Ozone Depletion

Atas, Bryan B. Bondoc, Christian Earvin D. Hubag, Patrick Paulo Amor C.

INTRODUCTION
• The main point, ladies and gentlemen, is that OZONE DEPLETION exists!!! • This serves as an introduction to the terms needed in the following chapters

INTRODUCTION Ozone Ozone layer Ozone depletion Ultraviolet rays

Ozone

INTRODUCTION Ozone

• A form of oxygen gas Ozone layer • Composed of three atoms of oxygen (O3)
Ozone depletion

• Colorless • Has a harsh odor

Ultraviolet rays

• It has the ability to absorb most UV radiation

Ozone’s ability to absorb Ozone

Ozone Layer

INTRODUCTION Ozone

• greatest concentration of ozone occurs at Ozone altitudes 19 - 30km above the Earth's layer surface • Ozone layer is IN the stratosphere

Ozone depletion Ultraviolet rays

• Concentration of O3 in ozone layer is roughly 10 parts per million

The stratosphere and the ozone layer

Ozone Depletion
• The thinning of the ozone layer

INTRODUCTION Ozone Ozone layer

• It can happen naturally but human depletion Ozone intervention is the main reason for ozone Ultraviolet rays depletion • Is brought about by ODC’s or Ozone Depleting Chemicals

M Monitoring Ozone O Ozone Unit measures the total amount of N • Dobson depletion is scientific and not just an environmentalists’ hoax ozone in an overhead column of the I atmosphere T O It is monitored by satellites • … measured by how thick the layer of ozone R would be if it were compressed into one layer I at 0 oC and with a pressure of 1 atm above it N G

• 0.01 mm = 1 D.U.

Ozone Hole
• Technically…. • regions where stratospheric ozone depletion is so severe that levels fall below 200 Dobson Units (D.U.)

Antarctic ozone hole
2006 record breaker hole ….. 11.4 M sq. miles

2007 average

Ultra violet rays

INTRODUCTION Ozone Ozone layer

• A form of electromagnetic energy

• Three categories of UV radiation: Ozone depletion
– UV-A, between 320 and 400 nm Ultraviolet rays – UV-B, between 280 and 320 nm – UV-C, between 200 and 280 nm

Ultra violet rays
• UV-A has the least energy

INTRODUCTION

Ozone – 98.7% of the ultraviolet radiation that reaches the Earth's surface is UVA Ozone layer Ozone depletion • UVB – higher energy, breaks down O3 Ultraviolet rays – Has the ability to destroy DNA linkages

• UVC – very easily absorbed by oxygen and ozone
– Highest energy

CAUSES
• Mechanism of Ozone layer destruction • Chemicals that deplete the ozone layer

CAUSES ODC Mechanism CFC’s Sources

ODC
• ODC – Ozone Depleting Chemicals • ODS – Ozone Depleting Substances

CAUSES ODC’s CFC’s Mechanism Sources

ODC

CFC
• A group of compounds known as Chlorofluorocarbons
• It is

CFC others

The main source of ozone depletion

• Very stable • Insoluble in water (rain) • As a result: it can travel from the lower atmosphere up until it reaches the ozone layer

ODC

Five main CFC’s

CFC others

• CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane - CFCl3) • CFC-12 (dichloro-difluoromethane- CF2Cl2) • CFC-113 (trichloro-trifluoroethane- C2F3Cl3) • CFC-114 (dichloro-tetrfluoroethane- C2F4Cl2) • CFC-115 (chloropentafluoroethane- C2F5Cl)

Other ODC
• Halons or bromofluorocarbons are Bromine containing compounds that function the same way as CFC’s but are 10-100 times more reactive • HCFC’s are the alternative to CFC but are still ODS but with a smaller lifespan
– They are also greenhouse gases

ODC CFC others

• 82% of stratospheric chlorine came from ODC • with 51% being carried there by CFC-11 and CFC-12.

ODC CFC others

Source: World Meteorological Organization, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, WMO Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project - Report No. 44, Geneva, 1998.

ODC CFC others

List of ODS according to Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002

Source: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002

ODC

Table of ods part II

CFC others

Want some more?

Source: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002

Sources of ODS
• CFCs are widely used as coolants in refrigeration and air conditioners • …used as solvents in cleaners (for electronic boards) • …used as a blowing agents in the production of foam (i.e., frire extinguishers) • …used as propellants in aerosols. • Some ODS are used as pesticides and fumigants

In depth ODC uses and their alternatives

Bottom line is: many man made technologies depend on the use of ODC

Natural sources of Cl
• Major volcanic eruptions can inject Cl into the stratosphere mostly in the form of HCl • …but volcanic aerosols are quickly dissolved
– Example: Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991which released 30 Megatons of debris

Amount of aerosols in the stratosphere

Mechanism
CAUSES

• CF2Cl2 ---------> Cl + CF2Cl Light energy

ODC CFC’s

• As CFC reaches the stratosphere, they are Mechanism broken down by light and this process releases Cl
sources

Mechanism
• Cl + O3  ClO + O2 • ClO + O  Cl + O2 O3 is converted to O2
CAUSES ODC CFC’s

Mechanism therefore, less O3 is available to block the UV rays sources

• Most of the chlorine comes from man made emissions such as CFC’s

Mechanism
Cl + O3 O2 +ClO ClO +O O2 + Cl

Take note that the ozone depleting process is a cycle as Cl can react again for as much as 100,000 times

Mechanism
BrO + ClO -> BrCl + O2 BrCl + hv -> Br + Cl Br + O3 -> BrO + O2 Cl + O3 -> ClO + O2 ----------------------Net: 2 O3 -> 3 O2 Bromine are 10 to 100 times more destructive than Cl Take note that: decreasing Cl also decreases Br’s destructiveness

Effects of Ozone Depletion
• This is the reason why WE SHOULD CARE

Effects of Ozone Depletion
• Damage to marine life - Smith et.al _Science_1992 found a 6-12% drop in phytoplankton productivity once their ship entered the area of the spring-time ozone hole • When over 200 agricultural plants were tested, more than half showed sensitivity to UV-B light.

• Marine wild life and ecosystem – plankton are sensitive to UV • radiation affects orientation mechanisms and motility in phytoplankton, thus: reduced survival rates for these organisms • decreased reproductive capacity and impaired larval development

Effects of Ozone Depletion
• Genetic damage - DNA absorbs UV-B light and the absorbed energy can break bonds in the DNA

• Skin cancers – effect of genetic damage
– 90% of the skin carcinomas are attributed to UV-B exposure
• [R.P.Wayne, Chemistry of the Atmospheres 2nd ed. Oxford 1991]

• Strong UV radiation from the Sun can cause inflammation of the cornea, the outer coating of the eyeball, leading to photokeratosis or "snow blindness“ • … permanent damage to the cornea • …dimming of the eye's lens and increased risk for cataracts • …eye cancer, conjunctivitis and pterygium

• 1% decrease in stratospheric ozone may result in 100,000 to 150,000 additional cases of blindness due to eye cataracts worldwide.

• Material damages - Increased UV-B radiation can accelerate the deterioration of plastics, wood, paper, cotton and wool (Manins et. al., 2001).

• Air pollution - as more UV reaches the lower troposphere, more high-energy EM waves will decompose oxygen and produce Ozone... Resulting to photochemical smog
» By the way, Ozone is poisonous

Sources
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency NASA Wikipedia http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk http://www.ozone.gi.alaska.edu Apologies to many others who have been forgotten

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