MCI 0118K

MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE

SPELLING

MARINE BARRACKS WASHINGTON, DC

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE 912 CHARLES POOR STREET SE WASHINGTON NAVY YARD DC 20391-5680
IN REPLY REFER TO:

1550 Ser 0118 10 Apr 02 From: Director To: Marine Corps Institute Student Subj: SPELLING (MCI 0118K) 1. Purpose. The subject course provides instruction on the subject of spelling 2. Scope. This course is intended to provide instruction in the basics of spelling and on how to resolve spelling questions. 3. Applicability. This course is intended for instructional purposes only. It is designed to enhance the spelling and writing skills of all Marines. 4. Recommendations. Comments and recommendations on the contents of the course are invited and will aid in subsequent course revisions. Please complete the course evaluation questionnaire at the end of the final examination. Return the questionnaire and the examination booklet to your proctor.

T. M. FRANUS By direction

.................................................. Vowels..... The Elusive e.................................................................................................................................................................. and i ....................................... The ei and ie................................. and Syllables .................... -ant............... Adding Suffixes to Words Ending in y.......................Table of Contents Page Contents .......................................................................................................................... The Fundamentals................................................................................................ Study Guide ........................................ Words Ending in -ly and -ally ................... and -ance... The ea..................................................................................... Words Ending in -ent........................................................................... Study Unit 1 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Study Unit 2 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Study Unit 3 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 The Dictionary ................. Suffixes ......................................... Words Ending in -able and -ible .................................. Words Ending in -ise........................................................................................................................ The Silent e ........ Consonants................... -ize and -yze .................................. ee................ Adding Suffixes to Words Ending in e ....................... i iii v 1-1 1-3 1-9 2-1 2-3 2-11 2-21 3-1 3-3 3-7 3-13 3-17 3-21 3-25 3-29 3-33 Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K i ....... Doubling the Final Consonant ....... Words Ending in -ary/-ery ......................................................................... -ence.......................................................................................................................... Student Information ..................................

....................................................................................... Regular and Singular Nouns ................. Possessives...... Possessive Case of Nouns and Pronouns . MCI Course 0118K ii ....... Compound Words ............................. 4-1 4-3 4-9 4-13 4-17 4-21 4-27 4-33 4-39 5-1 5-3 5-9 5-17 R-1 Review Lesson ........... Words Ending in f............................... The Apostrophe....... Letters............................ Symbols............................................................... Contractions ..........Table of Contents............................................................................. Continued Study Unit 4 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Study Unit 5 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Plurals .......... The Apostrophe....................... or ff............................................................ Irregular and Singular Words...................................................................................................................................... and Words .................... Nouns Ending in y ......... Proper Nouns ........................................... Words Ending in o ............................................................... fe........................ and Contractions....................................................... Numbers...................................................................................................................................

mci. MCI Course 0118K iii .mil to access the Unit Verification Report (UVR) or MCI Hotline. Marines worldwide may call commercial (202) 685-7596 or DSN 325-7596. Marines CONUS may call toll free 1-800-MCI-USMC.Student Information MCI 0118K SPELLING 10 Text The Pocket Dictionary Marine Corps Institute 3 Number and Title Study Hours Course Materials Review Agency Reserve Retirement Credits (RRC) Assistance For assistance.usmc. have your training officer or NCO log on to the MCI home page at www.

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You will receive instruction on the fundamentals of spelling. YOU ACCEPT CHALLENGES. Self-motivation is perhaps the most important force in learning or achieving anything. YOU ARE ABLE TO SET AND ACCOMPLISH PRACTICAL GOALS. willing to reach out for opportunities to learn and grow. You have it! YOU SEEK TO IMPROVE YOURSELF. and to learn new skills. and the use of the dictionary. like you. provides instruction to all Marines. • YOU ARE PROPERLY MOTIVATED. you have shown a desire to improve the skills you have and master new skills to enhance your job performance. By acting on your own. You have the selfconfidence to set goals and the ability to achieve them.Study Guide Congratulations Congratulations on your enrollment in a distance education course from the Distance Learning and Technologies Department (DLTD) of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI). Since 1920. some basic spelling rules. enabling you to meet every challenge. When you improve yourself. You have made a positive decision to get training on your own. You are enrolled to improve those skills you already possess. you improve the Corps! YOU HAVE THE INITIATIVE TO ACT. You are willing to commit time. By enrolling in this course. Continued on next page Your Personal Characteristics • • • • MCI Course 0118K v . you have shown you are a self-starter. and the resources necessary to set and accomplish your goals. the Marine Corps Institute has been helping tens of thousands of hard-charging Marines. You have self-confidence and believe in your ability to acquire knowledge and skills. Spelling. MCI 0118K. The distance learning course you have chosen. These professional traits will help you successfully complete this distance learning course. improve their technical job performance skills through distance learning. effort. Doing whatever is necessary to learn is motivation.

lesson exercises. On this page. complete the exercises developed for you. Continued on next page The First Study Unit Reading the Learning Objectives Completing the Exercises MCI Course 0118K vi . Turn to the first page of study unit 1. and at the end of each study unit. Study unit lessons contain learning objectives. and finally. familiarize yourself with them. Read the objectives for each lesson and then read the lesson text. complete the exercise questions and then check your responses against those provided. a study unit exercise. make notes on the points you feel are important. As you read the lesson text. you will find an introduction to the study unit and generally the first study unit lesson. Exercises are located at the end of each lesson. You will find the text divided into several study units. If you find any course materials missing. Learning objectives describe in concise terms what the successful learner. read the student information page. Continued Before you actually begin this course of study. Each study unit is comprised of two or more lessons. familiarize yourself with the structure of the course text. notify your training officer or training NCO. To determine your mastery of the learning objectives and text. you. and exercises. To begin your course of study. One way to do this is to read the table of contents. Leafing Through the Text Beginning Your Course Leaf through the text and look at the course. Read a few lesson exercise questions to get an idea of the type of material in the course. lesson text. If the course has additional study aids. such as a handbook or plotting board. will be able to do as a result of mastering the content of the lesson text.Study Guide. If you have all the required materials. Notice the table of contents covers specific areas of study and the order in which they are presented. you are ready to begin. Without referring to the text.

” This technique can be interesting and challenging for both of you! MAKE REVIEWS FUN AND BENEFICIAL. But with a little effort. Follow the same procedures for each study unit in the course. you must review what you learned in the course. Reviews are good habits that enhance learning. To prepare for your final exam. USE THE “SHAKEDOWN CRUISE” TECHNIQUE. review again. Continued on next page Continuing to March Preparing for the Final Exam • • • • MCI Course 0118K vii . It is always best to use the skill or knowledge you’ve learned as soon as possible. Can you do it? Now look back at the text to see if you have left anything out. Read your notes or a part of a study unit. some learners find short reviews conducted more often prove more beneficial. Try to recall the entire learning sequence without referring to the text. Choose a particular study unit and let your buddy “fire away. rework exercise items. you can do many of these things during the unused minutes of every day. Undoubtedly. you’ll be able to recall a great deal of the information.Study Guide. Continued Continue on to the next lesson. The following suggestions will help make the review interesting and challenging. If it isn’t possible to actually use the skill or knowledge. They don’t have to be long and tedious. Or. • CHALLENGE YOURSELF. APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED. In fact. Use your spare moments to review. repeating the above process until you have completed all lessons in the study unit. Ask another Marine to lend a hand by asking you questions about the course. For example make up and solve your own problems. you’ll find you were not able to recall everything. This review should be interesting. at least try to imagine a situation in which you would apply this learning. make up and solve problems that use most of the elements of a study unit. USE UNUSED MINUTES. better still.

The sooner you complete your course. Semper Fidelis! Tackling the Final Exam Completing Your Course Graduating! MCI Course 0118K viii . read the directions on the DP-37 answer sheet carefully. the sooner you can better yourself by applying what you’ve learned! HOWEVER--you do have 2 years from the date of enrollment to complete this course. benefiting you. your job performance skills will improve. Your training NCO or officer will administer the final examination and return the examination and the answer sheet to MCI for grading. and the Marine Corps. Before taking your final examination. take the sealed envelope marked “FINAL EXAM” to your unit training NCO or training officer. your unit. As a graduate of this distance education course and as a dedicated Marine. Continued When you have completed your study of the course material and are confident with the results attained on your study unit exercises.Study Guide.

and medical). consonants. Dictionaries are relatively easy to use if you familiarize yourself with their parts and functions. foreign language. Upon completion of this study unit. and Syllables Study Unit 1 Exercise See Page 1-3 1-9 1-14 Fundamentals Learning Objective In This Study Unit MCI Course 0118K 1-1 Study Unit 1 . This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic The Fundamentals Vowels. and syllables. Consonants.STUDY UNIT 1 THE DICTIONARY Overview Dictionaries are available in various sizes (standard and pocket) and subjects (technical. you should be able to demonstrate your knowledge of the fundamentals of the dictionary by identifying vowels. This study unit addresses the fundamentals of the dictionary and spelling.

(This page intentionally left blank.) MCI Course 0118K 1-2 Study Unit 1 .

State the function of the heading words found at the top a of two-column dictionary page. the more you refer to your dictionary. Identify the 13 general characteristics of a standard dictionary. the clearer your writing and the more complete your understanding will be. writing must express ideas and information clearly. a dictionary is a useful resource. we will address the most commonly used areas of a dictionary. In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics. To be effective. Lesson 1 . Learning Objectives Scope Upon completion of this lesson. In this lesson. As you can see. In either case. you will be exposed to a variety of written information and have to write for different audiences and purposes.LESSON 1 THE FUNDAMENTALS Introduction Regardless of your MOS or civilian employment. List the categories of information found in a typical word entry. you should be able to • • • • State the two functions all dictionaries have in common. You must also be able to understand material you read. Topic Introduction Functions Characteristics Heading Words Word Entry See Page 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 MCI Course 0118K 1-3 Study Unit 1.

The most common dictionary is a hardcover. and notes on usage. Definition Dictionary Use is a Good Habit Types of Dictionaries MCI Course 0118K 1-4 Study Unit 1. Lesson 1 . A guide on using the dictionary usually precedes the word listings. the main section of the dictionary. It’s a good habit to research words in the dictionary because the dictionary provides the most information about words.) in alphabetical order and showing their correct spelling and definition. etc. but a dictionary is essential whenever you write.Functions A dictionary is a reference book listing words in a language (English. The spell check and thesaurus features of a word processing program are useful aids. desk-reference version about the size of a hardcover novel or textbook. This type of dictionary contains more extensive information than an abridged dictionary. pronunciation. Dictionaries often include etymology (word origin). such as the pocket-sized version included with this course. Failing to use a dictionary when you’re unsure of the spelling and definition of a word is a poor habit. French.

MCI Course 0118K 1-5 Study Unit 1. marks indicating vowel sounds (diacritical marks). you can expect to find the spelling and definition of words and useful auxiliary information.Characteristics Depending on the particular dictionary. pronunciation of letters and foreign word sounds. and the alphabetical arrangement of words. accent marks. Reading through the how-to guide and the pronunciation key will increase your knowledge of syllabication. parts of speech. Lesson 1 . definitions. such as the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Increased Knowledge Auxiliary Information Pronunciation Syllabication Parts of speech Capitalization Etymology (origin of words) History of the English language Punctuation Weights and measures Signs and symbols Numbers Abbreviations Proofreading marks The states and their capitals It’s not difficult to learn how to use a dictionary effectively.

Using the pocket dictionary included with this course. Lesson 1 . whereas the heading word on page 81 is the last entry for these pages. are called heading words. you are correct and on your way to improving your knowledge of using the dictionary. Once you have found the word. state the heading words. The two boldface words at the top of the pages.Heading Words Now that you’re familiarized with the general characteristics of a dictionary. If you stated malnutrition and marmalade. the word can be found on one of the pages. Answer MCI Course 0118K 1-6 Study Unit 1. let’s review several items located on a dictionary page. Challenge Specific Items Locate the word marksman in your pocket dictionary. turn to pages 80 and 81. If the word you are looking for is located alphabetically between the heading words. discover and distribute. The heading word on page 80 denotes the first complete alphabetical entry on pages 80 and 81.

and future tenses. you are correct and have further increased your knowledge in the use of a dictionary. verb. inflections [bigger.Word Entry Each word entry in the dictionary contains a brief. French. etc. Old English. Let’s proceed to something more challenging by continuing to the next lesson! Answer MCI Course 0118K 1-7 Study Unit 1. Greek. Middle English. adjective. biggest]) Synonyms (words that mean the same) and antonyms (words that mean the opposite) An obituary (if the word has become obsolete [no longer used] or archaic [old fashioned]) Elements Challenge Locate the word rank in your pocket dictionary. What is the job or part of speech of the word rank? If you stated the word rank can be used as a noun and a verb. Lesson 1 .) A job description or definition--the exact meaning of the word and how to use it A list of relatives or declensions (past. past perfect. etc. individual “biography” that consists of the following parts: • • • • • • • A language of origin or “place of birth” (Latin.) Correct pronunciation A job (the part of speech of the word--noun.

) MCI Course 0118K 1-8 Study Unit 1.(This page intentionally left blank. Lesson 1 .

Upon completion of this lesson. Identify the three consonants that can be pronounced as hard or soft. State the definition of a syllable. Lesson 2 . State the importance of syllables in spelling. This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Overview Vowels Consonants Syllables See Page 1-9 1-10 1-12 1-13 MCI Course 0118K 1-9 Study Unit 1. you should be able to • • • • In This Lesson Introduction Learning Objectives Identify the five vowels. CONSONANTS.LESSON 2 VOWELS. AND SYLLABLES Overview Your challenge in this lesson is to discover the additional properties of words in a dictionary and the effectiveness of sounding words out loud.

i. Each vowel can be pronounced with two or more sounds. it’s important to pay attention to the movement of your mouth and tongue. such as the a in late. High vowels (such as i in machine and u in rule) are pronounced with the tongue arched toward the roof of the mouth Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 1-10 Study Unit 1. For example: When a vowel has the sound of its own name.Vowels A vowel is a speech sound made by the relatively free passage of breath through the larynx and mouth. When pronouncing a vowel. you should not squeeze your mouth or lips nor stop the flow of breath. There are five letters that are always used as vowels: a. the mouth and the tongue move differently. and high vowel sounds. To pronounce words properly. u. When a vowel has the sound in a word such the a in cat. it is said to be a long vowel. mid. o. Your mouth and tongue take three different positions when pronouncing words. it is a short vowel. Lesson 2 . Pronunciation Definition Letters Sounds Each time a different vowel is pronounced. e. A vowel is the most prominent sound in a syllable. forming low. a fact that is not generally noticed. The following table contains examples of correct vowel pronunciation methods: Vowel sound Low Mid High Pronunciation A low vowel (such as a in father or had) is pronounced with the tongue relatively flat and low in the mouth and with the mouth open a little wider than for high vowels Mid-vowels (such as e in bed and the o in pole) are pronounced with a tongue position between the extremes of high and low. The letters y and w sometimes also function as vowels.

â.” When a vowel in a word is not stressed or slightly stressed. Lesson 2 .ô.ū.ō. it is referred to a schwa sound.û. A long vowel sound is marked with a straight line (macron) over it. The schwa sound is represented by the symbol (Ə). for example. for example. ā.ī. A short vowel sound is marked with a short. A list of these and other diacritical marks can be located in most dictionaries under the heading of “Symbols.ê. curved line (circumflex) over it.î. Continued Dictionaries use diacritical marks to indicate how vowels are pronounced. It looks like an upside-down e and represents the sound in words like alone (Əlon).ē.Vowels. Marks Schwa MCI Course 0118K 1-11 Study Unit 1.

and u.Consonants A consonant is a letter that represents a speech sound produced by obstructing airflow. Consonants are letters that are pronounced by squeezing or stopping the flow of air as you speak. A consonant is any letter of the English alphabet except a. The following table provides examples of these pronunciations: Hard g as in girl c as in camouflage s as in hiss Combination Definition Pronunciation Soft g as in germ c as in ceremony s as in rise A combination of consonants that has the sound of a single consonant can be a challenge to identify. The following table provides examples of these pronunciations: Combination ph gh ck cks f f k x Sounds like Word philosophy rough jack checks MCI Course 0118K 1-12 Study Unit 1. c. Notice the positions that are formed by your mouth and lips when you pronounce the letters d and p. e. such as letters like g. Consonants are pronounced in words as if they were by themselves. Lesson 2 . There are exceptions to the consonant pronunciation rule. and s which can be pronounced with a hard or soft sound. o. In other words. a t always sounds like a t. i. regardless of the word it’s used in.

Syllables
When vowels, consonants, or any combination thereof are used to spell words, the result is a syllable. A syllable may be a whole word or part of a word, but always has a single uninterrupted sound. For example, the word choose is a single, uninterrupted sound; therefore, the word choose has one syllable. A longer word, such as particular, has four uninterrupted sounds (par•ti•cu•lar) so it has four syllables. Syllables allow you to “hear” the separate parts of a word, which thereby enables you to establish a sound pattern for that word. “Hearing” the various sounds in words will assist you in identifying the letters that make up the words. One thing to remember about syllables is to be careful with suffixes. When you add an ending to a word you are not necessarily adding a syllable. Remember, a syllable is a single separate sound. For example, when you add an ed or d to a word you are not always adding a syllable. Take a look at the example below. • •
Information

Definition

Importance

Adding Suffixes

The word refuse has two syllables. The word refused also has two syllables.

You have just learned the definition and importance of syllables. Here is some additional information that might come in handy. A syllabic consonant, such as the final n sound in the words button and widen, is also a syllable. Closed syllables are those that end in a consonant and open syllables end in a vowel. This information may prove itself useful to you in the future.

MCI Course 0118K

1-13

Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Study Unit 1 Exercise
Complete exercise items 1 through 10 by selecting the correct multiple-choice answer. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this study unit. All dictionaries, large or small, contain a. b. c. d.
Item 2

Instructions

Item 1

synonyms and tenses. parts of speech and antonyms. origins and obsolescence. spelling and definitions.

Identify five of the thirteen general characteristics of a standard dictionary. a. Etymology (origin of words), history of the English language, weights and measures, sentence structure, and thesaurus b. Pronunciation, syllabication, parts of speech, capitalization, and punctuation c. Signs and symbols, numbers, measurements and weights, abbreviations, and astrology chart d. Proofreading marks, the presidents of the United States, the states and their capitals, pronunciation

Item 3

In addition to definitions, parts of speech, and spelling of related words, what other information can a dictionary provide you? a. b. c. d. The names of characters in books The names of state governors Homonyms of entry words How to break words into syllables

Item 4

Heading words are included at the top of the page in a dictionary. What do they help you to do? a. b. c. d. Spell those words on that page Determine the origins of the words Locate words found on that page Find the meanings of their synonyms
Continued on next page

MCI Course 0118K

1-14

Study Unit 1 Exercise

Study Unit 1 Exercise, Continued
What are the five letters that are always used as vowels? a. b. c. d.
Item 6

Item 5

a, i, o, u, w a, e, i, o, u e, i, o, w, y e, o, u, w, y

In which group of words below do all vowels have a short sound? a. b. c. d. Mad, like, said, ray Run, lad, bar, can Bare, make, lie, some Back, be, us, cry

Item 7

In which group below are all g, c, or s consonants pronounced with a hard sound? a. b. c. d. Girl, call, miss Gem, cell, has Gem, can, rise Gold, cent, lose

Item 8

In which group below do all words have exactly three syllables? a. b. c. d. Always, liaison, corporal, sergeant Amphibious, antiaircraft, azimuth, aerial Guerrilla, discipline, courtesy, munition Camouflage, aviation, column, echelon
Continued on next page

MCI Course 0118K

1-15

Study Unit 1 Exercise

a.Study Unit 1 Exercise. d. c. b. d. Continued What is the definition of a syllable? a. sound Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 1-16 Study Unit 1 Exercise . hearing hear. sound see. A combination of letters A single uninterrupted sound A letter representing a speech sound produced by obstructing air flow A speech sound made by the relatively free passage of breath through the larynx and mouth Item 9 Item 10 Syllables are important because they help you ________ each part of a word and establish a _________ pattern of that word. see. c. working hear. b.

Continued The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. refer to the reference page. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Answer d b d c b b a c b c Reference 1-4 1-5 1-5 1-6 1-10 1-10 1-12 1-13 1-13 1-13 Solutions MCI Course 0118K 1-17 Study Unit 1 Exercise .Study Unit 1 Exercise. If you have questions about these items.

(This page intentionally left blank.) MCI Course 0118K 1-18 Study Unit 1 Exercise .

ie. as in neighbor and forfeit. particularly the use of vowels and vowel combinations. for example. and word pronunciation skills. let’s discover the hidden secrets of the elusive e. We will affectionately refer to these combinations as the elusive e. words with a long e sound spelled with two ees as in creep and weep. Learning Objective Scope Challenges Upon completion of this study unit. word identification. Now. Some words conform to these rules and some do not. If vowel pronunciation reflected only the sound of the individual vowels used. Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 2-1 Study Unit 2 . ei. helpful devices. ee. Learning these spelling rules will help you remember the spelling patterns of particular words. This study unit is designed to increase your understanding of word patterns. and the silent e. You will find these rules to be sound. This study unit is also designed to challenge your comprehension of the material with a variety of exercise drills that are designed to reinforce your spelling.STUDY UNIT 2 THE ELUSIVE E Overview This study unit describes methods to identify words containing vowel combinations that are often confusing. much of the confusion in spelling might be eliminated. you will correctly identify words that contain the vowel combinations of ea. especially when pronouncing vowels such as e and i together. i.

and i The Silent e Study Unit 2 Exercise See Page 2-3 2-11 2-21 2-26 In This Study Unit MCI Course 0118K 2-2 Study Unit 2 .Overview. Continued This study unit covers the following topics: Topic The ei and ie The ea. ee.

you should be able to • • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives State the rule for spelling words with ei and ie. Apply ei and ie to correctly identify words. Lesson 1 . Upon completion of this lesson. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Introduction Rule Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 2-3 2-4 2-5 MCI Course 0118K 2-3 Study Unit 2. You will do this by learning the applicable vowel combination rules and successfully completing a variety of exercise drills. Apply ei and ie to correctly spell words.LESSON 1 THE EI AND IE Introduction This lesson is designed to increase your knowledge of the correct spelling of combinations of ei and ie.

Lesson 1 . or when the combination sounds like a. Study them and the exceptions listed below closely before you progress to the challenging exercise drills. After you have worked through the drills in this lesson and the next. your spelling skills should improve. i before e yield grief believe relief chief piece field siege except after c receive perceive deceive conceive ceiling receipt deceit conceit or when it sounds like a as in neighbor or weigh neighbor weigh freight sleigh feign reign heinous vein Exceptions There are exceptions to the rule “i before e except after c. the examples. Examples Vowel Combinations The following are examples of words spelled with the vowel combinations of ei and ie.” The following list of words are examples of those exceptions: • • • • • • • ancient conscience conscientious science society proficient policies MCI Course 0118K 2-4 Study Unit 2.Rule Most people are somewhat familiar with the vowel combination rule relating to ei and ie. such as in neighbor and weigh. and the exceptions provided. the i comes before e except after c. Refresh your memory by studying the rule. When spelling words with the vowel combinations of ei and ie.

Her gr__f was overwhelming. Use your pocket dictionary to check for the correct spelling. 7. 9. fill in the missing ei or ie combination. 6. In column 3. I bel__ve I will rec__ve visitors today. 3. Check for correct spelling and definition in your pocket dictionary. My father is the ch__f of police. even out in the f__ld. produce Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 2-5 Study Unit 2. The corn crop should y__ld more this year than last year. Lesson 1 . 1. write the whole word from column 1. The solution to the first word is provided as an example Column 1 yield bel__ve perc__ve Column 2 yield Column 3 to give forth.Lesson 1 Exercise Fill in the missing ei or ie letter combination (remember the rule). write the definition in the space provided. It was a rel__f to be home. 10. She hung a tiny sl__gh from a hook in the c__ling. In column 2. 5. 8. 2. Reminder: Did you remember to follow the rule? Drill 2 Drill 1 In column 1. You should care about your appearance. I perc__ve this to be a problem of my n__ghbors. Do you bel__ve in yourself? 4. Be sure to w__gh the fr__ght when you rec__ve it.

1. You must forf__t your turn in the game. There isn’t much time for l__sure in boot camp. Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 2-6 Study Unit 2. 4.Lesson 1 Exercise. Some sc__nce fiction stories are really w__rd. Continued Drill 2 (Continued) Column 1 sl__gh gr__f h__nous fr__ght Drill 3 Column 2 Column 3 Fill in the missing ei or ie letter combination. 5. Use your pocket dictionary to check for the correct spelling. 6. You need more sc__nce and math courses. N__ther one wanted to go. They both received A’s in th__r for__gn language class. 2. 3. 7. Lesson 1 . They must s__ze the enemy’s supplies.

fill in the missing ei or ie letter combination. write the whole word from column 1. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 2-7 Study Unit 2. Continued In column 1. In column 3. “i before e except after c” rule: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Exceptions to the “i before e except after c” rule: 1. Column 1 w__rd th__r s__ze n__ther for__gn l__sure sc__nce forf__t Drill 5 Drill 4 Column 2 Column 3 Write the “i before the e except after c” rule below from memory. In column 2. 2. Check for the correct spelling and definition in your pocket dictionary. and list three exceptions to the rule in the spaces provided below. Lesson 1 .Lesson 1 Exercise. write the definition in the space provided. 3.

If you have questions about these items. Drill 1 Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Drill 2 Answer ie ie ie ie ie ie ie. ei Reference dictionary dictionary dictionary dictionary dictionary dictionary dictionary Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 2-8 Study Unit 2. ie Reference 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 Column 1 ei ei ei ei ei Drill 3 Column 2 believe perceive sleigh heinous freight Column 3 Reference To accept trustfully and on faith 2-4 To attain awareness or understanding of 2-4 A vehicle on runners used for transporting 2-4 Hatefully or shockingly evil 2-4 Compensation paid to transport goods 2-4 Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Answer ie ie ie ie ie. refer to the reference page to refresh your memory. Continued Solutions The table below lists the answers to the exercise drills. ei ei. ei. Lesson 1 . ei ei. ie ei ei. ei ei.Lesson 1 Exercise.

Continued Drill 4 Column 1 ei ei ei ei ei ei ie ei Drill 5 Column 2 weird their seize neither foreign leisure science forfeit Column 3 Of strange or extraordinary character Of or relating to them or themselves To put in possession of something Not the one or the other of two or more Situated outside a place or country Freedom from work The study of natural phenomena Something lost or a penalty or fine “i before e except after c” rule: I before e. Any one word from each of the three columns found on page 2-4. except after c. MCI Course 0118K 2-9 Study Unit 2. or when it sounds like a. 2. as in neighbor and weigh. (Page 2-4) Exceptions to the “i before e except after c” rule: 1.Lesson 1 Exercise. Lesson 1 . 3.

(This page intentionally left blank.) MCI Course 0118K 2-10 Study Unit 2. Lesson 1 .

EE. ee. ee. and i vowel combinations. This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Applying the Vowel Combination of ee Lesson 2 Exercise 1 Applying the Vowel Combination of ea Lesson 2 Exercise 2 Applying the i Lesson 2 Exercise 3 See Page 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-15 2-16 2-18 2-19 MCI Course 0118K 2-11 Study Unit 2. and i. you should be able to • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objective Identify words correctly by applying ea. Upon completion of this lesson. AND I Introduction This lesson is designed to increase your knowledge in the usage of the vowel combinations of ea.LESSON 2 THE EA. Lesson 2 . and i vowel combinations. ee. Spell words correctly by applying ea. You will accomplish this by learning the applicable rules and successfully completing a variety of drills.

peep. The first e is pronounced as a long e. sheet. sheep. The following are examples of some exceptions: • • • • preeminence (pre-eminence) preelection (pre-election) preestablish (pre-establish) preexist (pre-exist) Pronunciation Exceptions Note: These words are sometimes spelled with a hyphen between the prefix and the word. Rules There are no formal rules governing words that are spelled with a double e and long e sound. sleet. Lesson 2 .Applying the Vowel Combination of ee Words spelled with the double e (ee) are usually pronounced with a long e sound. MCI Course 0118K 2-12 Study Unit 2. and the second e is pronounced as a short e. and fleet. examples of words with these sounds may be memorized to preclude the constant use of a dictionary. There are some words that begin with e and have the prefix pre added on. in which case the two es are pronounced separately. which include such words as creep. steep. Therefore.

Lesson 2 . In column 3. In column 2. fill in the missing double ee.Lesson 2 Exercise 1 In column 1. write each word’s definition in the space provided. write the whole word from column 1. especially of a fruit Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 2-13 Study Unit 2. Check for the correct spelling and definition in your pocket dictionary. Instructions Drill Column 1 peel r__l st__l p__k k__l kn__l st__d sw__t sw__p r__f k__n Column 2 peel Column 3 the skin or rind.

Lesson 2 . refer to the lesson to refresh your memory Column 1 ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee Column 2 reel steel peek keel kneel steed sweet sweep reef keen Column 3 Spool or frame that turns on an axis A hard. Continued The table below lists the answers to the exercise drill. sand. peer.Lesson 2 Exercise 1. or show briefly Principal structural member of a ship To rest on bent knees A horse Pleasing to the taste Something that sweeps or works with a sweeping motion A ridge of a rock. or coral near the surface of water Having a sharp cutting edge Solutions MCI Course 0118K 2-14 Study Unit 2. malleable alloy of iron and carbon To look. If you have questions about these items.

Exceptions include words where the e and a have very distinct and separate pronunciations as demonstrated in the following examples: • • • • creator (cre a tor) permeate (per me ate) theatrical (the at ri cal) react (re act) Pronunciation Exceptions There are also words spelled with the ea combination that are pronounced with a long e sound. followed by a less distinct pronunciation of the a sound. Lesson 2 . as demonstrated in the following examples: • • Familiarization theater (the a ter) real (re al) Memorizing word patterns and successfully completing the course drills will increase your familiarity with the proper pronunciation of these letter combinations.Applying the Vowel Combination of ea Most words spelled with the ea combination have the same long e pronunciation as the double ee words. MCI Course 0118K 2-15 Study Unit 2.

write the whole word from column 1. fill in the definition of the word from column 2.Lesson 2 Exercise 2 In column 1. fill in the missing ea combination. and check for correct spelling in your pocket dictionary. In column 2. Instructions Drill Column 1 beat cl__t d__l dr__m __ch f__t f__st s__t r__ch p__k p__ce Column 2 beat Column 3 To strike repeatedly Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 2-16 Study Unit 2. Lesson 2 . In column 3.

Lesson 2 . every A remarkable achievement A large meal.Lesson 2 Exercise 2. ideas. occurring in sleep One of two or more considered individually. Continued The table below lists the answers to the exercise drill. refer to the lesson to refresh your memory. as a chair To extend or to arrive at A point that projects upward The absence of war or other hostilities Solutions MCI Course 0118K 2-17 Study Unit 2. banquet A surface or place for sitting.. etc. Column 1 ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea Column 2 cleat deal dream each feat feast seat reach peak peace Column 3 A projection used to prevent slipping To distribute A series of images. If you have questions about these items.

Applying The i The final long e word application presented in this lesson is the use of i. Lesson 2 . which is used to form words such as gasoline and Vaseline. only those words whose ending is pronounced ee will be addressed.” or “like. The following list provides additional examples of words using the letter i with the long e sound: • • • • • Gasoline Magazine Carbine Machine Chlorine Usage Additional Examples MCI Course 0118K 2-18 Study Unit 2. is derived from the Latin suffix inus. however. For example.” Because this lesson is concerned with the long e sound. which means “having the nature of. the suffix ine. Using i with the long e sound involves a small group of words.

Check for the correct spelling while searching in the dictionary for the definition. find the word in the dictionary and write its definition in the space provided. write the whole word. In column 3. Drill Column 1 maga carb intr mach gaso na vas chlor Column 2 Column 3 Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 2-19 Study Unit 2. fill in the missing ending of each word. In column 2. Lesson 2 .Lesson 2 Exercise 3 Instructions In column 1.

Column 1 maga carb intr mach gaso na vas chlor Column 2 magazine carbine intrigue machine gasoline naive vaseline chlorine Column 3 A storehouse for ammunition A light rifle A secret scheme A mechanical system or device that assists in the performance of work A flammable liquid derived from petroleum and used as a motor fuel Unsophisticated or foolish A petroleum based ointment A chemical element used a bleaching agent Solutions MCI Course 0118K 2-20 Study Unit 2. Continued The table below lists the answers to the exercise drill. Lesson 2 .Lesson 2 Exercise 3. refer to the lesson to refresh your memory. If you have questions about these items.

LESSON 3 THE SILENT E Introduction The silent e is an example of the many changes the English language has experienced. Visualizing words spelled with the silent e is the most effective method to correctly spell these words. Upon completion of this lesson. Lesson 3 . you should be able to • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives State the rule governing the silent e. If you rely solely on pronunciation to spell. List exceptions to the silent e rule. This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Rule Exceptions Lesson 3 Exercise See Page 2-21 2-22 2-23 2-24 MCI Course 0118K 2-21 Study Unit 2. the silent or unpronounced e can cause you to make spelling errors.

Lesson 3 . Notice the long vowels in the following examples: • • • • • • • • promote parade parachute envelope explode demote tirade intercede MCI Course 0118K 2-22 Study Unit 2. it changes the preceding vowel from short to long. The following list provides examples of these words: Word with short vowel lop slop cop pop Effect on Longer Words Effect of the Silent e Examples Adding the silent e e e e e New word with long vowel sound lope slope cope pope The preceding rule also applies to words that contain more than one syllable.Rule Correctly identifying the effect of the silent e is not difficult if you follow this rule: When there’s a silent e on the end of a word.

some. were. Some words with more than one syllable are also exceptions to the silent e rule.Exceptions Now that you have learned the silent e rule. and done. here’s a word of caution. As stated in previous lessons. You will learn more about the silent e and suffixes in the next study unit. Lesson 3 . • • • • • • • • definite infinite service native opposite practice ultimate crevice Explanation Examples MCI Course 0118K 2-23 Study Unit 2. are. there are exceptions to certain rules that apply to spelling such words as one. The following examples that are exceptions to the silent e rule demonstrate the importance of using a visual and sound pattern to help you spell.

(1) __________________________________________________________ (2) __________________________________________________________ (3) __________________________________________________________ (4) __________________________________________________________ Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 2-24 Study Unit 2. State the rule concerning the silent e. list four words with more than one syllable that are exceptions to the silent e rule. list four two-syllable words that change from short to long when the silent e is added. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Instructions Item 1 Item 2 From examples given in this lesson. Lesson 3 . (1) __________________________________________________________ (2) __________________________________________________________ (3) __________________________________________________________ (4) __________________________________________________________ Item 3 From examples given in this lesson.Lesson 3 Exercise Answer the following items and check your responses against those listed in the exercise drill answers.

practice. explode. ultimate. Correct Answer(s) The silent e at the end of the words changes the preceding vowel from short to long. service. native. (any four) promote. infinite.Lesson 3 Exercise. opposite. Continued The table below lists the answers to the exercise. demote or tirade (any four) definite. or crevice Reference 2-22 2-22 2-23 Solutions MCI Course 0118K 2-25 Study Unit 2. parade. Lesson 3 . Refer to the reference pages if you have questions about these answers.

except after c or when the combination sounds like a i before e. In which list of words containing the long e sound (and spelled ee. preceding vowel from long to short. c. preceding vowel from short to long. deel. d. Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 2-26 Study Unit 2 Exercise . d. carbine Item 3 The silent e at the end of a word changes the a. b. ea. cleat keen. meaning of the word. b. reel. heed.Study Unit 2 Exercise Complete the exercise items 1 through 5 by selecting the correct multiplechoice answer. reech. c. c. It changes the word from singular to plural. leave. or i) are all words spelled correctly? a. b. Item 2 Instructions Item 1 e before i. Item 4 What is the rule governing the silent e at the end of a word? a. What is the rule governing whether a word will be spelled with ei or ie? a. heep steel. word from singular to plural. It changes the preceding vowel from short to long. except after c or when the combination sounds like a i before e. There are no changes in the word. peece seed. d. c. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this study unit. It changes the meaning of a word. naïve. lean. kneel. machine. except after c or when the combination sounds like e If the combination sounds like e. place the i before the e. greed. Vaseline. d. leegue. b. reef.

Study Unit 2 Exercise. done. one. done. field. choke. receive. weigh Continued on next page Item 5 MCI Course 0118K 2-27 Study Unit 2 Exercise . are some. select the group in which all words are an exception to the “silent e” rule. b. were. weigh one. some. Continued From the list of words below. are pope. d. c. a. were.

2-15. If you have questions about these items. refer to the reference page.Study Unit 2 Exercise. Continued The table below lists the answers to the study unit exercise items. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 Answer b c d b b Reference(s) 2-4 2-12. 2-18 2-22 2-22 2-23 Solutions MCI Course 0118K 2-28 Study Unit 2 Exercise .

This study unit will focus. but they do not change the basic meaning of the root word. so we will not emphasize them in this course. on such spellings. The word prefix itself has the syllable pre. and they normally change the meaning of the word. Do not confuse suffixes with prefixes. added to the root word fix. and dropping the final e of root words before adding suffixes. -ent/-ence. So prefix means to fasten in front of. Prefixes are syllables or sounds added in front of a root word. -able/-ible. meaning to fasten. Identify the proper doubling of the final consonants. Suffixes can pose some unusual spelling problems since they often require changes to the last letters of a root word and because there are different suffixes that mean the same thing. Upon completion of this study unit. primarily. meaning ahead of or in front of. Prefixes will seldom present unusual spelling problems.STUDY UNIT 3 SUFFIXES Overview Where do suffixes come from? Who could have thought of these endings? Suffixes are syllables added to the end of a root word. ant/-ance. Continued on next page Scope Word of Caution Learning Objectives MCI Course 0118K 3-1 Study Unit 3 . -ise/-ize/-yze and -ly/-ally. changing of y to i. you should be able to • • Identify the correct spelling of words ending with -ary/-ery. Suffixes change the function of a root word in a sentence.

Continued This study unit contains the following lessons.Overview. -ence. and -ance Words Ending in -able and -ible Words Ending in -ise. Topic Doubling the Final Consonant Adding Suffixes to Words Ending in e Adding Suffixes to Words Ending in y Words Ending in -ary/-ery Words Ending in -ent. -ize. -ant. and -yze Words Ending in -ly and -ally Study Unit 3 Exercise See Page 3-3 3-7 3-13 3-17 3-21 3-25 3-29 3-33 3-37 In This Study Unit MCI Course 0118K 3-2 Study Unit 3 .

Do you double the final consonant before you add ed. Lesson 1 . you should be able to • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives State the rule for doubling the final consonant. or other suffixes starting with a vowel? Do you double the r in appear to make it past tense? Do you double the p in jump? Do you double the l in travel? The answer to these questions will be found within the lesson. there is a simple matter you must consider. ing.LESSON 1 DOUBLING THE FINAL CONSONANT Introduction Before you start thinking about adding suffixes. Spell words correctly when doubling the final consonant. Topic Introduction Rule Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 3-3 3-4 3-5 MCI Course 0118K 3-3 Study Unit 3. Upon completion of this lesson. This lesson contains the following topics.

for the following reasons: You double only consonants after single vowels (appear has two vowels). There may be only one consonant at the end of the word. The answers to the questions in the introductory paragraph of this lesson is no. the following four conditions must exist in the root word and the suffix. The suffix must begin with a vowel. MCI Course 0118K 3-4 Study Unit 3. You double consonants that are single (jump has two consonants). Lesson 1 . The final consonant must be preceded by one vowel. • • • • Answers Conditions The word must be of one syllable or have the accent on the last syllable. The consonant must come at the end of a onesyllable word or a word with the accent on the last syllable.Rule To double the final consonant when you add a suffix.

Lesson 1 . Check your answers in the dictionary provided with this course. Root run defer color swim exist permit begin compel travel stop expel control hot flirt expect open inform number hit riot er ed ation ing ence ed er ing ing age ed ed est ing ation ing ed ing er ous Continued on next page Instructions Add Spelling MCI Course 0118K 3-5 Study Unit 3.Lesson 1 Exercise Apply the four conditions to each word in the following list.

Lesson 1 Exercise. refer to the reference page and/or your pocket dictionary to refresh your memory. Continued The table below lists the answers to the exercise drill. Lesson 1 . Correct Spelling runner deferred coloration swimming existence permitted beginner compelling traveling stoppage expelled controlled hottest flirting expectation opening informed numbering hitter riotous Reference 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 Solutions MCI Course 0118K 3-6 Study Unit 3. If you have questions about these items.

but there are some exceptions that can only be memorized.LESSON 2 ADDING SUFFIXES TO WORDS ENDING IN E Introduction In this lesson we will cover adding suffixes to words ending with the letter e when the suffix begins with a vowel or consonant. Combining root words that end with an e and suffixes that start with a consonant does not seem to present any problems. This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Rule Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 3-7 3-8 3-9 MCI Course 0118K 3-7 Study Unit 3. There are some suffixes that can be added directly to a word without any changes. Upon completion of this lesson. you should be able to • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives State the rule governing adding suffixes to words ending in e. Lesson 2 . Spell words correctly when adding suffixes to words ending in e.

Lesson 2 . As always there are exceptions to almost every rule. Suffix Begins with a Vowel Exception MCI Course 0118K 3-8 Study Unit 3. The following list of words are just a few: • • • • mileage noticeable advantageous dyeing (coloring a fabric with dye). ceasing to live. drop the root’s final e and add the suffix. Contrast this with dying.Rule When the suffix begins with a vowel.

Lesson 2 Exercise Apply the rule that you previously learned to spell each word correctly. Root Word nine hope pave hope care awe love share imagine admire force entire Suffix ty ful ment ing less some able ing ary ation ible ly ninety Spelling Drill 1 Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 3-9 Study Unit 3. Use your pocket dictionary to check for the correct spelling. Lesson 2 . Add the suffix to the root word. then spell the word.

Use your pocket dictionary to check for the correct spelling. Continued Remember the exceptions to the rule of applying suffixes to words ending in e. then spell the word.Lesson 2 Exercise. Root Word mile due judge dye true nine notice whole advantage acknowledge Suffix age ly ment ing ly th able ly ous ment Continued on next page Drill 2 Spelling MCI Course 0118K 3-10 Study Unit 3. Lesson 2 . Add the suffix to the root word.

Lesson 2 Exercise. If you have questions about these answers. Continued The tables below list the answers to the lesson 2 exercise drills. Lesson 2 . refer to the reference page and/or your pocket dictionary to refresh your memory Solutions Drill 1 Correct Spelling ninety hopeful pavement hoping careless awesome loveable sharing imaginary admiration forcible entirely Drill 2 Reference 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 Correct Spelling mileage duly judgment or judgement dyeing truly ninth noticeable wholly advantageous acknowledgment Reference 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 MCI Course 0118K 3-11 Study Unit 3.

) MCI Course 0118K 3-12 Study Unit 3. Lesson 2 .(This page intentionally left blank.

This lesson cover the following topics: Topic Introduction Rule Lesson 3 Exercise See Page 3-13 3-14 3-15 MCI Course 0118K 3-13 Study Unit 3.LESSON 3 ADDING SUFFIXES TO WORDS ENDING IN Y Introduction This lesson is designed to increase your knowledge in applying suffixes to words that end with the letter y. Lesson 3 . Upon completion of this lesson. you should be able to • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives State the rule for applying suffixes to words ending in y. the exceptions to the rules. and by completing exercise drills. Spell words correctly by adding suffixes to words ending in y. You will do this by learning the rules.

say. with almost every rule there are exceptions. keep the y. change the y to i. the correct way to spell those words are paid and laid. The first exception is to never use a double i. and pay. you would spell the word daily. The words day. Lesson 3 . The next exception is the words day. lay. and pay all end in the silent y and have the long a sound. lay. As we have learned from previous lessons. Examples MCI Course 0118K 3-14 Study Unit 3. but if you add ful to duty you would get dutiful. If the y is preceded by a consonant. you wouldn’t write dayly. say. By following the rules you would add ful to joy and get joyful. proceed as follows: • • Exceptions Two Choices If the y is preceded by a vowel. Therefore. Although it may seem easier to just add ed to pay and lay so that they’ll be spelled payed and layed.Rule To decide whether to change a y at the end of a word to i before adding a suffix.

Root Word worry cry pay joy boy fifty lazy say baby funny array hurry hasty duty beauty reply ed ing ed ful hood eth ness ing ish er ed ing ly ful ful es Suffix worried Spell Instructions Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 3-15 Study Unit 3. then spell the word correctly.Lesson 3 Exercise Add the suffix to the root word. Use your pocket dictionary to check for the correct spelling. Lesson 3 .

Lesson 3 Exercise. Lesson 3 . Correct Spelling crying paid joyful boyhood fiftieth laziness saying babyish funnier arrayed hurrying hastily dutiful beautiful replies Reference 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-14 Solutions MCI Course 0118K 3-16 Study Unit 3. Continued The table below list the answers to the lesson 3 exercise. refer to the reference page and/or your pocket dictionary to refresh your memory. If you have any questions about these answers.

bravery. Lesson 4 .LESSON 4 WORDS ENDING IN -ARY/-ERY Introduction So far in this study unit. you should be able to • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives State the rules for deciding whether a word ends in -ary or -ery. You will learn when to add -ary or -ery to the end of words. In this lesson. such as stationary. Spell words correctly when adding -ary or -ery. Topic Introduction Rules Lesson 4 Exercise See Page 3-17 3-18 3-19 MCI Course 0118K 3-17 Study Unit 3. you learned how to spell some troublesome words. you will learn to spell additional troublesome words. Upon completion of this lesson. stationery. and solitary. This lesson contains the following topics.

For example. it’s probably a noun. the words January and February do not fit the rule because. Janu and Febru are not words. it’s usually an adjective. If the word ends in -ery. a word that modifies a noun. MCI Course 0118K 3-18 Study Unit 3. Root discipline brave nurse discover Exceptions Forming a noun or adjective? adjective noun noun noun Suffix -ary -ery -ery -ery New word disciplinary bravery nursery discovery The rules above apply only if the -ary or -ery is attached to a root word. Lesson 4 . after removing -ary.Rules Use the following rules to spell words that end in -ary or -ery the rules are as follows: • • Examples Adjective or Noun If a word ends in -ary. and is placed in front of a noun.

Root brave nurse discipline document auxill solit tempor annivers cemet periph libr secret necess judici millin Janu Febru contemp sanit tribut extraordin discov precaution diction Continued on next page Instructions Add ary or ery Noun or adjective MCI Course 0118K 3-19 Study Unit 3.Lesson 4 Exercise Add -ary or -ery to the root word from column 1. write whether the word is a noun or adjective. and use your pocket dictionary to check for correct spelling and whether the word is a noun or adjective. and put your response in column 2. Lesson 4 . Then in column 3. Remember the rules.

Continued The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. refer to the reference pages and/or your pocket dictionary to refresh your memory. Correct Spelling bravery nursery disciplinary documentary auxiliary solitary temporary anniversary cemetery periphery library secretary necessary judiciary millinery January February contemporary sanitary tributary extraordinary discovery precautionary dictionary Noun or Adjective noun noun adjective adjective adjective adjective adjective noun noun noun noun noun adjective adjective noun noun noun adjective adjective adjective adjective noun adjective noun Reference 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 3-18 Solutions MCI Course 0118K 3-20 Study Unit 3.Lesson 4 Exercise. If you have any questions about these items. Lesson 4 .

you should be able to • • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives State the conditions for spelling words with -ent. Identify words correct spelling when applying -ent. -ANT. -ence. -ant.LESSON 5 WORDS ENDING IN -ENT. -ENCE. and -ance. ant. Upon completion of this lesson. and -ance. and –ance. -ent. AND -ANCE Introduction Does the word existence end in -ance or -ence. Spell words correctly by applying -ent. or -ance should be added to words to form the correct spelling. -ant. -ence. This lesson will increase your ability to decide which suffix. -ence. -ant. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Introduction Conditions Lesson 5 Exercise See Page 3-21 3-22 3-23 MCI Course 0118K 3-21 Study Unit 3. Lesson 5 . or superintendent with -ent or -ant? These challenging words may require us to seek resolution in the dictionary. You will do this by familiarizing yourself with the conditions that apply when spelling these words and by successfully completing exercise drills. -ence.

ent suffici .ence defer .ent preval .ent defici .ent incid .ent profici .ence prefer . s. or n. A verb root word ends with an r.ence refer . d.ent dilig .ent emin .Conditions The following conditions must exist when adding -ent and -ence to words: • • • Example 1 Adding -ent and -ence The root word ends with a l. d.ence MCI Course 0118K 3-22 Study Unit 3. Lesson 5 .ence emerg .ence Example 2 Example 3 Root words that end with sh or s-sound effici . or n l excell .ant Verb root words that end in r concur (r) ence recur (r) ence deter (r) ence occur (r) ence adher . The root word ends in sh.ent Example 4 Root words that end with a soft g sound intellig . or a soft g sound.ent d n promin .ence infer .ent Exception defend .ence confer . Root words that end in l.

or -ance MCI Course 0118K 3-23 Study Unit 3. Root excell-brilli-extravag (hard g) -emerg (soft g) -signific (hard c) -magnific (soft c & s-sound) Drill 2 Drill 1 Add -ent. Root consci import influ prefer attend susten venge bal convenient (change to a noun) concur audi suffici adher confer refer Continued on next page Add -ent. or ance to the root word and spell the word correctly. -ence. Lesson 5 . ant. -ant. or -ance. -ence. or -ance to spell the following words correctly. -ant. or -ance Add the ending ent. -ence. ence. they would apply to all words that end in -ant. Use your pocket dictionary to check for the correct spelling. but they don’t. Add -ent.Lesson 5 Exercise If the spelling guidelines we discussed so far in this lesson were all encompassing. -ant. Use your pocket dictionary to check for correct spelling.

Lesson 5 . refer to the reference pages and/or your pocket dictionary to refresh your memory. If you have any questions about these items. Solutions Drill 1 Correct Spelling excellence brilliant extravagant emergence significant magnificent Drill 2 Reference 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 Correct Spelling conscience important influence preference attendance sustenance vengeance balance convenience concurrence audience sufficient adherence conference reference Reference 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 3-22 MCI Course 0118K 3-24 Study Unit 3.Lesson 5 Exercise. Continued The tables below list the answers to the exercise drills.

because the word “repair” by itself is a word. should be added to words to form the correct spelling. Lesson 6 . add -able. apply the following rule: If the root word is not a complete word by itself. Spell words correctly by applying -able and -ible. you will do this by familiarizing yourself with the rules that apply and successfully completing exercise drills. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Introduction Rules Lesson 6 Exercise See Page 3-25 3-26 3-27 MCI Course 0118K 3-25 Study Unit 3. -able or -ible. If the root is a complete word.” Afterwards. An example is when writing the word “repair. which is “admiss. Identify words correct spelling when applying -able and -ible. Upon completion of this lesson. As you study. you should be able to • • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives State the rules for spelling words with -able and -ible.” Add -able.LESSON 6 WORDS ENDING IN -ABLE AND -IBLE Introduction If you were writing “The lawyer said the evidence was admiss____.” Do you use -able or -ible? This choice is somewhat simplified by focusing on the root word. add -ible. This lesson will increase your ability to decide which suffix.

If the root ends in a soft g or c sound. • • Note: If you have problems with elusive e. ends in a soft g or c sound.Rules The following table explains the rules for adding -able and -ible to a root word to spell words correctly. you must change the y to i before adding -able or -ible. or an i. refer back to study unit 2. Guidelines Root Word Add -ible if the root word is not a word by itself. add -able even though the root is not a word. Here are a few guidelines to follow: • When you add -able or -ible to roots ending in e. MCI Course 0118K 3-26 Study Unit 3. as in sociable. Add -able if the root word is a word by itself. Lesson 6 . and for words ending in y. ends in an i. you usually drop the e then add the root. Keep the e when the word has a soft ge or ce sound.

Lesson 6 . Use your pocket dictionary to check for correct spelling. Root Word justify play admire pity blame admiss aud rectify adapt elig invinc envi service incred depend excuse advis laugh vis accept Continued on next page Instructions Add -able or -ible MCI Course 0118K 3-27 Study Unit 3.Lesson 6 Exercise Add the ending able or ible to the root word to spell the word correctly.

If you have any questions about these items. Continued The table below lists the answers to the exercise drill. Correct Spelling justifiable playable admirable pitiable blamable admissible audible rectifiable adaptable eligible invincible enviable serviceable incredible dependable excusable advisable laughable visible acceptable Reference 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 3-26 Solutions MCI Course 0118K 3-28 Study Unit 3. refer to the reference pages and/or your pocket dictionary to refresh your memory.Lesson 6 Exercise. Lesson 6 .

It may be as difficult to remember the rules as it is to remember how to spell the word. or -yze should be added to words to form the correct spelling. you’ve learned that spelling words ending in various suffixes can be difficult even with rules and guidelines. You will do this by using your pocket dictionary and successfully completing the exercise drills.LESSON 7 WORDS ENDING IN -ISE. Lesson 7 . you should be able to add -ise. This lesson will increase your ability to decide which suffix. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Introduction General Information Lesson 7 Exercise See Page 3-29 3-30 3-31 In This Lesson MCI Course 0118K 3-29 Study Unit 3. there are no rules or guidelines to follow. AND -YZE Introduction So far in this study unit. In this lesson. -IZE. -ise. -ize. -ize. Learning Objective Scope Upon completion of this lesson. and -yze to correctly spell words.

-ise surprise exercise organize authorize -ize analyze paralyze -yze Background Exceptions Examples MCI Course 0118K 3-30 Study Unit 3.General Information The suffix ize is used for most words in the American English language. or yze. merchandise. and surprise. Obvious exceptions are advertise. ize. The following table lists words spelled with ise. Lesson 7 .

Lesson 7 Exercise
Add the suffix -ise, -ize, or -yze to the root word to form the correct spelling. Use your pocket dictionary to check for correct spelling. Root word patron theor anal surpr exerc penal liberal author paral adv merchand familiar real emphas advert recogn critic enterpr superv summar character brutal symbol
Continued on next page

Instructions

Add -ise, -ize, or -yze

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 7

Lesson 7 Exercise, Continued
The table below lists the answers to the exercise drill. If you have any questions about these items, refer to the reference page and/or your pocket dictionary to refresh your memory. Correct Spelling patronize theorize analyze surprise exercise penalize liberalize authorize paralyze advise merchandise familiarize realize emphasize advertise recognize criticize enterprise supervise summarize characterize brutalize symbolize References 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30 3-30

Solutions

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 7

LESSON 8 WORDS ENDING IN -LY AND -ALLY Introduction
To change a noun or adjective to an adverb, you usually add -ly or -ally. The noun chief becomes an adverb when you add -ly to make the word chiefly. This will not cause spelling problems in most cases; however, you must remember the rule about the elusive e (refer to study unit 2). This lesson will increase your knowledge of adding -ly and -ally to spell words correctly. You will do this by familiarizing yourself with the guidelines and completing the exercise drill. Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to • •
In This Lesson

Scope

Learning Objectives

State the guidelines for spelling words ending in -ly and -ally. Apply ly and ally to correctly spell words.

This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Introduction Guidelines Lesson 8 Exercise See Page 3-33 3-34 3-35

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 8

The following table will list some examples of the guidelines above. The following information is provided: If the word ends in… an l able or ible ic Examples When to Add then… you add ly. add ally. change the e to y.Guidelines There are only a few guidelines to pay attention to when spelling words ending in -ly and -ally. Ending in l equally morally really Ending in -able or -ible Ending in -ic comfortably critically profitably automatically probably mechanically MCI Course 0118K 3-34 Study Unit 3. Lesson 8 .

Lesson 8 . Root word accidental occasional final certain specific scarce safe due immediate shy easy true critic Continued on next page Instructions Add -ly or -ally MCI Course 0118K 3-35 Study Unit 3. Use your pocket dictionary to check for the correct spelling.Lesson 8 Exercise Add the ending suffix -ly or -ally to the root word to spell the word correctly.

Continued The table below lists the answers to the exercise drill. Lesson 8 . If you have questions about these items.Lesson 8 Exercise. refer to the reference page and/or your pocket dictionary to refresh your memory. Correct Spelling accidentally occasionally finally certainly specifically scarcely safely duly immediately shyly easily truly critically Reference 3-34 3-34 3-34 3-34 3-34 3-34 3-34 3-34 3-34 3-34 3-34 3-34 3-34 Solutions MCI Course 0118K 3-36 Study Unit 3.

ninth wholly. change the y to i. flirtting. deferred. c. ninety. duly pavement. hopeful. informed travelling. compelling numberring. b. b. c. swimming runner. permitted. admiration. Item 2 Directions Item 1 The final consonant must be preceded by not less than two vowels. openning. Which of the following conditions must exist to double the final consonant when you add a suffix? a. d. The suffix must begin with a vowel In which list of words doubling the final consonant are all words spelled correctly? a. d.Study Unit 3 Exercise Complete exercise items 1 through 12 by selecting the correct multiple choice answer. swimming. hottest Item 3 Select the list of words below in which all words are spelled correctly. beginner. Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 3-37 Study Unit 3 Exercise . Only two consonants must be at the end. hitter. d. forceable. careless. c. milage. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this study unit. keep the y and add es. d. runner. b. loviable. defered. duly Item 4 One rule for adding suffixes to words that end in y is that if the y is proceeded by a vowel. c. a. The suffix must begin with a consonant. entirely judgement. noticeable. change the y to ies. a. awsome. keep the y. b.

Select the lists of words below in which all words are spelled correctly. cemetery. c. balance. tributery. attendence. adverb. noun. d. sufficient conference. b. secretery dictionary. attendance Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 3-38 Study Unit 3 Exercise . nursary. b. d. conference. d. d. c. significant. brillant emergence. c. concurrance. excellence. Item 6 Item 5 pronoun. library. library January. temporary Item 7 How many conditions must exist when adding ent or ence to the end of words? a. then the word is usually a a.Study Unit 3 Exercise. b. reference. convenience important. preferance. bravery judiciary. 5 4 3 2 Item 8 Select the lists of words below in which all words are spelled correctly. a. a. c. discovery. Continued If a word ends in ary. nursery. February. bravery. adjective. influence. sanitary. b.

b. familiarize paralize. finally. d. The word must be a noun. penalize. c. duely. d. a. analise. a. Item 12 Select the lists of words below in which all words are spelled correctly. advize exercise. automatically. critically.Study Unit 3 Exercise. duly moraly. theoryze. d. enterprise Item 11 What is the guideline when adding ally to a word? a. b. Item 10 Item 9 ent ant able ible Select the lists of words below in which all words are spelled correctly. criticize supervise. b. The word must be a verb. shyly. occasionaly. Continued You would add __________ if root word is a word by itself. The word must end in ic. certainly finally. equally. a. probably Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 3-39 Study Unit 3 Exercise . authorize. d. c. advertise. The word must be an adjective. c. patronize. c. b. patronize. really. certainlly truely. advertise. accidentally. realize.

Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Answer d a d c d b c a c b b c Reference 3-4 3-6 3-11 3-14 3-18 3-20 3-22 3-24 3-26 3-32 3-34 3-36 Solutions MCI Course 0118K 3-40 Study Unit 3 Exercise . refer to the reference page. If you have questions about these items. Continued The table below lists the answers to the study unit exercise items.Study Unit 3 Exercise.

fe. and symbols. o. This study unit focuses on how to make all types of words plural. What about nouns that end in y. and numbers. irregular words. Letters. and words that end in o? The list goes on and on. and Words See Page 4-1 4-3 4-9 4-13 4-17 4-21 4-27 4-33 4-39 Scope Learning Objective In This Study Unit MCI Course 0118K 4-1 Study Unit 4 . This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic Overview Regular and Singular Nouns Nouns Ending in y Proper Nouns Words Ending in f. specifically those that end in y. “How could making a word plural be so difficult?” To make most of our singular and regular nouns plural. Upon completion of this study unit. and f. words that end in f. or ff. compound words.STUDY UNIT 4 PLURALS Overview People often ask themselves. you simply add an s or es to the end of the word. Symbols. proper nouns. you should be able to identify the correct plural spelling of singular and regular nouns. fe. letters. proper nouns. or ff Words Ending in o Irregular and Singular Words Compound Words Numbers.

(This page intentionally left blank.) MCI Course 0118K 4-2 Study Unit 4 .

Form the plurals of the list of regular and singular nouns. Now. Identify the letters that make an s-sound at the end of singular words. This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Regular. Form the plurals of singular nouns that end in an s-sound.LESSON 1 REGULAR AND SINGULAR NOUNS Introduction You have come a long way to arrive at this point in the course. Upon completion of this lesson. Singular Nouns S-Sound at the End of Singular Words Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 4-4 4-5 4-7 MCI Course 0118K 4-3 Study Unit 4. It sounds easy and it can be if you learn and apply the rules. let’s focus on making regular and singular nouns plural. you should be able to • • • • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives State the rule for forming the plurals of regular and singular nouns. State the rule for forming the plural of words whose singular form ends in an s-sound. Lesson 1 .

Take a look at some of the following examples of this rule: Regular and Singular Nouns Examples Singular word bird book student bulb word Words Ending in an s-Sound Add an s s s s s s Plural word birds books students bulbs words To change a word that ends in an s-sound to its plural form. The next page discusses this further. we also add an es to form the plural. you add an e to the usual plural ending. Lesson 1 . You need to spell the extra syllable to aid pronunciation. to pronounce. MCI Course 0118K 4-4 Study Unit 4. if not impossible. Therefore. you will hear an extra syllable. Singular Nouns The most common method for making nouns plural is to add an s to most nouns.Regular. Take a look at some of the following examples of this rule Examples Singular word bus boss dress peach dish Additional Information Add an es es es es es es Plural word buses bosses dresses peaches dishes If you attempted to make the previous group of words plural by adding only an s. the words would have been difficult. when singular words that end in an s-sound are changed to plurals. As the rule above explains. you simply add an es to the end of the word. Sometimes the singular word’s final s-sound is like a “hiss” or “shhh” such as in “box” or “porch.” In these cases.

• • • • • • business vertex glitz peach dish switch MCI Course 0118K 4-5 Study Unit 4. The following list contains letters that make an s-sound when placed on the end of singular words: • • • • • • Examples The Letters s x z ch (when its sound is soft) sh tch The following list contains examples of words having letters that make an ssound at the end of their singular forms.S-Sound at the End of Singular Words We’ve already learned the rules for making words that end in an s-sound plural. Lesson 1 .

Lesson 1 Exercise Change the singular word in column 1 to its plural form in column 2. Use your pocket dictionary to check for the correct answer. Lesson 1 . Singular garden match crash blanket shed monarch waltz father wish punch bus box watch Continued on next page Instructions Plural MCI Course 0118K 4-6 Study Unit 4.

refer to the reference page to refresh your memory.Lesson 1 Exercise. Continued The table below lists the answers to the lesson 1 exercise drill. If you have questions about these answers. Let’s go to the next lesson and learn how to make nouns that end in y plural. Lesson 1 . Correct Spelling gardens matches crashes blankets sheds monarchs waltzes fathers wishes punches buses boxes watches Summary Solutions Reference 4-4 4-5 4-5 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-6 4-4 4-6 4-6 4-5 4-6 4-6 In this lesson you learned the rules for making singular nouns plural and forming the plural of words whose singular form ends in an s-sound. MCI Course 0118K 4-7 Study Unit 4.

) MCI Course 0118K 4-8 Study Unit 4.(This page intentionally left blank. Lesson 1 .

Correctly spell words that are the plural form of common nouns and end in y. Upon completion of this lesson. You will do this by learning the rules and completing the lesson exercise drill. Lesson 2 .LESSON 2 NOUNS ENDING IN Y Introduction Let’s take a look at how to spell the plural form of nouns that end in y. Scope Learning Objectives In This Lesson This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Introduction Rules Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 4-9 4-10 4-11 MCI Course 0118K 4-9 Study Unit 4. you should be able to • • State the two rules for forming the plural of common nouns that end in y.

change the y to i and add es. MCI Course 0118K 4-10 Study Unit 4. you add an s or es to the word.Rules If the final y follows a vowel. The table below lists some of these examples: Singular fly lobby party jelly monopoly flies lobbies parties jellies monopolies Plurals Recap As you can see. keep the y and add an s. to change words that end in y from the singular form to the plural. Lesson 2 . The table below lists some of these examples: Singular monkey bay buoy guy jersey Rule 2 Rule 1 Plural monkeys bays buoys guys jerseys If the final y follows a consonant.

Lesson 2 Exercise Change the singular word in column 1 to its plural form in column 2. Use your pocket dictionary to check for the correct answer Singular city holiday salary enemy chimney library duty penalty display Continued on next page Instructions Plural MCI Course 0118K 4-11 Study Unit 4. Lesson 2 .

Lesson 2 Exercise. MCI Course 0118K 4-12 Study Unit 4. Correct Spelling cities holidays salaries enemies chimneys libraries duties penalties displays Summary Solutions Reference 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 4-10 If you’ve made it to this point in this study unit. There is a lot of similarity between the previous lessons you have mastered and the remaining material. the rest of this course should be a breeze. Continued The table below lists the answers to the lesson 1 exercise drill. refer to the reference page to refresh your memory. If you have questions about these answers. Lesson 2 . In this lesson you learned to identify and correctly spell the plural form of nouns that end in y.

LESSON 3 PROPER NOUNS Introduction Names of specific persons. or things are known as proper nouns. This lesson contains the following topics. Upon completion of this lesson. Lesson 3 . Spell proper nouns correctly in the plural form. you should be able to • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives State the rules for forming the plural of proper nouns. places. Topic Introduction Rules Lesson 3 Exercise See Page 4-13 4-14 4-15 MCI Course 0118K 4-13 Study Unit 4. Have you ever wondered how to spell the plural of somebody’s name? Writing proper nouns in their plural form isn’t so difficult. you’ll have all the answers to making proper nouns plural. After learning the rules and completing the lesson exercise.

add an es to form the plural. Adding the s to a proper noun that ends in y prevents the noun from being changed too drastically. Singular Edmonds Mimms Edmondses Mimmses Plural Rule 3 To form the plural form of proper nouns that end in y. Singular Jackson Ferdinand Nelson Rule 2 Rule 1 Plural Jacksons Ferdinands Nelsons If the proper noun ends in an s. add an s. It does not make a difference whether the y is preceded by a vowel or consonant. This rule applies to proper nouns that end in a consonant other than s or an es Take a look at the examples in the table below. Lesson 3 . never change the y to i. Singular Harry July January Friday Montgomery Harrys Julys Januarys Fridays Montgomerys Plural MCI Course 0118K 4-14 Study Unit 4. add only an s. Note: When changing proper nouns that end in y to the plural. Take a look at the examples in the table below. Add only an s to the complete name.Rules To form the plural for most proper nouns.

Proper Noun Kennedy Karen Libby Hughes Wednesday Duffy Rexroad Martin Murray Continued on next page Instructions Correct Spelling MCI Course 0118K 4-15 Study Unit 4. Lesson 3 .Lesson 3 Exercise Form the plural of each of the following proper nouns.

If you have any questions about these items. Correct Spelling Kennedys Karens Libbys Hugheses Wednesdays Duffys Rexroads Martins Murrays Summary Solutions Reference 4-14 4-14 4-14 4-14 4-14 4-14 4-14 4-14 4-14 In this lesson. Your next lesson should not be difficult either. Lesson 3 . Continued The table below lists the answers to the exercise drill. refer to the reference page to refresh your memory.Lesson 3 Exercise. so let’s go! MCI Course 0118K 4-16 Study Unit 4. you mastered spelling the plural forms of proper nouns.

you will be well on your way to mastering this lesson. and ff plural. you can be assured that you are probably spelling the words correctly. fe. In this lesson. Scope Learning Objectives In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Rules Lesson 4 Exercise See Page 4-17 4-18 4-19 MCI Course 0118K 4-17 Study Unit 4. AND FF Introduction There are no special tricks or formulas to making words plural. you should be able to • • • State the rules for forming the plural of words ending in f. and ff. fe. fe.LESSON 4 WORDS ENDING IN F. Spell words correctly when forming the plural of words ending in f. FE. Change the plural form of words ending in f. and ff. you will learn the rules to make words that end in f. Lesson 4 . fe. Once you complete the lesson exercise drill. and ff words back to singular. Upon completion of this lesson. If you memorize the rules.

you simply add an s to form the plural.Rules For most nouns that end in f. The words below have more than one plural form. there are some exceptions to spelling rules. Take a look at the examples below. change the f to a v and then add an es. fe. or ff. There are some words that can be made plural by more than one rule. Singular staff scarf wharf staffs scarfs wharfs Plural Alternate Plural staves scarves wharves MCI Course 0118K 4-18 Study Unit 4. When adding an s to make the word plural would be awkward. Singular belief proof tariff strife chief Rule 2 Rule 1 Plural beliefs proofs tariffs strifes chiefs We apply the next rule when adding an s to the singular would make the plural difficult to pronounce. Lesson 4 . Singular elf self half thief wife elves selves halves thieves wives Plural Exceptions As we have seen throughout this course. Take a look at the examples below.

Lesson 4 Exercise Change the word from its singular form in column 1 to its plural form in column 2. Column 1 leaves shelves wharves fifes reefs Continued on next page Column 2 MCI Course 0118K 4-19 Study Unit 4. Lesson 4 . Check for the correct spelling in your pocket dictionary. Column 1 sheriff knife yourself chef cliff Drill 2 Drill 1 Column 2 Change the word from its plural form in column 1 to its singular form in column 2. Check for the correct spelling in your pocket dictionary.

and ff plural. Good Job! Now let’s tackle the next lesson. Solutions Drill 1 Correct Spelling sheriffs knives yourselves chefs cliffs Drill 2 Reference 4-18 4-18 4-18 4-18 4-18 Correct Spelling leaf shelf wharf fife reef Summary Reference 4-18 4-18 4-18 4-18 4-18 In this lesson. Continued The tables below list the answers to the exercise drills. Lesson 4 . MCI Course 0118K 4-20 Study Unit 4.Lesson 4 Exercise. If you have questions about these items. You also learned how to change words from the plural form back to the singular. refer to the reference page to refresh your memory. fe. you learned the rules you need to apply to make words that end in f.

you should be able to • • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives State the guidelines for forming the plural of words ending in o. we will learn to correctly identify and spell the plurals of words that end in o. and successfully completing the lesson exercise drill. using memory aids. List the nine words that are exceptions to the guidelines. This lesson covers the following topics. Topic Introduction Guidelines Exceptions Lesson 5 Exercise See Page 4-21 4-22 4-23 4-24 MCI Course 0118K 4-21 Study Unit 4.LESSON 5 WORDS ENDING IN O Introduction As discussed in previous study units and lessons. Identify and spell the plural form of words that end in o. You will master this lesson by learning the guidelines. learning spelling rules. and using memory aids can assist you in spelling difficult words. guidelines. In this lesson. Lesson 5 . Upon completion of this lesson.

consonants. This memory aid is applicable to a specific group of words that end in o. For the majority of words that end in o.Guidelines The following are the guidelines for forming the plural of most words that end in o. you don’t have to worry about vowels. A list of these type of examples is below. or dropping or changing anything before adding the plural ending. There are nine words that end in o that form the plural by adding an es. just add an s. • • • General Information Words Ending in O To form the plural of most words that end in o. With words that end in o. If the word ending in o refers to music. Lesson 5 . There are a few exceptions of words that end in o that take an s or es. Singular piano banjo duo trio concerto cello pianos banjos duos trios concertos cellos Plural Memory Aid MCI Course 0118K 4-22 Study Unit 4. simply add an s. simply add an s to form the plural.

s plural. and es plural forms. Lesson 5 . However you choose to form the plural of these words. Singular mosquito buffalo cargo zero s Plural mosquitos buffalos cargos zeros es Plural mosquitoes buffaloes cargoes zeroes MCI Course 0118K 4-23 Study Unit 4. Either is correct. These exceptions require that you add es to form the plural of the word. Singular echo embargo Negro no potato tomato torpedo hero veto Other Exceptions The Nine Exceptions Plural echoes embargoes Negroes noes potatoes tomatoes torpedoes heroes vetoes The words on the next list of words that end in o can be made plural by adding an s or an es. be consistent in your application.Exceptions The are only a few words that end in o that are exceptions to the guidelines mentioned in this lesson. Some examples of these words are listed below in the singular. They are listed below in both their singular and plural forms.

Lesson 5 Exercise The following exercise drill is provided to challenge your comprehension of this lesson material. Lesson 5 . and place your response in the second column. Form the plural of the singular word in the first column. Use your pocket dictionary to check for the correct spelling Singular banjo radio mosquito silo dynamo studio zoo trio piano torpedo Continued on next page Instructions Plural MCI Course 0118K 4-24 Study Unit 4.

Lesson 5 Exercise, Continued
The table below lists the answers to the exercise drill. If you have questions about these items, refer to the reference page to refresh your memory. Correct Spelling banjos radios mosquitos or mosquitoes silos dynamos studios zoos trios pianos torpedoes
Summary

Solutions

Reference 4-22 4-22 4-23 4-22 4-22 4-22 4-22 4-22 4-22 4-23

In this lesson learned to correctly identify and form the plurals of words that end in o. Let’s go on the next lesson.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 5

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 5

LESSON 6 IRREGULAR AND SINGULAR WORDS Introduction
There are some words that are a little offbeat when it comes to forming their plural. Their plurals are formed by irregular methods so we often call these words irregular words. There are no formal rules or guidelines to forming the plural of irregular words. In this lesson, we will use the pocket dictionary a great deal and we will memorize an informal guideline on how to form the plural of these words. Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to spell irregular and singular words correctly in their plural form. This lesson will cover the following topics: Topic Introduction General Information Lesson 6 Exercise See Page 4-27 4-28 4-30

Scope

Learning Objective

In This Lesson

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 6

Some of these words use the same plural form as the original language uses. alumni. datum.General Information There are some irregular words that change their entire root word to form their plurals. Singular child mouse goose man woman ox tooth NonChangeable Words Changeable Words Plural children mice geese men women oxen teeth Other irregular words require no change to form their plurals. Lesson 6 . To form the plural of foreign words that end in is you simply change the is to es. Singular thesis axis basis crisis theses axes bases crises Continued on next page Plural MCI Course 0118K 4-28 Study Unit 4. for example alumnus. data. Take a look at the following examples. Listed below are some examples. Singular sheep deer Chinese trout Foreign Words Plural sheep deer Chinese trout Many words in English require special consideration when forming their plurals because they are foreign words.

Take a look at the examples listed below.General Information. Whichever plural form you choose. Lesson 6 . For many of these words. The plural ending that you choose is optional. Singular index appendix Plural indexes appendixes Optional plural indices appendices Foreign Words with Optional Plurals MCI Course 0118K 4-29 Study Unit 4. you may have to consult your dictionary. If you use a variety of plural forms for the same word throughout the same material. you may cause the reader to be distracted by the inconsistencies in spelling. Continued Some foreign words give you a choice when spelling their plural form. be consistent throughout your writing.

Singular appendix basis hypothesis woman memorandum index goose oasis deer mouse neurosis Chinese child Continued on next page Instructions Plural MCI Course 0118K 4-30 Study Unit 4.Lesson 6 Exercise From the list of singular words in column 1. spell its plural form in column 2. Lesson 6 . Check for the correct spelling in your pocket dictionary.

Lesson 6 . If you have any questions about these items. Continued The table below lists the answers to the lesson 6 exercise drill. whenever you’re in doubt. refer to the reference pages to refresh your memory. use the dictionary. MCI Course 0118K 4-31 Study Unit 4. Since there are no formal rules or guidelines to follow on how to make irregular words plural. Correct Spelling appendixes or appendices bases hypotheses women memorandums or memoranda indexes or indices geese oases deer mice neuroses Chinese children Summary Solutions Reference 4-29 4-28 4-28 4-28 4-28 4-29 4-28 4-28 4-28 4-28 4-28 4-28 4-28 In this lesson you learned to spell the plural form of irregular words by reviewing examples and successfully completing the lesson exercise drill.Lesson 6 Exercise.

(This page intentionally left blank.) MCI Course 0118K 4-32 Study Unit 4. Lesson 6 .

you should be able to • State the rule for forming the plural of compound nouns. and some are connected with hyphens (drive-in). Upon completion of this lesson. Scope Learning Objectives • Spell words correctly when forming the plural of compound nouns. some as several words (commander in chief). In This Lesson This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Introduction Rules Lesson 7 Exercise See Page 4-33 4-34 4-36 MCI Course 0118K 4-33 Study Unit 4.LESSON 7 COMPOUND WORDS Introduction Every so often you will need to form the plural of nouns that consist of two or more words. Lesson 7 . You will do this by learning the compound noun rule and by successfully completing the exercise drill in this lesson. This lesson is designed to increase your knowledge of forming the plural of compound nouns. Some are written as one word (cupful). We call such words compound nouns.

you simply add the plural ending to the end of the noun. Some examples are below. Should you add an s or es. or last part of the word? Forming the plural of these words is really quite simple if you follow this rule: • • To form the plural of compound words. add the plural ending to the main or most significant word. the noun part of the compound is made plural. Significant last word assistant secretaries lieutenant colonels judge advocates six-year-olds No word is significant forget-me-nots hand-me-downs pick-me-ups Significant middle word assistant attorneys general assistant chiefs of staff assistant surgeons general Significant first word adjutants general aides-de-camp sergeants major Equal significance coats of arms women aviators men employees Noun Joined With an Adverb or Preposition If the compound noun is written together with no space or hyphens between the parts. Situation no space or hyphen preposition preposition Plural Form standbys passers-by goings-on Continued on next page Singular Form standby passer-by going on MCI Course 0118K 4-34 Study Unit 4. make the last word plural. Lesson 7 .Rules A common dilemma is deciding which part of the compound noun should be made plural. Situation Main or Most Significant Word Examples Familiarize yourself with the examples listed in the tables below in which the most significant word (or the last word) in the compound noun is made plural. If there is no single significant word in the compound. When a noun is joined to an adverb or preposition with a hyphen. and do you add it to the first. middle.

Rules. the last word is made plural. Lesson 7 . Continued When neither word is a noun. See the examples below. Singular Form go-between also-ran Plural Form go-betweens also-rans Neither Word is a Noun MCI Course 0118K 4-35 Study Unit 4.

Lesson 7 Exercise
From the list of singular words in column 1, spell its plural form in column 2. Check for the correct spelling in your pocket dictionary. Singular leftover mother-in-law man-of-war court martial secretary general passer-by major general commander-in-chief sergeant at arms pick-me-up notary public eight-year-old higher-up
Continued on next page

Instructions

Plural

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 7

Lesson 7 Exercise, Continued
The table below lists the answers to the lesson 7 exercise drill. If you have any questions about these answers, refer to the reference page(s) to refresh your memory. Correct Answer leftovers mothers-in-law men-of-war courts martial secretaries general passers-by major generals commanders-in-chief sergeants at arms pick-me-ups notaries public eight-year-olds higher-ups
Summary

Solutions

Reference 4-34 4-34 4-34 4-34 4-34 4-34 4-34 4-34 4-34 4-34 4-34 4-34 4-35

In this lesson you formed the plural of compound nouns by successfully learning the applicable rule and completing the exercise drill. As a result, you have completed the study unit on making various types of nouns plural. Good job! Now let’s proceed to the next lesson.

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Study Unit 4, Lesson 7

AND WORDS Introduction This lesson is designed to increase your knowledge in forming the plural of numbers. symbols. letters. LETTERS. You do this by successfully learning the guidelines and completing the exercise drill. SYMBOLS. Spell words correctly when forming the plural of numbers.LESSON 8 NUMBERS. and words. symbols. letters. letters. and symbols used as words. you should be able to • • State the guideline for forming the plural of numbers. Upon completion of this lesson. and words. Lesson 8 . Scope Learning Objectives In This Lesson This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Introduction Guidelines Lesson 8 Exercise See Page 4-39 4-40 4-41 MCI Course 0118K 4-39 Study Unit 4.

There are six E7’s in this class. add only the s. is one of our punctuation marks and is called an apostrophe.Guideline The mark you see in front of the letter s in the following. The guideline for forming the plural of numbers. Take a look at the examples below. It looks like a comma but unlike the comma. Sometimes you will see these plurals formed with only an s. but traditionally the plurals are formed with an apostrophe plus s. ’s. letters. and words. and’s. it’s written above the line. and symbols used as words is to add an s or an apostrophe s. symbols. Lesson 8 . and but’s When forming the plural of abbreviations or historical periods of time. Don’t get bogged down with all the if’s. we’ll see how it is used to help you to form the plural of numbers. Do not add the apostrophe 1990s YMCAs HMOs IOs General Information Guideline Examples Exceptions MCI Course 0118K 4-40 Study Unit 4. I didn’t earn too many A’s after partying all night. without the apostrophe. letters. and in this lesson. It has several functions.

Lesson 8 . Instructions ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. 4. 3. 1. He drew six ______________ on the blackboard (X) The inventory listing consists of four ________. 5. letters. State the guidelines for forming the plural of numbers.Lesson 8 Exercise Answer the following items. and symbols used as words. Check your answers with those on the next page. (+) Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 4-41 Study Unit 4. (3) How many _____________ are there in Baltimore? (YMCA) Add some more _______ to the chart.

MCI Course 0118K 4-42 Study Unit 4. just add an s or an apostrophe plus s. we did not form the plural of any of these by simply adding the s. He drew six X’s on the blackboard. Lesson 8 . In this lesson you learned to form the plural of numbers. For the sake of consistency in your writing. letters. 3. 2. 5. and symbols used as words. letters. As you probably noticed. You will learn a lot more about apostrophes in the next study unit. Summary Solutions To form the plural of numbers. We used an ‘s. 4-40 is the reference page. The inventory listing consists of four 3’s. How many YMCAs are there in Baltimore? Add some more +’s to the chart. and words.Lesson 8 Exercise. Continued 1. and symbols. stick with the same format. and words. 4.

b. c. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this study unit. y. taxes. c. Most regular. c. choose the group that is spelled correctly. c.Study Unit 4 Exercise Complete exercise items 1 through 17 by selecting the correct multiple choice answer. ies. bosses Churchs. can be changed to their plural forms by adding a. b. x. s es. You may use your dictionary to answer item 17. d. an s an s and apostrophe an apostrophe and an s es to words whose singular form ends in an s-sound Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 4-43 Study Unit 4 Exercise . dishes Porches. except those ending in y. e. waltzs. a. d. arches. d. From the list of words below. ch ed ing ion Item 4 Which of the following is the rule for forming the plural of words whose singular form ends in an s-sound? Add a. a. Matches. b. splashs Item 3 The letters s. z. singular nouns. d. Item 2 Instructions Item 1 ing. and ____ make an s-sound at the end of singular words. bushes Wishs. b. boxes.

b. d.Study Unit 4 Exercise. Item 6 Item 5 s ies es apostrophe and an s Which of the following is the correct plural form of the word peach? a. axs ax’s axes axis Item 8 Which of the following is the correct plural form of the word porch? a. peaches peach’s peachies peachs Item 7 Which of the following is the correct plural form of the word ax? a. d. d. simply add an _____ to form the plural. Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 4-44 Study Unit 4 Exercise . lashs. c. lashes. Continued If the singular of a word ends in an s-sound or its plural makes an extra ssound. a. d. d. b. porchs porches porchs’ porchies Item 9 Which of the following is the correct plural form of the word lash? a. lashies. b. c. lash’s. c. b. c. c. b.

vowel. Continued With the exception of proper nouns ending in y choose the phrase that correctly completes the rule to change regular. b. b. b. drop the y and add an s. consonant. b. add es. add es. d. Monkes. d. a. keep the y and add an s. flys. displays Enemys. select all words spelled correctly in plural form. d.Study Unit 4 Exercise. journies Item 12 Which of the following plurals are correct? a. c. ladys Cities. Julies (more than one month of July) d. jersies b. salarys. loaves loafs’ loaf’s loafs Item 13 Item 14 Which of the following plurals is correct? a. monopolys c. If the final y follows a a. d. c. c. copies. studies Envoys. decoys. From the list below. beliefs Which of the following is the correct plural of the word loaf? a. pianoes zoos tomatos torpedos Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 4-45 Study Unit 4 Exercise . singular nouns ending in y to their plural forms. vowel. c. Item 11 Item 10 vowel.

papyrusies payrouss papyruses papyrus’s Continued on next page MCI Course 0118K 4-46 Study Unit 4 Exercise . Continued Which of the following plurals is correct? a.Study Unit 4 Exercise. c. b. d. b. d. Item 16 Item 15 childs mouses geese tooths Which plural of the following compound words is correct? a. c. d. five-years-olds mother-in-laws women aviators secretary generals Item 17 Which of the following is the correct plural form of the word papyrus? a. b. c.

4-6 4-10 4-10 4-18 4-18 4-22 4-28 4-34 dictionary Solutions MCI Course 0118K 4-47 Study Unit 4 Exercise . 4-6 4-6 4-5 4-5 4-5. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Answer b a a d c a c b b b b d a b c c c Reference 4-4 4-5. 4-6 4-5. 4-6 4-5. 4-6 4-5. Continued The table below lists the answers to the study unit exercise items. refer to the reference page. If you have questions about these items.Study Unit 4 Exercise.

(This page intentionally left blank.) MCI Course 0118K 4-48 Study Unit 4 Exercise .

refer to MCI 0119. Interpret contractions. How do you write a word that expresses ownership? How do you form the possessive case of words? What are contractions? This study unit will answer all the preceding questions. AND CONTRACTIONS Overview At the end of the previous study unit. Learning Objectives Scope Upon completion of this study unit. This small yet significant mark of punctuation has several important functions. If you wish to learn more about other marks of punctuation once you complete this course. Once you learn these functions. Punctuation. you were introduced to the apostrophe. you should be able to • • • Identify the functions of the apostrophe. Identify the possessive properties of nouns and pronouns. In This Study Unit This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic Overview The Apostrophe Possessive Case of Nouns and Pronouns Contractions See Page 5-1 5-3 5-9 5-17 MCI Course 0118K 5-1 Study Unit 5 . POSSESSIVES.STUDY UNIT 5 THE APOSTROPHE. you should have no problem handling the lesson exercise drills.

) MCI Course 0118K 5-2 Study Unit 5 .(This page intentionally left blank.

Spell words correctly by using the apostrophe. you use what is called the possessive property of that word. this dilemma will soon be a problem of the past. which oftentimes requires the use of an apostrophe. When writing such a word. Topic Introduction Uses Some Pronoun Types Lesson 1 Exercise See Page 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 MCI Course 0118K 5-3 Study Unit 5. Have you ever been unsure of where you should place the apostrophe or whether or not you should use one? If so.LESSON 1 THE APOSTROPHE Introduction Sometimes you need to write a word that shows ownership. you should be able to: • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives List the four primary uses of the apostrophe. Upon completion of this lesson. In this lesson. you will learn all about the apostrophe by referring to and identifying the examples provided and successfully completing the exercise drill. Lesson 1 . This lesson covers the following topics.

can’t. ’01. as in the class of ’82 Don’t use apostrophes to show the possessive case of personal pronouns. ’99. and symbols used as words Mark the omission of figures. Use Possessive case of nouns Examples Larry’s Darryl’s The man’s car The Marine’s wives won’t. numbers. I’d. ’00. it’s always good to refresh your memory. couldn’t X’s. For example. E7’s. ‘02 Examples Contractions Plurals of letters and numbers Omission of figures MCI Course 0118K 5-4 Study Unit 5. The primary uses are to • • • • Improper Primary Show possessive case of nouns and indefinite pronouns Form contractions Form plurals of letters. theirs should not be spelled as their’s. Apostrophes have many uses. This is a very common mistake and one you want to avoid.Uses Do you fully understand the uses of the apostrophe? Regardless. The table below gives examples of the uses of the apostrophe. O’s. Lesson 1 .

Terms Examples Listed in the tables below are examples of indefinite and possessive-personal pronouns Indefinite pronouns all most another neither anybody nobody both none each no one everybody one everyone other few several many several Possessive personal pronouns Singular Plural my. you need to become familiar with the following terms that refer or relate to pronouns: • • • Possessive case. Indefinite pronoun. First. Possessive-personal pronouns. ours First person your. mine our. These pronouns refer to ownership by a particular person or thing. yours Second person his. yours your. This term indicates the ownership of something. its their.Some Pronoun Types You’ll learn more about each of the apostrophe’s function throughout this study unit. hers. theirs Third person MCI Course 0118K 5-5 Study Unit 5. Lesson 1 . her. This type of pronoun names an unspecified number of persons or things.

1 2 3 4 _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Drill 1 Drill 2 Complete the table below by spelling the possessives of the nouns and pronouns listed.Lesson 1 Exercise List the four primary uses of the apostrophe in the spaces provided. Noun Mr. Witter director marine student Pronoun their her everybody nobody no one Continued on next page Possessive Possessive MCI Course 0118K 5-6 Study Unit 5. Dionis Ms. Lesson 1 .

Solutions Drill 1 Use of the Apostrophe Show possessive case of nouns and indefinite pronouns Form contractions Form plurals of letters. If you have questions about these items. as in the class of ’82 Drill 2 Reference 5-4 5-4 5-4 5-4 Noun Mr. Dionis Ms. Lesson 1 . Dionis’ Ms.Lesson 1 Exercise. and symbols used as words Mark the omission of figures. Witter’s director’s Marine’s student’s Possessive theirs hers everybody’s nobody’s no one’s Reference 5-4 5-4 5-4 5-4 5-4 Reference 5-5 5-5 5-5 5-5 5-5 MCI Course 0118K 5-7 Study Unit 5. refer to the reference pages. Continued The correct answers to the lesson exercise drill are provided in the table below. Witter director Marine student Pronoun their her everybody nobody no one Possessive Mr. numbers.

Lesson 1 .(This page intentionally left blank.) MCI Course 0118K 5-8 Study Unit 5.

You will do this by learning the rules and guidelines and by successfully completing the exercise drill. Lesson 2 . Spell words correctly when forming the possessive case.LESSON 2 POSSESSIVE CASE OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS Introduction This lesson is designed to increase your knowledge of the possessive case of nouns and pronouns. This lesson covers the following topics. Upon completion of this lesson. you should be able to • • • • In This Lesson Scope Learning Objectives State the rule for forming the possessive case of nouns and indefinite pronouns. Topic Introduction Forming the Possessive Case of Nouns and Indefinite Pronouns Forming the Possessive Case of Words that End With an S or S-Sound Spelling Possessive Personal Pronouns Lesson 2 Exercise See Page 5-9 5-10 5-12 5-13 5-14 MCI Course 0118K 5-9 Study Unit 5. State the rule for spelling possessive personal pronouns. State the guideline for forming the possessive case of words that end with an s or s-sound.

Nelson Larry children men someone nobody mechanic other women man Marine Marines The Possessive Case Mr. Lesson 2 . Nouns and Indefinite Pronouns Mr. Take a look at some examples of forming the possessive case of nouns and indefinite pronouns in the table below. add only an apostrophe. If the word already ends in an s. Continued on next page Answer MCI Course 0118K 5-10 Study Unit 5. Nelson’s house Larry’s canteen children’s toys men’s restroom someone’s package nobody’s business mechanic’s van other’s choice women’s movement the man’s car the Marine’s wife Marines’ wives Examples Challenge What is wrong with the phrase Marine’s wives? There is nothing grammatically wrong with the phrase “Marine’s wives”—it means that a Marine has two (or more) wives. the writer most likely meant to write Marines’ wives.Forming the Possessive Case of Nouns and Indefinite Pronouns Rule The rule for forming the possessive case of nouns and indefinite pronouns is: Add an apostrophe s (‘s) unless the word ends in s. Since the uniform code of military justice might have something to say about this. meaning the (individual) Marines each have a wife.

you will only use the apostrophe. Example 5 cents’ worth 1 dollar’s worth a day’s work a week’s leave 3 months’ supply Explanation The word already ends in s. and in others you will use the apostrophe with an s. Commander-in-chief’s policy MCI Course 0118K 5-11 Study Unit 5. Add an ‘s. add only an apostrophe. Add an ’s to the last noun. Add an ‘s. Continued Time and Money The apostrophe is also used to express time and money. I’ll pack David’s and Fred’s clothing. Add an ’s to each noun. add only an apostrophe. Lesson 2 . The word already ends in s. Add an ‘s. The word is a compound noun. Situation and Action Required Two people both possess the same thing. Take a look at the examples below. In some cases. Additional Information The following table provides additional information and examples that may assist you with forming the possessive case of nouns and indefinite pronouns. especially when the words function as possessive adjectives.Forming the Possessive Case of Nouns and Indefinite Pronouns. Example Turn left into George and Eleanor’s house. Add an ’s to the last part of the compound noun. Two people possess something as individuals.

Lesson 2 . Examples Take a look at the examples in the tables below. add an apostrophe to the end of the word. Jones’ or Mr. add an apostrophe or an apostrophe s.Forming the Possessive Case of Words that End With an S or S-Sound Rules Here are the rules for forming the possessive case of words that end with an s or s-sound. Jones’s house John Keats’ or John Keats’s poetry MCI Course 0118K 5-12 Study Unit 5. • • If the word is plural and ends in an s or s-sound. If the word is singular and ends in an s sound. Jones John Keats Possessive reporters’ story typists’ jobs horses’ hoofs daughters’ ambitions Possessive an acquaintance’ or acquaintance’s business class’ or class’s assignment Mr. Plural reporters typists horses daughters Singular acquaintance class Mr.

Possessive personal pronouns have two characteristics you should become familiar with.Spelling Possessive Personal Pronouns The rule for spelling possessive personal pronouns is quite simple: Learn how to spell the words and don’t use an apostrophe. • • Examples Rule Characteristics They refer to a specific person or thing They do not use an apostrophe to show possession. Lesson 2 . There are twelve possessive personal pronouns. The following are examples of possessive personal pronouns. • • • • • • • • his hers its mine ours yours theirs whose MCI Course 0118K 5-13 Study Unit 5.

(Bill and Karen—each owns his/her own scooter) Continued on next page Item 5 Item 6 MCI Course 0118K 5-14 Study Unit 5. State the rule for forming the possessive case of nouns and indefinite pronouns. (Bill and Karen—they own it together) We can borrow ________________________________________ scooters. Lesson 2 . _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Item 3 State the rule for spelling possessive personal pronouns.Lesson 2 Exercise Complete the following items and check your responses against those listed in the exercise drill solution. (Mozart) Use _________________________________ DVD player. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Item 4 I love ___________ concertos. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Item 2 Instructions Item 1 State the guideline for forming the possessive case of words that end with an s or s-sound.

(Higgins) The _________ bottles are stacked up on the counter. Lesson 2 . Continued The ____________________ briefing brought good results.Lesson 2 Exercise. (editor-in-chief) We bought this CD player at the _____________ yard sale. each with his or her own bottle) The _________ bottles are stacked up on the counter (one baby) Continued on next page Item 7 Item 8 Item 9 Item 10 Item 11 MCI Course 0118K 5-15 Study Unit 5. (1st Sergeant) The __________________ review produced a complete change in the text. (more than one baby.

Continued The table below lists the answers to the exercise questions. If the 5-10 word already ends in an s. add an apostrophe or an apostrophe s.Lesson 2 Exercise. Item 1 2 Answer Reference Add an apostrophe s unless the word ends in s. 5-12 If the word is plural and ends in an s or s-sound. If the word is singular and ends in an s sound. Lesson 2 . add an apostrophe to the end of the word. Learn how to spell the words and don’t use an apostrophe Mozart’s Bill and Karen’s Bill’s and Karen’s 1st Sergeant’s editor-in-chief’s Higgins’ or Higginses’ babies’ baby’s Solutions 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 5-13 5-11 5-11 5-11 5-11 5-11 5-11 5-11 5-11 MCI Course 0118K 5-16 Study Unit 5. refer to the reference page to refresh your memory. add only an apostrophe. If you have questions about these answers.

contractions can be easy to form while at other times they can be difficult. you should be able to • • • In This Lesson Introduction Learning Objectives Define contractions. State the three most common errors in using contractions. Lesson 3 . Topic Introduction Definition Common Errors Lesson 3 Exercise See Page 5-17 5-18 5-19 5-20 MCI Course 0118K 5-17 Study Unit 5.LESSON 3 CONTRACTIONS Introduction Sometimes. In this lesson you will learn the definition of a contraction and how to avoid common errors when forming contractions. This lesson covers the following topics. Spell words correctly when forming contractions. Upon completion of this lesson.

Lesson 3 . We often use contractions in our speech and less formal writing. Original Word(s) cannot does not has not I would is not it is let us she is they are were not who is will not would have you are you will Contraction can’t doesn’t hasn’t I’d isn’t it’s let’s she’s they’re weren’t who’s won’t would’ve you’re you’ll Definition Examples MCI Course 0118K 5-18 Study Unit 5. Take a look at some examples of contractions in the table below. you must remove certain letters from the original set of words and then substitute the missing letters with an apostrophe.Definition A contraction is derived from two words that are reduced to form a single word. To form a contraction.

and it’s is the contraction of it is. Lesson 3 .Common Errors There are three common errors that you should avoid when forming contractions. These contractions should be written as doesn’t. Three Common Errors • • MCI Course 0118K 5-19 Study Unit 5. The following example shows the correct use of these words: Check your watch Corporal. let’s. Not using the apostrophe when required. and haven’t. because you’re on duty at 1600. and have’nt. Inserting the apostrophe in the wrong place. They are • Not using the correct variation of its and it’s. which is the contraction of you are. Writing your when you mean you’re. such as in does’nt. lets’. Its is possessive. The following is an example of the correct use of its and it’s: It’s time for the HMMV to get its service.

write the letter c if it is a contraction or the letter p if it is a possessive pronoun. Lesson 3 .Lesson 3 Exercise The table below contains words that are either contractions or possessive pronouns. form the contraction and write the results in the corresponding space of column 2. In the space provided. Original Word who is let us were not would have they are she is you will does not will not it is Continued on next page Contraction MCI Course 0118K 5-20 Study Unit 5. Original Word its they’re your who’s it’s you’re their whose Drill 2 Drill 1 Contraction or Possessive From the original words in column 1.

In this course. refer to the reference pages to refresh your memory. Lesson 3 . 5-18 5-18 Correct Spelling who’s let’s weren’t would’ve they’re she’s you’ll doesn’t won’t it’s Summary Reference 5-18 5-18 5-18 5-18 5-18 5-18 5-18 5-18 5-18 5-18 You have come a long way towards improving your spelling abilities. refer back to the study unit to refresh your memory prior to proceeding to the final exam. 5-19 5-4. 5-19 5-18 5-18. suffixes. the elusive e.Lesson 3 Exercise. 5-19 5-18 5-18. making words plural. the apostrophe. If you have any doubts about what you’ve just learned. Solutions Drill 1 Answer p c p c c c p p Drill 2 References 5-18. and finally possessives and contractions. If you have any questions about these items. Continued The tables listed below lists the answers to the exercise drills. MCI Course 0118K 5-21 Study Unit 5. you have learned about the uses of the dictionary. 5-19 5-18.

) MCI Course 0118K 5-22 Study Unit 5.(This page intentionally left blank. Lesson 3 .

For matching items. b. When you finish your review lesson and are satisfied with your responses. We recommend that you try to complete your review lesson examination without referring to the text. c. Select the ONE answer that BEST completes the statement or that answers the item. references. d. b. Item 2 Introduction Instructions Item 1 synonyms and tenses. For multiple choice items. alphabetical word entries. circle your response. column format. contain a. illustrations. parts of speech and antonyms. large or small. place the letter of your response in the space provided. All dictionaries. check your responses against the answers provided at the end of this review lesson examination. but for those items (questions) you are unsure of. origins and obsolescence.SPELLING REVIEW LESSON EXAMINATION Review Lesson The purpose of the review lesson examination is to prepare you for the final examination. The three characteristics of a typical standard dictionary page are heading words. d. restudy the text. and a. Continued on next page MCI Course 0118 R-1 Review Lesson Examination . antonyms. c. spelling and definitions.

I before e. discipline. d. courtesy. d. some Back. except after c or when the combination sounds like e.Review Lesson. If the combination sounds like e. Continued on next page MCI Course 0118 R-2 Review Lesson Examination . aviation. Always. c. Item 4 Item 3 Mad. lad. c. ray Run. E before i. b. speech sound made by the relatively free passage of breath through the larynx and mouth. like. b. I before e. bar. make. azimuth. Item 5 In which group of words below do all words have exactly three syllables? a. aerial Guerrilla. combination of letters. corporal. d. b. except after c or when the combination sounds like a. place the i before the e. lie. us. echelon Item 6 What is the rule governing whether a word will be spelled with ei or ie? a. b. letter representing a speech sound produced by obstructing air flow. cry The definition of a syllable is a a. antiaircraft. said. liaison. can Bare. sergeant Amphibious. Continued In which group of words below do all vowels have a short sound? a. except after c or when the combination sounds like a. single uninterrupted sound. be. c. d. c. munition Camouflage. column.

Only two consonants must be at the end. compelling numbering. were. flirting. a.Review Lesson. deferred. are pope. ninety. d. d. The final consonant must be preceded by not less than two vowels. b. c. b. informed traveling. From the list of words below. some. choke. one. b. d. meaning of the word. done. were. hiter. are some. c. d. defered. swimming. permitted. select the group in which all words are an exception to the “silent e” rule. Item 8 Item 7 word from singular to plural. b. receive. c. openning. The suffix must begin with a consonant. Continued The silent e at the end of a word changes the a. The suffix must begin with a vowel. Item 10 Select the list of words below in which all words are spelled correctly. done. weigh Item 9 Which of the following conditions must exist to double the final consonant when you add a suffix? a. hottest Continued on next page MCI Course 0118 R-3 Review Lesson Examination . field. beginner. swimming runner. preceding vowel from long to short. c. weigh one. preceding vowel from short to long. a.

a. then the word is usually a a. b. adverb.Review Lesson. b. c. ent ant able ible Continued on next page MCI Course 0118 R-4 Review Lesson Examination . c. c. If a word ends in ary. Continued One rule for adding suffixes to words that end in y is that if the y is proceeded by a vowel. d. d. d. c. Item 13 How many conditions must exist when ent or ence is added to the end of words? a. d. adjective. keep the y and add es. b. pronoun. noun. b. keep the y. a. Item 12 Item 11 change the y to i. change the y to ies. 2 3 4 5 Item 14 You would add __________ if root word is a word by itself.

taxes. ion. e. a. certainly finally. really. s ed. d. The word must be a verb. duly moraly. b. b. c. Select the lists of words below in which all words are spelled correctly. choose the group that is spelled correctly. bosses Churchs. probably Item 17 From the list of words below. automatically. critically. boxes. arches. a. singular nouns. y. Item 16 Item 15 The word must be a noun. shyly. d. Continued on next page MCI Course 0118 R-5 Review Lesson Examination . certainlly truely. c. waltzs. finally. Matches. accidentally. Continued What is the guideline when adding ally to a word? a. except those ending in y. b. dishes Porches. bushes Wishs. d. b. The word must end in ic. occasionaly. c. The word must be an adjective. c. d. can be changed to their plural forms by adding a. duely.Review Lesson. splashs Item 18 Most regular. equally. ing.

Item 20 Item 19 s ies es apostrophe and an s Which of the following is the correct plural form of the word peach? a. d. a. d. Continued If the singular of a word ends in an s-sound or its plural makes an extra ssound. c. Item 23 There are _______ primary uses of the apostrophe. b. form the plural of proper names. b. b. c. d.Review Lesson. b. c. d. c. six five four three Continued on next page MCI Course 0118 R-6 Review Lesson Examination . d. peaches peach’s peachies peachs Item 21 Which of the following is the correct plural form of the word nimbus? a. show the possessive case of personal pronouns. simply add an _____ to form the plural. a. c. form contractions. show the possessive case of verbs. b. nimbusies nimbusous nimbuses nimbus’s Item 22 One use of the apostrophe is to a.

most anybody. each. your. d. its. his. Item 25 Item 24 my. (Bob and Bill. a. d. c. Continued Select the list below that contains only indefinite pronouns. b. nobody. c. b. all none. both another.Review Lesson. each owns his own house) a. Bobs and Bill Bobs and Bills Bob and Bill’s Bob’s and Bill’s Continued on next page MCI Course 0118 R-7 Review Lesson Examination . ours. our. yours We stayed at _____________________________ houses during our vacation. hers.

Continued The table below lists the answers to the review lesson examination items. Item number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Summary Solutions Answer d b b b c b d b d a c d b c b c a b b a c b c c d Reference 1-4 1-4 1-10 1-13 1-13 2-4 2-22 2-23 3-4 3-4 3-14 3-18 3-22 3-26 3-34 3-34 4-5 4-10 4-5 4-5 4-5 5-4 5-4 5-5 5-11 Now that you’ve completed the review lesson examination. MCI Course 0118 R-8 Review Lesson Examination . If you have questions about these items. it’s time to show that you have mastered this course by completing the final examination. Take your final examination booklet and the DP-37 to your training NCO or any authorized proctor so that you can complete the course.Review Lesson. refer to the reference page of the course text.