EXPERIMENT-1 To find out the susceptibility of FeCl 3 by Quinke’s method.

APPARATUS An electromagnet capable of producing field of the order of 10 4 oersted, power supply unit, travelling microscope or cathodometer, FeCl3, U-tube, water, funnel 100 cc cylinder, weighting bottle, weight box, flux meter connected with search oil. DEFINITION The magnetic susceptibility K of a material corresponds to the ease with which a material can be magnetized using a given magnetic field intensity. So it may be defined as the ratio of intensity of magnetization I produced to the magnetic field intensity H. So we may have K = I/H and since I corresponds to magnetic moment/unit volume, the susceptibility thus defined is also called volume susceptibility. PRINCIPLE If a paramagnetic salt solution (like manganese chloride) or ferromagnetic salt (like ferric chloride) is put in a tube and placed between the poles a magnet then there is a liquid level. If the rise in liquid level is measured accurately, then the susceptibility of the solution can be found. THEORY As the magnetic field between the wedge shaped poles pieces varies along the vertical direction, so the force on the solution will be vertical. Now the force on a substance of volume V which is situated in a nonuniform magnetic field at a place where H is the magnetic field strength is given by

Quinke’s method

the Ko (1) Quinke’s method .Where K is magnetic susceptibility of substance and Ko is the magnetic susceptibility of the surrounding medium.If the surrounding medium is air.

Now as h is the rise in level of the solution in a narrow tube and d the fall in level in the funnel the corrected height may be written as (1 + a/a’)h. As is clear from Figure.dx above the point P is given by (3) [From eq. This will correspond to the height of the liquid column supported by the forces due to magnetic field. Let a and a’ be the cross-sectional areas of the funnel and the tube respectively. so B will be at a higher than the level of the liquid in the funnel. of the column above the point P is given by (1 + a/a’) = h ρ g a (2) Let us consider that at the section P the magnetic field is negligible. Let the rise in narrow tube corresponding to AB be denoted by h. Let x be the vertical coordinate above P.h or d = ah/a’.d = a. Let d be the level to which liquid has sink in funnel. (2) and (4) we have Quinke’s method .From figure let D be the level of solution in funnel and A that in the narrow tube before the application of the field. the level in funnel has to sink from D to C. (1)] The force on the entire liquid above the point P is thereby given as (4) Where H1 is field intensity at upper level and this force balances the weight (1+ a/a’) h ρ g a of the liquid column. then the force on a liquid element of volume a. then a’. Let h be the density of the solution and g the acceleration due to gravity then the wt. Let C and B be new levels respectively with the application of the field. So from eqns.

The straight line does not pass through origin but cuts the . which in other words. of anhydrous FeCl 3.1 x 10 -6 e.. i./gm (6) K/ρ = 2g (h/ Now since susceptibility depends on the concentration of salt. Let m be the mass of anhydrous FeCl3 in solution per c. Or This corresponds to the s= (5) s of the solution is given by ) e. This expression can be used to find the molecular susceptibility of Fe +++ ion.e. means that the numerical value of the intercept gives the mass susceptibility of water ( Let .c then a straight line will be obtained in the graph between and m. It is because of the contribution of axis m = 0 at a finite (through negative) value of susceptibility of the solution due to water. Quinke’s method .m. (9) Where = 25.u. (8) The molecule’s susceptibility is the sum of ionic molecule’s susceptibilities of Fe +++ and Clions. (7) Let M be the molecular wt.If a <<a’ the a/a’ may be neglected as compared to 1.m.u. we can study the variation of with concentration. then molecular susceptibility is given by. be the mass susceptibility of the anhydrous crystals of FeCl 3 then we have.

Illuminate the meniscus with an electric lamp and view it through a travelling microscope or a Quinke’s method .6H2O) per cc for the solution. so the 2. Then the magnetic field strength of the field in search coil is given by Since different values of current I will give different values of. The flux meter is calibrated to measure deflection in terms of Maxwell turns. .m. The variations of current can be done by rheostat Rh and the corresponding value noted by ammeter A. of tubes of search coil and A be its mean area. Let N be the no.27 x 10-21 e.u. Now insert the narrow limb of U-tube vertically between the pole pieces of the electromagnet and adjust the funnel limb so that when the magnet is energized the meniscus is in the central region of the uniform magnetic field. Let be the deflection of the flux meter pointer for a current I and let b correspond to one division deflection in flux meter. T = Temperature in absolute degrees = ……o K PROCEDURE 1. Fill a U-tube which is thoroughly cleaned with a solution of FeCl3 in water containing 25 gm of a hydrated salt (FeCl3.3805 x 10-23 J/K No =Avogadro Number = 6. corresponding values of H. 3. can be found from above equation.0234 x 1023 β = Bohr magneton = 9. Calibration of flux meter: make the connections as shown and level the flux meter with the help of screws provided at the base and place the search coil at the centre of the space fluxmeter.The magnetic moment of Fe+++ ions in terms of the Bohr magneton is given by Where k = Boltzman constant = 1.

Repeat the experiment values of magnetizing current. Switch off the current and again bring the cross-wire on the meniscus and take a reading.5 gm Quinke’s method . Also note the corresponding current in the ammeter. M = (56 + 3x35. Note the fall in height h of the meniscus for a particular current. No. Mean area of search coil A = ……………. (b) For Mass Susceptibility of Solution s Molecular wt. No. OBSERVATIONS (a) For calibration of fluxmeter. of hydrous salt = 162. Repeat the experiment by changing the concentration of the solution. Deflection of Sr. 5. Current i flux meter Plot a curve between current and magnetic field H1. 4.cathetometer. of turns of search coil. No. N = …………. Bring the horizontal crosswire of microscope on the meniscus and note the reading. of Maxwell turns/division b = ………. it will be a straight line.5 + 6(2+16) = 270. of FeCl3. it will be a calibrated curve of fluxmeter because it gives the value of magnetic field H1 corresponding to any value of given current.5) = 162.5 gm Molecular wt. Magnetic field.

5 x 0.gm/cc Sr.20 gm/c.6H2O will contain = (162.20 gm/cc Calculation for Concentration m 270.5 gm/cc Therefore.. 0. Current (i) Corresponding field H from H1 2 graph H1 Initial position of (cm) Final position Fall height in the of (cm) the (cm) meniscus meniscus Quinke’s method .20)/270.c = 0.m1) gm = 20 gm (say) Volume of solution = 100 cc Mass of hydrated salt/c. T = ……….o K Mass of weighting bottle = m1 g Mass of bottle + FeCl3 = m1 gm Mass of FeCl3 = (m2.5 x 0. Concentration m = 162.5 = ……….c of FeCl3.6H2O contains 162.20)/270. No.5 gm of FeCl3.Room temp.5 gm of FeCl 3 Therefore.

Mass susceptibility of the solution is given by s= 2. /gm Quinke’s method .Plot a curve between H12 and h.u. Tabulate the above observations Sr. which will give a straight line from the graph. Concentration m in gm/cc Susceptibility s e. Calculate the concentration m and susceptibility (c ) Mass susceptibility of water w s for each set. No.m.g h/H12 = 2g PQ/OQ Take similar observations for different amounts of hydrated salt in the same volume of solution.

/gm = 0.u.72 x 10-4 at 20oC (d) Mass susceptibility of anhydrous FeCl 3 Where and m are substituted for a particular set.m. (e) Molecular susceptibility of Fe +++ ion We have Also we have Magnetic moment of Fe+++ ion using the relation Quinke’s method .From the graph w= P o = ………e.

Choose only the prescribed values of magnetizing currents 3. SOURCES OF ERROR 1. T = ……oK PRECAUTIONS 1. Due to non-uniformity of the narrow limb bore.3805 x 10-23 J/K No = 6.m. 3. Solution should be prepared carefully so that salt is dissolved uniformly.0234 x 1023 β = 9. 2.u. Quinke’s method . ADVANTAGE In this case no correction for susceptibility of dust particles present in the solution is required. Check the joints between rubbers and glass tube so that there is no leakage of solution 2. error due to surface tension may occur. Since the bore is very narrow. Due to evaporation of water the results obtained are slightly less than the actual values.Where k = 1. so there may be deformation of the liquid in the tube due to application of magnetic field and so the rise or fall of the liquid meniscus may be read wrongly.27 x 10-21 e.

Oral Questions: Q.2 What are paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials? Q.1What are magnetic materials? Q.4 What is magnetic moment? Q.3 Why is Ferromagnetism found in soilds only and not in fluids? Q.5 What is magnetic susceptibility? Q.6 What is Quinke’s method? Quinke’s method .

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