biologiur meqanizmebs. am sferos mizania, aRmoaCinos, Tu ra xdeba nervul doneze im movlenaTa jaWvSi, romelic ganlagebulia fizikuri energiidan sensorul gancdamde. erTi formis fizikuri energiis, magaliTad, sinaTlis gadaqcevas meore formad _ nervul impulsad, transformacia ewodeba. vinaidan yvela tipis sensoruli informacia transformirdeba nervuli impulsebis identur tipSi, Tqveni Tavis tvini imis saSualebiT ganasxvavebs sensorul informacias, rom Tavis tvinis qerqis calkeul zonebs miusadagebs TiToeul sensorul sferos. mkvlevrebi cdiloben TiToeuli am sensoruli sferosaTvis daadginon, Tu rogor xdeba fizikuri energiis transformacia nervuli sistemis eleqtroqimiur aqtivobaSi, romelic warmoSobs Tvisobrivad (magaliTad, wiTeli _ mwvane) da raodenobrivad (xmamaRali _ Cumi) ganxvavebul SegrZnebebs. nebismieri sensoruli sistemis moqmedebas biZgs aZlevs garemo movlenis an gamRizianeblis SemCneva. garemo gamRizianeblebis SemCneva xdeba specializirebuli sensoruli receptorebis saSualebiT (magaliTisaTvis, ix. cxrili 4.3). sensoruli receptorebi sensoruli gamRizianeblis fizikur energias ujredis signalebad gardaqmnian, romelic SeiZleba gadamuSavebul iqnes nervuli sistemis mier. ujredis signalebi informacias ufro maRali donis neironebs awvdian, romlebic informaciis integrirebas axdenen sxvadasxva deteqtoruli

veberis konstantis mniSvnelobebi stimulTa arCeuli ganzomilebisaTvis


stimulis ganzomileba bgeris sixSire sinaTlis intensivoba sunis koncentracia dawolis intensivoba bgeris intensivoba gemos koncentracia veberis konstanta (k) 0.003 0.01 0.07 0.14 0.15 0.20

veberis kanoni da is, Tu rogor arian isini dakavSirebulni erTmaneTTan). veberis kanoni sakmaod zustia, magram is mainc ar aris universaluri, magaliTad, maSin, roca stimulis intensivoba Zalian maRali xdeba. cxrilSi 4.2 xedavT, rom veberis konstantas aqvs gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobebi stimulis gansxvavebuli ganzomilebisaTvis. umciresi mniSvneloba niSnavs imas, rom adamians SeuZlia SeamCnios umciresi gansxvaveba. ase magaliTad, es cxrili giCvenebT, rom Tqven SegiZliaT bgeraTa sixSire ufro meti sizustiT ganasxvavoT erTmaneTisagan, vidre sinaTlis intensivobebi, rac, Tavis mxriv, ufro advilad SemCnevadia, vidre sunisa da gemos umciresi gansxvavebani. sasmelebis kompanias dasWirdeboda SedarebiT ufro didi raodenobis Saqris damateba ufro tkbili kolis warmoebisaTvis!

sensoruli fiziologia (sensory physiology) _ Seiswavlis fizikuri movlenebis nervul movlenebad gadaqcevis biologiur meqanizmebs. transformacia (transduction) _Seiswavlis erTi formis fizikuri energiis gardaqmnas meore formad; magaliTad, sinaTlis transformirebas nervul impulsebad. sensoruli receptorebi (sensory receptors) _ specializirebuli ujredebi; isini gadaaqceven fizikur signalebs ujredis signalebad, romlebic Semdeg gadamuSavdeba nervuli sistemis mier.

samyaros sensoruli Semecneba

107

cxrili

4.3
adamianis sensoruli sistema: fundamenturi Tvisebebi
stimulebi sinaTlis talRebi sensoruli receptori organo Cxirebi da kolbebi Tvali SegrZneba ferebi, obieqtebi, teqstura, moZraoba, siRrme xmauri, toni

SegrZneba mxedveloba

smena

bgeriTitalRebi

yuri

ZiriTadi membranis bewviani ujredebi nervuli daboloebani kanSi (merkelis diskebi, rufinis sxeulebi) ynosvis organoebis bewviani epiTeliumi

Sexebis SegrZnebebi

eqsternaluri kontaqti

kani

Sexeba, tkivili, siTbo, sicive

ynosva

aqroladi nivTierebebi

cxviri

suni (muskusi, yvavilovani, damwvris, pitnis) gemo (tbili, mJave, mlaSe, mware) moZraoba sivrceSi, gravitaciuli miziduloba sxeulis nawilebis moZraoba da pozicia

gemo

xsnadi nivTierebebi

ena

gemos bolqvebi

wonasworobis SegrZneba

meqanikuri da gravitaciuli Zalebi

Sinagani yuri

naxevarrkalovani arxebis bususebi da derefani nervuli boWkoebi kunTebSi, myesebSi

kinesTeTikuri SegrZnebebi

sxeulis moZraoba

kunTebi, myesebi, saxsrebi

blokebidan. am etapze neironebi agroveben informacias stimulis ZiriTadi Tvisebebis Sesaxeb, rogoricaa misi zoma, intensivoba, forma da manZili. sensoruli sistemebis siRrmeSi informacia kombinirebulia ufro rTul kodebSi da is gadaecema Tavis tvinis qerqis specifikur ubnebs, romlebic pasuxismgebelni arian SegrZnebisa da asociaciis procesebze. cxrilSi 4.3 mocemulia stimulebi da receptorebi TiToeuli SegrZnebisaTvis.
Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

Sejameba
fsiqofizikis mkvlevrebi swavloben damokidebulebas fizikur movlenebsa da damkvirveblebis mier am movlenebis fsiqologiur gancdas Soris. damkvirveblis SegrZnebis absoluturi zRurbli damokidebulia stimulis

Zalaze da gansazRvrul pirobebze, rogoricaa damkvirveblis sensoruli adaptaciis done _ absoluturi zRurblis definicia asaxavs misi moqmedebis cvalebadobas. signalis SemCnevis Teoria SemuSavda sensoruli procesebis gasamijnad pasuxebis sistematuri Secdomisagan damkvirveblis moqmedebaSi. fsiqofizikis mkvlevrebi, agreTve, dainteresebulni arian imiT, Tu ramdenad unda gaizardos an Semcirdes gamRizianeblis sidide, rom damkvirvebelma SeZlos gansxvavebis aRqma. veberis kanoni asaxavs fizikuri stimulaciisa da damkvirveblis aRqmis cvlilebebs Soris damokidebulebebs. sensoruli fiziologiis mizania, Seiswavlos, Tu ra gziT xdeba fizikuri movlenebis gadaqceva tvinSi mimdinare procesebad. mkvlevrebi, agreTve, aRweren informaciis gadasvlas sensoruli receptorebidan Tavis tvinis qerqisaken.

108

mxedvelobis sistema
mxedveloba yvelaze rTuli, maRalganviTarebuli da mniSvnelovani SegrZnebaa adamianisa da sxva moZrav arsebaTa umravlesobisTvis. im cxovelebs, romlebic bunebam kargi mxedvelobiT daajildova, uzarmazari evoluciuri upiratesobebi aqvT. kargi mxedveloba maT exmarebaT, SeamCnion msxverpli an mteri Sori manZilidan. mxedveloba SesaZleblobas aZlevs adamianebs, gaacnobieron fizikuri garemos cvalebadi Tvisebebi da Seusabamon mas TavianTi qceva. mxedveloba aris yvelaze kargad Seswavlili sfero SegrZnebis modalobaTa Soris.

xdeba da msxvildeba axlomdebare obieqtebze fokusirebisas. fotoaparatSi Semomavali sinaTlis raodenobis gasakontroleblad Tqven cvliT linzis gaxsnis xarisxs. TvalSi ki irisis kunTuri diski cvlis gugis anu im xvrelis sidides, romlis saSualebiTac sinaTle Semodis TvalSi. fotoaparatis ukana nawilSi fotomgrZnobiare firia, romelic afiqsirebs linzaSi Semosuli sinaTlis variaciebs. analogiurad, TvalSi sinaTle mogzaurobs minisebr sxeulSi, bolos ecema baduras _ Txel firfitas, romelic warmoadgens Tvalis kaklis ukana kedels. rogorc naxeT, fotoaparatisa da Tvalis Tvisebebi Zalian emsgavseba erTmaneTs. axla ufro detalurad ganvixiloT mxedvelobiTi procesis komponentebi.

adamianis Tvali
Tvali aris fotoaparati Tavis tvinisaTvis, romelic asaxavs samyaros suraTs (ix. suraTi 4.4). fotoaparati samyaros linzebis saSualebiT uyurebs, romelic axdens sinaTlis Sekrebas da fokusirebas. Tvali, aseve, krebs sinaTles da axdens mis fokusirebas _ sinaTle Semodis rqovanaSi, Tvalis win mdebare gamWvirvale amoburcul nawilSi; Semdeg is gaivlis wina sakans, romelic savsea siTxiT _ namiT. fotoaparatis fokusirebisas Tqven amoZravebT mis linzas obieqtis mimarTulebiT, an aSorebT mas. imisaTvis, rom Tvalma sinaTlis fokusireba moaxdinos, lobios marcvlis formis kristali _ Tvalis broli _ icvlis Tavis formas, wvrildeba, roca fokusireba moSorebul obieqtebze

guga da broli
Tvalis guga ixsneba irisSi, romelSic gadis sinaTle. irisi aiZulebs gugas, gafarTovdes an SeikumSos, raTa gaakontrolos Tvalis kaklisaken mimavali sinaTlis raodenoba. sinaTle, romelic gaivlis gugas, brolis mier baduraze fokusirdeba; broli atrialebs aRqmul obieqtebs. is gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, radganac icvlis fokuss axlo da Sorsmdebare sagnebisTvis. wamwamovan kunTebs SeuZliaT Secvalon brolis sisqe da, aqedan gamomdinare, misi optikuri Tvisebebic. am process akomodacia ewodeba. normaluri akomodaciis unaris mqone adamianebs Tvalis fokusireba sakamod did diapazonSi SeuZliaT _ dawyebuli 7,5 sm manZilidan

mxedvelobis sistema

109

suraTi

4.4

adamianis Tvalis struqtura


rqovana, guga da broli axorcieleben sinaTlis fokusirebas baduraze. baduradan nervuli signalebi gadaecema tvins optikuri nervis meSveobiT.

ise Sors, sanamdec SeuZliaT obieqtebis danaxva. Tumca, uamrav adamians awuxebs akomodaciasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi. magaliTad, axlomxedvelebs akomodaciis diapazoni gadaxrili aqvT ufro axlos maTken da amis Sedegad maT ar SeuZliaT kargad fokusireba Sorsmdebare sagnebze; Sorsmxedvelebs akomodaciis diapazoni gadaxrili aqvT maTgan Sors da amitom maT ar SeuZliaT normalurad fokusireba axlomdebare obieqtebze. asakTan erTad, agreTve, izrdeba akomodaciis problemebic. broli aRar aris iseTive sufTa, gamWvirvale da amozneqili, rogorc adre. asakis zrdasTan erTad broli xdeba ufro mkvrivi, gaumWvirvale, muqi da brtyeli, is kargavs elastiurobas. am cvlilebebis Sedegad brols aRar SeuZlia sakmarisad SekumSva, raTa dainaxos axlomdebare sagnebi. ormocdaxuT wels gadacilebul adamianebisaTvis is uaxloesi wertili, romelzedac SeuZliaT kargad fokusireba, progresulad Sordeba maT.
Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

badura
Tqven uyurebT TvalebiT, magram xedavT Tavis tvinis saSualebiT. Tvali krebs sinaTles, axdens mis fokusirebas da dasabams aZlevs Tavis tvinisaken mimaval nervul signals. amrigad, Tvalis yvelaze mniSvnelovani funqciaa gare samyaros Sesaxeb informaciis sinaTlis talRidan nervul impulsad gardaqmna. es xdeba baduraze, Tvalis ukana mxareze. mikroskopis qveS SegiZliaT dainaxoT, rom baduras sxvadasxva tipis neironebisagan Semdgari ramdenime maRalorganizebuli Sre aqvs. sinaTlis energiis ZiriTadi gardaqmna nervul impulsad baduraze Cxirebisa da kolbebis _ sinaTlis mimarT mgrZnobiare receptorebis saSualebiT xdeba. es fotoreceptorebi unikalurad arian ganlagebulni vizualur sistemaSi, kargad naTdebian gare samyarodan da emijnebian nervuli procesebis Sida samyaros. vinaidan zogjer giwevT TiTqmis sibneleSi muSaoba da zogjer ki kaSkaSa ganaTebis pirobebSi, bunebam uzrunvelgyoT sinaTlis gardaqmnis ori gziT, CxirebiTa da kolbebiT (ix. sur. 4.5). 120 milioni wvrili Cxiri moqmedebs saukeTesod susti ganaTebis pirobebSi, 7 milioni msxvili kolba ki naTel, ferad garemoSi samuSaodaa specializebuli. Tqven SegiZliaT SeigrZnoT gansxvaveba Cxirebisa da kolbebis muSaobaSi yovelTvis, roca daZinebis win CaaqrobT xolme Suqs. albaT

akomodacia (accommodation) _ procesi, romlis saSualebiTac wamwamovani kunTebi cvlianEBTvalis brolis sisqes, rac saSualebas aZlevs, Secvalos fokusi axlo da Sori obieqtebisaTvis. badura (retina) _ Tvalis ukan mdebare Sre, romelic Seicavs fotoreceptorebs da gardaqmnis sinaTlis energias nervul reaqciaSi. fotoreceptorebi (photoreceptors) _ baduraze mdebare sinaTlisadmi mgrZnobiare receptoruli ujredebi.

110

suraTi

4.5

retinaluri gzebi
es diagrama warmodgenilia tradiciuli da Zalian gamartivebuli saxiT. is gviCvenebs gzebs, romelic akavSirebs nervuli ujredebis sam Sres retinaSi. Semomavali sinaTle gaivlis samive Sres, sanam miaRwevs receptorebs, romlebic ganlagebulni arian Tvalis kaklis ukana mxareze da mimarTulni arian sinaTlis wyaros sapirispiro mxares. aRsaniSnavia, rom bipolaruli ujredebi kreben impulsebs erTze meti receptoruli ujredidan da agzavnian Sedegebs gangliozuri ujredebisaken. am ujredebidan ki nervuli impulsebi toveben Tvals optikui nervis saSualebiT da miemarTebian Semdegi gadamrTveli punqtisaken.

bevrjer SeginiSnavT, rom Tavidan bevrs verafers xedavT darCenili mkrTali ganaTebis pirobebSi, magram cota xnis Semdeg Tqveni mxedvelobis mgrZnobiaroba kvlav umjobesdeba. Tqven ganicdiT sibnelisadmi adaptaciis process _ Tvalis mgrZnobiarobis gradualur gaumjobesebas ganaTebis cvlilebis Sedegad sinaTlidan TiTqmis sibnelisaken. sibnelisadmi adaptaciis mizezi Cxirebis amoqmedebaa. isini ufro mgrZnobiareni xdebian, vidre kolbebi. drois gasvlis Semdeg Cxirebi reagireben ufro nakleb sinaTleze, vidre kolbebi. badurs centrTan axlos aris patara ubani, romelsac foveas uwodeben. is mxolod mWidrod ganlagebul kolbebs Seicavs. iq ar aris Cxirebi. es adgili gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiarea ferebis mimarT, aseve, yvelaze ufro zustad uzrunvelyofs sivrciTi detalebis SemCnevas. baduras sxva ujredebi arian pasuxismgebelni im informaciis integraciaze, romlesac Cxirebidan da kolbebidan iReben. bipolaruli ujredebi nervuli ujredebia, romlebic axdenen nervuli impulsebis kombinirebas mravali receptoridan da Sedegebs gangliozur ujredebSi agzavnian. Semdeg TiToeuli gangliozuri ujredi axdens impulsebis integrirebas erTi an

ufro meti bipolaruli ujredidan erT ganmuxtvaSi. centraluri foveis kolbebi agzavnian TavianT impulsebs gangliozuri ujrede-

akomod i.

mxedvelobis sistema

111

suraTi

4.6

ipoveT Tqveni brma wertili


imisaTvis rom ipovoT Tqveni brma wertili, daikaveT es wigni daaxloebiT gaSlili mklavis sigrZeze, daxuWeT Tqveni marjvena Tvali, moaxdineT fiqsireba bankis figuraze Tqveni marcxena TvaliT da nel-nela miitaneT wigni Tqvensken Zalian axlos. rodesac dolaris niSani iqneba Tqvens brma wertilze, is gaqreba, magram Tqven ver SeamCnevT xarvezs Tqveni mxedvelobis velSi. analogiurad, Tuki Tqven gamoiyenebT igive proceduras da moaxdenT Tvalis fiqsacias plus niSanze, xazi gamTliandeba maSin, roca xarvezi iqneba Tqvens brma wertilze. orive SemTxvevaSi vizualuri sistema avsebs cariel adgils TeTri foniT,

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

bisaken maSin, roca baduras periferiaze mdebare Cxirebi da kolbebi erwymian bipolarul da gangliozur ujredebs. gangliozuri ujredebis aqsonebi qmnian optikuri nervs, romelic vizualur informacias Tvalidan Tavis tvinisaken atarebs. horizontaluri ujredebi da amakrinuli ujredebi informaciis integrirebas baduras gaswvriv axdenen. am ujredebis funqcia ufro metad gamoixateba ara signalebis gagzavnaSi Tavis tvinisaken, aramed ujredebs Soris kavSiris damyarebaSi. horizontaluri ujredebi receptorebs erTmaneTTan akavSireben, amakrinuli ujredebi ki aerTeben bipolarul ujredebs sxva bipolarul ujredebTan da gangliozur ujredebs sxva gangliozur ujredebTan. baduras anatomiur agebulebaSi aris erTi saintereso ucnauri adgili, sadac optikuri nervi gamodis. am adgils optikuri diski anu brma wertili ewodeba. is srulebiT ar Seicavs receptorul ujredebs. miuxedavad amisa, Cven ver vamCnevT am xarvezs, Tuki specialur pivizualuri qerqi (visual cortex) _ kefis wilis nawili, romelSic xdeba vizualuri informaciis gadamuSaveba. optikuri nervi (optic nerve) _ gangliozuri ujredebis aqsonebi, romlebic atareben informacias Tvalidan tvinisaken.

112

robebs ar SevqmniT amisaTvis. es xdeba ori mizezis gamo: pirvel rigSi, orive Tvalis brma wertilebi iseTnirad arian ganlagebulni, rom TiToeuli Tvalis receptorebi imis registracias axdenen, rac gamorCa meore Tvals; meore mizezi isaa, rom Tavis tvini avsebs~ am adgils Sesatyvisi sensoruli informaciiT garSemo myofi areebidan. imisaTvis, rom aRmoaCinoT brma wertili, Tqven unda SexedoT suraTs 4.6 Semdegi pirobis dacviT: es wigni daaxloebiT gaSlili mklavis sigrZeze daiWireT, daxuWeT marjvena Tvali, moaxdineT fiqsireba bankis figuraze marcxena TvaliT da nel-nela miitaneT wigni Tqvensken Zalian axlos. rodesac dolaris niSani iqneba Tqvens brma wertilze, is gaqreba, magram Tqven ver SeamCnevT xarvezs Tqveni mxedvelobis velSi. Tqveni vizualuri sistema Seavsebs cariel adgils TeTri foniT, romelic gars akravs am adgils. ase rom, Tqven mxolod siTeTres dainaxavT~, romelic realurad ar aris iq da ver dainaxavT fuls, romelic moaTavseT bankSi, sanam dakargavdiT mas! brma wertilis meore demonstraciisaTvis SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT igive procedura da moaxdinoT fokusireba jvarze, romelic mocemulia 4.6 suraTze. Tuki wigns TvalebTan axlos miitanT, dainaxavT rom wyvetili xazi gamTlianda.

(qiazmaSi), romelic formiT berZnul aso -is (gamoiTqmis, rogorc xi~) mogvagonebs. aqsonebi TiToeul optikur nervSi mxedvelobis jvaredinTan or konad iyofian. boWkoebis naxevari TiToeuli baduridan sxeulis im mxareze rCeba, romlidanac isini modian, xolo TiToeuli Tvalis Sida mxridan wamosuli aqsonebi gadakveTen erTmaneTs da agrZeleben gzas Tavis tvinis ukana nawilisaken (ix. sur. 4.7). boWkoebis am or konas, romelic Seicavs aqsonebs orive Tvalidan, am adgilidan ukve optikuri traqtebi ewodeba. optikuri traqtebi tvinSi agzavnis informacias ujredebis ori blokisaken. mkvlevrebi mxars uWeren Teorias, romlis Tanaxmadac vizualuri analizi orad iyofa: pirvelis funqcia xatebis amocnobaa, Tu rogor gamoiyurebian obieqtebi, xolo meoris _ adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra, Tu sad arian obieqtebi (Rao et al., 1997; Wilson et al., 1993). vizualuri funqciebis dayofa ufro dramatulad gamoiyureba, roca individebi kargaven mxedvelobiTi qerqis nawils travmis an qirurgiuli Carevis Sedegad. ganvixiloT Semdegi SemTxveva:
suraTi

4.7
saidan viciT
mxedvelobiTi funqciebis dayofa dons 14 wlis asakidan awuxebda mwvave, xangrZlivi Tavis tkivilebi da marcxena vizualur velSi sensoruli xasiaTis sirTuleebi hqonda. roca is 34 wlis iyo, gadawyvita gaekeTebina operacia, romlis drosac neiroqirurgebi amoWridnen marjvena kefis wilis patara nawils. qirurgebi mudmivad mkurnalobdnen donis Tavis tkivilebs, magram man mTlianad dakarga mxedveloba vizualuri velis marcxena nawilSi, radgan amokveTili nawili Seicavda pirvelad mxedvelobiT qerqs. magaliTad, roca ganaTebul laqas uCveneben fiqsaciis wertilis marcxniv (fiqsaciis wertili _ esaa centraluri wertili, romelzedac sTxoven cdis pirs Tvalebis fokusirebas), igi, ubralod, ver acnobierebs mis arsebobas. fsiqologebma sTxoves dons mainc savaraudod amoecno, Tu sad mdebareobs gana-

adamianis vizualuri sistemis gzebi


diagrama gviCvenebs, rom vizualuri velidan Semosuli sinaTle airekleba orive baduraze da gviCvenebs marSruts, romliTac nervuli Setyobineba baduridan gadaigzavneba TiToeuli hemisferos orive vizualur centrSi.

Tavis tvinisken mimavali nervuli gzebi


vizualuri informaciis saboloo daniSnulebis adgili Tavis tvinis kefis wilis is adgilia, romelic cnobilia, rogorc ZiriTadi mxedvelobis qerqi. miuxedavad amisa, informaciis umetesi nawili, romelic tovebs baduras, gaivlis Tavis tvinis sxva regionebs, sanam miaRwevs mxedvelobis qerqs. modiT, gavyveT im gzas, romelsac vizualuri informacia gaivlis (Van Essen et al., 1992). gangliozuri ujredebis milionobiT aqsoni, romelic axdens TiToeuli optikuri nervis formirebas, miemarTeba mxedvelobis jvaredinSi

mxedvelobis sistema

113

Tebuli wertili marcxena xelis saCvenebeli TiTis saSualebiT. Sedegebi SesaniSnavi iyo. donma TiTqmis iseve zustad gansazRvra ganaTebuli laqis mdebareoba mis brma~ marcxena mxedvelobis velSi, rogorc axerxebda amas saR~ marjvena vizualur velSi. Semdgomma eqsperimentebma, agreTve, aCvenes, rom mas SeeZlo gamoecno brma velSi naCvenebi xazi vertikaluri iyo Tu horizontaluri da naCvenebi figura X iyo Tu O. testis ganmavlobaSi doni sruliad ver acnobierebda laqebis, xazebis da figurebis arsebobas. is amtkicebda, rom ubralod, varaudiT ambobda. roca dons testirebis videoCanaweri uCvenes, is gaocebuli iyo imiT, rom uTiTebda ganaTebul laqaze, romelsac ver xedavda (Weiskrantz et al., 1974). donis mxedvelobas~, Sesabamisad, brma mxedveloba uwodes. misi qceva vizualurad miRebuli informaciis Sedegad xorcieldeboda, Tumca, is ver acnobierebda obieqtis arsebobas. msgavsi Sedegebi iyo miRebuli testebSi sxva pacientebTan mxedvelobiTi qerqis analogiuri darRvevebiT. es movlena adasturebs im faqts, rom is qerqqveSa struqturebi, romlebic xeluxlebeli rCeba dazianebuli Tavis tvinis qerqis pirobebSi, uzrunvelyofs vizualuri analizis iseT dones, romelic Seesabameba am amocanebs, magram gacnobierebis gareSe. Tumca, es daskvna sakamaTo rCeba, radgan Tavis tvinis mier vizualuri informaciis kodirebisaTvis gamoyenebuli uamravi gza arsebobs (Gazzaniga et al., 1994; Weiskrantz, 1995). rogoric ar unda iyos nervuli meqanizmebi, es movlena adasturebs, rom mxedvelobis zusti funqcionireba SeiZleba cnobierebis gareSec ganxorcieldes. Tqven ukve naxeT, Tu rogor nawildeba is informacia, romelic Tvalebidan Tavis tvinisaken miemarTeba. mecnierebma kvlavac bevri ram unda Seiswavlon. arsebobs vizualuri qerqis daaxloebiT 30 anatomiuri qveganyofileba da sxvadasxva Teoriebi am qveganyofilebebs Soris komunikaciis saxeebis Sesaxeb (Hilgetag et al., 1996). axla vizualuri samyaros calkeul aspeqtebs davubrundeT. adamianis vizualuri sistemis erTerTi yvelaze saocari Tavisebureba isaa, rom Cven mier formis, feris, mdebareobis da siRrmis

gancda dafuZnebulia erTi da igive sensoruli informaciis sxvadasxva gziT gadamuSavebaze. rogor xdeba es transformaciebi, romlebic SesaZleblobas gaZlevT, dainaxoT vizualuri samyaros es gansxvavebuli Taviseburebani?

ferTa SegrZneba
fizikur obieqtebs aqvT saocari Tviseba _ isini SeiZleba sxvadasxva feris saRebavebiT davxatoT. Tqven Zalian xSirad migiRiaT STabeWdilebebi kaSkaSad Seferili obieqtebisagan _ mwvane naZvis xeebisagan, meJolias lurji kvercxebisagan, magram ferebis naTel gancdas safuZvlad udevs am obieqtebisagan Tqvens sensorul receptorebze sinaTlis sxivebis asaxva. erT-erTi pirveli, vinc es sakiTxi jer kidev 1671 wels ganixila, isaak niutoni iyo:
sxivebi (sinaTlis) sworad rom vTqvaT, ar aris Seferili. maTSi araferia, garda energiisa da ama Tu im feris SegrZnebis aRmocenebis unarisa. aseve, bgera, iqneba es zaris, musikaluri simis Tu sxva ram mJReri sxeulis, araferia, garda rxevadi moZraobisa da haerSi araferia, garda obieqtidan gavrcelebuli moZraobisa, ...ase rom, obieqtis ferebi araferia, garda unarisa, aireklos ama Tu im saxis sxivebi ufro farTod, vidre danarCeni...

ferebi aRmocendeba maSin, roca Tavis tvini amuSavebs informacias, romelic kodirebulia sinaTlis wyaroSi.

talRis sigrZe da feri


sinaTle, romelsac Tqven xedavT, mxolod patara nawilia fizikuri ganzomilebisa, romelsac eleqtromagnituri speqtri ewodeba (ix. sur. 4.8). Tqveni vizualur sistema ar aris aRWurvili saTanadod imisaTvis, rom dainaxos sxva tipis talRebi speqtrSi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, X-sxivebi, mikrotalRebi da radiotalRebi. fizikuri Tviseba, romelic ganasxvavebs eleqromagnituri energiis tipebs, maT Soris sinaTlisasac, aris talRis sigrZe anu manZili ori uaxloesi talRis qims Soris. xiluli sinaTlis talRis sigrZe nanometrebSi (metris memiliarde nawilSi) izomeba. is, rasac

114

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi

SeuZlia Tu ara teqnologias dazianebuli mxedvelobis aRdgena


1999 wlis dekemberSi ramdenime sainformacio saagento iuwyeboda, rom stiv uanderi, romelic TiTqmis dabadebidan brma iyo, imedovnebda, rom Caitarebda eqsperimentul qirurgiul proceduras, romelic mis mxedvelobas aRadgenda. proceduras ventai lui, mark humaiuni (Wentai Lui, Mark Humayun) da maTi jgufis sxva wevrebi atarebdnen (Lui et al., 2001). am proceduraSi patara mikroprocesori pirdapir ukavSirdeboda baduras da kolbebisa da Cxirebis funqcias cvlida, romelic ar funqcionirebda daavadebis gamo. samwuxarod, uanderi Zalian xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi iyo brma da amitom ar iyo kargi kandidati am procedurisaTvis. Tumca, es teqnika imeds aZlevda maT, visac vizualuri sistemis jaWvis didi nawili jer kidev dauzianebeli hqondaT. brma adamianTa umravlesobis dabrmavebis mizezi maT baduraze mdebare receptoruli ujredebis _ kolbebisa da Cxirebis kvdoma _ degeneraciuli daavadeba gaxda (uanderis sibrmave gamowveuli iyo imiT, rom inkubatorSi, romelSic is ganaTavses dabadebis Semdeg, miwodebuli iqna zedmeti raodenobis Jangbadi). maSinac ki, roca sensoruli receptorebi wyveten TavianT arsebobas, vizualuri gzebis sxva ujredebi, rogoricaa bipolaruli da gangliozuri, ganagrZoben arsebobas. baduras struqturis mocemulobisas (ix. suraTi 4.5), es ujredebi xelmisawvdomia pirdapiri eleqtruli stimulaciisaTvis. luis, humaiunisa da maTi kolegebis mier konstruirebuli mikroprocesori zustad amas akeTebda: is axdenda eleqtrul stimulacias, romelic Semomaval signals arafunqcionirebadi kolbebisa da Cxirebis nacvlad agzavnida. mTlian sistemas, romelic cnobilia, rogorc mravalelementiani xelovnuri retinaluri mikroprocesori (multipleunit artificial retinal chipset MARC), ramdenime komponenti aqvs, romelic funqcionirebs rogorc Tvalis kaklis gareT, ise _ SigniT. magaliTad, miniaturuli videokamera gamosaxulebas garemodan iWers. es gamosaxuleba muSavdeba da igzavneba mikroprocesorisaken, romelic qirurgiulad aris implantirebuli baduraze Tvalis ukana mxares. es mikroprocesori stimulirebas ukeTebs gangliozur ujredebs badeSi da televizoris Tu kompiuteris ekranis msgavsad funqcionirebs: am simravlis TiToeuli elements _ TiToeul piqsels _ SeuZlia miiRos nacrisferi feris sxvadasxva elferi, raTa uzrunvelyos mxedvelobiTi SegrZnebebis farTo diapazoni. rogorc Tqven SegiZliaT Tavad daaskvnaT, aRniSnuli mikroprocesori ar aRadgens mxedvelobas srulyofilad, iseTnairad, rogorc es nagulisxmebi iyo statiaSi stiv uanderis Sesaxeb. informaciis is raodenoba, romelsac uzrunvelyofs es xelsawyo, sakmaod SezRudulia imasTan SedarebiT, rasac Tqven Cveulebriv iRebT Tqveni uamravi kolbebidan da Cxirebidan. miuxedavad amisa, am eqsperimentis monawileebs SeeZloT martivi gamosaxulebebisa da formebis identificireba. arsebobs imedi, rom es mikroprocesori aRadgens mxedvelobas iseT doneze, rom adamianebi SeZleben imoZraon sakuTar garemoSi da gaarCion didi zomis SriftiT dabeWdili teqsti. uamravi adamianisaTvis mTel msoflioSi, romelsac daavadebis gamo dazianebuli aqvs Cxirebi da kolbebi, MARS msgavsi teqnologiebis ganviTarebam SeiZleba SeunarCunos mxedveloba. vebgverdi: www.ece.ncsu.edu/er/ erl_eye.html

mxedvelobis sistema

115

Tqven xedavT, rogorc sinaTles, aris talRis sigrZis diapazoni 400-dan 700 nanometramde. garkveuli fizikuri talRebis sinaTlis sxivebidan aRmocendeba garkveuli feris gancda, magaliTad, iisferi-lurji ufro mokle sigrZiani talRebisagan speqtris erT boloSi da wiTeli-narinjisferi _ ufro grZelis sigrZis talRebisagan speqtris meore boloSi. amrigad, sinaTle fizikurad talRis sigrZis terminebiT aRiwereba da ara _ ferebiT; ferebi mxolod Tqvens sensorul sistemaSi arsebobs, rogorc talRis sigrZeTa interpretacia. feris gancda sami ZiriTadi TvisebiT xasiaTdeba: feris toni, simaZRre da sikaSkaSe. feris toni aris Tviseba, romelic gulisxmobs sinaTlis feris Tvisobriv gancdas. martiv sinaT-

leSi, romelic mxolod erTi talRis sigrZes (magaliTad, lazeris gamosxiveba) Seicavs, feris tonis fsiqologiuri gancda Seesabameba pirdapir sinaTlis talRis sigrZis fizikur ganzomilebas. suraTi 4.9 gviCvenebs, Tu rogor aris ferTa tonebi ganlagebuli ferTa wreSi. is ferebi, romlebic aRiqmebian, rogorc erTmaneTis msgavsni, mosazRvre ferebia. es Tanamimdevroba asaxavs speqtrSi ferebis Tanamimdevrobas. simaZRre feris SegrZnebis Tvisebaa, romelic gamoxatavs imas, Tu ramdenad wmindaa feri. Seurevel ferebs aqvs yvelaze meti simaZRre; Sereul, arasufTa, pastelur ferebs aqvT simaZRris saSualo raodenoba; rux fers aqvs nulovani simaZRre. sikaSkaSe feris Tvisebaa, romelic gulisxmobs sinaTlis intensivobas. TeTr fers aqvs yvelaze meti sikaSkaSe; Savs _ yvelaze naklebi. roca vaanalizebT ferTa SegrZnebis am Tvisebebs, aRsaniSnavia erTi garemoeba: adamianebs SeuZliaT vizualurad ganasxvavon
feris toni (hue) _ feris Tviseba, romelic gulisxmobs sinaTlis feris Tvisobriv gancdas. simaZRre (saturation) _ feris Tviseba, romelic gamoxatavs imas, Tu ramdenad wmindaa feri. sikaSkaSe (brightness) _ feris Tviseba, romelic gulisxmobs sinaTlis intensivobas.

suraTi

4.8

eleqtromagnituri speqtri
vizualur sistemas SeuZlia SeigrZnos talris sigrZis mxolod mcire diapazoni eleqtromagnitur speqtrSi. Tqven SeigrZnobT talRis sigrZis im diapazons, romelic naxatze gadidebulad aris mocemuli, rogorc ferebs iisferidan wiTlisaken.

116

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

suraTi

4.9

ferTa wre
ferebi ganlagebula maTi msgavsebis mixedviT. Semavsebeli ferebi ganlagebula erTmaneTis mopirdapire mxares. Semavsebeli ferebis Sereva warmoqmnis neitralur rux an TeTr sinaTles centrSi. ricxvebi TiToeuli feris tonis gaswvriv miuTiTebs speqtraluri ferebis talRis sigrZis mniSvnelobaze, im ferebisa, romlebic moTavsebulia mxedvelobiTi mgrZnobelobis diapazonSi. araspeqtraluri feris toni miiReba mokle da grZeli sigrZis speqtraluri talRis sigrZeTa SereviT.

erTmaneTisagan daaxloebiT 7 milioni sxvadasxva feri! miuxedavad amisa, adamianTa umravlesobas ar SeuZlia ferTa garkveul kategorias miakuTvnos maTi didi nawili. modiT, avxsnaT ramdenime movlena ferTa gancdis Tqveni yoveldRiuri gamocdilebidan. Tqven, albaT, iciT isaak niutonis aRmoCenis Sesaxeb, rom mzis sinaTle krebs yvela sigrZis sinaTlis talRas: Tqven SegiZliaT gaimeoroT niutonis cda prizmis gamoyenebiT da mzis sxivi ferTa srul cisartyelad daSaloT. prizmis saSualebiT gaigebT, rom sxvadasxva sigrZis talRaTa swori kombinacia TeTr fers warmoqmnis. sxvadasxva sigrZis talRaTa Serwymas damatebiT ferTa Sereva ewodeba. kidev erTxel SexedeT suraTs 4.9.

talRis sigrZeebs, romlebic ferTa wris mopirdapire mxareebzea ganlagebuli, Semavsebeli ferebi ewodeba. isini Serevisas TeTri feris SegrZnebas iwveven. gindaT Tavad darwmundeT Semavsebeli ferebis arsebobaSi? ganixileT suraTi 4.10. mwvane-yviTeli-Savi droSa negatiuri Tanamimdevari kvalis gancdas mogcemT (Tanamimdevar kvals ewodeba negatiuri, radgan is sawyisi feris sapirispiroa). am movlenas feradi mxedvelobis Teoriebis ganxilSemavsebeli ferebi (complementary colours) _ ferebi, romlebic mdebareoben ferTa wreze da erTmaneTis mopirdapire mxares auditurad Serevisas TeTri sinaTlis SegrZnebas iwvevdnen.

suraTi

4.10
mxedvelobis sistema

negatiuri optikuri kvali


mzera daafiqsireTmwvane-Sav-yviTeli droSis centrSi sul cota 30 wamis ganmavlobaSi; Semdeg mzera gadaitaneT TeTr qaRaldze da daafiqsireT is furclis centrSi an kedelze. CaatareT es cda megobrebze.

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Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

visas avxsniT, roca daJinebiT daacqerdebiT raime fers sakmaod didxans, Tqveni receptorebis arasrul gadaRlamde da Semdeg mzeras TeTr zedapirze gadaitanT, Tqven sawyisi feris Semavsebel fers dainaxavT. albaT, SeginiSnavT Tanmimdevari kvali Tqvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi ferTa gancdisas. Tumca, gancdebis didi nawili ar warmoiqmneba Semavsebeli ferebidan. Tqven, SesaZloa, droda-dro erTobiT naxatSi feradi fanqrebisa da saRebavebis kombinirebiT. feri, romelsac xedavT, roca uyurebT feradi fanqrebiT daxatul raime obieqts an sxva ferad zedapirs, sinaTlis talRis sigrZea, romelic ar aris STanTqmuli zedapiris mier. miuxedavad imisa, rom yviTeli saRebavi gamoiyureba umetes SemTxvevaSi yviTlad, zogierTi sigrZis talRa ar airekleba, rac qmnis mwvane feris SegrZnebas. analogiurad, lurji saRebavi saSualebas aZlevs garkveuli sigrZis talRebs ar aireklon, rac iwvevs lurjisa da cotaodeni mwvanis SegrZnebas. roca yviTeli da lurji ferebi kombinirebuli, yviTeli STanTqavs lurjs da lurji STanTqavs yviTels. da erTaderTi feri, romelic darCeba STaunTqmeli _ gamoiyureba mwvaned! am movlenas substraqciuli (substractive) ferTa Sereva1 ewodeba. darCenili talRis sigrZe _ STaunTqmeli talRis sigrZe aris arekvlili da swored is aZlevs ferebis narevs im fers, romelsac Tqven aRiqvamT. zogierTi es kanoni ar vrceldeba im adamianebze, romlebic dabadebuli arian feris SegrZnebis garkveuli anomaliiT. ferTa sibrmave aris ferebis garCevisYnawilobrivi an sruli uunaroba. mwvane, wiTeli da Savi feris droSaze Tvalebis fiqsirebisas Tqven ar gagiCndebaT negatiuri optikuri kvali, Tuki ferTa sibrmave gaqvT. ferTa sibrmave, Cveulebriv, memkvidreobiT gadaecema. es defeqti dakavSirebulia X qromosomis genTan. radgan mamakacebs mxolod erTi X qromosoma aqvT, maT am recesiuli Taviseburebis gamovlenis ufro meti Sansi aqvT, vidre qalebs. qalebs defeqturi geni orive X qromosomaze unda hqondeT, rom gamouvlindeT ferTa sibrmave. kavkasiel mamakacTa 8%-s da qalTa 0.5%-ze naklebs axasiaTebT ferTa sibrmave (Coren et al., 1999).
qarTul fsiqologiur literaturaSi naxsenebia, rogorc ferTa Serevis meore kanoni (red. SeniSvna).
1

yvelaze xSiria nawilobriv ferTa sibrmavis is saxe, roca adamians uWirs mwvane da wiTeli ferebis garCeva, gansakuTrebiT, Tu isini susti simaZRris arian. ufro iSviaTad gvxvdeba xalxi, romelic erTmaneTSi yviTel da lurj ferebs urevs. yvelaze iSviaTi ki sruli ferTa sibrmavis SemTxvevebia, roca adamiani saerTod ver arCevs ferebs da mxolod sinaTlis xarisxis sxvadasxva variacias xedavs (mister i-is SemTxveva, romelic naxsenebi iyo am Tavis dasawyisSi, sakmaod uCveuloa, radgan misi ferTa sruli sibrmave Tavis tvinis dazianebiT iyo gamowveuli 65 wlis asakSi). imis gasagebad, gaqvT Tu ara raime defeqti ferTa SegrZnebaSi, SexedeT suraTs 4.11. Tuki Tqven dainaxavT cifrebs 1-s da 5-s am wertilebis erTobliobaSi, Tqveni feradi mxedveloba, albaT, normaluria. Tuki dainaxavT kidev raimes, albaT, gaxasiaTebT, sul cota, ferTa nawilobrivi sibrmave (CautareT es testi sxvebsac, kerZod, imaT, visac FferTa sibrmave axasiaTebs da gaigebT, ras xedaven isini am testSi). axla vnaxoT, Tu rogor xsnian mecnierebi ferTa aRqmis iseT faqtebs, rogoricaa Semavsebeli ferebi da ferTa sibrmave.

ferTa SegrZnebis Teoriebi


ferTa SegrZnebis pirveli mecnieruli Teoria SemoTavazebuli iyo ser tomas iungis (Sir Thomas Young) mier 1800 wels. is amtkicebda, rom arsebobs feris SemgrZnebi sami tipis receptori normaluri mxedvelobis mqone adamianis TvalSi, romelic warmoqmnis fsiqologiurad pirvelad SegrZnebebs: wiTels, mwvanesa da lurjs. yvela danarCeni feri, misi azriT, am sami pirveladi ferisagan miiReboda, rogorc Semavsebeli ferebis an ori mosazRvre feris kombinaciis Sedegi. iungis Teoria Semdgom gaaumjobesa da gaafarTova herman von helmholcma (Hermann von Helmholtz) da cnobili gaxda, rogorc iung-helmholcis triqromatuli Teoria.2 triqromatuli Teoria sakmaod damajereblad xsnida adamianis ferTa SegrZnebebs da ferTa sibrmavesac (am Teoriis Tanaxmad, ferTa sibrmavis SemTxvevaSi adamianebs mxolod erTi an ori tipis receptorebi aqvT). Tumca, sxva mov-

118

2 qarTul fsiqologiur literaturaSi moxseniebulia, rogorc `sami komponentis Teoria~ (red. SeniSvna).

suraTi

4.11

ferTa sibrmavis testi


pirovneba, romelsac ar SeuZlia wiTeli da mwvane ferebis gansxvaveba, ver SeZlebs figuraSi damaluli cifrebis identificirebas. ras xedavT? Tu k i T q v e n x e d a v T r i c x v 1 7 - s wertilebis simravleSi, Tqveni ferTa SegrZneba albaT normaluria.

saidan viciT
kolbebi upiratesobas aniWeben garkveuli talRis sigrZes mxedvelobiTi procesebis mkvlevrebma ganaviTares teqnika, romlis saSualebiTac xdeba calkeuli kolbebis eleqtruli aqtivobis analizi. maimuni makakas kolbis ujredebi gamowovil~ iqna

triqromatuli Teoriis (trichromatic theory) Tanaxmad, arsebobs feris SemgrZnebi receptorebis sami tipi, romlebic warmoqmnian pirveladi ferebis _ wiTlis, mwvanis da lurjis SegrZnebas.

mxedvelobis sistema

lenebi ar aixsneba aseve kargad am Teoriis mier. ratom warmoqmnis erTi feris mimarT adaptacia negatiur Tanamimdevar kvals? ratom aqvT nawilobrivi ferTa sibrmavis mqone adamianebs sirTuleebi yovelTvis ferTa wyvilebis garCevisas: wiTlisa da mwvanis, lurjisa da yviTlis? am kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema gaxda qvakuTxedi ferTa SegrZnebis meore TeoriisaTvis, romelic SemoTavazebuli iyo evald heringis (Ewald Hering) mier 1800-iani wlebis bolos. misi sawinaaRmdego procesis Teoriis Tanaxmad, nebismieri feris SegrZneba sami ZiriTadi sistemisgan miiReba, romelTagan TiToeuli Seicavs or sawinaaRmdego elements: wiTeli mwvanis sapirispirod, lurji yviTlis sapirispirod da Savi (arc erTi feri) TeTris (yvela feri) sapirispirod. heringi fiqrobda, rom ferebi warmoqmnian maTi Semavsebeli feris mqone Tanamimdevar kvals, roca am sistemis erTi elementi gadaiRleba (xangrZlivi stimulaciis pirobebSi) da, amrigad, gaizrdeba misi oponenturi elementis SefardebiTi wvlili.

heringis TeoriaSi ferTa sibrmavis tipebi qmnian wyvilebs, radgan ferTa SegrZnebis sistema realurad aris Seqmnili sapirispiro wyvilebisagan da ara erTi pirveladi ferisagan. mravali wlis manZilze kamaTobdnen mecnierebi am Teoriebis Rirsebis Sesaxeb. sabolood maT aRiares, rom es Teoriebi realurad ar ewinaaRmdegebian erTmaneTs. isini ubralod procesis or sxvadasxva etaps aRweren, romelic Seesabameba suqcesiur fiziologiur struqturebs mxedvelobiT sistemaSi (Hurvich & Jameson, 1974). axla viciT, rom marTlac arsebobs sami tipis kolbebi, Tumca, am kolbebidan TiToeuli garkveuli sigrZis talRebis diapazonze reagirebs da mainc arsebobs talRis is sigrZe, romlis mimarTac TiToeuli maTgani yvelaze metad aris mgrZnobiare.

119

specialuri minis miliT, romlis diametric iyo adamianis Tmis Reris diametris 1/25-ze naklebi. sxvadasxva sigrZis sinaTlis talRas anaTebdnen milSi, eleqtruli signalis Zalas, romelsac gamoasxivebda kolbis ujredebi, jer zrdidnen da Semdeg zomavdnen. am teqnikis gamoyenebiT mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines, rom zogierTi ujredi yvelaze kargad reagirebs 435 nanometris (nm) sigrZis talRis diapazonSi (lurji~ ujredebi), zogi _ 535 nanometris (mwvane~ ujredebi) da zogi ki 570 nanometris (wiTeli~ ujredebi) sigrZis talRis diapazonSi (Baylor, 1987).

wiTel-mwvane oponenturi sistemis fiziologiur baziss. sxva gangliozuri ujredebi qmnian lurj-yviTel oponentur sistemas. sistema TeTri-Savi Tqven mier ferebis simaZRrisa da sinaTlis xarisxis aRqmaSi monawileobs.

vizualuri obieqtebis kompleqsuri analizi


samyaros ferebis aRqma mxolod mcire nawilia im kompleqsuri amocanisa, romelic Tqveni vizualuri sistemis winaSe dgas. Tuki fexburTis burTis daWera an krazanebis budisTvis Tavis arideba gindaT, Tqven unda SeamCnioT am obieqtebis iersaxe an forma, maTi siRrme an daSoreba da maTi moZraoba sivrceSi. Tqveni vizualuri sistema moicavs ramdenime gancalkevebul da damoukidebel qvesistemas, romelic erTi da igive retinaluri xatis sxvadasxva aspeqts aanalizebs. neironebis calkeul jgufebs aqvT unikaluri Tvisebebi, dasabami misces feris, formis, kontrastis, moZraobisa da teqsturis aRqmas (Livingstone & Hubel, 1988; Vinjie& Gallant, 2000). Tumca, Tqveni aRqma, saboloo jamSi, erTian vizualur suraTs warmoadgens. Tqven mier misi danaxva ganpirobebulia uamravi nervuli gzebiT Tqvens vizualur sistemaSi, romelic normalur pirobebSi uaRresad faqizadaa koordinirebuli (Merigan & Maunsell, 1993). Tqven SeiZleba gaigoT, Tu rogor mimdinareobs rTuli vizualuri analizi erTi faqtis magaliTze: vizualuri nervuli gzebis TiToul doneze ujredebi reagireben seleqtiurad vizualuri velis mxolod specifiur nawilebze. magaliTad, adre aRvniSneT, rom TiToeuli retinaluri gangliozuri ujredi mravali receptoruli ujredidan miRebul informacias aerTianebs. ujredis receptoruli veli es aris adgili vizualur velSi, saidanac is iRebs stimulacias. retinaluri gangliozuri ujredebis receptoruli veli ori tipisaa (ix. sur. 4.12, A da B nawilebi): (1) is ujredebi, romelTa stimulacia velis centrSi aRagznebs ujreds, romlis stimulacia garSemo mdebare nawilebSi masSi Sekavebis process iwvevs; (2) ujredebi sapirispiro organizaciiT _ Sekavebis procesiT cen-

am tipis kolbebis reaqcia eTanxmeba iungisa da helmholcis hipoTezas, rom ferTa SegrZneba sami tipis mxedvelobiT receptorebs efuZneba. adamianebs, romlebTac axasiaTebT ferTa sibrmave, aqvT erTi an meti am tipis receptoruli kolbebis defeqti. Cven, agreTve, viciT, rom retinaluri gangliozuri ujredebi axdens am sami tipis kolbebidan gamomavali signalis kombinirebas heringis sawinaaRmdego procesebis Teoriis Tanaxmad (De Valois & Jacobs, 1968). sawinaaRmdego procesebis Teoriis Tanamedrove versiiT, romelsac mxars uWeren leo harviCi da doroti jamesoni (Leo Hurvich & Dorothea Jameson, 1974), ferTa TiToeuli wyvilis ori wevri erTmaneTis sapirispirod (arian oponentebi), moqmedebs nervuli Sekavebis procesis saSualebiT. zogierTi gangliozuri ujredi aRmgzneb signals sinaTlidan iRebs, romelic wiTlad Cans da Sekavebis signals im sinaTlidan, romelic mwvaned Cans. sistemis sxva ujredebs aRgznebisa da Sekavebis procesebis sapirispiro wesrigi aqvT. gangliozuri ujredebis es ori tipi erTad qmnis
Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

sawinaaRmdego procesebis Teoria (opponent-process theory) _ nebismieri feris SegrZneba miiReba sami sistemisagan, romelTagan TiToeuli Seicavs or oponentur~ elements (wiTeli mwvanis sapirispirod, lurji yviTlis sapirispirod da Savi TeTris sapirispirod). receptoruli veli (receptive field) _ adgili mxedvelobiT velSi, saidanac mocemuli gangliozuri ujredi iRebs informacias.

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suraTi

4.12

gangliozuri da qerquli ujredebis receptoruli velebi


ujredis receptoruli veli aris vizualuri velis are, romlidanac is iRebs stimulacias. baduras gangliozuri ujredebis receptoruli velebi aris wriuli formis (A, B); mxedvelobiTi qerqis umartivesi ujredebi garkveuli mimarTulebiTaa wagrZelebuli (C, D, E, F). orive SemTxvevaSi, is adgili, sadac sinaTle aRagznebs ujreds, aRniSnulia plus niSniT da sadac iwvevs Sekavebis process, aRniSnulia minus niSniT. amasTanave, stimuli, romelic yvelaze metad aRagznebs ujreds, aris is, romelSic areebi, sadac sinaTle aRmgznebia (aRniSnulia `+~ niSniT), aris

trSi da aRgznebis procesiT periferiaze. gangliozuri ujredebi mis centrsa da periferias Soris stimulaciis sxvaobaze reagireben. isini yvelaze metad aRigznebian stimulebis kontrastiT; on-centris mqone ujredebi yvelaze Zlierad ganimuxtebian naTel laqaze, romelsac bneli sazRvrebi aqvs, xolo off-centris mqone ujredebi energiulad ganimuxtebian bnel laqaze, romelsac naTeli sazRvrebi aqvs. erTnairi ganaTeba ki centrisa da periferiis aqtivobis gabaTilebas iwvevs da ujredi ar aris imdenad aRgznebuli, rogorc es naTeli laqis SemTxvevaSi xdeba. axla Tqven gaecaniT vizualuri informaciis gadamuSavebis Taviseburebebs receptoruli da gangliozuri ujredebis doneze, magram ra xdeba vizualuri sistemis ufro maRal doneebze? pirveli naSromi am sferoSi devid hiubelsa da torsten vizels (David Hubel & Torsten Wiesel) _ sensoruli procesebis fiziologebs _ ekuTvniT. 1981 wels maT nobelis premia moipoves receptoruli velebis ujredebis SeswavlisaTvis mxedvelobiT qerqSi. vizelma da hiubelma moaxerxes katis mxedvelobiTi qerqis calkeuli ujredebis ganmuxtvis registracia, romlebic vizualur velSi moZrav laqebsa da zolebze reagirebdnen. roca hiubelma da vizelma agegmes

am qerquli ujredebis receptoruli velebi, maT aRmoaCines ujredebis organizacia, romelic ufro zustad reagirebda garkveul vizualur stimulaciaze (Hubel & Wiesel, 1962, 1979). erTi tipis qerquli ujredebi, martivi ujredebi yvelaze Zlierad reagirebdnen gansazRvruli, maTTvis gamorCeuli~ orientaciis mqone sinaTlis zolebze (ix. sur. 4.12). kompleqsur ujredebs, agreTve, hqondaT arCeuli erTi, maTTvis gamorCeuli~ orientacia, magram isini moZraobis garkveul mimarTulebasac irCevdnen. hiperkompleqsuri ujredebi ki specializebulni iyvnen gansazRvruli orientaciisa da sigrZis mqone moZrav zolebze an moZrav kuTxeebze. ujredebi gansxvavebuli saxis informacias agzavnian Tavis tvinis ufro maRali donis mxedvelobiT centrebSi, rac maqsimalurad exmareba tvins obieqtebis cnobaSi. am nawilSi yuradReba gavamaxvileTG vizualuri sistemis reaqciaze garemodan miRebuli gaRizianebisas. mexuTe TavSi davinaxavT, rom adamianTa aRqma Zalian xSirad warmoadgens garemodan miRebuli informaciis _ sinaTlis talRebis, romelic aRwevs Tvals _ da informaciis Sida wyaros kombinacias _ codnas, romelic ukve Senaxulia tvinSi. axla bgeraTa samyaro ganvixiloT.

mxedvelobis sistema

121

Sejameba
adamianis Tvali fotoaparatis msgavsad funqcionirebs: sinaTle fokusirdeba Tvalis brolis mier baduraze. swored baduraze xdeba sinaTlis energiis ZiriTadi gardaqmna nervul aqtivobad. baduraze mdebare receptorebi Cxirebi _ susti ganaTebis pirobebSi funqcionireben, kolbebi ki naTel, ferad garemoSi samuSaod da sivrciTi detalebis garCevaSi specializdebian. baduradan miRebuli informacia Tavis tvinisaken agrZelebs gzas gadamuSavebis doneebis mTeli seriis gavliT, romelTa saSualebiT xdeba informaciis seleqcia obieqtebis identifikaciisa da maTi mdebareobis gansazRvris mizniT. brma mxedvelobis fenomenma vizualuri analizis gansxvavebuli tipebis arseboba daadastura. feris aRqma ganpirobebulia sinaTlis talRis sxvadasxva sigrZiT da mas sami ZiriTadi Tviseba axasiaTebs: feris toni, simaZRre da sikaSkaSe. ferTa Serevis niutonis kanonebis Tanaxmad, sxvadasxva sigrZis talRis kombinacia gansxvavebuli feris SegrZnebas qmnis. ferTa sibrmave sxvadasxva xarisxisaa. iSviaTia ferTa sruli sibrmave. feradi mxedvelobis mkvlevrebi mxars uWeren rogorc triqromatul Teorias, ise, oponent-procesualur Teorias. vizualur sistemas sami tipis kolbebi aqvs, romlebic upiratesobas aniWeben gansxvavebuli talRis sigrZeebs. es sami tipis kolbebi erTiandebian informaciis gadamuSavebis ufro maRal doneze da dasabams aZleven oponent-procesualur fenomens. vizualuri analizis zogierTi saxe gangliozuri ujredebis receptorul velebs efuZneba, zogi ki ufro maRali donis ujredebis mier arCeul specializacias _ obieqtTa mdebareobis, orientaciis da moZraobis mimarTulebis mixedviT.

tebis, magaliTad, kedlebis miRma arian moTavsebulni. miuxedavad imisa, rom mxedveloba ufro srulyofili saSualebaa im obieqtis identificirebisaTvis, romelic erTxel mainc moxvda mxedvelobis velSi, vidre smena, Cven xSirad mxolod imitom vxedavT obieqtebs, rom Cvenma yurebma Tvalebs swori mimarTuleba miuTiTes. smeniTi procesebis ganxilvas im fizikuri energiis saxeebis ganxilviT daviwyebT, romelic Cvens yurebamde aRwevs.

bgeris fizika
SemohkariT taSi; daustvineT; daakakuneT fanqriT magidaze. ratom warmoqmnis es moqmedebebi bgerebs? amis mizezi isaa, rom isini obieqtebis rxevas iwveven. rxevis energia gadaecema garemos, Cveulebriv, haers, rogorc ki rxevadi obieqtebi ubiZgeben garemos molekulebs. amiT gamowveuli wnevis mcire cvlilebebi vrceldeba rxevadi obieqtidan garemoSi sinusoiduri talRebis erTobliobis saxiT, romelic 335 metri wamSi siCqariT moZraobs (ix. sur. 4.13). bgera ar SeiZleba gaCndes srul vakuumSi (magaliTad, kosmosur sivrceSi), radgan iq ar aris haeris molekulebi, romelTac aamoZravebda rxevadi obieqti. sinusoidur talRas ori ZiriTadi fizikuri Tviseba aqvs, romelic gansazRvravs mis JReradobas, esenia: ixSire da amplituda. sixSire izomeba rxevaTa im raodenobiT, romelsac asrulebs talRa drois mocemul SualedSi. rxeva, rogorc miTiTebulia suraTze 4.13, aris manZili marcxnidan marjvniv erTi talRis pikidan momdevno talRis pikamde. bgeris sixSire, Cveulebriv, gamoisaxeba hercebSi (hc), romelic zomavs rxevaTa raodenobas erT wamSi. amplituda zomavs bgeriTi talRis siZlieris fizikur Tvisebas _ simaRles pikidan dadablebamde. amplituda ganisazRvreba bgeris wnevis an energiis erTeulebiT.

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

smena
Tqven mier samyaros gancdisas smena da mxedveloba erTmaneTis Semavsebel funqciebs asrulebs. Tqven xSirad gesmiT stimulebi, sanam dainaxavT maT, gansakuTrebiT maSin, Tuki isini Tqven ukan mdebareoben an gaumWvirvale obieq-

bgeris fsiqologiuri ganzomilebebi


sixSirisa da amplitudis fizikuri Tvisebebi dasabams aZlevs bgeris sam ZiriTad ganzo-

122

sixSiris skalis dabali maCveneblebisas sixSiris zrda mxolod ramdenime herciT iwvevs bgeriTi tonis SesamCnev cvlilebas, xolo sixSiris skalis maRali maCveneblebis SemTxvevaSi, Tqven gacilebiT metad unda gazardoT sixSire, raTa SeamCnioT gansxvaveba sixSireSi. magaliTad, fortepianos ori yvelaze dabali noti erTmaneTisagan mxolod 1.6 herciT gansxvavdeba maSin, roca ori yvelaze maRali noti gansxvavdeba 235 herciT. es aris odnav SesamCnevi sxvaobis kidev erTi magaliTi fsiqofizikaSi.

bgeris siZliere
bgeris siZliere anu fizikuri intensivoba misi amplitudiT ganisazRvreba. didi amplitudis bgeriTi talRebi ganicdeba, rogorc xmamaRali, mcire amplitudisa ki _ rogorc xmadabali. adamianis smeniTi sistema mgrZnobiarea fizikuri intensivobebis uzarmazari diapazonis mimarT. majis saaTis wikwikis xma, romelic daaxloebiT 6 metris manZilidan gvesmis, intensivobis qveda zRvarze mdebareobs. es aris sistemis absoluturi zRurbli. Tuki is ufro mgrZnobiarea, SeiZleba gaigonoT sisxlis moZraobis xmac Tqvens yurebSi. intensivobis zeda zRvarze mdebared ki SeiZleba ganvixiloT reaqtiuli TviTmfrinavis xma, romelic daaxloebiT 90 metris simaRleze mifrinavs. es xma imdenad Zlieri iqneba, rom tkivilsac ki gamoiwvevs yurebSi. bgeris wnevis fizikuri erTeulebis terminebiT, reaqtiuli TviTmfrinavi warmoqmnis bgeriT talRas, romelic miliardjer ufro Zlieria, vidre saaTis wikwiki. radgan smeniTi diapazoni Zalian didia, bgeris fizikuri intensivobis diapazoni, Cveulebriv, ufro SefardebiTi, vidre absoluturi odenobis erTeulebiT gamoixateba. bgeris wneva

suraTi

4.13

sinusoiduri talRis warmodgena sinusoiduri talRis ori ZiriTadi Tviseba aris sixSire _ rxevaTa raodenoba drois fiqsirebul erTeulSi da misi amplituda _ rxevis vertikaluri diapazoni.

milebas1 _ bgeris tonis simaRles, siZlieresa da tembrs. axla detalurad ganvixiloT es movlenebi.

bgeris tonis simaRle


bgeris tonis simaRle ganisazRvreba bgeriTi talRis rxevis sixSiriT. maRali sixSireebi warmoqmnian maRal tonebs, dabali sixSireebi ki _ dabal tonebs. sufTa2 tonebis mimarT adamianis mgrZnobiaroba 20 hercis sixSiridan 20 000 h e r c i s s i x S i r e m d e d i a p a z o n S i cvalebadobs. 20 hercze dabali sixSireebi adamianma SeiZleba vibraciis saxiT SeigrZnos ufro Sexebis, vidre bgeris saSualebiT. Tqven advilad warmoidgenT, Tu ramdenad didia es diapazoni, Tuki gaiTvaliswinebT, rom fortepianos 88 klaviSi mxolod 30 hercidan 4000 hercamde sixSiris diapazons faravs. rogorc fsiqofizikidan gaxsovT, kavSiri sixSiresa (fizikur realobas) da bgeriT tons (fsiqologiur efeqts) Soris ar aris wrfivi.
Tvisebas (mTargmnelis SeniSvna) sufTa tonebs, agreTve, martiv tonebs, an wminda tonebs uwodeben (mTargmnelis SeniSvna).
2 1

bgeris tonis simaRle (pitch) _ Tviseba, romelic, ZiriTadad, bgeriTi talRis rxevis sixSiriT ganisazRvreba. bgeris siZliere (loudness) _ bgeris perceptuli Tviseba, romelic gamoxatavs bgeriTi talRis amplitudas; didi amplitudis bgeriTi talRa saerTod ganicdeba rogorc xmamaRali, xolo mcire amplitudis bgeriTi talRa _ rogorc xmadabali.
smena

123

_ misi amplitudis donis maCvenebeli, rac iwvevs xmamaRlobis gancdas _ izomeba erTeuliT, romelsac decibali (db) ewodeba. suraTze 4.14 naCvenebia zogierTi tipuri bunebrivi bgeris intensivobis sidide decibalebiT da bgeris wnevis Sesatyvisi erTeulebiT (dini/sm2) SedarebisaTvis. rogorc xedavT, or bgeras, romelic 20 decibaliT gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan, aqvT bgeris wnevis Sefardeba 10/1 proporciiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom 90 decibalze xmamaRalma bgerebma SeiZleba smenis dakargva gamoiwvios. es maTi eqspoziciis xangrZlivobazea damokidebuli.

tembri
bgeris tembri rTuli bgeris talRis komponentebs asaxavs. tembri aris is, rac ganasxvavebs, magaliTad, fortepianos xmas fleitis xmisagan. fizikuri stimulebis mcire raodenoba, magaliTad, kamertoni gamoscems sufTa tons, romelic erTi sinusoiduri talRisgan Sedgeba. sufTa tons mxolod erTi sixSire da erTi amplituda aqvs. bgeraTa umetesoba realur cxovrebaSi ar aris sufTa toni. isini kompleqsuri talRebia, romlebic sixSirisa da amplitudis garkveul kombinacias Seicaven. suraTze

4.15 naCvenebia rTuli talRebis formebi, romelic ramdenime nacnob bgeras Seesatyviseba. 4.15 suraTze mocemuli grafiki gviCvenebs bgeraTa speqtrs fortepianos noti mi~-sTvis

suraTi

4.14

nacnobi bgerebis doneebi decibalebSi


naxazze naCvenebia bgeraTa diapazoni decbalebSi, romelzedac reagirebs adamianis smeniTi aparati absoluturi zRurblidan raketis gafrenis xmamde. decibalebi gamoTvlilia bgeris wnevis saSualebiT, romelic aris bgeriTi talRis amplitudis donis maCvenebeli da zogadad Seesatyviseba imas, rasac adamiani ganicdis, rogorc bgeris xmamaRlobas.

124

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

suraTi

4.15

nacnobi bgerebis talRis formebi


es naxazi gviCvenebs nacnobi bgerebis talRis formebsa da bgeris speqtrs pianinos noti `mi~-saTvis. ZiriTadi talRis sigrZe aris nawarmoebi ZiriTadi sixSirisagan, am SemTxvevaSi 256 herci, magram pianinos simebi, agreTve, vibrirebs ufro maRal sixSireebzec (romelic cnobilia, rogorc obertonebi anu harmonikebi). isini qmnian kbilanebs talRis nimuSze. es damatebiTi sixsireebi identificirebulia bgeriT speqtrSi.

smenis fiziologia
axla Tqven ukve gaqvT garkveuli informacia bgeraTa fsiqologiuri gancdebis fizikuri safuZvlebis Sesaxeb. axla ganvixiloT, Tu

tembri (timbre) _ smeniTi SegrZnebis Tviseba, romelic asaxavs bgeriTi talRis sirTules.

smenasakvanZo sakiTxebi

(pirveli oqtava); yvela sixSires, romelic realurad warmodgenilia am notSi da maT amplitudebs. kompleqsur tonSi, rogoricaa magaliTad, noti mi~, yvelaze dabali sixSire (daaxloebiT 256 hc) pasuxismgebelia im tonze, romelic Tqven gesmiT. mas ZiriTad tons uwodeben, ufro maRali sixSiris tonebs ki _ harmonikebs, an obertonebs; maTi sixSire ramdenjerme aRemateba ZiriTadi rxevis sixSires. sruli bgera, romelic Tqven gesmiT, ZiriTadi bgerebisa da harmonikebis erToblivi moqmedebis Sedegad warmoiqmneba, rogorc naCvenebia speqtrSi. Tuki am sixSiris sufTa tonebi da intensivobebi erTmaneTs daemateba, amis Sedegad Tqven gaigonebT bgeras,

romelic JRers ise, rogorc noti mi~ fortepianoze. bgerebs, romelTac Tqven xmaurs uwodebT, ar aqvT ZiriTadi sixSireebisa da harmonikebis naTeli, martivi struqtura. xmauri Seicavs mraval sixSires, romelic ar aris sistematurad dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan. magaliTad, stacionaruli xmauri, romelic Tqven radiosadgurebs Soris gesmiT, Seicavs yvela smenadi sixSiris energias; Tqven mas aRiqvamT ise, TiTqos ar hqondes simaRle, radgan mas ar aqvs ZiriTadi sixSire.

125

rogor aRmocendeba es gancdebi smeniTi sistemis fiziologiuri aqtivobisagan. pirvel rigSi, vnaxoT, Tu rogor muSaobs yuri. Semdeg ganvixilavT zogierT Teorias smeniT sistemaSi bgeriTi tonis simaRlis kodirebisa da bgerebis lokalizaciis Sesaxeb.

smenis sistema
Tqven ukve iciT, rom sensoruli procesebi axdens eqsternaluri energiis formebis gardaqmnas nervul impulsebad. imisaTvis, rom gaigonoT, unda moxdes ZiriTadi energiis oTxi transformacia (ix. sur. 4.16): (1) haerSi gavrcelebuli talRebi unda gardaiqmnas siTxis talRebad, romelic moTavsebulia yuris lokokinaSi; (2) siTxis talRebi Semdeg iwveven

ZiriTadi membranis meqanikur rxevas; (3) es rxevebi gardaiqmneba eleqtrul impulsebad da (4) impulsebi gadaigzavneba smeniT qerqSi. TiToeuli es transformacia ufro detalurad ganvixiloT. pirveli transformaciisas haeris rxevadi molekulebi Sedian yurebSi (ix. suraTi 4.16). zogierTi bgera Sedis pirdapir yuris gareTa sasmen milSi da zogi ki _ gareTa yuridan anu niJaridan arekvlis Semdeg. bgeriTi talRa mogzaurobs sasmeni milis gaswvriv gareTa yuris gavliT, sanam ar miaRwevs milis bolos. aq is ejaxeba Txel membranas, romelsac dafis apks uwodeben. bgeriTi talRis wnevis cvlilebebs dafis apki moZraobaSi mohyavs. dafis apki gadascems rxevas gare yuridan Sua yurSi, RruSi, romelic Seicavs sam umciresi zomis Zvals

suraTi
Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

4.16

adamianis yuris agebuleba


bgeriTi talRebi miemarTeba gareTa yuris, anu niJaris saSualebiT, gareTa sasmeni milis gavliT da iwvevs dafis apkis rxevas, am rxevas moqmedebaSi mohyavs Sua yuris patara Zvlebi _ CaquCi, grdemli da uzangi. meqanikuri rxevebi gadaecema ovaluri sarkmlis saSualebiT lokokinas. maT moZraobaSi mohyavT mis RruSi arsebuli siTxe.patara bewviani ujredebi ganlagebuli arian ZiriTadi membranis gaswvriv lokokinaSi da irxevian siTxis moZraobaze, riTac axdenen maTTan uSualod dakavSirebuli nervuli daboloebebis stimulirebas. amis Semdeg meqanikuri energia gardaiqmneba nervul energiaSi da egzavneba tvins smeniTi nervis saSualebiT.

126

romelic mdebareobs ovalur sarkmelTan, lokokinas fuZesTan axlos, lokokinaSi mdebare siTxe iwvevs ZiriTadi membranis talRisebr moZraobas (rogorc zemoT iyo naxsenebi, zRvis talRebs~). energiis mesame gardaqmnisas ZiriTadi membranis talRisebri moZraoba arxevs masTan dakavSirebul patara bewvian ujredebs. bewviani ujredebi smeniTi sistemis receptoruli ujredebia. bewviani ujredebis rxeva nervuli daboloebebis stimulirebas iwvevs da axdens ZiriTadi membranis meqanikuri rxevebis gardaqmnas nervul aqtivobaSi. sabolood, energiis meoTxe gardaqmnisas, boWkoebis konaSi gamavali nervuli impulsebi toveben lokokinas. es boWkoebi warmoadgenen smenis nervs. isini xvdebian Tavis tvinis fuZeSi mdebare lokokinas birTvebs. vizualur sistemaSi nervebis gadakveTis msgavsad, erTi yuridan momavali gaRizianeba gadaecema Tavis tvinis orive nawils. smeniTi signalebi gaivlian sxva birTvebis mTel rigs da miaRweven smeniT qerqs, romelic Tavis tvinis naxevarsferoebis safeTqlis wilSi mdebareobs. am signalebis maRali donis gadamuSaveba smeniT qerqSi iwyeba (rogorc Semdeg naxavT, yuris sxva nawilebi, romelic gamosaxulia suraTze 4.16, sxva SegrZnebebis aRmocenebaSi monawileoben). es oTxi gardaqmna srulyofilad momuSave smeniT sistemaSi xdeba. milionobiT adamians aqvs darRvevebi smeniTi sistemaSi. arsebobs smeniTi darRvevebis ori zogadi tipi, TiToeuli gamowveulia smeniTi sistemis erTi an meti komponentis defeqtiT. naklebad seriozuli dazianebaa siyrue, romelic dakavSirebulia lokokinisaken haeris rxevebis gamtarobasTan. am tipis dazianebis dros xSirad Sua yuris Zvlebi ar funqcionirebs Sesabamisad. am defeqtis gamosworeba SesaZlebelia mikroqirurgiuli gziT xelovnuri grdemlisa da uzangis CasmiT. ufro seriozuli tipis dazianebaa nervuli siyrue, anu defeqti im nervul meqanizmebSi, romelic warmoqmnis nervul impulsebs yurSi an gadaaqvs isini smeniT qerqSi. smeniTi qerqis dazianeba, agreTve, warmoqmnis nervul siyrues.

adamianis sxeulSi: CaquCs, grdemls da uzangs. es Zvlebi ayalibeben meqanikur jaWvs, romelic gadascems rxevas da axdens mis koncentrirebas dafis apkidan smenis ZiriTadi organosaken _ lokokinisaken, romelic moTavsebulia Sida yurSi. meore transformaciisas, romelic lokokinaSi xdeba, haerSi gavrcelebuli talRebi gadaiqceva zRvis talRebad~. lokokina siTxiT gavsebuli spiralurad daxveuli milia. mas aqvs membrana, romelic cnobilia ZiriTadi membranis saxeliT. is ganTavsebulia mis Sua nawilSi mTeli sigrZis gaswvriv. roca irxeva uzangi,
lokokina (cochlea) _ smenis ZiriTadi organo; siTxiT gavsebuli spiralurad daxveuli mili, romelic moTavsebulia Sida yurSi. ZiriTadi membrana (basilar membrane) _ mdebareobs lokokinaSi, roca is modis moZraobaSi, iwvevs bewviani ujredebis stimulirebas (aRizinaebs maT), romlebic warmoqmnian smeniTi gaRizianebis nervul efeqtebs. smenis nervi (auditory nerve) _ atarebs impulss lokokinidan tvinSi mdebare lokokinis birTvebSi. smeniTi qerqi (auditory cortex) _ safeTqlis wilis are, romelic iRebs da amuSavebs smeniT informacias.

smena

127

bgeriTi tonis aRqmis Teoriebi


arsebobs ori gansxvavebuli Teoria, romelic xsnis, Tu rogor xdeba smeniT sistemaSi bgeriTi talRis gardaqmna bgeriTi tonis SegrZnebad: adgilis Teoria da sixSiris Teoria. adgilis Teoria Tavidan SemoTavazebuli iyo fon herman helmholcis (Hermann von Helmholtz) mier 1800 wels da Semdeg georg von bekesis (Georg von Bekesy) mier iqna modificirebuli, gadamuSavebuli da Semowmebuli. man am kvlevisaTvis 1961 wels nobelis premia aiRo. adgilis Teoria efuZneba im faqts, rom ZiriTadi membrana moZraobs, roca bgeriTi talRa Semodis Sida yurSi. sxvadasxva sixSire ZiriTadi membranis gaswvriv garkveuli adgilis amoZravebas iwvevs. maRali sixSiris tonebi yvelaze did talRur moZraobas iwveven lokokinis fuZesTan, sadac ovaluri da mrgvali sarkmlebi arian ganlagebulni. dabali sixSiris tonebi yvelaze did talRur moZraobas iwveven ZiriTadi membranis mopirdapire boloSi. amrigad, adgilis Teoria amtikicebs, rom bgeriTi tonis simaRlis aRqma damokidebulia ZiriTadi membranis im garkveul adgilze, romelic yvelaze metad Riziandeba. meore, sixSiris Teoria, bgeriTi tonis simaRles ZiriTadi membranis rxevis siswrafiT xsnis. es Teoria varaudobs, rom 100 hercis sixSiris bgeriTi talRa iwvevs ZiriTadi membranis rxevas 100-jer wamSi. sixSiris Teoria, agreTve, amtkicebs, rom ZiriTadi membranis rxevebi iwveven neironebis ganmuxtvas imave siCqariT, ase rom, ganmuxtvis siCqare bgeriTi tonis simaRlis nervuli kodia. erTi problema, romelic am dros Cndeba, isaa, rom individualur neironebs ar SeuZliaT im siswrafiT ganmuxtva, rom maRali bgerebi warmoadginon, radgan arc erT maTgans
adgilis Teoria (place theory) _ sxvadasxva sixSiris toni qmnis aqtivaciis maqsimums ZiriTadi membranis sxvadasxva adgilebSi, ris Sedegad bgeriTi tonis simaRle SeiZleba kodirebuli iyos im adgilis mixedviT, romlis aqtivaciac moxda. sixSiris Teoria (frequency theory) _ toni warmoqmnis im siCqaris rxevas ZiriTad membranaSi, romelic ekvivalenturia misi sixSirisa, ris Sedegad, bgeriTi tonis simaRle SeiZleba kodirebuli iyos nervuli reaqciis sixSiriT.

suraTi

4.17

zalpis principi
smeniTi nervuli ujredebis jamur koleqtiur aqtivobas aqvs igive struqtura, rac Semosul bgeriT talRas, maSinac ki, roca TiToeul calkeul boWkos SeiZleba ar hqondes sakmarisad swrafi ganmuxtva, rom Tan axldes bgeriTi talRis struqturas.

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

ar SeuZlia ganmuxtva ufro meti siCqariT, vidre 1000-jer wamSi. amis gamo, erT neirons ar SeuZlia ganasxvavos 1000 hercze meti sixSiris bgerebi, rasac Cveni smeniTi sistema sakmaod kargad axerxebs. es SezRudva SeiZleba daiZlios e.w. zalpis principiT, romelic xsnis imas, Tu ra xdeba maRal sixSireebze. rogorc naCvenebia suraTze 4.17, ramdenime neirons kombinirebuli moqmedebiT, anu zalpSi, SeuZlia ganimuxtos im sixSireze, romelic Seesabameba 2000 hc, 3000 hc da a.S. sixSiris tonebs (Wever, 1949). rogorc ferTa SegrZnebis triqromatuli da sawinaaRmdego procesebis Teoriebi, ise, adgilisa da sixSiris Teoriebi sargeblobs warmatebiT mxolod bgeraTa tonis simaRlis gancdis sxvadasxva aspeqtebisaTvis. iTvleba, rom sixSiris Teoria kargad xsnis 5000 hercze ufro dabali sixSireebis kodirebas. ufro maRali sixSireebisaTvis neironebs ar SeuZliaT ise swrafad da zustad ganmuxtva, rom adekvaturad moaxerxon signalis kodireba, zalpSic ki.
zalpis principi (volley principle) _ esaa sixSiris Teoriis ganvrcoba, romelic amtkicebs, rom, roca bgeriTi talRis sixSire aRemateba im sixSires, romliTac calkeul neirons SeuZlia ganmuxtva, ramdenime neironi ganimuxteba erTad, rogorc jgufi, Semosuli bgeris tonis simaRlis Sesatyvisi sixSiriT.

128

adgilis Teoria ufro warmatebulad xsnis bgeriTi tonis simaRlis aRqmas 1000 hercze ufro maRali sixSireebisaTvis. 1000 hercze ufro dabali sixSireebisaTvis ZiriTadi membrana imdenad farTod irxeva, rom mas ar SeuZlia uzrunvelyos signalis gansxvaveba nervuli receptorebisaTvis, romelTaTvis ZiriTadi membranis rxeva bgeriTi tonis simaRlis gansxvavebis saSualebaa. 1000 hercidan 5000 hercamde sixSiris diapazonSi orive meqanizmi muSaobs. rTuli sensoruli amocana or sistemas Soris iyofa; isini erTad gvTavazoben ufro maRal sensorul sizustes, vidre es SeeZlo uzrunveleyo mxolod erT sistemas. Cven Semdeg davinaxavT, rom adamiani flobs, agreTve, or SeTanxmebul nervul sistemas, romelic mas garemoSi bgeraTa lokalizaciis amocanis gadawyvetaSi exmareba.

bgeraTa lokalizacia
delfinebi da Ramurebi ar iyeneben mxedvelobas obieqtTa adgilmdebareobis gansazRvrisas Rrma wylis Tu mRvimis sibneleSi. amis nacvlad, isini sargebloben eqolokaciiT _ agzavnian maRali sixSiris bgerebs, romlebic aireklebian obieqtebis mier, riTac qmnian ukukavSirs da iZlevian informacias obieqtebamde manZilis, maTi adgilmdebareobis, zomebis, teqsturis da moZraobis Sesaxeb. erT-

suraTi

4.18

droiTi Seusabamoba da bgeris lokalizacia


bgeraTa sivrceSi lokalizaciis gansazRvris mizniT Tavis tvini iyenebs gansxvavebas droSi,

erTi saxeobis Ramuras SeuZlia eqolokaciis saSualebiT ganasxvavos obieqtebi, romlebic erTmaneTisagan mxolod 0.3 milimetriT arian daSorebulni (Simmons et al., 1998). miuxedavad imisa, rom adamians ar gaaCnia es specialuri unari, is mainc iyenebs bgerebs obieqtebis adgilmdebareobis gansazRvrisaTvis sivrceSi, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca maTi danaxva gaZnelebulia. es ori meqanizmis gamoyenebiT xerxdeba: im drois SedarebiTi SefasebiT, romelic saWiroa bgeris misaRwevad TiToeul yurTan da im bgerebis intensivobis SedarebiTi SefasebiT, romlebic aRweven TiToeul yurTan (Middlebrooks &Green, 1991; Phillips, 1993). pirveli meqanizmi Seicavs neironebs, romlebic adareben im droebs erTmaneTs, rac sWirdeba Semomaval bgeriT signals TiToeul yurTan misaRwevad. magaliTad, bgera, romelic lokalizdeba marjvena mxares, marjvena yurs ufro adre miaRwevs, vidre _ marcxenas (ix. wertili B suraTze 4.18). smeniTi sistemis neironebi specializebulni arian am gansxvavebis SemCnevaze. Tavis tvini iyenebs am gansxvavebas droSi, raTa gaakeTos sivrceSi bgeris SesaZlo lokalizaciis zusti Sefaseba. meore meqanizmi efuZneba im princips, rom bgeras aqvs odnav ufro didi intensivoba im yurSi, romelsac is pirvelad miaRwevs, radgan adamianis Tavi TviTon qmnis bgeriT Crdils, romelic asustebs signals. intensivobis es gansxvaveba damokidebulia im bgeriTi tonis talRis sigrZis SedarebiT zomaze, romelic aRwevs adamianis Tavamde. grZeli talRebi, anu dabali sixSiris tonebi, faqtobrivad, intensivobis araviTar gansxvavebas ar gviCveneben maSin, roca mokle talRebis, maRali sixSiris tonebis intensivobebis gansxvaveba savsebiT gazomvadia. adamianis tvinSi aris ujredebi, romlebic specializdebian im signalebis intensivobebis gansxvavebis SemCnevaze, romelic or yurSi aRmocendeba. magram ra xdeba maSin, roca bgeris wyaro Tanabrad aris daSorebuli orive yuridan, maSin xom ar SeiZleba arsebobdes arc droSi da arc intensivobaSi gansxvaveba? swored aseTi situaciaa gamosaxuli suraTze 4.18. bgera, romelic A wertilidan vrceldeba, Tanabrad aris daSorebuli orive yuridan. daxuWuli TvalebiT SeuZlebeli iqneba misi lokalizaciis zusti

smena

129

da gansxvavebas intensivobaSi, romelsac aRiqvams TiToeuli yuri.

sxva SegrZnebebi
Cven yvelaze didi dro davuTmeT mxedvelobisa da smeniTi procesebis ganxilvas, radgan es sakiTxebi yvelaze ukeT aris Seswavlili mecnierTa mier, magram sxva SegrZnebebic mniSvnelovan rols asruleben adamianis TviTgadarCenis da, aseve, garemos dauflebis unarSi. Cven mokled ganvixilavT sxva SegrZnebebs.

ynosva
Tqven, albaT, SegiZliaT warmoidginoT situacia, roca bednieri iqnebodiT ynosvis SegrZnebis dakargviT: gyoliaT rodisme ZaRli, romelsac waugia skunsTan brZola? magram Tavidan rom aviciloT skunsis sunis gancda, Cven, agreTve, unda davkargoT vardis surnelis, cxeli popkornis, zRvidan momavali sunis SegrZnebis unari. suni _ kargi Tu cudi _ pirvelad Tavis arsebobas receptoris cilebTan urTierTqmedebisas gvatyobinebs, romelic ynosvis bususebis membranaze mdebareobs (ix. sur. 4.19). mas SeuZlia miiRos nivTierebis mxolod rva molekula, raTa dasabami misces erT-erTs am nervuli impulsebidan, magram, sul mcire, 40 nervuli daboloeba unda iyos stimulirebuli, raTa SeigrZnoT nivTierebis suni. es nervuli impulsebi sunis Sesaxeb informacias ynosvis bolqvSi agzavnian, romelic ganlagebulia receptorebis zemoT da Sublis wilis qvemoT. ynosviTi procesi iwyeba qimiuri nivTierebis SesvliT ynosviTi neironebis ionur arxebSi, es ki, rogorc naxsenebi iyo mesame TavSi,
ynosvis bolqvi (olfactory bulb) _ centri, sadac ynosvis receptorebi agzavnian TavianT signalebs, romelic ganlagebulia zustad Tavis tvinis qerqis Sublis wilis qveviT. feromenebi (pheromones) _ qimiuri signalebi, romelsac gamoyofen organizmebi mocemuli saxeobis sxva wevrebTan urTierTobis dasamyareblad; xSirad funqcionireben, rogorc distanturi seqsualuri mimzidvelebi.

gansazRvra. ase rom, Tqven unda SemoabrunoT Tavi da yurebis mdebareoba SecvaloT ise, rom daarRvioT simetria, es SesaZlebels gaxdis miiRoT bgeris lokalizaciis gansazRvrisaTvis aucilebeli informacia.

Sejameba
bgeriTi talRis sixSirisa da amplitudis kombinacia dasabams aZlevs bgeriTi tonis simaRlis, siZlierisa da tembris aRqmas. smeniTi informacia ramdenime transformacias ganicdis yuridan Tavis tvinisaken mimaval gzaze _ bgeriTi talRa gardaiqmneba siTxis talRebad, romlebic warmoqmnian nervul reaqcias. bgeriTi tonis simaRlis aRqma axsnilia ori meqanizmis kombinaciiT. adgilis Teoria amtkicebs, rom sxvadasxva simaRlis mqone bgera warmoSobs ZiriTadi membranis gansxvavebuli adgilebis moZraobas; sixSiris Teoria amtkicebs, rom bgeriTi tonis sxvadasxva simaRle iwvevs ZiriTadi membranis misTvis Sesatyvisi siCqariT rxevas. bgeris lokalizaciac moicavs, sul mcire, or gansxvavebul process: Tavis tvinSi aris ujredebi, romlebic amCneven gansxvavebas droSi, rac sWirdeba bgeras TiToeul yurTan misaRwevad

130

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

suraTi

4.19

ynosvis receptorebi

iwvevs moqmedi potencialis aRmocenebas (Restrepo et al., 1990). ynosvis SegrZneba erT-erTi im mcire funqciaTagania nervul sistemaSi, romelic aris TviTganaxlebadi: roca Tqveni ynosvis receptorebi daberdebian da mokvdebian, maT axali ujredebi cvlis, romelic axal kavSirebs ayalibebs ynosvis bolqvTan (Farman, 1992). ynosva, rogorc Cans, ganviTarda, rogorc sistema, romelic emsaxureboda sakvebis aRmoCenasa da adgilmdebareobis gansazRvras (Moncrieff, 1951). Zalian bevri saxeobisaTvis ynosva, agreTve, gamoiyeneboda safrTxis potenciuri wyaros aRmosaCenad. is am funqcias kargad asrulebda, radgan organizmebi ar unda Sesuliyvnen pirdapir kontaqtSi sxva organizmebTan, raTa daeynosaT isini. garda amisa, ynosva SeiZleba aqtiuri komunikaciis mZlavri forma iyos. zogierTi saxeobis cxovelebi erTmaneTTan qimiuri signalebis gamoyofiTa da aRmoCeniT Sedian kontaqtSi. am qimiur signalebs feromenebs uwodeben. feromenebi qimiuri nivTierebebia, romlebic gamoiyeneba erTi saxeobis farglebSi, rogorc seqsualuri mgrZnobelobis,

safrTxis, teritoriuli sazRvrebisa da sakvebi wyaros signalebi. magaliTad, sxvadasxva saxeobis mwerebis mamri gamoyofs feromenebs, riTac atyobinebs mdedrebs, rom is mzadaa SewyvilebisaTvis (Farine et al., 1996; Minckley et al., 1991). ynosvis SegrZnebis mniSvneloba icvleba saxeobaTa Soris. ZaRlebs, virTxebs, mwerebsa da sxva bevr cocxal arsebas, visTvisac ynosva umniSvnelovanesia TviTgadarCenisaTvis, gacilebiT maxvili ynosva aqvs, vidre adamians. maTi Tavis tvinis SedarebiT didi nawili emsaxureba ynosvis SegrZnebas. adamianebi ynosvas, rogorc Cans, ZiriTadad, gemosTan kavSirSi iyeneben, raTa ipovon da airCion sakvebi, magram arsebobs iseTi faqtebic, rom adamianebic gamoyofen da SeigrZnoben feromenebis msgavs nivTierebebs (Jacob & McClintock, 2000). amas gvafiqrebinebs, magaliTad, is faqti, rom, droTa ganmavlobaSi axlo megobrebis menstrualuri cikli qalTa saerTo sacxovrebelSi sinqronizacias iwyebs (McClintock, 1971; Stern & McClintock, 1998). es sinqronizacia qimiuri signalebiT aixsneba, romlis SegrZnebac xdeba ynosvis saSualebiT (Cutler et al., 1986; Preti et al., 1986). mecnierebi, agreTve,

sxva SegrZnebebi

131

amtkiceben, rom ynosva SeiZleba garkveul rols TamaSobdes seqsualuri aqtivobisadmi adamianis mzaobaSi.

saidan viciT
asrulebs Tu ara ynosva raime rols adamianis seqsualur aqtivobaSi kvlevaSi 289 qali monawileobda. maT unda SeefasebinaT androstenonis, mamakacis oflis ZiriTadi komponentis suni. qalebis umetesoba suns afasebda, rogorc arasasiamovnos~ an aramimzidvels~. am zogadi kanonzomierebidan gamonaklisi iyvnen is qalebi, romelTac ovulacia hqondaT. sunis maTeuli Sefasebebi ufro neitralur iyo. ra daskvna SeiZleba gavakeToT? mkvlevrebi varaudoben, rom qalebi, romelTac ovulacia da, Sesabamisad, dafexmZimebis ufro didi Sansi hqondaT, naklebad savaraudoa, rom winaaRmdegobas gauweven mamakacTa seqsualur iniciativas mxolod maTi arasasiamovno bunebrivi sunis gamo (Grammer, 1993).

albaT, gagaocaT ynosvis SegrZnebis mniSvnelobam adamianis seqsualur cxovrebaSi.

gemos SegrZneba
sakvebisa da Rvinis gurmanebs aqvT kargad ganviTarebuli unari, SeamCnion odnavi gansxvaveba gemoSi, Tumca, maTi umetesoba amisaTvis realurad ynosvas iyenebs da ara _ gemos SegrZnebas. roca Tqven WamT, ynosvisa da gemos SegrZnebebi mWidrod TanamSromloben erTmaneTTan. roca gaciebuli xarT, sakvebi ugemuri geCvenebaT, radgan Tqveni cxviris Sesasvlelebi blokirebulia da dakarguli gaqvT ynosva. Tavad SegiZliaT darwmundeT amaSi: cxvirze xelwaWerilma SeecadeT ipovoT gansxvaveba erTnairi teqsturis, magram gansxvavebuli sunis mqone sakvebs Soris, magaliTad, vaSlisa da kartofilis um naWrebs Soris. im saerTo sacxovrebelSi mcxovrebi zogierTi studentis azriT, romelic saxelganTqmuli iyo Tavisi cudi sakvebiT,

132

cxvirsacobis gakeTeba Wamis dros saWmels ukargavs gemos, ris Sedegadac yvela kerZs erTnairi gemo aqvs, rac bevrad ukeTesia, vidre maTi sakuTari gemo! Tqveni enis zedapiri dafarulia gemos dvrilebiT, romelic mas uswormasworo iers aZlevs. am dvrilebis didi nawili gemos receptoruli ujredebis jgufebs Seicavs, romelsac gemos bolqvebs uwodeben (ix. sur. 4.20). gemos receptoris erTi ujredis Canaweri gviCvenebs, rom individualuri receptoruli ujredebi yvelaze kargad reagireben gemos oTxi Tvisebidan erTerTze: tkbilze, mJaveze, mwaresa an mlaSeze (Frank & Nowlis, 1989). gasul wlebSi mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines gemos mexuTe, ZiriTadi Tvisebis receptorebi _ umami (umami) (Chaudhari et al., 2000). umami natriumis glutamatia (MGS), romelsac xSirad umateben aziur saWmelebs da bunebrivad gvxvdeba cilebiT mdidar sakvebSi, rogoricaa xorci, zRvis produqtebi da Zveli yveli. Tumca, am xuTi Tvisebis receptoruli ujredebi mcirediT sxva gemozec reagireben, saukeTeso~ reaqcia yvelaze sworad asaxavs Tvisebas. rogorc Cans, gemos am ZiriTadi klasebisTvis gardaqmnis sistemebi erTmaneTisgan damoukideblad arsebobs (Bartoshuk &Beauchamp, 1994). gemos SegrZnebis receptorebi SeiZleba daziandnen alkoholis, sigaretis bolis, mJavis Sedegad. sabednierod, gemos SegrZnebis receptorebi ramdenime dReSi erTxel icvleba _ ufro xSirad, vidre ynosvis receptorebi. marTlac,

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

suraTi

4.20

gemos

receptorebi

nawili A gviCvenebs dvrilebis ganawilebas enis zeda mxareze. nawili B gviCvenebs erT dvrils, romelic naxatze gadidebulia, raTa gamoCndes calkeuli gemos bolqvebi. nawili C gviCvenebs gadidebulad erT-erT gemos bolqvs.

gemos SegrZnebis sistema dazianebis mimarT yvelaze didi winaaRmdegobis unarianobiT gamoirCeva, sxva SegrZnebebTan SedarebiT. Zalian iSviaTia SemTxveva, rom vinmem srulebiT, samudamod dakargos gemos SegrZneba (Bartoshuk, 1990).

Sexebisa da kanis SegrZnebebi


kani SesaniSnavad adaptirebadi organoa. garda imisa, rom is gicavT zedapiris dazianebisagan, gamoSrobisagan, gexmarebaT temperaturis regulaciaSi. is Seicavs nervul daboloebebs, romlebic warmoSoben wnevis, siTbosa da sicivis SegZnebebs. am SegrZnebebs kanis SegrZnebebi ewodebaT. radganac Tqven didi raodenobiT sensorul informacias iRebT kanis saSualebiT, sxeulis zedapirTan axlos gansxvavebuli tipis mravali receptoruli ujredi funqcionirebs (ix. sur. 4.21). naxatze gamosaxuli TiToeuli tipis receptori kanTan sxvadasxva tipis kontaqtze reagirebs (Sekular & Blake, 1994). meisneris sxeulebi yvelaze kargad reagireben maSin, roca raime exaxuneba kans, xolo merkelis diskebi yvelaze

metad maSin arian aqtiurebi, roca raime patara obieqti awveba kans. Tqven, albaT, gagikvirdebaT, roca gaigebT, rom siTbosa da sicivis SegrZnebebisaTvis gansxvavebuli receptorebi arsebobs. Tqven ar gaqvT erTi receptori, romelic moqmedebs Termometris msgavsad. Tqveni Tavis tvini siTbosa da sicivis calkeuli signalebis integrirebas axdens, raTa akontrolos garemos temperaturuli cvlilebebi. kanis mgrZnobiaroba wnevisadmi Zalian farTo diapazonSi icvleba sxeulis sxvadasxva ubanze. magaliTad, Tqven 10-jer ufro zustad gansazRvravT stimulis lokalizacias TiTebis wverebze, vidre _ zurgze. sxeulis sxvadasxva nawilis mgrZnobiarobis gansxvavebuloba ganpirobebulia nervuli daboloebebis simWidroviT garkveul ubnebSi da, agreTve, sensoruli qerqis didi farTobiT, romelic maT Seesatyviseba. mesame TavSi naxeT, rom mgrZnobiaroba udidesia iq, sadac es yvelaze metad gWirdebaT _ saxeze, enasa da xelebze. zusti sensoruli ukukavSiri sxeulis am nawilebidan uzrunvelyofs Wamis, laparakis da aRqmis procesebis efeqtur mimdinareobas.

sxva SegrZnebebi

133

suraTi

4.21

kanis SegrZnebaTa receptorebi


ramdenime sxvadasxva tipis receptori aris pasuxismgebeli kanis SegrZnebaTa gancdaze, rogorica Sexebis, siTbosa da sicivis SegrZnebebi. magaliTad, meisneris sxeulebi yvelaze kargad reagireben raime obieqtis gaxaxunebaze kanis m i m a r T, m e r k e l i s d i s k e b i yvelaze aqtiurni arian patara obieqtebis kanze dawolis mimarT.

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

kanis mgrZnobelobis erTi aspeqti centralur rols adamianur urTierTobebSi asrulebs: esaa Sexeba. Sexebis saSualebiT Tqven gadascemT sxvebs Tqvens survils, miiRoT an gasceT simSvide, mxardaWera, siyvaruli da vneba. Sexebis adgils didi mniSvneloba aqvs erotiuli an seqsualuri SegrZnebis aRmocenebaSi. am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiare adgilebs erogenuli zonebi ewodeba. sxva mgrZnobiare erotiuli adgilebis aRgznebis potenciali interindividualuri gansxvavebulobiT xasiaTkanis SegrZnebebi (cutaneous senses) _ wnevis, siTbosa da sicivis SegrZnebebi. erogenuli zonebi (erogeneous zones) _ kanis zedapiris adgilebi, romlebic gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiareni arian gaRizianebisadmi da warmoSoben erotiul da seqsualur SegrZnebebs.

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deba. is damokidebulia daswavlil asociaciebsa da sensoruli receptorebis koncentraciaze mocemul adgilze. Sexeba SeiZleba garkveul rols TamaSobdes TviTgadarCenis procesSi. magaliTad, naadrevad dabadebuli bavSvebi, romelTac saavadmyofoSi 45 wuTis ganmavlobaSi yoveldRiuri masaJi utardebodaT, fizikurad da gonebrivad gacilebiT ufro swrafad izrdebodnen da viTardebodnen im TanatolebTan SedarebiT, romelTac ar utardebodaT masaJi (Field & Schanberg, 1990). virTxebze Catarebuli kvleva gviCvenebs, rom energiuli stimulacia aTavisuflebs zrdis hormonebs da aaqtiurebs zrdis ferments _ dekarboqsilazas (ODC - onithine decarboxylase) Tavis tvinsa da sxva sasicocxlo organoebSi. is naSierebi, romlebic sicocxlis pirvel wlebSi xSirad ayavdaT xelSi, ufro janmrTelebi arian

mTeli cxovrebis manZilze. sakontrolo jgufis cxovelebTan SedarebiT, stimulirebuli naSierebi gamoirCeodnen stresisadmi ufro meti winaaRmdegobis gawevis unariT, ufro nela berdebodnen, maTi Tavis tvinis ujredebi ki ufro didxans inarCunebdnen sicocxlisunarianobas da ukeTesi mexsiereba hqondaT (Meany et al., 1998). aqedan gamomdinare, praqtikuli rekomendacia aseTia: SeexeT xSirad imaT, viszedac zrunavT da sxvebic waaxaliseT, rom Tqvenc Segexon xSirad es ara marto siamovnebas moggvriT, aramed gaaumjobesebs rogorc Tqvens, agreTve, maT janmrTelobasac (Montague, 1986).

wonasworobisa da kinesteTikuri SegrZnebebi


wonasworobis da kinesTetikuri SegrZnebebi TqvenTvis SeiZleba ucnobic ki iyos, radganc maT ara aqvT receptorebi, romelTa danaxva SeiZleba, rogorc magaliTad, Tvalebis, yurebis an cxviris. wonasworobis SegrZneba sivrceSi Cveni sxeulis, gansakuTrebiT, Tavis orientaciis SegrZnebas gvaZlevs. am informacias gvawvdian receptorebi, patara bususebi, romelnic Sida yurSi _ siTxiT savse parkuWebsa da arxebSi mdebareoben. es bususebi ixreba, roca siTxe moZraobs da awveba maT, es ki maSin xdeba, roca Tavs swrafad amoZravebT. parkuWi da tiki gatyobinebT informacias sworxazovani moZraobis aCqarebisa da Senelebis Sesaxeb (ix. sur. 4.16). sami arxi, romelTac naxevarrkalovan arxebs uwodeben, erTmaneTis mimarT marTi kuTxiTaa ganlagebulni, rac saSualebas gvaZlevs miviRoT informacia nebismieri mimarTulebiT moZraobis Sesaxeb _ Tu rogor moZraobs Tavi, roca vtrialdebiT, roca vaqnevT mas, an gverdze gadavxriT. adamianebi, romlebmac ubeduri SemTxvevebisa Tu avadmyofobis gamo dakarges wonasworobis SegrZneba, sakmod dezorientirebulni arian,
wonasworobis SegrZneba (vestibular sense) _ informacias gvawvdis Cveni sxeulis orientaciis Sesaxeb sivrceSi. kinesTetikuri SegrZneba (kinesthetic sense) _ informacias gvawvdis Cveni sxeulisa da misi nawilebis moZraobisa da mdgomareobis Sesaxeb.

xSirad ecemian, axasiaTebT Tavbruxveva. miuxedavad amisa, aseTi adamianebis umravlesoba, bolos da bolos, mainc axerxebs am naklis kompensirebas imiT, rom ufro metad eyrdnoba vizualur informacias. gulisreva moZraobisas maSin aRmocendeba, rodesac vizualuri sistemidan momavali signalebi konfliqtSi Sedis vestibularuli aparatidan wamosul signalebTan. moZrav transportSi kiTxvisas adamianebs xSirad uCndebaT gulisrevis SegrZneba. amis mizezi isaa, rom vizualuri signalebi uZravi obieqtidan modis, xolo vestibularuli SegrZnebebi _ moZravi obieqtidan. mZRolebs iSviaTad emarTebaT es avadmyofoba, radgan isini xedaven da grZnoben kidec moZraobas. rasac ar unda akeTebdeT, idgeT vertikalurad, xatavdeT Tu varjiSobdeT, Tqvens tvins sWirdeba zusti informacia Tqveni sxeulis poziciisa Tu misi nawilebis sivrciTi mimarTebisa da moZraobis Sesaxeb. kinesTetikuri SegrZneba uzrunvelyofs mudmiv sensorul ukukavSirs sxeulis motoruli aqtivobis Sesaxeb. amis gareSe Tqven ver SeZlebdiT nebismieri moZraobebis didi nawilis koordinirebas. Tqven gaqvT kinesTetikuri informaciis ori wyaro: receptorebi, romlebic mdebareoben saxsrebSi da receptorebi, romlebic mdebareoben kunTebsa da myesebSi. saxsrebSi mdebare receptorebi reagireben im daWimulobaze, romelic Tan axlavs kidurebis sxvadasxva pozicias da daWimulobis cvlilebebze, rasac

sxva SegrZnebebi

135

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

iwvevs saxsrebis moZraobebi. kunTebsa da myesebSi mdebare receptorebi reagireben im daZabulobis cvlilebebze, romelic Tan axlavs kunTebis SekumSvasa da gafarToebas. Tavis tvini xSirad axdens kinesTetikuri SegrZnebebidan miRebuli informaciis integrirebas Sexebis SegrZnebidan miRebul informaciasTan. Tavis tvins ar SeuZlia, magaliTad, im signalebis srulyofili gaazreba, romelic TiToeuli TiTidan modis, Tuki mas zustad ar ecodineba TiTebis mdebareoba erTmaneTis mimarT. warmoidgineT, rom, raRac sagnebs daxuWuli TvalebiT agrovebT. Sexebis SegrZneba gaZlevT saSualebas, mixvdeT, aris Tu ara aRebuli obieqti qva, magram kinesTetikuri SegrZneba giqmniT warmodgenas mis sidideze.

gamRizianeblebiT stimulaciaze, romelic sakmaod intensiuria, raTa qsovilis dazianeba gamoiwvios an mas safrTxe Seuqmnas. xarT Tu ara srulebiT kmayofili aseTi kargad ganviTarebuli tkivilis SegrZnebiT? Tqveni pasuxi, albaT, orive iqneba _ ki~-c da ara~-c. ki~-s SemTxvevaSi tkivilis SegrZneba mniSvnelovania Tqveni gadarCenisTvis. adamianebi, romelTac dabadebidan dakarguli aqvT tkivilis SegrZnebis unari, xSirad iReben sxeulis sxvadasxva dazianebebs, romelTa Tavidan acileba SesaZlebeli iqneboda, Tuki Tavis tvini SeZlebda maT gafrTxilebas mosalodneli safrTxis Sesaxeb (Larner et al., 1994). maTi magaliTi gasagebs xdis tkivilis SegrZnebis, rogorc dacvis signalis mniSvnelobas _ is gafrTxilebT potenciuri zianis Sesaxeb. aras~ upasuxebT, radgan zogjer aris momentebi, roca Tqven bednieri iqnebodiT, rom SegZlebodaT tkivilis SegrZnebis gamorTva. 50 milionze meti adamiani aSS-Si itanjeba mudmivi, qronikuli tkiviliT. samedicino xarjebi tkivilis gasayuCeblad da dakarguli samuSao dReebi weliwadSi 70 miliard dolaradaa Sefasebuli (Turk, 1994). rogorc Cans, uwyveti, qronikuli tkivili xSirad iwvevs mwvave depresias da mizezia imisa, rom aseTi tkivilebis mqone adamianebi uaryofiTad afaseben TavianT cxovrebas (Banks & Kerns, 1996). gasagebia, rom mecnierebs ainteresebT tkivilis SegrZnebis gamomwvevi meqanizmebis Seswavla, raTa daeuflon misi Semcirebis teqnikas.

tkivilis meqanizmebi
TiTqmis yvela cxoveli ibadeba ama Tu im tipis tkivilis dacviTi sistemiT, romelic iwvevs avtomaturad garkveuli stimulebisagan gaqcevis refleqss. roca stimulis intensivoba zeda zRurbls miaRwevs, organizmi gaqceviT pasuxobs, ra Tqma unda, Tuki SeuZlia es. garda amisa, is swrafad swavlobs tkivilis gamomwvevi

tkivili
zemoT Sexebis SegrZnebis garkveuli aspeqtebi ganvixileT. Tqven iciT, rom fizikuri kontaqtis garkveuli formebi tkivils iwveven. tkivili aris organizmis reaqcia mavne zemoqmedebis mqone
tkivili (pain) _ organizmis reaqcia mavne zemoqmedebis mqone gamRizianeblebis stimulaciaze, romelic aris sakmaod intensiuri, raTa gamoiwvios qsovilis dazianeba an Seuqmnas mas safrTxe.

136

stimulebis identificirebas da SeZlebisadagvarad Tavidan icilebs maT. arsebobs ori saxis tkivilis SegrZneba: nocicepturi da nevropaTiuri. nocicepturi tkivili aris uaryofiTi SegrZneba, romelsac mavne zemoqmedebis mqone gamRizianebeli iwvevs. magaliTad, es aris SegrZneba, romelic gagiCndebaT cxel qurasTan Sexebisas. kanSi mdebare specialuri nervuli daboloeba agzavnis tkivilis Setyobinebas Tqveni xelidan zeviT, zurgis tvinis gavliT Tavis tvinisaken. xelis ukan gamoweviT SegiZliaT am tipis tkivilis Sewyveta. nevropaTiuri tkivili gamowveulia nervebis aranormaluri gadaWarbebuli funqcionirebiT. is aRmocendeba dazianebuli an daavadebuli nervebidan, risi mizezicaa, magaliTad, ubeduri SemTxveva an kibo. medikamentebs da mkurnalobis sxva saSualebebs, romlebic awynareben nervebs, aseTi tipis tkivilebis Semsubuqeba SeuZliaT. mecnierebma im specifikuri receptorebis gansazRvra daiwyes, romlebic reagireben tkivilis gamomwvev stimulebze. maT aRmoaCines, rom z o g i e r Ti receptori mxolod temperaturaze reagirebs, zogierTi _ qimiur nivTierebebze, sxvebi ki _ meqanikur stimulebze. arsebobs receptorebi, romlebic tkivilis gamomwvevi stimulebis kombinaciaze reagireben. tkivilis boWkoebis qseli qmnis SesaniSnav bades, romelic mTel sxeuls faravs. periferiuli nervuli boWkoebi tkivilis signalebs centralur nervul sistemaSi ori gziT agzavnian: swrafi gamtarunarianobis nervuli boWkoebiT, romlebic dafarulni arian mieliniT da neli, ufro patara nervuli boWkoebiT, mielinis

safarvelis gareSe. zurgis tvinTan dawyebuli impulsebi gadaecema Talamuss da Semdeg _ Tavis tvinis qerqs, sadac xdeba tkivilis lokalizaciisa da intensivobis gansazRvra, dazianebis mniSvnelovnebis Sefaseba da samoqmedo gegmis dasaxva.

tkivilis fsiqologia
emociuri reaqciebi, konteqstualuri faqtorebi da situaciis interpretacia SeiZleba iseTive mniSvnelovan rols asrulebdes tkivilis gancdaSi, rogorc realuri fizikuri stimuli (Price, 2000; Turk, 1994). fsiqologiuri procesebis mniSvnelobas tkivilis gancdaSi naTlad gviCvenebs Semdegi ori ukiduresi SemTxveva: erTi, roca aris tkivili, magram ar arsebobs misi gamomwvevi fizikuri stimuli da meore, roca ar aris tkivili, miuxedavad didi intensivobis tkivilis gamomwvevi stimulis arsebobisa. magaliTad, im adamianTa 10%-ze meti, romelTac amputirebuli aqvT kidurebi, uCivian mwvave da qronikul tkivilebs im kidurSi, romelic maT aRar aqvT. amas fantomuri kiduris fenomeni ewodeba (Melzack, 1992). amis sapirispirod, zogierT individs, romelic monawileobs religiur ritualebSi, SeuZlia tkivilis SegrZnebis blokireba tkivilis gamom-

nevropaTiuri tkivili (neuropathic pain) _gamowveulia nervebis aranormaluri an zedmetad aqtiuri funqcionirebiT; is nervebis dazianebis an daavadebis mizezia. fantomuri kiduris fenomeni (phantom limb phenomenon) _ mwvave da qronikuli tkivilis SegrZneba amputirebul kidurSi.

sxva SegrZnebebi

nocicefturi tkivili (nociceptive pain) _ gamowveulia mavne zemoqmedebis mqone eqsternaluri stimuliT; kanSi arsebuli specializebuli nervuli daboloebebi agzavnian tkivilis Sesaxeb Setyobinebas kanidan zurgis tvinis gavliT Tavis tvinSi.

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fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi

ratom iwvevs cxare saWmeli tkivils?


gqoniaT odesme aseTi gamocdileba? Tqven miirTmevT romelime Zalian cxare kerZs Cinur an tailandur restoranSi da SemTxveviT CakbiCeT Zalze cxare wiwaka. am momentSi is siamovneba, romelsac sakvebisgan iRebT, Zlier tkivilad gadaiqceva. Tuki aseT ram odesme SegmTxveviaT, Tqven iciT, rom gemos sferoSi arsebobs kavSiri maT Soris, rac ganiWebT siamovnebas da tkivils. ganvixiloT es damokidebuleba. fiziologiurad advilia imis axsna, Tu ratom iwvevs cxare wiwaka tkivils. Tqvens enaze arsebuli gemos bolqvebi dakavSirebulia nocicepturi tkivilis boWkoebTan (Bartoshuk, 1993). amrigad, erTi da igive qimiurma nivTierebam SeiZleba gaaRizianos rogorc gemos bolqvebSi mdebare receptorebi, ise, masTan Zalian axlos mdebare tkivilis boWkoebi (Caterina et al., 2000). cxare wiwakis SemTxvevaSi, es nivTierebaa kafsacini. Tuki Tqven gsurT isiamovnoT cxare sakvebiT, unda SeecadoT sakvebSi SeinarCunoT am nivTierebis saWiro koncentracia ise, rom man ufro metad gaaRizianos Tqveni gemos receptorebi, vidre tkivilis receptorebi. albaT gainteresebT, ratom gansxvavdebian adamianebi erTmaneTisagan cxare sakvebis mimarT damokidebulebis mixedviT? maT ukvirT xolme, ro ca maT megobrebs SeuZliaT an ar SeuZliaT cxare sakvebis Wama. am gansxvavebis asaxsnelad kvlav fiziologias mivmarToT. rac ufro metia gemos bolqvebi, miT ufro metia tkivilis receptorebic. amitom ufro didia imis albaToba, rom is adamianebi, romelTac bevri gemos bolqvebi aqvT, ufro Zlier tkivils ganicdian kafsacinisagan. im individebs, romelTac bevri gemos bolqvebi aqvT, superdegustatorebi daarqves (Bartoshuk, 1993), xolo maT, visac ufro mcire raodenebiT aqvT es receptorebi _ nondegustatorebi. individTa es ori jgufi ar gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan mravali gemos SegrZnebebis mixedviT _ Tqven SeiZleba arc icodeT superdegustatori xarT, nondegustatori Tu raRac Sualeduri. gansxvaveba mxolod garkveuli qimiuri nivTierebebis, magaliTad, kafsacinis mimarT mgrZnobiarobaSi vlindeba. gemos bolqvebis simWidrovis mixedviT interindividualuri sxvaoba genetikuri aRmoCnda (Bartoshuk et al., 1994). qalebi ufro xSirad arian superdegustatorebi, vidre kacebi. superdegustatorebi, saerTod, ufro mgrZnobiareni arian mware qimiuri nivTierebebis mimarT (simware damaxasiaTebelia sawamlavTa didi umravlesobisaTvis). radganac qals yovelTvis ufro meti pasuxismgebloba ekisreboda STamomavlobis gazrdasa da kvebaSi evoluciis manZilze, im qalebis bavSvebs, romlebsac meti gemos mgrZnobiaroba axasiaTebdaT, gadarCenis ufro meti Sansi hqondaT. radganac degustatoris statusi genetikuria, am aspeqtSi gansxvaveba ukve patara bavSvebSic SeimCneva (Anliken et al., 1991). xuTidan Svid wlamde superdegustatori bavSvebi upiratesobas aniWeben rZes yvelTan SedarebiT da piriqiT _ nondegustatorebi _ yvels rZesTan SedarebiT. ratom? superdegustatorebi rZes aRiq vamen, rogorc ufro Tbils da yvels _ rogorc ufro mwares, vidre nondegustatorebi. amrigad, genetikuri gansxvavebebi gvexmareba avxsnaT, Tu ratom aqvs zogierT bavSvs ase gamoxatuli gemos Taviseburebani. magram, modiT davubrundeT restornis kerZs, romelmac tkivilis SegrZneba gamoiwvia. albaT, SegimCneviaT, rom tkivilis SegrZneba TandaTan qreba. am mxriv, pirSi ganlagebuli tkivilis receptorebi moqmedebs sxva sensoruli receptorebis msgavsad: droTa ganmavlobaSi Tqven adaptirdebiT mudmivi stimulaciis mimarT. albaT Zalian kargia, rom sensorul procesebs tkivilis Semsubuqebis funqciac aqvT da mas saWiro momentSi gvTavazoben xolme.

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

(a)

(b)

138

wvevi intensiuri stimulaciis pirobebSic, rogoricaa, magaliTad, cxel nakverCxlebze siaruli an nemsiT sxeulis gaxvreta.
saerTod, tkivilis SegrZnebaze did gavlenas axdens konteqsti da reagirebis SeZenili Cvevebi. vinaidan tkivili fsiqologiuri reaqciebis erTerTi saxea, is SeiZleba Seicvalos iseTi mkurnalobis Sedegad, romelic fsiqikur procesebze iseTi zemoqmedebas iyenebs, rogoricaa hipnozi, Rrma relaqsacia, yuradRebis gadatana. magaliTad, anesTeziis gareSe mSobiarobis mosamzadebeli lamazes (Lamaze) meTodiT samSobiaro tkivilebis Semcirebas ramdenime aseTi meTodis kombinaciiT cdiloben. lamazes sunTqviTi varjiSebi mSobiares relaqsaciaSi exmareba da yuradReba gadaaqvs tkivilis adgilidan. yuradRebis gadatanis, sasiamovno warmodgenebis, Setyobinebebis gamoyeneba qmnis rbil, sasargeblo Semxvedr stimulacias da meuRlisa Tu megobris socialuri mxardaWera _ yvelaferi erTad momaval dedas am mtkivneul situaciaze kontrolis Zlier gancdas aZlevs.

tebs, rom adamianebi xSirad ganicdian tkivils Zalian mcire intensivobis an ararsebuli fizikuri gamRizianeblis pirobebSi: am SemTxvevaSi tkivilis gancda mxolod tvinSia aRmocenebuli. is, Tu rogor aRiqvamT tkivils, ras eubnebiT mis Sesaxeb sxvebs da rogor reagirebT tkivilgamayuCeblebze, Tqven fsiqologiur mdgomareobas ufro asaxavs, vidre tkivilis gamomwvevi gamRizianeblis intensivobas. is, rasac Tqven aRiqvamT, SeiZleba iyos sakmaod gansxvavebuli da zogjer srulebiTac damoukidebeli imasagan, Tu ras SeigrZnobT, rogorc amis Sesaxeb mexuTe TavSi visaubrebT, romelic aRqmis fsiqologias eZRvneba.

Sejameba
ynosvis SegrZnebis nervuli impulsebi aRmocendeba maSin, roca haerSi arsebuli qimiuri nivTiereba kontaqtSi Seva ynosvis bususebTan. ynosva did rols asrulebs seqsualuri qcevis regulaciasa da sxva mniSvnelovani funqciebis ganxorcielebaSi. ynosvisa da gemos sistemebi SeTanxmebulad moqmedebs sakvebi produqtebis umravlesobis SegrZnebisas. gemo warmoadgens Sesatyvisi gemos bolqvebis reaqciebis nazavs sitkboze, simJaveze, simwaresa da simlaSeze. Tqven SegiZliaT ganicadoT wnevis, siTbosa da sicivis SegrZnebebi kanSi moTavsebuli receptoruli ujredebis saSualebiT. Sexeba mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs komunikaciasa da gadarCenis procesSi. wonasworobis SegrZneba uzrunvelyofs Tqveni Tavisa da sxeulis orientacias sivrceSi. kinesTetikuri SegrZneba pasuxismgebelia sxeulis sxvadasxva nawilebis poziciaze da gexmarebaT nebismieri moZraobebis koordinirebaSi. Tqven ganicdiT nociceptur tkivils mavne stimulis zemoqmedebis SemTxvevaSi da nevropaTiur tkivils _ nervebis aranormaluri funqcionirebis dros. fsiqologiuri konteqsti, nawilobriv, gansazRvravs tkivilis gancdis intensivobas.

ra gavlenas axdens tkivilis SegrZnebaze fsiqologiuri konteqstSi? erT-erTi Teoria, romelic tkivilis Semcirebis gzebs exeba, cnobilia karibWis kontrolis Teoriis saxeliT (Ronald Mezlack, 1973, 1980). am Teoriis mixedviT, zurgis tvinis ujredebi moqmedeben rogorc nevrologiuri kari, romelic xels uSlis tkivilis zogierTi signalis Tavis tvinSi SeRwevas da mis blokirebas axdens, zogierTs ki _ atarebs. Tavis tvini da kanis receptorebi signals zurgis tvinisken agzavnian, raTa man gaaRos an daketos es kari. Tavis tvinidan swored es daRmavali signali uzrunvelyofs fsiqologiur konteqsts, romelic axlavs Tan tkivils. gasul wlebSi melzakma (Melzack, 1999) warmoadgina ganaxlebuli Teoria _ tkivilis neiromatriculi Teoria, romelic xsnis im faqkaribWis kontrolis Teoria (gate-control theory) _ exeba tkivilis Semcirebas, romelic xdeba maSin, roca zurgis tvinis garkveuli ujredebi moqmedebs rogorc kari, uSlis xels tkivilis gavrcelebas da misi zogierTi signalis blokirebas axdens, zogierTs ki agzavnis Tavis tvinSi.

sxva SegrZnebebi

139

sakvanZo sakiTxebi
samyaros sensoruli Semecneba
imis gamo, rom sensoruli procesebi mniSvnelovan rols asruleben Cven mier samyaros SemecnebaSi, mecnierebi fsiqologiis ganviTarebis adreul etapebzec swavlobdnen SegrZnebebs. fsiqofizika swavlobs fizikur gamRizianebelze fsiqologiur reaqcias. mecnierebi zomaven absolutursa da sxvaobis zRurblebs. signalis aRmoCena saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevrebs gamoyon erTmaneTisagan SegrZnebis simaxvile da pasuxis sistematuri Secdoma. fsiqofizikis mkvlevrebma gansazRvres kavSiri gamRizianeblis fizikur intensivobasa da fsiqologiur efeqts Soris maTematikuri funqciis saSualebiT. SegrZneba gamRizianeblis fizikur energias nervul kodad gardaqmnis. mecnierebi cdiloben Seiswavlon informaciis dinebis procesi sensoruli receptor e b i d a n Ta v i s t v i n i s qerqisaken. sxvadasxva aspeqtebi, rogoricaa sagnebis garegnuli saxe da maTi mdebareoba. sinaTlis talRis sigrZe warmoadgens gamRizianebels ferTa SegrZnebisaTvis. feris SegrZnebebi gansxvavdeba t o n i T, s i m a Z R r i Ta d a sikaSkaSiT. ferTa SegrZnebis Teoriebi aerTianebs sami feris SemgrZnebi receptoris triqromatul Teorias da sawinaaRmdego procesebis Teorias, romelic sawinaaRmdego elementebis kompoziciis ideas eyrdnoba. gamRizianeblis TvisebaTa aRmoCena baduris ujredebisa da ufro maRali donis vizualuri centrebis moqmedebiT xdeba. ynosva cxviris RruSi ganlagebuli, sunisadmi mgrZnobiare ujredebiT xorcieldeba. gemos receptorebi gemos bolqvebia, romlebic moTavsebulni arian gemos dvrilebSi, ZiriTadad, enaze. Sexebis SegrZneba gulisxmobs dawolisa da temperaturul SegrZnebebs. wonasworobis SegrZneba gaZlevT informacias sxeulis moZraobis mimarTulebisa da siswrafis Sesaxeb. kinesTetikuri SegrZneba gaZlevT informacias sxeulis nawilebis mdebareobis Sesaxeb da gexmarebaT moZraobis koordinirebaSi. tkivili aris organizmis dacviTi reaqcia potenciurad mavne zemoqmedebis mqone gamRizianebelze. tkivilis fiziologiuri reaqcia moicavs sensorul reaqcias tkivilis gamomwvevi gamRizianeblis mxares da nervul impulsebs, romlebic moZraoben Tavis tvinsa da zurgis tvins Soris. tkivili aris nawilobriv fsiqologiuri reaqciac. is SeiZleba Seicvalos mkurnalobiT, romelic aqcents akeTebs fsiqikur procesebze da gadaaqvs yuradReba.

smena
smenis SegrZneba warmoiqmneba bgeriTi talRiT, romelsac gaaCna sixSire, amplituda da sirTule. lokokinaSi bgeriTi talRebi transformirdebian siTxis moZraobad, romelic amoZravebs ZiriTad membranas. ZiriTadi membranis bewvebi nervul impulsebs gadascemen smeniT qerqs. adgilis Teoria saukeTesod xsnis maRali sixSireebis kodirebas, sixSiris Teoria ki _ dabali sixSireebis kodirebas. bgeris warmoSobis mimarTulebis gansazRvrisaTvis moqmedebs ori tipis nervuli meqanizmi _ bgeraTa intensivobisa da im drois Sedareba, romelic bgeriT signals TiToeul yurTan misaRwevad sWirdeba.

mxedvelobiTi sistema
baduraze mdebare fotoreceptorebi, romelTac kolbebsa da Cxirebs uwodeben, sinaTlis energias nervul impulsad gardaqmnian. baduras gangliozuri ujredebi axdenen receptorebidan da bipolaruli ujredebidan momavali signalis integrirebas. maTi aqsonebi warmoqmnian optikur nervebs, romlebic mxedvelobis j v a r e d i n Ta n xvdebian erTmaneTs. vizualuri informacia ganawilebulia tvinis sxvadasxva ubnebSi, sadac muSavdeba vizualuri garemos

ZiriTadi cnebebi
absoluturi zRurbli akomodacia amakrinuli ujredebi adgilis Teoria badura bgeris siZliere bgeris tonis simaRle bipolaruli ujredebi gangliozuri ujredebi erogenuli zonebi absoluturi zRurbli veberis kanoni zalpis principi kanis SegrZnebebi karibWis kontrolis Teoria

Tavi 4 / SegrZnebebi

sxva SegrZnebebi
ynosvisa da gemos SegrZnebebi nivTierebaTa qimiur Tvisebebze reagireben da erTad moqmedeben, roca adamiani eZebs da irCevs sakvebs.

140

kinesTetikuri SegrZneba kolbebi lokokina mxedvelobis qerqi nevropaTiuri tkivili nocicefTuri tkivili odnav SesamCnevi sxvaoba optikuri nervi pasuxis sistematuri Secdoma receptoruli veli sawinaaRmdego procesebis Teoria sensoruli adaptacia sensoruli receptorebi

sensoruli fiziologia sibnelisadmi adaptacia signalis SemCnevis Teoria sikaSkaSe feris toni sixSiris Teoria smeniTi nervi smeniTi qerqi sxvaobis zRurbli tembri tkivili transformacia triqromatuli Teoria

fantomuri kiduris fenomeni feris simaZRre feromonebi fovea fotoreceptorebi fsiqometruli funqcia fsiqofizika ynosvis bolqvi SegrZneba Semavsebeli ferebi Cxirebi ZiriTadi membrana wonasworobis SegrZneba

141

sakvanZo sakiTxebi

aRqma

5
SegrZneba, organizeba, identifikacia da cnoba

proqsimaluri da realoba, orazrovneba da iluziebi


aRqmis Semswavleli midgomebi
fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: virtualuri realoba yuradRebis procesebi

distaluri stimulebi

seleqciuri (SerCe yuradReba da sagnebi


garemoSi
aRqmis organizaciis procesebi

viTi) yuradReba

figura, foni da
dasrulebuloba (Sevsebuloba) perceptuli dajgufebis principebi sivrciTi da droiTi integracia moZraobis aRqma siRrmis aRqma aRqmis konstantoba

fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: rogor iWerT mfrinav burTs identifikacia da cnoba

aRmavali da daRmava sagnebis cnoba molodinis da kon bolo gakveTili


sakvanZo sakiTxebi

li procesebi

teqstis gavlena

ZiriTadi cnebebi

142

anvixiloT kengis SemTxveva, romelic ekvatoruli afrikis fijmis kulturidan iyo. kengs mTeli cxovreba xSir tropikul tyeebSi hqonda gatarebuli. erT dRes mas SesaZlebloba mieca, pirvelad emogzaura manqaniT gaSlil velze anTropolog kolin tarnbulTan (Colin Turnbull) erTad. mogvianebiT tarnbulma aRwera kengis reaqciebi: kengma gadaxeda velebs da im adgils, sadac ramdenime milis moSorebiT asiode bizoni Zovda. man mkiTxa, ra mwerebi iyvnen isini, razedac vupasuxe, rom isini bizonebi iyvnen, Tanac misTvis cnobil tyis bizonebze orjer ufro didebi. kengma xmamaRla gaicina da miTxra, rom es sisulele aRar meTqva da kvlav igive kiTxva damisva. mere, radgan sakmaod Wkvian kompanionad ar mimiCnia, TavisTvis laparakobda da cdilobda, bizonebi sxvadasxva WianWvelebisa da xoWoebisaTvis miemsgavsebina, romlebic mas manamde enaxa.

amasobaSi manqanaSi CavsxediT da im adgilisaken daveSviT, sadac cxovelebi Zovdnen. kengi akvirdeboda, ufro da ufro rogor diddebodnen isini da, Tumca, yvela fijmelis msgavsad, Tavadac guladi iyo, mainc CemTan axlos gadmojda da Caibutbuta, rom es raRac jadoqroba iyo... bolos, roca kengi mixvda, rom cxovelebi marTla bizonebi iynen, ukve aRar eSinoda, Tumca, kvlav afiqrebda, ratom iyvnen isini ase patarebi, an marTla patarebi iyvnen da uceb gaizardnen, Tu es yvelaferi raRac oini iyo (Turnbull 1961, gv. 305). kengis ambavi sakmaod naTlad gviCvenebs gamocdilebis gavlenas aRqmaze. radgan kengma cxovreba tropikul tyeebSi gaatara, mas ar hqonda saTanado codna, raTa dauyovnebliv moexdina sensoruli informaciis _ Sori manZiliT daSorebuli obieqtebidan TvalebSi areklili sinaTlis _ interpretacia. am TavSi SeiswavliT, rogor moqmedebs codna adamianis SesaZleblobebsa da aRqmaze.

me-4 TavSi vnaxeT, rom garemo savsea sinaTlisa da bgeris talRebiT. Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, maTi saxiT mainc ar ganicdiT samyaros. Tqven sinaTlis talRas ki ar `xedavT~, aramed _ plakats kedelze, bgeris talRa ki ar `gesmiT~, aramed musika iqve myofi radiodan. SegrZnebiT iwyeba sinamdvilis uSualo asaxva, magram kidev meti raRac sxvaa saWiro, rom stimuli azriani da saintereso gaxdes da, rac mTavaria, saSualeba mogeceT, efeqturad upasuxoT mas. aRqma
aRqma (Perception) _ procesebi, romlebic sensorul xatSi awesrigeben informacias da am informaciis, rogorc samganzomilebiani garesinamdviliT warmoqmnilis, gancdas uzrunvelyofen.

aris im procesebis erToblioba, romlebic sensorul xatSi awesrigeben informacias da am informaciis, rogorc gare sinamdviliT warmoqmnilis, gancdas uzrunvelyofen. es procesebi interpretaciis umaRles dones uzrunvelyofs, rac saSualebas gvaZlevs, warmatebiT gaverkveT garemoSi. SegrZnebasa da aRqmas Soris kavSiris ukeT gagebis mizniT gTavazobT martiv, TvalsaCino magaliTs. daiWireT xeli saxis win, rac SeiZleba Sors. Semdeg is nela miuaxloveT saxes. saxesTan miaxloebisas xeli sul ufro da ufro met vizualur vels faravs. Sedegad, SeiZleba veRar dainaxoT plakati xelis ukan, kedelze. rogor faravs xeli plakats? xeli gadidda

143

SegrZneba, organizeba, identificireba da cnoba

Tu plakati dapataravda? Tqveni pasuxi iqneba: `ra Tqma unda, ara!~ es magaliTi gviCvenebs SegrZnebebs da aRqmas Soris gansxvavebas. xeli imitom faravs plakats, rom saxesTan miaxloebisas is SedarebiT did gamosaxulebas qmnis baduraze. es aRqmis procesebia, romlebic, baduraze miRebuli gamosaxulebis zomebis cvlilebis miuxedavad, saSualebas gaZlevT gaigoT, rom xelis da plakatis realuri zomebi ar icvleba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aRqma SegrZnebas aZlevs azrs. perceptuli procesebi mniSvnelobas iReben mudmivad cvalebadi, xSirad qaoturi Semavali sensoruli informaciidan (input) da mas stabiluri, mowesrigebuli perceptuli xatebis saxiT awesrigeben. perceptuli xati aris is, rac aRqmulia (fenomenologiuri an gancdiTi), aRqmis procesis Sedegi. is fizikuri sagani an receptorSi sagnis xati ki ar aris, aramed perceptuli aqtivobis fsiqologiuri Sedegia. amrigad, xelis aRqma, retinaluri gamosaxulebis zomebis cvlilebis miuxedavad, ucvleli rCeba, radgan interpretacia ucvleli perceptuli aqtivobiT mimdinareobs. umetesad, aRqma da SegrZneba imdenad Zaldautaneblad, uwyvetad da avtomaturad xdeba, rom mas TavisTavad procesad miviCnevT. Cveni mizania, am TavSi gagacnoT procesebi, romlebic saSualebas gvaZleven, saTanadod avxsnaT samyaro aseTi aSkara ZaldautaneblobiT. Tavdapirvelad vizualur sferoSi mimdinare perceptul procesebs ganvixilavT.

SegrZneba, organizeba, identificireba da cnoba


termini aRqma, misi farTo mniSvnelobiT, niSnavs garemoSi sagnebis da movlenebis wvdomis zogad process, raTa SevigrZnoT isini, gavigoT, movaxdinoT identifikacia, mivakuTvnoT raime kategorias da movemzadoT maTze reagirebisaTvis. aRqmis procesebis ukeT gagebis mizniT
perceptuli organizacia (Perceptual organization) _ procesebi, romlebic sensorul informacias aerTianeben, raTa aRqmas miscen TvalsaCino saxe vizualur velSi.

maT sam safexurad yofen: SegrZneba, perceptuli organizacia da identifikacia/sagnebis cnoba. rogorc me-4 TavSi vnaxeT, SegrZneba niSnavs nervul kodebSi fizikuri energiis gardaqmnas, romelsac tvini acnobierebs. magaliTad, SegrZnebiT viRebT vizualuri velis Sesaxeb bazisur monacemebs. baduris ujredebi imgvarad arian mowyobilni, rom gaarCion sagnis konturebi da kontrastebi, Tumca, mxolod sustad reagireben ucvlel, mudmiv stimulirebaze (gaRizianebaze). tvinis qerqis ujredebi sawyis niSnebs retinis Semavali informaciidan iReben. perceptuli organizacia Semdegi safexuria, rodesac sagnis Sinagani gamosaxuleba formirdeba da garegani stimulis aRqma yalibdeba. Sinagani gamosaxuleba gvawvdis samyaros zedapirul monaxazs. mxedvelobis SemTxvevaSi perceptuli procesebiT xdeba obieqtis savaraudo zomis, formis, moZraobis, daSorebis da orientaciis Sefaseba. es Sefasebebi efuZneba goniT gaTvlas, romelic adamianis warsul codnas mocemul grZnobad realobasa da stimulTan aerTianebs, misi (stimulis) perceptuli Sinaarsis farglebSi. aRqmisas xdeba sagnis perceptSi iseTi martivi sensoruli niSnebis sinTezi (integracia da kombinacia), rogoricaa sagnis feri, konturebi da xazebi. sagnis amocnoba Semdgom xdeba. es fsiqikuri aqtivobebi swrafad da mizanmimarTulad, gacnobierebis gareSe xorcieldeba. Aam or safexurs Soris gansxvavebis ufro naTlad gasagebad ganvixiloT doqtor riCardsis avadmyofobis SemTxveva, romlis tvinis dazianebam perceptuli procesebi daamaxinja, Tumca SegrZneba ucvleli darCa.

saidan viciT
SegrZnebis da perceptuli organizaciis darRveva doqtori riCardsi iyo ganaTlebuli da didi gamocdilebis mqone fsiqologi. samwuxarod, mas tvinis dazianeba hqonda, romelmac vizualuri gancdis Secvla gamoiwvia. rogorc Cans, ar dazianda tvinis metyvelebis centrebi, ase rom, mas SeeZlo sakmaod naTlad aRewera Tavisi sakmaod

144

Tavi 5 / aRqma

proqsimaluri da distaluri stimulebi


warmoidgineT, rom Tqven xarT 5.1.A suraTze gamosaxuli pirovneba, romelic oTaxs moxerxebuli skamidan akvirdeba. oTaxSi moTavsebuli sagnebidan areklili sinaTlis nawili Tvalebamde aRwevs da Tvalis baduraze qmnis gamosaxulebebs. suraTi 5.1.B gviCvenebs, Tu ras davinaxavdiT oTaxSi yofnisas marcxena TvaliT (marjvniv CanaWdevi aris Tqveni cxviri, qvemo
identifikacia da cnoba (Identification and recognition) _ perceptuli xatisaTvis azris micemis gzebi.

problema doqtor riCardsis TvalebSi ar iyo, arc stimulis niSnebis analizis unarSi igi zustad xedavda sagnis nawilebs da Tvisebebs. misi problema sinTezSi iyo, anu mas ar SeeZlo sensoruli informaciis nawilebis ise gaerTianeba, rom mxedvelobis velSi calkeuli movlena erTianad, TvalsaCinod aReqva. doqtor riCardsis SemTxveva naTels xdis aRqmasa da SegrZnebis procesebs Soris gansxvavebas. is, aseve, giCvenebT, rom sensoruli analizi da

SegrZneba, organizeba, identificireba da cnoba

uCveulo vizualuri gamocdileba. mokled rom vTqvaT, tvinis dazianebam imoqmeda sensoruli monacemebis sworad gaerTianebis unarze. magaliTad, doqtor riCardsi aRwerda, rom, Tu igi xedavda rTul (kompleqsur) obieqts, rogoricaa adamiani da mis vizualur velSi axlomaxlo kidev ramdenime adamiani iyo, igi zogjer adamianis nawilebs gancalkevebulad xedavda, romlebic ar erTiandebodnen erT gamosaxulebaSi. mas, aseve, uWirda erTi da imave movlenis xmisa da gamosaxulebis gaerTianeba. rodesac vinme mReroda, mas SeeZlo daenaxa piris moZraoba da gaegona xma, magram ise, TiTqos xma dublirdeboda araswori CanaweriT, raime ucxo filmSi. movlenis nawilebi rom erTianobaSi daenaxa, doqtor riCardss sWirdeboda raime Cveulebrivi faqtori, romelic `webos~ msgavsad imoqmedebda. magaliTad, Tu danawevrebuli adamianis yvela nawili erTi mimarTulebiT imoZravebda, riCardsi nawilebs kvlav gaerTianebulad, dasrulebuli adamianis saxiT aRiqvamda. Tumca, perceptul `webos~ zogjer SeiZleba raime absurduli konfiguracia Seeqmna. doqtor riCardsi erTnairi feris obieqtebs, rogoricaa, magaliTad, banani, limoni, kanaris Citi, gaerTianebulad dainaxavda maSinac ki, Tu isini sivrceSi gancalkevebulni iqnebodnen. brboSi adamianebi Serwymulad moeCveneboda, Tu isini erTnairi feris tansacmelSi iqnebodnen gamowyobilni. doqtor riCardsi garemos danawevrebulad, fragmentulad da ucnaurad ganicdida, rac absoluturad gansxvavdeboda normaluri gancdisagan (Marcel, 1983).

perceptuli organizacia uwyvetad mimdinareobs, miuxedavad imisa, rom ver acnobierebT maT moqmedebas. identifikacia da cnoba am klasifikaciaSi mesame safexuria, rodesac perceptul xats mniSvneloba eZleva. mrgvali sagnebi burTebad, monetebad, saaTebad, forToxlebad an mTvareebad `gadaiqceva~. adamianebi SeiZleba identificirdnen qalad an kacad, megobrad an mtrad, naTesavad an rok-varskvlavad. am etapze perceptuli SekiTxva: `ras hgavs es sagani?~ icvleba identifikaciis SekiTxviT: `ra aris sagani?~ dabolos, cnobis SekiTxviT: _ `ra aris sagnis funqcia?~ imisTvis, rom raimes identifikacia movaxdinoT, vicnoT da gavarkvioT, ra ewodeba mas, anda rogor SeiZleba vireagiroT masze, maRali donis kognituri procesebia saWiro, romlis mimdinareobaze gavlenas axdens Cveni Teoriebi, mexsiereba, Rirebulebebi, rwmenebi, obieqtTan dakavSirebuli atitudebi. amrigad, mokled mimovixileT informaciis gadamuSavebis safexurebi, romlebic perceptuli samyaros azriani gagebis saSualebas gvaZleven. radgan me-4 Tavi SegrZnebebs Seexeboda, am TavSi met yuradRebas davuTmobT aRqmis aspeqtebs fizikuri energiis sawyisi transformaciis Semdeg. yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi aRqma sruliad Zaldautaneblad mimdinareobs. Semdegi qveTavis dasawyisSi SevecdebiT, dagarwmunoT, rom realurad sakmaod daxvewil informaciis gadamuSavebas, did gonebriv samuSaos asrulebT, raTa sabolood `siadvilis~ am iluziamde mixvideT.

145

kideze ki _ xeli da muxli). ramdenad Seesabameba retinaluri gamosaxuleba garemos, romelmac is Seqmna? erT-erTi Zalze mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba maT Soris isaa, rom baduraze miRebuli gamosaxuleba organzomilebiania maSin, roca Tavad garemo samganzomilebiania. am gansxvavebas bevri Sedegi mohyveba. magaliTad, SevadaroT sur. 5.1.Aze mocemuli obieqtebis formebi baduraze miRebuli gamosaxulebebis formebs (sur. 5.1.C). magidas, noxs, fanjaras da suraTs realur samyaroSi marTkuTxa forma aqvs, magram retinaluri gamosaxulebebidan mxolod fanjras aqvs aseTi forma. suraTis xati aris trapecia, magidis Tavis xati _ arawesieri oTxkuTxa figura da xaliCis xati, faqtobrivad _ sami gancalkevebuli regioni ocze meti gansxvavebuli aspeqtiT! da, kvlav, Cveni Tavdapirveli perceptuli Tavsatexi _ rogor aRviqvamT yvela am obieqts, rogorc erTian, standartul marTkuTxa formis sagnebs? situacia aq cota ufro rTulia. Tqven, albaT, SeniSnavT, rom bevri ram, rasac oTaxSi aRiqvamT, ar aris mocemuli retinalur gamosaxulebebSi. magaliTad, Tqven aRiqvamT vertikalur zRvars or kedels Soris, romelic mTel iataks mihyveba, magram zRvris retinaluri gamosaxuleba magidis TavTan wydeba; aseve, retinalur gamosaxulebaze noxis nawilebi magidiTaa dafaruli, Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, Tqven noxs aRiqvamT, rogorc erTian, daunawevrebel marTkuTxeds. faqtobrivad, rodesac ganixilavT yvela gansxvavebas garemos obieqtebsa da baduraze maT Sesabamis gamosaxulebebs Soris, SeiZleba gagikvirdeT, rom Tqven samyaros amdagvarad aRiqvamT. samyaroSi fizikur sagansa da baduraze mis optikur gamosaxulebas Soris gansxvaveba imdenad didia da mniSvnelovani, rom fsiqologebi maT aRqmis or gansxvavebul stimulad miiCneven. rogorc es sur. 5.2-zea mocemuli, garemoSi mocemul fizikur sagans ewodeba distaluri stimuli (damkvirveblidan daSorebuli), xolo
Tavi 5 / aRqma

distaluri stimuli (Distal stimulus) _ proqsimaluri stimulisagan, anu baduraze optikuri gamosaxulebisagan gansxvavebiT, aRqmis procesSi samyaroSi mocemuli fizikuri sagani. proqsimaluri stimuli (Proximal stimulus) _ distaluri stimulisagan, anu samyaroSi fizikuri sagnisagan gansxvavebiT, baduraze miRebuli optikuri gamosaxuleba.

146

baduraze mis optikur gamosaxulebas _ proqsimaluri stimuli (damkvirvebelTan axlos). Cveni msjelobis ZiriTadi azri ufro mkafiod SeiZleba Semdegnairad CamovayaliboT: risi aRqmac gvsurs, aris distaluri stimuli garemoSi mocemuli `realuri~ sagani, xolo stimuli, romlidanac informacia unda miviRoT, aris proqsimaluri stimuli baduraze miRebuli sagnis gamosaxuleba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aRqmis ZiriTadi amocanaa proqsimalur stimulSi mocemuli informaciidan distaluri stimulis gansazRvra. es exeba aRqmis sxvadasxva modalobas. _ smenas, Sexebas, gemos da a.S. aRqma moicavs procesebs, romlebic iyeneben proqsimaluri stimulebis informacias, raTa mogvawodon informacia distaluri stimulis Tvisebebze. rom vnaxoT, distaluri da proqsimaluri stimulebi rogor ergebian aRqmis me-3 safexurs, ganvixiloT sur. 5.1-ze gamosaxuli erT-erTi obieqti, kedelze dakidebuli suraTi. sensorul safexurze es suraTi Seesabameba baduras gamosaxulebaze organzomilebian trapecias; misi zeda da qveda kideebi marjvniv erTmaneTs uaxlovdebian da marjvena da marcxena kideebi sxvadasxva sigrZisaa. es proqsimaluri stimulia. perceptuli organizaciis safexurze am trapecias xedavT, rogorc samganzomilebian sivrceSi gadaxril marTkuTxeds. mis zeda da qveda kideebs aRiqvamT, rogorc paralelurs, romlebic marjvna mxares daxrilebi arian, marjvena

suraTi

5.1

retinaluri gamosaxulebebis interpretacia


vizualuri aRqmis mTavari amocanaa proqsimaluri stimulidan (sagnisagan Seqmnili retinaluri gamosaxuleba) moaxdinos distaluri stimulis (garemoSi arsebuli realuri sagani) interpretacia da identifikacia.

da marcxena kideebs ki _ tolad. perceptuli procesebi qmnis hipoTezebs distaluri stimulis fizikuri Tvisebebis Sesaxeb. Semdeg ukve saWiroa stimulis identifikacia. cnobis etapze am

realoba, orazrovneba da iluziebi


aRqmis funqcia ganvsazRvreT, rogorc proqsimaluri stimulidan distaluri stimulis identifikacia. am funqciis Sesabamisi perceptuli meqanizmebis gacnobamde ganvixiloT garemoSi mocemuli stimulebis is aspeqtebi, romlebic aRqmas kompleqsurs xdian. esenia: orazrovani stimulebi da iluziebi.

suraTi

5.2

distaluri da proqsimaluri stimulebi


distaluri stimuli aris garemoSi arsebuli fizikuri stimuli, proqsimaluri ki _ sensoruli aqtivobis forma, romelic distaluri stimuliTaa gansazRvruli, rogorc suraTzea naCvenebi, proqsimaluri stimuli SeiZleba hgavdes distalur stimuls, magram isini gansxvavebuli movlenebi arian.

orazrovneba
aRqmis ZiriTadi amocana samyaroze zusti warmodgenis Seqmnaa. swori reaqcia garemoSi sagnebisa da movlebis zust aRqmazea damo-

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marTkuTxa obieqtSi amoicnobT suraTs. 5.3 suraTze mocemulia blok-sqema, romelic am movlenebis Tanmimdevrobas gviCvenebs. procesebi, romelTac informacia erTi safexuridan meoreze gadaaqvT, blokebs Soris isrebiTaa gamosaxuli. am TavSi ganvixilavT yvela interaqcias, romelic naxazzea mocemuli.

suraTi

5.3

SegrZnebis, perceptuli organizaciis da identifikacia/cnobis safexurebi


diagrama gviCvenebs procesebs, romlebic Semosuli informaciis transformacias axdenen SegrZnebis, perceptuli organizaciis da identifikacia/cnobis safexurebze. aRqmis aRmavali procesebi (qvemodan zemoT) maSin erTvebian, rodesac Semosuli sensoruli informaciidan perceptuli gamosaxuleba yalibdeba; daRmavali procesebi (zemodan qvemoT) im SemTxvevaSi moqmedeben, rodesac perceptul gamosaxulebaze gavlenas axdens warsuli codna, motivacia da fsiqikuri funqcionirebis sxva aspeqtebi.

Tavi 5 / aRqma

kidebuli. magaliTad, xeze moZravi arseba vefxvia? es yovelTvis advili gasarkvevi ar aris. daakvirdiT TeTr da Sav laqebs 5.4 suraTze. ra figuraa es? SeecadeT stimuli figura gamoyoT fonidan da dainaxoT mimavali dalmatineli. ZaRli Zneli dasanaxia, radgan is ereva fons da konturebic gamokveTili ar aris (SeniSvna: ZaRli naxatis marjvniv aris, Tavi centrisaken aqvs mimarTuli). es stimuli orazrovania, radgan kritikuli informacia aklia, misi nawilebi uCveulodaa ganlagebuli da Cveuli struqtura ar Cans. orazrovneba aRqmis gagebisTvis mniSvnelovani cnebaa. is gviCvenebs, rom sensorul safexurze mocemuli calkeuli xati SeiZleba mravalnairad interpretirdes aRqmisa da identifikaciis safexurebze. 5.5 suraTze mocemulia orazrovani figurebis sami magaliTi. TiToeuli maTganis ornairad interpretaciaa SesaZlebeli. daakvirdiT TiToeul gamosaxulebas, sanam ar dainaxavT or
orazrovani gamosaxuleba (Ambiguity) _ perceptuli obieqti, romelsac SeiZleba erTze meti interpretacia hqondes.

alternatiul figuras. aseve, SevniSnavT, rom mas Semdeg, rac orive figuras dainaxavT, orazrovani figuris yurebisas am alternativebs SenacvlebiT (xan erTs, xan meores) aRiqvamT. orazrovani figurebis es perceptuli labiloba

suraTi

5.4

orazrovani suraTi
ras xedavT suraTze? SeecadeT, dainaxoT mimavali dalmatineli.

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suraTi

5.5

perceptuli orazrovneba
TiToeuli nimuSis orgvari interpretaciaa SesaZlebeli, magram orives erTdroulad gancda ar SegiZliaT. amCnevT, rogor enacvlebian es SesaZleblobebi erTmaneTs?

(arastabiloba) maTi erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebelia. larkani/profilebi da nekeris kubi orazrovani figurebis nimuSebia perceptuli organizaciis safexurze. am erTi da igive figurebs Tqven orgvarad aRiqvamT. larkani/profilebi SeiZleba dainaxoT, rogorc Savi fonis centrSi moTavsebuli TeTri sagani, an ori Savi sagani maT Soris gamyofi TeTri sivrciT. nekeris kubi SeiZleba dainaxoT, rogorc samganzomilebiani carieli kubi an Tqvengan qvemoT da marcxniv kuTxiT an Tqvengan zemoT marjvniv kuTxiT. cxadia, kubisa da larnaki/profilebis orazrovani alternativebi erTi da imave stimuli xatiT arian gamowveulni, Tumca stimulebis orazrovnebas samganzomilebian sivrceSi figurebis specifikuri wyoba ganapirobebs. kurdReli/ixvi figura orazrovnebis nimuSia cnobis etapze. orive SemTxvevaSi is erTi da igive fizikur figurad aRiqmeba. Tumca, vinaidan figura Sereuli tipis informacias moicavs, SesaZlo alternativebis gamoyofa da klasifikacia mis orazrovnebas iwvevs. bevrma gamoCenilma mxatvarma gamoiyena aRqmis orazrovneba, rogorc mniSvnelovani SemoqmedebiTi saSualeba Tavis namuSevrebSi. magaliTad, salvador dalis monaTa bazari volteris uCinari biustiT (ix. sur. 5.6). es namuSevari kompleqsur orazrovnebas gviCvenebs. suraTis mTeli nawili radikalurad gansxavevebulad unda interpretirdes, raTa davinaxoT frangi filosofosis volteris `dafaruli~ biusti. TeTri ca qveda TaRis qveS volteris Subli da Tmaa. ori qalbatonis kabis TeTri nawili _

misi loyebi, cxviri da nikapia. rogorc ki dainaxavT volteris biusts dalis am suraTze, gagiCndebaT survili imis codnisa, Tu sadaa frangi filosofosis figura damaluli. normaluri aRqmis erT-erTi yvelaze fundamenturi Tvisebaa garemos orazrovnebis da gaurkvevlobis naTeli interpretaciiT Secvla, raTa Tavdajerebuli moqmedeba SevZloT. cvlilebebiTa da aramdgradobiT savse samyaroSi perceptuli sistema unda akmayofilebdes mdgradobis da stabilobis miRwevis moTxovnilebas.

suraTi

5.6

orazrovneba mxatvrobaSi
salvador dalis am naxats ewodeba `monaTa bazari volteris uCinari biustiT~. xedavT volters? dali erT-erTi im Tanamedrove mxatvarTagania, romlebmac Tavis namuSevrebSi orazrovneba gamoiyenes.

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iluziebi
orazrovani stimulebi perceptul sistemebs rTul amocanas uyeneben _ ramdenime SesaZleblobidan amoicnon erTi unikaluri figura. orazrovani stimulebis interpretaciis siswore an simcdare, Ceveulebriv, konteqstzea damokidebuli. rodesac perceptuli sistema stimulis struqturas mkveTrad amaxinjebs da cvlis, Tqven iluzias ganicdiT.

sityva `iluzia~-s igive fuZe aqvs, rac `Seusabamo~-s, `uazro~-s, `sasacilo~-s (ludicrous). orive warmodgeba laTinuri sityvidan illudere, rac naSnavs dacinvas, masxrad agdebas. erTnair iluziebs ganicdis adamianTa umetesoba erTsa da imave perceptul situaciaSi, sensoruli sistemis msgavsi fiziologiis da samyaroSi sagnebis msgavsad gancdis gamo (rogorc me-6 TavSi vnaxavT, iluziebi gansxvavdeba halucinaciebisagan halucinacia aris aragavrcelebuli

Tavi 5 / aRqma

suraTi

5.7
gonebis savarjiSo

xuTi iluzia

150

TiToeuli nimuSi gviCvenebs aRqmis iluziebis gamomwvev pirobebs. mkvlevrebi xSirad iyeneben iluziebs TavianTi Teoriebis Sesamowmeblad. es Teoriebi xsnian, perceptul sistemebSi, romlebic, Cveulebriv, sakmaod zustad muSaoben, gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi rogor warmoiqmneba iluziebi.

perceptuli damaxinjeba, rac adamianis uCveulo fizikuri an fsiqikuri mdgomareobiTaa gamowveuli). ganvixiloT 5.7 suraTze warmodgenili klasikuri iluziebi, Tumca, CvenTvis ufro advilia, vizualuri iluziebis ganxilva. iluziebi arsebobs sxva iseT sensorul modalobebSic, rogoricaa smena (Bregman 1981; Saberi 1966; Shepard & Jordan,1984) da gemo (Todrank & Bartoslu, 1991). mas Semdeg, rac 1854-55 wels j. opelma (J.J.Oppel) iluziebis pirveli mecnieruli analizi gamoaqveyna, aTasobiT statia daiwera iluziebze bunebaSi, SegrZnebebSi, aRqmasa da xelovnebaSi. opelis mokrZalebuli wvlili iluziebis SeswavlaSi iyo xazebis ubralo rigi, romelic ufro grZeli Canda, roca segmentebad iyo dayofili (varianti a), vidre maSin, roca mxolod bolo xazebi iyo mocemuli (varianti b). | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | (a) | | (b) opelma Tavis naSroms geometriuli optikuri iluziebis Seswavla uwoda. iluziebi miuTiTebs perceptul xatsa da realobas Soris gansxvavebaze. maT SeiZleba gviCvenon abstraqtuli

konceptualuri gansxvaveba SegrZnebebs, per ceptul organizacias da identifikacias Soris da dagvexmaron aRqmis garkveuli fundamenturi Tvisebebis gagebaSi. mkvlevrebi xSirad igoneben axal iluziebs an iyeneben Zvels, raTa perceptuli gadamuSavebis mniSvnelovani Taviseburebebi gviCvenon. ganvixiloT miuler-laieris iluziis sxvadasxva versia, romelic 5.8 suraTzea mocemuli. versia A pirvelad franc miuler-laierma (Muller-Lyer) 1889 wels ganixila naSromSi optikuri iluziebis Sesaxeb. Semdegi versiebi miulerma da misma kolegebma 1900 wlamde Seqmnes. TiToeul SemTxvevaSi monakveTebis sigrZe (an B versiaSi kuTxeebis wveroebs Soris manZili) Tanabaria. adamianebs xSirad ukvirT es faqti, Tqven ki gadasamowmeblad SegiZliaT gazomoT. imis miuxedavad, rom es iluzia sakmaod didi xnis winaa aRmoCenili da mkvlevrebmac mravaljer
iluzia (Illusion) _ stimulis paternis gancda, romelic aSkarad mcdaria, Tumca, igives ganicdian sxva adamianebic igive perceptul garemoSi.

suraTi

5.8

miuler-laieris iluziis variaciebi


miuler-laieris iluziis yvela mocemuli variacia 1900 wlamde Seiqmna. aRiqvamT sigrZeebs Soris gansxvavebas TiToeul SemTxvevaSi? aRqmis mkvlevrebma iluziebis axsna Teoriebis SeqmniT scades.

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scades axsna, misi warmoSobis Sesaxeb Teoriebi icvleba (Green & Nelson, 1997). misi simtkice, rac ufro didi sigrZis iluziis advilad SeqmnaSi gamoixateba, vizualuri gadamuSavebis sferoSi Teoretikosebs axal problemebs uqmnis. es magaliTi gviCvenebs, rom iluziebi ubralod

ucnauroba ar aris. isini fsiqologiuri TeoriebisaTvis mniSvnelovan monacemebs iZlevian. amrigad, mkvlevrebs mxolod iluziebi ki ar ainteresebT, aramed im garemoebebis Seswavlac, romlebSic aRqma samyaroze zust informacias iZleva.

fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi

virtualuri realoba
ai, saukunis dasawyisis teleSouebisa da filmebisTvis tipuri siuJeti: qali da mamakaci personaJebi xvdebian kompiuteriT Seqmnil virtualur samyaroSi, rasac dramatuli Sedegebi mosdevs. magaliTad, `matricaSi~ (Tu filmi ar gaqvT nanaxi, azri ara aqvs Semdegi winadadebis wakiTxvas) mTavari personaJi aRmoaCens, rom yvelaferi, rac `realurad~ miaCnia, sinamdvileSi superkompiuterebis mier Seqmnili detalurad damuSavebuli virtualuri realobaa da es superkompiuterebi akontroleben planetas. sabednierod, CvenTvis xelmisawvdomi virtualuri realobis versiebi jerjerobiT sakmaod uwyinaria _ Cven sakmaod iolad SegviZlia virtualuri garemosgan Tavis daRweva atraqcionebsa da gasarTob centrebSi. virtualuri realobis gancdis xarisxis gaumjobeseba xSirad damokidebulia mkvlevrebis unarze, Seqmnan perceptuli sistemis SecdomaSi Sesayvani axali saSualebebi. virtualuri realobis Semqmnelebi cdiloben, perceptuli procesebis mniSvnelovani kvlevebidan miRebuli codna sruliad axali samyaros cxovel gancdebSi gadmoitanon. mravali virtualuri realobis sistemis mizani monawileTaTvis virtualur samyaroSi yofnis gancdis Seqmnaa. yofna ramdenime ganzomilebaze ganisazRvreba, maT Soris aris monawilis CarTva socialurad mdidar an interaqciul ambavSi (Lombard & Ditton, 1997), Tumca, aRqmis TvalsazrisiT, virtualur samyaroSi yofnis SegrZneba, rogorc wesi, damokidebulia virtualur samyaroSi CaZirvaze, rac perceptulad realurad aRiqmeba. bolo wlebSi mkvlevrebma daiwyes im perceptuli informaciis sistematuri Seswavla, romelic saWiroa virtualur samyaroSi TiTqmis srulyofilad yofnis uzrunvelsayofad. yofnis Sesafaseblad mkvlevrebi xSirad zomaven, ramdenad kargad SeuZlia adamians amocanis Sesruleba sxvadasxva perceptuli konfiguraciis mqone virtualur samyaroSi (Nash et al., 2000; Nichols et al., 2000). ganvixiloT proeqti, romelSic ikvlies vizualuri gamosaxulebis zemoqmedeba simulatorSi manqanis marTvis unarze. am amocanas mkvlevrebma gzis savali nawilis SenarCuneba (lane keeping ) uwodes (Kappe et al., 1999). monawileebi ukeT inarCunebdnen gzis saval nawils, rodesac ekrani perceptuli gadamuSavebisaTvis saintereso realur samyaroseul monacemebs i Z l e o d a . g a v i x s e n o T, r o m realuri samyaros gancdisas informacias iRebT rogorc yuradRebis centridan, ise _ periferiidan. sainteresoa, rogor xdeba es virtualur samyaroSi? mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines, rom monawileebi ukeT inarCunebdnen gzis saval nawils, rodesac ekrani periferiul informacias iZleoda, Tumca, ar iyo saWiro, rom es periferiuli informacia, realuri samyaros gancdis analogiurad, Zalze detaluri yofiliyo. es aRmoCenebi vizualuri ekranebis dizainisTvis mniSvnelovan informacias iZleva. am tipis eqsperimenti gvarwmunebs, rom mxolod vizualuri velis centri saWiroebs Zlier detalizacias. periferiuli informacia mniSvnelovania, magram misi Sevseba SeiZleba globaluri vizualuri struqturiT. ueWvelia, rom ramdenime weliwadSi virtualuri samyaro kidev ufro mimzidveli gaxdeba _ mkvlevrebsa da gamomgoneblebs ukeT ecodinebaT, rogor daarwmunon Tqveni perceptuli sistemebi kompiuteriT Seqmnili samyaros `realurobaSi~. Web sites www.hitl.washington.ed/ projects/knowlege-base/onthenet. html, (veb-gverdi, romelic virtualur realobaze moicavs monacemebs) www.vrs.org.uk (virtualuri sazogadoebis veb-gverdi)

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iluziebi yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi

aRqmis Semswavleli midgomebi


iluziebi Cveni cxovrebis ganuyreli nawilia. ganvixiloT Cveni planeta `dedamiwis~ yoveldRiuri gamocdileba~. Tqven xedavT mzis `amosvlas~ da `Casvlas~, Tumca iciT, rom mze dasabamidan mzis sistemis centrSia moTavsebuli. albaT, gasagebia, ratom iyo udidesi simamacis gamovlena qristefore kolumbis da sxva zRvaosnebis mxridan, rom uareyoT dedamiwis sibrtyelis aSkara iluzia da misi erT-erTi kidisaken gaecuraT. aseve, roca savse mTvarea caze, geCvenebaT, rom sadac ar unda waxvideT, is Tan mogyvebaT, Tumca, iciT, rom es ase ara aris. esec iluziaa, romlsac Tqven Tvalebsa da mTvares Soris arsebuli udidesi manZili iwvevs. saqme isaa, rom mTvaridan areklili sinaTlis sxivebi Tqveni moZraobis mimarTulebis mimarT ZiriTadad paraleluri da perpendikularuli rCeba, mniSvneloba ara aqvs, Tu sad midixarT. adamianebs SeuZliaT iluziebis kontroli sasurveli efeqtebis misaRwevad. arqiteqtorebi da interieris dizainrebi aRqmis principebs iyeneben sivrceSi sagnebis Sesaqmnelad, romlebic maT realur zomebze ufro didad an mcired gamoiyurebian. mcire zomis bina ufro farTod gamoCndeba, Tu mas naTeli ferebiT SeRebaven, avejiT ar gadatvirTaven da patara dabal taxtebs, skamebs da magidebs kedlis gaswvriv ki ar ganalageben, aramed _ oTaxis centrSi. nasaSi (NASA) sivrciT programebSi momuSave fsiqologebma aRqmaze garemos gavlena gamoikvlies, raTa kosmosuri xomaldis Sida sivrce ise moewyoT, rom mas sasiamovno sensoruli Tvisebebi hqonoda. dekoraciebisa da ganaTebis reJisorebi kinosa da Teatralur xelovnebaSi ganzrax qmnian iluziebs filmebsa da scenaze. am iluziebidan zogi ufro sasurvelia, vidre sxvebi. Cven, Cveulebriv, mogvwons kargad mowyobili garemo. mkvlevrebi swored imitom ikvleven iluziebs, rom ukeT axsnan aRqmis moqmedebis kanonzomiereba. iluziebi ki, Tavis mxriv, gvarwmuneben, rom perceptuli sistemebiT yovelTvis srulyofilad ver miiReba proqsimaluri stimulidan distaluri stimuli. Tqven ukve gaecaniT aRqmis ramdenime arsebiT kiTxvas: rogor aRadgens perceptuli sistema informacias garemos struqturis Sesaxeb? rogor xdeba perceptuli orazrovnebis problemis gadaWra? ratom Cndeba iluziebi? am kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemamde, saWiroa ukeT gaverkveT im TeoriebSi, romelTac mniSvnelovani adgili ukaviaT aRqmis kvlevaSi. am Teoriebs Soris arsebuli gansxvavebebis danaxva SesaZlebelia me-3 TavSi, sadac saubaria Tandayolilis (nativizmis) da SeZenilis (empirizmis) urTierTgamijvnaze. sakiTxi ase dgas: ra raodenobis sawyisi SesaZleblobebis matarebelia Tqveni genotipi. rogorc nativistma SeiZleba amtkicoT, rom samyaroSi garkveuli tipis Sinagani codniT an tvinis struqturebiT SedixarT, romelic samyaros interpretaciaSi gexmarebaT; an, rogorc empiristma, SeiZleba amtkicoT, rom samyaroSi SedixarT, rogorc sufTa dafa, mzad imisaTvis rom SeiswavloT perceptuli samyaro. Tanamedrove Teoritikosebis umravlesoba Tanxmdeba imaze, rom samyaros gancdisTvis mniSvnelovania Tandayolilisa da SeZenilis kombinacia, Tumca, vnaxavT, rom isini ver Tanxmdebian am kombinaciis balansze.

helmholcis klasikuri Teoria


1866 wels herman fon helmholci (Hermann von Helmholtz) aRqmaSi gamocdilebis, anu SeZenilis mniSvnelovnebis pozicias icavda. misi Teoriis mixedviT, nervul sistemaze moqmedi, xSirad orazrovani stimulebis interpretaciisas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba fsiqikur procesebs eniWeba. garemos Sesaxeb warsulSi miRebuli codnis safuZvelze damkvirvebeli qmnis hipoTezebs, anu varaudebs imis Taobaze, Tu rogoria esa Tu is sagani sinamdvileSi. magaliTad, tyeSi moulodnelad danaxul oTxfexa arsebas, albaT, ZaRlad ufro miiCnevT, vidre _ mglad. amdenad, aRqma induqciuri procesia konkretuli, savaraudo kerZo xatidan daskvnis gakeTeba sagnebis an movlenebis zogad klasze xdeba, romelsac SeiZleba es konkretuli xati miekuTvnebodes. radgan es procesi cnobierebis monawileobis gareSe mimdinareobs, helmholcma mas aracnobieri daskvna (unconscious inference) uwoda. es
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daskvniTi procesi, Cveulebriv, zustad muSaobs, Tumca, SeiZleba perceptuli iluziebi warmoiqmnas, rodesac uCveulo garemoeba erTi da igive stimulis mravalnairi interpretaciis saSualebas iZleva, an, rodesac axlis nacvlad Zveli da nacnobi gziT xdeba interpretacia. helmholcis Teoria aRqmas or etapad yofs. pirvel, analitikur etapze grZnobis organoebi fundamenturi SegrZnebebis doneze axdenen samyaros analizs; meore, sinTezis, safexurze xdeba am sensoruli elementebis gaerTianeba da sinTezireba obieqtebis da maTi Tvisebebis aRqmis saxiT. helmholcis Teoriis mixedviT, Cven SegrZnebebis interpretacias garemodan miRebuli gamocdilebis safuZvelze vaxdenT. Cveni interpretaciebi, faqtobrivad, Cveni percepciis (aRqmis) Sesaxeb informirebul varaudebs warmoadgens.

struqturidan da fiziologiidan gamomdinare (Semdeg qveTavSi ganvixilavT geStaltistebis mier SemoTavazebul, perceptuli organizaciis magaliTebs).

gibsonis ekologiuri optika


jeims gibsonma (James Gibson, 1966, 1979) da elinor gibsonma (Eleanor Gibson) aRqmisadmi Zalze mniSvnelovani midgoma SemogvTavazes. gibsoni aRqmas organizmis struqturis Sedegad ki ar miiCnevda, aramed fiqrobda, rom misi ukeT gageba uSualo garemos (anu misi ekologiis) analiziT iyo SesaZlebeli. erT-erTi avtoris TqmiT, gibsonis midgoma aseTi iyo: `ar ikiTxoT, ra aris Tqvens TavSi, ikiTxeT _ ris SigniTaa Tqveni Tavi~ (Mace, 1977). gibsonis ekologiuri optikis Teoria garegani stimulebis Tvisebebs ufro met yuradRebas aqcevda, vidre im meqanizmebs, romliTac am stimulebis aRqma xdeba. es midgoma radikalurad gansxvavdeboda manamde arsebuli yvela Teoriisgan. gibsonis koncefciaSi aRqma gagebulia, rogorc garemos aqtiuri gamokvleva. rodesac damkvirvebeli garemoSi moZraobs, baduraze stimulaciis paterni mudmivad icvleba drosa da sivrceSi. ekologiuri optikis Teoria cdilobda, ganesazRvra garemos Sesaxeb is informacia, romelic xelmisawvdomi iqneboda moZravi damkvirveblis TvalisaTvis. gibsonis mimdevari Teoritikosebi Tanxmdebian imaze, rom perceptuli sistemebi ganuviTardaT organizmebs, romlebic rTul da cvalebad garemoSi aqtiurebi iyvnen _ moipovebdnen sakvebs, wyals,

geStaltmidgoma
geStaltfsiqologia, romelic XX saukunis II naxevarSi germaniaSi Camoyalibda, did yuradRebas uTmobda perceptul gamocdilebaSi Tandayolili struqturebis rols. geStaltfsiqologiis gamoCenili warmomadgenlebi: kurt kofka (Kurt Koffka, 1935), volfgang keleri (Wolfgang Kohler, 1947) da maqs verThaimeri (Max Wertheimer, 1923) amtkicebdnen, rom fsiqologiuri fenomenis gageba mxolod maSin aris SesaZlebeli, Tu mas organizebul, struqturul mTlianobad miviCnevT da ar davanawevrebT primitiul, martiv perceptul elementebad. germanuli termini geStalti miaxloebiT `formas~, `mTlians~, `konfiguracias~ an `arss~ niSnavs. geStaltistebma uaryves fsiqologiaSi arsebuli atomisturi Tvalsazrisi. isini amtkicebdnen, rom mTeli gacilebiT metia, vidre misi nawilebis ubralo meqanikuri jami. magaliTad, roca musikas vusmenT, mTlian melodias aRviqvamT, miuxedavad imisa, rom is calkeuli bgerebisagan Sedgeba. geStaltfsiqologiis mixedviT, samyaros holsturi aRqmis Camoyalibeba ganpirobebulia Tavis tvinis qerqis (korteqsis) funqcionirebis TaviseburebiT. Cven CvenTvis Cveuli gziT imitom vawesrigebT sensorul informacias, rom es Semomavali sensoruli informaciis organizebis umartivesi da yvelaze ekonomiuri gzaa, tvinis

aracnobieri daskvna (Unconscious inference) _ helmholcis termini, romelic gacnobierebis gareSe mimdinare aRqmas aRniSnavs. geStaltfsiqologia (Gestalt psychology) _ fsiqologiuri skola, romelic amtkicebs, rom fsiqologiuri fenomenis gageba mxolod maSin aris SesaZlebeli, Tu mas organizebul, struqturul mTlianobad miviCnevT da ar davanawevrebT promitiul, martiv, perceptul elementebad. ekologiuri optikis Teoria (Theory of ecological optics) _ aRqmis Teoria, romelic xazs usvams sastimulo informaciis mravalferovnebas da aRqmas garemos aqtiur gamokvlevad miiCnevs.

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mewyvilesa da TavSesafars (Gibson, 1979; Greeno, 1994; Nakayama, 1994). gibsonis mixedviT, kiTxvaze _ `rogor swavlob garemos?~ pasuxi sakmaod advilia. Tqven garemodan pirdapir iRebT informacias sensoruli informaciis invariantuli anu stabiluri Tvisebebis Sesaxeb. am SemTxvevaSi araa saWiro perceptuli daskvnis maRali donis sistemebis hipoTeturi konstruqtebis Seqmna _ aRqma pirdapir, uSualod xdeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom garemoSi arsebuli TiToeuli sagnis retinaluri zoma da forma icvleba damkvirveblidan sagnis daSorebulobisa da xedvis kuTxis mixedviT, cvlilebebi SemTxveviTi ar aris. metic, es cvlilebebi sistematuria da sagnidan areklili sinaTlis ZiriTadi Tvisebebi ar icvleba (invariantulia) aRqmis kuTxisa da daSorebis aseTi cvlilebis pirobebSic ki. vizualuri sistema isea mowyobili, rom amCnevs am invariantulobas. adamianebi iseT garemoSi viTardebodnen, sadac swored invariantobis aRqmas hqonda sasicocxlo mniSvneloba. amrigad, Tqven ukve gaecaniT im Teoriebs, romlebic mkvlevrebma perceptuli procesebis asaxsnelad Seqmnes. am procesebis gacnobamde ganvixiloT, rogor xdeba samyaroSi xelmisawvdomi informaciis mcire nawilis SerCeva da misTvis yuradRebis mipyroba.

xmdebian maT Soris balansze. helmholci xazs usvamda gamocdilebis mniSvnelovnebas da varaudobda, rom aRqmis didi nawili aracnobier daskvnas efuZneboda. geStalt-midgoma aRniSnavda, rom perceptuli gamocdileba ganxilul unda yofiliyo, rogorc mTeli da aRqmaSi Tandayolili procesebis rols uWerda mxars; jeims gibsoniseuli midgoma ki xazs usvamda damkvirveblis, rogorc aqtiuri subieqtis rols da did mniSvnelobas aniWebda garemodan wamosul invariantul informacias.

yuradRebis procesebi
Sejameba
aRqmis mTliani procesi SeiZleba sam safexurad daiyos: SegrZneba, perceptuli organizacia da identifikacia/cnoba. vizualuri aRqmis ZiriTadi amocanaa distaluri stimulis (garemoSi arsebuli realuri obieqtis) identifikacia da interpretacia, proqsimaluri stimulidan (obieqtis retinaluri gamosaxulebidan) miRebuli informaciis safuZvelze. orazrovan figurebs mxolod erTi interpretacia aqvs sensorul doneze, mravali SesaZlo interpretacia ki _ organizaciis da identifikaciis doneze. iluziebi SezRudvebs uqmnian perceptuli procesebis Sesaxeb Teoriebs. aRqmis Teoriebi, Cveulebriv, Tanxmdebian imaze, rom perceptuli unari Tandayolili da SeZenili procesebis Sedegia, Tumca, ver TanSeecadeT, Tqvens irgvliv aRmoaCinoT aTi ram, romelic am momentamde ar SegimCneviaT. SeamCnieT laqa kedelze? saaTis wikwiki? Tu garemos Zalze yuradRebiT davakvirdebiT, aRmovaCenT, rom aTasobiT sagania irgvliv, romlisTvisac yuradRebis miqceva SeiZleboda. zogadad, rac metad mivaqcevT yuradRebas sagns Tu movlenas, metis aRqmasa da gagebas SevZlebT masze. amitom aris yuradReba aRmis Seswavlisas mniSvnelovani Tema. yuradRebis fokusi gansazRvravs, ra tipis informacia iqneba yvelaze xelmisawvdomi perceptuli proceseyuradReba (Attention) _ xelmisawvdomi perceptuli informaciis romelime nawilze cnobierebis fokusireba.

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155

bisaTvis. rogorc qvemoT vnaxavT, mkvlevrebi Seecadnen gaerkviaT, Tu garemodan momdinare ra tipis stimulebs eqceva Cveni yuradReba da ra wvlili Seaqvs yuradRebas stimulebis gancdaSi. Tavdapirvelad ganvixilavT, rogor funqcionirebs yuradReba seleqciurad, raTa garemoSi garkveul sagnebsa da movlenebs meti mniSvnelovneba mianiWos.

seleqciuri (SerCeviTi) yuradReba


am qveTavis dasawyisSi gTxoveT, yuradReba migeqciaT ramdenime sagnisaTvis, romlebic manamde ar SegimCneviaT. es eqsperimenti gviCvenebs yuradRebis mniSvnelovan funqcias, rac Semavali sensoruli masalis garkveuli nawilis SerCevaSi gamoixateba. es nawili Semdeg gadamuSavdeba. vnaxoT, rogor virCevT, samyaros romel nawils (subset) mivaqcioT yuradReba da ra Sedegi mosdevs am gadawyvetilebas CvenTvis iolad xelmisawvdomi informaciis TvalsazrisiT. yuradRebis faqtorebi rogor virCevT sagnebs, romlebic Cveni yuradRebis centrSi eqcevian? am kiTxvaze pasuxs ori komponenti aqvs. maT mizniT marTul seleqcias (goal-derected) da stimuliT gamowveul yuradRebis mipyrobas (stimulus-driven capture) uwodeben1 (Jantis, 1993). mizniT marTuli SerCevisas Tqveni miznebidan gamomdinare irCevT, Tu romel obieqts miaqcioT yuradReba. cxadia, rom

SegiZliaT eqspliciturad airCioT calkeuli obieqtebi Sesaswavlad. stimuliT gamowveuli SerCeva maSin xdeba, rodesac stimulis _ garemoSi arsebuli obieqtebis _ maxasiaTeblebi TavisTavad, avtomaturad iqceven yuradRebas, Tqveni, rogorc damkvirveblis, miznebisagan damoukideblad. stimuliT gamowveuli SerCeva iqneba, magaliTad, Tu saWesTan mjdomi SuqniSanze gaCerdebiT da ocnebebSi waxvalT; SuqniSnis moulodneli cvlileba _ wiTeli Suqidan mwvaneze _ gansakuTrebuli koncentraciis gareSec miiqcevs Tqvens yuradRebas. sainteresoa, ra kavSiria am or process Soris. kvlevebi aCvenebs, rom garkveul pirobebSi mainc, stimuliT gamowveuli yuradReba Warbobs mizniT marTul seleqcias.

saidan viciT
konkurencia procesebs Soris, romlebic yuradRebis fokusirebasac gansazRvraven mkvlevrebma Seqmnes vizualuri ekranebi, romlebic mizniT marTul SerCevasa da stimuliT gamowveul yuradRebas konkurenciul pirobebSi ayenebdnen (Theeuwes et al., 1998). rogorc 5.9 suraTis A nawilzea mocemuli, eqsperimentis TiToeuli sinjis dasawyisSi cdis pirebs uCvenebdnen vizualur ekrans, romelzedac mocemuli iyo 6 nacrisferi wre SigniT Cawerili cifriT 8. erTi wamis Semdeg ekrani icvleboda. seriebis meore naxevarSi, rogorc B nawilzea mocemuli, erTi wris garda yvela wre wiTeli feris gaxda. cdis pirebis amocana iyo, SeexedaT darCenili nacrisferi wrisTvis da eTqvaT, masSi Cveulebrivi C ewera, Tu Sebrunebuli. cdis pirebi am amocanis Sesrulebisas mizniT marTul SerCevas iyenebdnen. maT ganzrax, mizanmimarTulad gadahqondaT yuradReba darCenil nacrisfer wreze. axla ganvixiloT 5.9 suraTis C nawili. am SemTxvevaSi, romelic cdebis meore naxevars warmoadgens, vizualur mwkrivs axali elementi daemata _ wiTeli wre. axali obieqtebi im saxis stimulebs miekuTvneba, romlebic, Cveulebriv, stimuliT gamow-

qarTul fsiqologiaSi: aRqmis subieqturi da obieqturi faqtorebi (redaqtoris SeniSvna).

mizniT marTuli seleqcia (Goal-directed selection) _ gansazRvravs imas, Tu adamianebi ratom irCeven Semomavali sensoruli informaciis raRac nawils Semdegi gadamuSavebisaTvis. SerCeva adamianis miznebidan gamomdinare xdeba.
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stimuliT gamowveuli yuradRebis mipyroba (Stimulus-driven capture) _ gansazRvravs imas, Tu adamianebi ratom irCeven sensoruli Semomavali informaciis raRac nawils Semdegi gadamuSavebisaTvis; xdeba maSin, rodesac stimulebis niSnebi (sagnebi garemoSi) avtomaturad ipyroben yuradRebas, adamianis kerZo miznebisgan damoukideblad.

veul SerCevas iwveven. Cveulebriv pirobebSi mosalodneli iqneboda, rom cdis pirebi mzeras am axal obieqtze gadaitandnen, Tumca, am konkretul eqsperimentSi maT es ar moeTxovebodaT. maT isev sTxovdnen, daefiqsirebinaT mxolod erTi nacrisferi wris Sinaarsi. Dda ra xdeboda? cdis pirebi ar aqcevdnen yuradRebas wiTel wres? faqtobrivad, umetes SemTxvevaSi axali obieqti avtomaturad iqcevda cdis pirTa yuradRebas, miuxedavad imisa, rom is sruliad ar Seesabameboda eqsperimentatoris mier maTTvis dasaxul mizans.

es fenomeni SeiZleba stimuliT gamowveul SerCevad miviCnioT, radgan is aRmqmelis miznebis sapirispirod moqmedebs. cxadia, monawileebi ukeT Seasrulebdnen amocanas, Tu yuradRebas ar miaqcevdnen wiTel wres, magram maTi ignorireba SeuZlebelia (miuxedavad imisa, rom monawileebs TiTqmis yovelTvis urCevniaT, rac SeiZleba kargad Seasrulon mkvlevris mier dasaxuli amocana). mniSvnelovani zogadi daskvna isaa, rom Cveni perceptuli sistema isea mowyobili, rom yuradReba avtomaturad eqceva garemoSi gamoCenil axal sagnebs (Yantis & Jonides, 1996).

suraTi

5.9

yuradRebis gamomwvevi procesebi


am eqsperimentis TiToeuli seriis dasawyisSi, cdis pirebi uyurebdnen ekrans, romelzec gamosaxuli iyo eqvsi nacrisferi wre (nawili A). rodesac ekrani icvleboda, cdis pirebis amocana iyo, eTqvaT, darCenil nacrisfer wreSi rogori C iyo Cawerili. seriis naxevarSi ekranze ar iyo axali obieqtebi (nawili B), meore naxevarSi ki _ iyo (nawili C). miuxedavad imisa, rom cdis pirebis amocana iyo erTi nacrisferi wrisTvis yuradRebis miqceva, axali obieqti gamoCenisTanave avtomaturad ipyrobda maT yuradRebas.

yuradRebis miRma darCenili informacia


Tu Tqven SerCeviTad miaqcieT yuradReba perceptuli ekranis romelime nawils, sakuTari miznebidan an stimulis Tvisebebidan gamomdinare, ra bedi eweva yuradRebis miRma darCenil informacias? warmoidgineT, rom usmenT leqcias, Tqvengan orive mxares ki adamianebi saubroben. rogor SeZlebT mihyveT leqciis Sinaarss? ra gesmiT saubridan? SeiZleba rame iseTs mokraT yuri romelime saubris SinaarsSi, rac leqciidan Tqveni yuradRebis gadanacvlebas gamoiwvevs? am kiTxvebiT pirvelad ronald broudbenTi (Ronald Brodbent, 1958) dainteresda. igi tvins sakomunikacio arxs _ telefonis xazs an kompiuteris kavSirebs _ adarebda, romelic aqtiurad gadaamuSavebs da gadascems informacias. broudbenTis Teoriis mixedviT, tvins, rogorc sako-

munikacio arxs, informaciis sruli gadamuSavebis SezRuduli SesaZlebloba aqvs. amis gamo saWiroa, rom yuradRebam mkacrad daareguliros Semavali sensoruli informaciis cnobierebaSi gadasvla. yuradReba aviwroebs kognitur sistemaSi Semavali informaciis nakads, filtravs garkveul nawils da danarCen informacias Semdeg safexurze uSvebs. yuradRebis filtris Teoria (filter theory) amtkicebs, rom Semomavali informaciis seleqcia misi mniSvnelobis wvdomamde xdeba. filtris Teoriis Sesamowmeblad mkvlevrebma laboratoriaSi Seqmnes realuri cxovrebiseuli situacia, sadac Semomavali informaciis mravali wyaro gvaqvs. amisaTvis maT gamoiyenes dixotomiuri mosmenis meTodi. am eqsperimentSi monawileebs ukeTiaT yursas-

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menebi, romelSic erTdroulad usmenen or Caweril informacias. TiToeul yurSi g a n s x v a v e b u l i informacia miewodebaT. monawileebs eZlevaT instruqcia, eqsperimentators gadascen mxolod erT-erTi Setyobineba da ar mousminon meore yurSi miwodebul informacias. am proceduras uwodeben yuradRebamiqceuli informaciis daCrdilvas (ix. sur. 5.10). filtris Teoriis mosazreba eWvqveS dadga, rodesac aRmoCnda, rom zogierTi msmeneli ixsenebda iseT momentebs, romelTa gaxsenebasac ver SeZlebda, yuradRebas mTlianad rom gaefiltra ignorirebuli masala (Cherry, 1953). sanimuSod ganvixiloT sakuTari saxelis magaliTi. adamianebi xSirad amboben, rom yuri mokres sakuTar saxels xmaurian oTaxSi maSinac ki, roca isini sxva saubarSi iyvnen CarTulni. amas koqteilis wveulebis fenomens (cocktail party phenomenon) uwodeben.

suraTi

5.10

diqotomiuri mosmenis amocana


cdis piri erTdroulad ismens sxvadasxva cifrebs TiToeul yurSi: 2 (marcxena), 7 (marjvena), 6 (marcxena), 9 (marjvena), 1 (marcxena), 5 (marjvena). igi mosmenils ambobs swor rigad _ 261 da 795. xolo, rodesac sTxoven, mousminos mxolod marjvena yurSi miwodebul masalas, cdis piri ambobs mxolod 795-s.

saidan viciT
gvWirdeba Tu ara yuradReba sakuTari saxelis gasagonad? cdis pirebi erTdroulad ismendnen ori adamianis xmas, romlebic erTmarcvliani sityvebis mwkrivs kiTxulobdnen. maT sTxovdnen, yuradReba mieqciaT mxolod marjvena yurSi miwodebuli informaciisaTvis da sityvebi maqsimalurad zustad gaemeorebinaT. eqsperimentis mimdinareobis garkveul momentSi TiToeul monawiles (sakontrolo jgufis garda) sxva sityvebTan erTad asmeninebdnen sakuTar saxels im yurSi, romelSic mowodebuli informaciisTvis yuradReba ar unda mieqciaT. sainteresoa, gaigones Tu ar maT sakuTari saxelebi? cdis pirTa daaxloebiT 1/3-ma (34%-ma), romelsac saxels ukiTxavdnen, gaigona sakuTari saxeli, Tumca maT ver gaigones verc erTi sxva saxeli iseve, rogorc sakontrolo jgufis cdis pirebma (romelTac saxelebs ar ukiTxavdnen). garda amisa, damCrdilavi qmedebis (shadowing performance) gamo, monawileebi, romlebmac sakuTari saxeli gai-

gones (da mxolod es jgufi), saxelis gagonebis Semdeg maSinve ferxdebodnen (Wood & Cowan, 1995a). es Sedegebi gviCvenebs, rom sakuTari saxeli aucileblobiT ar iqcevs yuradRebas, vinaidan msmenelTa 2/3-ma ver gaigona is. miuxedevad amisa, Sedegebi naTlad gviCvenebs, rom mainc xdeba ignorirebuli arxis garkveulwilad gaazrebuli analizi sxva SemTxvevaSi msmenelTa 1/3 verasodes miaqcevda yuradRebas sakuTar saxels. aseTi tipis eqsperimentis safuZvelze mkvlevrebi varaudoben, rom yuradRebis miRma darCenili informacia garkveulwilad mainc gadamuSavdeba, magram imdenad ara, rom cnobierebis sazRvrebs miaRwios (Woods & Cowan, 1995). informacia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi miiqcevs yuraddiqotomiuri mosmena (Dichotic listening) _ eqsperimentuli meTodi, rodesac gansxvavebuli audialuri stimuli miewodeba TiToeul yurs. yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba (Preattentive processing) _ sensoruli informaciis gadamuSaveba, romelic yuradRebas specifikur obieqtze mimarTavs.

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Rebas, Tu yuradRebis miRma darCenili informaciis maxasiaTeblebi sakmarisad gamodiferencirebuli iqneba, magaliTad, Tu es iqneba msmenelis saxeli (yuradRebasa da cnobierebas Soris kavSirs me-6 TavSi davubrundebiT). zogadi principi isaa, rom yuradRebis miRma darCenili informaciis arsebobis Sesaxeb araferi viciT. amrigad, gasagebia, ratomaa saxifaTo yuradRebis gadanacvleba mocemul momentSi aqtualuri amocanidan, an miznidan. Tu yuradRebas ver miaqcevT garkveul informacias, magaliTad, profesoris leqcias, masala TavisTvis darCeba da Tqven ver moismenT mas! axla vnaxoT, ra roli ekisreba yuradRebas garemoSi sagnebis moZebnasa da maT sworad identificirebaSi.

moZebnoT rame wiTeli. axla scadeT, ipovoT rame alisferi; moZebnoT rame oTxkuTxedi. axla scadeT, ipovoT rame mrgvali; moZebnoT rame lurji, Semdeg scadeT, ipovoT rame, rac mrgvalic iqneba da lurjic. TiToeul SemTxvevaSi risi povna ufro gagiZneldaT? mkvlevrebi irwmunebian, rom alisfris povna ufro advilia, vidre wiTlis (Treisman & Gormican, 1988); oTxkuTxedis ufro advilia, vidre _ mrgvalis (Kim & Cave, 1995) da rame erTi niSniT gansazRvruli ufro advilia, vidre ori _ niSniT gansazRvrulis (Treisman & Sato, 1990). rogor fiqrobT, ratom aris ase? Tqven es-esaa gaecaniT yuradRebamdeli gadamuSavebis (preattentive processing) zogierT maxasiaTebels, rac gansxvavdeba gadamuSavebis im procesebisagan, romlebic yuradRebas saWiroeben. miuxedavad imisa, rom cnobieri mexsiereba da sagnebis cnoba yuradRebas saWiroebs, informaciis sakmaod rTuli gadamuSaveba yuradRebisa da cnobierebis gareSec xdeba (Kubovy et al., 1999). gadamuSavebis am adreul etaps yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba ewodeba, radgan is Semomaval

yuradReba da sagnebi garemoSi


yuradRebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi funqciaa xmaurian vizualur garemoSi konkretuli obieqtebis moZebna. am meqanizmis sanaxavad sakmaod martivi eqsperimentis Catareba SeiZleba. dadeT wigni erTi wuTiT da SeecadeT:

suraTi

5.11

yuradReba da vizualuri Zebna


(A) ipoveT erTi gamorCeuli niSniT gansxvavebuli sagani, SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT paraleluri Zebna (gadasinjva). (B) ipoveT sagani niSnebis erTobliobis mixedviT, unda gamoiyenoT seriuli Zebna. (C) vinaidan paraleluri Zebna gamoiyeneba, moZebnas erTnairi dro sWirdeba yuradRebis gamfantvelis raodenobis miuxedavad. (D) seriul Zebnaze yuradRebis gamfantvelebis raodenoba axdens gavlenas. D nawilSi Zebna ufro swrafad xdeba, vidre B-Si.

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159

sensorul masalaze yuradRebis miqcevamde, sensoruli receptorebidan tvinSi SesvlisTanave, moqmedebs. yuradRebamdeli gadamuSavebis saSualebiT advilad vpoulobT mxolod erTi niSniT gamorCeul sagnebs (Treisman & Sato, 1990; Wolfe, 1992). SexedeT 5.11 suraTis A nawils. SegiZliaT, ipovoT TeTri T? es aris oTaxSi, Tqvens irgvliv, lurji obieqtebis povnis msgavsi amocana. yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba saSualebas gaZlevT, paralelurad gadasinjoT garemo erTi calkeuli gamorCeuli niSnis mixedviT. es niSnavs, rom Tqven SegiZliaT erTdroulad gadasinjoT ekranis mTeli zedapiri. am paraleluri gadasinjvis Sedegad yuradReba erT saTanado obieqtze koncentrirdeba, Tumca, yuradReba miaqcieT, rom yvela calkeuli niSani Tanabrad gamorCeuli ar aris. bevri adamianisaTvis kvadratis povna ufro advilia, vidre _ wris, albaT imitom, rom marTkuTxedis kuTxeebi gamokveTilia (Kim & Cave, 1995). adamianebis umetesoba ufro advilad poulobs ZiriTadi ferisgan gansxvavebul fers, rogorc, magaliTad, alisferi gansxvavdeba wiTlisagan, albaT imitom, rom aseTi feri gansxvavebulia garemos normisagan (Treisman & Gormican, 1988 ). calkeul niSnebs Soris aSkara gansxvavebis miuxedavad, mainc gagiWirdebaT maTi kombinaciebis aRmoCena. ganvixiloT 5.11 suraTis B nawili. kidev erTxel scadeT TeTri T-s povna. ar geCvenebaT, rom es ufro Znelia? am SemTxvevaSi yuradRebis sistema ar aris aRWurvili imisaTvis, rom paraleluri gadasinjvisas

(Zebnisas) TeTri T TeTri L-gan gamoyos. Tqven kvlav SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT paraleluri gadasinjvis SesaZlebloba da ugulvelyoT yvela Savi T, magram Semdeg mogiwevT yvela TeTri simbolos saTiTaod an seriulad gadasinjva. es gamocdileba gansxvavdeba garemoSi erTdroulad wiTeli da wriuli sagnis povnis gamocdilebisgan. yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba saSualebas gaZlevT, swrafad ipovoT wiTeli feris an mrgvali formis sagnebi; igi garemos marTuli gadasinjvis saSualebas iZleva (Wolfe, 1994; Wolfe & Gancarz, 1996). am TvalsazrisiT, Tqven mainc gWirdebaT TiToeul saganze individualurad yuradRebis miqceva, raTa gansazRvroT, Seesabameba Tu ara is ori niSnis kombinacias _ wiTelsa da mrgvals. mkvlevrebi ganasxvaveben paralelur da seriul Zebnas imis gansazRvriT, Tu ramdenad Znelia samiznes povna, romelic yuradRebis gamfantvelebis (distractors) raodenobis funqcias warmoadgens. davuSvaT, gTxovT, moZebnoT ekranze TeTr T xuTi Savi T-s garemocvaSi (rogorc 5.11 suraTis C nawilSia) da 34 Savi T-s garemocvaSi (rogorc A nawilSia). radgan Tqven am ori amocanis Sesruleba paralelulad SegiZliaT, TiToeul SemTxvevaSi TeTri T-s povnas daaxloebiT erTnairi dro dasWirdeba. meore mxriv, rodesac am suraTze B nawilidan D nawilze
marTuli gadasinjva (Guided search) _

suraTi

5.12

orferiani sagnis moZebna


(A) moZebneT yviTeli da lurji sagani. (B) moZebneT yviTeli saxli lurji fanjrebiT. (A) moZebna Zalian mouxerxebelia, rodesac sagnis ori nawilis ori feris erTobliobaa mosaZebni. (B) moZebna ufro advilia, rodesac mTeli sagnis feris da misi erT-erTi nawilis feris erTobliobaa mosaZebni.

160

Tavi 5 / aRqma

gadaxvalT, igrZnobT, rom D nawilSi ufro advilad poulobT TeTr T-s. Tqven TiToeuli TeTri elementisaTvis seriulad yuradRebis miqceva giwevT, ase rom, TiToeuli TeTri elementi, romelsac uyurebT (sanam sasurvels ipoviT) damatebiT dros garTmevT. mkvlevrebs SeuZliaT am logikis gamoyeneba perceptuli samyaros sxva iseTi aspeqtebis aRmosaCenad, romlebic SeiZleba yuradRebamdel gadamuSavebas saWiroebdnen. ganvixiloT 5.12 suraTis A nawili: SeecadeT, ipovoT yviTeli da Savi sagnebi. B nawilSi SeecadeT, ipovoT yviTeli saxli lurji fanjrebiT. meore amocana ufro advili ar iyo vidre pirveli? davalebis Sesrulebze nakleb gavlenas axdenen yuradRebis damatebiTi gamfantvelebi (extre distractors), rodesac ori feri CarTulia sagnis nawilebsa da mTlianSi (Wolfe et al., 1994). am saxis magaliTebi gvarwmunebs, rom yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba garemoSi sagnebis sapovnelad SedarebiT daxvewil (kargad damuSavebuli meqanizmis mqone) daxmarebas gvTavazobs. axla ukve SegviZlia martivi niSnebis gadamuSavebidan mTliani sagnebisa da garemos aRqmis ganxilvaze gadavideT.

Sejameba
garemoSi stimulebs SerCeviTad (seleqciurad) aqcevT yuradRebas mizniT marTuli seleqciis gamo an imitom, rom stimulebidan raRac iqcevs Tqvens yuradRebas, esaa stimuliT gamowveuli SerCeva. yuradRebis filtris Teoriis mixedviT, tvins SezRuduli SesaZleblobebi aqvs. yuradRebis miRma darCenili informacia iSviaTad cnobierdeba. yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba saSualebas gaZlevT, garemoSi ipovoT sagnebi, romlebic SeiZleba erTi gamorCeuli niSniT identificirdnen.

aRqmis organizaciis procesebi


warmoidgineT ramdenad uwesrigo iqneboda samyaro, rom ar SegvZleboda milioni retinaluri receptoridan miRebuli informaciis Tavmoyra da organizeba. TvalebTan moZravi da mbrunavi ferebis daukavSirebeli nawilebis kaleidoskopi geqnebodaT. procesebs, romlebic sensorul informacias aerTianebs Tanmimdevruli aRqmis misaRebad, perceptuli organizaciis procesebi ewodeba. Cven ukve viciT, rom, rasac adamiani aseTi perceptuli gadamuSavebis Sedegad ganicdis, percepti (aRqmis xati) ewodeba. magaliTad, 5.13 suraTze mocemuli organzomilebiani geometriuli kompoziciis perceptuli

suraTi

5.13

organzomilebiani geometriuli figuris percepti


rogoria am geometriuli figuris Tqveni percepti?

161

suraTi

5.14

subieqturi konturebi, romlebic kuTxeebs avseben


xedavT am suraTze gamosaxul naZvis xes da or, erTmaneTze dadebul samkuTxeds? samkuTxedebi rom ararealuria amaSi darwmunebiT, Tu or kuTxes cera TiTebiT dafaravT. subieqturi konturebis SeqmniT, perceptuli organizebis procesebi stimulSi figurasa da fons gamoyofs.

xati, albaT, sam diagonalur rigad ganlagebuli figurebia, romelTagan I rigi kvadratebisgan Sedgeba, II isrebisgan da III rombebisgan. amaSi TiTqos araferia ucnauri, Tumca, rogorc wina TavSi aRvniSneT, aRqmis yvela es, erTi SexedviT, TavisTavadi procesi daxvewili, natifi gadamuSavebiT aris gaadvilebuli. mravali organizaciuli procesi, romelsac am qveTavSi ganvixilavT, pirvelad geStaltistebma aRweres. isini amtkicebdnen, rom aRqma damokidebulia organizaciis kanonebze, anu im martiv principebze, romelTa saSualebiTac sagnis formebs an gamosaxulebebs aRviqvamT.

figura, foni da dasrulebuloba (Sevsebuloba)


ratom aRviqvamT 5.13 suraTs CvenTvis Cveuli gziT? am gamosaxulebis aRqmisas organizaciuli procesi mas figurad da fonad yofs. figura Cans, rogorc sagnismagvari win wamoweuli are, xolo foni _ rogorc sivrce, romelzec figura devs. 5.13 suraTze muq adgilebs, albaT, figurad aRiqvamT, naTel adgils _ fonad. Tumca, es stimuli SeiZleba sxvagvaradac dainaxoT figurisa da fonis SenacvlebiT, rogorc amas orazrovani larnaki/profilebis SemTxvevaSi akeTebdiT. amisaTvis, SeecadeT, dainaxoT TeTri sivrce, rogorc didi TeTri furceli, romelzedac ganlagebuli 9 amoWrili figuridan Savi foni moCans.
figura (Figure) _ fonisagan gansxvavebuli, sagnismagvari win wamoweuli are vizualur velSi.

Tavi 5 / aRqma

figuris fonidan win wamoweulad danaxvis tendencia Zalze Zlieria. faqtobrivad, es maSinac xdeba, rodesac figura realurad ar arsebobs. 5.14 suraTis pirvel gamosaxulebaSi Tqven, albaT, xedavT naZvis xes fonze, romelic TeTr zedapirze mocemul ramdenime Sav wres warmoadgens. Tumca, SevniSnavT, rom aq aranairi naZvis xe ar arsebobs. figura Sedgeba mxolod 3 gancalkevebuli Savi figurisa da xazebisagan. Tqven iluzorulad xedavT win wamoweul TeTr samkuTxeds, radgan Savi gamosaxulebebis kideebi isea ganlagebuli, rom mTliani TeTri samkuTxedi geCvenebaT. 5.14 suraTis meore gamosaxuleba qmnis erTi dasrulebuli samkuTxedis iluzias, romelic meores adevs, Tumca, realurad arc erTi arsebobs. am magaliTSi, rogorc Cans, figura-fonis organizaciis sami donea: TeTri naZvis xe, Savi wreebi da ufro farTo TeTri zedapiri am yvelafris ukan. aRvniSnavT, rom stimulSi TeTr ares Tqven perceptulad yofT or gansxvavebul regionad: TeTr samkuTxedad da TeTr fonad. am gayofis adgilze aRiqvamT iluzorul konturebs. isini realurad arseboben ara distalur stimulSi, aramed _ mxolod Tqvens subieqtur gamocdilebaSi. iluzoruli konturebi pirvelad 1900 wels aRweres, magram yvela saidumlo jer mainc ar aris amoxsnili (Lesher, 1995). am suraTebze TeTri samkuTxedis aRqma kidev erT mZlavr organizaciul process dasrulebulobas (Sevsebulobas) _ gviCvenebs. dasruiluziuri konturebi ( ) _

162

foni (Ground) _ sivrce vizualur velSi, romelzec figura devs

suraTi

5.15

dajgufebis fenomeni
TiToeul mwkrivs, B nawilidan G-mde, garkveuli saxiT dajgufebulad a R v i q v a m T, geStaltis dajgufebis sxvadasxva principebidan gamomdinare.

lebuloba (Sevsebuloba) daumTavrebel figurebs damTavrebulad, dasrulebulad (Sevsebulad) gvanaxebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom stimulSi mxolod kuTxeebia mocemuli, Cveni perceptuli sistema avsebs kuTxeebs Soris arsebul sivrces (qmnis konturebs), rac figuras dasrulebul naZvis xed aqcevs. dasrulebulobis procesis saSualebiT SesaZlebelia stimulebis dasrulebulad, balansirebulad da simetriulad aRqma, maSinac ki, rodesac saxezea gansvla, disbalansi da asimetria.

perceptuli dajgufebis principebi


5.13 suraTze mocemuli gamosaxuleba Tqven aRiqviT 9 figurad, romlebic rigebadaa dajgufebuli. TiToeuli maTgani agebulia diagonaluri xazebis gaswvriv ganlagebuli 3 identuri gamosaxulebisagan. rogor ajgufebs vizualuri sistema am obieqtebs da ra faqtorebi gansazRvraven mas? dajgufebis sakiTxi pirvelad farTod geStaltfsiqologma maqs verThaimerma (1923)
figura (Figure) _ fonisagan gansxvavebuli, sagnismagvari win wamoweuli are vizualur velSi. foni (Ground) _ sivrce vizualur velSi, romelzec figura devs

Seiswavla. verThaimeri damkvirveblebs uCvenebda martivi geometriuli figurebis wyebas. cvlida ra calkeul faqtors da akvirdeboda, rogor moqmedebda is figuraTa struqturis aRqmaze, verThaimerma SeZlo dajgufebis wesebis Camoayalibeba. 5.15 suraTze mocemulia ramdenime wesis ilustracia. A nawilSi mocemulia Tanabrad daSorebuli wreebis mwkrivebi, romlebic SeiZleba sxvadasxvagvarad dajgufdes. Tqven SeiZleba erTnairi warmatebiT dainaxoT am wreebis svetebi an rigebi. Tumca, rodesac intervali mcirediT icvleba ise, rom wreebs Soris horizontaluri intervali vertikalur intervalze naklebia (rogorc es B nawilzea mocemuli), Tqven erTmniSvnelovnad horizontalur mwkrivebad organizebul wreebs xedavT. rodesac intervalebis cvlilebisas vertikaluri intervali ufro naklebia (rogorc C nawilzea mocemuli), Tqven wreebs vertikalur svetebad ganlagebulad aRiqvamT. es 3 saxis dajgufeba verThaimeris siaxlovis kanonis ilustracias warmoadgens. rodesac sxva danarCeni pirobebi ucvlelia, erTmaneTTan yvelaze axlos ganlagebuli elementebi (yvelaze proqsimalurebi) erTad jgufdeba. geStaltistebma aseTi Sedegebi imiT axsnes, rom mTliani stimulis paterni garkveulad gansazRvravs misi nawilebis ganlagebas. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, mTliani percepti gansxvavdeba misi nawilebis ubralo meqanikuri jamisgan. 5.15 suraTis D nawilSi, intervalis nacvlad feri icvleboda. miuxedavad imisa, rom wreebs Soris intervali Tanabaria, vizualuri sistema

aRqmis organizaciis procesebi

163

avtomaturad ganalagebs stimuls rigebad, ferebis msgavsebis gamo. E nawilSi wreebs svetebad ganlagebuls xedavT, msgavsi zomebis gamo, F nawilSi ki _ rigebad ganlagebuls, formisa da orientaciis msgavsebis gamo. dajgufebis es efeqtebi SeiZleba gaerTiandes msgavsebis kanoniT, rac imaSi gamoixateba, rom sxva Tanabar pirobebSi, msgavsi elementebi erTad jgufdeba. rodesac vizualur velSi elementebi moZraoben, erTnairi mimarTulebiT moZraoba elementebis dajgufebas iwvevs. saerTo bedis kanonis mixedviT, sxva Tanabar pirobebSi, erTnairi mimarTulebiTa da tempiT moZravi elementebi erTad jgufdeba. Tu G nawilSi yvela svetis wertili zeviT imoZravebda, gamosaxulebebs Tqven svetebad daajgufebdiT, moZraobis mimarTulebis msgavsebis gamo. igive efeqtia baletis SemTxvevaSi, rodesac ramdenime mocekvave sxvebisagan gansxvavebulad moZraobs. gavixsenoT doqtor riCardsis SemTxveva _ sagani mis vizualur velSi sworad organizdeboda, rodesac igi moZraobda, rogorc erTi mTliani. misi SemTxveva naTels xdis saerTo bedis mZlavr organizaciul gavlenas.

lebi (Carlson-Radvansky & Irwin, 1995; Irwin, 1991, Simons, 2000). faqtobrivad, damkvirveblebi xandaxan ver afiqsireben, rodis icvleba mTliani obieqti erTi fiqsaciidan meore fiqsaciaze.

saidan viciT
ra dainaxeT axlaxan eqsperimentis erT-erT seriaSi cdis pirebi ori wamis ganmavlobaSi uyurebdnen suraTze 5 nacnobi obieqtis mwkrivs. daaxloebiT 4 wm-is Semdeg isini uyurebdnen meore mwkrivs. seriebis naxevarSi meore mwkrivi pirvelis identuri iyo. seriebis meore naxevarSi, rogorc es 5.16 suraTis A nawilzea mocemuli, meore rigi pirvelisgan sami variantidan erT-erTi saxiT gansxvavdeboda: erTi sagani Tvisobrivad icvleboda (magaliTad, pirvel mwkrivSi stepleri Seicvala gasaRebiT), orma saganma Seicvala mdebareoba da sagnebis mTeli wyeba axali konfiguraciiT ganlagda. cdis pirebs unda eTqvaT, rigebi iseTive iyo Tu gansxvavebuli. Tqven SeiZleba ifiqroT, rom es ioli amocanaa. rogor SeiZleba ver SeniSnoT, rom stepleri gasaxsneliT Seicvala? miuxedavad amisa, rogorc naCvenebia 5.16 suraTis B nawilze, aRmoCnda, rom identurobisa da gadanacvlebis cvlilebebis SemTxvevaSi amocnobis maCvenebeli Zalze dabali iyo. cdis pirebi ver `xedavdnen~ mTel rig Zalze aSkara cvlilebebs (Simons, 1996).

sivrciTi da droiTi integracia


geStaltis yvela wesi, romelic aqamde ganvixileT, dagarwmunebdaT, rom aRqma, umeteswilad, warmoadgens samyaros `sworad~ gaerTianebul nawilebs, Tumca, xSirad Tqven ar SegiZliaT aRiqvaT mTliani movlena Tvalis erTi SevlebiT an fiqsaciiT (gaixseneT saubari yuradRebis Sesaxeb). rasac mocemul momentSi aRiqvamT, xSirad yvela mimarTulebiT ganvrcobili, Tvaluwvdeneli vizualuri samyarodan miRebuli SezRuduli, SemWidroebuli STabeWdilebaa. garemoze sruli warmodgenis Sesaqmnelad, sivrciTi da droiTi integraciaa saWiro, anu Tqven unda SekriboT sivrcis sxvadasxva adgilidan fiqsirebuli informacia drois sxvadasxva momentSi. SeiZleba gagikvirdeT, magram vizualuri sistema ar qmnis (`Tavs ar iwuxebs~) TiToeuli momentis zustad amsaxvel, Tanamimdevrul, integrirebul suraTs. mkvlevrebi irwmunebian, rom garemoze TiToeuli fiqsaciiT vizualur mexsierebaSi ar inaxeba zusti, mciredi deta-

164

bevr adamians aocebs aseTi Sedegi. warmoudgenelia, rom Cven informaciis gadamuSavebis imdenad mwir resurss vflobT situaciis detalebis Sesanaxad, rom verc ki SevniSneT, rogor Seicvala stepleri gasaxsneliT. pasuxi, nawilobriv, SeiZleba is iyos, rom samyaro Tavad aris, zogadad, informaciis mudmivi, stabiluri wyaro (ORegan, 1992). ubralod, ar aris saWiro iseTi informaciis damaxsovreba, romelic mudmivad xelmisawvdomia garemoSi; amitom arc

Tavi 5 / aRqma

suraTi

5.16

cvlilebis SeumCnevloba
(A) eqsperimentis monawileebs ekiTxebodnen, meore gamosaxuleba pirvelis msgavsi iyo Tu gansxvavebuli. (B) roca gamosaxulebaze sagani icvleboda an ori sagani akldeboda, cdis pirebi xSirad ver afiqsirebdnen cvlilebebs. isini TiTqmis yovelTvis sworad mxolod maSin miuTiTebdnen, roca mTliani konfiguracia icvleboda.

moZraobis aRqma
aRqmis erT-erTi saxeoba, romelic samyarodan miRebuli sxvadasxva, swrafad cvalebadi STabeWdilebebis urTierTSedarebas saWiroebs, moZra-

aRqmis organizaciis procesebi

mogvepoveba procesebi, romelebic, Cveulebriv, amis saSualebas mogvcemda. erT-erTi saintereso Sedegi, romelic sxvadasxva fiqsaciidan miRebul informacias SeiZleba mohyves, iluziebia, romelTac `SeuZlebel~ sagnebs uwodeben (5.17 suraTze mocemuli obieqtebi). magaliTad, sagnis kuTxeebisa da gverdebis TiToeuli fiqsacia samganzomilebiani samkuTxedis interpretacias iwvevs (gamosaxuleba A), Tumca, rodesac cdilobT mis erT mTlianobaSi gaerTianebas, nawilebi kargad ver ergeba erTmaneTs (gamosaxuleba B). C gamosaxulebas ori ganStoeba aqvs, romelic, sanam kargad ar daakvirdebiT, rogorRac gadaiqceva samkbilad; D gamosaxulebaze perceptuli kibe dausruleblad adis da Camodis.

obis aRqmaa. ganvixiloT 5.18 suraTze mocemuli ori gamosaxuleba. davuSvaT, es individi idga, sanam Tqven uaxlovdebodiT mas. Tqvens baduraze miRebuli misi gamosaxulebis zoma miaxloebasTan erTad izrdeba. retinaluri gamosaxulebis zrdis xarisxi individTan miaxloebis temps giCvenebT (Gibson, 1979). axla, davuSvaT, Tqven garda yvela sxva sagani moZraobs. moZraobis aRqma, formisa da orientaciis aRqmis msgavsad, xSirad aTvlis sistemazea damokidebuli. Tu Tqven dajdebiT Cabnelebul oTaxSi da mzeras daafiqsirebT sinaTlis umoZrao laqaze, romelic ganaTebul, win da ukan Zalian nela moZrav oTxkuTxedzea moTavsebuli, Tqven umoZrao oTxkuTxedze win da ukan moZrav wertils aRiqvamT. es iluzia, romelsac moCvenebiTi moZraoba (induced motion) ewodeba, maSinac xdeba, rodesac mzeras sakmaod uZravad afiqsirebT wertilze. moZraobis deteqtori ujredebi saerTod ar aRigzneba uZravi wertiliT, Tumca sakmaod mZlavrad Riziandeba oTxkuTxedis moZravi xazebiT. imisaTvis, rom wertili moZravad

165

suraTi

5.17

SeuZlebeli figurebi
r o d e s a c a m p o b i e q t e b s u y u r e b T, Ti To e u l i calkeuli fiqsacia garwmunebT, rom is samganzomilebiani figuraa. mxolod, Tu ecdebiT sxvadasxva f i q s a c i e b i s g a e r Ti a n e b a s , m a S i n aRmoaCenT, rom isini SeuZlebeli sagnebia.

dainaxoT, saWiroa perceptuli organizaciis umaRlesi done, romelzec wertili da misi nagulisxmevi moZraoba oTxkuTxedis aTvlis sistemaSi aRiqmeba. rogorc Cans, vizualur sistemas axasiaTebs Zlieri tendencia, didi, SemosazRvruli figura aiRos aTvlis sistemad masSi mocemuli

SedarebiT patara figurisaTvis. Tqven, albaT, codnis gareSec bevrjer geqnebaT gancdili moCvenebiTi moZraoba. xSirad gveCvenebaT, rom mTvare (romelic TiTqmis uZravia) moZraobs RrublebSi maSin, roca, faqtobrivad, Rrublebi moZraoben. mTvaris irgvliv Tavmoyrili Rrublebi iseve qmnian mTvaris moCvenebiTi

suraTi

5.18

kaci, romelic giaxlovdebaT


stimulTan miaxloebisas erTad izrdeba misi gamosaxulebis zoma Tqvens baduraze.

166

Tavi 5 / aRqma

moZraobis iluzias, rogorc oTxkuTxedi wertilis moZraobisas (Rock, 1983; 1986). yofilxarT odesme matarebelSi, romelic Zalian nela iwyebs moZraobas? ar mogCvenebiaT, TiTqos sadguris baqanze filebi an Tqven gverdiT gaCerebuli matarebeli sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT moZraobs? moZraobis kidev erT iluzias, romelic moZraobis aRqmaSi umaRlesi donis organizaciuli procesebis CarTulobas adasturebs, aSkara/ TvalsaCino moZraobas (apparent motion) uwodeben. aSkara/TvalsaCino moZraobis umartivesi formaa fenomeni (phi phenomenon). es fenomeni maSin SeiniSneba, rodesac vizualuri velis sxvadasxva adgilze sinaTlis ori uZravi laqa monacvleobiT inTeba da qreba daaxloebiT 4-5-jer wamSi tempiT. igive efeqtia gare sareklamo niSnebsa da diskoganaTebis ekranebze. sinaTlis Senacvlebis am SedarebiT dabali tempis miuxedavad, gveCveneba, rom erTi sinaTle win da ukan moZraobs or pozicias Soris. traeqtoria, romelic erT wertils meoresTan aerTebs, SeiZleba mravalgvarad warmovidginoT. Tumca, adamiani, Cveulebriv, xedavs umartives traeqtorias _ or wertils Soris swor xazs (Gutting& Proffitt, 1982; Shepard, 1984). unda aRiniSnos, rom pirdapiri xazis es principi Tavsmoxveulia, rodesac damkvirvebels monacvleobiT uCveneben moZravi adamianis sxvadasxva gamosaxulebas; Semdeg vizualuri sistema Tavad aRadgens adamianis normaluri biologiuri moZraobis traeqtorias (Shiffar, 1994; Stevens et al., 2000).

siRrmis aRqma
aqamde mxolod sibrtyeze mocemul organzomilebian paternebs ganvixilavdiT, yoveldRiuri aRqma ki sagnebs samganzomilebian sivrceSi moicavs. samive sivrciTi ganzomilebis aRqmas sasicocxlo mniSvneloba aqvs CvenTvis, raTa mivuaxlovdeT sasurvel obieqtebs, magaliTad, saintereso adamianebs an karg sakvebs da Tavi avaridoT imas, rac saSiSia, magaliTad, manqaniT swrafad siaruls an waqceul roials. sivrcis aRqma saWiroebs zust informacias rogorc siRrmeze (manZili Cvengan obieqtamde), ise _ mimarTulebaze. smena gvexmareba mimarTulebis gansazRvraSi, magram _ ara siRrmis gansazRvraSi. siRrmis aRqmis ganxilvisas unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom vizualuri sistema iyenebs retinalur gamosaxulebas, romelsac mxolod

moCvenebiTi moZraoba (Induced motion) _ iluzia, rodesac moZrav aTvliT sistemaSi uZravi wertili moZravad gveCveneba, Tavad aTvlis sistema ki _ uZravad. aSkara/TvalsaCino moZraoba (Apparent motion) _ moZraobis iluzia, rodesac erTi an meti wertilis uwyveti anTeba-Caqroba erT moZrav wertilad aRiqmeba. aSkara/TvalsaCino moZraobis umartivesi formaa fenomeni. fenomeni (Phi phenomenon) _ aSkara/TvalsaCino moZraobis umartivesi forma, moZraobis iluzia, rodesac erTi an meti uZravi sinaTle, romelic uwyvetad qreba da inTeba, erT moZrav sinaTled aRiqmeba.

aRqmis organizaciis procesebi

167

rebiaT). siRrmis interpretacia manZilis Sesaxeb informaciis mraval wyaros eyrdnoba (maT xSirad siRrmis maniSneblebsac uwodeben), romelTa Sorisaa binokularuli maniSneblebi, moZraobis maniSneblebi da piqtoruli (gamosaxulebis) maniSneblebi.

suraTi

5.19

binokularuli da moZraobis maniSneblebi


odesme dainteresebulxarT, ratom gaqvT ori Tvali da ara erTi? meore Tvals saTadarigoze meti funqcia aqvs _ is siRrmis Sesaxeb saukeTeso, fasdaudebel informacias gvawvdis. binokularuli siRrmis Sesaxeb informacia ori wyarodan miiReba: retinaluri disparati (disparaty) da konvergencia. vinaidan Tvalebi daaxloebiT 5-6 santimetriT aris erTmaneTisagan horizontalurad daSorebuli, isini samyaros odnav gansxvavebul suraTs iReben. amaSi dasarwmuneblad, scadeT Semdegi eqsperimenti. jer daxuWeT marcxena Tvali da gaaxileT marjvena, raTa ori saCvenebeli TiTi patara daSorebul sagans gausworoT. erTi TiTi daikaveT mklavis sigrZeze, meore _ saxesTan daaxloebiT 30 smis daSorebiT; axla daxuWeT marjvena Tvali da gaaxileT marcxena, Tan ganagrZeT daSorebul saganze fiqsacia. ra mouvida TiTebis pozicias? meore TvaliT ver xedavT TiTebs daSorebul obieqtze gasworebulad, radgan is odnav gansxvavebul suraTs iRebs. Tvalebis baduraze miRebuli gamosaxulebebis horizontalur poziciebs Soris Seusabamobas retinaluri disparati ewodeba. is siRrmis Sesaxeb gvawvdis informacias, radgan Seusabamobis, anu gansxvavebis odenoba Cvensa da obieqts Soris manZilzea damokidebuli (ix. sur. 5.20). magaliTad, rodesac Tvali daxuWeT, ufro axlos myofi TiTi daSorda mklavis sigrZeze gaCerebul TiTs. rodesac orive TvaliT iyurebiT, Tqven mier danaxul saganTa umravlesoba Tvalebis baduras sxvadasxva adgils aRizianebs. Tu erTi da igive obieqtis orive baduraze miRebul gamosaxulebebs Soris Seusabamoba sakmaod mcirea, vizualuri sistema maT erTi obieqtis siRrmiT aRqmaSi aerTianebs (Tumca, Tu Tvalebis gadakveTisas ori gamosaxuleba Zalian gansxvavdeba

siRrmis orazrovneba
A wrfis nebismieri wertili baduraze erTi da igive a wertilze proeqcirdeba. B wrfis nebismieri wertili baduraze b wertils qmnis. aseve, A da B wrfeebis SemaerTebeli nebismieri monakveTi identur gamosaxulebas Seqmnis baduraze. am suraTidan SeiZleba davinaxoT, ratom iqmneba siRrmis orazrovneba: _ sxvadasxva manZiliT daSorebuli sagnebi erTnair retinalur gamosaxulebebs qmnian.

168

ori ganzomileba aqvs _ vertikaluri da horizontaluri. imis saCveneblad, Tu ra problemas qmnis organzomilebiani badura samganzomilebiani aRqmisas, ganvixiloT 5.19 suraTi. rodesac sinaTle aRizianebs baduras a wertilSi, Cven ar viciT, is a1 poziciidan ecema, Tu a2-dan. faqtobrivad, is SeiZleba dacemuliyo A wrfeze arsebuli nebismieri wertilidan, radgan sinaTle am wrfis yvela wertilidan erTsa da imave retinalur ujredze aisaxeba. aseve, B wrfis yvela wertili erTsa da imave retinalur wertilze _ b wertilze _ proeqcirdeba. metic, monakveTi, romelic A wrfis nebismier wertils B wrfis nebismier wertilTan aerTebs (magaliTad, monakveTi a1b2 an a2b1), baduraze erTi da igive gamosaxulebas Seqmnis. Sedegad, baduraze miRebuli gamosaxuleba siRrmis TvalsazrisiT orazrovania: is SeiZleba warmoqmniliyo sxvadasxva manZiliT daSorebuli nebismieri obieqtisgan. 5.5 suraTze gamosaxuli nekeris kubis ori SesaZlo xedi, aseve, siRrmis TvalsazrisiT, orazrovnebis Sedegia. is faqti, rom garkveulma pirobebma SeiZleba aRqmis orazrovneba gamoiwvion, gviCvenebs, rom siRrmis aRsaqmelad saWiroa Semomavali sensoruli masalis interpretacia da rom es interpretacia zogjer SeiZleba mcdari iyos (TqvenTvis es gasagebi iqneba, Tu erTxel mainc mogiqneviaT Cogani burTisTvis da mxolod haerisTvis mogixved-

Tavi 5 / aRqma

suraTi

5.20

retinaluri disparati retinaluri disparati or sagans Soris siRrmeSi daSorebasTan erTad izrdeba.

suraTi

5.21

retinaluri disparati (Retinal disparity) - Tvalebis baduraze gamosaxulebebis horizontalur poziciebs Soris Seusabamoba. konvergencia (Convergence) - saganze fiqsaciisas Tvalebis SigniT, erTmaneTisken Sebruneba.

siRrmis konvergenciuli maniSnebeli


rodesac sagani TqvenTan axlosaa, Tvalebi metad unda Sebrundes, vidre Zalian daSorebuli sagnis SemTxvevaSi. tvini iyenebs Tvalebis kunTebidan miRebul informacias, raTa konvergencia siRrmis maniSneblad gamoiyenos.

aRqmis organizaciis procesebi

erTmaneTisgan, realurad gaorebul gamosaxulebas dainaxavT). Tu davfiqrdebiT, mivxvdebiT, rom Cveni vizualuri sistema sruliad gasaocar rames akeTes: iRebs or gansxvavebul retinalur gamosaxulebas, adarebs maT erTmaneTs Sesabamisi nawilebis horizontaluri wanacvlebis dasadgenad (binokularuli disparati) da qmnis sagnis erTian percepcias siRrmeSi. faqtobrivad, vizualuri sistema or gamosaxulebas Soris Seusabamobas samganzomilebiani samyaros siRrmed (mesame ganzomilebad) aRiqvams. siRrmeze sxva binokularul informacias konvergencia iZleva. obieqtze fiqsaciisas Tvalebi, garkveulwilad, SigniT brundeba (ix. sur. 5.21). rodesac sagans Zalian axlos _ saxesTan ramdenime santimetrze _ vuyurebT, Tvalebi erTmaneTisken sakmaod unda Sebrundes, raTa orive TvalSi dafiqsirdes erTi da igive gamosaxuleba. Tqven realurad SegiZliaT Tvalebis konvergenciis naxva, Tu daakvirdebiT megobars, romelic koncentrirdeba jer sakmaod daSorebul saganze da Semdeg _ ramdenime santimetriT daSorebulze. Tvalis kunTebidan miRebul informacias tvini siRrmeze daskvnis gasakeTeblad iyenebs, Tumca, Tvalebis kunTebidan konvergenciaze miRebuli informacia siRrmis aRsaqmelad daaxloebiT 3.5 metrzea

mxolod gamosadegi. rodesac ufro did manZilze daSorebul sagans uWvretT, kuTxuri gansxvaveba TiTqmis SeumCnevelia, radgan am dros Tvalebi TiTqmis paralelur mdgomareobaSia.

169

imis sailustraciod, Tu rogor gvawvdis moZraoba (kidev erTi wyaro) siRrmeze informacias, vcadoT Semdegi: wina SemTxvevis msgavsad, axlac daxuWeT erTi Tvali da ori saCvenebeli TiTi gausworeT daSorebul sagans; Semdeg Tavi gadaswieT gverdze, amasTan, SeinarCuneT obieqtze fiqsacia da TiTebis uZravi pozicia. Tavis moZraobisas TiTebsac moZravad xedavT, magram axlos myofi TiTi ufro Sors inacvlebs da swrafad, vidre _ daSorebuli TiTi. fiqsirebuli obieqti ki saerTod ar moZraobs. siRrmeze informaciis am wyaros fardobiTi moZraobis paralaqsi (relative motion parallax) ewodeba. moZraobis paralaqsi imitom gvawvdis siRrmeze informacias, rom moZraobisas sagnebis fardobiTi daSoreba gansazRvravs maTi retinaluri gamosaxulebebis moZraobis odenobas da mimarTulebas. Semdeg, manqaniT mgzavrobisas SegiZliaT fanjridan moZraobis paralaqss daakvirdeT. moZravi manqanidan daSorebuli sagnebi ufro uZravad mogeCvenebaT, vidre _ SedarebiT axlos myofni.
suraTi

5.22

piqtoruli (gamosaxulebis) maniSneblebi


davuSvaT, xedavT mxolod erTi TvaliT. SeZlebdiT siRrmis aRqmas? faqtobrivad, siRrmeze informacia erTi TvaliTac miiReba. am wyaroebs piqtoruli (gamosaxulebis) maniSneblebi ewodebaT, radgan isini naxatebSi aRmoCenili siRrmis Sesaxeb informaciis matareblebi arian. mxatvrebi, romlebic samganzomilebian gamosaxulebebs qmnian (organzomilebian qaRaldze an tiloze), daxelovnebulni arian piqtoruli maniSneblebis gamoyenebaSi. gadafarva (interposition) an okluzia (occlusion) Tavs iCens maSin, rodesac gaumWvirvale obieqti faravs meore obieqtis nawils (sur. 5.22). gadafarviT viRebT informacias, rom gadafaruli sagani ufro Sorsaa, vidre _ gadamfaravi. gadamfaravi zedapiri, aseve, axdens sinaTlis blokirebas da warmoqmnis Crdilebs, rac siRrmeze informaciis damatebiT wyarod SeiZleba iqnes gamoyenebuli. piqtoruli informaciis damatebiTi sami wyaro ukavSirdeba meTodebs, romliTac sinaTle samganzomilebiani samyarodan organzomilebiani

siRrmis maniSnebeli
ra vizualuri maniSneblebiT askvniT, rom es qali gisosebs miRmaa?

Tavi 5 / aRqma

baduras zedapirze proecirdeba. esenia: fardobiTi sidide, wrfivi perspeqtiva, teqsturis gradientebi. fardobiTi sidide eyrdnoba sinaTlis proeqciis ZiriTad princips _ erTi da igive zomis, magram sxvadasxva manZiliT daSorebuli sagnebi gansxvavebul gamosaxulebebs qmnian baduraze. uaxloesi sagani qmnis yvelaze did gamosaxulebas, yvelaze daSorebuli ki _ yvelaze mcires. am wess sididisa da manZilis urTierTmimarTebis wesi ewodeba. rogorc 5.23 suraTidan Cans, Tu erTnairi obieqtebis mwkrivs uyurebT, yvelaze patara obieqtebs yvelaze daSorebulad aRiqvamT. wrfivi perspeqtivac siRrmis maniSnebelia, romelic, aseve, sididisa da manZilis urTierTfardobiTi moZraobis paralaqsi (Relative motion parallax) _ siRrmeze informaciis wyaro, rodesac damkvirveblidan sagnebis fardobiTi daSoreba gansazRvravs Sesabamisi retinaluri gamosaxulebebis moZraobis odenobas da mimarTulebas.

170

suraTi

5.23

fardobiTi sidide, rogorc siRrmis maniSnebeli axlos myofi sagnebi ufro did gamosaxulebas qmnian baduraze; amitom rodesac erTnairi sagnebis rigs uyurebT, SedarebiT patara sagnebs ufro Sors myofad aRiqvamT, vidre SedarebiT dids.

mimarTebazea damokidebuli. rodesac paraleluri xazebi (gansazRvrebis mixedviT, ragind grZeli xazebi, romlebic mTel sigrZeze Tanabrad arian daSorebuli erTmaneTisgan) siRrmisken midian, retinalur gamosaxulebaSi horizontis wertilisken ixrebian da erTdebian (ix. sur. 5.24). am mniSvnelovani faqtis gamoxatvis meTodi pirvelad, klasikuri epoqis Semdeg, renesansis epoqis italielma mxatvrebma xelaxla 1425 wels aRmoaCines, riTac siRrmis srulad gamoxatva SeZles (Vasari, 1568; 1967). am aRmoCenamde isini iyenebdnen gadafarvas, Crdilebs da fardobiT sidides, magram ar SeeZloT realisturi scenebis gamoxatva, sadac obieqtebi sxvadasxva siRrmeSi iqneboda ganlagebulni. vizualuri sistemis mier konvergirebuli xazebis interpretacia ponzos iluzias qmnis (rac, aseve, naCvenebia 5.24 suraTze). zeda xazi ufro grZeli Cans, vinaidan konvergirebuli gverdebi, wrfivi perspeqtivis mixedviT, siRrmeSi gadaxril paralelur xazebad aRiqmeba (interpretirdeba). amitom siRrmeSi mimavali zeda xazi Tqven ufro daSorebuli geCvenebaT da Sesabamisad, grZelic. baduraze erTnair gamosaxulebebs warmoqmnis ori obieqti, Tu SedarebiT daSorebuli obieqti ufro didi zomis iqneba, vidre _ axlos myofi. teqsturis gradientebic siRrmis maniSneblebs iZleva, radgan zedapiris siRrmeSi ganvrcobasTan erTad izrdeba teqsturis simkvrivec. 5.25 suraTze gamosaxuli xorblis yana teqsturis siRrmis maniSneblis magaliTia. es

suraTi

5.24

ponzos iluzia

SeiZleba sididisa da manZilis urTierTmimarTebis kidev erT gamovlinebad miviCnioT. am magaliTSi, erTeulebi, romlebic teqsturas qmnian, miT ufro mcirdebian, rac ufro Sors gadadian siRrmeSi, vizualuri sistema ki am Semcirebul marcvlebs samganzomilebian sivrceSi ufro daSorebulad gvawvdis. gibsons (Gibson, 1966, 1979) miaCnda, rom teqsturisa da siRrmis urTierTmimarTeba perceptul garemoSi arsebuli erT-erTi mudmivaa. TqvenTvis, albaT, ukve naTelia, rom siRrmis aRqmisaTvis informaciis mravali wyaro arsebobs. normaluri mxedvelobis pirobebSi, am wyaroebidan miRebuli informacia garemos erT mTlian, TvalsaCino gamosaxulebaSi erTiandeba. Tqven aRiqvamT siRrmes da ara siRrmis proqsimalur stimulSi mocemul, sxvadasxva maniSnebels. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, vizualuri sistema avtomaturad, cnobierebisgan damoukideblad iyenebs sivrcis iseT maniS-

171

aRqmis organizaciis procesebi

suraTi

5.25

teqsturis, rogorc siRrmis maniSneblis, magaliTebi

neblebs, rogoricaa: _ diferencialuri moZraoba, gadafarva da fardobiTi sidide rTuli gaTvlis sawarmoeblad, rac samganzomilebian garemoSi siRrmis aRqmas uzrunvelyofs.

aRqmis konstantoba
vizualuri aRqmis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani Tvisebis gamosavlenad, gTxovT, gamoiyenoT es saxelmZRvanelo. dadeT saxelmZRvanelo magidaze da Tavi ramdenime santimetris manZilze miuaxloeT mas. Semdeg aswieT Tavi da daubrundiT kiTxvis normalur mdgomareobas. xom ver SeniSneT wignis zomis cvlileba, miuxedavad imisa, rom axlo manZilidan is baduras ufro did nawils aRizianebda, vidre Sori manZilidan? axla wigni vertikalurad daiWireT da Tavi saaTis isris mimarTulebiT amoZraveT. am dros baduraze wignis gamosaxuleba saaTis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT brunavs, Tumca, mas kvlav vertikalurad aRiqvamT.
perceptuli konstantoba (Perceptual constancy) _ sagnis xatis ucvlelad darCena, retinaluri gamosaxulebis cvlilebis miuxedavad.

zogadad, SegrZnebis receptorebSi stimulaciis cvlilebis miuxedavad, Tqven samyaros xedavT, rogorc ucvlels, mdgrads da stabilurs. fsiqologebi am fenomens aRqmis (perceptul) konstantobas uwodeben. uxeSad rom vTqvaT, Tqven aRiqvamT distaluri stimulebis, Cveulebriv, mdgrad Tvisebebs da araproqsimaluri stimulebis Tvisebebs, romlebic Tavisa da Tvalebis moZraobisas mudmivad icvleba. sasicocxlo mniSvneloba aqvs samyaroSi arsebuli obieqtebis mudmivi da stabiluri Tvisebebis aRqmas, sinaTlis paternebis Tvisebebis im uTvalavi variaciis miuxedavad, romelic Tvalebis stimulirebas axdens. aRqmis umTavresi amocanaa, garemos ucvleli (invariantuli) Tvisebebis aRmoCena, maTi retinaluri gamosaxulebebis variaciebis miuxedavad. axla vnaxavT, rogor xdeba es sididis, formisa da orientaciis SemTxvevaSi. sididis da formis konstantoba ra gansazRvravs sagnis sididis aRqmas? sagnis realur sidides, nawilobriv, baduraze misi Sesatyvisi gamosaxulebis sididis safuZvelze aRviqvamT. Tumca, wigniT Catarebuli eqsperimenti gviCvenebs, rom baduraze gamosaxulebis zoma damokidebulia rogorc wignis realur

172

Tavi 5 / aRqma

sididis konstantoba (Size constancy) _ sagnis realuri sididis aRqma, misi retinaluri gamosaxulebebis cvlilebis miuxedavad.

aRqmis organizaciis procesebi

sidideze, ise _ Tvalidan mis daSorebaze. rogorc iciT, daSorebaze informacias siRrmis sxvadasxva maniSnebliT viRebT. sagnis sididis aRsaqmelad vizualuri sistema am informacias aerTianebs xatis sididis Sesaxeb retinalur informaciasTan. sagnis sidide, Cveulebriv, distaluri stimulis zomas Seesabameba. sididis konstantoba niSnavs sagnis realuri sididis aRqmis unars, baduraze misi gamosaxulebis cvlilebisda miuxedavad. Tu sagnis sidide manZilis maniSneblebis gaTvaliswinebiT aRiqmeba, maSin manZilze zusti informaciis arqonis SemTxvevaSi, mas yovelTvis damaxinjebulad aRviqvamT. erT-erTi aseTi iluzia xdeba eimsis oTaxSi, romelic 5.26 suraTzea mocemuli. Tavis 120 sm simaRlis gogonasTan, tania zimbardosTan SedarebiT, 180 sm simaRlis Tqveni avtori Zalze dabali Cans oTaxis marcxena kuTxeSi, Tumca, uCveulod maRalia marjvena kuTxeSi. am iluziis mizezi isaa, rom Tqven oTaxs oTxkuTxedad aRiqvamT,

romelsac Tqvengan Tanabari manZiliT daSorebuli ori ukana kuTxe aqvs. amdenad, tanias realur simaRles orive SemTxvevaSi baduraze gamosaxulebis konsistenturad aRiqvamT. realurad tania ar aris Tanabari manZiliT daSorebuli, radgan eimsis oTaxi gonebamaxvilur iluzias qmnis. is gveCveneba marTkuTxa formis oTaxad, sinamdvileSi ki agebulia aramarTkuTxa zedapirebiT, romlebic siRrmesa da simaRleSi araTanabari zomis kuTxeebs qmnian, rogorc es fotos Tanmxleb naxazzea mocemuli. oTaxis marjvena kuTxeSi myofi nebismieri adamianis retinaluri gamosaxuleba ufro didi iqneba, radgan igi orjer ufro axlos iqneba damkvirvebelTan, vidre oTaxis marcxena kuTxeSi myofi adamiani (iluziis misaRebad ekrans erTi TvaliT unda SexedoT saWvretidan. suraTi 5.26 swored aqedan aris gadaRebuli. Tu Tqven oTaxis yurebisas mis irgvliv imoZravebT, vizualuri sistema zust informacias miiRebs oTaxis uCveulo struqturaze). kidev erTi saSualeba, romliTac perceptuli sistema sagnis realur sidideze gvawvdis informacias, msgavsi formis obieqtebis sididis Sesaxeb warsuli codnis gamoyenebaa. magaliTad, saxlis, xis, an ZaRlis formis aRqmisTanave, warmodgena geqmnebaT TiToeuli maTganis zomaze, Tumca, SeiZleba arc ki icodeT, ra manZili gaSorebT maTTan. rodesac

173

fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi

rogor iWerT mfrinav buraTs


odesme gqoniaT aseTi gamocdileba: Tqven dgaxarT Sors marcxena mindorze, gesmiT Cognis dartymis xma da xedavT beisbolis burTs, romelic Tqvenken mofrinavs? saidan iciT, Tu saiT unda gaiqceT burTis dasaWerad? Tu Tavad arasodes giTamaSiaT autfildze, jer kidev gaqvT saSualeba, gaocdeT romelime moTamaSis S Ta m b e W d a v i Ta m a S i T. sainteresoa, rogor xvdeba igi saWiro adgilas saWiro dros? agdebuli burTis daWeris situacias aRqmis mkvlevrebi, sruliad samarTlianad, rTul percepciaTa rigs miakuTvneben: `burTis moaxloebis paterni moicavs yvela ZiriTad sivrciTi mdebareobas da siRrmis maniSnebels, romlis gaTvaliswineba ar xdeba traeqtoriis bolo monakveTamde~ (McBeath et al., 1995, gv.569). amis miuxedavad, adamianebi sakmaod kargad iWeren burTebs. mkvlevrebis amocana iyo iseTi Teoriis Seqmna, romelic erTmaneTTan daakavSirebda gamoTvlebiT miRebul sirTulesa da praqtikul siadviles (gavixsenoT, rom Tavis dasawyisSi miznad davsaxeT, agvexsna, Tu rogor qmnis perceptuli procesebi siadvilis iluzias). ra tipis vizualuri maniSneblebis safuZvelze ikvlevT gzas burTisaken? mkvlevrebma gamoyves invariantuli maniSneblebis 2 tipi, romelsac
Tavi 5 / aRqma

moZravi burTi warmoqmnis (ix. zemoT: invariantobis ganxilva gibsonis midgomaSi). mkvlevarTa erTi jgufi irwmuneba, rom moTamaSeebi sirbilis dros im gzas irCeven, romelzec vertikalur ganzomilebaSi burTis moZraobis vizualuri aRqma konsistenturi rCeba (Dannemiller et al., 1996). mkvlevarTa meore jgufis mixedviT ki, moTamaSeebi irCeven gzas, romelic sirbilis dros im kuTxis SenarCunebis

saSualebas aZlevs, romliTac b u r Ti f o n Ta n m i m a r Te b S i konsistenturad moZraobs (McBeath et al., 1995, 1996). rogor xdeba am Teoriebis Semowmeba? rogorc wesi, mkvlevrebi videokameriT iweren, rogor iWeren moTamaSeebi maT mier gaSvebuli burTebs. kvlevis Semdegi etapia moTamaSeebis moqmedebisTvis maTematikuri funqciebis morgeba, raTa vnaxoT, burTis frenis

vizualuri aRqmis ra aspeqtebis konsatantobis SenarCunebas cdilobdnen isini (Tqven, albaT axla gixariaT, rom realur cxovrebaSi am amocanis gadasaWrelad ar gWirdebaT aRqmis perceptuli problemis maTematikis gageba). mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines, rom moTamaSeebis umetesoba burTis daWeras or fazad yofs (Jacobs et al, 1996; McBeath, 1996); I faza axlaxan ganvixileT _ swrafad gaqceva saWiro adgilas mosaxvedrad; II fazaze moTamaSeebi aneleben moZraobas da SeiZleba saerTod gaCerdnen k i d e c . Ta m a S i s II f a z a S i adgilmdebareobisa da siRrmis maniSneblebi erTveba, radgan burTi swrafad uaxlovdeba xelTaTmans. rodesac moTamaSes burTi ukve xelTaTmanSi aqvs, moqmedeba xSirad jer kidev ar aris damTavrebuli: man rac SeiZleba swrafad unda Seagdos burTi ukan infildze, rom mowinaaRmdegem qula ar miiRos da ar dawinaurdes. amrigad, moTamaSeebi xSirad asruleben burTis daWeris kompleqsur moqmedebas da, amave dros, yuradRebas aqceven garemos mniSvnelovan aspeqtebs. SegiZliaT, cota xniT mowydeT swavlas da burTiT iTamaSoT? es aRqmis am specifikuri problemis Sesaxeb sakuTari Sexedulebebis CamoyalibebaSi dagexmarebaT

174

warsuli gamocdileba Zalze daSorebul nacnob obieqtebze ver gawvdiT informacias, sididis konstantoba SeiZleba dairRves. am problemas waawydebiT, rodesac adamianebs caTambjenis saxuravidan gadaxedavT da isini WianWvelebad mogeCvenebaT.

swored es gamocdileba udevs safuZvlad am Tavis dasawyisSi mocemul ambavs kengis Sesaxeb. SegaxsenebT, rom kengma, romelmac mTeli cxovreba xSir tyeebSi gaatara, ver aRiqva moSorebiT mobalaxe bizonebis gamosaxulebebi. ucnob perceptul garemoSi kengi Tavdapirvelad

suraTi

5.26

eimsis oTaxi
eimsis oTaxi isea agebuli, rom erTi TvaliT saWvretidan xdeba misi dakvirveba; fotoebic am moxerxebuli adgilidanaa gadaRebuli. eimsis oTaxi agebulia aramarTkuTxa zedapirebiT, romlebic araTanabar kuTxeebs qmnian siRrmesa da simaRleSi. saWvretidan dakvirvebisas vizualuri sistema mas Cveulebriv oTaxad aRiqvams da tania da filip zimbardoebis simaRleebis uCveulo aRqmas iwvevs.

Seecada, misTvis ucxo aRqma cnobili konteqstisTvis moergo da ivarauda, rom pawawina daSorebuli wertilebi mwerebi iyo. vinaidan mas ar hqonda Sori manZilidan bizonebis aRqmis warsuli gamocdileba, ar hqonda sididis konstantobis safuZvelic da radgan swrafad moZravi manqana cxovelebs uaxlovdeboda da retinaluri gamosaxulebebi TandaTan diddeboda, kengi ganicdida SemaSfoTebel iluzias, rom cxovelebi zomaSi icvlebodnen. Cven SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi kengi, tarbulis msgavsad, SeZlebda bizonebis danaxvas. miRebuli codna mas sensoruli gamocformis konstantoba (Shape constancy) _ sagnebis realuri formis aRqmis unari retinaluri gamosaxulebis zomebis cvlilebis miuxedavad.

suraTi

5.27

formis konstantoba
monetis brunvisas misi xati icvleba _ gadaiqceva elifsad, Semdeg TandaTan viwrovdeba da Txel marTkuTxeds emsgavseba, Semdeg kvlav elifsad gadaiqceva da dasasrul _ wred. am cvlilebebisda miuxedavad, igi yovelTvis mrgval monetad aRiqmeba.

aRqmis organizaciis procesebi

dilebis saTanado perceptuli interpretaciis SesaZleblobas miscemda. formis konstantoba mWidrod ukavSirdeba sididis konstantobas. Tqven sworad aRiqvamT obieqtis realur formas maSinac ki, rodesac sagani Sebrunebulia da Tavad obieqtisagan arsebiTad gansxvavebuli saxis retinalur gamosaxulebas qmnis. magaliTad, daxrili oTxkuTxedi baduraze trapeciis formis gamosaxulebas qmnis, daxrili wre _ elifsis formis gamosaxulebas (ix. sur. 5.27). miuxedavad amisa, Tqven zustad aRiqvamT maT formebs _ sivrceSi daxril wres an oTxkuTxeds. rodesac siRrmeze swori informaciaa xelmisawvdomi, vizualur sistemas obieqtis realuri formis gansazRvra Tqvengan obieqtis sxvadasxva nawilebis daSorebis gaTvaliswinebiTac SeuZlia.

175

am suraTebidan romeli gamoxatavs madonas gancdas mas Semdeg, rac MTV-m uari Tqva misi ukanaskneli klipis gaSvebaze?

orientaciis konstantoba Tu wignis yurebisas Tavs gverdze gadaxriT, garemo gadaxrilad ar mogeCvenebaT. orientaciis konstantoba aris sayaroSi sagnebis realuri orientaciiis aRqma, baduraze maTi orientaciis cvlilebis miuxedavad. orientaciis konstantoba eyrdnoba Sida yuris vestibularuli sistemidan miRebul informacias (ganxilulia me-4 TavSi) Tavis daxrilobaze. vestibularuli sistemidan miRebuli informaciisa da retinaluri orientaciis kombinirebiT, Cveni vizualuri sistema, Cveulebriv, garemoSi arsebuli obieqtis zust aRqmas ayalibebs. nacnob garemoSi warsuli gamocdileba realur orientaciaze damatebiT informacias iZleva. Tumca, Tqven SeiZleba gagiWirdeT rTuli da ucnobi figurebis amocnoba, Tu isini uCveulo orientaciiTaa mocemuli (ix. sur. 5. 28). rodesac figura rTulia da sxvadasxva nawilebisagan Sedgeba, orientaciis aRsaqmelad TiToeuli nawilis mimarTuleba cal-calke unda moawesrigoT (Rock, 1986). ase rom, sanam orientaciis/mimarTulebis konstantoba (Orientation constancy) _ samyaroSi sagnebis realuri mimarTulebis aRqmis unari, retinaluri gamosaxulebis mimarTulebis cvlilebis miuxedavad. feris konstantoba (Lightness constancy) _ ganaTebis xarisxis cvalebad pirobebSi obieqtebis siTeTris, siruxis an siSavis ucvlelad aRqmis tendencia. erT nawils saTanado mimarTulebiT abrunebT, danarCen nawilebs jer kidev moubruneblad aRiqvamT. SexedeT popvarskvlavis _ madonas or Semobrunebul fotosuraTs. Tqven, albaT, amCnevT, rom erTi-erTi maTgani odnav aris Secvlili pirsa da TvalebTan, magram suraTebi sakmaod hgavs erTmaneTs. axla wigni SemoabruneT da kvlav SexedeT fotosuraTebs. igive fotosuraTebi absoluturad gansxvavebulad gamoiyureba. erTze isev madonaa, meoreze ki _ amazrzeni monstria, romelic sakuTar dedasac ar eyvareboda! Tqven ver SeniSneT es aSkara gansxvaveba wignis amobrunebamde, SesaZloa imitom rom ver SeZeliT saxis yvela nawilis erTdroulad amobruneba. amobrunebuli samyaros sworad danaxvas da saxeebis uCveuli orientaciaSi aRqmas wlebis manZilze perceptuli treiningi sWirdeba.

feris konstantoba ganvixiloT suraTi 5.29. rodesac suraTze gamosaxul aguris kedels uyurebT, zog agurs ufro muq wiTlad da zogs Ria wiTlad ki ar aRiqvamT, aramed aRiqvamT kedels, romelSic yvela aguri erTnairi ferisaa da zogierTi maTgani CrdilSia moqceuli (Goldstein, 1959). esaa feris konstantobis magaliTi: feris konstantoba aris ganaTebis xarisxis cvalebad pirobebSi obieqtebis siTeTris, siruxis an siSavis ucvlelad aRqmis tendencia.

176

Tavi 5 / aRqma

suraTi

5.28

suraTi

5.29

90 gradusiT Semobrunebuli afrika


cnobiT Semobrunebul afrikis kontinents? xSirad, sakmaod Znelia naklebad nacnobi figurebi uCveulo orientaciaSi icnoT.

feris konstantoba
feris konstantoba gexmarebaT imis gagebaSi, ratom aRiqvamT kedels erTnairi agurebiT agebuls.

Sejameba
figuris fonis win aRqmis tendencia imdenad Zlieria, rom iluzorul konturebis aRqmas iwvevs. geStaltfisqologebma perceptuli daj-

aRqmis organizaciis procesebi

adre ganxiluli yvela sxva konstantobis msgavsad, feris konstantobasac sakmaod xSirad ganvicdiT yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. magaliTad, davuSvaT, gacviaT TeTri maisuri da bneli oTaxidan naTel, mzis SuqiT ganaTebul quCaSi gadixarT. mzis sinaTleze maisuridan gacilebiT meti sinaTle airekleba Tqvens Tvalebze, vidre _ bnel oTaxSi, Tumca, orive SemTxvevaSi is TiTqmis erTnairad naTlad geCvenebaT. aq, faqtobrivad, feris konstantoba moqmedebs, radgan sagnidan areklili sinaTlis procentuli raodenoba daaxloebiT igive rCeba, sinaTlis absoluturi odenoba ki icvleba. naTeli TeTri maisuri ireklavs arsebuli sinaTlis 80-90%-s, Savi jinsi daaxloebiT 5%-s, amitom, rodesac maT erTi da igive situaciaSi vxedavT, maisuri yovelTvis ufro naTeli Cans, vidre jinsi. amrigad, am qveTavSi ganvixileT mTeli rigi organizaciuli procesebi, romlebic aRqmis procesSi monawileoben. am Tavis bolo qveTavSi ganvixilavT identifikaciisa da cnobis procesebs, romlebic mniSvnelobas aZleven garemos sagnebsa da movlenebs.

gufebis ramdenime principi Camoayalibes, maT Soris, siaxlovis, msgavsebis da msgavsi bedis principebi. perceptuli procesebi samyarodan axal informacias yoveli calkeuli fiqsaciiT iReben. baduras stimulaciis paterni moZraobis maniSneblebs iZleva. siRrmis aRqma informaciis mravali konvergenciuli wyarodan yalibdeba. binokularuli disparati da konvergencia siRrmis binokularuli maniSneblebia, romelTac Tvalebis horizontaluri mdgomareoba iwvevs. fardobiTi moZraobis paralaqsi sagnebis fardobiT daSorebulobaze iZleva informacias. mxatvrebi iyeneben iseT piqtorul maniSneblebs, rogoricaa: gadafarva, wrfivi perspeqtiva da teqsturis gradientebi, raTa organzomilebian naxatebze samganzomilebiani gamosaxuleba Seqmnan. zomis konstantobas aRviqvamT daSorebis maniSneblebisa da nacnobi sagnebis sididis Sesaxeb warsuli codnis gamoyenebiT; formis konstantobas xels uwyobs siRrmis Sesaxeb informacia. orientaciis konstantoba efuZneba vestibularul SegrZnebebsa da sagnis realuri orientaciis Sesaxeb warsul codnas; feris konstantoba imitom arsebobs, rom nebismieri ganaTebis pirobebSi sagnebi maTze dacemuli sinaTlis met-naklebad erTi da igive procentul raodenobas ireklaven.

177

identifikacia da cnoba
aqamde aRwerili perceptuli procesebi distaluri stimulis fizikuri Tvisebebis _ samganzomilebian sivrceSi sagnebis poziciis, zomis, formis, teqsturisa da feris _ Sesaxeb sakmaod zusti informaciis wyarod SeiZleba miviCnioT. miuxedavad amisa, mxolod am informaciis safuZvelze mainc ar gecodinebodaT, ra sagnebTan gaqvT saqme, an ginaxavT Tu ara isini odesme; garemos imitom aRiqvamT nacnobad, rom SegiZliaT adre nanaxi sagnebis cnoba da identifikacia. ase rom ar iyos, Tqveni gamocdileba ucxo planetaze mogzaurobas daemsgavseboda, sadac yvelaferi ucxo iqneboda _ ar gecodinebodaT, ra geWamaT, ra dagexuraT Tavze, ras gasclodiT an rogor ageTvalaT dro. identifikacia da cnoba perceptul xats mniSvnelobas, sazriss aZleven.

suraTi

5.30

`drudlebi~ (Droodles)
es ra cxovelia? xedavT (A) gamosaxulebaSi Cits, romelmac mozrdili Wiayela daiWira (B)-Si ki _ Jirafis kisers? es orive suraTi SeiZleba TqvenTvis raRac Zalian nacnobis gamosaxulebad miviCnioT, Tumca, maT, rogorc wesi, ver cnobT saidentifikacio informaciis arqonis gamo, Tumca sakmarisia am informaciis mowodeba, rom iolad amoicnoT isini.

aRmavali da daRmavali procesebi


sagnis identifikaciisas amJamad nanaxi warsulSi miRebul, Senaxul codnas unda SeadaroT. sensoruli monacemebis garemodan miRebas da tvinSi gadagzavnas amorCevisa (extraction) da analizisaTvis aRmavali gadamuSaveba (`qvemodan zemoT~) ewodeba. aRmavali gadamuSaveba empiriul realobas efuZneba da informaciis mcire nawilebs Seexeba. is stimulis konkretul fizikur niSnebs abstraqtul xatebad gardaqmnis. am tipis gadamuSavebas monacemebiT aRZrul gadamuSavebasac (data driven processing) uwodeben, radgan identifikaciis sawyis wertils garemodan miRebuli monacemebi warmoadgens.
aRmavali gadamuSaveba (Bottom-up processing) _ garemoSi xelmisawvdom sensorul informaciaze dafuZnebuli perceptuli analizi. analizis Sedegebi aRmavali gziT SedarebiT abstraqtul reprezentaciebisken miemarTeba. daRmavali gadamuSaveba (Top-down processing) _ perceptuli procesebi, rodesac adamianis warsuli gamocdileba, codna, molodinebi, motivacia da konteqsti gavlenas axdens aRqmuli obieqtis interpretaciasa da klasifikaciaze.

178

bevr SemTxvevaSi, perceptuli identifikaciis gasaioleblad, SesaZlebelia ukve xelT arsebuli informaciis gamoyeneba. magaliTad, zooparkSi namdvilad icnobT zogierTi saxeobis cxovels. iq metad geqnebaT vefxvis naxvis molodini, vidre Tqveni saxlis ukana ezoSi. rodesac molodinebi gavlenas axdens aRqmaze, fenomens daRmavali gadamuSaveba (`zemodan qvemoT~) ewodeba. daRmaval gadamuSavebas samyaros aRqmaSi warsuli gamocdileba, codna, motivebi da kulturuli foni Semoaqvs. daRmavali gadamuSavebisas umaRlesi fsiqikuri funqcionireba gavlenas axedns sagnebisa da movlenebis gagebaze. daRmaval procesebs konceptualurad (anu cnebebis doneze, an hipoTeziT) aRZrul gadamuSavebasac uwodeben, radgan mexsierebaSi Senaxuli cnebebi gavlenas axdens sensoruli monacemebis interpretaciaze. daRmavali procesebis mniSvnelovnebis Cveneba SeiZleba naxatebiT, romelTac `drudlebi~ (droodles) ewodeba (Price, 1953, 1980). dasaxelebebis gareSe es naxatebi yovelgvar azrs moklebulia; Tumca, rogorc ki moxdeba maTi identificireba, advilad davinaxavT maTSi Cadebul azrsac (ix. sur. 5.30). aRmavali da daRmavali procesebis ukeT garCevis mizniT, metyvelebis aRqmas mivubrundeT. Tqven uTuod geqnebodaT SemTxveva, rodesac gicdiaT saubris gagrZeleba Zalian xmaurian wveulebaze. aseT situaciaSi Tqven mier warmoTqmuli yvela sityva erTmniSvnelovnad ver aRwevs mosaubris yuramde. Tqveni naTqvamis

Tavi 5 / aRqma

nawils uTuod dafaravs Caxveleba, xmauriani musika da sicili. miuxedavad amisa, adamianebi iSviaTad acnobiereben, rom isini fizikur signalebs xarvezebiT iReben. am fenomens fonemuri rekonstruqcia ewodeba (Warren, 1970). rogorc me-11 TavSi vnaxavT, fonema aris bgeris minimaluri, Sinaarsiani erTeuli enaSi. fonemuri rekonstruqcia xdeba maSin, rodesac adamianebi daRmaval gadamuSavebas gamotovili fonemebis Sesavsebad iyeneben. msmenelebs xSirad uWirT gansazRvra, maT xmauriT nawilobrivad dafaruli sityvebi esmiT, Tu sityvebi esmiT xmaurTan erTad, romelic zed edeba mTel signals, Tumca, ar faravs mas. davuSvaT, xmaurian wveulebaze Tqveni megobris naTqvami ise wydeba, rom Tqven yuramde mxolod aRwevs _ `saxlSi unda wavide (xmauri) aRli myavs gasaseirnebeli~. Tu xmauri faravs bgera `Z~-s, mosalodnelia, ifiqroT, rom marTlac srulad gaigoneT sityva `ZaRli~. sainteresoa, ratom? Cven gvaqvs calkeuli bgerebi, romlebic sityvebs qmnian da Tavad sityvebi. roca bgerebi /a/, /R/, /l/ da /i/ Sedian am sistemaSi, isini aRmavali gziT, sityvis doneze, gvawvdian informacias. amis safuZvelze gviyalibdeba versiebi, Tu ra SeiZleboda eTqva megobars. Semdeg ukve daRmavali procesebi erTveba. konteqsti gexmarebaT, arsebuli versiebidan `ZaRli~ SearCioT, rogorc am frazisTvis yvelaze Sesaferisi sityva. vinaidan es yve-

laferi sakmaod swrafad xdeba _ savaraudo sityvebis aRmavali identifikacia da yvelaze albaTuri swori variantis daRmavali SerCeva Tqven veRar igebT, rom bgera `Z~ gamotovebulia. perceptuli sistema garwmunebT, rom sityva dasrulebuli iyo (Samuel, 1997). Semdgom, xmaurian garemoSi moxvedrisas, kmayofili iqnebiT, rom perceptuli procesebi ase efeqturad avseben bgerebs! informaciis gadamuSavebis daRmavali procesebis bolo magaliTad 5.31 suraTze gamosaxuli adamianebi ganvixiloT. Tu maTi popularoba xanmokle ar iyo, Tqven SeZlebT maT cnobas, magram aseTebi arian isini realurad? albaT, ara, yovel SemTxvevaSi, saukeTeso wlebSi mainc. am karikaturebis identifikaciis unari mowmobs, rom samyaros aRqma mxolod sensoruli receptorebidan Semosul aRmaval informaciaze ar aris damokidebuli. Tqveni codnis _ daRmavali informaciisa da danaxulis _ aRmavali informaciis gaerTianebis unari am karikaturebSi edi merfisa da hilari klintonis cnobis saSualebas gaZlevT. faqtobrivad, kvleva gviCvenebs, rom karikaturebis amocnoba ufro advilia, vidre cnobili adamianebis ufro `zusti~ gamoxatulebebisa, radgan karikaturebSi is maxasiaTeblebia gamokveTili, romlebic adamians gamorCeuls xdis (Mauro & Kubovy, 1992; Rhodes et al., 1997).

suraTi

5.31
aRqmis organizaciis procesebi

rogor cnobT am cnobil adamianebs?


cnobT TiToeul maTgans? am adamianebis saxeebis nacnobobis safuZvelze _ daRmavali gadamuSaveba _ am karikaturebSi `realur~ adamianebs amoicnobT.

179

sagnebis cnoba
metyvelebis aRqmis magaliTidan SeiZleba gadavideT zogad midgomaze, romelic mkvlevrebma sagnis cnobis aRmaval procesebSi Semoitanes. maT gamoyves safexurebi, romelTac perceptuli sistemebi mTliani perceptuli xatis cnobisaTvis iyeneben. enis SemTxvevaSi, metyvelebisas aRqmis procesebi, calkeuli sityvebis amosacnobad, aerTianebs bgeraTa Tanmimdevrobebis Sesaxeb garemodan miRebul informacias. ra erTeulebiT agebT samyaroSi arsebuli obieqtebis reprezentaciebs? magaliTad, rogor wyvetT, rom nacrisferi ucnauri formis, saSualo zomis bewviani arseba namdvilad kataa? savaraudod, Tqven gaqvT katis mexsierebiTi xati.

suraTi
Tavi 5 / aRqma

5.32

cnoba komponentebis safuZvelze


suraTze mocemulia samganzomilebiani obieqtebis Semadgeneli nawilebi da maTi gaerTianebis nimuSebi. figuris zeda naxevarSi mocemuli obieqtebi sxvadasxva zomis cilindrebiTaa agebuli; figuris qveda naxevarSi ki, ramdenime sxvadasxva nawilis gaerTianebiT nacnobi obieqtebia agebuli.

180

identifikaciis procesi gulisxmobs perceptSi mocemuli informaciis Sedarebas katis mexsierebiT xatTan, magram rogor xorcieldeba es Sedareba? erT-erTi variantia, rom sxvadasxva sagnebis mexsierebiTi xatebi moicaven sagnis Semadgenel komponentebs da informacias am komponentebis urTierTkavSirze (Marr & Mishihara, 1978). irvin bidermanis mixedviT (Irvin Biederman, 1987; Hummel & Biederman, 1992), yvela obieqti SeiZleba Sedgebodes geometriuli ionebis anu geonebisagan. geonebi ar aris formebis didi an SemTxveviTi erToblioba. bidermani irwmuneboda, rom yoveli 36 geonis erTianoba Semdegi wesiT SeiZleba ganisazRvros: TiToeuli samganzomilebiani geoni qmnis organzomilebiani baduras stimulaciis unikalur paterns. es unikalurobis wesi saSualebas unda gvaZlevdes, sensoruli stimulaciis paternidan mivxvdeT, ra sagania garemoSi mocemuli. 5.32 suraTze naCvenebia, Tu rogor aris SesaZlebeli standartuli nawilebisgan obieqtebis ageba. mkvlevrebma aCvenes, rom aseT nawilebs realuri mniSvneloba aqvT sagnis cnobisaTvis. amisaTvis isini cdis pirebs uCvenebdnen danawevrebuli sagnebis suraTebs, sadac srulad iyo, an ar iyo mocemuli Semadgeneli nawilebi (Biederman, 1987; Biederman & Cooper, 1991). 5.33 suraTis pirvel svetSi mocemulia Cveulebrivi sagnebis konturebi. Sua svetSi igive obieqtebi xarvezebiTaa mocemuli, rac jer kidev iZleva nawilebis cnobis da maTi urTierTkavSiris gagebis saSualebas. marjvena svetSi xarvezebi xels gviSlis komponentebisa da maT Soris kavSiris aRmoCenaSi. gveTanxmebiT, rom mesame svetSi mxolod monaxazis saxiT mocemuli obieqtebis cnoba yvelaze Znelia? kontrasti gvarwmunebs, rom obieqtis cnoba SezRuduli informaciiTac SesaZlebelia (fonemebis aRdgenis msgavsad), magram mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu informacia aucilebel komponentebs Seicavs. miuxedavad amisa, mxolod komponentebis amocnoba yovelTvis ver iqneba sakmarisi obieqtis sacnobad (Hayward & Williams, 2000; Tarr, 1994). erT-erTi siZnele, rogorc es 5.34 suraTzea mocemuli, isaa, rom obieqtebs xSirad sruliad gansxvavebuli persepeqtivebidan xedavT. sagnis Semadgeneli nawilebi SeiZleba sruliad gansxvavebulad Candes sxvadasxva perspeqtividan. am siZnelis dasaZlevad calkeuli ZiriTadi

suraTi

5.33

nawilebis gavleba obieqtis cnobaze


Sua svetSi vizualuri informaciis xarvezebi nawilebs ar azianebs, marjvena svetSi ki _ azianebs. gveTanxmebiT, rom Sua svetSi ufro advilia obieqtebis cnoba?

suraTi

5.34

molodinis da konteqstis gavlena


nacrisfer, saSualo zomis, ucnauri formis bewvian arsebas ufro advilad icnobT, Tu mas Cveul adgilas, Tqven saxlSi naxavT. es aRqmis daRmavali aspeqtia: molodinebma SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinon aRqmaze da danaxulis interpretaciaze. odesme, SemTxveviT, ginaxavT

aRqmis organizaciis procesebi

perspeqtivisaTvis unda SeinaxoT calkeuli mexsierebiTi xatebi, romelTac standartuli sagnebis ganxilvisas gamoiyenebT (Tarr & Pinker, 1989). rodesac garemoSi romelime obieqts xedavT, SeiZleba gonebaSi perceptis transformireba mogiwioT, raTa gaarkvioT, zustad Seesabameba Tu ara is romelime am xats. amrigad, nacrisfer, ucnauri formis, saSualo zomis bewvian cxovelSi rom kata amoicnoT, is unda amoicnoT, rogorc garkveuli rakursiT mocemuli geonebis Sesatyvisi kombinacia.

erTi da igive obieqti sxvadasxva perspeqtividan


sxvadasxva perspeqtividan Tqven sagnis sxvadasxva nawils xedavT. am sirTulis dasaZlevad Tqven rTuli figuris mraval xats inaxavT mexsierebaSi.

nacnobi adamianebi moulodnel adgilas, magaliTad, sxva qalaqSi, an sxva socialur jgufSi? gacilebiT meti droa saWiro maT sacnobad am situaciaSi da xandaxan arc ki xarT darwmunebuli, rom Nnamdvilad isini arian. saqme is ki ar aris, rom isini gansxvavebulad gamoiyurebian, aramed konteqstia sxva _ Tqven ar eliT maT am situaciaSi. sivrciTi da droiTi konteqsti, romelSic sagnebi amoicnoba, mniSvnelovan informaciul wyaros warmoadgens. konteqstidan gamomdinare, Tqven geqmnebaT molodini, Tu ra obieqtebis naxvaa mosalodneli, an moulodneli irgvliv. perceptuli organizacia damokidebulia rogorc molodinze, ise _ sagnis xilvad Tvisebebze. sagnis cnoba aris konstruqciuli

181

interpretaciis procesi _ identifikacia SeiZleba Seicvalos imis mixedviT, rac ukve iciT, Tu sad xarT da ras xedavT irgvliv. waikiTxeT Semdegi sityvebi:

THE CAT sworia? axla isev SexedeT TiToeuli sityvis Sua asos. es ori aso zustad erTnairia, Tumca, pirvels aRiqvamT rogorc H-s da meores, rogorc A-s, ratom? naTelia, rom aRqmaze gavlena moaxdina inglisuri sityvebis codnam. konteqsti, romelsac qmnis T_E, metad SesaZlebels xdis H-s da naklebad SesaZlebels _ A-s maSin, roca C_T konteqstisTvis sawinaaRmdegoa swori. mkvlevrebma araerTxel daasabuTes aRqmaze konteqstisa da molodinis gavlena setis SeswavliT. seti (set) aris stimulis garkveuli saxiT aRqmis da masze reagirebis droebiTi mzaoba. arsebobs sami tipis seti: motoruli, fsiqologiuri da perceptuli. motoruli seti aris mza, swrafi pasuxis gasacemad mzaoba. morbenali varjiSobs motoruli setis daxvewaze, raTa sastarto gasrolis xmaze rac SeiZleba swrafad gamovides sastarto blokidan. fsiqologiuri seti aris mzaoba. ganixiloT iseTi situacia, rogoricaa amocanis gadaWra, an TamaSi, daswavlili wesebis, instruqciebis, molodinebis, an Cvevebis daxmarebiT. fsiqologiurma setma SeiZleba Tavidan agvaridos amocanis gadawyveta,

suraTi

5.36B

xandazmuli qalbatoni
roca Zveli wesebi ver ergeba axal situacias. amas me-9 TavSi vnaxavT, problemis gadawyvetis procesis Seswavlisas. perceptuli seti aris mocemul konteqstSi garkveuli stimulis SeniSvnisTvis mzaoba. magaliTad, axalbeda dedisaTvis es SeiZleba bavSvis tirilis gagoneba iyos. xSirad seti gvaiZulebs, SevcvaloT orazrovani stimulis interpretacia. SexedeT sityvaTa am or rigs: bebia, babua, da, Zma, deda, ma?a ana, sofo, nino, Tea, nata, ma?a waikiTxeT CamonaTvali? ra sityva mogividaT TavSi TiToeul SemTxvevaSi `ma?a~-s wakiTxvisas? Tu Tqven `mama~ da `maia/maka~ gaifiqreT, es imitom moxda, rom sityvaTa CamonaTvaliT SegimuSavdaT seti, romelmac sityvebis Zebnisas garkveuli mimarTulebiT warmarTa Tqveni mexsiereba. saxeldebam SeiZleba Seqmnas konteqsti, romelic orazrovani figurisTvis perceptul sets iZleva. Tqven ukve naxeT, azrs moklebuli `dudlebi~ (doodles) rogor gadaiqca azrian obieqtebad. yuradRebiT SexedeT qalis gamosaxulebas 5.35 A suraTze. Tqvenma megobarma (da ara Tqven) naxos suraTi 5.35 B. Semdeg erTad SexedeT 5.35C suraTs. ras xedavs TiToeuli Tqvengani? iqonia Tu ara raime gavlena mocemuli saxeldebuli orazrovani gamosaxulebebis naxvam am gamosaxulebis aRqmaze? Tqven SegiZliaT, eqsperimenti sxvebze gaimeoroT da naxoT, iRebT Tu ara igive Sedegebs.

Tavi 5 / aRqma

suraTi

5.36A

182

axalgazrda lamazi qali

suraTi

5.36C

axla ras xedavT?

imisaTvis, rom konteqstma aRqmaze moaxdinos gavlena, saWiroa: mexsiereba ise iyos organizebuli, rom konkretul situaciebTan dakavSirebuli informacia saWiro dros xdebodes xelmisawvdomi. sxva sityvebiT, saTanado (an arasaTanado) molodinebis Camosayalibeblad Tqven unda SegeZloT mexsierebaSi Senaxuli codnis gamoyeneba. zogjer `mexsierebiTac~ iseve xedavT, rogorc TvalebiT. me-8 TavSi ganvixilavT mexsierebis Tvisebebs, romlebic SesaZlebels xdis aRqmaze konteqstis gavlenas.

bolo gakveTili
am TavSi naswavlis Sesajameblad, yuradRebiT SexedeT 5.3 suraTs. Tqven ukve gaqvT mTeli sqemis gasagebad saWiro codna. 5.3 suraTis ganxilva, aseve, dagarwmunebT, rom mniSvnelovani daskvna, romelic aRqmis Seswavlidan unda miiRoT, isaa, rom mastimulirebeli movlenis sapasuxo perceptuli gamocdileba pirovnebis, rogorc mTelis, reaqcias warmoadgens. sensoruli receptorebis gaRizianebiT miRebuli informaciis garda, saboloo aRqma damokidebulia imaze, Tu vin xarT, visTan erTad xarT, ra gindaT, ras eliT da ra Rirebulebebi gaqvT. aRmqmeli
seti (Set) _ stimulis aRqmis da masze garkveuli saxiT reagirebis droebiTi mzaoba.

xSirad asrulebs or gansxvavebul rols, romelic SeiZleba SevadaroT azartul TamaSsa da interieris dizains. rogorc azartuli moTamaSe, aRmqmeli mowadinebulia, niZlavi dados, rom mocemul Semaval sensorul masalas warsuli gamocdilebisa da personaluri Teoriebis terminebiT gaigebs. rogorc mgznebare, sakuTar saqmeze Seyvarebuli interieris dizaineri, aRmqmeli mudmivad cdilobs stimulebis ise organizebas, rom isini ukeT moergon situacias da metad urTierTdakavSirebulad gamoiyurebodnen. araTavsebadi da mouwesrigebeli xatebi ukuigdeba da naTeli, sufTa da Tanmimdevruli xazebiT Canacvldeba. aRqmis procesi rom mTlianad aRmavali yofiliyo, Tqven erT, aq da amJamad mocemul konkretul realobas iqnebodiT mijaWvuli.SegeZlebodaT Tqveni gancdebis fiqsireba, magram ver gadaitandiT maT momavalSi, verc samyaros dainaxavdiT gansxvavebulad sxvadasxva situaciaSi. perceptuli gadamuSaveba mxolod daRmavali procesi rom yofiliyo, Tqven daikargebodiT sakuTari molodinebisa da imedebis, fantaziis samyaroSi. am or ukiduresobas Soris saTanado balansiT miiRweva aRqmis ZiriTadi mizani: samyaros iseTi gancda, romelic optimalurad emsaxureba adamianis, rogorc biologiuri da socialuri arsebis (romelic moZraobs da egueba socialur da fizikur garemos), moTxovnilebebs.

Sejameba
identifikacia da cnoba moicavs aRmaval da daRmaval procesebs, romlebic erToblivi moqmedebiT samyaros naTel, TvalsaCino gagebas uzrunvelyofen. sagnis amocnoba iwyeba sagnis Semadgenel nawilebad, anu geonebad dayofiT. obieqtis amosacnobad nawilebis codna xSirad rakursis, anu xedvis kuTxis codnasac saWiroebs. sivrciTi da droiTi konteqsti, romelSic sagania mocemuli, ayalibebs molodins; is gavlenas axdens sagnis cnobis unarze. mkvlevrebma aRqmaze konteqstis gavlena setis efeqtebis SeswavliT daasabuTes.

aRqmis organizaciis procesebi

183

sakvanZo sakiTxebi
yuradRebis procesebi
yuradReba aris Semavali sensoruli informaciis nawilis SerCevisa da danarCenis ignorirebis unari. pirovnuli miznebi da garemoSi arsebuli sagnebis Tvisebebi gansazRvraven Cveni yuradRebis mimarTulebas. yuradRebis miRma darCenili informacia Zalze mcired moqmedebs mimdinare gamocdilebaze. yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba vizualuri garemos efeqturad gadasinjvis saSualebas iZleva. sistemis uZravad da masSi mocemuli nawilebis moZravad aRqmis tendencia. baduras organzomilebiani informaciis samganzomilebiani siRrmis aRqmad gardasaqmnelad vizualuri sistema iyenebs iseT informacias, rogoricaa: obieqtis zoma da obieqtamde manZili. Tqven gaxasiaTebT obieqtebis zomis, formis, orientaciisa da feris mixedviT ucvlelad aRqmis tendencia.

SegrZneba, organizeba, identificireba da cnoba


perceptuli sistemebi ubralod ki ar iReben gare samyaroze informacias, aramed aqtiurad axdenen mis intepretaciasa da organizacias. aRqma samsafexuriani procesia. is Sedgeba SegrZnebis, perceptuli organizaciisa da identifikaciacnobis safexurebisgan. gadamuSavebis sensorul safexurze fizikuri energia gardaiqmneba nervul energiad da sensorul gancdad. organizaciis safexurze perceptuli procesebi SegrZnebebs TvalsaCino xatebad aerTianebs da sagnebis da paternebis aRqmas ganapirobebs. identifikaciisa da cnobis safexurze sagnebis perceptebi dardeba mexsierebiT xatebs, raTa isini amovicnoT rogorc nacnobi da azriani sagnebi. aRqmis amocanaa distaluri (eqsternaluri) stimulis gansazRvra proqsimaluri (sensoruli) stimuliT mowodebuli informaciidan. orazrovneba iqmneba maSin, rodesac SesaZlebelia erTi da igive sensoruli informaciis sxvadasxva perceptebSi (xatebSi) organizeba. perceptuli iluziebis Sesaxeb codnam SeiZleba SezRudos Cveulebrivi perceptuli procesebi.

identifikacia da cnoba
perceptuli gadamuSavebis bolo safexurze, rodesac xdeba obieqtis identifikacia da cnoba, percepti mniSvnelobas iZens aRmavali da daRmavali gadamuSavebis erToblivi moqmedebiT. konteqstma, molodinebma, perceptulma masalam SeiZleba gansazRvros dausrulebeli orazrovani monacemebis erTi mimarTulebiT amocnoba, meore, Tanabrad SesaZleblis, nacvlad. amgvarad, aRqma eyrdnoba rogorc warsul codnas da molodins, ise _ sensorul stimuls.

organizaciuli procesebi aRqmaSi


organizaciuli procesebi sensoruli monacemebis Sesabamis aRqmis xatebs qmnian. es procesebi perceptebs fonidan win wamoweul figurebad aerTianebs. TqvenTvis damaxasiaTebelia dausrulebeli figurebis dasrulebulad danaxvisa da calkeuli obieqtebis msgavsebis mixedviT dajgufebis tendencia. TqvenTvis damaxasiaTebelia tendencia _ aq da amJamad mocemuli sivrciTi da droiTi konteqstidan gamomdinare _ moaxdinoT sagnis nawilebis organizeba da interpretireba. Tqven, aseve, gaxasiaTebT realuri sensoruli stimulis miuxedavad, aTvlis

Tavi 5 / aRqma

ZiriTadi cnebebi
aracnobieri daskvna aRmavali gadamuSaveba aRqma aRqmis konstantoba

184

aSkara moZraoba konvergencia daRmavali gadamuSaveba dasrulebuloba (Sevsebuloba) distaluri stimuli diqotomiuri mosmena ekologiuri optikis Teoria fenomeni figura foni formis konstantoba

ganaTebis konstantoba geStalt-fsiqologia identifikacia da cnoba iluzia iluzoruli konturebi marTuli gadasinjva mizanmimarTuli SerCeva moCvenebiTi moZraoba msgavsebis kanoni msgavsi bedis kanoni orazrovneba orientaciis konstantoba perceptuli organizeba

proqsimaluri stimuli retinaluri disparati fardobiTi moZraobis paralaqsi seti siaxlovis kanoni stimuliT aRZruli seleqcia yuradReba yuradRebamdeli gadamuSaveba sididis konstantoba

sakvanZo sakiTxebi

185

goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

6
cnobierebis Sinaarsi

gacnobiereba da cnobierebis cnobierebis


xelmisawvdomoba Sinaarsebis kvleva
cnobierebis funqciebi

cnobiereba

cnobierebis cnobierebis funqciebis kvleva


fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi: rodis uyalibdebaT bavSvebs cnobiereba Zili da sizmari

gamoyeneba

cirkaduli ritmebi Zilis cikli ratom Zili? Zilis darRvevebi sizmari: gonebis Teatri

fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi: 24/7 cxovrebis stili da Zili cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareobebi

dakvirvebadi sizmrebi hipnozi meditacia halucinaciebi religiuri eqstazi cnobierebis Semcvleli nivTierebebi

sakvanZo sakiTxebi

ZiriTadi cnebebi

186

anvixiloT N.N-is SemTxveva _ axalgazrda kanadeli mamakaci, romelsac avtokatastrofis Sedegad Tavis tvini dauzianda. fsiqolog endel tulvingis (Endel Tulving, 1985) aRweris mixedviT, N. N-ma am travmis Sedegad mravali iseTi gamocdilebis miRebis unari dakarga, rasac qvemoT aRvwerT da cnobierebas vuwodebT. magaliTad, miuxedavad imisa, rom N. N-ma mcire ram icis Tavisi warsulidan, vTqvaT, romel wels gadavida misi ojaxi amJamindel sacxovrebel adgilas; im skolebis saxelebi, romlebSic swavlobda anda sad atarebda zafxuls skolis periodSi, mas ar SeuZlia gaixsenos romelime konkretuli movlena Tavisi warsulidan~ (gv. 4). tulvingi wers: N.N-s ar hqonda problemebi qronologiur drosTan dakavSirebiT. is kargad erkveoda drois erTeulebsa da maT Soris arsebul mimarTebebSi. zedmiwevniT SeeZlo qronologiuri drois grafikulad gamosaxva, Tumca, drois Sesaxeb abstraqtuli codnis sruliad sapirispirod, ukiduresad darRveuli hqonda subieqturi drois cnobiereba. rodesac wina

dRis saqmianobis Sesaxeb ekiTxebodnen, is pasuxobda, rom ar icoda. Tu hkiTxavdnen, ras apirebda SemdgomSi an ras gaakeTebda xval, misi pasuxi igive iyo _ man ar icoda... rodesac sxvadasxva SemTxvevebSi sTxovdnen NN. N-s, aRewera is sicariele~, romelic mis gonebaSi isadgurebda xvalis~ Sesaxeb fiqrisas, is ambobda, rom es Zilismagvari mdgomareobaa~ anda didi sicarielea~. Tu sTxovdnen analogiis terminebiT aRewera es mdgomareoba, igi ambobda, rom es hgavs situacias, rodesac cariel oTaxSi moxvedril adamians oTaxSi ararsebuli skamis povnas sTxoven~. sxva SemTxvevaSi is ambobda, rom es tbis SuagulSi curvas hgavs, sadac araferia irgvliv xelCasaWidi~. rodesac guSindeli saqmianobis Sesaxeb fiqrisas gonebaSi Seqmnili mdgomareobis aRweras sTxovdnen, is ambobda, rom raRacnairi sicarielea~. N.N amas mSvidad da uSfoTvelad akvirdeba yovelgvari emociis gareSe. mxolod maSin, rodesac ekiTxebodnen ratom ar ukvirs, rom iq araferia~, rodesac is fiqrobs guSindelsa Tu xvalindelze, is amJRavnebda mcireoden, xanmokle aJitacias da sustad aRmoxdeboda gaocebis SeZaxili.

SegiZliaT Tqveni Tavi warmoidginoT N.N-is adgilze, rodesac sakuTari warsulisa an momavlis Sesaxeb fiqrs cdilobT da mxolod sicarieles~ awydebiT? modiT, erTi wuTiT ifiqreT raime erT-erT mniSvnelovan movlenaze Tqveni warsulidan; axla dafiqrdiT, Tu ra SeiZleba moxdes xval an zeg? saidan modis warsulis es mogonebebi an warmodgenebi momavlis Sesaxeb? miuxedavad imisa, rom Cvens tvinSi didi informacia inaxeba, naklebad albaTuria, rom es azrebi iseve mogvdiodes

gonebaSi~, TiTqosda visxdeT da teqsts vkiTxulobdeT. metic, Tavs ukeTesad vigrZnobT, Tu vityviT, rom azrebi Cveni cnobierebidan da tvinis iseTi ubnebidan momdinareobs, romelic manamde ar iyo cnobieri, magram mainc ibadeba kiTxva: mainc rogor mogvdis garkveuli azrebi TavSi (gonebaSi)? ganvixilavT ki realurad sxvadasxva mogonebebs an momavlis variantebs? sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, cnobierad vaxorcielebT arCevans? Tu azrebi garkveuli aracnobieri operaciebis meSveobiT rogorRac Cndebian Cvens

cnobierebis Sinaarsi

187

188

Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

cnobierebaSi? ra SesaZleblobebi gagvaCnia Cven, romelic N.N-ma ase tragikulad dakarga? Tu yuradRebiT davakvirdebiT, ras warmoadgens normaluri individisaTvis azrebis Camoyalibebis martivi aqti, intuiturad ukve Segveqmneba warmodgena am meeqvse Tavis ZiriTadi Temebis Sesaxeb. am TavSi SevecdebiT vupasuxoT Semdeg kiTxvebs: ra aris Cveulebrivi gacnobiereba? ra ganapirobebs Cveni cnobierebis Sinaarsebs? risTvis gvWirdeba cnobiereba? SeuZliaT Tu ara realuri zegavlenis moxdena aracnobier fsiqikur movlenebs Cvens azrebze, emociebsa da qcevaze? rogor icvleba cnobiereba dRe-Ramis ganmavlobaSi da rogor SegviZlia mizanmimarTulad vcvaloT Cveni cnobierebis mdgomareoba? imedismomcemi fsiqologi, aseve, dainteresdeba, Tu rogor aris SesaZlebeli gonebis aspeqtebis mecnieruli Seswavla, rogor xdeba Sinaganis gareT gamotana da, piriqiT, sazogadoebrivis pirovnulad qceva (internalizacia) da rogor aris SesaZlebeli subieqturi gamocdilebis zedmiwevniTi gazomva? Cven analizs cnobierebis Sinaarsebisa da funqciebis ganxilviT daviwyebT, amasTan, yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT adamianis gonebaze. SevecdebiT dagexmaroT filosofosTa, fsiqologTa da neiromecnierebebisTvis uZvelesi problemis gagebaSi: ra damokidebulebaa Tavis tvinsa da gonebas Soris. Semdeg gadavinacvlebT im regularul cvlilebebze, romelsac ganvicdiT ocnebis, fantaziis, Zilisa da sizmrebis dros. dabolos, vnaxavT, Tu rogor icvleba cnobiereba hipnozis, meditaciis, religiuri ritualebisa da narkotikebis zemoqmedebis Sedegad.

cnobierebis Sinaarsi
Tavdapirvelad unda aRiniSnos, rom termini cnobiereba~ orazrovania. is SeiZleba gamoviyenoT rogorc gonebis zogadi mdgomareobis, ise misi specifikuri Sinaarsebis aRsaniSnad. zogjer vambobT, rom cnobier~ mdgomareobaSi viyaviT aracnobieris~ sapirispirod (magaliTad, anesTeziis an Zilis dros); sxva SemTxvevaSi vambobT, rom cnobier mdgomareobaSi varT. anu vacnobierebT konkretul informacias an moqmedebas. aq naTlad Cans garkveuli Tanmimdevroba _ imisaTvis, rom vacnobierebdeT raime konkretul informacias, cnobier mdgomareobaSi unda vimyofebodeT. am TavSi, rodesac visaubrebT cnobierebis Sinaarsebze, mxedvelobaSi gveqneba is informacia, romelsac vacnobierebT, romlis Sesaxebac viciT.

gacnobiereba da cnobiereba
adreul fsiqologiur kvlevaTa nawili cnobierebis Sinaarsebs eZRvneboda. XIX saukunis dasawyisSi TandaTanobiT daSorda ra fsiqologia filosofias, is Camoyalibda, rogorc cnobierebis, gonebis Sesaxeb mecniereba. vundti da titCeneri introspeqciis meTods iyenebdnen cnobieri fsiqikis Sinaarsebis sakvlevad, uiliam jemsi ki sakuTari cnobierebis nakadis kvleviT iyo dakavebuli (ix. Tavi 1). faqtobrivad, misi klasikuri naSromis _ fsiqologia~ (1892w.) pirvel gverdze jemsi fsiqologias ganmartavs,

rogorc mecnierebas cnobierebis, rogorc aseTis, mdgomareobebis aRwerisa da axsnis Sesaxeb.~ Cveulebrivi fxizeli cnobiereba moicavs Cvens aRqmebs, azrebs, grZnobebs, warmodgenebsa da survilebs mocemul momentSi, anu mTel mentalur aqtivobas, razec vaxdenT yuradRebis koncentracias. Cven vacnobierebT Tavad moqmedebas, romelsac vaxorcielebT da im faqtsac, rom vaxorcielebT am qmedebas. xandaxan imasac vacnobierebT, rom sxvebi akvirdebian, afaseben da reagireben Cven mier ganxorcielebul qcevebze. sakuTari Tavis SegrZneba modis gamocdilebidan, romelsac privilegirebuli Sinagani~ poziciidan sakuTar Tavze dakvirvebiT viRebT. es sxvadasxvagvari gonebrivi aqtivobebi, erTad aRebuli, qmnian cnobierebis Sinaarss _ yvela am gamocdilebas cnobierad aRviqvamT drois garkveul momentSi (Natsouias, 1998). axla ufro zustad SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT cnobierebis sami sxvadasxva done. isini pirobiTad Seesatyviseba: (1) bazisuri done _ Sinagani da garegani samyaros cnobiereba; (2) meore done _ imis asaxva, gaazreba, rasac vacnobierebT da (3) mesame, umaRlesi done sakuTari Tavis, rogorc cnobieri, moazrovne individis, gacnobiereba. bazisur doneze cnobiereba warmoadgens imis gacnobierebas, rom Cven aRviqvamT da vreagirebT xelmisawvdom perceptul informaciaze. am doneze Cven vacnobierebT saaTis wikwiks da SimSilis odnav SesamCnev SegrZnebas. meore doneze cnobiereba simbolur codnas eyrdnoba,

romelic gvanTavisuflebs realur obieqtebsa da mimdinare movlenebze mijaWvulobisgan. am doneze SegviZlia vimsjeloT da movaxdinoT manipulireba obieqtebiT maTi aryofnis pirobebSi, warmovisaxoT axali formebi da gamoviyenoT ukve nacnobi formebi an paternebi, davgegmoT/SevqmnaT utopiebi. cnobierebis umaRlesi donea TviTcnobiereba, Semecneba (gacnobiereba) imisa, rom pirovnulad gancdil movlenebs avtobiografiuli xasiaTi aqvs. TviTcnobiereba gvaZlevs pirovnuli istoriisa da identurobis SegrZnebas. cnobierebis am doneze, Tu Cvens gamocdilebaSi samyaro arsebobs, rogorc naTeli, Tanmimdevruli da prognozirebadi ram, maSin TandaTanobiT gviyalibdeba amis Sesatyvisi molodinebi da es molodinebi aRgvWuravs awmyoSi saukeTeso mimdinare qmedebiT da momavlis dagegmvas axdens. gavixsenoT N.N-is SemTxveva, riTac daviwyeT saubari, romelic Tavis dazianebis Sedegad TiTqmis mTlianad TviTcnobierebis gareSe darCa (tulvingi, 1985). mas ar gaaCnda rogorc pirovnuli drois perspeqtiva, ise _ droSi ganfenili sakuTari avtobiografiis cnobiereba.
cnobiereba (Consciousness) _ Sinagani movlenebisa da garemos pirobebis cnobierad aRqmis mdgomareoba (gacnobiereba). TviTcnobiereba (Self-awareness) _ cnobierebis umaRlesi done, pirovnulad gancdili movlenebis avtobiografiuli xasiaTis Semecneba.

cnobierebis Sinaarsi

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winarecnobieri mexsiereba

cnobierebis xelmisawvdomoba
Cven ganvsazRvreT informaciis zogadi tipebi, romelic SesaZloa gacnobierdes garkveul adgilze da garkveul droSi, magram ra ganapirobebs imas, Tu ra cnobierdeba swored am momentSi? magaliTad, am wuTSi acnobierebT Tu ara Tqvens sunTqvas? albaT, ara. sunTqvis kontroli aracnobieri procesebis nawilia. fiqrobT Tu ara Tqvens bolo Svebulebaze an hamletis~ avtorze? albaT, isev ara. aseTi azrebis kontroli winarecnobieri mexsierebis nawilia. acnobierebT Tu ara iseT fonur xmaurebs, rogoricaa saaTis wikwiki, transportis moZraobis xma an naTuris zuzuni? sakmaod rTuli iqneba am yvelafris gacnobiereba (aRqma) da Tan sruli koncentraciis SenarCuneba am Tavis Sinaarsze. yvela es stimuli yuradRebis miRma darCenili informaciis nawilia. dabolos, arsebobs aracnobieri informacia, romelic Znelad xelmisawvdomia cnobieri aRqmisaTvis. aseT informacias miekuTvneba, magaliTad, gramatikuli wesebi, romelic SesaZlebels xdis winadadebis mniSvnelobis gagebas. axla calcalke ganvixiloT cnobierebis TiToeuli tipi. mogonebebi, romlebic mxolod mas Semdeg xdeba cnobierebisaTvis xelmisawvdomi, rac raRac warmarTavs Cvens yuradRebas maTze, winarecnobieri mogonebebis saxeliT aris cnobili. mogonebebi uzarmazari moculobis mqone informaciasTan erTad inaxeba, rogoricaa, magaliTad, enebis, sportis an geografiis zogadi codna da mogonebebi pirovnulad gancdili movlenebis Sesaxeb. winarecnobieri mexsiereba SeumCnevlad arsebobs Cvens gonebaSi manam, sanam ar Seiqmneba maTi cnobierad arsebobis saWiroebis situacia (rogorc maSin, rodesac mniSvnelovani warsuli movlenis mogoneba gTxoveT). mexsierebis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT me8 TavSi visaubrebT.

yuradRebis miRma darCenili informacia


nebismier mocemul momentSi uricxvi raodenobis stimuliT varT garSemortymulni. rogorc me-5 TavSi iTqva, Cven mxolod maT mcire nawilze SegviZlia yuradRebis fokusireba. raze movaxdenT fokusirebas da, amasTanave, romeli mogonebebi gacocxldeba, mniSvnelovnad aris damokidebuli imaze, Tu ra gvaqvs cnobierebaSi. Tumca, xandaxan SeiniSneba iseTi informaciis aracnobieri reprezentacia, romelic ar xvdeba yuradRebis fokusSi. gavixsenoT magaliTi me-5 Tavidan: xmaurian wveulebaze cdilobT yuradRebis koncentrirebas TqvenTvis mimzidvel TariRze da am dros uyuradRebod stovebT iqve mimdinare saubars manam, sanam Tqvens saxels ar mohkravT yurs. moulodnelad aRmoaCenT, rom, rogorRac, gaucnobiereblad usmendiT am saubars da xmaurSi gaarCieT kidec garkveuli konkretuli signali (Wood & Cowan, 1995a).

aracnobieri procesebi
es aris mTeli rigi aracnobieri sxeulebrivi aqtiobebisa, romlebic Zalze iSviaTad Tu iWreba cnobierebaSi. aracnobieri procesebis muSaobis magaliTia sisxlis wnevis regulacia. nervuli sistema adevnebs ra Tvalyurs fiziologiur informacias, uwyvetad afiqsirebs mimdinare cvlilebebs da Sesabamisad reagirebs maTze yovelgvari gacnobierebis gareSe. garkveul SemTxvevebSi, zogierTi Cveulebrivi aracnobieri aqtivoba SeiZleba cnobieri gaxdes. magaliTad, SeiZleba miznad davisaxoT sunTqvis cnobieri gakontroleba. miuxedavad amisa, nervuli sistema mraval mniSvnelovan funqcias uzrunvelyofs cnobierebis yovelgvari procesis gareSe.
aracnobieri (Nonconscioes) _ informacia, romelic, Cveulebriv, xelmiuwvdomelia cnobierebisaTvis an mexsierebisaTvis. winarecnobieri mexsiereba (Preconscious memories) _ mexsiereba, romelic mocemul momentSi ar aris cnobieri, magram cnobierdeba aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi.

aracnobieri
Cven, Cveulebisamebr, vafiqsirebT aracnobieri informaciis arsebobas, rodesac ver vxsniT zogierT qcevas cnobieri Zalebis moqmedebiT qcevis mimdinareobis momentSi. aracnobieri Zalebis Sesaxeb pirveli Teoria zigmund froids ekuTvnis, romlis Tanaxmadac, garkveuli

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bark inglisuri sityva, romelsac ori mniSvneloba aqvs: (1) yefa da (2) merqani. vinaidan qarTulad am sityvas ori sxvadasxva mniSvneloba Seesabameba, SeuZlebeli iyo am etapze winadadebis Targmna. amitom mizanSewonilad miviCnieT originaluri variantis motana. botanikosi aTvalierebda xavss, is ikvlevda xis merqans.
2

xmamaRla fiqris oqmebi (Think-aloud protocols) angariSi, romelic iqmneba Tavad cdis pirTa mier da aRweren mentalur procesebsa da strategiebs, romelTac isini mimarTaven davalebis Sesrulebisas. gamocdilebidan nimuSebis SerCevis meTodi (Experience-sampling method) - eqsperimentuli meTodi, romelic exmareba mkvlevrebs cnobierebis tipuri Sinaarsebis aRweraSi; cdis pirebs evalebaT signalis miRebisTanave daafiqsiron TavianTi azrebi da grZnobebi.

cnobierebis Sinaarsi

cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba _ travmuli mogonebebi da tabuirebuli survilebi _ imdenad SiSis momgvrelia, rom specifikuri mentaluri procesebi (romelTac me-14 TavSi ganvixilavT), permanentulad devnian maT cnobierebidan. froidis mixedviT, rodesac originaluri, miuRebeli ideebi da motivebi gandevnilia, anu cnobierebis farglebs miRmaa, azrebTan asocirebuli Zlieri gancdebi isev inarCuneben TavianT Zalas da zegavlenas axdenen qcevaze. aracnobieris froidiseuli aRmoCena~ ewinaaRmdegeba dasavluri azris xangrZliv tradicias. ingliseli filosofos lokis (1690/1975) gonebis Sesaxeb dawerili klasikuri naSromis ese adamianis Semecnebis Sesaxeb~ _ gamoqveynebis Semdeg, moazrovneTa umravlesoba miiCnevda, rom racionaluri arsebebis damaxasiaTebelia sakuTari gonebis yvela aqtivobaze xelmisawvdomoba. froidis pirveladi hipoTeza aracnobieri mentaluri procesebis arsebobis Sesaxeb Seuracxmyofelad da aRmaSfoTeblad iTvleboda mis TanamedroveTa Soris (Dennett, 1987). (Cven kvlav davubrundebiT froidis ideebs me-14 TavSi, rodesac visaubrebT pirovnebis unikalurobis Sesaxeb). dResdReobiT mravali fsiqologi iyenebs termins aracnobieri, im informaciisa da procesebis aRsaniSnad, romelic ufro sasurveli da misaRebia, vidre azrebi, romelic, froidis Tanaxmad, gandevnas eqvemdebareba. magaliTad, mravali enobrivi procesi aracnobier procesebs eyrdnoba. ganvixiloT winadadeba (Vu et al., 2000): She investigated bark.1 rogor movaxdenT am winadadebis interpretirebas? warmovidgenT qals, romelic ZaRls akvirdeba Tu qals, romelic xes aTvalierebs? vinaidan sityva bark orazrovania da winadadebis konteqsti didad ver gvexmareba, Cven mxolod SegviZlia vivaraudoT, Tu risi Tqma undoda avtors. axla ganvixiloT igive winadadeba ufro farTo konteqstSi: The botanist looked for a fungus. She investigated bark.2 amCnevT,

rom winadadebis gageba ufro gaadvilda am konteqstSi? Tu gaiolda, es imitom, rom Cvenma aracnobierma enobrivma procesebma gamoiyena damatebiTi konteqsti da Zalze swrafad gaakeTa arCevani sityva bark-is or mniSvnelobas Soris. am magaliTiT kargad Cans, rom cnobieri donis miRma moqmedi procesebi xSirad axdenen gavlenas Cvens qcevaze; am SemTxvevaSi, amis ilustraciaa is simsubuqe, romliTac mivediT winadadebis swor gagebamde. amgvarad, Cven TandaTanobiT gadavinacvleT cnobierebis Sinaarsis ganxilvidan cnobierebis funqciebis ganxilvaze. sanam detalurad ganvixilavT am sakiTxs, mokled aRvwerT or gzas, romliTac SesaZlebelia cnobierebis Sinaarsis Seswavla.

cnobierebis Sinaarsebis kvleva


cnobierebis Seswavlis mizniT mkvlevrebs unda SeemuSavebinaT meTodologia, romlis saSualebiTac SesaZlebeli xdeba Rrma piraduli gamocdilebis gazomva. erTi meTodi vundtisa da titCeneris introspeqciis meTodis axali versiaa: eqsperimentis monawileebs eZlevaT mTeli rigi davalebebi da moeTxovebaT xmamaRla msjeloba da laparaki am davalebaTa Sesrulebis procesSi. isini SesaZleblobis farglebSi maqsimalurad detalurad aRweren davalebis Sesrulebisas TavSi mosuli azrebis Tanmimdevrobas. cdis pirTa angariSebi, e.w. xmamaRla fiqris oqmebi, gamoiyeneba mentaluri strategiebisa da codnis reprezentaciebis dokumentirebisaTvis, romelTac monawileebi davalebis Sesrulebisas iyeneben. es oqmebi, aseve, davalebis aRqmasa da masTan gamklavebas Soris

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arsebuli ganxsvavebebis dafiqsirebis saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevrebs (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). gamocdilebidan nimuSebis SerCevis meTodSi monawileebi aRWurvilni arian mowyobilobiT, romliTac iReben signals imis Sesaxeb, Tu rodis unda daiwyon angariSis keTeba TavianTi azrebisa da grZnobebis Sesaxeb. magaliTad, erT-erT SemTxvevaSi cdis pirebs eleqtronul peijerebs aZleven. radiogadamcemi sxvadasxva SemTxveviT SerCeuli drois SualedebSi axdens peijeris aqtivizacias dReSi erTxel an ufro xSirad. rodesac modis peijeris signali, cdis pirebs evalebaT iseT kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema, rogoricaa, magaliTad, ramdenad axerxebdiT koncentrirebas?~ am gziT mkvlevrebi axerxeben cdis pirTa azrebis, cnobierebisa da yuradRebis koncentrirebis mimarTulebebis yoveldRiuri, Cveuli paternebis Sesaxeb Canawerebis mopovebas (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990).

gansxvavebebi dafiqsirda gogonebsa da vaJebs Soris: Tu peijeris signalis miRebis momentSi ar imyofebodnen megobrebis wreSi, gogonebTan ufro meti iyo orive sqesis megobrebze fiqris albaToba, vidre vaJebTan. mkvlevrebi varaudoben, rom sqesTa Soris es gansxvavebebi miuTiTebs da prognozirebs im faqts, rom qalebi mozrdil asakSi mets iReben interpersonaluri urTierTobebidan.

am magaliTidan kargad Cans, Tu rogor SeuZliaT mkvlevrebs gamocdilebiT SerCevis meTodis gamoyeneba cnobierebis calkeuli tipuri Sinaarsebis gasaerTianeblad.

Sejameba
cnobiereba SeiZleba sam doneze ganisazRvros: Sinagani da garegani samyaros gacnobiereba, imis gaazrebis SesaZlebloba, rasac vacnobierebT (aRviqvamT) da sakuTari Tavis, rogorc cnobieri, moazrovne arsebis gancda. mravali sxeulebrivi procesi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, sunTqva, Cveulebriv, aracnobieria. Cven vflobT uzarmazar informacias, romelic inaxeba mexsierebaSi; es ukanaskneli ki winarecnobiers warmoadgens, saidanac moTxovnisTanave SeiZleba gadavides saWiro informacia cnobierSi. yuradRebis miRma darCenili informacia aris garemoSi arsebul stimulTa didi raodenoba, romelsac cnobierad ar vaqcevT yuradRebas. Tu froidi aracnobiers gandevnil mogonebebTan akavSirebda, Tanamedrove mkvlevrebi afarToeben aracnobieris cnebas da masSi informaciisa da procesebis mraval saxeobas moiazreben. fsiqologebi cnobierebis Sinaarsis Sesaswavlad iyeneben iseT teqnikebs, rogoricaa xmamaRali fiqris oqmebi da gamocdilebiT SerCevis meTodi.

saidan viciT
ras fiqroben mozardebi gaixseneT Tqveni mozardobis periodi. ra Temebi ikavebdnen, ZiriTadad, Tqvens cnobierebas? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad mkvlevarTa jgufma 218 moswavle eleqtronuli peijerebiT aRWurva, romelic SemTxveviT signalebs iZleoda azrebisa da grZnobebis aRweris dasawyisis maniSneblad (Richard et al., 1998). moswavleTa gamocdilebidan nimuSi sul orjer SeirCa oTxi wlis manZilze. pirveli periodi iyo V-dan VIII klasis CaTvliT, meore _ IX-dan XII klasis CaTvliT. eqsperimentis aseTi gegma asakis matebasTan erTad mozardTa cnobierebis Sinaarsis cvlilebebis dafiqsirebis saSualebas iZleoda. mkvlevrebs gansakuTrebiT ainteresebdaT wyvilSi urTierTobebi mozardobis periodSi, amitom detalurad ikvlevdnen, Tu ras fiqrobdnen mozardebi megobrebis Sesaxeb. kvlevis Sedegebis Tanaxmad, asakis matebasTan erTad azrebi, ZiriTadad, sapirispiro sqeszea mimarTuli. Tu me-5-6 klaselebis mxolod 1% fiqrobs sapirispiro sqesze, merve klasSi es ricxvi 5.8%mde izrdeba. kvlevaSi, aseve, saintereso

Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

cnobierebis funqciebi
rodesac vsvamT kiTxvas cnobierebis funqciebis Sesaxeb, vcdilobT gavigoT, Tu risTvis gvWirdeba cnobiereba _ ras matebs is Cvens adamianur gamocdilebas? am Tavis dasawyisSi gan-

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xiluli N.N-is SemTxveva ramdenime mniSvnelovan miniSnebas iZleva dasmul kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemis mimarTulebiT. warsulisa da momavlis gancdis gareSe N.N-is cxovrebis mniSvnelovani aspeqtebi ubralod sicarieliT icvleba. am qveTavSi ufro srulad ganvixilavT cnobierebis mniSvnelovnebis sakiTxs adamianis gadarCenisa da socialuri funqcionirebisaTvis.

cnobierebis gamoyeneba
adamianis cnobiereba evoluciur garemoSi yvelaze mtrulad ganwyobil ZalasTan _ sxva adamianebTan Widilsa da SejibrSi gamoiwrTo. adamianis goneba, SesaZloa, ganviTarda, rogorc adamianTa winaprebis ukiduresi sociobilurobis Sedegi, rac, savaraudod, mtaceblebisgan jgufuri Tavdacvisa da resursebis ufro efeqturad mopovebis ZiriTad saSualebas warmoadgenda. Tumca, mWidro jgufuri cxovreba axal moTxovnebs qmnis rogorc TanamSromlobis, ise konkurenciisaTvis. bunebrivi gadarCeva wyalobda maT, vinc azrovnebda, gegmavda da warmoisaxavda alternatiul realobebs, rac naTesaobis erTad Sekvrisa da mtrebze gamarjvebis winapirobas qmnida. isini, visac ufro adaptirebuli goneba aRmoaCnda da vinc Seqmna sametyvelo ena da Sromis iaraRebi, gamarjvebulni gamovidnen gadarCenisaTvis brZolaSi da moipoves udidesi jildo _ gadarCnen, SeinarCunes sicocxle da, sabednierod, is Cvenamdec moitanes (Donald, 1995; Mcphail, 1998). vinaidan cnobierebam evolucia ganicada, ar unda gagvikvirdes, rom is uzrunvelyofs saxeobis gadarCenisTvis saWiro mTel rig funqciebs (Baars, 1997; Baars & McGovern, 1994; Cheney & Seyfarth, 1990; Ornstein, 1991). cnobiereba, aseve, mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs pirovnuli da saerTo kulturuli realobebis SeqmnaSi.

gadarCenaSi daxmareba
biologiuri TvalsazrisiT, savaraudod, cnobierebis ganviTareba miznad isaxavda individisaTvis garemodan momdinare informaciis miRebasa da am informaciaze dayrdnobiT moqmedebis saukeTeso da maqsimalurad efeqturi gegmis SedgenaSi daxmarebas. Cveulebisamebr, Cven informaciuli gadatvirTvis safrTxis winaSe

vdgavarT. uiliam jemsi aRwerda informaciis did raodenobas, romelic SegrZnebis receptorebs ejaxeba, rogorc yvela mxridan momdinare mozuzune, mzardi qaosi~. gvarkvevs ra stimulTa mravalferovnebaSi, cnobiereba garemosTan adaptaciaSi gvexmareba. amas is sami sxvadasxva gziT axorcielebs: pirveli. cnobiereba amcirebs Semaval stimulTa nakads SemCneuli da yuradRebis centrSi moxvedrili stimulebis raodenobis SezRudviT. cnobierebis es SemzRudavi funqcia gamoricxavs imwuTieri miznebisa da amocanebisaTvis Seusabamo informaciis did nawils. yvelaferi, rac fasdeba, rogorc Seusabamo~, gadaiqceva fonur xmaurad da ignorirdeba, cnobieri aRqma ki relevantur~ gamRizianeblebze, anu im signalebze fokusirdeba, romelTac viRebT da vpasuxobT. meore. cnobiereba axorcielebs seleqciuri (SerCeviTi) Senaxvis funqcias. mas Semdeg, rac mTeli Semavali sensoruli masala gadamuSavdeba perceptul doneze da gardaiqmneba ufro mcire raodenobis cnobad paternebad da kategoriebad, cnobiereba saSualebas gvaZlevs SevarCioT da SevinaxoT is stimulebi, romelTa analizi, interpretacia da maTze reagireba gvsurs momavalSi. cnobiereba movlenaTa da pirovnuli saWiroebisTvis Sesatyvisi da araSesatyvisi gamocdilebis klasificirebis saSualebas gvaZlevs zogierTi maTganis arCeviTa da zogierTis ignorirebiT. mesame. cnobierebis mesame funqciaa SeCereba, alternativebis gaazreba, ganxilva da sxvadasxva SesaZlo Sedegebis warmosaxva warsul codnaze dayrdnobiT. es damgegmarebeli anu aRmasrulebeli makontrolebeli funqcia Zlieri survilebis daTrgunvis SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs, rodesac isini ewinaaRmdegebian moralur, eTikur an praqtikul miznebs. am saxis cnobierebis gareSe SimSilis SegrZnebis gaCenisTanave, SesaZloa, pirvelive danaxuli sakvebi, magaliTad, vaSli moviparoT. gvaZlevs ra cnobiereba farTo droiT perspeqtivas, romelSic unda ganxorcieldes potenciuri qceva, Cven SegviZlia warsulisa da momavlis abstraqtuli reprezentaciebis moxmoba mimdinare gadawyvetilebebze gavlenis mosaxdenad. yovelive zemoT Tqmulidan gamomdinare, cnobiereba cxovrebis cvalebadi moTxovnebis sapasuxod moqnili, adekvaturi

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piriqiT, vinaidan mocemuli kulturis adamianebi mraval msgavs gamocdilebas floben, maT xSirad realobis amsaxveli msgavsi konstruqtebi uyalibdebaT. realobis kulturuli konstruqtebi warmoadgens samyaros Sesaxeb mosazrebaTa erTobliobas, romelsac iziarebs mocemuli jgufis wevrTa umravlesoba. rodesac sazogadoebis wevri kulturuli konstruqtis Sesatyvis realobis pirovnul konstruqts aviTarebs, mas iRebs kultura da, amave dros, is Tavad xdeba kulturuli konstruqti. realobis cnobieri konstruqtebis urTierTmiRebas SeTanxmebul mtkicebulebas uwodeben.

saidan viciT
reaqciebis ganxorcielebis did SesaZleblobas iZleva. SeTanxmebuli mtkicebulebis funqcia germanel moqalaqeebs aCerebdnen quCaSi uSualod damkrZalavi biuros win, an misgan daaxloebiT 100 metris manZilze. mkvlevrebi varaudobdnen, rom damkrZalavi biuros TvalTaxedvis areSi yofna adamianebSi maTi sasrulobis (mokvdaobis) gancdas gaamZafrebda da Sedegad ufro metad aiZulebda maT SeTanxmebul mtkicebulebaSi eZebnaT komforti. rodesac adamianebi imyofebian mdgomareobaSi, romelsac mkvlevrebi egzistencialur terors~ uwodeben, Teoriis mixedviT, adamianebs saerTo, sayovelTao kulturuli rwmenebi da ganwyobebi aerTianebT. am mtkicebis Sedegi isaa, rom damkrZavali biuros xedvis pirobebi individebs maTi ganwyobebis kulturuli normebisadmi ufro miaxloebulad aRqmisken ubiZgebda. am kvlevaSi cdis pirebs sTxovdnen SeefasebinaT, Tu sxva germaneli moqalaqeebi ramdenad gaiziarebdnen maT mosazrebebs saemigracio politikis Secvlis Sesaxeb. umciresobaSi myofi individebi konsensusis TavianT Sefasebas 10%ze metiT zrdidnen, rodesac isini uSualod damkrZalavi biuros win imyofebodnen, vidre am dawesebulebidan 100 metrze daSorebulni (Pyszczynski et al., 1996).

realobis pirovnuli da kulturuli konstruqtebi


ar arsebobs ori adamiani, romelic situaciis sruliad erTnair interpretacias mogvcemda. realobis personaluri konstruqti warmoadgens mimdinare situaciebis Cveneul unikalur interpretacias, romelic zogad codnas, warsuli gamocdilebis mogonebebs, awmyo moTxovnebs, Rirebulebebs, rwmenebsa da momavlis miznebs eyrdnoba. TiToeuli pirovneba garemodan momdinare stimulTa garkveul, sxvebisgan gansxvavebul maxasiaTeblebs uTmobs yuradRebas, radganac realobis misi pirovnuli konstruqti unikaluri, Semosuli masalis SerCevis Sedegad aris warmoqmnili. rodesac realobis pirovnuli konstruqti SedarebiT stabiluria, Cveni me~-s gancda droSi uwyvetobas iZens. realobis pirovnul konstruqtTa Soris individualuri gansxvavebebi ufro didia im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac adamianebi izrdebian gansxvavebul kulturebSi, cxovroben erTi kulturis farglebSi gansxvavebul garemoSi an gansxvavebuli amocanebi dgas maT winaSe da,
konceptualuri mtkicebuleba (Consensual validation) _ realobaze cnobieri Sexedulebebis urTierTmiRebaa.

194

Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

fsiqologia Cvens cxovrebaSi

rodis uyalibdebaT bavSvebs cnobiereba


didad albaTuria, rom cxovrebis garkveul etapze axalSobilisaTvis, an Zalian patara bavSvisaTvis SegexedaT da dainteresebuliyaviT: netav, ra xdeba mis TavSi?~ xSirad es kiTxva gardaiqmneba cnobierebis Sesaxeb sakiTxad: rodis iwyebs bavSvi sakuTari Tavis, rogorc aseTis, gacnobierebas? mkvlevrebi fiqroben, rom bavSvebi Tavdapirvelad iZenen subieqtur me~-s da mxolod amis Semdeg _ obieqtur me~-s (Lewis, 1991; 1999). bavSvebi maSin iZenen subieqtur me~-s anu subieqtur TviTcnobierebas, rodesac maTTvis naTeli xdeba, rom isini gamocalkevebulni arian sxvebisgan. bavSvs aqvs SesaZlebloba imisa, rom gare samyaro aqcios cnobieri dakvirvebis obieqtad. bavSvebi maSin iZenen obieqtur me~-s anu obieqtur TviTcnobierebas, rodesac maT eZlevaT saSualeba imisa, rom TavianTi cnobiereba mimarTon sakuTar Tavze anu, rodesac SeuZliaT sakuTari Tavis cnobieri analizis obieqtad qceva. bavSvebs SeuZliaT gaiazron, rom ician, rom ician~ an axsovT, rom axsovT~. bavSvebis mier obieqturi TviTcnobierebis SeZenis Sesaxeb klasikuri kvleva eyrdnoba sarkesTan qcevas. mkvlevrebs ainteresebdaT: rodis iwyebs bavSvi mixvedras, rom sarkeSi asaxuli gamosaxuleba TviTon aris? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad mkvlevrebi sTxovdnen dedebs, rom TavianTi SvilebisaTvis cxvirze waesvaT pomada ise, rom bavSvebs ar scodnodaT amis Sesaxeb; es iyo laqiani cxviris testi (nose dot test). bavSvebi sakmaod adreul asakSi amCneven sarkis zogierT Tvisebas. magaliTad, 6 Tvemde bavSvebi cdiloben miswvdnen da Seexon sarkeSi asaxuli gamosaxulebis nawilebs; mxolod 18 Tvis Semdeg bavSvebi ikideben xels cxvirze, rodesac cxvirze laqa aqvT (Bertenthal & Fischer, 1978). naTelia, rom am asakamde bavSvebi ar fiqroben (nebismieri formiT): es me var sarkeSi; ra ucnauri wiTeli niSani maqvs cxvirze?~ maSinac ki, roca bavSvebi warmatebiT asruleben laqiani cxviris tests, mainc ar aqvT bolomde me~-s Camoyalibebuli gancda. maT jer kidev ar aqvT Camoyalibebuli drois komponentis mqone obieqturi me~-s Sesaxeb idea anu sakuTar Tavze, rogorc warsulSi, awmyosa da momavalSi uwyvetad arsebulze fiqris unari. laqiani cxviris procedurasTan adaptaciis Seswavla mkvlevrebs me~-s droSi ganfenilobis kvlevis saSualebas aZlevs (Povinelli et al., 1996). am kvlevaSi videofirze iRebdnen 30-42 Tvis bavSvebs, rodesac eqsperimentatori Cumad awebebda Tmebze webovan qaRalds. zogierT b a v S v s p i r d a p i r e Te r S i aCvenebdnen TavianT Tavebs webovanaTi: maT SeeZloT daenaxaT TavianTi webovanqaRaldiani Tma im saqmianobis procesSi, riTic iyvnen dakavebulni. danarCenebi ki samwuTiani Sualedis Semdeg uyurebdnen Canawers: isini naxulobdnen sakuTar Tavs Tmaze webovani qaRaldiT uaxloesi warsulidan. pirvel jgufSi bavSvebis orma mesamedma moikida Tavze xeli maSin, rodesac meore jgufSi mxolod erTma mesamedma gaakeTa es. faqtobrivad, mxolod 4 wlis asakis Semdeg bavSvebi axerxeben, rom naxon uaxloesi warsulis Canaweri da daiWiron kavSiri Tmis webovan qaRaldTan. rogorc Cans, bavSvebisTvis sakmaod rTulia awmyoSi mimdinare movlenis Sesaxeb daskvnebis gakeTeba warsulis, Tundac uaxloesi warsulis, reprezentaciebze dayrdnobiT. gagakvirvaT am Sedegebma? Tu yofilxarT 2-3 wlis bavSvTan erTad, gecodinebaT, rom man mSvenivrad icis, vin aris da ras akeTebs. kvlevis Sedegebi aCvenebs, Tu ramdenad realuria bavSvebisTvis daswavla da, Sesabamisad, ramdenad marTlac rTulia Cveni, mozrdilebis cnobiereba.

kvlevis es Sedegebi adasturebs im daSvebas, rom individebs SeTanxmebuli mtkicebuleba maT cnobierebaSi mokvdaobis/sakuTari sasrulobis

grZnobebis SeWris pirobebSi ufro metad esaWiroebaT. kulturul rwmenebTan da ganwyobebTan cnobieri Tanxmobis miReba amsubuqebs am grZnobebs.

195

cnobierebis funqciebis kvleva


cnobierebis mravali funqcia moicavs implicitur Sedarebebs, romelic aracnobieri rCeba. amitom mravali cnobieri procesi xSirad zemoqmedebs an Tavad ganicdis aracnobieri procesebis zemoqmedebas. cnobierebis funqciebis Sesaswavlad mkvlevrebs xSirad ainteresebT cnobierisa da aracnobieris mier qcevaze ganxorcielebul zegavlenaTa Soris gansxvavebebi. maT mravali meTodi Seqmnes imis saCveneblad, Tu rogor zemoqmedeben aracnobieri procesebi cnobier qcevaze (Nelson, 1996; Westen, 1998). magaliTad, mkvlevrebi iyeneben laboratoriulad gamowveuli predispoziciis Sedegad bgeraTa gadanacvlebis meTods _ SLIP (Spoonerisms of Laboratory-Induced Predisposition _ laboratoriulad gamowveuli winaswari mzaobis spunerizmi) _ imis gansasazRvrad, Tu rogor moqmedebs aracnobieri Zalebi metyvelebaSi wamocdenebis albaTobaze (Baars et al., 1992). SLIP procedura eqsperimentators wamocdenebis gamowvevis saSualebas aZlevs bgeraTa garkveuli paternebis molodi-

nebis SemuSavebiT. amgvarad, iseTi sityvaTa wyvilebis seriis warmoTqmis Semdeg, rogoricaa ball doze, bell dark da bean deck, cdis pirma SesaZloa darn boze-is nacvlad SecdomiT barn door warmoTqvas. eqsperimenti amocanisgan damoukidebeli situaciuri cvladebis Secvlis Sedegad bgeris garkveuli saxiT cvlilebis albaTobaze cnobieri an aracnobieri zemoqmedebebis Sefasebis saSualebas iZleva. magaliTad, cdis pirebSi ufro albaTuri iyo daeSvaT Secdoma bad shock (shad bock-is nacvlad), rodesac maT sjerodaT, rom eqsperimentis dros xandaxan mtkivneul eleqtrul Soks miiRebdnen (Motley & Baars, 1979). aseve, mamakac cdis pirebSi meti iyo SecdomiT good lags-is (lood gegs-is nacvlad) warmoTqmis albaToba, rodesac maTTan mimzidveli garegnobis eqsperimentatori qali muSaobda. es Sedegebi wamocdenebis formirebaSi aracnobieris wvlilze miuTiTebs. cnobier da aracnobier procesebs Soris urTierTmimarTebis sakvlevi meore gzaa maTi dapirispireba (Jecoby et al., 1999). ganvixiloT kvleva, romelSic iqmneba aseTi dapirispireba.

Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

suraTi

4.2

aracnobieri mogonebebis zegavlena saxelis cnobilad aRqmaze

196

saidan viciT
cnobieri da aracnobieri procesebi erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdegod ganvixiloT 6.1 suraTze warmodgenili eqsperimenti: am situaciaSi cdis pirebs moeTxovebaT miakuTvnon saxeli adrian mari~ cnobilTa an ucnobTa kategorias. arCevanis gakeTebamde isini xmamaRla kiTxuloben saxelTa grZel sias (sadac adrian maric~ aris naxsenebi) situaciaSi, romelSic ar eZlevaT saxelebze srulad koncentrirebis saSualeba. rodesac cdis pirebi waradgenen Tavian daskvnebs, maT afrTxileben, rom maT mier wakiTxuli siidan aravin iyo cnobili pirovneba. amgvarad, Tu saxeli siidan nacnobi aRmoCndeboda, isini iZulebulni iqnebodnen is ucnobad CaeTvalaT. axla warmovidginoT, rom cdis pirebi miadgnen saxels adrian mari~. Tu maT SeuZliaT am saxelis Sesaxeb cnobieri mogonebis povna, maT ecodinebaT, rom is warmodgenil siaSi imyofeboda da, amgvarad, ityvian, rom adrian mari~ ar aris cnobili. Tu isini ver aRmoaCenen cnobier mogonebas, maT savaraudod eqnebaT zogadi grZnoba imisa, rom sadRac gaugoniaT es saxeli adre~ da ityvian, rom adrian mari~ cnobili saxelia. es fenomeni cnobier (Tqvi ara!~) da aracnobier (Tqvi diax!) procesebs Soris dapirispirebaa. faqtobrivad, cdis pirebi metad midrekilni arian Tqvan, rom adrian mari~ cnobili personaa da amiT naTels xdian, rom aracnobieri mexsiereba gavlenas axdens maT msjelobaze (Jacoby et al., 1989).

mimarTebas. ikvleven ra cnobierebis funqciebs, mkvlevrebi xSirad qmnian paradigmebs cnobier da aracnobier procesebs Soris urTierTobebis Sesafaseblad da sakvlevad.

Zili da sizmari
TiTqmis yoveldRe Tqven ganicdiT cnobierebis Rrma cvlilebebs: rodesac gadawyvetT, rom Tqveni dRe dasrulda, Tqven ganewyobiT ZilisaTvis da sanam gZinavT, ueWvelad xedavT sizmrebs. cxovrebis mesameds ZilSi vatarebT, rodesac kunTebi paralizebulia~, tvini ki sxvadasxva aqtivobebiT aris dakavebuli. am nawils Zil-RviZilis zogadi biologiuri ritmis ganxilviT daviwyebT. Semdeg ufro detalurad visaubrebT Zilis fsiqologiaze. bolos ganvixilavT ZilTan Sewyvilebul ZiriTad gonebriv aqtivobas _ sizmars da SevecdebiT gavarkvioT, Tu ra rols asrulebs sizmari adamianis fsiqologiaSi.

cirkaduli ritmebi
yvela cocxali arseba ganicdis dRe-Ramis bunebrivi ritmis zemoqmedebas. Cveni sxeuli sinqronizdeba drois ciklTan, romelic cirkaduli ritmis saxeliT aris cnobili: sisxlis wneva, metaboluri procesebi, guliscemis sixSire, sxeulis temperatura da hormonaluri aqtivoba Sinagani saaTis mixedviT icvleba (Moore-Ede et al., 1982). es aqtivobebi, umeteswilad, dRis ganmavlobaSi, Cveulebisamebr, SuadRiT aRweven cxovelqmedebis piks da maqsimalurad mcirdebian RamiT Zilis dros. kvlevebi aCvenebs, rom organizmSi arsebuli saaTi zustad ar emTxveva saaTs kedelze: garegani saaTis yovelgvari miniSnebebis gareSe, adamianis Sinaganma tempis momcemma~ daamkvidra 24.18-saaTiani cikli (Czeisler et al., 1999). mzis amosvla yoveldRiurad gvexmareba 24-saaTian ciklTan SeguebaSi. mzis sinaTlis Sesaxeb informacias TvaliT viRebT,
cirkaduli ritmi (Circadian rhythm) _ organizmis aqtivobis Sinagani saaTiT determinirebuli mdgradi paterni, romelic, Cveulebisamebr, 24 an 25 saaTs grZeldeba.

cnobiereba gadarCenaSi gvexmareba imiT, rom _ amcirebs Semomavali stimulebis nakads; gansazRvravs, Tu romeli stimuli unda iqnes Senaxuli da SesaZlo Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiT iZleva moqmedebebis dagegmvis saSualebas. cnobiereba, aseve, adamianis realobis pirovnul da kulturul konstruqtebs Soris amyarebs

Zili da sizmari

Sejameba

197

Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

magram cirkaduli ritmis maregulirebeli receptori ar aris igive, romelic samyaros danaxvis SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs cxovelebi Cxirebisa da kolbebis gareSec (ix. Tavi 4) grZnoben sinaTles, rac maT cirkaduli ritmis SenarCunebis saSualebas aZlevs (Freedman et al., 1999). biologiur da garemos saaTebs Soris gansvlis gamomwvevi cvlilebebi moqmedebs imaze, Tu rogor vigrZnobT Tavs da rogor moviqceviT (Moore-Ede, 1993). aseTi gansvlebis warmoqmnis yvelaze dramatuli magaliTebi xangrZlivi mogzaurobebis dros xdeba. rodesac adamianebi gadafrindebian sxvadasxva drois sartyelSi, maT SeiZleba ganicadon e.w. Jet lag3, anu daerRveT dReRamuri ritmi; es aris mdgomareoba, romelsac axlavs gadaRliloba, dauZleveli Zilianoba da Sedegad Zil-RviZilis uCveulo ganrigi. Jet lag Tavs iCens, radganac Sinagani cirkaduli ritmi vardeba Cveuli droiTi garemos fazidan (Redfern et al., 1994). magaliTad, Cveni sxeuli ambobs, rom Ramis 2 saaTia da, Sesabamisad, mravali fsiqologiuri parametris mixedviT funqcionirebis yvelaze pasiuri periodia, rodesac adgilobrivi dro Cvengan SuadRis Sesabamis aqtivobas moiTxovs. Jet lag pilotTa gansakuTrebuli problemaa _ mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs pilotTa mier daSvebul SecdomebSi, romelic ubeduri SemTxvevebis mizezi xdeba (Coleman, 1986). ra cvladebi zemoqmedeben Jet lag-ze? yvelaze mniSvnelovani cvladia mogzaurobis mimarTuleba da gadakveTil droiT sartyelTa raodenoba. aRmosavleTisken mogzauroba met Jet lags qmnis, vidre dasavleTisken, radganac Cveni biologiuri saaTi ufro iolad SeiZleba gaxangrZlivdes, vidre Semcirdes, rogorc amas aRmosavleTisken mogzauroba iTxovs (RviZilis
dReRamuri ritmis darRveva ramdenime droiTi sartylis swrafad gadakveTis, magaliTad, gadafrenis Sedegad.
3

mdgomareobaSi xangrZlivad yofna ufro advilia, vidre adre daZineba). rodesac janmrTeli moxaliseebi gadaafrines evropidan aSS-Si da ukan, Cveuli qcevebis aRdgena dasavleTis mimarTulebiT mogzaurobis Semdeg oridan oTx dRemde gaxda SesaZlebeli maSin, roca aRmosavleTisken mogzaurobis Semdeg amas 9 dRe dasWirda (Klein & Wegmann, 1974).

Zilis cikli
cirkaduli ritmis erTi mesamedi qceviT uZraobas eTmoba, romelsac Zils vuwodebT. bevri ram, rac Zilis Sesaxeb aris cnobili, tvinis eleqtrul aqtivobas ukavSirdeba. Zilis kvlevaSi meTodologiuri gardatexa 1937 wels moxda, rodesac gamoiyenes teqnologia, romelic mZinare adamianis Tavis tvinis eleqtruli aqtivobis eleqtroencefalogramis (eeg) saxiT Caweris saSualebas iZleoda. eeg uzrunvelyofs Zilisa da RviZilis periodebSi adamianis Tavis tvinis aqtivobis cvlilebebis obieqtur da mimdinare gazomvas. eeg-s saSualebiT mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines, rom Tavis tvinis talRebi icvleba Zilis ganmavlobaSi da es cvla sistematur, Tanmimdevrul da prognozirebad xasiaTs atarebs (Loomis et al., 1937). Zilis sferoSi Semdegi mniSvnelovani aRmoCena iyo Tvalebis swrafi moZraobis (REM rapid eye movement) dafiqsireba, romelic garkveuli intervalebiT periodulad iCens Tavs Zilis ganmavlobaSi (Aserinsky & Kleitman, 1953). periods, rodesac mZinare adamians ar aReniSneba REM-i, Tvalebis swrafi moZraobis gareSe Zils (non-REM anu NREM) uwodeben. mogvianebiT vnaxavT, rom REM da NREM Zili mniSvnelovan funqciebs asruleben Ramis erTerTi umniSvnelovanesi aqtivobisaTvis _ sizmrisaTvis.

198

suraTi

6.2

eeg-is paterni gansxvavebulia Ramis Zilis sxvadasxva fazaze


Zilis TiToeuli stadia Tavis tvinis aqtivobis Taviseburi paterniT xasiaTdeba.

axla Tvali gavadevnoT Cveni Tavis tvinis aqtivobas Ramis ganmavlobaSi. rogorc ki dasaZineblad mzadebas daviwyebT, eeg daafiqsirebs, rom Tavis tvinis talRebis sixSirea daaxloebiT 14 cikli wamSi (cw/herci). rodesac komfortulad movewyobiT sawolSi da movdundebiT, Tavis tvinis talRebi Senelebas daiwyebs 8-12 cw/hercamde. rodesac CagveZineba, iwyeba Zilis cikli, romlis TiToeuli faza gansxvavebul eeg-is paterns aCvenebs. pirvel fazaze eeg 3-dan
Tvalebis swrafi moZraoba (Rapid eye movement REM) _ im fazis qceviTi gamovlineba, romlis drosac mZinare adamiani sizmrismagvar gonebriv aqtivobas axorcielebs. Zili Tvalebis swrafi moZraobis gareSe (NonREM anu NREM sleep) _ periodi, rodesac mZinare adamianTan ar fiqsirdeba Tvalebis swrafi moZraoba; xasiaTdeba REM ZilTan SedarebiT naklebi sizmrisebri aqtivobiT.

7 cw/hercamde Tavis tvinis talRebs aCvenebs. meore fazis manZilze miRebuli eeg-is Zilis RerZs uwodeben, rodesac eleqtruli aqtivoba wuTSi 12-16 cw/hercia. Zilis Semdeg or fazaze (faza 3 da 4) gadavdivarT relaqsirebuli Zilis Zalian Rrma mdgomareobaSi anu Zalze Rrmad gvZinavs. Tavis tvinis talRebi neldeba 1-2 cw/ hercamde, mcirdeba, aseve, sunTqvisa da guliscemis sixSire. bolo fazaze isev matulobs Tavis tvinis eleqtruli aqtivoba da eeg-is Canaweri 1 da 2 fazebis Canawers emsgavseba. swored am fazaze aqvs adgili REM Zils da vxedavT sizmars (ix. sur. 6.2). (vinaidan REM Zilis dros Cawerili eeg mRviZari adamianis Canawers hgavs, REM Zils paradoqsalur Zilsac uwodeben). Zilis pirveli oTxi fazis gavlas, romelic mTlianobaSi NREM Zils qmnis, daaxloebiT 90 wT sWirdeba, REM Zili ki daaxloebiT 10 wT-s grZeldeba. Ramis Zilis ganmavlobaSi am 100 wT-ian cikls 4-6-jer gavdivarT (ix. sur. 6.3). TiToeul ciklSi Rrma ZilisTvis (3 da 4 fazebisTvis) gankuTvnili dro mcirdeba, xolo REM Zilze daxarjuli dro izrdeba. bolo ciklSi ukve TiTqmis 1 sT-s vuTmobT REM Zils. mTlianobaSi Zilis 75-80% NREM Zils eTmoba, 20-25% ki - REM Zils. yvelas ar sZinavs erTnairi xangrZlivobiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom adamianebisaTvis arsebobs Zilis genetikurad ganpirobebuli saWiroeba, Zilis realuri `raodenoba~, romelsac iRebs TiToeuli individi, cnobieri qmedebebis mniSvnelovan zegavlenas ganicdis. adamianebi aqtiurad akontroleben Zilis xangrZlivobas sxvadasxva saSualebebiT, rogoricaa gvian daZineba an maRviZaris gamoyeneba. Zilis xangrZlivobas, aseve, akontrolebs cirkaduli ritmi; amitom aris, rom daZinebis dro (anu rodis viZinebT) gavlenas axdens Zilis xangrZlivobaze. NREM da REM Zilis adekvaturi, sakmarisi raodenobis miReba mxolod maSin aris SesaZlebeli, rodesac standartirebuli gvaqvs daZinebisa da gaRviZebis dro mTeli kviris manZilze, dasvenebis dReebis CaTvliT. am SemTxvevaSi metia albaToba imisa, rom sawolSi gatarebuli dro uaxlovdeba Cveni cirkaduli ritmis Zilis fazas. Cveni interesis Semdgomi sagania Zilis paternis is TvalSi sacemi cvlilebebi, romelsac adgili aqvs individis cxovrebis manZilze (ix.

Zili da sizmari

199

suraTi

6.3

Zilis fazebi
Zilis fazebis paterni e r Ti ganmavlobaSi. tipuri Ramis

sur. 6.4). am qveyanaze cxovrebas dReSi 16 saaTiani ZiliT viwyebT, romlis TiTqmis naxevars REM ZilSi vatarebT. 50 wlis asakSi SeiZleba mxolod 6 sT eZinos adamians da mTeli am drois mxolos 20% eTmobodes REM Zils. axalgazrdebs, Cveulebriv, 7-8 saaTi sZinavT, romelSic 20% REM Zils ukavia.
Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

ratom Zili?
adamianebsa da cxovelebSi Zilis fazebis Tanmimdevruli ganviTareba gvafiqrebinebs, rom arsebobs Zilis evoluciuri safuZveli da biologiuri saWiroeba. adamianebi sakmaod kargad funqcionireben, rodesac 7-8 saaTi

suraTi

6.4

adamianis Zilis paterni cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi


grafikze naCvenebia, Tu rogor icvleba asakis matebasTan erTad yoveldRiuri REM Zilisa da NREM Zilis procentuli Tanafardoba. yuradReba miaqcieT, rom REM Zilis xangrZlivoba mniSvnelovnad iklebs wlebis matebasTan erTad, xolo NREM Zilis xangrZlivobis Semcireba naklebad mkveTria.

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sZinavT Ramis ganmavlobaSi (Harrison & Horne, 1996). ratom sZinavT adamianebs amdeni da ra funqciebs emsaxureba NREM da REM Zilis saxeobebi? NREM Zilis ori umTavresi funqcia SeiZleba iyos Senaxva (konservacia) da aRdgena. Zili cxovelebs gakveuli drois ganmavlobaSi energiis dazogvis, Senaxvis saSualebas aZlevs, rodesac ar aris sakvebis mopovebis, wyvilis povnis an Sromis aucilebloba (Allison & Cicchetti, 1976; Cartwtright, 1982; Webb, 1974). meore mxriv, Zili ramdenime gziT aRdgenis SesaZleblobas aZlevs sxeuls. Zilis dros sinTezirdeba dRis ganmavlobaSi daxarjuli neirotransmiterebisa da neiromodulatorebis saWiro raodenoba, postsinafsur receptorebs ki mgrZnobelobis optimalur doneze dabrunebis saSualeba eZleva (Porkka-Heiskanen et al., 1997; Rainnie et al., 1994). kvlevis Sedegebi, aseve, mowmobs, rom Tavis tvinis energiis wyaro xelaxla ivseba NREM Zilis dros (Benington & Heller, 1995). Tu Ramis ganmavlobaSi ganvicdiT REM Zilis deprivacias, Semdeg Rames CveulebrivTan SedarebiT xangrZlivi REM Zili gveqneba, vinaidan REM Zilic emsaxureba garkveul aucilebel funqciebs. mTel rig saintereso, Tumca, jerjerobiT arasrulad warmodgenil sargebels REM Zils miakuTvneben (Moffitt et al., 1993). magaliTad, rogorc Cans, Cvilobis periodSi REM Zili pasuxs agebs nervul daboloebebsa da kunTebs

Soris Tvalebis moZraobis uzrunvelsayofad saWiro kavSiris Camoyalibebaze. REM Zili qmnis Tavis tvinis iseT funqcionalur struqturebs, romlebic aucilebelia motoruli Cvevebis daswavlisaTvis. REM Zilma, aseve, SeiZleba garkveuli roli Seasrulos ganwyobilebisa da emociebis SenarCunebaSi. garda amisa, is SeiZleba saWiro iyos mogonebebis Senaxvisa da mimdinare gamocdilebis ukve arsebul mogonebebTan da ganwyobebTan TanxmobaSi moyvanisaTvis (Cartwright, 1978; Dement, 1976). fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT, mkvlevrebi fiqroben, rom REM Zili aucilebelia NREM Zilis Semdeg Tavis tvinis balansis aRdgenisaTvis: NREM ZilisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tavis tvinis aqtivobis Cveulma tipma SeiZleba Secvalos Tavis tvinis balansi imgvarad, rom aucilebeli gaxdes normasTan dabruneba REM Zilis meSveobiT (Benington & heller, 1994).

Zilis darRvevebi
mSvenieria, rodesac yovelTvis SegviZlia RamiT kargad daZineba. samwuxarod, mravali adamiani itanjeba Zilis darRvevebiT, rac seriozulad moqmedebs maT pirad cxovrebasa da samsaxureobriv saqmianobaze. darRveul Zils socialuri Sedegebic SeiZleba hqondes. adamianebi, romelTa samuSao ganrigi RamiT gadaadgilebas saWiroebs, mTeli kviris ganmavlobaSi erTxel mainc Tvlemen samuSao adgilze. msoflioSi zogierTi yvelaze seriozuli industriuli ubeduri SemTxveva. magaliTad, Cernobilis katastrofa, gvian saRamos saaTebSi moxda. ambobdnen, rom es SemTxvevebi imitom moxda, rom Zilis ukmarisobis gamo pasuxismgebelma personalma optimalurad ver Seasrula Tavisi funqcia. vinaidan Zilis darRvevebi mniSvelovania mravali studentis cxovrebaSic, aq maTzec visaubrebT. teqstis kiTxvisas gaxsovdeT, rom Zilis darRveva varirebs siRrmis, simwvavis mixedviT; Sesabamisad, darRvevebis mizezic varirebs biologiur Tu fsiqologiur Zalebs Soris.

insomnia
rodesac adamianebi ukmayofiloni arian TavianTi Zilis odenobiT an xarisxiT, isini insomniisgan itanjebian. saTanadod daZinebaSi qronikuli warumatebloba xasiaTdeba swrafad

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verdaZinebiT, Zilis ganmavlobaSi xSiri adgomebiT an diliT adre gaRviZebiT. ukanasknel gamokiTxvaSi 18 da meti wlis mozrdilebis 58% aRniSnavs, rom bolo wlis manZilze yoveli kviris ganmavlobaSi ramdenime RamiT an ufro xSirad ganucdia insomnia (National Sleep Foundation, 2000). insomnia kompleqsuri darRvevaa, romelsac fsiqologiuri, garemo pirobebi da mravali biologiuri faqtori ganapirobebs (Spielman & Glovinsky, 1997). laboratoriul pirobebSi insomniis mqone individebis Seswavlisas maTi realuri Zilis xarisxi da raodenoba mniSvnelovnad icvleboda, normaluri Zilidan darRveulamde. mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines, rom insomniis mqone mravali individi, romelic uZilobas uCioda, realurad Zilis sruliad normalur fiziologiur paterns avlenda, Tumca, es mdgomareoba subieqturad insomniad aRiqmeboda da aRiwereboda. aseve, kuriozulia aRmoCena, rom Zilis darRvevis mqone zogierTi adamiani ar uCivis insomnias (Trinder, 1988). amgvari gansvla imisa Sedegia, Tu adamianebi rogor sxvadasxvagvarad axdenen fxizeli Zilis interpretirebas, magaliTad, SeiZleba mocemul adamians fxizeli Zili adrindelTan SedarebiT ufro xSiri da stresuli eCvenebodes da ar axsovdes Rrmad rom eZina.
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axdens daavadebul individebze (Broughton & Broughton, 1994). narkoleptikisTvis gamosavals warmoadgens Tavisi daavadebis bunebis garkveva da socialuri mxardaWeris jgufSi Sesvla.

Zilis apnoe
Zilis apnoe aris zeda sasunTq gzebTan dakavSirebuli Zilis darRveva, rodesac adamiani Zilis dros wyvets sunTqvas. rodesac es xdeba, sisxlSi mcirdeba Jangbadis raodenoba da gamomuSavdeba damxmare (sasignalo) hormonebi, rac, Tavis mxriv, aiZulebs adamians, rom gaiRviZos da ganaaxlos sunTqva. miuxedavad imisa, rom umravlesobasTan iSviaTad gvxvdeba apnoes aseTi Ramis epizodebi, Zilis apnoeTi daavadebul zogierT adamianTan asamde aseTi cikli meordeba yoveli Ramis ganmavlobaSi. apnoes epizodi zogjer aSinebs mZinare adamians, Tumca, xSirad es epizodi imdenad xanmoklea, rom igi ver akavSirebs moWarbebul Zilianobas am epizodebTan (Orr, 1997). magaliTisaTvis ganvixiloT cnobili fsiqologis SemTxveva, romelsac gamouvleneli Zilis apnoes Sedegad ar SeeZlo RviZilis mdgomareobaSi yofiliyo leqciebisa da mecnieruli Sexvedrebis dros. rodesac mas meuRlem acnoba Ramis darRveuli qcevis Sesaxeb, man mimarTa Zilis darRvevebis klinikas, sadac warmatebiT imkurnala da gadairCina kariera (Zimbardo, personal communication, 1991). sxva analogiur SemTxvevebSi adamianebi kargaven samuSaos, megobrebs da zogjer meuRleebsac ki, radganac maTi qceva dRis ganmavlobaSi Zalze darRveulia Ramis periodis darRvevis gamo. Zilis dros apnoe xSiria naadrevad dabadebul/dRenaklul axalSobilebSic, romlebic xandaxan sunTqvis ganaxlebisaTvis fizikur stimulirebas saWiroeben. srulad Camoyalibebuli sasunTqi sistemis arqonis gamo aseT
insomnia (Insomnia) - normalurad daZinebis qronikuli uunaroba; simptomebSi Sedis sirTuleebi daZinebisas, xSiri gaRviZeba, gaRviZebis Semdeg CaZinebis unaris arqona, diliT adre gaRviZeba. narkolefsia (Narcolepsy) - Zilis darRveva, romelic xasiaTdeba dRis ganmavlobaSi daZinebis dauZleveli moTxovnilebiT. Zilis apnoe (Sleep apnea) - zeda sasunTq gzebTan dakavSirebuli Zilis darRveva, rac aiZulebs adamians, rom Zilis dros sunTqva Sewyvitos.

narkolefsia
narkolefsia Zilis darRvevaa, romelic dRis ganmavlobaSi perioduli ZiliT xasiaTdeba (Aldrich, 1992). is xSirad katapleqsiasTan4 kombinaciaSi iCens Tavs, ris Sedegadac adamiani moulodnelad Zirs ecema. narkoleptikebi TiTqmis daZinebisTanave gadadian REM ZilSi. REM ZilSi aseTi swrafi gadasvla maT ganacdevinebs da cnobierad aRaqmevinebs sizmris naTel, mkafio xatebs, zogjer ki _ SemaSinebel halucinaciebs. narkolefsia 2000-dan mxolod erT adamianTan gvxvdeba. vinaidan narkolefsia gavrcelebulia ojaxebSi, mecnierebi askvnian, rom daavadebas genetikuri safuZveli aqvs (Mignot, 1998). surT ra uecrad Zilad mivardnis gamo uxerxulobisaTvis Tavis arideba, narkolefsia xSirad uaryofiT socialur da fsiqologiur gavlenas
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katapleqsia _ kunTebis sisuste an kunTebze kontrolis dakargva, rac emociur aRgznebas (sicili, risxva, SiSi, gaoceba an SimSili) axlavs Tan.

Cvilebs intensiuri Terapiis ganyofilebaSi monitorze aerTeben imdeni xniT, ramden xansac grZeldeba problemebi.

dRis Zilianoba
aSS-is Zilis darRvevebis centrebSi mosul pacientTa umravlesoba dRis ganmavlobaSi moWarbebul Zilianobas uCivis. aSS-Si 1154 mozrdilidan 43% miuTiTebs, rom yovelTviurad ramdenime dRe, an ufro xangrZlivi periodi, imdenad eZinebaT, rom irRveva maTi Cveuli dRis aqtivobebi; 20% miuTiTebs, rom dRis Zilianoba ramdenime dRis an yovelkvireulad negatiuri movlenaa maTi dRis saqmianobebisaTvis (National Sleep Foundation, 2000). moWarbebuli Zilianoba iwvevs sifrTxilis dakargvas, reaqciis drois gazrdas da motoruli da kognituri amocanebis Sesrulebis xarisxis gauaresebas. adreul kvlevebSi moWarbebuli Zilianobis mqone pacientTa TiTqmis naxevari aRniSnavda, rom xvdebodnen avtosagzao SemTxvevebSi, xolo naxevarze mets samuSaoze hqonda ubeduri SemTxveva, zog SemTxvevaSi seriozulic ki (Roth et al., 1989). Zilis deprivaciis darRvevis Sesaxeb dokumenturi filmis Sleep Alert-is momzadebisas fsiqologi jeims maasi aRniSnavda, rom arseboben adamianebi, romlebic zombebis msgavsad dadian~ (Maas, 1998). man ikvlia pilotebi, romlebic aRniSnavdnen, rom muSaobis periodSi Tvlemdnen xanmokle periodebiT. maasis mixedviT, damamTavrebeli klasebis moswavleTa 30%-mde erTxel mainc iZinebs gakveTilze. garkveuli xarisxis Zilianoba mosalodnelia, rodesac individebis cxovrebis stili an samuSaos Taviseburebani xels uSlis sakmaris Ramis Zils. Tumca, moWarbebul Zilianobas xSirad fiziologiuri safuZveli aqvs da aseT pacientebs samedicino daxmareba esaWiroebaT (White & Mitler, 1997).

warmetyvelebis, fizikosebisa da fsiqoanalitikosebis interesis sferos warmoadgenda, dResdReobiT mecnieruli kvlevebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mimarTulebaa. sizmris kvlevaTa umravlesoba Zilis laboratoriebSi daiwyo, sadac eqsperimentatorebs SeeZloT Tvali edevnebinaT da CaeweraT mZinare adamianis REM da NREM Zilis periodebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom individebi ufro met sizmrebs yvebodnen, Tu REM periodSi aRviZebdnen maT, gaRviZebulTa 80%-Si NREM Zilis drosac aqvs adgili sizmrebs. amas mowmobs am periodSi gaRviZebulTa 54% (Foulkes, 1962). NREM mdgomareobasTan dakavSirebuli sizmrebi naklebad xasiaTdeba emociuri CarTulobis mqone SinaarsebiT. maTSi Warbobs sensoruli xatebiT naklebad datvirTuli dRis azrebi. Tumca, NREM Zilis sizmrebis raodenoba izrdeba Zilis darRvevebis SemTxvevaSi da janmrTel mZinare adamianTan gviani dilis saaTebSi (Kondo et al., 1989). imis gamo, rom sizmari aseT mniSvnelovan adgils ikavebs adamianebis fsiqikur cxovrebaSi, faqtobrivad, yvela kultura mivida erT kiTxvamde: aqvs Tu ara am sizmrebs raime mniSvneloba? umravles SemTxvevaSi pasuxia diax, aqvs~. amitomac kulturaTa umravlesobaSi arsebobs rwmena, rom ase Tu ise sizmrebs mniSvnelovani pirovnuli da kulturuli mniSvneloba aqvs. axla ganvixilavT sizmrebisaTvis mniSvnelobis miniWebis zogierT gzas.

sizmrebis froidiseuli analizi


Tanamedrove dasavlur kulturaSi yvelaze cnobili Teoria sizmrebis Sesaxeb zigmund froids ekuTvnis. froidi sizmrebs warmaval fsiqozsa~ da yovelRameul sigiJes~ uwodebda. aseve is sizmrebs aracnobierisken mimaval samefo gzad~ miiCnevda. sizmrebis analizi fsiqoanalizis qvakuTxedad aris warmodgenili mis klasikur naSromSi sizmrebis interpretacia~ (1900). froidis mixedviT, sizmris Sinaarsi Zlieri, aracnobieri, gandevnili survilebis simboluri gamoxatulebaa. es survilebi sizmarSi SeniRbuli, dafaruli saxiT gveZleva, radganac maT ukan iseTi akrZaluli survilebi imaleba, rogoricaa, magaliTad, sapirispiro sqesis mSoblisadmi seqsualuri ltolva. sizmarSi ori dinamikuri Zala moqmedebs. esenia survili

sizmari: gonebis Teatri


Cveni cxovrebis yoveli Cveulebrivi Ramis ganmavlobaSi sizmrebis rTul samyaroSi vxvdebiT. Tu sizmrebi erT dros mxolod winasdRis Zilianoba (Daytime sleepiness) - moWarbebuli Zilianoba dRis aqtivobebis dros; Zilis darRvevis centrebSi misul pacientTa ZiriTadi Civili.

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fsiqologia XXI saukuneSi

24/7 cxovrebis stili da Zili


aTi an oci wlis win cota ram iyo, rac SeiZleboda gekeTebina SuaRamis Semdeg. saSiano davalebis Sesrulebis Semdeg moswavleebsa da studentebs unda amoerCiaT. _ televizorisTvis eyurebinaT Tu daeZinaT. amis sapirispirod, XX saukunis bolo aTwleulma moitana intenretis arseboba da masTan erTad 24/7 stimulaciis uzrunvelyofa. dRisa da Ramis nebismier momentSi Cven SegviZlia vimogzauroT an visaubroT (Chat oTaxebSi) internetis saSualebiT. Cven SegviZlia vasrulebdeT Ramis vaxSams berlinSi, koneqtikutSi (aSS) da vesaubrebodeT vinmes, vinc miirTmevs adreul sauzmes berlinSi, germaniaSi. internetis gafarToeba SeiZleba davaxasiaToT, rogorc Zilisadmi adamianebis ambivalenturi (ormagi) - siyvaruli-siZulvilis damokidebuleba. adamianebs uyvarT Zili, radganac dasvenebulebi kargad grZnoben Tavs (xolo roca eZinebaT _ saSinlad). rogorc vnaxavT am TavSi, Cvens sxeuls efeqturad funqcionirebisaTvis Zili sWirdeba. Tumca, adamianebs sZulT Zili, radganac uamravi sasiamovno ram arsebobs, romliTac SeuZliaT dakavdnen RviZilis mdgomareobaSi. interneti mniSvnelovnad zrdis sasiamovno saqmianobebis raodenobas. wignis avtorebi mzad arian aRiaron, rom qselSi mogzaurobis Sewyvetas mizanmimarTulad erCiaT uZilod yofna. mravali mkvlevris azriT, internetis qseli 24/7 arsebobas mxolod auaresebs. isini wlebis manZilze SfoTavdnen imis gamo, rom mozardebsa da kolejis studentebs ar eZinaT sakmarisi drois manZilze (Dement & Vaughan, 1999; Wolfson & Carskadon, 1998). miuxedavad imisa, rom eqspertebis Tanaxmad, nebismier adamians esaWiroeba 8-saaTiani Zili, Zilis nacionaluri sazogadoebis mier 2000 wels Catarebuli gamokiTxvis Sedegad gamoirkva, rom 18-dan 29 wlamde asakis adamianebSi saSualo maCvenebeli arasodes Tanxvdeba am standarts. kviris dReebis manZilze am asakis individTa Zilis saSualo xangrZlivobaa 6,8 saaTi; dasvenebis dReebSi, kviris bolos es maCvenebeli 7,8 saaTamde izrdeba. ueWvelia, rom kolejis studentTa umravlesoba gamocdebTan da sakurso naSormebis dawerasTan dakavSirebuli stresis gamo kargavs Zils (Mutphy & Archer, 1996). Tumca, gamokiTxvaSi monawile 18-29 wlis asakis adamianTa 55% daeTanxma debulebas: xSirad mRviZavs gvianobamde, radganac vuyureb televizors, an var internetSi.~ Tqvenc eTanxmebiT amas?Cven ar vcdilobT, uari gaTqmevinoT internetis moxmarebaze. Cven mxolod gTavazobT dakvirvebis Sedegebs, romlis Tanaxmadac, axal teqnologiebs xSirad uZilobis axali mizezebi sdevs Tan. uZilobas mravali seriozuli Sedegi mohyveba: zogierTi maTgania dabali niSnebi, problemebi samsaxurSi da avtosagzao SemTxvevebi. metic, mecnierebs SeuZliaT iseTi abebis Seqmna, romelic Zilisgan Tavis Sekavebis saSualebas mogvcems, Tumca, veraferi gaaqrobs Zilis saWiroebas. Tqven unda gansazRvroT, Tu ra pirovnuli nabijebi unda gadadgaT, rom XXI saukune TqvenTvisac ar iqces uZilobis saukuned. veb-gverdebi: www.sleepfoundation.org Zilis nacionaluri sazogadoebis gverdi. www.stanford.edu/~dement, es gverdi Seqmnilia Zilis kvlevis pioneris, uiliam dementis mier, romelic gvTavazobs didi raodenobiT Zilis Sesaxeb ZiriTad informaciasa da kavSirebs.

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da cenzura, anu dacva survilisagan. cenzura axorcielebs dafaruli mniSvnelobis, anu latenturi (faruli) Sinaarsis gardasaxvas sizmris manifestirebul (xilul) Sinaarsad; es ukanaskneli ki damaxinjebis procesis Sedegad im saxis sizmrad yalibdeba, romelsac xedavs mZinare adamiani. Sinaarsis damaxinjebis am process froidi sizmris muSaobas uwodebs. xiluli

Sinaarsi realuri istoriis misaRebi versiaa, faruli Sinaarsi ki socialurad an pirovnulad miuRebeli variantia, Tumca, ufro realisturia yovelgvari damaxinjebis gareSe. froidis mixedviT, sizmris interpretacia ukumimarTulebiT muSaobas moiTxovs xiluli Sinaarsidan faruli Sinaarsisken. fsiqoanalitikosisaTvis, romelic sizmrebis analizs

pacientis problemebis garkvevisa da maTi mkurnalobisaTvis iyenebs, sizmrebi naTels xdis pacientis aracnobier survilebs, am survilebTan SeWidul SiSebsa da im dacviTi meqanizmebis Taviseburebebs, romelTac iyenebs pacienti survilebsa da SiSebs Soris warmoqmnil fsiqikur konfliqtTan gasamklaveblad. froids miaCnda, rom sizmarSi warmodgenili simboloebi da metaforebi orgvar _ idiosinkrezul _ calkeuli individebisTvis specifikur da universalur, mravali maTgani ki seqsualuri xasiaTis mqone mniSvnelobas atarebs: yuTebi, CanTebi, skivrebi, karadebi da Rumelebi, aseve, carieli, CaRrmavebuli sagnebi, gemebi da nebismieri saxis transporti ganasaxierebs saSvilosnos. sizmarSi oTaxebi, Cveulebriv, qalis simboloa; Tu sizmarSi maTSi Semavali da gamavali sxvadasxva gzac aris warmodgenili, maSin interpretacia naklebad iwvevs eWvs... sizmarSi sadac oTaxebis mTel rigs gavivliT, bordeli an haremia warmodgenili... didad albaTuria, rom yovelgvari rTuli manqanuri danadgari da aparatura sizmarSi genitaliebis simbolizaciaa (da, rogorc wesi, mamakacis genitaliebis) (Freud, 1900/ 1965, gv. 389-391). sizmrebis interpretaciis froidiseuli Teoria sizmris simbolikas adamianis fsiqologiis zogad Teorias ukavSirebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom mkvlevrebma ver moipoves sizmris faruli da xiluli Sinaarsis Sesaxeb am Teoriis damadasturebeli empiriuli monacemebi, sizmrebis fsiqologiuri mniSvnelovnebis xazgasmam mimarTuleba misca sizmris Sinaarsis Tanamedrove kvlevebs (Domhoff, 1996; Fisher & Greenberg, 1987).
faruli Sinaarsi (Latent content) _ froidiseul sizmrebis analizSi sizmris dafaruli azri. xiluli (manifestirebuli) Sinaarsi (Manifest content) _ froidiseul sizmrebis analizSi sizmris Sinaarsis zedapiruli mxare, romelic mowodebulia sizmris realuri mniSvnelobis SesaniRbad. sizmris muSaoba (Dream work) _ froidiseul sizmrebis analizSi procesi, romliTac Sinagani cenzura sizmris farul Sinaarss xilul Sinaarsad gardaqmnis.

sizmrebis interpretaciisadmi aradasavluri midgoma


dasavlur kulturaSi adamianTa umravlesoba arasodes fiqrobs seriozulad sizmrebis Sesaxeb fsiqologiis fakultetze moxvedramde an Terapiis dawyebamde; mraval aradasavlur kulturaSi ki, piriqiT, sizmrebis interpretacia kulturis ganuyofeli nawilia (Lewis, 1995; Tedlock, 1987). ganvixiloT ekvadoris arCuris tomis indielTa yoveldRiuri cxovreba (Schlitz, 1997, gv. 2): sxva Cveulebrivi dReebis msgavsad, (soflis) mamakacebi patara wreSi sxdebian... isini wina Ramis sizmrebs uyvebian erTmaneTs. sizmrebis gaziarebis es yoveldRiuri rituali arsebiTia arCuris tomis mcxovrebTaTvis. maT swamT, rom TiToeuli sizmari ara mxolod sizmris mnaxvelisaTvis, aramed mTeli tomisTvis aris mniSvnelovani. individualuri gamocdileba koleqtivis moqmedebas emsaxureba. aseTi dilis Sekrebebze TiToeuli individi Tavis sizmars hyveba, danarCenebi ki TavianT interpretacias sTavazoben im imediT, rom miaRweven SeTanxmebas, konsensuss sizmris mniSvnelobis gagebaSi. rwmena imis Sesaxeb, rom individi sizmars mTeli tomisTvis~ xedavs, ewinaaRmdegeba froidis mier SemoTavazebul mosazrebas, rom sizmari individis aracnobierisken mimavali samefo gzaa~. bevr kulturaSi miRebulia, rom adamianTa garkveuli jgufi sizmrebis interpretaciis gansakuTrebul Zalasa da unars flobs. magaliTisTvis maias indielebi SeiZleba ganvixiloT, romlebic meqsikis, gvatemalas, belazisa da gondurasis sxvadasxva nawilebSi cxovroben. maias kulturaSi Samanebis funqciaa sizmrebis interpretacia. faqtobrivad, maias zogierT subjgufSi Samanebs am rolisaTvis maSin irCeven, rodesac maT esizmrebaT RvTaeba, romelic SamanTa mowodebas amcnobs maT. am axlad arCeuli Samanebidan momdinareobs religiuri ritualebis Sesaxeb instruqciebic, romlebsac isini, Tavis mxriv, sizmris xilvebidan iReben. miuxedavad imisa, rom Samanebi da sxva religiuri figurebi floben sizmrebis interpretaciisTvis saWiro codnas, Cveulebrivi, rigiTi adamianebic

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Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

hyvebian da ganixilaven sizmrebs. sizmris mnaxvelebs, Cveulebriv, SuaRamisas aRviZeben meuRleebi; zogierT tomSi dedebi diliT ekiTxebian Svilebs sizmrebis Sesaxeb. Cvens droSi maias tomis adamianebi samoqalaqo omis msxverplad iqcnen sakuTar miwaze; mravali adamiani daiRupa an devnilad iqca. anTropolog barbara Tedlokis mixedviT, sizmrebisa da xilvebisadmi momatebulma yuradRebam SeaZlebina maT, rom SeenarCunebinaT kavSiri winaprebTan da wminda miwa, romelzec cxovrobdnen~ (Tedlock,1992, gv. 471). mraval iseT aradasavlur kulturul jgufSi, sadac pativiscemiT epyrobian sizmrebs, droiTi perspeqtiva arsebiTad gansxvavebulad moiazreba. froidis Teoria sizmris interpretaciisas warsulze, bavSvobis gamocdilebasa da gandevnil survilebzea orientirebuli; mraval sxva kulturaSi ki sizmari momavlis winaswarmetyvelebad iTvleba (Basso, 1987). magaliTad, eTiopiisa da sudanis sazRvarTan arsebuli regionis _ ingesanas maRlobis (Ingessana Hills) xalxSi dResaswaulebis TariRebis SerCeva sizmriseuli xilvebis safuZvelze xdeba. religiuri adgilebis mflobelebs maTi mamebi da sxva winaprebi ecxadebaT sizmrebSi da amcnoben, rom dResaswaulis gamocxadebis droa.~ sxva jgufebi sizmris simboloebsa da maT mniSvnelobaTa Soris kulturulad ganpirobebul sistemebs floben. ganvixiloT centraluri braziliis kapolos tomis indielTa interpretaciebi (Jedrej, 1995, p.104): Tu gvesizmreba, rom cecxlSi viwviT, mogvianebiT raime veluri arseba gvikbens, magaliTad, oboba an mkbenari mweri. rodesac sizmarSi qalebTan gvaqvs seqsi, cxadSi Cven Zalze warmatebulad viTevzavebT. rodesac biWi ganmartoebulia da mas esizmreba, rom xeze micocavs, an meores esizmreba grZeli gza, isini didxans icocxleben. aseve iqneba maSinac, rodesac gvesizmreba, rom tyeSi farTo mdinareze gadavdivarT. daakvirdiT, rom TiToeuli am interpretaciaTagani momavlisken iyureba. sizmris interpretaciisas momavalze orientireba mdidari

kulturuli tradiciis mniSvnelovani komponentia.

sizmris Sinaarsis fiziologiuri Teoriebi


sizmrebis interpretaciisadmi dasavluri Tu aradasavluri midgomis amosaval wertils warmoadgens is faqti, rom sizmari Seicavs informacias, romelsac realuri Rirebuleba aqvs calkeuli pirovnebisTvis Tu eTnikuri jgufisaTvis. es mosazreba eWvqveS dgeba biologiuri safuZvlis mqone TeoriebSi. gavixsenoT, rom zogierTi mkvlevari Tvlis, rom arsebobs REM Zilis fiziologiuri saWiroeba, raTa Tavis tvini Tavdapirvel mdgomareobas daubrundes NREM Zilis dros momxdari cvlilebebis Semdeg (Benington & heller, 1994). aris Tu ara sizmari mxolod Tavis tvinis sxva aqtivobebis gverdiTi movlena, romelsac ar gaaCnia TavisTavadi mniSvneloba? ganvixiloT j. alan hobsonisa da robert makqarlis (Allan Hobsob & Robert McCarley, 1977; Hobson, 1988) mier SemoTavazebuli aqtivaciasinTezis modeli. am modelis mixedviT, nervuli signali warmoiqmneba tvinis ReroSi da axdens Tavis tvinis qerqis ubnebis stimulirebas. es eleqtruli ganmuxtva avtomaturad xorcieldeba daaxloebiT yovel 90 wuTSi erTxel da 30 wT-is ganmavlobaSi inarCunebs aqtivobas, riTac aixsneba REM da NREM Zilis ciklebis monacvleoba. es ganmuxtvebi aaqtiurebs winatvinsa da qerqis mimdebare ubnebs da, aqedan gamomdinare, acocxlebs mogonebebsa da individis warsul gamocdilebasTan asocirebul faqtebs. hobsonisa da makqarlis TvalsazrisiT, ar arsebobs araviTari logikuri kavSirebi, Sinagani mniSvnelobebi da koherentuli paternebi am eleqtruli signalebis~ SemTxveviT amofrqvevebs Soris. mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom sizmrebi SemTxveviTi signalebis Sedegia, ewinaaRmdegeba sizmrebis Sinaarsis kvlevebs (Domhoff, 1999). am kvlevebis mixedviT, pirvel rigSi, sizmris Sinaarsi didi raodenobiT moicavs mZinare adamianis dRis problemebs. magaliTisTvis gavixsenoT zemoT ganxiluli kvleva, romelSic naCvenebi iyo igive da sapirispiro sqesis megobrebis Sesaxeb vaJebisa da gogonebis azrebs Soris ganxsvavebebi (Richards et al., 1998). msgavsi

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sqesobrivi gansxvavebebi gamoavlina 9-15 wlis mozardTa sizmrebis Seswavlamac (Strauch & Lederpogen, 1999). sxva tipis Sedegebmac eWvqveS daayena mosazreba sizmrebis, rogorc mxolod SemTxveviTi signalebis Sedegebis, Sesaxeb: mozrdil asakSi individis sizmrebis Sinaarsebi TiTqmis ucvleli rCeba. sizmrebis eqsperti uiliam domhofi (William Domhoff, 1999, gv. 207) fiqrobs, rom mozrdilebSi wlebisa da aTwleulebis manZilze sizmrebis Sinaarsebis ucvleloba ar Seesabameba Teorias, romelic sizmars Tavis tvinis qerqis saukeTeso reaqciad miiCnevs, romelic Tan sdevs tvinis Rerodan momdinare SemTxveviTi stimulebis mier periodul dabombvas.~ Cven, albaT, Tavad unda vzidoT Cveni sizmrebis tvirTi _ SevecadoT gaRviZebisTanave yoveldRiurad CaviweroT sizmrebi da vnaxoT, Tu ramdenad ukavSirdeba isini dRis sazrunavs da ramdenad icvleba Tu ar icvleba maTi Sinaarsebi droTa ganmavlobaSi. sizmrebis kidev erTi saintereso aspeqti: drodadro mravali adamianisgan gvsmenia, rom bevri mniSvnelovani problemis gadawyveta Tu saintereso axali ideebi sizmarSi mouvidaT TavSi (Shepard, 1978). gTavazobT mxolod ramdenime magaliTs frederik kilule gvamcnobs, rom benzinis qimiuri struqtura sizmarSi naxa: gvelismagvarma molukulurma jaWvma uecrad piri Caavlo sakuTar kuds da gaCnda rgoli. elas houm naxa sizmari: mas Seuties Subebma, romelTac wamaxvilebul mxares naxvreti hqondaT. am sizmarma ubiZga mas, rom daesrulebina sakeravi manqanis gamogoneba. iseTi kompozitorebi, rogorebic iyvnen mocarti da Sumani, aRniSnavdnen, rom mniSvnelovani musikaluri ideebi sizmrebSi mosdiodaT.

xSirad xedavs Ramis koSmars, zogjer yovel RamiTac ki. bavSvebSi, magaliTad, ufro metia Ramis koSmarebis gamovlenis albaToba, vidre mozrdilebSi (Mindell, 1997). garda amisa, adamianebs, romelTac iseTi travmuli gamocdileba aqvT, rogoricaa gaupatiureba an omi, SesaZloa ganmeorebadi koSmarebi hqondeT, rac maT gadatanili travmuli movlenis zogierTi aspeqtis gacocxlebas aiZulebs. kolejis studentebTan, romelTac san-franciskos didi miwisZvra hqondaT gadatanili, orjer meti iyo Ramis koSmarebis arsebobis albaToba, vidre sakontrolo jgufis studentebTan, romelTac ar hqondaT aseTi gamocdileba. amasTan, cxadia, rom koSmarebis umravlesoba miwisZvris damangrevel Sedegebs Seexeboda (Wood et al., 1992). Ramis koSmarebi SeiZleba ganvixiloT Zilis, rogorc cnobierebis yoveldRiuri cvlilebis, zeda zRvari. qvemoT visaubrebT im garemoebebze, romelSic individi mizanmimarTulad cdilobs yoveldRiuri gamocdilebis farglebis miRma gasvlas.

Sejameba
cirkaduli ritmi gulisxmobs biologiuri saaTis muSaobas. Tavis tvinis aqtivobis paternebi mniSvnelovnad icvleba Ramis Zilis manZilze, rasac Tan axlavs dilasTan miaxloebul yovel axal ciklSi REM Zilis procentuli momateba (NREM Zilis odenobis klebis sapirispirod). adamianisTvis sakmarisi Zilisa da REM da NREM Zilis Tanafardoba asakisa da cxovrebis pirobebis mixedviT icvleba. Zili emsaxureba Senaxvisa da aRdgenis funqciebs. milionobiT adamiani itanjeba Zilis iseTi darRvevebisgan, rogorebicaa insomnia, narkolefsia, Zilis apnoe da dRis Zilianoba. mraval kulturaSi swamT sizmris Sinaarsis mniSvnelovnebis. sizmrebis interpretaciis yvelaze cnobili dasavluri Teoria zigmund froids ekuTvnis. sizmrebis interpretacia Zalze gavrcelebulia aradasavlur kulturebSi, sadac miRebulia, rom sizmris simboloebi misi mnaxvelis momavlis Sesaxeb informaciis matarebelia. zogierTi fiziologi mkvlevari fiqrobs, rom sizmris Sinaarsi Tavis tvinis SemTxveviTi signalebidan momdinareobs, magram

Ramis koSmarebi
Tu sizmari gvaSinebs imiT, rom umweoni vxdebiT, an situacia Cvens kontrols aRar eqvemdebareba, maSin Tqven Ramis koSmari dagsizmrebiaT. adamianTa umravlesobisaTvis Ramis koSmarebi SedarebiT iSviaTia. 220 studentisgan Semdgar SerCevaSi, romlebic iwerdnen sizmrebs, yoveldRiurad Ramis koSmarebis saSualo sixSire (orkviriani periodis mixedviT) iyo daaxloebiT 24 erTi wlis manZilze (Wood & Bootzin, 1990). Tumca, zogierTi adamiani gacilebiT

Zili da sizmari

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am mosazrebas ewinaaRmdegeba sizmris Sinaarsebis analizis kvlevebi. Ramis koSmarebs gansakuTrebiT SemaSinebel sizmrebs uwodeben.

cnobierebis Semcvleli mdgomareobebi


nebismier kulturaSi adamianebs ar akmayofilebT fxizeli cnobierebis Cveulebrivi cvlilebebi. maT ganaviTares garkveuli teqnikebi, romliTac SesaZlebeli xdeba cnobierebis nacnobi mdgomareobebis miRma gasvla da cnobierebis Secvlil mdgomareobebSi gadasvla. zogierTi aseTi praqtika individualuria, rogoricaa, magaliTad, rekreaciuli preparatebis miReba; zogierTi ki, rogoricaa garkveuli religiuri praqtika, warmoadgens cnobieri gamocdilebis Cveuli sazRvrebidan gasvlis jgufur mcdelobas. Cven mimovixilavT iseT sxvadasxva gamocdilebas, romelSic cnobierebis Secvlili mdgomareobebi mTeli rigi procedurebiT miiRweva.

eyrdnoba winmswreb kvlevas, romelmac aCvena, rom REM Zilis zogierTi Tvalebis moZraoba Tanxvdeba mZinare adamianis mzeris mimarTulebas. aqedan gamomdinare, mkvlevrebi sTxovdnen dakvirvebadi sizmrebis gamocdilebis mqone adamianebs, rom ganexorcielebinaT Tvalebis nebismieri (gaazrebuli, mizanmimarTuli) moZraobebis calkeuli paternebi, rodesac isini gaacnobierebdnen, rom sizmars xedavdnen. dagegmili Tvalebis moZraobis signalebi Cndeboda REM Zilis deteqtoris CanawerebSi da amiT xdeboda demonstrireba imisa, rom eqsperimentis monawileni marTlac dakvirvebad sizmrebs xedavdnen REM Zilis periodSi (LaBerge et al., 1981).

Tavi 6 / goneba, cnobiereba da Secvlili mdgomareobebi

dakvirvebadi sizmrebi
aris Tu ara SesaZlebeli, vacnobierebdeT, rom sizmars vxedavT, rodesac vxedavT sizmars? dakvirvebadi sizmrebis Teoriis momxreebi gvaCveneben, rom cnobierebis SenarCuneba sizmris xedvis procesSi swavlebadi da regularuli praqtikiT gavarjiSebadi unaria, romelic mZinare adamians sizmris mimarTulebis kontrolis saSualebas aZlevs (Gackenbach & LaBerge, 1988; LaBerge & DeGarcia, 2000).

saidan viciT
dakvirvebadi sizmrebis eqsperimentuli realoba stefan labergma da misma kolegebma ganaviTares meTodologia, romelic dakvirvebadi sizmrebis realobis gadamowmebis saSualebas iZleva. demonstracia

dakvirvebadi sizmrebis gamowvevis mravali meTodi arsebobs. magaliTad, dakvirvebadi sizmrebis zogierT kvlevaSi mZinare adamianebs ukeTeben specialur saTvales, romelSic REM Zilis dafiqsirebisas wiTeli sinaTle inTeba. cdis dawyebamde monawileebma iswavles, rom wiTeli sinaTlis gamoCenisas unda gaacnobieron, rom sizmars xedaven (LaBerge & Levitan, 1995). acnobiereben ra, rom sizmars xedaven da, amasTanave, isev sZinavT, cdis pirebi dakvirvebadi sizmrebis mdgomareobaSi gadadian, romelSic SeuZliaT TavianTi sizmrebis gakontroleba, maTi Sinaarsebis warmarTva pirovnuli miznebis Sesabamisad da TavianTi mimdinare survilebis Sesabamisad sizmris dasruleba. dakvirvebadi sizmris naxvis SesaZlebloba matulobs, Tu mZinare adamians sjera, rom SesaZlebelia aseTi sizmrebi da regularulad iyenebs maT gamomwvev teqnikas (LaBerge & Rheingold, 1990). iseTi mkvlevari, rogoricaa, magaliTad, stefan labergi, amtkicebs, rom sizmrebis arakontrolirebad~ movlenebze kontrolis ganmtkiceba jansaRi qcevaa, radganac es zrdis TviTdarwmunebulobis xarisxs da axdens individisaTvis dadebiTi gamocdilebis generirebas. Tumca, zogierTi Terapevti, romelic sizmrebis analizs pacientis problemebis ukeT gagebis mizniT iyenebs, ewinaaRmdegeba aseT pro
dakvirvebadi sizmrebi (Lucid dreaming) - Teoria, romlis Tanaxmadac, sizmris xedvis procesis cnobieri aRqma daswavladi unaria, romelic iZleva sizmris mimarTulebisa da Sinaarsis kontrolis saSualebas.

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