AN AUGUSTINE READER

Edited, with an Introduction, by John J. O'Meara

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Letters

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LEITERS LETTER
(A.D.

28
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395)

TO JEROME,

HIS

MOST

BELOVED OF

LORD, BEING

AND

BROTHER

AND AND

FELLOW-PRIEST, EMBRACED WITH AUGUSTINE

WORTHY

HONOURED

THE SINCEREST

AFFECTIONATE

DEVOTION,

SENDS GREETING.

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,

!

CHAp. 1. 1. Never was the face of anyone more familiar to another, than the peaceful, happy, and truly noble diligence of your studies in the Lord has become to me. For although I long greatly to be acquainted with you, I feel that already my knowledge of you is deficient in respect of nothing but a very small part of you,-namely, your personal appearance; and even as to this, I cannot deny that since my most blessed brother Alypius (now invested with the office of bishop, of which he was then truly worthy) has seen you, and has on his return been seen by me, it has been almost completely imprinted on my mind by his report of you; indeed, I may say that before his return, when he saw you there, I was seeing you myself with his eyes. For anyone who knows us may say of him and me, that in body only, and not in mind, we are two, so great is the union of heart, so finn the intimate friendship subsisting between us; though in merit we are not alike, for his is far above mine. Seeing, therefore, that you love me, both of old through the communion of spirit by which we are knit to each other, and more recently through what you know of me from the mouth of my friend, I feel that it is not presumptuous in me (as it would be in one wholly unknown to

you) to recommend to your brotherly esteem the brother Profuturus, in whom we trust that the happy omen of his name (Good-speed) may be fu1ii11edthrough our efforts furthered after this by your aid; although, perhaps, it may be presumptuous on this ground, that he is so great a man, that it would be much more fitting that I should be commended to you by him, than he by me. I ought perhaps to write no more, if I were willing to content myself with the style of a formal letter of introduction; but my mind overflows into conference with you, concerning the studies with which we are occupied in Christ Jesus our Lord, who is pleased to furnish us largely through your love with many benefits, and some helps by the way, in the path which he has pointed out to his followers. CHAP. 2. 2. We therefore, and with us all that are devoted to study in the African churches, beseech you not to refuse to devote care and labour to the translation of the books of those who have written in the Greek language most able commentaries on our Scriptures. You may thus put us also in possession of these men, and especially of that one whose name Ieasure in soundin forth in our ~writingS.l But I beseech you not to devote your labour to the work of translating into Latin the sacred canonical books, Uiiless you fo ow ffie method in wliich you have translated Job, viz. with the addition of notes, to let it be seen plainly what differences there are between this version of yours and that of the Septuagint.f whose authority is worthy of highest esteem. For my own part, I cannot sufficiently express my wonder that anything should at this date be found in the Hebrew manuscripts which escaped so many translators perfectly acquainted with the language. I say nothing of the Septuagint, regarding whose harmony in mind and spirit, surpassing that which is found in even one man, I dare not in any way pronounce a decided opinion, except that in my judgment, beyond question, ve hi h authorit must in this work of translation be conceded to them. I am more erThe revered translation of the Old Testament into Greek completed by "seventy" men in "seventy" days at the bidding of Ptolemy Philadelphus (287-247 B.C.).
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plexed by those translators who, though enjoying the advantage o:r1a15ounng after the Septuagint had completed their worK, ana ruffioug weU acguamteo, as it is reportea, willi the force of Hebrew words and p ases, and with Hebrew syntax, Eave not only failed to agree among themselves, but have left many things which, even after so long a time, still remain to JeOlscovere ana rought to lig t. ow ffiese t1ililgs were eitlier obscure or plain: if lliey were obscure, it is believed that you are as likely to have been mistaken as the others; if they were plain, it is not believed that they (the Septuagint) could possibly have been mistaken. Having stated the grounds of my perplexity, I appeal to your kindness to give me an answer regarding this matter. CHAP.3. 3. I have been reading also some writings, ascribed to you, on tlie Epistles of tlie apostle Paul. in reaoing your exposition of the Epistle to the Galatians, that passage came to my hand in which the apostle Peter is called back from a course of dangerous dissimulation. To find there the defence of falsehood undertaken, whether by you, a man of such weight, or by any author (if it is the writing of another), causes me, I must confess, great sorrow, until at least those things which decide my opinion in the matter are refuted, if indeed they admit of refutation. For it seems to me that most disastrous consequences must follow upon our believing that anything false is found in the sacred books: that is to say, that the men by whom the scripture has been given to us, and committed to writing, did put down in these books anything false. It is one question whether it may be at any time the duty of a good man to deceive; but it is another question whether it can have been the duty of a writer of Holy Scripture to deceive: indeed, it is not another question-it is no question at all. For if you once admit into such a high sanctuary of authority one false statement as made in the way of duty, there will not be left a single sentence of those books which, if appearing to anyone difficult in practice or hard to believe, may not by the same fatal rule be explained away, as a statement in which, intentionally, and under a sense of duty, the author declared what was not true. 4. For if the apostle Paul did not speaK ffie trutn wnen, finding fault with the apostle Peter, he said: "If you, being

a Jew, live after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, why do you compel the Gentiles to live as do the Jews?" -if, indeed, Peter seemed to him to be doing what was right, and if, notwithstanding, he, in order to soothe troublesome opponents, both said and wrote that Peter did what was wrong;3-if we say thus, what then shall be our answer. when perverse men such as he himself prophetically described arise, forbidding marriage," if they defend themselves by saying that, in all which the same apostle wrote in confirmation of the lawfulness of marriage.f he was, on account of men who, through love for their wives, might become troublesome opponents, declaring what was false--saying these things, not because he believed them, but because their opposition might thus be averted? It is unnecessary to quote many parallel examples. For even things which pertain to the praises of God might be represented as piously intended falsehoods, written in order that love for him might be enkindled in men who were slow of heart; and thus nowhere in the sacred books shall the authority of pure truth stand sure. Do we not observe the great care with which the same apostle commends the truth to us, when he says: "And if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain: and we are found false witnesses of God; because we have testified of God that he raised up Christ; whom he raised not up, if it be that the dead rise not.?" If anyone said to him, ''Why are you so shocked by this falsehood, when the thing which you have said, even if it were false, tends very greatly to the glory of God?" would he not, abhorring the madness of such a man, with every word and sign. which could express his feelings, open clearly the secret depths of his own heart, protesting that to speak well of a falsehood uttered on behalf of God, was a crime not less, perhaps even greater, than to speak ill of the truth concerning him? We must therefore be careful to secure, in relation to our knowledge of the divine Scriptures, the guidance only of such a man as is imbued with a high reverence for the sacred books. and a profound
3 Gal. 2: 11-14. 41 Tim. 4: 3. 51 Cor. 7: 10-16. 01 Cor. 15: 14 f.

Even in 403 (see Letter 71. truly. then as now. for I confess myself to have more room for receiving from you than he has. and reject what he does not wish) if this be once admitted. and I beseech you by our Lord. in whom truth was incarnate. maybe. This. further on) Augustine wondered if Jerome had received this letter. but because it was expedient. preventing him from flattering himself in any part of them with the hypothesis of a statement being made not because it was true. and making him rather pass by what he does not understand. could in their writings state some things which were not true. and think that my censure has arisen from an undue mistrust of my own judgment. I beg you to set forth these rules with reasonings which may be neither equivocal nor precarious. however. if indeed it deserves blame at all. that the men by whom these things have been delivered unto us. I see his mind to be already more fully stored. by which you discern that the authority of the divine Scriptures becomes unsettled (so that everyone may believe what he wishes. charged myself with error. If this can be done. Hence of the two I shall be the poorer.~ . not to consider me burdensome or presumptuous in making this request. to show that every one of those texts which are quoted in defence of the expediency of falsehood ought to be otherwise understood. 404). persuasion of their truth. 5. from considerations of duty. perhaps justly. Of many other things I would wish to discourse with your most ingenuous heart. than set up his own feelings above that truth. I would devote all the strength which the Lord grants me. Jerome lets him know all in Letter 72 (A. in order that everywhere the sure truth of these passages themselves may be consistently maintained. For a mistake of mine which is in the interest of truth cannot deserve great blame. 7 8 . whom I rejoice in sending to share and profit by your sweet and useful conversation. CHAP. I leave to your own judgment. For. there will still be a consciousness of void unsatisfied in me. and reprove me. I may do this more fully by means of the brother bearing this letter. "The righteous shall correct me in compassion. and he the richer. when it is possible for you to use truth in the interest of falsehood without doing wrong. This brother carries with him some of my writings. and he will excuse my saying so. 4. and when I become a sharer in all with which his heart has been richly furnished by you. when he returns.70 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters 71 . in which unquestionably he excels me." Ps. For I sometimes see my own faults. 141: 5. For if you apply more thorough attention to the passage. but I prefer to hear them reproved by those who are better able to judge than I am. 6. but the oil of the sinner shall not anoint my head. For as statements adduced in evidence must not be false. I begin again to flatter myself."? I understand to mean that he is the truer friend who by his censure heals me. and endeavours to shake our confidence in the authority of the divine Scriptures. lest after I have. unless. being either too cautious or too rash. as I trust he may happily do by God's blessing. I :find the greatest difficulty in exercising a right judgment when I read over what I have written. you purpose to furnish us with certain rules by which we may know when a falsehood might or might not become a duty. Therefore. but this desire could not be satisfied within the limits of any letter. For my part. and a longing for personal fellowship with you. even he may take less from you than I would desire. neither ought they to favour falsehood. For the words of scripture. which if you condescend to read.D. although I do not reckon myself superior in any respect to him. than the one who by flattery anoints my head. To this more careful study that piety will move you. I implore you to review them with candid and brotherly strictness. Nevertheless. he demands that he be believed in preference. and to take counsel with you concerning Christian studies. perhaps you will see it much more readily than I have done. when he pronounces anything to be untrue.

among other things. begging you in the from you is tedious. "Be of good cheer. MY WITH THE MOST SINCERE JEROME. and keep you mindful of me. 2. to us. The brethren who." because I have not seen your shall prevail against our adversary the devil. TINE SENDS GREETING. and may not permit the distance which separates sign in travelling to the west you may learn from his own lips. and thinks that treat you. us to keep us wholly apart from each other. CHAp. works. JEROME A FATHER TRULY HOLY AND MOST TO MY LORD MUCH BELOVED. is this alone which constitutes your acquaintance with yourwith me. whom I commend to you with the request that you recognise him as one very near and dear to ). that you know your own mind. and that you encourage and help him. not that he is in need of anywere it not that I consider that it was written in reply to a yet thing (for Christ has amply endowed him). a certain book of yours came into my hands. His defellowship. But we believe in him you have laboured to bring treasures from the Lord's storewho hath said."! and are confident that by his grace and guidance we may not say. by tion. 2. "I know you. he has given you as you are. 1. 1. too. however. devote themselves to serve the Lord in this self. although I am beset with great anxieties about the the bearer of this letter. I me. 2. in regard to secular matters. 40 397) 397) TO MY LORD AUGUSTINE. for the manuscript itself had not the title . you wrote me a letter. and are burdened when our pens rest and we are silent. though we are in CHAp. but that he is most shorter letter of my own. in studying which we guard you from harm. DEVOAUGUSFELLOW-PRIEST SENDS GREETING IN CHRIST. ! John 16: 33. May Christ our Almighty God knowledge of it through your writings. I eneagerly desiring the friendship of good men. his circumstances may demand. and I think that my letter was delivered to you. For if I world. even we feel the shock of waves on every side. If. to that exchange of letters by which we may have in securing this he obtains the most valuable blessing. it and venerable brother. therefore. established here in our monastery. the sub-deacon Asterius. first place not to forget me. BLESSED. our father Alypius.D. CHAp. since nothing that comes my holy brother the deacon Preesidius. though it was much shorter than I would desire to have from you. for you cannot see your own face. face. to all who read your and father truly holy and venerable. and in the second place to receive Therefore. Address yourself. I have overcome the house give me almost a complete knowledge of you.D. As for us. 2. The books in which with the cares of our lot as pilgrims. Last year I sent by the hand of our brother. affairs of others. instead of a mere formal salutasalutation due to you. I now write again.72 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters 73 LETTER (A. 1. my lord: bless God that to yourself. however much time it may demand. and that. 1. it may with equal truth be said that you do not know I beseech you to give my respectful salutation to the holy yourself. I thank you that. in whatever way would find it difficult to pardon the brevity of your letter. 39 LETTER (A. AND BROTHER WORTHY OF BEING HONOURED TION OF AND EMBRACED CHARITY. a letter conveying to your Excellency a CHAP. the Lord bound together by the unity of the Spirit. salute you warmly. we also have no small monastery. the name of which I do not yet know. It is not long since. and readily rendered by me.

that he might show that they were in no wise hurtful to those who. or are even now. if we found in the work a notice of the lives or writings of those only who are deceased. . 1 Gal. I lie not. these customs were not hurtful to one who had been accustomea to tliem-Eut fiis compelling llie Gentiles to oEserve Jewish ceremonies. 2: 14. have been admitted into the Holy Scriptures. The book itself has our complete approval as a useful work.me gift IS golden. but made. 2: 14. when did he say what was true? Shall he be supposed to say what is true when his teaching corresponds with the predilection of his reader. we wonder why you either gave this title to it. if we admit this canon of interpretation. For the same reason. according to the truth of the gospel"?2 For if they did walk uprightly. at the time when it was written. Paul was indeed a Jew. but co~idering. desired to retain the ceremonies which by the law they had learned from their fathers. In your exposition of the Epistle of Paul to the Galatians I have found one thing which causes me much concern. as is customary.! which he could not do otherwise than by so acting in regard to them as if their observance 4 31 Cor. he judged that these ceremonies should by no means be made binding on the Gentile converts. and if he wrote what was false here. or permitted others to believe that you had done so.74 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters 75 written. ·Cl1. 3. they might turn aside from the faith those who were unaccustomed to them. 3. Paul wrote what was false. on the first page. ~4: ~4: -You-ao not require me to teacn you in wnat sense the apostle says. he took part in observing these. The brother with whom it was found said that its title is Epitaphiume-« name which we might believe you to have approved. but was bound to do so. however. I would by no means be so arrogant as to attern'p~ to ~mi~h by my small coppers your mind. he will reply that. for. TIe trung. and none is more able than yourself to revise and correct that work to which I have referred. what authority will be left to them? If this be conceded. and when he had become a Christian. especially in 1: 20. even although he was an apostle of Christ. 3. the writer was uttering a falsehood under the pressure of some lionouraEle sense of~duty. he had not abandoned those Jewish sacraments which that people had received in the right way. by the weight of which the wicked obstinacy of error can be broken down? For as soon as you have produced it. "The things which I write unto you. but with this view. by imposing a heavy and superfluous burden. behold. as it were. wliicli lie re6UKeo in Peter was not his observing the customs handed down from his fathers -which Peter. though now superfluous."! the apostle lied when he said of Peter and Barnabas.J\'P. might do without being chargeable with deceit or inconsistency. if it be disliked by him who contends with you. which a:e to be ascribed to the compassion of pitying love. and for a certain appointed time. before God. for whose wisdom and prudence enough has already been said. out of a sense of duty in the interest of religion. For if it be the case that statements untrue in themselves. after introducing his narrative with these words. writing to you. tnerefore. if it be possible for men to say and believe that. Ana where Will anyone find this way of escape impossible. if he wished. what he would wish done for himself if he were in the sick man's place. because. since the salvation which was foreshadowed in these has now been brought in by the Lord Jesus. Gal. with the mind of one truly sympathizing. what sentence can be produced from these Scriptures."? and other such things in the 'same passage. in the passage alleged. There is no need for many words in pursuing this argument. not the artifices of intentional deceit. mention is there made of the works of some who were. CHAp. "I saw that they walked not uprightly. 9: 20. provided only that they did not build on these their hope of salvation. and shall everything which runs counter to the impressions of the reader be reckoned a falsehood uttered by him under a sense of duty? It will be impossible to prevent men from finding reasons for thinking that he not only might have uttered a falsehood. For he that ministers to the sick becomes as if he were sick himself: not indeed falsely pretending to be under the fever. 2 Gal. alive. "To the Jews I became as a Jew that I might gain the Jews. Therefore. even after they had believed in Christ. Since. which by the dl:.

62 Mace. and Paul has given sacrifices."! but he does not. in the way in which he himself refusing to see the calamitous consequences which observed them. Paul had forsaken everything peculiar to the Jews that came weak. I do not say this in order that you may mies of the law."8-the latter eousness. and not in the way in which the Jews affirmed that they must be observed. For when he said. in discernment. In the same passage the apostle hazard. cording to the order of Melchizedek.-far be it from me to clares that he "counted but loss and dung that he might win that you have lost it!-but that. in so saying. in whom "Who is weak. as being himself by birth a Jew. 10 Stesichorus (first half of the sixth century B." Lastly.. and going about to establish their own righteousclause of which guides us to understand the former as meanness. 5 81 Cor. if we were conversing together. by the admission of a said all this which I have quoted. and I am not weak?"9 he did not wish it to be had been given and made manifest the mystery of grace.76 AN AUGUST~E READER Letters 77 these sacraments in order. not that he prefalsehood here. in this also Paul differed from the Jews: more courage than the heroes of Greece displayed against that they persecuted the Christian preachers of grace as eneTroy for Helen's sake. . and chant what the Greeks call a "palinode. be shown seasonably."5 In this. when to them that were without law he Paul. disparage the cere. 3: 8. I am made all things to was evil. Peter was truly corrected. therefore. . for their adherence In her defence. has stated the principle more generally: "To the weak I be6. you have turned them the custom of their fathers. and that when he a true narrative of the event. Herein unutterably evil must be the consequences of such a conceshe exercised not the subtlety of a deceiver. that I might gain the weak. These and all similar errors and sins he derecover the faculty of spiritual sight. without regarding them as necessary to salva-. nor in the exercise of deceptive dissimulation such as he had rebuked in Peter. by pretending to be a Jew. that he might gain them also? The through fear of those who were of the circumcision. they still considered it but rather that he showed it by sympathy._. 9: 22. Nor was the apostle Peter ignorant of this. that he. binding on them to celebrate. as they did.. our martyrs have fought against Sodom with to them. the sacraments of emendation of that book a frank and truly Christian severity. 92 Cor. that I might by all means save some. which were indeed at one time necessary. took part in the Jewish festly. but that he felt with true comfor the faith of all coming generations is to be made wholly uncertain and wavering. Maniexplanation is found in this. acsupposed that he pretended to suffer the infirmity of another. he differed from them: another as much as if it had been his own. moreover.Y'? For incompaotherwise it had been unprofitable and vain for the Macrably more lovely than the Grecian Helen is Christian truth. For if Paul observed Rom. It might. the old economy.'-n". not out of mere reverence for 7. cabees to suffer martyrdom.). having lost sight as a judgment for writing an attack on Helen. but the sympathy sion. to gain the Jews. however. why did be not also take part with the Gentiles in against which truth protested through the apostolic office of heathen sacrifices. especially this: "That.C. but as necessary to salvation. if only they were observed after in unaccountable dissimulation. Wherefore I beseech you. was miracuhealed when he wrote a poem in retractation. 11: 29. 7 Phil. that after the passion and resurrection of Christ. being ignorant of God's rightall men. follow on our once admitting that a writer of the divine tion. apply to the correction and old customs. the authority of the Holy Scriptures given tended to be what he was not. having eyes both clear and Christ. For it is neither possible nor suitapassion that he must bring such help to them as would be ble to state within the compass of a letter how great and how needful for himself if he were involved in their error. '. 7: 1. but he did it became as without law. 10: 3. they had not submitted themselves unto the righteousing that he showed himself one who pitied the weakness of ness of God. you may turn them towards that from monies of the Jewish law. unless. and with less of a compassionate deliverer. he meant.

were it not that this is commonly a sign of misgivings as to the benevolence of the party from whom a favour is sought.78 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters . Be assured that this is false: I call CHAP. I have heard that my letter has come to your hand. from reading and understanding so many things. or ignorance. to whose high standing in these regions I bear before God willing testimony. I think. seeing that you can do so with the utmost ease if you feel disposed. What I craved from your wisdom and learning (and I still crave it). I have heard that some brethren have told your Charity that I have written a book against you and have sent it to Rome. and I would like to know on what grounds. attempted to subvert the simplicity of the Christian faith. which is in the interest of truth. when it is possible for you to use truth in the interest of falsehood without doing wrong. 5. you will grant that "a mistake of mine. I have not yet received a reply. not only in ecclesiastical writers. it has been from a desire not to enlarge that volume unduly that you refrained from adding to a notice of heretics. if your opinion is still different from mine. either by lack of leisure or by their not knowing the Greek language. It is this: If your opinion is different. by the grace of the Lord our God. As to the reply which you were pleased to give me concerning Origen. AND FELLOW-PRIEST. in order that. but reject and condemn what we :find false and mischievous. a portion of that literary labour by which already. MY HONOURED BROTHER IN CHRIST. 1. CHAP. and publish in one small book (if your other occupations permit you) a •. LETTER (A. From it I may quote a thought which occurred to me while I was dictating it.ll which was not delivered to you. cannot deserve great blame. and is according to truth (for only in that case can it be better than mine). or self-will.D. through arrogance. Therefore I know and avow that my prayer should be. however. but I do not on this account question your affection. you would add in what respect their doctrine is to be avoided. I would urge my request at greater length. and their works. 67 402) TO MY LORD MOST BELOVED AND LONGED FOR. I have hesitated whether to give credence or not to a certain report which has reached me. a work most necessary for the information of those who are prevented. given here. you may readily forgive the anxiety which has moved me to write. in that book in which you have mentioned all the ecclesiastical writers whom you could remember.digest of the perverse dogmas of all the heretics who up to this time have. be a more convenient arrangement if. I had written some time ago a letter to you on this subject. If. if indeed it deserves blame at all. approve and commend what we find right and true. I beg you not to grudge bestowing on this subject. Some of these heretics also you have omitted. because the bearer to whom it was entrusted did not finish his journey to you. Letter 28. CHAP. it would. Moreover." 9. after naming those whom you know to be heretics (since you have chosen not to pass them without notice). and which I ought not to omit in this letter. AUGUSTINE SENDS GREETING IN THE LORD. JEROME. and is better. 1. you have in no small measure stimulated and 11 assisted the saints in the study of the Latin tongue. but I felt that I ought not to hesitate as to writing a few lines to you regarding the matter. Meanwhile I cordially recommend to your goodwill in Christ our brother Paulus.r 79 books could in any part of his work honourably and piously utter a falsehood. for he has already given you power to prepare it. was that you should acquaint us definitely with the points in which that remarkable man is proved to have departed from the belief of the truth. doubtless something has hitherto prevented you. To be brief. the statement of the things in which the Catholic Church has authoritatively condemned them. 8. I did not need to be told that we should. to which with humility and brotherly love I direct your attention. that God would put it in your power to forward your reply. 2. but in all others. 2. .

at least to believe. But that is the ~ kind of reproof by which friends may truly benefit each other. 2. "Like music in ilie day of mourning is an unseasonable discourse. rejoice in the Lord.. to i gain glory to one's own name by assailing men who have be~. more improved and perfected. subdeacon. are not wronged by my views ~•. rememBering tlie verse. as young men have of old been accustomed to do. confessing mistake in regard to a paragraph of the apostle's writing. to enjoy frequent and sweet conference with you in the Lord! Since. and only after that was ascertained. if offended by my reply. or more correctly. by praising her. tnat every one is sansnea with his own opinion. and all the brethren who with you. For. let me assure you that not only am I most ready to hear in a brotherly spirit the objections which you may entertain to anything in my writings which has displeased you. while occupied long in attending upon her in severe illness. LETTER (A.80 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters 81 God to witness that I have not done this."! Therefore. and because of you. I think you ought to know. my lord most beloved and longed for. however seldom. MY LORD. In the said letter I am exhorted to sing the palinode. indeed. I had almost forgotten your letter. this is not granted. indeed implore you. 1. I must frankly confess to your excellency that I did not think it right to assume without examination the authenticity of a letter of which I had only seen copies. since you. that such things have been written not with a view of contradicting you. May you. I had not heard that charge. on the other hand. and that it is puerile self-sufficiency to seek. who. TRULY HOLY AND MOST BLESSED . Oh that it were in my power. lest perhaps. not seeing his own bag of faults. to acquaint me with them. FATHER. In saying this. Far be it from me to presume to attack anything which your grace has written. For it is enough for me to prove my own views without controverting what others hold. But if perhaps there be some things in some of my writings in which I am found to have been of a different opinion from you. to address you in reply. however. remembering us. be heard by the Lord in regard to all your holy desires. copies of a letter addressed by some one apparently to me have come hither. the eyesight which he had forfeited by speaking against her. observes. JEROME SENDS GREETING IN CHRIST. I beg you to take pains that this one way in which we can be together in the Lord be kept up. Another reason for my delay was the protracted illness of the pious and venerable Pallia. . I am not so foolish as to think myself insulted by tEe Iact iliat you give an explanation ilifferent from mine. but only of stating my own views. and I may either correct my own mistake. you should with justice complain that it was my duty first to have made sure that you were the author. the letter written in your name. recovered. deacon. but I entreat. write me frankly that it is so. the letter of your grace arrived. vacillating between disparagement and praises of Helen. Greet with my respects our holy brother Paulinianus. Do not refuse to write me in return. if not under the same roof. or show that another has without good reason found fault with me.being contrary to those which you maintain.D. if it is your letter. 68 402) TO AUGUSTINE. or if it cannot be certainly known. or send me a more accurate copy. but by our brother Sysin- '. was just on the point of beginning his journey. in which you clear yourself of the charge of having sent to Rome a book written against your humble servant. as L 1 Sir. Although the style and the method of argument appeared to be yours. and to imitate Stesichorus. :. 3. in order that without any passionate rancour we may devote ourselves to discuss scriptural truth. come renowned. or at least by the expression of your goodwill. our holy son Asterius. by our living near each other. my honoured brother in Christ. however. WHEN my kinsman. But it is well mown to one of your wisaom. and thus I shall be made glad either by the correction of my mistake. when each.i !~ )~ nius. f 22: 6.

I have had my time. Never since I began to write to you. even when challenged. and have run my course to the utmost of my strength. 4. 1. Through him I expect to receive a letter from you with all the certainty which is in a matter of this kind possible. 345-410)." and of the proverb. namely. and I have sent you a copy of my treatise. at the same time (with your leave. 369 ff. It is but fair that I should rest. in that I am unwilling. 2. let me remind you of the encounter between Dares and Entellus. Our brother Communis sends his respectful salutation. In this treatise I have been careful not to offend Christian feeling in any. was to be delivered to you by a . which I had prepared while I was a priest. S Vergil. 71 403) TO MY VENERABLE LORD JEROME. Would that I could receive your embrace. dictate again what I may read. and do not refuse send to these former letters the answer for which I have waiting so long. love one who loves you. With his usual effrontery. when I have leisure to prepare it. and-iliat by converse we might aid each other in learning! 3. have I met with a better opportunity for our exchanging communications than now." With sorrow I have dictated these words. once a friend-but now no between Augustine & Jerome about Aug's supposed longer-of Jerome. If they did reach you. holy and venerable father. or persuasive influence in obtaining a reply from you. intending by the first opportunity to send you a larger work. to reply. 29. See how sincerely I love you. promptly bearing. lest it should seem that to quote from the poets is a thing which you alone can do. and without intending any disrespect). I have resolved to send you at this time copies of both of them. deacon. 4 Rufinus of Aquileia (c. and to long for your writing in return. AUGUSTINE SENDS GREETING IN THE LORD. when my letter is to be carried to you by a most faithful servant and minister of God. ''The tired ox treads with a firmer ste .brother of ours. For the son whom I have named will not be found wanting in respect of zeal in asking. Sat. but he could not then bear it to you in person. To these I have replied in part. Aen. who is also a very dear friend of mine. if you have copies of them preserved: if •.2'~r::etme say further. and faithfully delivering the same. and your replies have failed. As I have sent you two letters already to which I have received no reply. My first letter to you. send me a second time the same ··· as you sent before. so that no higher will may hinder that which your brotherly goodwill inclines you to do. you have not. as may be the case. and do not because you are young challenge a veteran in the field of scripture. 5.D. 1.-the walle-Coorne oy tne otEer. while you in your turn run and accomplish great distances. but only to confute the lies and hallucinations arising from his ignorance and madness. surnamed Lanarius. 2 LETTER (A. be- . Calphurnius. the Lord may give his help and favour to your heart and to my desire.! l¥J 82 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters 83 Persius lias it-. who afterwards became my colin the episcopate. to reach me. and refuse to believe you to be the author of that which in another I would sharply rebuke. our son Cyprian. for I suppose that they never reached you. MY ESTEEMED AND HOLY BROTHER AND FELLOW-PRIEST. nor will he fail in diligently keeping. -> Misunderstanding letter that charges Jerome for CHAP. and has since then departed from this life. which I understand that he has been at pains to disseminate in Africa also. and shortly. Profuturus. Remember me.' has sent me his execrable writings. I only pray that if I be in any way worthy of this.

he was prevented by his ordination to the weighty office of bishop. and it perplexes any thoughtful reader to understand either what was the reason for marking the asterisks in the former version with so much care that they indicate the absence from the Greek version of even the smallest grammatical particles which have not been rendered from the Hebrew. answered that the in the Hebrew manuscript were correctly rendered in Greek version. and denouncing the translation as false. whereas. and in the Latin one taken from it. that the bishop was compelled to ask the testimony the Jewish residents (it was in the town of Oea). however. In that earlier version you marked with asterisks the words found in the Hebrew but wanting in the Greek. that in some places we have every word distinguished by a separate that these words are in the Hebrew. In this letter I have further to say. by giving the reason for the plan which : you have adopted. as desired not to be left without a congregation. This letter I have resolved also to send at this time. but not ow. and this was done with such astonishing exactness. and shortly afterwards he died. my brother. especially among the Greeks. 4. that I have since heard that you have translated Job out of the original Hebrew. but also what I meant to say. came upon a word in the book of the prophet Jonah. there is not the same scrupulous fidelity as to the words. You will also . or what is the reason for so much less care having been taken ' in this recent version from the Hebrew to secure that these be found in their own places. it will be found difficult. your quick discernment anticipates and goes beyond not only what I have said. who will submit to have so many Latin and Greek authorities pronounced to be in the wrong? Besides all this. if anyone has been disturbed by the occurrence of something to which he was not accustomed in the translation taken from the Hebrew. enough to be able. 2. of which you have given a very different rendering from that which had been of old familiar to the senses and memory of all the worshippers.-a calamity he narrowly escaped. and had been chanted for so many generations in the church. I would have put an or but at present I have not access to the manuscript of the translation from the Hebrew. For if your translation begins to be more generally read in ing of scripture. may give a different opinion from yours: in which case it will seem as if your presence were indispensable._ which the version to which exception is taken may be defended. These. which is a language very widely known. most amiable and honoured among the members of the Lord. and alleges that the new translation is wrong. as being the only one who could refute their view. especiaJIy seeing that the discrepancy is easily condemned in a Latin version by the production of the original in Greek. and with what reluctance I submit to the remote separation which prevents my mind from having access to yours through our bodily senses. introduced in the church over which he presides the reading of your version. to explain what perplexes me. and it would be a miracle if one could be found capable of acting as arbiter between and them. and with obelisks the words found in the Greek but wanting in the Hebrew. differences must arise between the Latin Churches and the Greek Churches. CHAP. For my part. from ignorance or from spite. if consulted as to the meaning of the Hebrew text. that you may know how long I have cherished a burning desire for conversation with you. although in your own translation of the same prophet from the Greek tongue we had already a version of that book. correcting what had been read. Since. From this case we also are led think that be oce mistaken. to get at the Hebrew documents bx. Jews. I think. 3.! Thereupon arose such a tumult in the congregation. nish us with a translation of the Greek version of the canonical Scriptures known as the work of the Seventy translators.. I would much rather that you would fur. you already understand.84 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters 85 cause at the very time when he intended to begin his journey. And when they are obtained. if not impossible. What need I say? The man was compelled to correct your in that passage as if it had been falsely translated. from the Hebrew.

a copy of which. that one has no confidence in either quoting it or proving anything by its help. I conclude with entreating you by the Lord kindly to send me a full reply. we are in no small measure thankful to God for the work in which you have translated the Gospels from the original Greek. but in an island of the Adriatic some five years ago. 6. any disputant who supports an old false translation is either convinced or confuted with the utmost ease by the production and collation of manuscripts. but has also been. and often urging me to answer a certain letter of yours. FATHER. and thus give me. Letters 87 LETTER (A. You would therefore confer upon us a much greater boon if you gave an exact Latin translation of the Greek Septuagint version: for the variations found in the different codices of the Latin text are intolerably numerous. vessels of Christ. that you had written as a man of learning. because in almost every passage we have found nothing to object to. deacon. CHAP. I am at a loss to express my surprise that the same letter is reported to be in the possession of most of the Christians in Rome. and had at last found ··one who knew how to stop my garrulous tongue.86 AN AUGUST~E READER observe how great must have been the difficulty if this had occurred in those writings which cannot be explained by comparing the testimony of languages now in use. MY LORD TRULY HOLY. CHAP. as indeed very rarely happens. and . but that Profuturus was prevented from finishing his intended journey. I. had reached me through our brother Sysinnius. and was the one which the apostles used. who would be so unreasonable as not to excuse it readily in a work so useful that it cannot be too highly praised? I wish e l¥Ji~~-:~e ~r:~~:. At the same time.:::r~::u~~:e~etwe~n th~ -~e~. and I feared meet you. And if. These things being so. BLESSED JEROME SENDS GREET~G 1. as I remember. had by silence confessed my ignorance. but through desire for praise and celebrity. You are sending me letter upon letter. whose name you do not give. and throughout Italy. affirmed by yourself. to whom alone it was ostensibly sent. -UrfCassomehow been as pleasant to me to go on with it as if I were talking with you. supported by the Hebrew codices and the Greek Septuagint version. and eclat in the of the people. suggested to me that this had not been done by you in a guileless spirit. intending to become famous at my expense. something be found to which exception may be taken. and having been ordained a bishop. was afraid of the perils of the sea. 4. and the second messenger. and has come to every one but myself. not in Africa. and afterwards to some one else. and it is so justly open to suspicion as possibly different from what is to be found in the Greek. Ithouglit tliat lliis leUer was to De a sort one. is in your power. as is not only proved by looking to the text itself. however.D. and gave up the voyage which he had intended. so far as . seeing that it has obtained so wide circulation. not in your possession. was removed by sudden death. the pleasure of your presence. many might know that you challenged me. when we compared it with the Greek Scriptures. AND MOST ~ THE LORD. which letter you tell me that you entrusted first to our brother Profuturus. because the brother Sysinnius aforesaid tells me that he found it among the rest of your published works. 2. of whom there is a very large number in Jerusalem and in the holy places. a friend must speak to his friend as freely as to his second self. 72 404) TO AUGUSTINE. By this work. 1.of ~e f~~~~:. True friendship can harbour no suspicion. without your signature. I wonder at this all the more. For the latter has no mean authority. Some of my acquaintances. . as I have already written.

I beg you to hear me with patience. and of course had not sent to Rome what you had never written. 9. who seeks retirement in his monastic cell. 4. Therefore. Christian love. admit it frankly. adding that. or desist from annoying an old man. of whom it is said that many are found in Rome. as I have already written. because I desire to cherish towards you pure and . and illustrious men. either send me the identical letter in question subscribed with your own hand. I write what I have now written . written by another hand. Moreover. and whom I rejoiced to see rising as a successor to myself in the careful study of the Scriptures. sharing the arduous labours of pious brethren in an obscure monastery. and insist upon my correcting what you judge to be an error. or if the book is yours. 2Vergil. in this I maintain that friendship is wounded. if you are not its author. Lastly. As for me. But if. Eel. because you had. If you wish to exercise or display your learning. and giving material for angry contention between those who may become our respective supporters or adversaries. young. challenging me as it were to single combat. who may be neither unable nor afraid to meet you. was sent from you. to presume to write anything against a bishop of my own communion. I was afraid lest you should have reason to remonstrate with me. and to enter the lists with a bishop in debates concerning the Sacred Scriptures. "What! had you seen the letter to be mine. Therefore either disown that book. a soldier once. without any intention of offending me. As to your calling God to witness that you had not written a book against me. I was cautious lest I should seem to answer uncourteously a bishop of my own communion. if maybe some things were found in your works in which a different opinion from mine was advanced. confident of success. to quote an instance from scripture: Barzillai of Gilead. beware lest. 1 Livy 22. eloquent. the responsibility may lie .88 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters 89 let me say it frankly. the honeyed sword. choose as your antagonists. Let not the world see us quarrelling like children. or as I may call it (using a proverbial expression). written only what you believed to be right. and untune my soul to rhyme. and the laws of brotherly union are set at nought. if in anything your opinion differs from mine.P Or rather. and demand a reason for what I have written. I call to mind the history of the way in which Quintus Maximus by his patience defeated Hannibal. especially as I judged some of its statements to be tainted with heresy. For it does not become me. when he declined in favour of his youthful son the kindnesses of King David and all the charms of his court. than with my worn-out body to take part in the conflict. who have spent my life from youth until now. but a retired veteran now. of a treatise containing a rebuke administered to me by you? How comes Italy to possess a treatise of yours which you did not write? How can you reasonably ask me to reply to that which you solemnly assure me was never written by you? Nor am I so foolish as to think that I am insulted by you. so that if I write anything in self -defence. and call upon me to recant it in a humble palinode. and to censure anything in the letter of one who censured me. who also sought my friendship before I sought his. you take exception to my views. taught us that old age ought neither to desire these things. You never wrote a book against me: how then has there been brought to me a copy. it becomes me rather to applaud the victories won by you and others. and reproached me with that which the malice of another had conceived?" CHAp. refused at first to answer your excellency. I could have once sung down a summer's sun: But now the chime of poetry is done: My voice grows hoarse. nor to accept them when offered. saying. and speak of your curing me of blindness." The rest I have forgot. (Dryden). for cares and time Change all things. 51 ff.-had you discovered in the signature attached to it the autograph of a hand well known to you. when you so carelessly wounded the feelings of your friend. especially against one whom I had begun to love before I knew him. who was. and give over urging me to reply to that which you never wrote. 3. and not to hide in my heart anything which does not agree with the utterance of my lips. because I did not believe that the letter. if you persist in demanding a reply. 2. in the pride of youth. no wrong had thereby been done to me.

as your reason for not rashly ac:. excepting the books of Soliloquies and Commentaries on some of the Psalms. my father in ecclesiastical dignity. my son in years. in consequence of which I suppose that I have begun already. are you amazed if. I tell you again. in which I have found many proofs of your most . I could prove to be at variance. . LETTER (A.--remonstrate with you. 1. I might justly . the fact that. I shall not say with my own opinion.t. for I am nobody. in your books. and in the second place. 3. however.. before this reaches you. · 90 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters 91 on you who gave. my wonder being especially called forth by this.which you have written.. but you earnestly ask me to do this.having in some measure felt aggrieved by me. address ourselves to the discussion (. you have received through our son the deacon Cyprian.D. when you did not offend me. that if there be anything in your writings which has displeased me. without a . especially in your exposition of passages in scripture which are exceedingly difficult of interpretation. but with the interpretations of the older Greek commentators. and which I would wish to correct. 1 See Jerome's Letter 68. It is not for one of my years to give the impression of enviously disparaging one whom I ought rather to encourage by approbation. MY VENERABLE AND MOST ESTEEMED SENDS GREETING BROTHER IN THE AND FELLOW-PRIEST.2. .<cepting as authentic the letter from me of which you had a . For.any bitterness of feeling. . or ····send more reliable copy of it. which.. LORD. Farewell. And if the ingenuity of perverse men finds something which they may plausibly censure in the writings even of evangelists and prophets. offended by your reply. without reserve. disturbing the peace of one who asks only to be allowed to be silent. in the first place. 1. from which you would be apprised with certainty that I wrote the letter of which you mentioned that a copy had been brought to you. to be beaten and belaboured by the missiles and the merciless fists of a second Entellus! in the reply i . we have not beside us a supply of copies of what you have written. 5. For how can we engage in such discus":·sionwithout bitterness of feeling. nevertheless I answer in the meantime . my very dear friend. if I were disposed to criticise them.. I was no sooner soothed by one sentence than I was 'buffeted in another. You say also.'-copy.I . AUGUSTINE CHAP. and at the same time some signs of your .:Dlind offend me? or. and to this I most particularly request your attention. that after alleging. and you not only assure me that you would rejoice in such proof of my goodwill toward you. In reading it.:.'. CHAP. you are ready to receive my criticism as a brother. not on me who am forced to accept. if you have made up your . you go on to comcmand me to acknowledge the letter frankly if it is mine. because you ought first to have ascer'tained that it was mine before answering it. the letter which you have deigned to send me by our holy . . some things be found which are not perfectly correct? This I say. the challenge. and you seem to desire to display your learning. 73 404) TO JEROME. like the rash Dares.. I have never read them with attention. what I feel: you are challenging an old man. to :what reason could I have had. in order that we may.of scriptural doctrine. that henceforth you make sure that I be the first to receive whatever you may write to me. a servant of God. Although I suppose that. the letter which I sent by him. if your mind is not made up to this. therefore. not because I can at this time pronounce anything in your works to merit censure.son Asterius.kind goodwill to me.

such an "'<>U.. when you had written nothing by which I could I cannot help feeling some pain from rebuke. than gain to myself. if I receive your correction calmly as a necessary of myself as is contradicted by your own experience! shall not be pained by it. only then to . and my fault. but certainly fitted to do me justly complain had you hastily concluded that a letter ? The blows of Entellus were intended not to heal. Acand only then to have replied. cured. revealing light of reason you know to deserve no blame.. you do wrong to yourself.L\ ••. you rebuke in ture: nay... that is to say. like me to be. For it will be an injury to correctly than I have the meaning of that passage in if you pass over in silence anything which you find wrong Epistle [to the Galatians]. For I could . If.Vll. . as I now do. my fault as having been the first to offend cordingly. ~ ... it remains for me to your reply.. I have been truth. even though the thing cengive me occasion. and not to render evil incontrovertible argument. while notwithstanding your actions are in harmony with posed by you to be capable of such preposterous folly as charity: for I also shall most thankfully receive your take offence when you had not written in such a way as to as a most friendly action. that I would nevertheless be so foolish as to be am justly reproved. however. 2. Therecould be offended by your reply. what hope is left of our engaging without any I strive to swim against the current. or with a father's kindness have entertained concerning you the idea that you had not him whom you cannot bring to agree with you. without consideration. even when offended. would not without consideration believe to be so different from what your experience has 4.·IH" that which merits no rebuke.LLJ. how much more reasonably may . had you not thought fore either rebuke kindly him whom.. of malice to condemn in me that which by the truth2. to reply in such a way as would offend me. 110t complain if you form.""". and not rather ask temess in the discussion of scriptural doctrine? Far be it F pardon? I therefore entreat you by the mercy of Christ to forme to take offence if you are willing and able to prove. ·... indeed.'fault. But surely censured. that although you recognised my . you could not think that . and shall be found.. If. perhaps. If.. than to escape the CHAP. either common to human nature or peculiar to myn believe. then. since I do not believe that you would think it right offended me? For if there had been nothing to offend me offend me unless you had just cause. my very dear brother.. if you you ought first to have made sure that the letter was only indisputable evidence that the letter was mine. Why offend me. but written by me was mine.'"! But I. or of any other text in Holy either word or action of mine. This was clearly seen by c. For yourself offended by me if you so framed your reply as is possible that your opinion may be at variance with the offend me in return.. so far as the Lord enables in the letter of which you had a copy.' be capable of defence. more. through would not therefore go so far astray in your judgment as . that you have apprehended evil by injuring me in return... me wherein I have injured you. I could have had no just ground of complaint. Why. when you write such a reply to that letter as writing that letter which I cannot deny to be mine. you refused to grateful for the one. if to me. you have in this already wronged me.". But. and therefore his antagonist was conquered. you think to merit rebuke. though the lance cause pain. or else I shall acknowledge both your kindness who are so cautious. hard. and therefore ought not to have you have entertained such an opinion of me. For if you had good reason for seeing that I boxing-gloves of Entellus. .92 93 for justly complaining as having been offended by you. on the other hand. and corrected in regarded to the its authenticity. There can therefore be no doubt that you by letting the disease go on. and cause of thankfulness to you. for far be it from one of your life and holy vows anything I am either informed by your teaching or set rebuke merely from a desire to give offence. far be it from me to count it anything t:llSt:. shall I fear your words. harm. though he is free from you were offended by what I had written. it is far better to have a tumour in one's pable of being offended by such a reply. 3. using the by your correction.

"3 For what trusting eye and ear. In that treatise to me. when he has no foreknowlwritings which we have been able to procure. even in reading this reply of yours.. and have . and that by and shuddered with fear. here discord has arisen between persons once so loving and intiam I. Whatever abilities I may have for . so that if we could not meet for con" •. is his present condition. and I am wholly precluded by my our faults are more useful than friends who are afraid to reecclesiastical occupations from having leisure for any further prove us. Since.ISi"'JJL\. Let me further say.'/1' 94 AN AUGUST~ READER 95 . 6. you are. as to your bodily strength by reason been pleased to send. that I of what they shall afterwards become? But why should I prefer to all other studies the privilege.'U can now pour themselves forth with any assurance of ing these words in the Epistle to the Galatians when I was confidence being reciprocated? Into whose breast may young.UUIU . through fear of destroying the sweetness of friendCHAP. if the chaff of my fault be so bruised under foot as yours. and formerly united by the bond of a friendship which me: the weight of your venerable age should not be grievous was well known in almost all the Churches. I am not acquainted with the writings speaking ship.'. our enemies who expose God has entrusted to me. injuriously of you.••.1UJlll~ love now throw itself without reserve? In short. another may become. and in whatever I have spoken amiss.WL(1. sad and pitiable is our portion! to whom I entrusted it neither delivered it to you nor returned' can rely upon the affection of his friends because of it to me. which you tell me have come into Africa. but unimpaired in mental vigour. I propose to send to you one of himself is afterwards to be? The utmost that he knows. an I have. anyone may see how you are keeping yourself under to be separated from me. in their angry recriminations.U. and a copy of my letter has reached is the friend who may not be feared as possibly a future by some strange accident earlier than the letter itself. therefore. that I remember writing to your holiness regard. and sons in the Lord. we might at least have a more frequent exchange of· letters.lJ. if it were a..study. so great is the distance by which we are he who is truth foretold: "Because iniquity shall prevented from any kind of access to each other through the. such knowledge of the Divine 19: 12. received the reply to these which you have ox worn out. that one man is thus ignorant of by me.~~·a.u. me by the things which he has written against you. and I 18: 7.-would that we were even dwelling in parts of the earth come into my possession! "Woe unto the world beless widely separated. what would be the effect produced converse we might aid each other in learning. . and toiling still ashave been exceedingly grieved that the mischief of such painful siduously and with profit in the Lord's threshing-floor.. if they I say. when no man knows even what I cannot do this myself. . For I have not now. ~VJ.. of by you. For the and Rufinus? Oh. he shall hereafter become he has no knowledge. let me say frankly.L\ii it cause for sorrow. So great in my esteem is the value of those of he knows them to be now. I fainted with grief letter . yet received a reply. as I see you possess." For my part... but public teaching. to quote your own comparison. . that he may for my benefit be he knows but imperfectly. howyearning that I read or recollect the words at the end of your ever. 3.••. After reading it. tread firmly on mate. in the event of my receiving from you a fa . never hope to have. For the former. someprosecution of my studies than is necessary for my duty in times charge us with what we indeed require to correct. cause of scandalsl"> Behold the complete fulfilment of that verse. however. the latter. and behold I am now advanced in age. for the most part. For as it is. I of years. if the breach that we deplore could arise between the transmission of which I took no small pains. I devote entirely to the instruction of the people whom him who said that. reply in regard to the matter. that it is with the utmost affectionate . restraint. and holding back the stinging keenness of your inS.··". the love of many shall wax cold. of sitting by your side and learning from you. If. show less boldness on behalf of right than they ought. lest you should render railing for railing. ''Would that I could receive your embrace. perhaps.

that nothing has made me tremwhich I can command to endure the unwelcome but unavoidble more than your estrangement from Rufinus." am gladdened and refreshed. which. when I read able delay! Therefore I come back to those most delightful in your letter some of the indications of your being displeased words of your letter. would that I were sure it would come read lest strife should be kindled anew. longed for. you were following the Lord 5 Job 7: 1. without any bitterness of ship exists. I cansee how it was possible for Satan ever to have been happy.-namely."4 being. so far as the body is concerned." -if indeed there be any sense in which I perhaps more than was fitting.?" whose salvation is lands and seas which keep us. 8: 11. it is not long be~ discord. alas. where. I offended. and that by converse we might aid each pleasantry rather than angry threat. and in . and there weephe must have known. to whom God had granted in fullest judge to demand correction in the other's writings. and when I am comforted not If it be possible for us to examine and discuss anything by a little by the fact that in both of us a desire for mutual fellowwhich our hearts may be nourished. his future transgression and eternal puning till I could weep no more. as they look on you who occupy a place so conspicudistant from each other. but now. seeing that it has befallen you at the very time when. I would wish to hear what you think as to this quesof love. when he said. 8: 1. having cast away secular burdens. moreover. if indeed it be one which it would be profitable for us to both for each other's sake. imploring you not to write and scatare now reading. unencumbered. "Peace I leave with 96 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters 97 . men of 7. by the feet of our Lord. Do the holy and blessed angels possess not only this mature age. of which I have already spoken other in learning. and I in with me. then tion. knowing." I feel that I whom the same calamity may not be reasonably feared. Truly "man's life on earth is a period of trial. whose life was devoted to the study of the word knowledge of their actual character. appeal first to each of you for his own sake. compelled me to do. but not more than my fears could possibly impart instruction to you. espeto be able to answer.you. and were living together in that very land which was trodden 71 Cor. in peril. having regard to our spiritual life and health. but also a foreknowledge of God. Let us content ourselves with smaller attainhow between you the blight of such exceeding bitterness has ments in that knowledge which puffs up. I refer not so much to what you say of Entellus and turn appropriate them as my own: "Would that I might reof the wearied ox. but to that which you have evidently written in earnest. 4 John 14: 27. I entreat you let us address ourselves to this. though meanwhile I must summon all the patience 9. constraining us to ask when. grief. now mine not less than yours. not hope to do-so strong are my agitation. even while he was still a good angel. When by these words. preserve unharmed that charity which edifies."5 If of what they shall afterwards become? If they do. would. and think conference alone. with all the eloquence ishment. "for whom Christ died. as in this case that I think I would cast myself at your feet. at last. in which you appear to me to use genial ceive your embrace. "lest perhaps. 61 Cor. if at just asked. though meanwhile unsatisfied. the words. and for the sake of those. without bemeasure and for a length of time that which both of us have ing suspected of envy and regarded as wounding friendship. you should have reason to remonstrate with me. filled with your holy longing. leave such feasted together on the honey of the Holy Scriptures. But I say to your charity. and which you could not then venture to I receive it? And yet. my peace I give unto you. if we can thereby found its way. you will you get it sent away? when will it come here? when shall could not destroy. and fear. you might have told me already what I have ter abroad these hard words against each other. If I were myself the letter which you ous on the stage of time. being 8. I cannot I could anywhere meet you both together-which. when will you write me a reply? when any time you who are now at variance were reconciled. so that in most close and endearing fellowship you let us. But if fore I am pierced through by darts of keenest sorrow when I· it is not possible for either of us to point out what he may consider Rufinus and you. But mark here what I suffer from the cially the weak.

For when I perceive that a man is burning with Christian love. and feel that thereby he has been made a faithful friend to me. 101 John 4: 16. I shall by all means endeavour. But when any sinful action is committed. than see you thus more fully armed by them. moreover. that action becomes a secret enemy. and he that dwells in love dwells in God. But truly I would rather see him less bitter in his accusations. This everyone most easily secures. 10.? Nor should you make it a reason for leaving me in error. Nor in this confidence am I disturbed by any fear of that uncertainty as to the morrow which must be present when we lean upon human weakness. but to him in whom his character makes it evident that he dwells: for "God is love. I think. and how even what he utters against you. and they themselves avoid doing what they would fear to see revealed. that you should have passed from such amity to such enmity: it would be a joyful and a much greater event. 3: 2. if it is believed.98 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters 99 come far short of that perfection of which it is written. whatever plans or thoughts of mine I entrust to him I regard as entrusted not to the man. which is not less useful than armour on the right hand-! in our warfare with the devil. especially when chafed and wearied by the scandals of this world. than that he should find what anger may provoke him to reveal. either it is disbelieved. that the distance between us on the earth's surface makes it impossible for us to meet face to face. but by doing nothing which he would wish to conceal. when one who was an intimate 9 Matt. his forsaking it cannot but cause as much pain as his abiding in it caused joy. or have not expressed myself in the manner in which I ought: for I do not wonder that we are less thoroughly known to each other than we are to our most close and intimate friends. and in whom I confidingly rest. BJas. to maintain my view without injuring you. it is better that he should search out what ingenuity may help him to fabricate to our prejudice. And as to any offence which I may give to you. and God in him. by the comfort of a good conscience. or believe. and which I have in a former paragraph bewailed."lO and if he cease to dwell in love. And this the mercy of God grants to good and pious men: they go out and in among their friends in liberty and without fear. 6: 7. so soon as I perceive your displeasure. you may gain your brother. Upon the love of such friends I readily cast myself without reservation. . or think that I have got hold of the truth in a matter in which your opinion is different from mine. that through my hearing you. even what may to your disadvantage be believed by some. or. not by concealing what he does. This is a great and a lamentable wonder. Nevertheless. our spiritual wellbeing is not affected. and in their love I rest without any disturbing care: for I perceive that God is there. the same is a perfect man. 18: 15. 112 Cor. that I have either said what I ought not. "If any man offend not in word."B but through God's mercy I truly believe myself able to ask your forgiveness for that in which I have offended you: and this you ought to make plain to me. should you come back from such enmity to the friendship of former days. As concerns the subjects into which we inquire. our reputation alone is injured. even though it be not revealed by the thoughtless or malicious talk of one acquainted with our secrets. you bear what would otherwise be insupportable-the incredible enmity of one who was formerly your most intimate and beloved friend. I shall unreservedly beg your forgiveness. on whom I confidingly cast myself. that your reason for being displeased with me can only be. if I know. you turn to good account as the armour of righteousness on the left hand. in such a case. Therefore any person of discernment may see in your own example how. For when any false charge is fabricated by a slanderer. friend has become an enemy. as the Lord may enable me. whatever these friends may afterwards become: the sins which may have been committed by others within their knowledge they do not reveal.

shines the glory that makes the saints rejoice in the Lord. quire a pretty large volume." and again." 1 AImed with these weap'. 1. JEROME SENDS GREETING IN CHRIST. in consequence not your own: if you are victorious. he cut off the head of Goliath. 68: 11. above all. out the parents for the children. for "the children ought not to lay UP for the a rambling effusion. just as unexpected and bloodshed and the prostrate slain a victory not for themattacks throw into confusion even the bravest soldiers."? and. 404) feelings were free both from roughness and from defilement.. Let me therefore. my I feel to be animadversions on opinions which I have pub~. would rethat in us may be fulfilled that word. 12: 17 f. using the proud enemy's Jerome's answer to Letters 28. place in which Uzziah was smitten with leprosy when he preFATHER. almost without premeditation.100 AN AUGUSTINE READER : Letters 101 wicked: and take the helmet of salvation. But our armour is Christ. 2.~'. to answer which. : f. On the other hand. and having on the breastplate of 6ps. 1. MY LORD TRULY HOLY. in Chronicles.P smiting the profane boaster on the forehead and wounding him in the same TO AUGUSTINE. 4 Ps. ing. his (A. from your ex~. prepared not in the leisure of deliberate parents.6: 13-17. For you seek Christ's glory. 12: 14. glory. and . three letters.. "Take 21 Sam. and attheir armour. "My heart is fixed. but what ~. III Chron. {)seeking even amid swords of chance than the parent of instruction. ~. "The Lord shall give the word with reply without exceeding the limits of a moderately long letter. which is the word of God."4 Let us therefore also say. Christ.t'f We read. ons. if I win the day. and therefore lifted up in spirit. even amidst all the eddying currents of the world." the same also' in which ~. King David went forth in his day to battle. Paul prescribes when. that the children of Israel went to battle which usually produces a discourse that is more the offspring with their minds set upon peace. that. Lord.. loins girt about with truth. that in our contendings the vicpart. and your feet shod with the preparation of the 7 Ps. 81: 10. sumed to usurp the priestly office. but in the hurry of extemporaneous dictation.[ selves. answering you in gain is yours. from the torrent's bed five smooth rounded stones. but for peace. I myself will awake early. awake. if it be the will of they are compelled to take to flight before they can gird on f. I have received by Cyprian. drinking of the brook by the way. writing to the Ephesians. he says. where82 Cor. AND MOST BLESSED ~."7 I am well assured that and without causing delay to our brother. containing what you call sundry questions. at the same time. 17: 40-51the whole armour of God. if I were disposed to do it. own sword as the fittest instrument of death. taking the shield of faith. Nevertheless I shall attempt to and I will fill it. great power to them that publish it. deacon. and the sword of the Spirit.D. 0 God. he proved LETTER 75 '. therefore. asked earnestly for a letter to take with him.. "The light of _your countenance is sealed unon us 0 or rather three little books. morecomposition. "Open thy mouth wide. now in haste to deyour prayer as well as mine is. it is that which the apostle lEph. in the evil day. I also gain a victory if I of which I am compelled to pour out these sentences. psaltery and harp. who only three days before the time fixed for his journey tory may remain with the truth. gospel of peace. give an answer to all that you have written."5 lished. the as they are. having your 5ps. 4: 7. and taking . with you shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the ! .. tempt in a short dissertation to solve your numerous questions. 16: 19. such discover my error. 40 and 71. that you may be able to withstand 82 Chron. "Stand. over. cellency. righteousness. sayCHAP. my heart is fixed: I will sing and give praise: awake up. 57: 7 f.

" etc. would have sufficed. or to fail of finding ." or properly. For you have read both Greek and Latin biographies of eminent men. in which I have given a list of ecclesiastical writers. in my commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians." CHAP. 2: 14. but real. but quick-sighted in the discernment of spiritual things). You say that you received from some brother a book of mine." although it is said that by many who were not qualified to make any correction of the title. that Paul could not have rebuked Peter for that which he himself had done.·~Vl. and you know that they do not give to works of this kind the title Epitaphium. you could then with . Gal. 2. I pass over my revered instructor Didymus (blind. I have dictated to my amanuensis sometimes what was borrowed from other writers. Let me therefore frankly say that I have read all these. in the second place. and are at this day still living. that you might have discovered the title of that book from its contents. but which had no title. but that since mention is made of the works of many who were living when the book was written. such as I remember having composed long ago after the decease of the priest Nepotianus. who have also left some brief disquisitions upon this subject. You ask.g. "Obituary Notices:" upon which you display your reasoning powers. "What then? Am..lVlll::'vU to each. because feeling the deficiency of my strength." i. and storing up in my mind very many things which they contain.l'' and could not have censured in another the dissimulation of which he was himself confessedly guilty. 3. 3. both Greek and Latin. that your wisdom ought to have suggested the remembrance of the short preface to my commentaries.·. historians..e. if they even had stood alone. To this I answer. or the words. in the first place. he answered that it was called "Epitaphium.102 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters 103 I pass by the conciliatory phrases in your courteous salutation: I say nothing of the compliments by which you attempt to take the edge off your censure: let me come at once to the matters in debate. From these works if I were to extract even a few passages. "Concerning Illus. a work which could not be altogether despised would be produced. followed the commentaries of Origen in this matter. you affirm that that rebuke of the apostle was not a manceuvre of pious policy. by remarking that the name epitaphium would have been properly given to the book if the reader had found in it an account of the lives and writings of deceased authors. espe- . sometimes what was my own. but I have rather. An epitaphium is a work written concerning the dead." or "philosophers. and the bishop of Laodicea. For that illustrious man wrote five volumes on the Epistle of Paul to the Galatians.rious Men. or what was the name by which the book was known. who has recently left the church.'. or the opinions which U. it is true. but that all things in scripture are to be received literally as they stand. saying of my own person.. He also composed several treatises and fragmentary pieces upon it. you wonder why I should have given the book a title so inappropriate. my reason for saying.. as well as Eusebius of Emesa and Theodorus of Herac1ea. "Illustrious Generals. as the case may be. propriety condemn me for what I gave as my own view. 4. I look now to the Lord in his mercy to grant my want of skill and experience may not cause the things which others have well spoken to be lost. If. orators. but simply "illustrious Men. without distinctly remembering the method.. and if they had not the opinion which you censured.LUJCl. The book. and that when you asked the brother aforesaid (1 quote your own statement) why the title-page had no inscription. poets.L"'. with more reserve and hesitation.. and has occupied the tenth volume of his Stromata with a short treatise upon his explanation of the epistle. and 10 . anything in my explanation has seemed to you to demand it would have been seemly for one of your learning inquire first whether what I had written was found in the writers to whom I have referred. as it seems to me. I so foolish and bold as to promise that which he could not accomplish? By no means. of blessed memory. which. CHAp.. without any other help. and you say that I ought not to teach falsehood. therefore. and the early heretic Alexander. it has been called "Concerning Authors." e. I think that it must be obvious to your own common sense. therefore of which you speak ought to be entitled. "Concerning Ecclesiastical Writers.among foreign readers the acceptance with which they have met in the language in which they were first written.

" By which I have made it manifest that I did not adopt finally and irrevocably that which I bad read in these Greek authors. sometimes my own. and had dietated sometimes the view of others. ~7~ st-. and birds of the air. but in every nation he that fears him and works . "Not so. that is to say. and have written at the end of the chapter with which ~ou find fault: "If anyone be dissatisfied with the interpre~atIon he~e given by which it is shown that neither did Peter sin. that do not call common..- ~er orwar nrrg: . who blamed another for transgressing. In the Acts of the Apostles. another what he himself did. but that the Jewish converts were under the law. I do not presume to dogmatize in regard to t~~ngs of great moment. not daring to meet you in argument. however. 2: 8. but that all men are equally welcome to the gospel of Christ. as the teacher of the Gentiles. and labour to persuade all other bishops to agree with you. 6. he is bound to show how Paul could consistently bl~me in." Therefore he went to Cresarea. in order to avoid doing what I had asked. Peter. the blasphemies of Porphyry.ighteousness is accepted with him. and that Paul. for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean. and to use the names of illustrious men as a means of escaping from the truth. and which all the other commentators after hun have 11 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters 105 ~rrup e.face ope~ly acknowledg~d that I had followed the commentanes of Ongen. you will require to produce at least one partisan in defence of your truth. As for me in my humble cell.----~-~ are debtors to do the whole law. or rather s~nce it is your opinion..nowever. had committed. by which saying it is proved that no man is by nature ceremonially unclean. "What God has cleansed. 'Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons. What shall I say also of John. . John Chrysostom. nor did Paul 'rebuke presumptuously a greater than himself. slay and eat. ISliouf seem to rest my answer to your reasoning wholly on the number of witnesses who are on my side. and have approv:d in co~ection with both secular literature and the Divine Scriptures. and having entered the house of Cornelius. as being a blS~OP of great fame in the whole world. as to this explanation which Origen ~rst advanced. but had propounded w. . {nat an~ rDm-amorrg~"-' ~oo ~ ~o--. and." when all manner of four-footed beasts.12 who has composed a very large book upon this paragraph. and holding pontifical rank. put down in my commentaries a variety of explan~tions. who was the chief of the "circumcision. suffer me. Lord. rightly rebuked those who kept the law. and they of " the circumcision who believed were astonished.hat I had read. I only confess frankly that I read the wntmgs of the Fathers.104 cially seeing that I have in the pre. and creeping things. to be mistaken in company with such men.''' Thereafter "the Holy r ~'Ghost fell on all them who beard the word. = Gal. saying to him. and by reasoning convict him of having done wrong. you ought."l1 was justly rebuked for commanding the Gentile converts to do that which the converts from among the Jews were alone u~der obli ation to observe. To which Peter answered. This method I think you have found in your readmg. you censure me as in the wrong. and when you perceive that I have so many companions in my error. who has long governed the church of Constantinople." And the voice spoke to him again the second time. along with the monks my fell?wsinners. Moreover. If this is your opinion. leaving to the reader's own judgment whether It should be rejected or approved. to publish your ~octnne. that e~ch m~y adopt from the number given the one which ple~es him. a voice was heard by Peter. "Rise.. as many as 12 St. and has followed the opinion of Origen and of the old expositors? If.e T or -e-purp1:rseonmswet- ing. I pray you. of being in the very fault which he himself. therefore. who accuses Paul of pre gumption because he dared to reprove Peter and rebuke him to his face. So much on the interpretation of one paragraph of the Epistle to the Galatians. YJ o~~int~nrlng that th~ Ge~ti1es who had believed in elirist were free from the burden of the ceremonial law. -. I shall briefly bring forward some examples from the Scriptures. I=l' ainst the view roposed.. complying with universal usage. You. were presented before him. "he opened his mouth and said. whereas Peter.' 5..

Peter had come to know that the law was not to be in force after the gospel was given. before certain men came from James. after three years. saying. rehearsed all that God had done with them. as proving that. certain men who came down from Judea taught the brethren. 'Except you be circumcised after the manner of Moses." And when there had been much disputing. long after this. 'Men and brethren. I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas. fearing them which were of the circumcision. but we must believe Paul's statement). and that they ought to join observance of the law with faith in the Lord as their saviour. And God. Therefore also. that Paul has recorded in his epistle: "Then. 14Acts 11: 1-18. And I went up by revelation. what was I. lest by any means I should run. These quotations should not be tedious to the reader. . we shall be saved. And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him. I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter. Paul affirms that he "withstood him to the face. "and said. to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples. they that were of the circumcision contended with him. and glorified God. Peter was of so great authority. and to command them to keep the law of Moses. wh~ tem~t God. who have received the Holy Ghost as well as we?' And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord. 1: 18. he withdrew. 'You went in to men uncircumcised. even before the apostle Paul. 14: 27 and 15: 1-12. and took Titus with me also. and communicated to them that gospel which I preach among the Gentiles. Moreover. in vain. and said. 'Then has God also to the Gentiles granted repentance to life.'" To whom he gave a full explanation of the reasons of his conduct. And when Peter was come up to Jerusalem.which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? But we believe that. because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. and put no difference between us and them. But when I saw. "but privately to them that were of reputation. giving them the Holy Ghost. Peter rose up. bare them witness. and certain other of them. that I could withstand God? When they heard these things. Then answered Peter. since they thought that the law was still in force. when. there rose up certain of the sect of the Pharisees who believed. again.106 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters came with Peter. but useful both to him and to me. purifying their hearts by faith. .' When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them. and did eat with them. saying. Paul and Barnabas had come to Antioch. even as they. through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ. because he was to be blamed. saying that it was needful to circumcise them.' Then all the multitude kept silence. and how he had opened the door of faith to the Gentiles. he did eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come. Now therefore 13 Acts 107 10: 13-48. and abode with him fifteen days. he adds: "Then. and all the elders together. they determined that Paul and Barnabas. and separated himself."13 "And the apostles and brethren that were in Judea heard that the Gentiles had also received the word of God.w 8. fourteen years after. And when they were come to Jerusalem. For.' "14 Again. you cannot be saved. that Peter was the prime mover in issuing the decree by which this was affirmed." Why did he this privately rather than in public? Lest offence should be given to the faith of those who from among the Jews had believed. and concluded with these words: "Since then as God gave them the like gift as he did to us who believed on the Lord Jesus Christ." and to his opinion the apostle James." proving that he had not had confidence in his preaching of the gospel if he had not been confirmed by the consent of Peter and those who were with him. The next words are. gave consent. who knows the hearts. 'Can any man forbid water. when at that time Peter had come to Antioch (although the Acts of the Apostles do not mention this. they held their peace. and "having gathered the church together. more. even as he did to us. with his accustomed readiness. or had run. insomuch that Barnabas also was carried away with their dissimulation. and believe. should go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. that the Gentiles by my mouth should hear the word of the gospel. you know how that a good while ago God made choice among us. that these should not be baptized."16 In the following context." he 1ti Acts 16 Gal.

19 2: 1. 2. because he withdrew himself from the Gentiles through fear of the Jews who came from James. but his father was a Greek: who was well reported of by the brethren that were at Lystra and Iconium. that the apostle Peter was himself the author of that rule with deviation from which he is charged. why are you. let us now see whether Paul. 9. notwithstanding your own doctrine. and the next day purifying himself with them. because of the Jews who were in those quarters: for they all knew that his father was a Greek. has precedence above thee. If you. Do therefore this that we say to you: We have four men Who have a vow on them. Again." Now he feared the Jews to whom he had been appointed apostle. live after the manner of Gentiles. compelled . As I have shown. how many thousands of Jews there are who believe. more. then. that Peter was thoroughly aware of the abrogation of the law of Moses. and afterwards. and sailed thence into Syria. is seen to be fear of the Jews. . and he took and circumcised him. having shorn his head in Cenchrea. saying that they ought not to circumcise their children. but that you yourself also walk orderly. who accuses another."19 Be it granted that he was compelled through fear of the Jews in the other case to do what he was unwilling to do. the son of a Gentile. accordin~ to the tr~th of the gospel. why did he let his hair grow in accordance with a vow of his own making. them take. were accustomed to do. neither to walk after the customs. a Gentile himself (for he was not a Jew. James. I said unto Peter before them all. 18 Acts 15: 41 and 16: 1-3. brother. his doing some things of the same kind through fear of the believing Jews. The sacred historian Luke further relates: "And when we were come to Jerusalem. and purify yourself with them. not having been circumcised)? You will answer. fearing them which were of the circumcision. to signify the accomplishment of the days of purification. For the scripture says. "Because of the Jews who are in these quarters?" If." and the day following. for he had a VOW. The cause of that deviation. moreover. why do you compel the Gentiles to live as do the Jews?' "17 No one can doubt. shave his head according to the law. What is it therefore? The multitude must come together: for they will hear that you are come. here again let me question you: why did you shave your head. and they are all zealous of the law: and they are informed of you. it is written: "Paul after this tarried there yet a good while. a certain disciple was there. and with him Priscilla and Aquila. you forgive yourself the circumcision of a disciple coming from the Gentiles. why did you offer 'sacrifices. But these things are small when compared with what follows. "that they walked not uprightly. but that when certain men had come from James he withdrew. that they may shave their heads: and all may know that those things. and not as do the Jews. therefore. and all the elders who were with him. who had given themselves by vow to God. who had rebuked Peter for dissimulation. named Timotheus. are nothing. entered into the temple. having expressed their approbation of his gospel. confirming the churches. Then Paul took the men. and believed. being a Jew."18 0 blessed apostle Paul. of which they were informed concerning you. and separated himself. Acts 18: 18. Him Paul wanted to go forth with him. but was compelled by fear to pretend to observe it. 14. the son of a certain woman who was a Jewess. the brethren received us gladly. said to Paul: "You see.to circumcise Timothy. that "at first he did eat with the Gentiles. why did you walk barefoot according to Jewish ceremonial law. therefore. forgive Peter also. that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses. according to the law of Moses? 10.108 AN AUGUSTrNE READER Letters 109 says. until an offering should be offered for every one of them. and keep the law. lest by occasion of the Gentiles they should go back from the faith in Christ. and then took his leave of the brethren. who 17 Gal. when in Cenchrea. and pay their expenses."20 0 Paul. why were victims slain for you according to the 20Acts 21: 17-26. behold. imitating the good shepherd in his concern lest he should lose the flock committed to him. ever did anything of the same kind himself. We read in the same book: "Paul passed through Syria and Cilicia. as the Nazarites. Then he came to Derbe and Lystra: and.

and James and. even after they believed in Christ. reproving in another that which he himself had done. not to the artifices intentional deceit. since you have rejected the opinion of the ancient commentators. therefore. "To avoid giving offence to those of the Jews who had believed. that I might gain the Jews.ch he either had not done. guarded by a careful escort of soldiers. others before me. that he might show that were in no wise-hurtful to those who. it was not by use of authority as a he but by the example of his own practice.. as Paul did. If this l¥J s: . but asked why Peter would compel those were from among the Gentiles to conform to Jewish The matter in debate. Letter 40. Therefore. departed from the right course in this. For when you were on the point of being killed in a tumult which had arisen. did not protest against what Peter done personally. For he that ministers to the sick be\tc()ml~S as if he were sick himself. what mterpretation have you to propound? Surely you must intend to say something better than they have said. and keeping the Jewish Sabbath. in your own hired house.e. not indeed falsely pretending be under the fever. which are to be AN AUGUSTINE READER 111 to the compassion of pitying love. you did. provided only they did not build on these their hope of salvation.. and he had become a Christian. Paul was indeed a Jew. therefore. And Paul. doubtless. and to restrain the shameless blasphemies of Porphyry.'23 and other such things in the same passage. after all. and had written boastfully of things wbi. and affirms that Paul had been inflamed with envy on account of the excellences of Peter. or. . and sent by him to Cresarea. We have learned. They. in offering . not defending the use of falsehood in the int~rest of religion. and for a certain appointed time." To gain the Jews. or I should rather say . compelled them. had done With inexcusable presumption. 9: 20. that through fear of the Jews both Peter and Paul alike pretended that they observed the precepts of the law. i. 23: 23 and 28: 14. to your view. he took part in obthese. 12. you did pretend to be a Jew. You say in your letter: "You do not quire me to teach you in what sense the apostle says. since by Lord Jesus. who says that Peter and Paul quarrelled with each other in childish rivalry. 21 Acts 22 231 Cor. yo~ were rescued by the chief captain of the band. and a destroyer of the law? and from Cresarea coming to Rome.. seeking both to show the wisdom of the apostles. Now.110 law? You will answer. but with this view.. To the Jews I became as a Jew.P! 11. 'preaching of the gospel of Christ. How could Paul have the assura~ce and effrontery to reprove in another what he had done himself? I at least. but considering with the mind of one sympathizing what he would wish done for himself if were in the sick man's place. doing. in observing the precepts of the law. preach Christ to both Jews and Gentiles.4. lest the Jews should kill you as a dissembler. 22 CHAP. opinion regarding it. in circumcising their children as Paul ' in the case of Timothy. desired to retain the ceremonies which the law they had learned from their fathers. he had not abandoned Jewish sacraments which that people had received in right way. ~ut teaching the honourable exercise of a wise discretion. that he compelled Gentile converts to conform to Jewish observances. ." The sum of your whole which you have expanded into a most prolix dissertais this. in answering him. if he did them. 30.. have given such explanation of the matter as they deemed best. and your testimony was sealed under Nero's sword. 4. that Peter did not err in supposing that the law binding on those who from among the Jews had believed. gave the ~st interpretation of the passage wbich they could find. all the other elders taught you this dissimulation. when he was an apostle of Christ. the believing Jews do . I should rather say. But you did not succeed in escaping. as you charge them with. the Jews have been accustomed to do.. is summed up in this: that since . or.

in short. observed Jewish ceremonies. kill him. not to Gentiles. we read in the Gospel.•.. apostle of Christ."2S Observe what the they will not become Christians. 31: 31 f. we believe. for the law was given by Moses. even after they had believed in brief: "Behold. whether he be Jew or Genthe sect of the Minei. 'new covenant with the house of Israel. but to the Jewish nation. and they say that he who suffered under excepted. If. Christ. 10: 4. I therefore'. to both Jew and Gentile.ti1e originally. they are neither the one nor the other. 113 of the Ebionites.every one that believes. even when he ~self. Also. not according to the covenant which I made with of Christ what they have been accustomed to practise in the :their fathers. . throughout all the synagogues of the East."24 that is. even when he was an "~' . who had not been partakers in 14. "For Christ Pharisees. But while they desire to be both Jews and Chris . Now I implore you t9 no effect to you whoever of you are justified by the law' you hear patiently my complaint. but in the newness of the spirit. born of \ lieves. that I will make a along with the usages prescribed by their law. the days come. which is calledf hand that whoever observes them. so to speak. and the guilt of him who reintroduces within the and types of the old dispensation.• ~. is the same as the one in whom '. as I desire to be wise hurtful to those who. promises in place of it the new become a Christian. "The law and the prophets were until John the Baptist."Letters . -gldness of the letter. he took part in observing these. which is no more. that they are in no wise hurtful to those who wish to retain 26John 5: 18. because he had not only broken the sabbath. to devote your skill in the healing art . 21John 1: 16 f. the truth has come by church a most pestilential heresy.. 11: 13 and Luke 16: 16. he had not abandoned those Jewish "covenant of the gospel. he is not the end of the law for righteousness to Pontius Pilate and rose again. in connection with whom the discussion was an apostle of Christ. I will tell you my opinion of the matter: ring them out of the land of Egypt. . them as they had received them from their fathers by the law. prophet says.. if. I. in another place: "Therefore the Jews sought the more beseech you. and instead of the shadows scripture. and is even now condemned by the':. we have received the grace the various opinions held by the fathers in a commentary on of the gospel which is abiding. than a prick or 5 said also that God was his Father."z5 tians.112 AN AUGUSTINE READBR:. He who has in your letter? "Paul was indeed a Jew. they believe in Christ the Son of God.. who make pretensions to the name of Chris. and to this grievous wound. I may boldly declare that the tian? In our own day there exists a sect among the Jews: {i}ewish ceremonies are to Christians both hurtful and fatal. Moreover. any former covenant. Qod. that he might show that they were in nq ~<frequently. who think that you are called upon to heal my 'to. shall maintain. says the Lord.'to protest against my view. " 25Matt. For what Christian will submit to hear what is said." Again: "Christ is become of they had learned from their fathers. and when he had _giventhem the law by Moses. Paul and for a certain appointed time. which has been opened by a spear grace for grace. "Behold. in the day that I took them by the hand."21 Instead of the grace of no proportion between the culpability of him who exhibits the law which has passed away. Jeremiah also prophesied thus in God's name: us no alternative but to receive the Jews into the church. this question has arisen. there is for Jesus Christ. though the world were 28Jer."26 Again: "Of his fulness we have all received. moreover. but they will make us Jews. Therefore. that they might no longer live in the sacraments which that people had received in the right way.of which I subjoin only a few. Paul. making himself equal with scratch from a needle. is cast into the pit of perdition. delivers such sentiments as these but with this view. and you affirm to< 24Rom. to synagogues of Satan. For there issurely and truth came by Jesus Christ. but grace driven home with the impetus of a javelin. the end of the law for righteousness to every one that beas Nazarenes. and with the house it shall be declared lawful for them to continue in the churches'~pf Judah. I Paul say to you. for if the Jew be the Virgin Mary.2 ~'bf t?e . on the contrary. cis . The adherents to this sect are known commonly. that if you be circumcised. and. desired to retain cerem~nies whi~h by the law ~Christ shall profit you nothing. however. but slight wound.

accordI may. 10: 3. sincerely. but under the heir. what good things which were Jewish he retained. which were indeed at one time necessary. We have learned from you what evil things peculiar might do without being chargeable with deceit or inconsist-fo the Jews Paul had abandoned. law. not out of mere reverence for old but because when "faith came. . and judgments after the passion and resurrection of Christ. are such things 20Gal 5'. 3: 8. they had not submitted themselves to the rightlegal precepts. and is Lord. as you supof God's righteousness. feignedly. them. that he might win ChriSt."32 Again I say: since you are a bishop.5. and going about to establish their own pose to have been the case. to the Jews that was evil. and is less censured by the unare fallen from grace. or unwillingly. 4. that they has now attained to full age. Letter 40. have refused to do it (for not contribute to salvation. lest indifferent-neither good nor bad. destroy the law."35 handed down from his fathers. and them to be at all necessary to salvation. like Mani and Marcion. 20: 25. and will not be guilty of they must be observed. that we might had it been unprofitable and vain for the Maccabees to receive the adoption of sons. to follow the practice of their fathers. ing on them to celebrate. self-indulgence is bad: between these. if you would prove what you assert. cir. 32Letter 40.. understand it (for it is often the case that a discourse indifferent. 7: 1. and then ~o~ have been made martyrs: for they would not be obknow that it is a more difficult work to reject the opmion unless they contributed to salvation. not that been given and made manifest the mystery of grace. as ment in these words: "Paul had forsaken everything peculiar our fathers affirmed the apostles to have done. 4: 4. persecuted the Christian preachers of grace as enemies of the 15. and on the evening of the fourunderstand what you mean by the words. made of a woman. the churches of Christ. but. I should rather is good. without Jewish Sabbath.Letters 114 AN AUGUSTINE READER 115 extended is not intelligible. in the way cumcises any son that may be born to him. Gal. As to the quality of these righteousness."31 and might live no longer martyrdom as they did for their adherence to them. that 'being ignorant under the promptings of a wise discretion. . made under the dispensation. you will be constrained. 16. or rather."29 From which it is evident that ceived). in this also Paul differed from the Jews. in whom had whereby they should not live. especially this. skilled in discussion because its weakness is not so easily peryou are not under the law. ." For if they you have done this. . whether tion." and the fulness of times. why are they observed? And know that you are a Christian."30 I say these things." Again: "If you be led of the Spirit. not." I do not to be used with thanksgiving. if he wished. You will reply: "The ceremonial observances in which they receive any Jew who. These. or. but as necessary to salvation. moreover. let us now learn from your ency. Moreover. he declares that which he rebuked in Peter was not his observing the customs '" counted but loss and dung. "without beteenth day of the first month slays a paschal lamb." he says. you inculcate your opinion by reiterating the statehe has not the Holy Spirit who submits to the law. 18 30Ezek. abstains from meats which God has created them to be at all necessary to salvation. to renounce your opinion. a teacher in . which Peter. we should not believe your statement.'33 In this.6. as philosophers say. 83 Rom. 842 Mace. "statutes that were not good.34 under the law as our schoolmaster. because of observing them. they by all means contribute to profane action). therefore. . which I know to the order of Melchizedek. let us learn from God's own teaching: "I gaveeousness of God. 81 . 2. For they are not others than to establish your own. 35 Phil. the sacraments of the "God sent forth his Son. It is further said in your letter: ''The thing. especially seeing that. and all similar errors and sins. . as having no moral quality. law. observes the . which these were complied with by Paul himself. after having become a Christian. they still considered it bindon the testimony of the apostle to be both holy and spiritual. who . he differed from them. to redeem them that were under the law.

ate lam. for whether you do it or leave it undone. but was actually involved in it. from any belief.u\'Ul~. that he might gain them also? The explanation is found in this. I ask you.LI. and with all urgency press the . and wherein I have transgressed. to ~~e ~·"'-. 6. it is either good or bad. into one error while avoiding another. but. are those who. this favours our opinion rather than yours: for as he not actually become a Jew.. to gain the Jews. whereas you maintain that d~d this out of pity. But the observance of legal ceremonies is not a thing indifferent. that he took part in the Jewish rites as being himself a Jew. 86 f:'- 117 C?n:-passion of the apostle! In seeking to make Jews Chrlstians. in his compassion. and not in any misleading dissimulation such as Paul reproved in Peter. otherwIse than by experiencing in his own person wretchedness! Truly wretched. and as he did not actually become a heathen. and worthy of most com(. you attempt to qualify it by words which are only superfluous: viz. Christ.ll1. why did he not also take part with the Gentiles in heathen sacrifices. The next words of your letter are these: "For if Paul observed these sacraments in order. pronouncing that the law is binding on those who from among the Jews have believed.fo~ I say that both Peter and Paul. Perceiving. as you suppose. so he did not actually become he~then. and bad not only when done by Gentile converts. that he refused to imitate Peter in a course of dissembling through fear of the Jews what he really was. Peter therefore pretended to keep the law. "87 18. that he received as Christians the .t. His conformity to the consisted in this."'U.. therefore. he himself became a Jew! For he could have ~ersuaded the luxurious to become temperate if he not himself become luxurious like them' and could t brought he~p. neither circumcision avails anynor uncircumclSlon. so did not actually become a Jew. For while you guard yourself against the blasphemies of Porphyry. that you forgive me this humble attempt at a discusof the matter. With ~e ~ympathy of a compassionate deliverer. practised. that (whether from fear from PIty) they pretended to be What they were not As your argument against our view. who said. "The law must be observed not. when to them that were out law he became as without law. and made me out to be as blind as Stesichorus. Gal. sympathy of a compassionate deliverer. but this. and by love for the law Which has abolished. if I am. but the keeping of the commandof God. and left them free to WIthout scruple meats which the Jewish law prohibited. You say it is good. he meant not that he pre-: tended to be what he was not. that this is necessary to salvation. in taking part in their worship of For "in. or rather pretended to practise pr~cep:s of the Jewish law. not." A triumphant cation of Pault You prove that he did not pretend to the error of the Jews.. a great difference between my opinion and : . such as prompted the Jews to keep it. as you say. that he ought to have t? the Gentiles a Gentile. it does not affect your standing as righteous or unrighteous. "1 am the way. I affirm it to be bad. without reserve freely avowed himself to be a Jew. of disputation. expectorating phlegm. after all. again. have made Christ's apostle to be a Jew. blowing one's nose. but that he felt with true passion that he must bring such help to them as would needful for himself if he were involved in their error Herein he exercised not the subtlety of a deceiver."""th~~ere. that what you have said is a dangerous doctrine. the 37 Letter 40. "not with the subtlety of a deceiver.'paCSSlon. 5: 6 and 6: 15.. not mistaken." But both t?is IS equally admitted." 17. Nor "_Ce . if to the Jews he became Jew. . lay the upon yourself who compelled me to write in reply. ~esus. you become entangled in the snares of Ebion. by pretending to be a Jew. through fear of believing Jews. And do not the reproach of teaching the practice of lying upon me am a follower of Christ. etc. and that when said all this which I have quoted. Such an action is neither good nor bad.116 as walking. censor of Peter boldly observed the things prescribed by the law. but also when done by Jews who have believed.:ntation. In this passage you fall.. carried away by ". who believed in Christ.

presume to that which they were not able to explain? If the paswere plain. if they are plain. but who esteem lightly an old decrepit like me. and regard with respect due to the priestly office the orations which you in the church. the former of has in some things been followed by our own Ambrose. rather from the volumes. it must be believed that you are as likely to be ~takem as others. 20. I put it to your wisdom to answer why you. Apollinaris of Laodicea: and ' . If some 't~~"~~I:. Moreover. however. Moreover.JiULJlVll has been.:uu~ Christ.. And if you happen to write me a letter. . feeble. by your own showing. .. J. Didymus of Alexandria. you do this. which has been given by a Christian seeing that Origen borrowed the things which added from the edition of a man who. first. I have expressed what I understood it to careful to preserve rather the exact sense than of the words.IoI'\.L~~J. in the interpretation of which Greek commentators written many volumes: viz. 119 follower of the ancients."8S It is impossible for me. no one would ever venture ...All the commentators who have been our predecessors in Lord in the work of expounding the Scriptures. to whom alone it ought to be which I made of some of the canonical books was marked with asterisks and obelisks. Theodorus of Heraclea." . In that version I was translating Greek: but in the later version. You must pardon that you seem to me not to understand the the former translation is from the Septuagint. for you will scarcely find more than one manuhere and there which has not these interpolations.. ~ere either obscure or plain.~ were obscure. have exOWIQe:Q either what was obscure or what was plain. who am so far separated from you sea and land.'The passa~es of Which the Seventy have given an . courting the retirement of a monastery far from busy haunts of men. In either case. differ them in your exposition of some passages? If the Psalms obscure. translating from the itself. of Scythopolis. but as they have corrected. and that you refuse to follow the Inn· ..oo. after this had been done by the ancients.. and on the same principle.118 truth. and seek others who may be more instructed or corrected by you.. how could you. who worshipper of the truth.. A few words now as to your remark that I not to have given a translation. with his 0 asterisks. after the ua". that you may approve yourself UVJu. and Rome are sure to be acquainted with its contents before it is brought to me. Euof Ceesarea: third. you be compelled to find fault with all the libraries of the . it is incredible that these could have fallen into mistake.. was a Jew and a blasphemer. if they were plain. your . by Origen. There are said to be minor on selections from the Psalms. whereas I a translation without these. Do you wish to be . . or rather corrupted. they are designed to indicate that have said more than is found in the Hebrew. it is not believed that Seventy could possibly have been mistaken. and the novel syllogism which use: '.. and Eusebius of Vercelli. have Origen and Eusebius of Ceesarea. If."89 . refrain from stirring up against me the crowd who esteem you as their bishop. to bow under the yoke of raisenoou. For the sound of your can scarcely reach me.. fourth.'p'tTP. an unnecessary . and obelisks are placed. Origen. it was a waste of time for you to have underto treat of that which could not possibly have escaped This syllogism applies with peculiar force to the book Psalms. I am surprised that you do not read of the Seventy translators in the genuine form in were originally given to the world. among Latin writers the Hilary of Poitiers. admirer and partisan of the Seventy translators? not read what you find under the asterisks. but I speak at present the whole book. asterisks indicate what has been added by Origen from of Theodotion... after them. If they were obIt IS believed that you are as likely to have been misas the others. second. and the life. fifth. after all labours of so many and so competent interpreters. 6.lla. CHAP.

. and no one would be at liberty to write anything regarding that which another has once handled.120 AN AUGUSTINE READER Letters to speak on any subject after others have pronounced their opinion. however im- 40 De optimo genere interpretandi.

gourd-debate. and let . you yourself suggest. a letter from you." and Aquila and the others have the word "ivy. and not on the one who repelled. AND MOST BLESSED FArnER. or been pleased to say what was not true. and at the same time. May Christ. preserve you safe. LETTER (A. was an answ. it is that they were either unacquainted with Hebrew. therefore. when you had so long reme to write you in reply.. and when planted quickly springs up to the size of a small tree. that the word is in the Hebrew which is found in the Greek and Latin versions. either through malice or ignorance.. anxiously inquired of our holy brother Firmus reg yo.D. answer deem it enough to say that in that passage.'" for me to refuse you. give yourself to teaching the and enrich Rome with new stores from fertile Africa.. contented to make but little noise in an obscure corner of monastery. If you have read commentary on Jonah. moreover.J.. moreover.~~ -. The holy brethren who with me serve the send you cordial salutations. Salute from us the holy .us exchange letters. I ~"~AI-'C~ •. If. as both gourds and ivy do." the Hebrew manuscript has "ciceion." no one know what it meant." that I might not differ from all other translators.U him to bring. But let us be done with such let there be sincere brotherliness between us. me with his sword has been driven back by my pen. or. without requiring any support of canes poles. MY LORD TRULY HOLY.er from me to. y~u.-. I think you will not recur to the . and most blessed father. where the Septua-: gint has "gourd. If. I therefore down "ivy. Jl.. I beg you to forgive the modesty which made it . our alGod. 81 405) AUGUSTINE. And if It was a fault in me to send a (I beseech you hear me patiently).I. JEROME SEtms GREETING IN THE LORD. but mutual chanty. in regard to my letter. to convey my respectful salutation to the holy Alypius.i But if your Jews said.. and not to force him to take the field again expose his life to the chances of war. That letter. Do you.who with you bear Christ's easy yoke. I had put the word "ciceia.. and not unmindful of me. standing by its own stem.Lt. with one to hear me or read to me.. 1 should rather say. you. are young...LI.123 1. as now spoken. worthy of all esteem. the fault of him who upon it was still greater.~If'V""." I have said what is not found in the Hebrew. not of controversy. in word for word.. my truly holy.. in order to of the eration for a soldier who is now old and has long from active service. and who have been appointed to the seat of pontifical dignity. upon which he told me that had set out from Africa without communicating to you his 1 therefore send to you my respectful salutations this br~ther." It is a of shrub having large leaves like a vine. but a confronting of my ~I}rg~rrlents WIth yours. who clings to you with a singular of affection." is in the Syriac tongue. the friend who first . the VING .ll . "ciceia. I was glad to hear that you are well.. if I had used the word "gourd.ur state. especially 1 . 1 insisted upon grvmg me. rely upon your good feeling and equity to lay blame on the who brought.L.

"" iviour. 1 For this reason I have not been with you. rather to rid the church of that most LETTER 172 • perni~ious heresy which always feigns repentance. JEROME SENDS . and to defend your opin. however. he IS now detained somewhere in Africa. Your pious and venerable daughters. For in any discussion tween us. May Christ every charm of splendid eloquence-the answer which I Lord keep you in safety. to reverence and admire you. blessedness: in which they are joined by the whole brother1. and they send special salutations to your GREETING IN CHRIST.' scarcity of clerks acquainted with the Latin language. which I recently . 416) not be expelled and extinguished. in order that It may have liberty to teach in our churches. ~ough some one's dishonesty. exercise ourselves field of scripture without wounding each other. MY TRULY PIOUS LORD AND FATHER. to look up to you. and especially heretics. if you please. my truly would otherwise have given. and whatever can be drawn by commanding which is furnished with distinctive asterisks and obelisksi" from the fountain of sacred scripture regarding them.124 AN AUGUSTINE READER 125 accusation. THAT honourable man. the object aimed at by both of us is in learning. and afte~ards to Africa and Sicily. and your excellency's of those who with us labour to serve the Lord our son. most of the been in these letters stated in your positions. both on his own account and ".as my own. "Let every man be fully persuaded iIi his IS the reason.) We suffer in this province from a words of the blessed apostle in regard to the variety of . we are not able to comply with your mind. I beseech you ceased. But I beg your reverence to allow for a little to praise your genius. we sent him last in obedience to your request. judgments. I h~ve also in a dialogue. my brother. therefore. so that our studies have. as it would be if it disclosed " real character in the light of day. 14: 5. . 6. and of our earlier labour. the priest Orosi us. I have. in which I have found it better for . 2 Lactantius Rom. I have also sent to your care a letter able at the present time to give to those two books dedicated me to the holy priest Firmus.D. if they different opinions maintained by us.18. As for the holy priest Firmus. in them demands correction. made allusion to your blessedness in suitable terms. I am resolved to love you. first to ing time has come upon us. and mindful of me. made welcome. But a most tryto go on business of Eustochium and Pallia. WORTHY continue to walk worthy of their own birth and of MY UTMOST AFFECTION AND VENERATION. lest what Appius calls "the eloquence of dogs" should present my respectful salutations to the saints who are be provoked into exercise.'your counsels. why. will assail us with calumny that our differences are due to mutual jealousy.pub~Ished. part."2 Certainly. I beg to my name-books of profound erudition. if it reaches you. 2. we have lost. but because I am mindful of the" ' (As a postscript. and brilliant to take the trouble of forwarding it to him. But our rivals. Let us. Eustochium and TO AUGUSTINE. Be It ours. and we suppose me to hold my peace than to speak. r by your arguments. . 1 Cf. and may (A. whatever can be said on the topics especially m regard to that version of the Septuadiscussed. not that I think anything said lord and most blessed father.

agar:~ Augustine's familiars.126 AN AUGUSTINE READER LETTER (A. is an uneasy link between to say Go on and prosperI You are renowned throug ou first nine books and the last three. But now we add. my venerable lord and most esse a • . a confession of bis sins. The Confessions is the whole world' Catholics revere and look up to you as the a bishop's profession of faith in and praise of God restorer of the ancient faith.the last three are mainly an exegesis of the first chapter of doomed to' perish. Here we give books: the important Books 7 and 8 from the first stage. the second (Books 11-13) was finopposing storms and preferred.'~' to the moral purposes of faith. . in 397 and had at least a restricted "publication" among with the ardour of unshaken faith. f Christ the Lord preserve you III safety are. The tenth book. is that providence leads us through many apparent wanderand misfortunes to salvation in Christ. and have loved the Lord and dwelling in you.'.1'T!l1r1r patterns that invite some questioning on their total his(but few scholars would deny that the events recountett are basically historical). Your wisdom apprehends what I ~ea~ . if possible. The first nine books are mainly autobiographical.Genesis.JEROME AT all times I have esteemed your blessedness with becon:ing1 Confessions (A. seeking by Imprecation ~o details (which are relatively few) are selected in away the life which they cannot reach with th~ swor . forth 'alone rather than linger behind with those w a are . from Augustine's readers were expected to profit. so far as this was lro y ished between the second half of 398 and 400 or even per: fr Sd though you shou d come power to be delivered om 0 om.. 13 and w ~~V1°~i . The best edition of the text of the Confessions is that in the BA. ~'~"'J. Autobiome also with equal hatred. TO ms HOLY LORD AND MOST SENDS GREETING. set forth according to rhetorical and litthe mercy 0 bl d f ther mindful of me. The theme of the work. with Manichaeism and Neoplatonism. They persecu e bio~(fal)hicalthan the title suggests to modem ears. and-which is a token of y~t . published in two stages: the first stage (Books 1-9) was begun to pass without the mention of your name. 397-400) Books 7. BLESSED . and w~ heap up what was already full.D. 195 418) FATHER AUGUSTINE. It is therefore distinctly less automore illustrious glory-all heretics abhor ~ou.. commenting on Augustine's life at the time of writing in 397 or so. it would appear. praise and repentance. h haps 401. because you h~ve. stood your . vols. 8 and 11 reverence and honour. moreover. SO that we do not suffer a single hour " 'The Confessions (thirteen books) was.. his intellectual moral conversion and final submission to Christ. and 11 which contains a famous and subtle meditation on "time" and foreknowledge.ground. somet ing a that which has already reached a climax.D.

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