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SUBMITTED TO: MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM
SECTION HEAD GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS “OMV ISLAMABAD”
SUBMITTED BY: MUHAMMAD TALHA BUTT
STUDENT OF BAHRIA UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD
The geologic scale is sub-divided the 4.6 billion year history of the earth into many different units and provides a meaningful time frame within which the events of the geologic past are arranged and is divided into Eon, Era, Period and Epoch.
It represents the greatest expanses of time. It is divided into 2 parts Phanerozoic and Precambrian. Precambrian eon has 3 types Proterozoic, Archean and Hadean.
Each Eon is further divided into another unit called Era. Phanerozoic Eon is divided into 3 Eras Cenozoic, Mesozoic and Paleozoic. All 3 types of PreCambrian Eon is divided into 3 Eras Late, Middle and Early.
Each Era is further divided into another unit called Period. Cenozoic is divided into 2 periods. Mesozoic is divided into 3 periods. And Paleozoic is divided into 7 periods.
Each Period is further divide into another unit called Epoch. The Epoch of Quaternary and Tertiary period has specific names while the others are simply divided into Late, Middle and Early. Quaternary is divide into 2 Epoch and Tertiary is divided into 5 Epoch.
The Cenozoic era is ongoing. SUB-DIVISION: The Cenozoic Era is divided into two periods. CLIMATE: The Cenozoic Era has been a period of long-term cooling.5 million years ago to the present. The Cenozoic (also Caenozoic or Cainozoic) Era is the most recent of the three classic geological eras and covers the period from 65. the climate cooled significantly due to the advent of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current which brought cool deep Antarctic water to the surface. After the tectonic creation of Drake Passage. It is marked by the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous that saw the demise of the last non-avian dinosaurs and the end of the Mesozoic Era.5 million years ago to the present) It is also called “Recent Life”. the Arctic region cooled due to the strengthening of the Humboldt and Gulf Stream currents. The Quaternary consists of Holocene and Pleistocene epochs. . and Oligocene epochs. with relatively short warmer periods. the Quaternary and Tertiary. The cooling trend continued in the Miocene. When South America became attached to North America creating the Isthmus of Panama. Eocene. when South America fully detached from Antarctica during the Oligocene.PHANEROZOIC EON CHAPTER 2 CENOZOIC ERA (65. And the Holocene is ongoing. Paleocene. and Tertiary consists of the Miocene. and they are in turn divided into epochs. Pliocene.
dry savannahs and deserts filled the space. Africa’s hoofed animals and primates were notably successful. the current interglacial of which is the Holocene period FOSSILS OF CENOZOIC ERA: Quaternary Period (1. Pliocene . and opossums were notably prolific. but mammals. Both marine and terrestrial life was for the most part modern. Herbivores grew in size. rodents. grasslands. though discernibly more primitive. The name comes from the Greek words pleion (more) and ceno (new) and roughly means the continuation of the recent in reference to the fact that mammals were essentially modern in form.eventually leading to the glaciations of the Pleistocene ice age.8 million years before present. deciduous and coniferous forests. while hoofed animals generally declined. . Tertiary Period (65 to 1.8 mya)Fossils (Tertiary Fossils): Invertebrates. The Pliocene seas were thrived with mammals such as seals and sea lions.3 million to 1. appeared in the Pliocene. mastodonts. and some migration occurred between continents. In North America. Concurrently. These modern climates reduced tropical vegetation and shrank tropical forest to a band near the equator. elephant-like gomphotheres. protozoa and flowering plants would undergo considerable evolutionary change. and the australopithecines (some of the first hominids) appeared late in the Pliocene. the australopithecines.8 to Present)Fossils: The Quaternary Period that began less than 2 million years ago marked the origin of the close human ancestors as well as the modern forms of the animals we see today. tundra.The Pliocene Epoch extends from 5. The Pliocene climate was also relative cool and dry as in modern times. as did their predators. fish and reptiles were similar to those of modern types. Mammalian life evolved in continent-dependent ways. The first recognizable human ancestors. birds.
this allowed adaptation to life on the savanna and prairie and the evolution of running animals such as the Equiidae (the horse family). elm. A variety of trees thrived in a warm Eocene climate. Among the animals. and with that many animals as new environmental niches were filled. trees and small plants appeared. including the ruminants which are ancestors of modern cattle and deer. The Oligocene is often considered as an important window of environmental transition from the tropical Eocene and the cooler Miocene. including beech. horses and deer as well as birds also generally evolved to closely resemble forms extant today. The start of the Oligocene is marked by a major extinction event that might have been caused by a meteor impact in Siberia or near the Chesapeake Bay. The first grasses also provided a refuge for many animals.The Miocene Epoch extends from about 23 to 5 million years ago. A major expansion of grasslands occurred as forests declined in the cooler and dryer climate. Mammals such as wolves. providing a vastly expanded and renewable food resource for the herbivores. Angiosperms continued their expansion throughout the world. apes. Eocene . driving selection and radiation of large herbivores. also appeared. and more. The Miocene is thus a very long 18 million years and generally marks the transition from the far prehistoric world to a pseudo-modern world. Plants thrived. and cedar.The Oligocene Epoch extends from about 34 million to 23 million years ago.Miocene . and many new symbiotic systems appeared. The name comes from the Greek words meion (less) and ceno (new) because of the smaller proportion of modern sea invertebrates than the subsequent Pliocene Epoch. Ancestors of modern elephants and rhinoceros grew to large size in Africa. The evolution of plants was providing a powerful selective pressure across the entire animal Kingdom. and humans. magnolia. Many new species of shrubs. mammals diversified markedly. chestnut. redwood.The first grasses appeared in the Eocene Epoch (from about 54 to 37 million years ago) with growth near the root as opposed to the tip. birch. The Eocene Epoch was a period when flowering plants continued a massive radiation that began in the Paleocene Epoch. as did grasses. The grazing mammals evolved the teeth enabling a diet of harsh grass. Oligocene . The name Oligocene comes from the Greek oligos (meaning few) and ceno (meaning new) and is in reference to the paucity of new mammalian animals after their radiation during the preceding Eocene Epic. . where the first ape’s primate belonging to suborder Anthropoidea that includes monkeys. and marine fauna evolved to forms closely resembling those extant today.
One group that diversified significantly in the Cenozoic as well was the snakes. LIFE: The Cenozoic Era is the age of new life. and snakes. the Age of Mammals. marine. and flying animals giving this period its other name. Evolving in the Cenozic.Paleocene . Grass also played a very important role in this epoch. but others would survive and then evolve into other forms. and diversity. The Cenozoic is just as much the age of savannas.The Paleocene Epoch began after the extinction of the dinosaurs. the snakes evolved into a huge amount of forms. At the beginning of the Paleocene. shaping the evolution of the birds and mammals that fed on it. and plants increased. Mainly nocturnal mammals that had cowered in the shadows of dinosaurs for millions of years eventually evolved into a vast number of different forms to fill the newly vacant environmental niches. With passage of time. mammals diverged from a few small. or the age of birds. Although dinosaurs were gone. During the Cenozoic. mammals grew in size. number. The diversity of birds. most mammals were tiny and rodent-like. despite the fact that birds still outnumbered mammals two to one. their reptile cousins lived on in the form of turtles. following the evolution of their current prey source. and species became more specialized. Many early mammal designs of this time would soon become extinct. simple and generalized forms into a diverse collection of terrestrial. crocodiles. other animals. especially colubrids. lizards. the age of co-dependent flowering plants and insects. the rodents .
mastodons and mammoths. including chalicotheres. oreodonts. terrestrial crocodiles like Pristichampsus and a handful of primitive large mammal groups like uintatheres. mesonychids. But as the forests began to recede and the climate began to cool. giant rhinoceross like Indricotherium. and pantodonts. the world was dominated by the gastornid birds. three-toed horses. saber-toothed cats.In the earlier part of the Cenozoic. entelodonts. other mammals took over. The cenozoic is full of mammals both strange and familiar. and brontotheres. . primates. whales.
It is often called the "Age of the Reptiles". the drifting provided for speciation and other important evolutionary developments. Approximately 50% of all genera became extinct. From oldest to youngest. including all of the non-avian dinosaurs. after the dominant fauna of the era.0 mya to 65. SUB-DIVISION: Following the Paleozoic.5 mya) The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. climatic and evolutionary activity. This time frame is separated into three geologic periods. It is Lying between the Paleozoic and the Cenozoic. the Mesozoic extended roughly 180 million years: from 251 million years ago (Ma) to when the Cenozoic era began 65 Ma. • • • Cretaceous (145. deriving from Greek word “meso” means "between" and “zoon” meaning "animal" or "living being". It is also known as the "Great Dying" because it is considered the largest mass extinction in the Earth's history. which may have been caused by the impact that created Chicxulub Crater on the Yucatán Peninsula. The continents gradually shifted from a state of connectedness into their present configuration. The Mesozoic was a time of tectonic. during which approximately 90% to 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrates became extinct.0 Ma to 199. The upper (Cretaceous) boundary is set at the CretaceousTertiary (KT) extinction event (now more accurately called the Cretaceous–Paleocene (or K–Pg) extinction event). "Mesozoic" means "middle animals".5 Ma to 65.Chapter 3 MESOZOIC (251.6 Ma) The lower (Triassic) boundary is set by the Permian-Triassic extinction event.5 Ma) Jurassic (199. Climate: .6 Ma to 145.5 Ma) Triassic (251.
Average temperatures were also higher than today by about 10°C. modern sharks and teleosts. For this reason.The climate of the Cretaceous is less certain and more widely disputed. temperatures fluctuated greatly. The circulation of oxygen to the deep ocean may also have been disrupted. Low sea levels may have also exacerbated temperature extremes. Furthermore. water acts as a temperature-stabilizing heat reservoir. eventually being deposited as "black shale". Because much of the land that constituted Pangaea was distant from the oceans. bringing more land area in contact with the ocean by forming the Tethys Sea. a trend that began in the late Carboniferous. Sea levels began to rise during the Jurassic. FOSSILS OF MESOZOIC ERA: Cretaceous Period (146 to 65 mya) . The marine . which was probably caused by an increase in seafloor spreading. Higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are thought to have caused the world temperature gradient from north to south to become almost flat: temperatures were about the same across the planet. Pangaea began to rift into smaller divisions. and highly seasonal. With its high specific heat capacity. The formation of new crust beneath the surface displaced ocean waters by as much as 200 m more than today. especially in the interior of Pangaea. large volumes of organic matter that was unable to decompose accumulated. and the interior of Pangaea probably included expansive areas of desert. which flooded coastal areas. the rays. Abundant evidence of red beds and evaporates such as salt support these conclusions. The Triassic was generally dry.(Cretaceous Fossils): During the Cretaceous. or the ray-finned fish became widespread and diverse. and land areas near large bodies of waterespecially the oceans-experience less variation in temperature.
Bennettitales and cycads) and ferns are common providing abundant food for the sauropods. the plesiosaurs throughout the Cretaceous. The immense plant-eating dinosaurs (the sauropods) were ubiquitous and were the prey of the large theropods. The Cretaceous also saw the first radiation of marine diatoms in the oceans. a straight-shelled ammonite flourished in the seas. most famous was the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs. Another important Hymenopteran insect. which was integral to and symbiotic with the appearance of flowering plants. The fossil record supports the appearance of the large theropod’s dinosaurs within 10. Compared with other reptiles. Climate changes due to the breakup of Pangaea allowed flowers and grasses to appear for the first time. The pterosaurs. including Ceratosaurs. that occurred some 65. the flying reptiles. The Cretaceous ended at the so-called KT boundary. it was during the Jurassic that they prodigiously radiated and ascended to be the rulers of the land. were common in the Jurassic. In recent years dinosaurs have been viewed as transitional between ordinary reptiles (especially crocodiles) and the birds.5 million years ago.reptiles persisted. or the CretaceousTertiary (K-T or KT) extinction event.dinosaurs rule the land (Jurassic Fossils): While the dinosaurs appeared in the Triassic. the eusocial bee appeared. Pterosaurs remain common until the Upper Cretaceous when competition occurs from evolving birds. the dinosaur hind limbs are beneath the body. and gall wasps. termites and butterflies appeared along with aphids. Tyrannosaurus rex. including the ichthyosaurs in the in the Lower and Middle of the Cretaceous. Jurassic Period (208 to 146 mya) . The arch saurian reptiles. and the mosasaurs that dominated the Upper Cretaceous. Dinosaurs are a clade of reptiles defined by somewhat ambiguous criteria. grasshoppers. half of all life’s genera disappeared. continue to dominate the land. Gymnosperms (especially conifers. Fish and . Baculites. Triceratops. Insects became even more diverse as the first ants. While the duration of this extinction remains unknown. particularly the dinosaurs. Velociraptor and Spinosaurus all lived in the Cretaceous. Birds evolved during the late Jurassic. Among plantae. Megalosaurs.000 years after the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. and Allosaurs. The most well known dinosaurs.
echinoids. and marine crocodiles flourished. plesiosaurs. starfish. brachiopods. . sponges and ammonites among the invertebrates. as did bivalves. the mammals remained diminutive and backstage during the Jurassic. belemnites.reptiles dominated marine environs. As a general rule. The ichthyosaurs.
While crinoids were the most abundant group of echinoderms from the early Ordovician to the late Paleozoic. placodonts. and other invertebrates. the inadunate crinoids which had barely survived the end-Permian extinction with one family finally disappeared. LIFE: The extinction of nearly all animal species at the end of the Permian period allowed for the radiation of many new life forms. also did not survive. the extinction of the large herbivorous and carnivorous dinocephalia left those ecological niches empty. and the first plesiosaurs. they nearly went extinct during the Permian-Triassic extinction. In particular. corals.Triassic Period (245 to 208 mya) Fossils (Triassic Fossils): The Permian-Triassic (P/T) Extinction Event marked the end of the Permian Period of the Paleozoic Era. mollusks. the Proetids. Seed plants dominated the land. The ichthyosaurs appeared in the early Triassic. nothosaurs. or seed ferns. namely the Articulata. Animal life during the Mesozoic was dominated. and the squid-like Belemnites appeared and became abundant. however. are presumed to be a monophyletic clad that originated from the inadunate Order Cladida. notably the bivalves. echinoderms. and radiated into huge. marine-dominating species. Among the enchinodermata. including the Sauropterygia. Some were filled by the surviving cynodonts and dicynodonts. All the post-Paleozoic crinoids. New groups of echinoderms appeared as well. the latter of which subsequently became extinct. ammonoids and brachiopods recovered to dominate the marine environment. Other invertebrates. Marine reptiles were highly diverse. and the start of the Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era. pachypleurosaurs. . The last surviving trilobite Order. by large arch saurian reptiles that appeared a few million years after the Permian extinction: dinosaurs. The first flowering plants (the Angiosperms) probably evolved during the Triassic. especially conifers to the north and the Glossopteris. to the south. The P/T extinction decimated the brachiopods.
evolved. The climatic changes of the late Jurassic and Cretaceous provided for further adaptive radiation. The Jurassic was the height of archosaur diversity. while birds and mammals thrived. and perhaps the ancestor mammals to primates. snakes. As the temperatures in the seas increased. and mosasaurs. as they do today. By the end of the Cretaceous. but the even temperature gradient allowed them to spread toward the poles throughout the period. although some evidence suggests that biomass was still dominated by cycad and ferns until after the KT extinction.pterosaurs. first in the tropics. angiosperms dominated tree floras in many areas. The large archosaur became extinct. plesiosaurs. the larger animals of the early Mesozoic gradually began to disappear while smaller animals of all kinds. and the first birds and placental mammals also appeared. including lizards. Angiosperms radiated sometime in the early Cretaceous. The KT extinction exacerbated this trend. . and aquatic reptiles such as ichthyosaurs.
Baltica (Northern Europe and Russia) and Laurentia (eastern North America and Greenland) remained in the tropical zone. CLIMATE: The Early Cambrian climate was probably moderate at first. life's conquest of land. insects. or both. . These 300 million years of the Paleozoic era realized many critical events in evolution. shallow sea floor. and vascular plants.CHAPTER 4 PALEOZOIC ERA (543 mya to 248 mya) The Paleozoic (meaning "time of ancient life)" Era lasted from 544 to 245 million years ago. The slow merger of Baltica and Laurentia and the northward movement of bits and pieces of Gondwana created numerous new regions of relatively warm. Fish and fish-like vertebrates arose in the early Paleozoic and comprise more than half of the diversity of vertebrates that inhabit the world today. However. Also importantly. while China and Australia lay in waters which were at least temperate. as the second-greatest sustained sea level rise in the Phanerozoic got underway. when some 95% of all marine species met extinction. although much less dramatically. The Middle Paleozoic was a time of considerable stability. The Paleozoic took up over half of the Phanerozoic. The Paleozoic was ended by the greatest mass extinction event in geologic history. reptiles. becoming warmer over the course of the Cambrian. the evolution of fish. with the result that the "climate". The Early Paleozoic climate was also strongly zonal. and is divided into six periods. the formation of the supercontinent of Pangea. but the living space of most organisms of the time became steadily colder. but slowly recovered over the course of the Silurian and Devonian. Sea levels had dropped coincident with the Ice Age. or metazoan life simply became hardier. approximately 300 million years. The north-south temperature gradient also seems to have moderated. in an abstract sense became warmer. As plants took hold on the continental margins. including the development of most invertebrate groups. the Permian/Triassic extinction. oxygen levels increased and carbon dioxide dropped. there were also no less than two ice ages in the Paleozoic. The Devonian ended with a series of turnover pulses which killed off much of Middle Paleozoic vertebrate life.
In North America. The Permian was named in the 1840s by Sir Roderick Murchison. the continents below the equator still formed the super-continent Gondwana. from the extensive Permian exposures near Perm in Russia. ice ages during the Carboniferous. FOSSILS IN PALEOZOIC ERA: Permian Period (286 to 245 mya): The Permian Period extends from about 286 to 245 million years ago. where some 90% to 95% of marine organisms and 70% of all terrestrial organisms became extinct. arthropods. this time.The Late Paleozoic was a time which has left us a good many unanswered questions. This destabilized the climate and led to one. and were bulky. The reptiles were mainly synapsids (Pelycosaurs and Therapsids) that appeared in the Upper Carboniferous. The Permian ended with the most extensive extinction event recorded in paleontology: the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Carboniferous Period (360 to 286 mya) "The Age of Plants" Reptiles and the amniotic egg appear (Carboniferous Fossils): The Carboniferous Period derives its name from the massive deposits of coal found in U. Crinoids. while carbon dioxide plummeted to unheard-of lows. a British geologist. and brachiopods. both oxygen and carbon dioxide had recovered to more normal levels. brachiopods . Permian marine environments were abundant in mollusks. and Western Europe. Life flourished in the seas in the wake of the late Devonian Extinction. cold-blooded animals with small brains Towards the very end of the Permian the first archosaur appear. These were far more severe than the brief Late Ordovician Ice.K. amphibians and reptiles. Ammonoids re-diversified very quickly. Life on land included a diversity of plants. and perhaps two. During the Carboniferous. but. The Mississippian epoch began with a spike in atmospheric oxygen. and is the last geological period of the Palaeozoic Era. the effects on world biota were inconsequential. By the Cisuralian. blastoids. the Carboniferous is divided into the Mississippian Period and the Pennsylvanian Period. the ancestors of the soon to follow Triassic dinosaurs. echinoderms.
and bryozoans and single-celled Eukaryotes fusulinids known as fusulinids became abundant. the nine trilobite orders had shrunk to one remaining in the Carboniferous. The Lycopods that reproduced by way of spores went on to form vast swamp forests during the .Colonization of the land (Devonian Fossils): The Devonian was a time of great change across the Tree of Life. generally lacking the leaf. the age of the trilobite was drawing to a close. Calamites and ferns were other spore-bearing plants that appeared during the Devonian and thrived during the following Carboniferous period. and tetrapods evolve. the dependency on a moist environment caused the extinction of most taxa during arid conditions that prevailed near the end of the Paleozoic.e. scale trees and club mosses) that evolved during the late Silurian to early Devonian to continue to diversify and flourish throughout the Carboniferous. Devonian Period (410 to 360 mya) "The Age of Fishes" . the Order Proetids. By the late Devonian earth had forests of tall rooted trees covered with leaves. root and vascular systems that would soon appear. most Carboniferous plants continued to use spores from reproduction. Silurian. and Devonian periods. Primitive plants that gained a foothold in the Silurian went on to form forests. After radiations Ordovician. The lycophytes (Phylum Lycopodiophyta) are the oldest extant lineage of vascular plants e. The moist and swampy environments of the Carboniferous enabled the Lycophytes (i. Similarly. and the first arthropods colonized the land. Reef ecosystems saw new and more varied forms. Arthropods and ultimately tetrapods were plodding the lands. Despite the appearance of seeds.g. plants were very tiny and primitive. including wingless insects and the earliest arachnids. including the ammonoids and fish.. Both the first tetrapods. A time of great transition. club moss and gave rise to all descending vascular plants in a major phylogenetic split. spiders. The ray finned fishes radiate enormously. ammonoids and fish evolve and quickly diversify. However. that too would go extinct at the end of the Permian. or four legged land-living vertebrates. In the Lower Devonian.. The first insects. two major clades of animal moved ashore and rapidly radiated. However. In the sea.
.g. The seed-bearing Gymnosperms appeared near the end of the Devonian. . Sigillaria is another example of a lycopod tree. Lepidodendron) reaching heights more than 100 feet. an adaptation ultimately leading to propagation to dryer habitats.Carboniferous period with the Lepidodendrales (e.
In the oceans. bryozoans. so named after a Celtic tribe called the Silures. In addition. Not only does this time period mark the wide and rapid spread of jawless fish. armored fish) from Ordovician rocks comprise some of the oldest vertebrate fossils. there was a widespread radiation of crinoids and a continuation of the expansion of the brachiopods. and sandstone. limestone. cuticle. as well as many kinds of brachiopods. . Ordovician strata are characterized by numerous and diverse trilobites and conodonts (phosphatic fossils with a tooth-like appearance) found in sequences of shale. The first plank-tonic graptolites evolved and other graptolite species became extinct. corals. snails. clams. blastoids. dolostone. some quite exotic. Land plants evolved in the moist regions near the Equator. The Silurian strata have fossils that are substantive evidence of life on land. crinoids. Owing to continental separation. which resulted from an adaptation of an anterior gill arch. particularly the arthropod groups. Remains of Ostracoderms (jawless. and spores of the early land-based plants.Massive marine life diversification (Ordovician Fossils): The Ordovician is named after a Celtic tribe called the Ordovices. as do microfossils of the cells. realized additional marked changes for Earth that affected life significantly. but also the highly significant appearances of both the first known freshwater fish as well as the first fish with jaws. and cephalopods appeared for the first time in the geologic record in tropical Ordovician environments. at least compared to the prior millions of years. locationdependent forms. trilobites drifted apart genetically taking on new. Most profound perhaps was the colonization of land. The fossils of the earliest of vascular plants are also prevalent. The Silurian was also a remarkable time in the evolution of fishes. Coral reefs made their first appearance and expanded.Silurian Period (440 to 410 mya) . Terrestrial arthropod fossils occur in Ordovician strata. Ordovician Period (505 to 440 mya) . and was a time that life diversified and specialized. Sea levels rose as the climate stabilized.Life gains a foothold on land (Silurian Fossils): The Silurian.
The evolution of shelled metazoans is reflected by the appearance of successively more advanced shelly fossils. including sponges. brachiopods and arthropods. and many groups of echinoderms. . and these arthropods actually attained their peak number of families near the end of the Cambrian. astonishing period in Most major groups of fossil record. animals first appear in the popularly and scientifically Explosion". molluscs. echinoderms. trilobites. Modern times are sometimes called the age of insects (that are also arthropods). the Roman name for Wales. Reef-building fauna were broadly decimated. significantly because shallow seas flooded the continents. Trilobites dominate the Cambrian fossil record. It is believed there were some 15. and it is believed there may be some 10. Gondwana formed near the South Pole. and small shelly animals did not evolve before the middle part of the Early Cambrian. archaeocyaths.000 species of insects on Earth today (with beetles predominating). bryozoans.The Ordovician ended with a major extinction event that caused the demise of some 60% of marine genera. and chitinozoans also disappearing.000. bryozoans. The first shelled metazoans that are characteristic of the Cambrian occur well after the earliest complex trace fossils. the Paleozoic is sometimes called the “age of trilobites”. Cambrian Period (544 to 505 mya) . Hard-shelled animals appeared in great numbers for the first time during the Cambrian.Most major animal groups appear (Cambrian Fossils): The name Cambrian derives from Cambria. This suggests that hard parts evolved later. where rocks of this age were first studied. The Atlantic Ocean closed as Europe moved towards North America.000 species that evolved during the Paleozoic. brachiopods. graptolites. The Cambrian truly is an evolution of life on earth. Hence. Nearly all conodonts disappeared in the North Atlantic Realm while only certain lineages became extinct in the Mid-continental Realm. A Late Ordovician glaciation contributed to profound ecological disruption and mass extinctions. Hence. Trilobites were greatly affected with the Agnostids and the vast majority of Asaphid trilobites meeting extinction. an event called the "Cambrian Many marine metazoans having mineralized exoskeletons flourish in the Cambrian. corals.
These bottom-dwellers some of which had skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone first appeared 500 million years ago. Many were covered in plate-like armour. .The first detailed record of vertebrates appears during the Cambrian as fossils of jawless fish.
LIFE: The Paleozoic covers the time from the first appearance of abundant. algae. At the start of the era. sponges and a variety of somewhat enigmatic forms known collectively as the Ediacaran fauna. By the end of the era. The lower (oldest) boundary was classically set at the first appearance of creatures known as trilobites and archeocyathids. Fish populations exploded in the Devonian. animal forms were dominated by invertebrates until the mid-Paleozoic. but substantial plants and animals did not take to the land until the Silurian and did not thrive until the Devonian. great forests of primitive plants thrived on land forming the great coal beds of Europe and eastern North America. soft-shelled fossils to the time when the continents were beginning to be dominated by large. relatively sophisticated reptiles and modern plants. sophisticated reptiles and the first modern plants (conifers) had developed.a phenomenon known as the Cambrian Explosion. Modern practice sets the older boundary at the first appearance of a distinctive trace fossil called Trichophycus-pedum. . The upper (youngest) boundary is set at a major extinction event 300 million years later. Although primitive vertebrates are known near the start of the Paleozoic. known as the Permian extinction. During the late Paleozoic. A large number of body plans appeared nearly simultaneously at the start of the era -. all life was confined to bacteria. There is some evidence that simple life may already have invaded the land at the start of the Paleozoic. the first large.
In the shield areas of the world such as North America. Central China. For-Example. This unconformity varies slightly in time from continent to continent. Eastern Europe. of Earth’s History. The Archean Eon ranges from 4.000 Ma to 2. Archean and the Proterozoic Eons. the Archean rocks largely occur as Cratons within Proterozoic belts.PRE-CAMBRIAN EON (550 mya to 3. we begin review of sequence of Crustal rocks formed during the Archean and Proterozoic Eon collectively known as Pre-Cambrian. South Africa and India. .800 mya?) Chapter 5 The earliest part of Earth’s history has been divided into the Priscoan.600 Ma in Russia and China (Windley 1984). In general the Archean sequences are comprised of crystalline rocks which are unconformably overlain by little deformed Shelf-type Proterozoic rocks. Therefore.500 Ma.500 Ma in North America and 2. A very little is known about the Priscoan Eon which covers the first 600 m. it is dated 2.y.
the contact between the Cretaceous and Paleocene formations is reported to be transitional (HSC 1960). In the sulaiman province. the Paleocene clastic sequence lays unconformity over progressively older formation of Mesozoic and Permian age. A wide spread hiatus marks a period of emergence in part of Pakistan at the close of Mesozoic Era causing variable boundary at Mesozoic-Cenozoic contact from place to place(Kazmi & Rana 1982). The lower Paleocene fauna is characterized by the abundance of Miscellanea miscella (d’ Archaic and Haime) in association with Lokhartia hainei (Davies). Operculina sub-salsa (Davies and Pinfold) and . In parts of lower Indus basin. Tertiary Period: Paleocene Epoch: The Paleocene rocks are well exposed in most parts of sedimentary basins of Pakistan. In the Baluchistan ophiolite thrust belt. However. including Chagai-Makran and Baluchistan ophiolite thrust belt. and middle and upper Indus Basin.DIVISION OF PAKISTAN ON GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE BASES PHANEROZOIC EON Chapter 6 CENOZOIC ERA (65. the appearance of nummulites and operculines in these areas is sudden and abrupt (Pascoe 1963). Salt Range and KohatPotwar province. The Traps occur above the Cardita-beaumonti beds of Upper Danian age. hiatus is usually marked by unconformity. Many of the Paleocene fossils such as echinoids show strong Cretaceous affinity.5 million years ago to the present) In Pakistan exceptionally thick and well-exposed Cenozoic sedimentary sequences are observed along the north-western margin of Indian plate. In the lower Indus Basin Paleocene rocks are known as the Ranikot Group (Landenian) containing flows of Deccan Trap in the lower part.
Potwar. In the Salt and Trans Indus Ranges. Marine condition gradually shifted to the South during late Eocene and shallow marine sedimentation continued in Sulaiman and Kirthar basins. and are exposed over a wide area. Kalachitta. the addition of Ranikothalia sindensis (Davies). Discocyclina ranikotansis (Davies and Pinfold). Actinosiphon tibetica (Douville). Kalachitta and Hazara area. Clastic input from north and west started pouring into these parts of basin during Middle-Late Eocene time. Eocene Epoch: In Potwar area and particularly in Kohat basin to the west. The Paleocene succession in the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt (Upper Indus Basin) is comprised of the Hangu Formation at the base overlain by the Lockhart Limestone and Patala Formation at the top. Ranikothalia nuttalli (Davies). The region presently covered by Kohat-Potwar.Lockhartia conditi (Nuttal). Operculina patalensis (Davies and Pinfold). In North-western Baluchistan. The Paleocene-Eocene boundary in north Pakistan is characterized by the absence of Lokhartia haimei (Davies). Kalachitta and Hazara area. Salt and Trans Indus range. Hazara and Salt and Trans Indus Ranges become part of a Peneplain. paralic sands and shallow shelf limestone. Most part of Sulaiman fold belt and adjoining areas were inundated by the mixed assemblage of sediments deposited as coastal swamps. including many species of land mammals and cetaceans. Farther south in Kirthar fold belt. Lockhartia tipper (Davies) and Assilina subspinosa (Davies and Pinfold) distinguish an upper Paleocene age (Akhtar and Butt 2000). Whereas. partial separation from open sea caused the development of restricted marine evaporation trough resulting in basal infill of gypsiferous clay stone followed by rock salt and gypsum. Widespread sea level rise during the Middle Eocene resulted in deposition of thick carbonate deposits in almost all parts of sedimentary basins of Pakistan. open marine platform conditions prevailed during most of early and middle Eocene time depositing thick carbonate sequence. Kalachitta and Kohat some of the Eocene sequences have provide a rich vertebrate fauna. Paleocene rocks constitute major part of the Paleogene succession in Kohat. Miscellanea miscella (D’ Archiac and Haime) and the appearance of Nummulites mamillatus . carbonate sedimentation continued during the greater part of Early Eocene.
. Assilina granulosa and Discocyclina dispansa (Akhtar and Butt 1999).(Fichtel and Moll).
. flood plain and delta of the Indus River (Kazmi and Jan 1997). During the Oligocene shallow marine and deltaic sands of the Nari formation prograded across the shelf area from north and north-west but were restricted against Kirthar carbonate shelf edge. In Chagai-Makran area. particularly its earlier part. the volcanic deposits of Koh-i-Sultan. was a period of non-depositional in the Himalayan foreland belt of Potwar and Kohat basins. marine sedimentation not only continued during Late Eocene and Oligocene time when mixed carbonate-clastic sediments of the Nari formation (including the Nar member) were deposited. playa and lacustrine deposits in intermountain basins. deeply-weathered residual soil. glacial and fluvioglacial deposits in the vast piedmont zone. In the Kakar-Khorasan (also known as Katawaz Basin) turbidite sequence of Khojak Formation was deposited as part of a major deltaic system. evaporates of the salt lakes in Sindh. The Detritus shed by the rising of Himalayas was mostly deposited in Hazara and Kashmir areas where thick Molasse sediments of the Kuldana and Murree Formation were deposited during Middle Eocene-Early Oligocene time. and in northern part of Sulaiman sub-basin. shore and offshore deposits. The drainage system during Oligocene time was not large enough to cover the entire Potwar and Kohat Basin.Oligocene Epoch: Most of the Oligocene. clastics supplied from the central Afghan block formed a series of red-brown fluvial and grey-green gypsiferous estuarine clastics of the “Amalaf formation”. Aeolian deposits of Thar and other deserts. Farther south in Kirthar and Sulaiman sub-basins. Quaternary Period: Quaternary stratigraphic sequence in Pakistan represents a wide range of depositional environment including the marine coastal deposits.
This sequence comprises 2. In the Chagai area of Baluchistan as well as in Kohistan Island Arc Complex. obducted masses of mélanges and igneous intrusion. Mughal Kot. They form a thick. except for local disconformities there is a complete sequence of the Cretaceous ranging from Late Tithonian through Neocomian to Maestrichtian. Fort Munor. At many localities the Cretaceous sequence contains volcanic rocks. the Lower part of the Cretaceous sequence consists of marine sandstone and Shale (Chichali and Lumshiwal formation) whereas the Upper part is comprised of Limestone (Kawagarh Formation). Karakoram block and in Chagai magmatic arc. the Mesozoic rocks are largely Marine. Carbonate and Calcite sediments (Sembar and Goru Formation. These rocks extensively cover the Indus platform and the fore deep region and have been encountered in several oil-wells. Northward. In Lower Indus Basin (Kirthar-Sulaiman region). In Kirthar-Sulaiman region of the Lower Indus Basin.5 mya) Mesozoic sedimentary rocks crop out extensively in KirtharSulaiman Ranges and Kohat-Potwar-Salt Range region.000 m of fossiliferous marine Shale. In this sequence there are unconformities and strata of Cenomanian. In Kohat-Potwar region of Upper Indus Basin. Kohistan magmatic arc.Chapter 7 MESOZOIC ERA (251. Parh Limestone. . buried cover sequence over basement rock in greater part of the Indus Platform zone. Bibai and Moro formation and Pab Sandstone). they describe in thickness to about one thousand meter and include a substantial amount of terrestrial deposits. in the Upper Indus Basin (KohatPotwar-Salt Range). Calcareous and Argillaceous and several thousand meter thick. Cretaceous Period: Cretaceous sedimentary rocks are exposed in Himalayan Fold-and thrust belt. Turonian and Meastrichtian age are missing.0 mya to 65. Mesozoic sedimentary sequence consists largely of Cretaceous Volcanic and sedimentary rocks.
Chikchi-ri Shale and Aghil limestone are exposed. the Triassic sequence comprises Borom and Aghil formation and farther eastward. in Shaksgam-Baltoro region of the Karakoram. Triassic rocks assigned to the Wulgai Formation are present as tectonised blocks in Zhob ophiolite-and-thrust belt in Baluchistan and Himalayan thrust-and-fold belt in the north. In the Karakorams. the Triassic sequence is missing and Jurassic rocks unconformably overlie the Paleozoic rocks. which are the Triassic component of the Alpurai Group. Triassic rocks belonging to the Mianwali Formation. Tredian Formation. They form a part of platform cover in the entire Indus Basin. .000m) sequence of marine. In the Karakorams. Chak Jabbi Limestone and Kingriali Formation are exposed in the KohatPotwar-Salt Range region of Upper Indus Basin. they form extensive thrust blocks and sheets. In KirtharSulaiman region. Jurassic outcrop are largely restricted to anticlinal cores whereas in Baluchistan Ophiolite-and-thrust belt and the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt. Triassic Period: The Triassic sedimentary sequence in Pakistan is rather restricted in its thickness and extent. The Himalayan thrust belt in Swat-Mardan region contains outcrop of Kashala and Nikanai Ghar formations. Triassic Zait Limestone is exposed in Mastuj Valley of Chitral.Jurassic Period: The Jurassic sedimentary constitute a thick (820m-3. In Upper Hunza Valley. East of this region. Jurassic metasediments occur in antiformal thrust staks or thin thrust slices. pericratonic shelf deposits consisting of Limestone. Shale and Sandstone with subordinate Dolomite and Ferruginous beds. Triassic Urdok conglomerate. in Hazara area.
Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxes. Devonian Period: . Peshawar Basin.Chapter 8 PALEOZOIC ERA (543 mya to 248 mya) Paleozoic sedimentary rocks occur at several localities in Pakistan but a complete Paleozoic sequence is lacking. they are best developed in the Peshawar Basin. Besham. Karakoram Block. Kaghan. Salt Range and its westerly extension. In Pakistan Carboniferous to Permian sedimentary sequence are confined to the Khyber-Hazara metamorphic belt and zone of crystalline nappes. However. Paleozoic rocks have been reported from the northeast Baluchistan. In the Peninsular region. they have a Basal Glacial bed in common (Pascoe 1959). fossiliferous sedimentary sequence often referred as the Gondwana system and the time span represented by them is known as Gondwana Era (Pascoe 1959). Permian-Carboniferous Period: The Carboniferous Period was the time when the extensive Coal beds were formed round the world. This non-marine. Hazara-Kashmir syntaxial region. including the Indo-Pak Sub-continent. Khisor Range. Coal bearing fluvial sediments spanning a vast time interval more than 160 million years. though a limited fresh-water sequence occurs in the Central Salt Range and the presence of Gondwana rocks in the Indus Platform zone cannot be ruled out. Hazara. Marine sedimentary sequence. The Gondwana sequence doesn’t occur in Pakistan. Despite Paleoenviromental and Paleo-ecological contrast between these two distinct facies. this Period heralded the beginning of deposition of a great thickness of Terrigenous. marine and non-marine. extending from Late Carboniferous to Early Cretaceous. counterparts of the Gondwana crop out in the Himalayas and the Karakoram. Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Range and the Karakoram. Sawat.
.Devonian sedimentary rocks are confined to outcrops of relatively small extent in Khyber Pass and Nowshera-swabi area of the KhyberHazara metamorphic belt. These rocks are largely fossiliferous. in the Yarkhun Valley of Chitral and in the western part of Karakorams.
The Cambrian rocks of Khisor and Salt Range apparently conformably overlain the Late Proterozoic Salt Range formation and are unconformably overlain by Permian strata. Jutana formation and Khisor formation. whereas King (1937) considered it Lower Middle Cambrian (Pascoe 1959). south of Salt Range. the Cambrian sequence is collectively known as Jhelum Group and is comprised of the Khewra Sandstone. . Many observers have placed the Redlichia fauna at the top of Lower Cambrian. has revealed that this sequence continues southward and overlies the Pre-Cambrian rocks of Indus Platform zone. at places the Paleogene sequence directly overlies the Cambrian. Test drilling by Pakistan Shell Oil co.Silurian-Ordovician Period: Ordovician and Silurian sedimentary sequences are poorly developed in Pakistan. The Cambrian sequence of Salt Range has yielded several fossils. The Cambrian sequence is the thickest and best developed in Eastern Salt Range and sharply thins and wedges out towards the west. Salt Range and Trans-Indus Ranges. Its total thickness is almost 450 to 500 meters. A number of species and genera discovered in this sequence were new. Cambrian Period: In Khisor Range the Upper Part of Cambrian consists of White Gypsum and Crystalline Dolomite. This sequence is comprised of four main Litho-stratigraphic units. and unconformably overlie the Cambrian or Proterozoic sequences. They are largely confined to Attock-Cherat Ranges. In Eastern Salt Range. In the northern areas they crop out mainly as thin faulted blocks or thrust sheets. Khussak formation. In Potwar. at Karampur. Swabi area west of Tarbela (Khyber-Hazara Metamorphic Belt) and Upper Yarkhun valley (Chitral) in the western Karakorams. These have been referred to as Redlichia fauna.
Early to Late Proterozoic gneisses form the core of the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif.y. North of Indus platform. Late Proterozoic (Eocambrian) sedimentary rocks are exposed in the Salt Range. we begin review of sequence of Crustal rocks formed during the Archean and Proterozoic Eon collectively known as Pre-Cambrian. and Early to Late Proterozoic formation are exposed in the deeply incised Indus gorge near Besham.PRE-CAMBRIAN EON (550 mya to 3. Subsurface data shows that these rocks form the basement and are a continuation of the Proterozoic sequence in DehliArravalli belt and the Rajasthan Platform of India. 1985) and some of these may represent ripped up thrust slices from Archean basement of the Indian shield. . at places. However. A very little is known about the Priscoan Eon which covers the first 600 m. Archean and the Proterozoic Eons. Proterozoic Sequence in Pakistan: Proterozoic rocks crop out as small scattered inliers on the Indus Platform in Nagar-Parkar area of Sindh and the Sargodha-Shahpur region of Punjab. the high Himalayan gneisses and granites (Manaslu granite) have yielded Nd model ages of 1. Archean Terrains In Indo-Pakistan Sub-continent: In the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent the Archean rocks crop out only in the Indian part and are largely confined to the Indian Peninsular Shield.7 to 3. of Earth’s History. Deniel et al. Therefore.8 Ga (Vidal et al. but these mostly comprise Proterozoic meta-sedimentary rocks and thrust sheets of crystalline rocks (schist and gneisses). Meta-sedimentary sequence occurs in the Sufaid Koh-Cherat-Lower Hazara Ranges and Kaghan. Pre-Cambrian sequence does occur in the Himalayas.800 mya?) Chapter 9 The earliest part of Earth’s history has been divided into the Priscoan. 1982.
Freeman and Company.asp? isbn=0521781426. Earth System History.usgs.org/wiki/Cenozoic • http://www.net/Paleobiology/Cenozoic_Paleobiology. 1999.edu/cenozoic/cenozoic.berkeley. 86 No. 1 Sept. "O2 Requirement for Burning Rises".cambridge.fossilmuseum.org/wiki/Mesozoic • http://www.html • http://www. p.gov/socal/geology/geologic_history/images/geo logic_time_scale. 35.wr.ucmp.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue. Steven M. ISBN 0-7167-2882-6 • ^ Chemical & Engineering News.H. • ^ Stanley.References • http://geomaps.fossilmuseum.wikipedia.htm • http://www.htm #QuaternaryPeriod • http://en. Vol. 12 .jpg • http://en. New York: W.net/Paleobiology/Mesozoic_Paleobiology.wikipedia. 2008.
com/Mesozoic/Mesozoic.com/to pic/cenozoic&usg=__SfzNdliwUYxiUwiQPklHsSk_tPA=&h=462&w=558& sz=175&hl=en&start=63&um=1&tbnid=fRt2zTdPsuaPfM:&tbnh=110& tbnw=133&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dclimate%2Bof%2Bcenozoic%2Bera %26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1R2RNTN_enPK332%26sa %3DN%26start%3D60%26um%3D1 • http://images.jpg&imgr efurl=http://www.pk/imgres? imgurl=http://wpcontent.com. Turbuck.com/Documents/Cretaceous.• http://www. • http://images.pk/imgres? imgurl=http://venusaracne.net/Paleobiology/Paleozoic_paleobiology.htm • http://en.palaeos.com.gif&imgrefurl=http: //venusaracne.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/Cenozo ic_cosmo_1894_beard_1913.ucmp.com/Mesozoic/Images/diplodocus.berkeley.html&usg=__NnLLLQ7bLiPX Ns_umxGQw3i35vY=&h=480&w=640&sz=192&hl=en&start=17&um= 1&tbnid=wmoy8P45dHh72M:&tbnh=103&tbnw=137&prev=/images %3Fq%3Dlife%2Bof%2Bmesozoic%2Bera%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den %26rlz%3D1R2RNTN_enPK332%26um%3D1 • http://images.htm&usg=__g8jMkfP SClD4pUAFPasrsbUlDR4=&h=281&w=419&sz=39&hl=en&start=2&u m=1&tbnid=yJXurHSLdlMl4M:&tbnh=84&tbnw=125&prev=/images .palaeos.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.google.com/Documents/cretac.pk/imgres? imgurl=http://www.google.com.html • The Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology by Edward J.wikipedia.google.answers.org/wiki/Paleozoic • http://www.fossilmuseum.edu/paleozoic/paleozoic.
.%3Fq%3Dclimate%2Bof%2Bmesozoic%2Bera%26ndsp%3D20%26hl %3Den%26rlz%3D1R2RNTN_enPK332%26um%3D1 • Stratigraphy & Historical Geology of Pakistan BY KAZMI & ABBASI.
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