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Foreword 1. Sets 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 Introduction Sets and their Representations The Empty Set Finite and Infinite Sets Equal Sets Subsets Power Set Universal Set Venn Diagrams Operations on Sets Complement of a Set Practical Problems on Union and Intersection of Two Sets iii 1 1 1 5 6 7 9 12 12 13 14 18 21 30 30 30 34 36 49 49 49 55 63 74 86 86 87 88

2.

Relations and Functions 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Cartesian Product of Sets 2.3 Relations 2.4 Functions Trigonometric Functions 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Angles 3.3 Trigonometric Functions 3.4 Trigonometric Functions of Sum and Difference of Two Angles 3.5 Trigonometric Equations Principle of Mathematical Induction 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Motivation 4.3 The Principle of Mathematical Induction

3.

4.

5.

Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Complex Numbers 5.3 Algebra of Complex Numbers 5.4 The Modulus and the Conjugate of a Complex Number 5.5 Argand Plane and Polar Representation 5.6 Quadratic Equations Linear Inequalities 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Inequalities 6.3 Algebraic Solutions of Linear Inequalities in One Variable and their Graphical Representation 6.4 Graphical Solution of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables 6.5 Solution of System of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables Permutations and Combinations 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Fundamental Principle of Counting 7.3 Permutations 7.4 Combinations Binomial Theorem 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices 8.3 General and Middle Terms Sequences and Series 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Sequences 9.3 Series 9.4 Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) 9.5 Geometric Progression (G.P.) 9.6 Relationship Between A.M. and G.M. 9.7 Sum to n terms of Special Series

97 97 97 98 102 104 108 116 116 116 118 123 127 134 134 134 138 148 160 160 160 167 177 177 177 179 181 186 191 194 203 203 204 212 220 225

6.

7.

8.

9.

10. Straight Lines 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Slope of a Line 10.3 Various Forms of the Equation of a Line 10.4 General Equation of a Line 10.5 Distance of a Point From a Line

viii

11. Conic Sections 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Sections of a Cone 11.3 Circle 11.4 Parabola 11.5 Ellipse 11.6 Hyperbola 12. Introduction to Three Dimensional Geometry 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Coordinate Axes and Coordinate Planes in Three Dimensional Space 12.3 Coordinates of a Point in Space 12.4 Distance between Two Points 12.5 Section Formula 13. Limits and Derivatives 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Intuitive Idea of Derivatives 13.3 Limits 13.4 Limits of Trigonometric Functions 13.5 Derivatives 14. Mathematical Reasoning 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Statements 14.3 New Statements from Old 14.4 Special Words/Phrases 14.5 Implications 14.6 Validating Statements 15. Statistics 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Measures of Dispersion 15.3 Range 15.4 Mean Deviation 15.5 Variance and Standard Deviation 15.6 Analysis of Frequency Distributions

ix

236 236 236 239 242 247 255 268 268 269 269 271 273 281 281 281 284 298 303 321 321 321 324 329 335 339 347 347 349 349 349 361 372

16. Probability 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Random Experiments 16.3 Event 16.4 Axiomatic Approach to Probability Appendix 1: Infinite Series A.1.1 Introduction A.1.2 Binomial Theorem for any Index A.1.3 Infinite Geometric Series A.1.4 Exponential Series A.1.5 Logarithmic Series Appendix 2: Mathematical Modelling A.2.1 Introduction A.2.2 Preliminaries A.2.3 What is Mathematical Modelling Answers

383 383 384 387 394 412 412 412 414 416 419 421 421 421 425 433

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Chapter

1

SETS

In these days of conflict between ancient and modern studies; there must surely be something to be said for a study which did not begin with Pythagoras and will not end with Einstein; but is the oldest and the youngest. — G.H. HARDY

1.1 Introduction

The concept of set serves as a fundamental part of the present day mathematics. Today this concept is being used in almost every branch of mathematics. Sets are used to define the concepts of relations and functions. The study of geometry, sequences, probability, etc. requires the knowledge of sets. The theory of sets was developed by German mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918). He first encountered sets while working on “problems on trigonometric series”. In this Chapter, we discuss some basic definitions and operations involving sets.

Georg Cantor (1845-1918)

**1.2 Sets and their Representations
**

In everyday life, we often speak of collections of objects of a particular kind, such as, a pack of cards, a crowd of people, a cricket team, etc. In mathematics also, we come across collections, for example, of natural numbers, points, prime numbers, etc. More specially, we examine the following collections: (i) Odd natural numbers less than 10, i.e., 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 (ii) The rivers of India (iii) The vowels in the English alphabet, namely, a, e, i, o, u (iv) Various kinds of triangles (v) Prime factors of 210, namely, 2,3,5 and 7 (vi) The solution of the equation: x2 – 5x + 6 = 0, viz, 2 and 3. We note that each of the above example is a well-defined collection of objects in

2

MATHEMATICS

the sense that we can definitely decide whether a given particular object belongs to a given collection or not. For example, we can say that the river Nile does not belong to the collection of rivers of India. On the other hand, the river Ganga does belong to this colleciton. We give below a few more examples of sets used particularly in mathematics, viz. N Z Q R Z+ Q+ : : : : : : the set of all natural numbers the set of all integers the set of all rational numbers the set of real numbers the set of positive integers the set of positive rational numbers, and

R + : the set of positive real numbers. The symbols for the special sets given above will be referred to throughout this text. Again the collection of five most renowned mathematicians of the world is not well-defined, because the criterion for determining a mathematician as most renowned may vary from person to person. Thus, it is not a well-defined collection. We shall say that a set is a well-defined collection of objects. The following points may be noted : (i) Objects, elements and members of a set are synonymous terms. (ii) Sets are usually denoted by capital letters A, B, C, X, Y, Z, etc. (iii) The elements of a set are represented by small letters a, b, c, x, y, z, etc. If a is an element of a set A, we say that “ a belongs to A” the Greek symbol ∈ (epsilon) is used to denote the phrase ‘belongs to’. Thus, we write a ∈ A. If ‘b’ is not an element of a set A, we write b ∉ A and read “b does not belong to A”. Thus, in the set V of vowels in the English alphabet, a ∈ V but b ∉ V. In the set P of prime factors of 30, 3 ∈ P but 15 ∉ P. There are two methods of representing a set : (i) Roster or tabular form (ii) Set-builder form. (i) In roster form, all the elements of a set are listed, the elements are being separated by commas and are enclosed within braces { }. For example, the set of all even positive integers less than 7 is described in roster form as {2, 4, 6}. Some more examples of representing a set in roster form are given below : (a) The set of all natural numbers which divide 42 is {1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, 42}.

SETS

3

Note In roster form, the order in which the elements are listed is immaterial. Thus, the above set can also be represented as {1, 3, 7, 21, 2, 6, 14, 42}. (b) (c) The set of all vowels in the English alphabet is {a, e, i, o, u}. The set of odd natural numbers is represented by {1, 3, 5, . . .}. The dots tell us that the list of odd numbers continue indefinitely.

Note It may be noted that while writing the set in roster form an element is not generally repeated, i.e., all the elements are taken as distinct. For example, the set of letters forming the word ‘SCHOOL’ is { S, C, H, O, L} or {H, O, L, C, S}. Here, the order of listing elements has no relevance. In set-builder form, all the elements of a set possess a single common property which is not possessed by any element outside the set. For example, in the set {a, e, i, o, u}, all the elements possess a common property, namely, each of them is a vowel in the English alphabet, and no other letter possess this property. Denoting this set by V, we write V = {x : x is a vowel in English alphabet} It may be observed that we describe the element of the set by using a symbol x (any other symbol like the letters y, z, etc. could be used) which is followed by a colon “ : ”. After the sign of colon, we write the characteristic property possessed by the elements of the set and then enclose the whole description within braces. The above description of the set V is read as “the set of all x such that x is a vowel of the English alphabet”. In this description the braces stand for “the set of all”, the colon stands for “such that”. For example, the set A = {x : x is a natural number and 3 < x < 10} is read as “the set of all x such that x is a natural number and x lies between 3 and 10. Hence, the numbers 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 are the elements of the set A. If we denote the sets described in (a), (b) and (c) above in roster form by A, B, C, respectively, then A, B, C can also be represented in set-builder form as follows: A= {x : x is a natural number which divides 42} B= {y : y is a vowel in the English alphabet} C= {z : z is an odd natural number} Example 1 Write the solution set of the equation x2 + x – 2 = 0 in roster form. Solution The given equation can be written as (x – 1) (x + 2) = 0, i. e., x = 1, – 2 Therefore, the solution set of the given equation can be written in roster form as {1, – 2}. Example 2 Write the set {x : x is a positive integer and x2 < 40} in the roster form. (ii)

4

MATHEMATICS

Solution The required numbers are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. So, the given set in the roster form is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Example 3 Write the set A = {1, 4, 9, 16, 25, . . . }in set-builder form. Solution We may write the set A as A = {x : x is the square of a natural number} Alternatively, we can write A = {x : x = n2, where n ∈ N}

**1 2 3 4 5 6 Example 4 Write the set { , , , , , } in the set-builder form. 2 3 4 5 6 7
**

Solution We see that each member in the given set has the numerator one less than the demominator. Also, the numerator begin from 1 and do not exceed 6. Hence, in the set-builder form the given set is

**n ⎧ ⎫ , where n is a natural number and 1 ≤ n ≤ 6 ⎬ ⎨x : x = n +1 ⎩ ⎭
**

Example 5 Match each of the set on the left described in the roster form with the same set on the right described in the set-builder form : (i) {P, R, I, N, C, A, L} (a) { x : x is a positive integer and is a divisor of 18} (ii) { 0 } (b) { x : x is an integer and x2 – 9 = 0} (iii) {1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18} (c) {x : x is an integer and x + 1= 1} (iv) {3, –3} (d) {x : x is a letter of the word PRINCIPAL} Solution Since in (d), there are 9 letters in the word PRINCIPAL and two letters P and I are repeated, so (i) matches (d). Similarly, (ii) matches (c) as x + 1 = 1 implies x = 0. Also, 1, 2 ,3, 6, 9, 18 are all divisors of 18 and so (iii) matches (a). Finally, x2 – 9 = 0 implies x = 3, –3 and so (iv) matches (b).

EXERCISE 1.1

1. Which of the following are sets ? Justify your asnwer. (i) The collection of all the months of a year beginning with the letter J. (ii) The collection of ten most talented writers of India. (iii) A team of eleven best-cricket batsmen of the world. (iv) The collection of all boys in your class. (v) The collection of all natural numbers less than 100. (vi) A collection of novels written by the writer Munshi Prem Chand. (vii) The collection of all even integers.

SETS

5

2.

3.

4.

5.

(viii) The collection of questions in this Chapter. (ix) A collection of most dangerous animals of the world. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Insert the appropriate symbol ∈ or ∉ in the blank spaces: (ii) 8 . . . A (iii) 0. . .A (i) 5. . .A (iv) 4. . . A (v) 2. . .A (vi) 10. . .A Write the following sets in roster form: (i) A = {x : x is an integer and –3 < x < 7} (ii) B = {x : x is a natural number less than 6} (iii) C = {x : x is a two-digit natural number such that the sum of its digits is 8} (iv) D = {x : x is a prime number which is divisor of 60} (v) E = The set of all letters in the word TRIGONOMETRY (vi) F = The set of all letters in the word BETTER Write the following sets in the set-builder form : (ii) {2,4,8,16,32} (iii) {5, 25, 125, 625} (i) (3, 6, 9, 12} (iv) {2, 4, 6, . . .} (v) {1,4,9, . . .,100} List all the elements of the following sets : (i) A = {x : x is an odd natural number} (ii) B = {x : x is an integer, –

1 9 <x< } 2 2

6.

(iii) C = {x : x is an integer, x2 ≤ 4} (iv) D = {x : x is a letter in the word “LOYAL”} (v) E = {x : x is a month of a year not having 31 days} (vi) F = {x : x is a consonant in the English alphabet which precedes k }. Match each of the set on the left in the roster form with the same set on the right described in set-builder form: (i) {1, 2, 3, 6} (a) {x : x is a prime number and a divisor of 6} (ii) {2, 3} (b) {x : x is an odd natural number less than 10} (iii) {M,A,T,H,E,I,C,S} (c) {x : x is natural number and divisor of 6} (iv) {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} (d) {x : x is a letter of the word MATHEMATICS}.

**1.3 The Empty Set
**

Consider the set A = { x : x is a student of Class XI presently studying in a school } We can go to the school and count the number of students presently studying in Class XI in the school. Thus, the set A contains a finite number of elements. We now write another set B as follows:

Then D is the empty set. By number of elements of a set S. According to this definition. We see that the number of elements of this set is not finite since there are infinite number of natural numbers. (ii) B = {x : x2 – 2 = 0 and x is rational number}. 2. n(B) = 6 and n(C) = some finite number. the set is called infinite. Consider the set of natural numbers. but it is some natural number which may be quite a big number. B and C given above are finite sets and n(A) = 5. Then B is the empty set because the equation x2 – 2 = 0 is not satisfied by any rational value of x. x is odd }. c.6 MATHEMATICS B = { x : x is a student presently studying in both Classes X and XI } We observe that a student cannot study simultaneously in both Classes X and XI. Then G is infinite. The empty set is denoted by the symbol φ or { }. b. we do not know the number of elements in C. Thus. The sets A. (iv) D = { x : x2 = 4. B = {a. How many elements does C contain? As it is. Then S is finite. We say that the set of natural numbers is an infinite set. Consider some examples : (i) Let W be the set of the days of the week. (iii) Let G be the set of points on a line. then S is non-empty finite set.4 Finite and Infinite Sets Let A = {1. (iii) C = {x : x is an even prime number greater than 2}. (i) Let A = {x : 1 < x < 2. 4. because 2 is the only even prime number. Definition 1 A set which does not contain any element is called the empty set or the null set or the void set. When we represent a set in the roster form. because the equation x2 = 4 is not satisfied by any odd value of x.Then C is the empty set. It is not possible to write all the elements of an infinite set within braces { } because the numbers of elements of such a set is not finite. e. We give below a few examples of empty sets. we represent . g} and C = { men living presently in different parts of the world} We observe that A contains 5 elements and B contains 6 elements. d. So. 5}. 3. we mean the number of distinct elements of the set and we denote it by n (S). x is a natural number}. because there is no natural number between 1 and 2. If n (S) is a natural number. B is an empty set while A is not an empty set. Definition 2 A set which is empty or consists of a definite number of elements is called finite otherwise. (ii) Let S be the set of solutions of the equation x2 –16 = 0. 1. we write all the elements of the set within braces { }. the set B contains no element at all. Then A is the empty set. Then W is finite.

the given set is infinite. 2}. 3} are equal. Otherwise.SETS 7 some infinite set in the roster form by writing a few elements which clearly indicate the structure of the set followed ( or preceded ) by three dots. All these sets are infinite. For example. Hence. 2}. 4. Clearly. 1. 1.} is the set of odd natural numbers. it is finite. since 2. . Example 6 State which of the following sets are finite or infinite : (i) {x : x ∈ N and (x – 1) (x –2) = 0} (ii) {x : x ∈ N and x2 = 4} (iii) {x : x ∈ N and 2x –1 = 0} (iv) {x : x ∈ N and x is prime} (v) {x : x ∈ N and x is odd} Solution (i) Given set = {1. 5. –2. .} is the set of integers. then the sets A and B are said to be equal. since each . the two sets have exactly the same elements. 4} and B = {3. 2. it is finite.. 1. 2. For example. the sets are said to be unequal and we write A ≠ B. . 7. Hence. 3. because the elements of this set do not follow any particular pattern. {. {1. 3} and B = {2. 0. (iv) The given set is the set of all prime numbers and since set of prime numbers is infinite.–3. Definition 3 Two sets A and B are said to be equal if they have exactly the same elements and we write A = B. .5 Equal Sets Given two sets A and B. it is finite. 3 . Hence. Then A = B. (ii) Given set = {2}. hence. (ii) Let A be the set of prime numbers less than 6 and P the set of prime factors of 30. the sets A = {1. (iii) Given set = φ. if every element of A is also an element of B and if every element of B is also an element of A. 3. the set of real numbers cannot be described in this form. Note A set does not change if one or more elements of the set are repeated. {1. .} is the set of natural numbers. 3 and 5 are the only prime factors of 30 and also these are less than 6.3.1. We consider the following examples : (i) Let A = {1. –1. For example. 3. 2. Note All infinite sets cannot be described in the roster form. . 2. Hence the given set is infinite (v) Since there are infinite number of odd numbers. . Then A and P are equal. . 2 . . .

Therefore B ≠ C. Then X and B are equal sets as repetition of elements in a set do not change a set. Solution (i) We have. Thus. Since E = {5}. (i) X. O. L. O. D = {–5. Since B = φ but none of the other sets are empty. . give reasons: A = {0}. 5} and E = {5}. 100} (iv) The set of positive integers greater than 100 (v) The set of prime numbers less than 99 State whether each of the following set is finite or infinite: (i) The set of lines which are parallel to the x-axis (ii) The set of letters in the English alphabet (iii) The set of numbers which are multiple of 5 2.8 MATHEMATICS element of A is in B and vice-versa. it follows that. 3.99. C. E = {x : x is an integral positive root of the equation x2 – 2x –15 = 0}. L. That is why we generally do not repeat any element in describing a set. B = {x : x > 15 and x < 5}. D and E. A ≠ D. 1. 0. Y. 2}. the only pair of equal sets is C and E. X = {A. O. the set of letters in “LOYAL”. Thus. C = {x : x – 5 = 0 }. L. C = E. 3. (ii) A = {n : n ∈ Z and n2 ≤ 4} and B = {x : x ∈ R and x2 – 3x + 2 = 0}. L}. D = {x: x2 = 25}. Y}. B ≠ D and B ≠ E. B = {L. A ≠ C. A ≠ B. D ≠ E. x < 5 and x > 7 } (iv) { y : y is a point common to any two parallel lines} Which of the following sets are finite or infinite (i) The set of months of a year (ii) {1. B = {1. the set of letters in “ALLOY” and B. A. . Further. Example 8 Which of the following pairs of sets are equal? Justify your answer. Since 0 ∈ A and 0 ∉ B. A and B are not equal sets. we find that. 3. . X = {A. 2}. if any. . Y} = B (ii) A = {–2. .} (iii) {1. Example 7 Find the pairs of equal sets. –1.2 1. EXERCISE 1. . Also C = {5} but –5 ∈ D. . 2. hence C ≠ D. A ≠ E. 2. Which of the following are examples of the null set (i) Set of odd natural numbers divisible by 2 (ii) Set of even prime numbers (iii) { x : x is a natural numbers. Solution Since 0 ∈ A and 0 does not belong to any of the sets B.

then we shall also have B ⊂ A. 6. (iv) The set of animals living on the earth (v) The set of circles passing through the origin (0. where “⇔” is a symbol for two way implications. 2. 10} B = { x : x is positive even integer and x ≤ 10} (iv) A = { x : x is a multiple of 10}. A ⊂ A. 4. 6. 1. 4. (i) A = {2. d } (ii) A = { 4. The symbol ⊂ stands for ‘is a subset of’ or ‘is contained in’. 4}. Using this symbol.. D = { 3. we write A ⊄ B. b.0) In the following. In this case. B = { 10. . Since the empty set φ has no elements. c. The fact that Y is subset of X is expressed in symbols as Y ⊂ X. It is possible that every element of B may or may not be in A. If A is not a subset of B. Definition 4 A set A is said to be a subset of a set B if every element of A is also an element of B. . We may note that for A to be a subset of B. –1}. If it so happens that every element of B is also in A.e. 12. 5. C = { 4. 18} (iii) A = {2. 30. F = { 0. A ⊂ B if whenever a ∈ A. a } (i) A = { a. then a ∈ B. 3}. G = {1. 8. we agree to say that φ is a subset of every set.6 Subsets Consider the sets : X = set of all students in your school. and is usually read as if and only if (briefly written as “iff”). In other words.SETS 9 4. B = { 1. 2} E = {–1. 1} 1. 8. i. 3. Y = set of all students in your class. 4. b. 12}. 25. 15. 4. B = {x : x is solution of x2 + 5x + 6 = 0} (ii) A = { x : x is a letter in the word FOLLOW} B = { y : y is a letter in the word WOLF} From the sets given below. c. 16 } B = { 8. We note that every element of Y is also an element of X. 20. state whether A = B or not: B = { d. 8. 14}. select equal sets : A = { 2. A and B are the same sets so that we have A ⊂ B and B ⊂ A ⇔ A = B. a}. 12. 8. 16. It is often convenient to use the symbol “⇒” which means implies. We now consider some examples : . } Are the following pair of sets equal ? Give reasons. we say that Y is a subset of X. we can write the definiton of subset as follows: A ⊂ B if a ∈ A ⇒ a ∈ B We read the above statement as “A is a subset of B if a is an element of A implies that a is also an element of B”. 1}. all that is needed is that every element of A is in B. H = { 0. It follows from the above definition that every set A is a subset of itself. .

The set of natural numbers N = {1. 5} and B = {x : x is an odd natural number less than 6}. and we write Q ⊂ R. 1. B (iii) A . 3 ∈ A also belongs to C B ⊂ C as each element of B is also an element of C. (iii) Let A = {1. . If A ∈ B and B ⊂ C. B = {{1}. 5. Note that an element of a set can never be a subset of itself.} The set of rational numbers Q = { x : x = p . C φ ⊂ B as φ is a subset of every set. 2. e. Is A a subset of B ? No. 4. q ∈ Z and q ≠ 0} q . is it true that A ⊂ C?. B Solution (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (ii) A . B and C be three sets. . . 2. If not. i. then A is called a proper subset of B and B is called superset of A. B = {1. 3 }. b. u} and B = { a. p. –3. –1. 2. (Why?) Example 11 Let A. 9}. c. –2. 3. Is B a subset of A? No. Solution No. . . u} and B = { a.1 Subsets of set of real numbers As noted in Section 1. (ii) If A is the set of all divisors of 56 and B the set of all prime divisors of 56. A = {1.{ a } is a singleton set. also B is not a subset of A. . d}. Then A is not a subset of B. . C = {1. . 5. A = { 1. i.. . . (iv) Let A = { a. 3. Here A ∈ B as A = {1} and B ⊂ C. .10 MATHEMATICS (i) The set Q of rational numbers is a subset of the set R of real numbes. 3}.6. . 2} and C = {{1}. Thus. Let A = {1}. . then B is a subset of A and we write B ⊂ A. there are many important subsets of R. give an example. A ⊄ B as 3 ∈ A and 3 ∉ B A ⊂ C as 1. . . o. 3. 5. 9}. Insert the symbol ⊂ or ⊄ between each of the following pair of sets: (i) φ . (Why?).} The set of integers Z = {. 7. Then A ⊂ B and B ⊂ A and hence A = B. 3. c. o. But A ⊄ C as 1 ∈ A and 1 ∉ C. b. 1. 3. e. 2. d}. If A ⊂ B and A ≠ B . Let A and B be two sets. 0. 3} is a proper subset of B = {1.6. . we call it a singleton set. Example 10 Let A = { a. We give below the names of some of these subsets. C (iv) B . 4}. Example 9 Consider the sets φ. If a set A has only one element. For example. 2.

For example. [ a.2 Intervals as subsets of R Let a.. i. b ] = {x : a ≤ x ≤ b} We can also have intervals closed at one end and open at the other. On real number line. ∞) defines the set of non-negative real numbers. 1. The interval which contains the end points also is called closed interval and is denoted by [ a. b ∈ R and a < b. 5) can be written in setbuilder form as {x : –3 ≤ x < 5}.e. 5 and π . b ) = {x : a ≤ x < b} is an open interval from a to b. Members of T include 2 .SETS 11 which is read “ Q is the set of all numbers x such that x equals the quotient p q . we note that an interval contains infinitely many points. is composed of all other real numbers. written in set-builder form. b themselves do not belong to this interval. . b). all real numbers that are not 5 1 rational. N ⊄ T. 0 ) defines the set of negative real numbers. b ]. Some of the obvious relations among these subsets are: N ⊂ Z ⊂ Q. while set ( – ∞. Then the set of real numbers { y : a < y < b} is called an open interval and is denoted by (a. Members of Q include –5 (which can be expressed as – ) . the set {x : x ∈ R. 2 2 3 7 The set of irrational numbers. 7] and the interval [–3. Thus T = {x : x ∈ R and x ∉ Q} = R – Q. 9]..6. then A ⊂ B. b ] = { x : a < x ≤ b } is an open interval from a to b including b but excluding a.1 Here. ( a. are shown in the Fig 1. The set ( – ∞. All the points between a and b belong to the open interval (a.. i. various types of intervals described above as subsets of R. including a but excluding b. Q ⊂ R. 3 (which can be expressed as ) and – . can be written in the form of interval as (–5. if A = (–3. –5 < x ≤ 7}. Thus [ a. Fig 1. The set [ 0. ∞ ) describes the set of real numbers in relation to a line extending from – ∞ to ∞.e. denoted by T. These notations provide an alternative way of designating the subsets of set of real numbers. For example . where p and q are integers and q is not zero”. 5) and B = [–7. b) but a.1. T ⊂ R. 1 7 11 5 .

Also. the universal set can be the set of rational numbers or. So.2 }} Also. 1. Make correct statements by filling in the symbols ⊂ or ⊄ in the blank spaces : (i) { 2. The universal set is usually denoted by U. we have to deal with the elements and subsets of a basic set which is relevant to that particular context. For example. in human population studies. For example. if A = { 1.8 Universal Set Usually. four subsets. . 2 }. Thus.5 } (ii) { a. . { 1.12 MATHEMATICS The number (b – a) is called the length of any of the intervals (a. 2}. {x : x is an integer} . then P( A ) = { φ. Thus.7 Power Set Consider the set {1. c } . 2 }. then it can be shown that n [ P(A)] = 2m. We see that {1} and { 2 }are also subsets of {1. every element is a set. as in above.3 1. 2 } is a subset of {1. and so forth.{ 1 }. φ is a subset of {1. and all its subsets by the letters A. For another example. φ. . in all. for that matter. C. 3. . B. for the set of all integers. 2. . if A is a set with n(A) = m. In P(A). the set { 1. while studying the system of numbers. etc. { 1. . [a. 2 }. EXERCISE 1. {x : x is a triangle in the same plane} (vii) {x : x is an even natural number} . { 1 }. 2}. b) or (a. 2}. So. [a. . 4 } . the set of all even numbers. the set R of real numbers. c. . { 1.{x : x is a circle in the same plane with radius 1 unit} (v) {x : x is a triangle in a plane} . The set of all these subsets is called the power set of { 1. the universal set consists of all the people in the world. . 3. b). 2}. 4. Definition 5 The collection of all subsets of a set A is called the power set of A. This basic set is called the “Universal Set”. We know that φ is a subset of every set . . It is denoted by P(A). viz. b]. {x : x is a rectangle in the plane} (vi) {x : x is an equilateral triangle in a plane} . { 2 } and { 1. . we know that every set is a subset of itself. . 1. b. 2 } has. note that n [ P (A) ] = 4 = 22 In general. 2}. .{x : x student of your school} (iv) {x : x is a circle in the plane} . { b. we are interested in the set of natural numbers and its subsets such as the set of all prime numbers. . { 2 }. b]. d } (iii) {x : x is a student of Class XI of your school}. in a particular context. Let us write down all the subsets of the set {1.

which of the following may be considered as universal set (s) for all the three sets A. b } ⊄ { b.2. 2.3. 6. 3} (iv) φ How many elements has P(A). 3 } ⊂ { 1. 5 }. 0 ≤ x < 7} (iv) {x : x ∈ R. 3. 2. 5} ∈ A (viii) {1. B = {2.9 Venn Diagrams Most of the relationships between sets can be represented by means of diagrams which are known as Venn diagrams. 0) (ii) [6 . – 4 < x ≤ 6} (ii) {x : x ∈ R. 3 ≤ x ≤ 4} Write the following intervals in set-builder form : (i) (– 3. 4} ⊂ A (ii) {3. 8}. 12] (iii) (6. 4}} ⊂ A (iv) 1 ∈ A (v) 1 ⊂ A (vi) {1.2 and 1. c. Venn diagrams are named after the English logician. 5. 5} ⊂ A (vii) {1. b} (iii) {1. 2. Which of the following statements are incorrect and why? (i) {3. John Venn (1834-1883). the elements of the sets are written in their respective circles (Figs 1.6. Given the sets A = {1. 2. c } (vi) { x : x is an even natural number less than 6} ⊂ { x : x is a natural number which divides 36} Let A = { 1. 5) What universal set(s) would you propose for each of the following : (i) The set of right triangles.5. 4.2. 6} and C = {0.3. (ii) The set of isosceles triangles. 2. 4} ∈ A (iii) {{3.8} 1. 3. 4. Examine whether the following statements are true or false: (i) { a. 3. b. 3} ⊂ A (ix) φ ∈ A (x) φ ⊂ A (xi) {φ} ⊂ A Write down all the subsets of the following sets (i) {a} (ii) {a. 5}.7. b. 12] (iv) [–23. if A = φ? Write the following as intervals : (i) {x : x ∈ R. c } (v) { a } ∈ { a. 1. 6} (ii) φ (iii) {0. – 12 < x < –10} (iii) {x : x ∈ R. 5 } (iv) { a } ⊂ { a. 4. 9.5. { 3.3) Fig 1. 3. The universal set is represented usually by a rectangle and its subsets by circles. 5. a } (ii) { a. e } ⊂ { x : x is a vowel in the English alphabet} (iii) { 1. 4 }. 2. 6. These diagrams consist of rectangles and closed curves usually circles.2 . 7. 4.8. 2.4.6.7. In Venn diagrams. 8.1. 2.4.9.SETS 13 2. B and C (i) {0.10} (iv) {1.

we have learnt how to perform the operations of addition.6. Again. 10. 4. subtraction.14 MATHEMATICS Illustration 1 In Fig 1.6. Example 14 Let X = {Ram.2. we get 65.10 Operations on Sets In earlier classes. We will now define certain operations on sets and examine their properties. Each one of these operations was performed on a pair of numbers to get another number.3.10. we will refer all our sets as subsets of some universal set. i.10} and B = {4. 6} are subsets. 8. For example.. 8. Example 12 Let A = { 2. 12} Note that the common elements 6 and 8 have been taken only once while writing A ∪ B. u }..e.. Find A ∪ B. e. 4. This example illustrates that union of sets A and its subset B is the set A itself. . then A ∪ B = A.10} is a subset. if B ⊂ A. Example 13 Let A = { a. X ∪ Y = {Ram. o. 12}. A ∪ B = { a. U = {1. and also B ⊂ A. u } and B = { a.3 The reader will see an extensive use of the Venn diagrams when we discuss the union.3. This is the set of students from Class XI who are in the hockey team or the football team or both. intersection and difference of sets. 6.8. we get the number 18. U = {1. multiplication and division on numbers. Solution We have A ∪ B = { 2. 10} is the universal set of which A = {2. Akbar.. we write A ∪ B and usually read as ‘A union B’. e. there are some operations which when performed on two sets give rise to another set. Let Y = {Geeta.2. . Show that A ∪ B = A Solution We have. . Akbar} be the set of students of Class XI. u } = A. Ashok} be the set of students from Class XI who are in the school football team. Similarly. 1. Fig 1. David. who are in school hockey team. Geeta.1 Union of sets Let A and B be any two sets.. 8} and B = { 6. i. The symbol ‘∪’ is used to denote the union.4. Geeta. 10. Illustration 2 In Fig 1. Symbolically. i.. David. The union of A and B is the set which consists of all the elements of A and all the elements of B.8. o. 10} is the universal set of which A = {2. Find X ∪ Y and interpret the set.2. 1.4. Ashok}. performing the operation of multiplication on the pair of numbers 5 and 13. Henceforth.3. 6. when we perform the operation of addition on the pair of numbers 5 and 13.. i. the common elements being taken only once. Solution We have.

5. Definition 7 The intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all those elements which belong to both A and B. φ is the identity of ∪) (Idempotent law) (Law of U) 1. Example 15 Consider the sets A and B of Example 12. we can define the union of two sets as follows: Definition 6 The union of two sets A and B is the set C which consists of all those elements which are either in A or in B (including those which are in both). Symbolically.5 indicates the Fig 1. 3. Example 17 Let A = {1. Find A ∩ B.4. 2.2 Intersection of sets The intersection of sets A and B is the set of all elements which are common to both A and B.5 interseciton of A and B. A ∪ B = { x : x ∈A or x ∈B } The union of two sets can be represented by a Venn diagram as shown in Fig 1. Symbolically. Hence A ∩ B = { 6. 10} and B = { 2.4 represents A ∪ B.10. 3. 6. 7 }.SETS 15 Thus. 9. 8 are the only elements which are common to both A and B. The symbol ‘∩’ is used to denote the intersection. We note that B ⊂ A and that A ∩ B = B. we write A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ A and x ∈ B}. 3. Some Properties of the Operation of Union (i) A ∪ B = B ∪ A (Commutative law) Fig 1. Example 16 Consider the sets X and Y of Example 14. . 8. we write A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ A and x ∈ B} The shaded portion in Fig 1. Hence. The shaded portion in Fig 1.4 (ii) ( A ∪ B ) ∪ C = A ∪ ( B ∪ C) (Associative law ) (iii) A ∪ φ = A (iv) A ∪ A = A (v) U ∪ A = U (Law of identity element. 5. 8 }. 5. we write. 7 } = B. Solution We see that 6. In symbols. The intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all those elements which belong to both A and B. Solution We have A ∩ B = { 2. Solution We see that element ‘Geeta’ is the only element common to both. Find A ∩ B and hence show that A ∩ B = B. 4. X ∩ Y = {Geeta}. Find X ∩ Y. 7.

Then A and B are disjoint sets. (iii) φ ∩ A = φ. e. let A = { 2. A and B are disjoint sets. A B because there are no elements which are common to A and B. (iv) A ∩ A = A (Idempotent law) (v) A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C ) (Distributive law ) i. For example. 7 }..7 (i) to (v)]. (i) A ∩ B = B ∩ A (ii) ( A ∩ B ) ∩ C = A ∩ ( B ∩ C ) (Associative law). Fig 1. The disjoint sets can be represented by means of Venn diagram as shown in the Fig 1. 5.7 (i) to (v) . U ∩ A = A (Law of φ and U).6 In the above diagram. 8 } and B = { 1.16 MATHEMATICS If A and B are two sets such that A ∩ B = φ.6 Some Properties of Operation of Intersection (Commutative law). (i) (iii) (ii) (iv) (v) Figs 1. 4. 6. 3. then U A and B are called disjoint sets. ∩ distributes over ∪ This can be seen easily from the following Venn diagrams [Figs 1.

b }. 5. i. 3. Is A ⊂ B ? What is A ∪ B ? 3. The shaded portion represents the difference of the two sets A and B. since the elements e. 5 belong to A but not to B and B – A = { 8 }. 4. find . 4}. B = { 2.3 Difference of sets The difference of the sets A and B in this order is the set of elements which belong to A but not to B. 2.. We note that V – B ≠ B – V. 3. we write A – B and read as “ A minus B”. then what is A ∪ B ? 4. 2. 8 }. B = φ 2. Find the union of each of the following pairs of sets : (i) X = {1. 5. o. c} (iii) A = {x : x is a natural number and multiple of 3} B = {x : x is a natural number less than 6} (iv) A = {x : x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6 } B = {x : x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10 } (v) A = {1.9. u}. Example 19 Let V = { a. B = {3. 4. C = {5. 7. o belong to V but not to B and B – V = { k }. b. 3.9 EXERCISE 1. We note that A – B ≠ B – A. i. 8.4 1. Solution We have. Find A – B and B – A. 3}. b. c}. V – B = { e. 5} Y = {1. If A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B. B = {a. 6}. since the element 8 belongs to B and not to A. 9. e. A – B = { 1. 3} (ii) A = [ a. 3. 8 }and D = { 7. e.SETS 17 1. i.8 Fig 1. 5 }. Symbolically. Using the setbuilder notation. 6.e. 2. Remark The sets A – B. we can rewrite the definition of difference as A – B = { x : x ∈ A and x ∉ B } The difference of two sets A and B can be represented by Venn diagram as shown in Fig 1. Fig 1. 2. 6. u } and B = { a. Find V – B and B – V Solution We have. k. since the elements 1. since the element k belongs to B but not to V. u} B = {a. 4. the intersection of any of these two sets is the null set as shown in Fig 1. If A = {1. o }. 10 }. Let A = { a. i.8. A ∩ B and B – A are mutually disjoint sets. 3.10. Example 18 Let A = { 1. o. 6}.

and is denoted by . 9. Justify your answer. Now 2. 18. find (i) A – B (ii) A – C (iii) A – D (iv) B – A (v) C – A (vi) D – A (vii) B – C (viii) B – D (ix) C – B (x) D – B (xi) C – D (xii) D – C If X= { a. i. 4. e. 15. the set {2. 3. C = {11. 9. 4. 12. d }are disjoint sets. d. 20 }. B = { 4. 2. B = {x : x is an even natural number} C = {x : x is an odd natural number}andD = {x : x is a prime number }. 4} and {x : x is a natural number and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6 } (ii) { a. 5 } and { 3. because 2 is divisor of 42. 17}. b. 10 } and { 3. find (i) A ∩ B (ii) A ∩ C (iii) A ∩ D (iv) B ∩ C (v) B ∩ D (vi) C ∩ D Which of the following pairs of sets are disjoint (i) {1. 10. 15. D = {5. g}.. i. d } and Y = { f. c. 10. 9. 6. 8. 5. 6. o. 16. o. u } and { a. and 7 ∈ U but 7 ∉ A. 12. b. 7. (iv) { 2. 11. 14. Thus. 3 and 7 are the only elements of U which do not belong to A. 6} are disjoint sets. u } and { c. 13}. 6. The set of these three prime numbers. find (i) X – Y (ii) Y – X (iii) X ∩ Y If R is the set of real numbers and Q is the set of rational numbers. (i) A ∪ B (ii) A ∪ C (iii) B ∪ C (iv) B ∪ D (v) A ∪ B ∪ C (vi) A ∪ B ∪ D (vii) B ∪ C ∪ D Find the intersection of each pair of sets of question 1 above. 15}and D = {15. 14 } and { 3. C = { 2. 10. 11. 16 }. A = {x : x ∈ U and x is not a divisor of 42 }. then what is R – Q? State whether each of the following statement is true or false. 12. b. i. B = {7. 6. e. 15} are disjoint sets. 8. 3. 11} are disjoint sets. 3. 12. We see that 2 ∈ U but 2 ∉ A.e. find (i) A ∩ B (ii) B ∩ C (iii) A ∩ C ∩ D (iv) A ∩ C (v) B ∩ D (vi) A ∩ (B ∪ C) (vii) A ∩ D (viii) A ∩ (B ∪ D) (ix) ( A ∩ B ) ∩ ( B ∪ C ) (x) ( A ∪ D) ∩ ( B ∪ C) If A = {x : x is a natural number }. 11 }. f } (iii) {x : x is an even integer } and {x : x is an odd integer} If A = {3. e.18 MATHEMATICS 5. (i) { 2. If A = { 3. 8. d. 10. 13. c. 7} is called the Complement of A with respect to U. 1. 6. 7.11 Complement of a Set Let U be the universal set which consists of all prime numbers and A be the subset of U which consists of all those prime numbers that are not divisors of 42. 21}. 7. Similarly. 3 ∈ U but 3 ∉ A. 11. (iii) { 2. 20 }. 7. (ii) { a. 9.

4. Solution Clearly A′ = {1. 4. 4. 6. If A and B are any two subsets of the universal set U. 9. 8. we write A′ to denote the complement of A with respect to U. 6}. Solution We note that 2. 7}. Note If A is a subset of the universal set U. 3. as the difference between a universal set U and the set A.10 }. 5. 3. 7. These two results are stated in words as follows : . 4. Example 21 Let U be universal set of all the students of Class XI of a coeducational school and A be the set of all girls in Class XI. Find A′. ( A ∩ B )′ = A′ ∪ B′ . Thus. 3. we want to find the results for ( A ∪ B )′ and A′ ∩ B′ in the followng example. 6. Hence A′ ∩ B′ = { 1. Symbolically. A′ ∩ B′. 6 }. Again in Example 20 above. 2. 4. 4. 5. A ∪ B and hence show that ( A ∪ B )′ = A′ ∩ B′. we have Now. 5}. 9}. 8. Example 20 Let U = {1. Similarly. Obviously A′ = U – A We note that the complement of a set A can be looked upon. So we have A′ = {2. 6 } ( A ∪ B )′ = { 1. 5 }. A = {2. we have A′ = { 2. 6 } = A′ ∩ B′ It can be shown that the above result is true in general. Then the complement of A is the set of all elements of U which are not the elements of A. 8. 6. then ( A ∪ B )′ = A′ ∩ B′. Find A′. 10 are the only elements of U which do not belong to A. 3. 2. 5. 4. A′ is clearly the set of all boys in the class. Example 22 Let U = {1. 7. then its complement A′ is also a subset of U. Thus. 9} = A It is clear from the definition of the complement that for any subset of the universal ( A′ )′ = A set U. Definition 8 Let U be the universal set and A a subset of U. 4. Hence A′ = { 2. 2. This leads to the following definition. A′ = {x : x ∈ U and x ∉ A }. we see that A′ = {x : x ∈ U and x ∉ A }. 6 } Also A ∪ B = { 2. 10 } Hence (A′ )′ = {x : x ∈ U and x ∉ A′} = {1. 6. so that (A ∪ B )′ = { 1. Solution Since A is the set of all girls. B′ = { 1. 6}.SETS 19 A′. 5. 3. 10} and A = {1. Find A′. 8. B′ . 5. 3. alternatively. 3} and B = {3. 7.

3. These are named after the mathematician De Morgan. 6. g} (iv) D = { f. d. 9 }. Find (i) A′ (ii) B′ (iii) (A ∪ C)′ (iv) (A ∪ B)′ (v) (A′)′ (vi) (B – C)′ If U = { a. B = { 2. 5. Verify that (i) (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ (ii) (A ∩ B)′ = A′ ∪ B′ Draw appropriate Venn diagram for each of the following : (i) (A ∪ B)′. 8. (iv) A′ ∪ B′ Let U be the set of all triangles in a plane. 6. 2. Law of double complementation : (A′ )′ = A 4. 3. c} (ii) B = {d. These laws can be verified by using Venn diagrams. The shaded portion represents the complement of the set A. h. The complement A′ of a set A can be represented by a Venn diagram as shown in Fig 1. If A is the set of all triangles with at least one angle different from 60°. 3. 4. EXERCISE 1. 7. 3. a} Taking the set of natural numbers as the universal set. Let U = { 1. 9 }. 6 }. e. 4. 4. 7}. 2. 4. Laws of empty set and universal set φ′ = U and U′ = φ. 5. 6. f. c. 8. c. 8 } and C = { 3. Complement laws: 2.5 1. b.10 (ii) A ∩ A′ = φ (i) (A ∪ B)´ = A′ ∩ B′ (ii) (A ∩ B )′ = A′ ∪ B′ 3. 3. f.20 MATHEMATICS The complement of the union of two sets is the intersection of their complements and the complement of the intersection of two sets is the union of their complements. 5. 7. (iii) (A ∩ B)′. . g} (iii) C = {a. 5. 6.10. 4. find the complements of the following sets : (i) A = {a. 6. 2. 8} and B = { 2. g. A = {2. h}. These are called De Morgan’s laws. (ii) A′ ∩ B′. b. 4}. what is A′? 2. A = { 1. Some Properties of Complement Sets (i) A ∪ A′ = U 1. De Morgan’s law: Fig 1. 4. g. write down the complements of the following sets: (i) {x : x is an even natural number} (ii) { x : x is an odd natural number } (iii) {x : x is a positive multiple of 3} (iv) { x : x is a prime number } (v) {x : x is a natural number divisible by 3 and 5} (vi) { x : x is a perfect square } (vii) { x : x is a perfect cube} (viii) { x : x + 5 = 8 } (ix) { x : 2x + 5 = 9} (x) { x : x ≥ 7 } (xi) { x : x ∈ N and 2x + 1 > 10 } If U = {1. e. e. 5.

A ∩ B and B – A are disjoint and their union is A ∪ B (Fig 1. how many elements does X ∩ Y have ? . then (ii) n ( A ∪ B ) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) – n ( A ∩ B ) . X has 28 elements and Y has 32 elements. Example 23 If X and Y are two sets such that X ∪ Y has 50 elements. So. (iv) U′ ∩ A = . (3) In fact. we have learnt union. . In this Section. Fill in the blanks to make each of the following a true statement : (i) A ∪ A′ = . In general.The formulae derived in this Section will also be used in subsequent Chapter on Probability (Chapter 16). we get n [ A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) ] = n ( A ∩ B ) + n ( A ∩ C ) – n [ ( A ∩ B ) ∩ (A ∩ C)] = n ( A ∩ B ) + n ( A ∩ C ) – n (A ∩ B ∩ C) Therefore n ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = n (A) + n ( B ) + n ( C ) – n ( A ∩ B ) – n ( B ∩ C) – n(A ∩ C)+n (A ∩B ∩C) This proves (3). Therefore n ( A ∪ B) = n ( A – B) + n ( A ∩ B ) + n ( B – A ) = n ( A – B) + n ( A ∩B ) + n ( B – A ) + n ( A ∩ B ) – n ( A ∩ B) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) – n ( A ∩ B). If A ∩ B = φ..SETS 21 7. . intersection and difference of two sets. .. 1. (1) follows immediately.11 Let A and B be finite sets.. B and C are finite sets. which verifies (2) (iii) If A.. we have n ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = n (A) + n ( B ∪ C ) – n [ A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) ] [ by (2) ] = n (A) + n ( B ) + n ( C ) – n ( B ∩ C ) – n [ A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) ] [ by (2) ] Since A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C ). . (iii) A ∩ A′ = .11). .. . if A and B are finite sets. then (i) n ( A ∪ B ) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) .12 Practical Problems on Union and Intersection of Two Sets In earlier Section. then n ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = n ( A ) + n ( B ) + n ( C ) – n ( A ∩ B ) – n ( B ∩ C) – n (A ∩ C)+n (A ∩ B ∩ C) . Fig 1. . we will go through some practical problems related to our daily life. (2) Note that the sets A – B. (1) The elements in A ∪ B are either in A or in B but not in both as A ∩ B = φ. .. (ii) φ′ ∩ A = .

We. n ( Y ) = 32. n ( Y ) = 16. n ( Y – X ) = 32 – k (by Venn diagram in Fig 1. In the statement of the problem. we get 35 = 24 + 16 – n (X ∩ Y) . n ( X ) = 28. n (X ∩ Y) = ? Using the formula n ( X ∪ Y ) = n ( X ) + n ( Y ) – n ( X ∩ Y ). Using the result n ( M ∪ P ) = n ( M ) + n ( P ) – n ( M ∩ P ). we find that n(X∩Y) = n ( X ) + n(Y) – n ( X∪Y) Fig 1. Given n ( X) = 24. each student likes to play at least one of the two games. suppose n ( X ∩ Y ) = k. Of these. 12 teach mathematics and 4 teach both physics and mathematics.12 = 28 + 32 – 50 = 10 Alternatively. How many teach physics ? Solution Let M denote the set of teachers who teach mathematics and P denote the set of teachers who teach physics. Also. therefore.12 ) This gives 50 = n ( X ∪ Y ) = n (X – Y) + n (X ∩ Y) + n ( Y – X) = ( 28 – k ) + k + (32 – k ) Hence k = 10. Example 25 In a class of 35 students. and X ∩ Y is the set of students who like to play both games. Then X ∪ Y is the set of students who like to play at least one game. n ( M ) = 12 and n ( M ∩ P ) = 4 We wish to determine n ( P ).22 MATHEMATICS Solution Given that n ( X ∪ Y ) = 50. the word ‘or’ gives us a clue of union and the word ‘and’ gives us a clue of intersection. Example 24 In a school there are 20 teachers who teach mathematics or physics. have n ( M ∪ P ) = 20 . 24 like to play cricket and 16 like to play football. How many students like to play both cricket and football ? Solution Let X be the set of students who like to play cricket and Y be the set of students who like to play football. n ( X ∪ Y ) = 35. we obtain 20 = 12 + n ( P ) – 4 Thus n ( P ) = 12 Hence 12 teachers teach physics. n (X ∩ Y) = ? By using the formula n ( X ∪ Y ) = n ( X ) + n ( Y ) – n ( X ∩ Y ). then n ( X – Y ) = 28 – k .

13. 150 as taking orange juice and 75 were listed as taking both apple as well as orange juice. Solution Let U denote the set of surveyed students and A denote the set of students taking apple juice and B denote the set of students taking orange juice. Find how many students were taking neither apple juice nor orange juice.13.) or n ( A – B ) = n ( A ) – n ( A ∩ B ) = 120 –30 = 90 Hence. we have B = ( B – A) ∪ ( A ∩ B).e. n ( B ) = 50 and n ( A ∩ B ) = 30 (i) From the Venn diagram given in Fig 1. A denote the set of individuals exposed to the chemical C1 and B denote the set of individuals exposed to the chemical C2. and so. Find the number of individuals exposed to (i) Chemical C1 but not chemical C2 (ii) Chemical C2 but not chemical C1 (iii) Chemical C1 or chemical C2 Solution Let U denote the universal set consisting of individuals suffering from the skin disorder. i. Example 27 There are 200 individuals with a skin disorder. 120 had been exposed to the chemical C1.. 100 were listed as taking apple juice.SETS 23 Thus.13 . n (B) = n (B – A) + n ( A ∩ B) (Since B – A and A ∩B are disjoint. and 30 to both the chemicals C1 and C2. n (A) = n( A – B ) + n( A ∩ B ) (Since A – B) and A ∩ B are disjoint. (ii) From the Fig 1. Example 26 In a survey of 400 students in a school. n (A) = 100. n ( A ) = 120. Now n (A′ ∩ B′) = n (A ∪ B )′ = n (U) – n (A ∪ B) = n (U) – n (A) – n (B) + n (A ∩ B) = 400 – 100 – 150 + 75 = 225 Hence 225 students were taking neither apple juice nor orange juice. Then n (U) = 400. Here n ( U) = 200. the number of individuals exposed to chemical C1 but not to chemical C2 is 90.) or n ( B – A ) = n ( B ) – n ( A ∩ B ) = 50 – 30 = 20 Fig 1. n (X ∩ Y) = 5 5 students like to play both games. n (B) = 150 and n (A ∩ B) = 75. 50 to chemical C2. we have A = ( A – B ) ∪ ( A ∩ B ).

The subset of A having three elements of A is A itself. EXERCISE 1. A. The subsets of A having two elements are {–1. 2. Then X = { C. If X and Y are two sets such that X ∪ Y has 18 elements. {0}. 20 speak Spanish and 10 speak both Spanish and French. If X and Y are two sets such that n ( X ) = 17. T } = { T. C. n ( Y ) = 23 and n ( X ∪ Y ) = 38. (iii) The number of individuals exposed either to chemical C1 or to chemical C2. 0}. 1 }. 8. R. A.{0. 0. {0.24 MATHEMATICS Thus. 0. How many speak at least one of these two languages? Miscellaneous Examples Example 28 Show that the set of letters needed to spell “ CATARACT ” and the set of letters needed to spell “ TRACT” are equal. It follows that X = Y. . How many like tennis only and not cricket? How many like tennis? In a committee. So. {–1. the number of individuals exposed to chemical C2 and not to chemical C1 is 20. C } Since every element in X is in Y and every element in Y is in X. { 0 }.6 1. Solution Let X be the set of letters in “CATARACT”. {–1. all the subsets of A are φ. R } Let Y be the set of letters in “ TRACT”. 1}. n (A∪ B ) = n (A) + n ( B ) – n (A∩ B ) = 120 + 50 – 30 = 140. 10 like both cricket and tennis. 1}. find n ( X ∩ Y ). {1}.e. 250 can speak Hindi and 200 can speak English. and S ∩ T has 11 elements.. how many elements does X ∩ Y have? In a group of 400 people. how many elements does Y have? In a group of 70 people. 1 }. Solution Let A = { –1. { 1 }. 52 like tea and each person likes at least one of the two drinks. 6. 3. 1} . 0. 37 like coffee. 4. 1} and {–1. 50 people speak French. How many people can speak both Hindi and English? If S and T are two sets such that S has 21 elements. 5. A. The subset of A having no element is the empty set φ. X has 8 elements and Y has 15 elements . i. how many elements does S ∪ T have? If X and Y are two sets such that X has 40 elements. The subsets of A having one element are { –1 }. T has 32 elements. 7. 1}. R. {–1}. 0}. Then Y = { T. Example 29 List all the subsets of the set { –1. T. 40 like cricket. How many people like both coffee and tea? In a group of 65 people. {–1. X ∪ Y has 60 elements and X ∩ Y has 10 elements.

Example 32 A market research group conducted a survey of 1000 consumers and reported that 720 consumers like product A and 450 consumers like product B. So. 400 owned car A and 200 owned car B. 15 in basketball and 20 in cricket. n (M ) = 400. 50 owned both A and B cars. Solution Let X ∈ P ( A ∩ B ). Example 34 A college warded 38 medals in football. Then X ⊂ A ∩ B. This gives P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ) ⊂ P ( A ∩ B) Hence P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ). Y ⊂ A ∩ B. b ∈ A. Then Y ∈ P ( A) and Y ∈ P ( B ). b ∈ A ∩ B. M be the set of persons who owned car A and S be the set of persons who owned car B. Therefore. Therefore. the least value of n ( S ∩ T ) is 170. So. Then a ∈ A ∪ B. the least number of consumers who liked both products is 170. S be the set of consumers who liked the product A and T be the set of consumers who like the product B. how many received medals in exactly two of the three sports ? . n ( S ∪ T ) is maximum when n ( S ∩ T ) is least. what is the least number that must have liked both products? Solution Let U be the set of consumers questioned. a ∈ A ∩ B. Example 33 Out of 500 car owners investigated. Since A ∪ B = A ∩ B. show that P ( A ∩ B ) = P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ). Given that n ( U ) = 500. then b ∈ A ∪ B. So. Given that n ( U ) = 1000. which implies Y ∈ P ( A ∩ B ).SETS 25 Example 30 Show that A ∪ B = A ∩ B implies A = B Solution Let a ∈ A. if b ∈ B. maximum values of n ( S ∪ T ) is 1000. Thus. Therefore. n ( T ) = 450 So n(S∪T)=n(S)+n(T)–n(S∩T) = 720 + 450 – n (S ∩ T) = 1170 – n ( S ∩ T ) Therefore. Is this data correct? Solution Let U be the set of car owners investigated. Thus. So. Hence. n ( S ) = 720. X ⊂ A and X ⊂ B. Then n ( S ∪ M ) = n ( S ) + n ( M ) – n ( S ∩ M ) = 200 + 400 – 50 = 550 But S ∪ M ⊂ U implies n ( S ∪ M ) ≤ n ( U ). Since A ∪ B = A ∩ B . Y ⊂ A and Y ⊂ B. If these medals went to a total of 58 men and only three men got medals in all the three sports. X ∈ P ( A ) and X ∈ P ( B ) which implies X ∈ P ( A ) ∩ P ( B). the given data is incorrect. A ⊂ B. A = B Example 31 For any sets A and B. Therefore. So a ∈ B. So. Similarly. B ⊂ A. n ( S ) = 200 and n ( S ∩ M ) = 50. This gives P ( A ∩ B ) ⊂ P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ). But S ∪ T ⊂ U implies n ( S ∪ T ) ≤ n ( U ) = 1000. Let Y ∈ P ( A ) ∩ P ( B ). This is a contradiction.

In each of the following. give an example. 5. gives n ( F ∩ B ) + n ( F ∩ C ) + n ( B ∩ C ) = 18 Consider the Venn diagram as given in Fig 1. determine whether the statement is true or false. then x ∈ B (ii) If A ⊂ B and B ∈ C . n ( C ) = 20 n (F ∪ B ∪ C ) = 58 and n (F ∩ B ∩ C ) = 3 Therefore. 7. C = { 2. 4. B. . n (F ∪ B ∪ C ) = n ( F ) + n ( B ) + n ( C ) – n (F ∩ B ) – n (F ∩ C ) – n (B ∩ C ) + Fig 1. 2. 6.26 MATHEMATICS Solution Let F. 8. c denotes the number of men who got medals in basket ball and cricket only and d denotes the number of men who got medal in all the three. n ( B ) = 15. basketball and cricket. 4. If it is true. }. Assume that P ( A ) = P ( B ). Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 1 1. . . 6. Show that B = C. then x ∈ B (vi) If A ⊂ B and x ∉ B . d = n ( F ∩ B ∩ C ) = 3 and a + d + b + d + c + d = 18 Therefore a + b + c = 9. which is the number of people who got medals in exactly two of the three sports. 6 }. then A ∈ C (iii) If A ⊂ B and B ⊂ C . If it is false. Decide. D = { 6 }. a denotes the number of men who got medals in football and basketball only. B = { 2. and C be the sets such that A ∪ B = A ∪ C and A ∩ B = A ∩ C. Then n ( F ) = 38. then x ∉ A Let A. Thus. among the following sets. B and C denote the set of men who received medals in football. P ( A ) ∪ P ( B ) = P ( A ∪ B )? Justify your answer.14 Here. respectively. 4. then A ⊂ C (iv) If A ⊄ B and B ⊄ C . . which sets are subsets of one and another: A = { x : x ∈ R and x satisfy x2 – 8x + 12 = 0 }. Show that the following four conditions are equivalent : (i) A ⊂ B(ii) A – B = φ (iii) A ∪ B = B (iv) A ∩ B = A Show that if A ⊂ B. (i) If x ∈ A and A ∈ B . b denotes the number of men who got medals in football and cricket only. 3.14 n ( F ∩ B ∩ C ). then C – B ⊂ C – A. prove it. Show that A = B Is it true that for any sets A and B. then A ⊄ C (v) If x ∈ A and A ⊄ B .

50 know English and 25 know both. 9 read both H and I. A power set of a set A is collection of all subsets of A. 26 read newspaper I. B ∩ C and A ∩ C are non-empty sets and A ∩ B ∩ C = φ. (ii) the number of people who read exactly one newspaper. 10. Show that for any sets A and B. 11. 8 read both T and I. It is denoted by P(A). Each of the students knows either Hindi or English. Let A and B be sets. A set which consists of a definite number of elements is called finite set. (Hints A = A ∩ ( A ∪ X ) . 13. A set A is said to be subset of a set B. 150 students were found to be taking tea and 225 taking coffee. How many students are there in the group? In a survey of 60 people. 3 read all three newspapers. it was found that 25 people read newspaper H. Two sets A and B are said to be equal if they have exactly the same elements. the set is called infinite set. If 14 people liked products A and B. 100 were taking both tea and coffee.SETS 27 8. 11 read both H and T. In a survey of 600 students in a school. 14 people liked products B and C and 8 liked all the three products. If A ∩ X = B ∩ X = φ and A ∪ X = B ∪ X for some set X. Find: (i) the number of people who read at least one of the newspapers. 26 read newspaper T. These are summarised below: A set is a well-defined collection of objects. Intervals are subsets of R. if every element of A is also an element of B. . In a survey it was found that 21 people liked product A. 16. 15. 12. Show that A ∩ B = A ∩ C need not imply B = C. B and C such that A ∩ B. otherwise. 9. A set which does not contain any element is called empty set. 100 students know Hindi. Find how many liked product C only. 14. 26 liked product B and 29 liked product C. Find how many students were taking neither tea nor coffee? In a group of students. A = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A – B ) and A ∪ ( B – A ) = ( A ∪ B ) Using properties of sets. 12 people liked products C and A. show that (i) A ∪ ( A ∩ B ) = A (ii) A ∩ ( A ∪ B ) = A. Summary This chapter deals with some basic definitions and operations involving sets. B = B ∩ ( B ∪ X ) and use Distributive law ) Find sets A. show that A = B.

D. The Russell’s Paradox was not the only one which arose in set theory.D. Paul R.) castigated him for regarding infinite set the same way as finite sets. For any two sets A and B.). The complement of a subset A of universal set U is the set of all elements of U which are not the elements of A. The difference of two sets A and B in this order is the set of elements which belong to A but not to B. Another German mathematician Gottlob Frege. (A ∪ B)′ = A′ ∩ B′ and ( A ∩ B )′ = A′ ∪ B′ If A and B are finite sets such that A ∩ B = φ.D. at the turn of the century.D. Cantor’s work was well received by another famous mathematician Richard Dedekind (1831-1916 A. The intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all elements which are common.D.D. If A ∩ B ≠ φ. presented the set theory as principles of logic. that the set of real numbers could not be put into one-to-one correspondence wih the integers. From 1879 onwards.D. . Many paradoxes were produced later by several mathematicians and logicians. It was the famous Englih Philosopher Bertand Russell (1872-1970 A..D. This led to the famous Russell’s Paradox. then n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B) – n (A ∩ B) Historical Note The modern theory of sets is considered to have been originated largely by the German mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918 A..). he publishd several papers showing various properties of abstract sets.28 MATHEMATICS The union of two sets A and B is the set of all those elements which are either in A or in B. His papers on set theory appeared sometimes during 1874 A. Till then the entire set theory was based on the assumption of the existence of the set of all sets. that the assumption of existence of a set of all sets leads to a contradiction. then n (A ∪ B) = n (A) + n (B). His study of set theory came when he was studying trigonometric series of the form a1 sin x + a2 sin 2x + a3 sin 3x + . to 1897 A.) who showed in 1902 A. But Kronecker (1810-1893 A. He published in a paper in 1874 A.Halmos writes about it in his book ‘Naïve Set Theory’ that “nothing contains everything”.

D. A modification of these axioms was done by Kurt Gödel in his monograph in 1940 A. introduced explicitly the axiom of regularity. — — . In fact. these days most of the concepts and results in mathematics are expressed in the set theoretic language. Cantor’s set theory is used in present day mathematics.D. John Von Neumann in 1925 A. the first axiomatisation of set theory was published in 1908 A. Another one was proposed by Abraham Fraenkel in 1922 A.SETS 29 As a consequence of all these paradoxes. Despite all these difficulties.D. by Ernst Zermelo. Paul Bernays gave a set of more satisfactory axiomatisation.D.D. Later in 1937 A. This was known as Von NeumannBernays (VNB) or Gödel-Bernays (GB) set theory.

W. we come across many relations such as number m is less than number n. s).2 Cartesian Products of Sets Suppose A is a set of 2 colours and B is a set of 3 objects. (blue.1 . set A is a subset of set B. we will learn about G . b). teacher and student. In all these. c. we come across many patterns that characterise relations such as brother and sister.e. Leibnitz (1646–1716) special relations which will qualify to be functions. i. we notice that a relation involves pairs of objects in certain order. blue}and B = {b. s). respectively. father and son. (red. Let us recall from our earlier classes that an ordered pair of elements taken from any two sets P and Q is a pair of elements written in small Fig 2. c). we get 6 distinct objects (Fig 2.. A = {red.Chapter 2 RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS Mathematics is the indispensable instrument of all physical research. we can see that there will be 6 distinct pairs as given below: (red. s}. line l is parallel to line m. where b. b). (blue. How many pairs of coloured objects can be made from these two sets? Proceeding in a very orderly manner. The concept of function is very important in mathematics since it captures the idea of a mathematically precise correspondence between one quantity with the other. Thus. (red. Finally. coat and shirt. – BERTHELOT 2.1). c and s represent a particular bag. In this Chapter. we will learn how to link pairs of objects from two sets and then introduce relations between the two objects in the pair. (blue. c). In mathematics also. 2.1 Introduction Much of mathematics is about finding a pattern – a recognisable link between quantities that change. In our daily life.

b4). a1). (blue. P × Q = φ From the illustration given above we note that A × B = {(red. (MP..c). Also note that the order in which these elements are paired is crucial. (DL. b4} (Fig 2. b1). (MP.03)}. (a1.02). (red. (a2. b3. (a2. with the DL MP KA restriction that the code begins with an element from set A.. b3). p ∈ P and q ∈ Q . 01) will not be the same as the code (01. (blue.b). The cartesian product P × Q is the set of all ordered pairs of elements from P and Q. where DL. 01 If the three states.q) : p ∈ P. i. (KA. if and only if the corresponding first elements are equal and the second elements are also equal.2 which are the pairs available from these sets and how many such pairs will there be (Fig 2. b1). KA}.01). (a1. As a final illustration.02). MP.01). MP. b2).03). (KA. b2). (KA.q).. P × Q = { (p.02). (a2. Delhi.3 Remarks (i) Two ordered pairs are equal.03) and the product of set A and set B is given by A × B = {(DL. For example. (MP. This gives us 9 possible codes. b2) will be distinct from the point in the position (b2. KA represent Delhi. consider the two sets A= {a1. 03 03}representing codes for the licence plates of vehicles issued 02 by DL. It can easily be seen that there will be 9 such pairs in the Cartesian product. b3).e.02). MP and KA . i. Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. This leads to the following definition: Definition 1 Given two non-empty sets P and Q. then P × Q will also be empty set.e.02). (KA. q ∈ Q } If either P or Q is the null set.03).01). (KA.01). Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka were making codes for the licence plates of vehicles.b).e. (red.02). i. b4)}.01). Fig 2.03). respectively and B = {01. (a2. (DL. (DL. (MP. consider the two sets: A = {DL. . (MP. the code (DL. (KA. (DL.3). Again.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 31 brackets and grouped together in a particular order. (p. The 8 ordered pairs thus formed can represent the position of points in the plane if A and B are subsets of the set of real numbers and it is obvious that the point in the position (a1. b2. Fig 2.03). DL).02. (MP. (blue. a2} and B = {b1.s)}.c).01).s). A × B = {( a1.2)? The available pairs are:(DL. since there are 3 elements in each of the sets A and B. (a1.

6). (3. (3. (3.3). 6}. the corresponding elements are equal. (r. Now (A × B) = {(1. b. b).5).5). (2. (1. (2. (2.5). (1. b.3}. .4). y – 2) = (3. the number of elements in each set will be the same. (3. a). r).3). 4).4).5). (A × B) ∩ (A × C) = {(1. we conclude that P × Q ≠ Q × P.4).5). (2. However.4).3). (2.6).6). r)} and Q × P = {(r. (3. (1.3). i. (2.4). (2. (1. (iii) Since. (r. b. Therefore x + 1 = 3 and y – 2 = 1.6)} Therefore. (iii) If A and B are non-empty sets and either A or B is an infinite set.4).6}. A × (B ∩ C) = {(1. Are these two products equal? Solution By the definition of the cartesian product.3). find the values of x and y. (3. c) is called an ordered triplet.3). (3. r) is not equal to the pair (r. then there will be pq elements in A × B.2.6). (c. Solving we get x = 2 and y = 3. c ∈ A}. (2. (2.6)}.5. if n(A) = p and n(B) = q. 4)}. (iv) A × A × A = {(a. (b. (B ∩ C) = {4}. (2.3).6).32 MATHEMATICS (ii) If there are p elements in A and q elements in B.4). (1. (1. P × Q = {(a. b. Find (ii) (A × B) ∩ (A × C) (i) A × (B ∩ C) (iii) A × (B ∪ C) (iv) (A × B) ∪ (A × C) Solution (i) By the definition of the intersection of two sets. (2. by the definition of equality of ordered pairs.5). (1.4). c)} Since. the pair (a. c} and Q = {r}. (2.3). then so is A × B.4). Example 2 If P = {a. (3. form the sets P × Q and Q × P. B = {3.5). (1. a). (3. we obtain (A × B) ∪ (A × C) = {(1. (3.4)} and (A × C) = {(1. 4. (3. (ii) (iv) Using the sets A × B and A × C from part (ii) above. Solution Since the ordered pairs are equal.4).3). (3.5). (3. then n(A × B) = pq. 5.. we have A × (B ∪ C) = {(1. (3. r).6)}.1). c) : a.4)}.4} and C = {4. (2.4). Example 1 If (x + 1. 4). Example 3 Let A = {1. Here (a.4). (2. (1.5).4).e. (2. (3. (B ∪ C) = {3.6). Therefore.

(p. 8}. y and z are distinct elements.2. Find A and B.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 33 Example 4 If P = {1.(a . r)}. 5}. 2}. y – ⎟ = ⎜ . y)}. 4.2. then P × Q = {(m. (y.1 2⎞ ⎛5 1⎞ ⎛x 1. z ∈ R} which represents the coordinates of all the points in three-dimensional space. find the values of x and y. form the set P × P × P. then find the number of elements in (A×B). (b. m)}. 9. 4. find G × H and H × G. (2. State whether each of the following statements are true or false. 7. q). (1. y. 8. Let A = {1. (2. Let A and B be two sets such that n(A) = 3 and n(B) = 2. Example 6 If A × B ={(p. If the statement is false. If A = {–1. (iii) If A = {1. y ∈ R} which represents the coordinates of all the points in two dimensional space and the cartisian product R × R × R represents the set R × R × R ={(x. n).2. 1).2). x). If G = {7. 2). Solution We have. (1. EXERCISE 2. 4}. 1) are in A × B. Write A × B. find A and B.1. y) : x. (z. y). 4}.1). (2. r}. How many subsets will A × B have? List them. (i) If P = {m. z) : x.1).2). Let A = {1.1.2. 2}. If ⎜ + 1.1). 3⎠ ⎝3 3⎠ ⎝3 2. 3. n} and Q = { n. P × P × P = {(1. rewrite the given statement correctly. 4}. Example 5 If R is the set of all real numbers. m}. Solution A = set of first elements = {p. m} B = set of second elements = {q. 6. then A × B is a non-empty set of ordered pairs (x. Verify that (i) A × (B ∩ C) = (A × B) ∩ (A × C). If (x. (m. If A × B = {(a. (2.1. C = {5. 2}.1). q). (ii) If A and B are non-empty sets.2)}. (m. (ii) A × C is a subset of B × D. . If the set A has 3 elements and the set B = {3.2).1. 4. 2. what do the cartesian products R × R and R × R × R represent? Solution The Cartesian product R × R represents the set R × R={(x. 8} and H = {5. x). 6} and D = {5. where x. r). find A × A × A. y) such that x ∈ A and y ∈ B. B = {3. 1}. find A and B. then A × (B ∩ φ) = φ. 2}.(n. 3. B = {1. y. (1. ⎟ . 7. 2} and B = {3. 5. 6. (b.

Chandra. Then R = {(a. Ali).y): x is the first letter of the name y. Bhanu. (a. c} and Q = {Ali. We can now obtain a subset of P × Q by introducing a relation R between the first element x and the Fig 2. Divya}.3 Relations Consider the two sets P = {a. Ali).4). Divya)}. (4. Bhanu).4 second element y of each ordered pair (x.2). x ∈ P. b. The subset is derived by describing a relationship between the first element and the second element of the ordered pairs in A × B. Note that range ⊆ codomain.5). . Find the set A and the remaining elements of A × A. (3.1). (ii) Write down the domain. y ∈ Q}. Definition 3 The set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in a relation R from a set A to a set B is called the domain of the relation R. Binoy. Definition 2 A relation R from a non-empty set A to a non-empty set B is a subset of the cartesian product A × B. . codomain and range of R.. y) : y = x + 1 } (i) Depict this relation using an arrow diagram. y) as R= { (x. Example 7 Let A = {1. (c. Binoy). (ii) An arrow diagram is a visual representation of a relation. (c. Define a relation R from A to A by R = {(x. 2. (2.4. 5. Solution (i) By the definition of the relation. R = {(1. (a. The second element is called the image of the first element. 0) and (0. (b. Chandra)} A visual representation of this relation R (called an arrow diagram) is shown in Fig 2.Bhanu).6)}. 4. 3.. The whole set B is called the codomain of the relation R. 6}..3). Remarks (i) A relation may be represented algebraically either by the Roster method or by the Set-builder method. The cartesian product of P and Q has 15 ordered pairs which can be listed as P × Q = {(a. (5. (b. Definition 4 The set of all second elements in a relation R from a set A to a set B is called the range of the relation R.34 MATHEMATICS 10. Binoy). The Cartesian product A × A has 9 elements among which are found (–1. 2.

Write this relation (i) in set-builder form.6 shows a relation between the sets P and Q. The range of this relation is {– 2. Example 9 Let A = {1. 4}. Note that the element 1 is not related to any element in set P. A × B = {(1. R = {(9. Let A = {1. x ∈ P. –3). 3. .14}. 2.. If n(A ) = p and n(B) = q. (i) In set-builder form. where x. 3. (4. Note The total number of relations that can be defined from a set A to a set B is the number of possible subsets of A × B. (2. codomain and range. 4)}. 4). 9. (ii) in roster form. –2). Define a relation R from A to A by R = {(x. 3). 2.2 1. 3).6 (9. Solution We have. Remark A relation R from A to A is also stated as a relation on A. 5). 2. 3.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 35 The corresponding arrow diagram is shown in Fig 2. y): x is the square of y.. (2. R = {(x. 4. y) : 3x – y = 0. The set Q is the codomain of this relation. –5)} The domain of this relation is {4. (ii) We can see that the domain ={1. the range = {2. 5}.} Similarly. (1. –3. 5. 6} and the codomain = {1. Since n (A×B ) = 4. 5. then n (A × B) = pq and the total number of relations is 2pq. Find the number of relations from A to B. 3). –5. Fig 2. (25.5 Example 8 The Fig 2. Fig 2. y ∈ A}.5. Therefore.. y ∈ Q} (ii) In roster form. EXERCISE 2. the number of subsets of A×B is 24. 25}. 2). 3. the number of relations from A into B will be 24. 2. (25.. 4. Write down its domain. 4. What is its domain and range? Solution It is obvious that the relation R is “x is the square of y”. 2} and B = {3. 6}. 3. 5. (4.

6.7 shows a relationship between the sets P and Q. b ∈A. 2. Let R be the relation on A defined by {(a. 2}. 1. We can.4 Functions In this Section. Fig 2. y. 2. 3. x + 5) : x ∈ {0. b is exactly divisible by a}. 5. Define a relation R from A to B by R = {(x. Write down the domain and the range. Write the relation R = {(x. (i) Write R in roster form (ii) Find the domain of R (iii) Find the range of R. Let R be the relation on Z defined by R = {(a. 7. y) : y = x + 5. x ∈ A. 3. a – b is an integer}. 4. y ∈ B}. which produces new elements out of some given elements. then f (a) = b. Find the number of relations from A to B. 5}}.36 MATHEMATICS 2. In other words. we study a special type of relation called function. 5} and B = {4. 3. Definition 5 A relation f from a set A to a set B is said to be a function if every element of set A has one and only one image in set B. x3) : x is a prime number less than 10} in roster form. 6}. 4. It is one of the most important concepts in mathematics. x is a natural number less than 4. What is its domain and range? Let A = {1.7 6. 3. visualise a function as a rule. 4. 9}. . b): a . There are many terms such as ‘map’ or ‘mapping’ used to denote a function. If f is a function from A to B and (a. A = {1. a function f is a relation from a non-empty set A to a non-empty set B such that the domain of f is A and no two distinct ordered pairs in f have the same first element. y): the difference between x and y is odd. y ∈N}. Write this relation (i) in set-builder form (ii) roster form. b) ∈ f. 2. Find the domain and range of R. b ∈ Z. Define a relation R on the set N of natural numbers by R = {(x. 2. Determine the domain and range of the relation R defined by R = {(x. Write R in roster form. 9. Let A = {x. The Fig2. x. where b is called the image of a under f and a is called the preimage of b under f. z} and B = {1. 8. Depict this relationship using roster form.b): a.

. The codomain is also N.6). (4. it is called a real function. Again. Definition 6 A function which has either R or one of its subsets as its range is called a real valued function. y) : y = 2x.. (4. this relation is not a function. Similarly..7)} Solution (i) (ii) (iii) Since 2.2). f (4) = . x. f (7) = . y ∈ N}. f (2) = .. 4 are the elements of domain of R having their unique images. the relation in Example 8 is not a function because the elements in the domain are connected to more than one images. f (6) = .(3. complete the table given below. Using this definition. if its domain is also either R or a subset of R.(3. giving reasons whether it is a function or not? (i) R = {(2. (4.. What is the domain.3). Solution The completed table is given by x 1 2 3 4 y f (1) = 3 f (2) = 5 f (3) = 7 5 6 7 f (4) = 9 f (5) = 11 f (6) = 13 f (7) =15 . Example 12 Let N be the set of natural numbers. this relation R is a function.. (ii) R = {(2. we can easily see that the relation in Example 7 is not a function because the element 6 has no image.. Since the same first element 2 corresponds to two different images 2 and 4.1). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 y f (1) = . we will see many more relations some of which are functions and others are not. Example 11 Examine each of the following relations given below and state in each case. Further..4).2)}. Since every element has one and only one image.. Example 10 Let N be the set of natural numbers and the relation R be defined on N such that R = {(x.. Define a real valued function f:N x N by f (x) = 2x + 1. The range is the set of even natural numbers. the relation in Example 9 is also not a function.4)} (iii) R = {(1.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 37 The function f from A to B is denoted by f: A B.5).. f (5) = ...(2. (5. codomain and range of R? Is this relation a function? Solution The domain of R is the set of natural numbers N. (Why?) In the examples given below.(2.2). this relation is a function.3).1).. f (3) = .4). 3. (6.(3. Since every natural number n has one and only one image. Looking at the previous examples. this relation is a function.

38 MATHEMATICS 2. Fig 2. x ∈ R where c is a constant and each x ∈ R. Such a function is called the identity function.4. Here domain of f is R and its range is {c}.1 Some functions and their graphs (i) Identity function Let R be the set of real numbers.8 (ii) Constant function Define the function f: R → R by y = f (x) = c. The graph is a straight line as shown in Fig 2.9 .8. Here the domain and range of f are R. Define the real valued function f : R → R by y = f(x) = x for each x ∈ R. Fig 2. It passes through the origin.

if f(x)=3 for each x∈R. Range of f = {x : x ≥ 0.. x ∈ R}.10 . where n is a non-negative integer and a0.9. y = f (x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + .RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 39 The graph is a line parallel to x-axis. 2 x are some examples 2 The functions defined by f(x) = x3 – x2 + 2..+ an xn. x y = f(x) = x 2 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 Solution The completed Table is given below: x y = f (x) = x2 –4 16 –3 9 –2 4 –1 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 9 4 16 Domain of f = {x : x∈R}. (iii) Polynomial function A function f : R → R is said to be polynomial function if for each x in R. The graph of f is given by Fig 2.10 Fig 2. What is the domain and range of this function? Draw the graph of f.. whereas the function h defined by h(x) = x 3 + 2x is not a polynomial function.(Why?) Example 13 Define the function f: R → R by y = f(x) = x2.. x ∈ R... and g(x) = x4 + of polynomial functions. a1. a2. Complete the Table given below by using this definition. For example.an∈R. then its graph will be a line as shown in the Fig 2.

67 2 0.5 – 0. where f(x) and g(x) are g (x) polynomial functions of x defined in a domain..5 1 x – 0...5 .5 0... Solution We have f(0) = 0.40 MATHEMATICS Example 14 Draw the graph of the function f :R → R defined by f (x) = x3... f(2) = 8. f = {(x. –0. where g(x) ≠ 0.5 .. 1 x .5 2 1 1 1.25 4 0.. 1 .5 –1 –0. Therefore. f(–1) = –1. 1. f(–3) = –27.. The graph of f is given in Fig 2..11.....5 . f(–2) = –8. x x ∈ R –{0}. f(3) = 27.. Complete the Table given below using this definition.25 0. etc. 2 . Example 15 Define the real valued function f : R – {0} → R defined by f (x) = 1 .5 0.x3): x∈R}. . Solution The completed Table is given by x y= –2 –1.. x∈R. f(1) = 1. 0.67 –1 – 2 . –1 . Fig 2.5 . What is the domain and range of this function? x y = –2 –1.11 (iv) Rational functions are functions of the type f (x ) ..

the value of f(x) is the negative of the value of x. The graph of f is given in Fig 2.12.if x = 0 ⎪−1. But for negative values of x.if x > 0 ⎪ f (x ) = ⎨0.12 2. The domain of the signum function is R and the range is .x ≥ 0 f (x) = ⎨ ⎩ − x. For each non-negative value of x.. f(x) is equal to x.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 41 The domain is all real numbers except 0 and its range is also all real numbers except 0. i.12 (v) The Modulus function The function f: R→R defined by f(x) = |x| for each x ∈R is called modulus function. ⎧ x. (vi) Signum function The function f:R→R defined by Fig 2.x < 0 The graph of the modulus function is given in Fig 2.e.13 ⎧1.if x < 0 ⎩ is called the signum function. FigFig 2.13.

0.42 MATHEMATICS the set {–1.15. . Then.14. for all x ∈ X. The graph of the signum function is given by the Fig 2. From the definition of [x]. (i) Addition of two real functions Let f : X → R and g : X → R be any two real functions. x ∈R assumes the value of the greatest integer. subtract a real function from another. we shall learn how to add two real functions. where X ⊂ R. we can see that [x] = –1 for –1 ≤ x < 0 [x] = 0 for 0 ≤ x < 1 [x] = 1 for 1 ≤ x < 2 [x] = 2 for 2 ≤ x < 3 and so on. Fig 2. The graph of the function is shown in Fig 2. less than or equal to x. multiply two real functions and divide one real function by another.4. we define (f + g): X → R by (f + g) (x) = f (x) + g (x).14 (vii) Greatest integer function The function f: R → R defined by f(x) = [x]. Such a function is called the greatest integer function. Fig 2.15 2. 1}. multiply a real function by a scalar (here by a scalar we mean a real number).2 Algebra of real functions In this Section.

we mean a real number. ⎜ ⎟ ( x ) . Then. x ∈X.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 43 (ii) Subtraction of a real function from another Let f : X → R and g: X → R be any two real functions. (f –g) (x). ⎜ ⎟ ( x ) = .Find ⎛ f ⎞ (f + g) (x). we define (f – g) : X → R by (f–g) (x) = f(x) –g(x). Here by scalar. (f – g) (x). ⎛ f ⎞ x2 2 3 2 1 (fg) (x) = x (2x + 1) = 2x + x . This is also called pointwise multiplication. (v) Quotient of two real functions Let f and g be two real functions defined from X→R where X ⊂ R.x≠0 ⎝ ⎠ x . 1 3 ⎛ f ⎞ – x x( x ) = x 2 and ⎜ g ⎟ ( x ) = = x 2. provided g(x) ≠ 0. for all x ∈ X. 2 2 (f + g) (x) = x + 2x + 1. (fg) (x) and ⎜ ⎟ (x). x ∈ X ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g ( x) ⎝g⎠ f g is a function defined by . where X ⊂ R. (iii) Multiplication by a scalar Let f : X→R be a real valued function and α be a scalar. for all x ∈ X. Then the product α f is a function from X to R defined by (α f ) (x) = α f (x). (iv) Multiplication of two real functions The product (or multiplication) of two real functions f:X → R and g:X → R is a function fg:X → R defined by (fg) (x) = f(x) g(x). The quotient of f by g denoted by ⎛ f ⎞ f ( x) .x ≠ − 2x + 1 ⎝g⎠ 2 Example 17 Let f(x) = x and g(x) = x be two functions defined over the set of non- ⎛ f ⎞ negative real numbers. Example 16 Let f(x) = x and g(x) = 2x + 1 be two real functions. Find (f + g) (x). (fg) (x). (f –g) (x) = x – 2x – 1. (f – g) (x) = x –x. ⎝g⎠ Solution We have (f + g) (x) = (fg) x = x + x. ⎝g⎠ 2 Solution We have.

1). (iii) f (–3). The function ‘t’ which maps temperature in degree Celsius into temperature in degree Fahrenheit is defined by t(C) = Find (i) t(0) 5. (11. (17. Solution Here f(0) = 10.1). 2. f(1) = 11.7)} (iii) {(1. x is a real number. f(2) = 12. etc. (10. Define the real function f: R→R by f(x) = x + 10 and sketch the graph of this function.4). x ∈ R. (14...1). (12. Which of the following relations are functions? Give reasons. where m and c are constants. (14.6). is called linear function. (i) {(2.5).3). (2.3 1. Therefore. (ii) f (x) = x2 + 2. shape of the graph of the given function assumes the form as shown in Fig 2.. Find the domain and range of the following real functions: (i) f(x) = – x 3. when t(C) = 212. (8. 5 t(–10) (iv) The value of C. f(10) = 20. (iii) f (x) = x. x is a real number. 4.1).44 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 2.. (i) f (x) = 2 – 3x. Write down the values of (i) f (0).. (ii) f(x) = 9 − x2 . f(–10) = 0 and so on.5)}. (4.. (ii) f (7).1)} (ii) {(2.3). (5. determine its domain and range.1).1). Above function is an example of a linear function. Miscellaneous Examples Example 18 Let R be the set of real numbers.2).16 . and f(–1) = 9.5). Find the range of each of the following functions. Fig 2. x > 0. x ∈ R. . If it is a function. (1.. (6. f(–2) = 8. . A function f is defined by f(x) = 2x –5.16. (ii) t(28) (iii) 9C + 32. (8. Remark The function f defined by f(x) = mx + c .

b): a.b) ∈ R implies that (b. c) ∈ R implies that a – b ∈ Z. Example 21 Find the domain of the function f (x) = 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 x2 – 5x + 4 Solution Since x –5x + 4 = (x – 4) (x –1). f (x) = mx + c. Solution Since f is a linear function.b ∈ Q and a – b ∈ Z}. x < 0. x=0 f (x) = ⎨ ⎪ x + 1. –1). Solution Here. f (3) = 4 f(4) = 5 and so on for f(x) = x + 1. a) ∈ R.b) ∈ R implies that a – b ∈ Z. Hence the domain of f is R – {1. a – c = (a – b) + (b – c) ∈ Z. (2. x < 0 ⎪ 1 . x > 0. (0. b – a ∈ Z. Thus. f (1) = m + c = 1 and f (0) = c = –1.c) ∈ R implies that (a. So. Example 22 The function f is defined by ⎧1− x. this gives f(– 4) = 1 – (– 4) = 5.17 Fig 2. (a.a) ∈ R for all a ∈ Q (ii) (a. Find f(x). (ii) (a. f (2) = 3. (b.3). x > 0 ⎩ Draw the graph of f (x). (–1. Also. the graph of f is as shown in Fig 2. f(– 3) =1 – (– 3) = 4. Show that (i) (a.17 . f(x) = 1 – x. the function f (x) is defined for all real numbers except at x = 4 and x = 1. a – a = 0 ∈ Z. This gives m = 2 and f(x) = 2x – 1. if follows that (a. b) and (b. b – c ∈ Z. 1).RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 45 Example 19 Let R be a relation from Q to Q defined by R = {(a.c) ∈R Solution (i) Since. etc. – 1) ∈ R.1). and f(1) = 2.b) ∈ R and (b. Therefore. since (1. 4}. f(– 2) = 1 – (– 2) = 3 f(–1) = 1 – (–1) = 2. So. a) ∈ R (iii) (a. a) ∈ R (iii) (a. (0.c) ∈ R Example 20 Let f = {(1. –3)} be a linear function from Z into Z. Therefore.

16} and f = {(1. respectively by f(x) = x + 1. 2 ≤ x ≤ 10 ⎩ Show that f is a function and g is not a function. (b. find 2 f (1. Find the domain and the range of the real function f defined by f (x) = 5. (–1.a) ∈ R (iii) (a. (3. Let A ={1. 10. (2.15. (4.0 ≤ x ≤ 3 ⎪ f (x) = ⎨ 1. (1.5).46 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 2 ⎧ x2 .4}.2.1). b. 2. g(x) = 2x – 3. 7. b ∈N and a = b }.11. b.c) ∈ R implies (a. Are the following true? (i) (a. x 2 – 8 x + 12 ( x − 1) .5. Determine a.9).1 – 1) 3. Justify your answer in each case.b) ∈ R.9. 8. for all a ∈ N (ii) (a. (2.–1). Find f + g. (2.3). 2 . Let f. g : R→R be defined. ⎟ : x ∈ R ⎬ be a function from R into R. 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 ⎪ g ( x) = ⎨ The relation g is defined by ⎪3x .3. Find the domain of the function f (x) = x2 + 2 x + 1 . (0. 9. Justify your answer in each case. Let R be a relation from N to N defined by R = {(a.1) – f (1) . B = {1. If f (x) = x . for some integers a. Let 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩⎝ 1 + x ⎠ ⎭ of f.a) ∈ R. 4. b) : a.3 ≤ x ≤10 ⎩ ⎧x2 .11)} Are the following true? (i) f is a relation from A to B (ii) f is a function from A to B. f – g and f g.b) ∈ R.5).c) ∈ R. –3)} be a function from Z to Z defined by f(x) = ax + b.1). ⎧⎛ ⎫ x2 ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ f = ⎨⎜ x. Determine the range 6. Let f = {(1. implies (b. Find the domain and the range of the real function f defined by f (x) = x – 1 . The relation f is defined by ⎪3 x.

y. y ∈ R} and R × R × R = (x.The main features of this Chapter are as follows: Ordered pair A pair of elements grouped together in a particular order. Is f a function from Z to Z? Justify your answer. b ∈ B} In particular R × R = {(x. Relation A relation R from a set A to a set B is a subset of the cartesian product A × B obtained by describing a relationship between the first element x and the second element y of the ordered pairs in A × B. then n(A × B) = pq. Summary In this Chapter. A×φ=φ In general. We write f: A→B. y) ∈ R. y). 12.RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 47 11. where f(x) = y.11. then a = x and b = y. The domain of R is the set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in a relation R. where (x. z ∈ R} If (a. y. y): x. b ∈ Z}. Function A function f from a set A to a set B is a specific type of relation for which every element x of set A has one and only one image y in set B.12. b): a ∈ A. A is the domain and B is the codomain of f. The range of the function is the set of images. we studied about relations and functions.13} and let f : A→N be defined by f (n) = the highest prime factor of n. Let f be the subset of Z × Z defined by f = {(ab. b) = (x.10. Let A = {9. The image of an element x under a relation R is given by y. If n(A) = p and n(B) = q. Cartesian product A × B of two sets A and B is given by A × B = {(a. z): x. a + b) : a. The range of the relation R is the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs in a relation R. Find the range of f. A × B ≠ B × A. .

He considered a function in terms of “mathematical job” – the “employee” being just a curve. Algebra of functions For functions f : X → R and g : X → R. Leibnitz replied showing his approval. and of numbers. — — . x ∈ X. x ∈ X. for an analytical expression any way compounded of a variable quantity. At the end of that month. (f. (f – g) (x) = f (x) – g(x). Function is found in English in 1779 in Chambers’ Cylopaedia: “The term function is used in algebra. g Historical Note The word FUNCTION first appears in a Latin manuscript “Methodus tangentium inversa. x ∈ X. = k f (x) ). 1698. x ∈ X. g(x) ≠ 0. or constant quantities”. Leibnitz used the word in the non-analytical sense.g (x). in a letter to Leibnitz.g) (x) (kf) (x) = f (x) . f f ( x) ( x) = g ( x) . seu de fuctionibus” written by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646-1716) in 1673. x ∈ X. we have (f + g) (x) = f(x) + g(x). Johan Bernoulli.48 MATHEMATICS A real function has the set of real numbers or one of its subsets both as its domain and as its range. for the first time deliberately assigned a specialised use of the term function in the analytical sense. On July 5.

In this Chapter.) angled triangle. 3. by engineers and others. we have studied the trigonometric Arya Bhatt ratios of acute angles as the ratio of the sides of a right (476-550 B.Chapter 3 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS A mathematician knows how to solve a problem. trigonometry is used in many areas such as the science of seismology. surveyor to map out the new lands. The original ray is Vertex Fig 3. he can not solve it. The subject was originally developed to solve geometric problems involving triangles. It was studied by sea captains for navigation. We have also studied the trigonometric identities and application of trigonometric ratios in solving the problems related to heights and distances. Currently. In earlier classes. describing the state of an atom.1 .C. analysing a musical tone and in many other areas. we will generalise the concept of trigonometric ratios to trigonometric functions and study their properties. – MILNE 3.2 Angles Angle is a measure of rotation of a given ray about its initial point. predicting the heights of tides in the ocean.1 Introduction The word ‘trigonometry’ is derived from the Greek words ‘trigon’ and ‘metron’ and it means ‘measuring the sides of a triangle’. designing electric circuits.

We shall describe two other units of measurement of an angle which are most commonly used. One sixtieth of a degree is called a minute. 1° = 60′. For example. 420°. written as 1′.1).2. The point of rotation is called the vertex. degree measure and radian measure. 1′ = 60″ Some of the angles whose measures are 360°. then the angle is negative (Fig 3. the angle is said to be positive and if the direction of rotation is clockwise.2 measuring angles.3 . written as 1″. we can say that a rapidly spinning wheel is making an angle of say 15 revolution per second.2. The definition of an angle suggests a unit.180°.1 Degree measure If a rotation from the initial side to terminal side is ⎜ ⎟ of ⎝ 360 ⎠ a revolution.3. one complete revolution from the position of the initial side as indicated in Fig 3. This is often convenient for large angles. If the direction of rotation is anticlockwise. Thus. 270°.50 MATHEMATICS called the initial side and the final position of the ray after rotation is called the terminal side of the angle. viz. viz. A degree is divided into 60 minutes. and one sixtieth of a minute is called a second. There are several units for Fig 3. the angle is said to have a measure of one degree. written as 1°. – 30°. The measure of an angle is the amount of rotation performed to get the terminal side from the initial side. ⎛ 1 ⎞ 3. th Fig 3. and a minute is divided into 60 seconds . – 420° are shown in Fig 3.

1 1 1 radian and –1 radian. called the radian measure. if in r a circle of radius r. an arc of length l subtends an angle θ radian at the centre.4 (i) to (iv) We know that the circumference of a circle of radius 1 unit is 2π. in a circle of radius r. Thus. r . More generally. OA is the initial side and OB is the terminal side. an arc of length r subtends an angle whose measure is 1 l radian.4(i) to (iv). Since in a circle of radius r. an arc of length r will subtend an angle of 1 radian. The figures show the angles whose measures are 1 radian. an arc of length l will subtend an angle whose measure is radian. Angle subtended at the centre by an arc of length 1 unit in a unit circle (circle of radius 1 unit) is said to have a measure of 1 radian. It is well-known that equal arcs of a circle subtend equal angle at the centre. In the Fig 3. we have θ = l or l = r θ. Thus. 2 2 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Fig 3.2.2 Radian measure There is another unit for measurement of an angle.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 51 3. one complete revolution of the initial side subtends an angle of 2π radian. –1 radian.

π Also 1° = π radian = 0. AP represents positive real number and AQ represents negative real numbers (Fig 3. Consider the line PAQ which is tangent to the circle at A. Let the point A represent the real number zero. P 2 1 1 A 0 − −1 − −2 Q O Fig 3.3 Relation between radian and real numbers Consider the unit circle with centre O. Using approximate value of π as 22 .2. it follows that 2π radian = 360° or π radian = 180° The above relation enables us to express a radian measure in terms of degree measure and a degree measure in terms of radian measure.2.52 MATHEMATICS 3. radian measures and real numbers can be considered as one and the same. Let A be any point on the circle. we have 7 1 radian = 180° = 57° 16′ approximately.5 3.4 Relation between degree and radian Since a circle subtends at the centre an angle whose radian measure is 2π and its degree measure is 360°. Then the length of an arc of the circle will give the radian measure of the angle which the arc will subtend at the centre of the circle. Thus.01746 radian approximately.5). and AQ in the clockwise direction. 180 The relation between degree measures and radian measure of some common angles are given in the following table: Degree Radian 30° 45° 60° 90° 180° π 270° 360° 2π π 6 π 4 π 3 π 2 3π 2 . then every real number will correspond to a radian measure and conversely. If we rope the line AP in the anticlockwise direction along the circle. Consider OA as initial side of an angle.

we can say that omitted. 6 radians = 343° 38′ 11″ approximately. π = 180° and Radian measure = Degree measure = π Degree measure 180 × 180 × Radian measure π Example 1 Convert 40° 20′ into radian measure. 7 .9″ = 343°38′ 11″ approximately. Hence Therefore 40° 20′ = 40 121 1 π 121π degree = radian = radian. 540 40° 20′ = Example 2 Convert 6 radians into degree measure. the word ‘radian’ is frequently π π = 45° are written with the understanding that π and 4 4 are radian measures. Example 3 Find the radius of the circle in which a central angle of 60° intercepts an arc of length 37. Solution We know that 180° = π radian. we mean the angle whose degree measure is θ and whenever we write angle β. we adopt the convention that whenever we write angle θ°. Thus. × 3 180 540 3 121π radian. Note that when an angle is expressed in radians. we mean the angle whose radian measure is β.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 53 Notational Convention Since angles are measured either in degrees or in radians.4 cm (use π = 22 ). Thus. Hence 6 radians = 1080 × 7 180 degree × 6 degree = π 22 7 degree 11 = 343° + = 343 7 × 60 minute [as 1° = 60′] 11 [as 1′ = 60″] = 343° + 38′ + Hence 2 minute 11 = 343° + 38′ + 10. Solution We know that π radian = 180°.

14). we have θ 37. Then l = r1θ1 = r2θ2. Solution In 60 minutes. Hence. Given that θ1 = 65° = and π 13π × 65 = radian 180 36 π 22π × 110 = radian 180 36 θ2 = 110° = Let l be the length of each of the arc.5 × 4π cm = 2π cm = 2 × 3.4×3×7 = = 35. Therefore. r = 36 36 13 2 Hence r1 : r2 = 22 : 13. θ = × 360° 3 3 4π radian. the minute hand of a watch completes one revolution.5 cm long.1 1.54 MATHEMATICS Solution Here l = 37.4×3 37. Solution Let r1 and r2 be the radii of the two circles. Find the radian measures corresponding to the following degree measures: (i) 25° (ii) – 47°30′ (iii) 240° (iv) 520° .. by r = r= 60π π radian = 180 3 l .4 cm and θ = 60° = Hence. How far does its tip move in 40 minutes? (Use π = 3.14 cm = 6. find the ratio of their radii.28 cm. EXERCISE 3. the minute hand turns through or 2 2 of a revolution. Therefore.e. in 40 minutes.7 cm π 22 Example 4 The minute hand of a watch is 1. which gives r1 22 13π 22π × r1 = × r2 . 3 Example 5 If the arcs of the same lengths in two circles subtend angles 65°and 110° at the centre. the required distance travelled is given by 3 l = r θ = 1. i.

5π 7π (iv) 3 6 A wheel makes 360 revolutions in one minute.e. arcs of the same length subtend angles 60° and 75° at the centre. 4..TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 55 2. We define cos x = a and sin x = b Since ∆OMP is a right triangle. We will now extend the definition of trigonometric ratios to any angle in terms of radian measure and study them as trigonometric functions. for every point on the unit circle. Let P (a. i.6 . Consider a unit circle with centre at origin of the coordinate axes. 6. the length of a chord is 20 cm. Find the length of minor arc of the chord. Through how many radians does it turn in one second? Find the degree measure of the angle subtended at the centre of a circle of radius 100 cm by an arc of length 22 cm (Use π = 11 16 5. ∠AOB = π . If in two circles. length of arc AP = x (Fig 3.3 Trigonometric Functions In earlier classes. we have OM2 + MP2 = OP2 or a2 + b2 = 1 Thus. 22 ). 7 (ii) – 4 (iii) 3. b) be any point on the circle with angle AOP = x radian. find the ratio of their radii. Find the degree measures corresponding to the following radian measurs (Use π = (i) 22 ).6). we have studied trigonometric ratios for acute angles as the ratio of sides of a right angled triangle. 2 Fig 3. Find the angle in radian through which a pendulum swings if its length is 75 cm and th e tip describes an arc of length (i) 10 cm (ii) 15 cm (iii) 21 cm 3. we have a2 + b2 = 1 or cos2 x + sin2 x = 1 Since one complete revolution subtends an angle of 2π radian at the centre of the circle. 7 In a circle of diameter 40 cm. 7.

C and D are. 2 We now define other trigonometric functions in terms of sine and cosine functions: 1 . if x = 0. ± 2π .. π cos x = 0 implies x = (2n + 1) . ± 3π. –1). n ∈ Z Further. 0). x ≠ n π. sin x = 0. Thus 2 sin x = 0 implies x = nπ. (1.. where n is any integer.. for quadrantal angles.. All angles which are integral multiples of are called 2 2 quadrantal angles. cos (2nπ + x) = cos x .± . tan x = 2 cos x cos x cot x = . The coordinates of the points A. i. 0) and (0. x ≠ (2n +1) .e. respectively. x ≠ nπ. where n is any integer. we also observe that if x increases (or decreases) by any integral multiple of 2π.56 MATHEMATICS 3π π . n ∈ Z . sin π =0 2 cosπ = − 1 π =1 2 sinπ = 0 3π 3π =0 sin = –1 2 2 cos 2π = 1 sin 2π = 0 Now. where n is any integer.. sin (2nπ + x) = sin x . . sin x cosec x = . if we take one complete revolution from the point P. if x = ± multiple of π 3π 5π ..e. we have ∠AOC = π and ∠AOD = cos 0° = 1 cos sin 0° = 0. Thus. . we again come back to same point P. where n is any integer.± . 2 cos x sin x π . the values of sine and cosine functions do not change.. when x is an integral multiple of π cos and cos x = 0. cos x vanishes when x is an odd 2 2 2 π . ± π. B. 1). (–1. Thus. (0. i. where n is any integer π. Therefore. sin x 1 π sec x = . x ≠ (2n + 1) . where n is any integer.

respectively. –b) (Fig 3. 60° and 90°. b) on the unit circle. If ∠AOQ = – x. we have the following table: 0° sin cos tan 0 1 0 π 6 π 4 1 2 1 2 π 3 3 2 π 2 1 0 not defined π 3π 2 –1 0 not defined 2π 1 2 3 2 1 3 0 –1 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 1 The values of cosec x. Thus. Therefore cos (– x) = cos x and sin (– x) = – sin x Since for every point P (a. b) be a point on the unit circle with centre at the origin such that ∠AOP = x. 45°. then the coordinates of the point Q will be (a. we have discussed the values of trigonometric ratios for 0°.7 .1 Sign of trigonometric functions Let P (a. – 1 ≤ a ≤ 1 and Fig 3. cos x and tan x. sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 It follows that 1 + tan2 x = sec2 x 1 + cot2 x = cosec2 x (why?) (why?) In earlier classes. 3.3.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 57 We have shown that for all real x.7). sec x and cot x are the reciprocal of the values of sin x. 30°. The values of trigonometric functions for these angles are same as that of trigonometric ratios studied in earlier classes.

negative for < x < and also 2 2 2 π < x < 2π. and negative for π π 3π . In fact.2 Domain and range of trigonometric functions From the definition of sine and cosine functions.. 1]. we have the following table. – 1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1 and – 1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 Thus. cos x is positive for 0 < x < positive for 3π < x < 2π. we observe that they are defined for all real numbers. Similarly. – 1 ≤ y ≤ 1. domain of y = sin x and y = cos x is the set of all real numbers and range is the interval [–1. Likewise. we have – 1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 and –1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1 for all x. I sin x cos x tan x cosec x sec x cot x + + + + + + II + – – + – – III – – + – – + IV – + – – + – 3.3. . we observe that for each real number x. i. Therefore.e.58 MATHEMATICS – 1 ≤ b ≤ 1. in the third quadrant 2 3π 3π ) a and b are both negative and in the fourth quadrant ( < x < 2π) a is 2 2 positive and b is negative. sin x is positive for 0 < x < π. in the 2 π < x <π) a is negative and b is positive. Further. we can find the signs of other trigonometric 2 functions in different quadrants. We have learnt in previous classes that in the first quadrant (0 < x < second quadrant ( (π < x < π ) a and b are both positive.

n ∈ Z} and the range is the set of all real numbers. sin x increases from –1 to 0 as x increases from to 2π. The domain of y = tan x is the set {x : x ∈ R and x ≠ (2n + 1) π . sin x decreases from 1 to 0. the domain of y = cosec x is the set { x : x ∈ R and x ≠ n π. n ∈ Z} and range is the set of all real numbers. sin x 2 3π . 2 I quadrant sin cos tan cot sec increases from 0 to 1 II quadrant decreases from 1 to 0 III quadrant IV quadrant decreases from 0 to –1 increases from –1 to 0 decreases from 1 to 0 decreases from 0 to – 1 increases from –1 to 0 increases from 0 to 1 increases from 0 to ∞ increases from –∞to 0 increases from 0 to ∞ increases from –∞to 0 decreases from ∞ to 0 decreases from 0 to–∞ decreases from ∞ to 0 decreases from 0to –∞ increases from 1 to ∞ increases from –∞to–1 decreases from –1to–∞ decreases from ∞ to 1 increases from –∞to–1 decreases from–1to–∞ cosec decreases from ∞ to 1 increases from 1 to ∞ Similarly. we can discuss the behaviour of other trigonometric functions. as x increases from third quadrant. y ≥ 1 or y ≤ – 1}. The domain of 2 y = cot x is the set {x : x ∈ R and x ≠ n π. in 2 3π the fourth quadrant. sin x decreases from 0 to –1and finally. the statement tan x increases from 0 to ∞ (infinity) for 0<x< π π simply means that tan x increases as x increases for 0 < x < and 2 2 . We further observe that in the first quadrant. as x increases from π to π to π. n ∈ Z} and range is the set 2 {y : y ∈ R. as x increases from 0 to increases from 0 to 1. n ∈ Z} and range is the set {y : y ∈ R. y ≤ – 1or y ≥ 1}. the domain Since cosec x = of y = sec x is the set {x : x ∈ R and x ≠ (2n + 1) π . we have the following table: Remark In the above table. In fact.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 59 1 sin x . Similarly. In the 2 π .

2π) and assumes arbitrarily large negative values as 2 x approaches to 2π. Hence.9 Fig 3. to say that 2 cosec x decreases from –1 to – ∞ (minus infinity) in the fourth quadrant means that cosec x decreases for x ∈ ( 3π .11 . Similarly. We have already seen that values of sin x and cos x repeats after an interval of 2π. We Fig 3.8 Fig 3.10 Fig 3. The symbols ∞ and – ∞ simply specify certain types of behaviour of functions and variables.60 MATHEMATICS assumes arbitraily large positive values as x approaches to π . values of cosec x and sec x will also repeat after an interval of 2π.

sin2 x = 1 – cos2 x sin2 x = 1 – sin x = ± 16 9 = 25 25 4 5 Since x lies in third quadrant. we have sec x = − 5 3 sin2 x + cos2 x = 1. find the values of other five 5 trigonometric functions. Using this knowledge and behaviour of trigonometic functions. Solution Since cos x = − Now or Hence 3 5 .. we can sketch the graph of these functions.13 shall see in the next section that tan (π + x) = tan x. Therefore sin x = – which also gives cosec x = – 4 5 5 4 . The graph of these functions are given above: Example 6 If cos x = – 3 .TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 61 Fig 3. Since cot x is reciprocal of tan x. i. x lies in the third quadrant. values of tan x will repeat after an interval of π.e. sin x is negative. its values will also repeat after an interval of π.12 Fig 3. Hence.

sin x 12 31π . we have tan x = sin x 4 cos x 3 = and cot x = = . Therefore sec x = – which also gives cos x = − Further. Therefore sin 31π π π 3 = sin (10π + ) = sin = . 4 cos x 3 sin x 5 . 3 Example 8 Find the value of sin Solution We know that values of sin x repeats after an interval of 2π. 3 3 3 2 . x lies in second quadrant.62 MATHEMATICS Further. find the values of other five 12 Example 7 If cot x = – trigonometric functions. 5 5 13 12 5 12 ) × (– )= 5 13 13 Since x lies in second quadrant. Solution Now Hence Since cot x = – 12 5 . sec x will be negative. we have tan x = – 5 12 144 169 = 25 25 sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x = 1 + sec x = ± 13 5 13 . we have sin x = tan x cos x = (– and cosec x = 1 13 = .

x lies in third quadrant. sin 765° 8. cos (–1710°) = cos (–1710° + 5 × 360°) = cos (–1710° + 1800°) = cos 90° = 0. sin x = 3. cos x = – 2. cos (– x) = cos x We shall now prove some more results: . cosec (– 1410°) sin (– 19π 3 15π ) 4 11π ) 3 10. The basic results in this connection are called trigonometric identities. we shall derive expressions for trigonometric functions of the sum and difference of two numbers (angles) and related expressions. 1. tan 7. We have seen that 1. EXERCISE 3. sin (– x) = – sin x 2. x lies in second quadrant. Therefore. 5 5 5.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 63 Example 9 Find the value of cos (–1710°). Solution We know that values of cos x repeats after an interval of 2π or 360°. 9. 6. x lies in second quadrant. sec x = 1 .2 Find the values of other five trigonometric functions in Exercises 1 to 5. x lies in third quadrant. cot x = 4. x lies in fourth quadrant. 5 3 . cot (– 3. 4 13 .4 Trigonometric Functions of Sum and Difference of Two Angles In this Section. 12 Find the values of the trigonometric functions in Exercises 6 to 10. tan x = – . 2 3 .

sin (x + y)]. P2 [cos (x + y). P 2 . sin (– y)] and P4 (1. we get P 1 P 3 2 = [cos x – cos (– y)]2 + [sin x – sin(–y]2 = (cos x – cos y)2 + (sin x + sin y)2 = cos2 + cos2 y – 2 cos x cos y + sin2 x + sin2 y + 2sin x sin y = 2 – 2 (cos x cos y – sin x sin y) (Why?) Also.64 MATHEMATICS 3. Fig 3.14 Consider the triangles P1OP3 and P2OP4. P 3 and P 4 will have the coordinates P 1 (cos x. P 1 . 0) (Fig 3. Therefore. Then (x + y) is the angle P4OP2.14). Therefore. sin x). P1P3 and P2P4 are equal. They are congruent (Why?). cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y Consider the unit circle with centre at the origin. By using distance formula. P 2 P 4 2 = [1 – cos (x + y)] 2 + [0 – sin (x + y)]2 = 1 – 2cos (x + y) + cos2 (x + y) + sin2 (x + y) = 2 – 2 cos (x + y) . Let x be the angle P4OP1and y be the angle P1OP2. P3 [cos (– y). Also let (– y) be the angle P4OP3.

sin ( π π π − x ) = cos cos x + sin sin x = sin x. we have P1P32 = P2P42. ⎠⎦ 2 ⎣2 ⎝ 2 7. we get cos (x + (– y)) = cos x cos (– y) – sin x sin (– y) or cos (x – y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y 5. cos ( π – x ) = sin x 2 π and y by x in Identity (4). By taking suitable values of x and y in the identities 3. sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y We know that ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin (x + y) = cos ⎜ − (x + y ) ⎟ = cos ⎜ ( − x) − y ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π π − x ) cos y + sin ( − x) sin y 2 2 = sin x cos y + cos x sin y 8. we get 2 If we replace x by cos ( 6. 9. 4. 2 –2 (cos x cos y – sin x sin y) = 2 – 2 cos (x + y). Therefore. sin (x – y) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y If we replace y by –y. 2 2 2 π – x ) = cos x 2 Using the Identity 5. cos (x – y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y Replacing y by – y in identity 3.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 65 Since P 1 P 3 = P2P4. we get the result. we get the following results: = cos ( π cos ( + x ) = – sin x 2 cos (π – x) = – cos x π π sin ( + x ) = cos x 2 sin (π – x) = sin x π . Hence cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y 4. 7 and 8. in the Identity 7. we have sin ( ⎡π ⎛ π ⎞⎤ π − x ) = cos ⎢ − ⎜ − x ⎟ ⎥ = cos x.

66

MATHEMATICS

π cos (π + x) = – cos x π cos (2π – x) = cos x

π sin (π + x) = – sin x π sin (2π – x) = – sin x

Similar results for tan x, cot x, sec x and cosec x can be obtianed from the results of sin x and cos x. 10. If none of the angles x, y and (x + y) is an odd multiple of tan (x + y) =

π , then 2

**tan x + tan y 1 – tan x tan y
**

π , it follows that cos x, 2

Since none of the x, y and (x + y) is an odd multiple of cos y and cos (x + y) are non-zero. Now tan (x + y) =

sin( x + y ) sin x cos y + cos x sin y = . cos( x + y ) cos x cos y − sin x sin y

Dividing numerator and denominator by cos x cos y, we have

sin x cos y cos x sin y + cos x cos y cos x cos y tan (x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y − cos x cos y cos x cos y

tan x + tan y = 1 – tan x tan y

11. tan ( x – y) =

tan x – tan y 1 + tan x tan y

If we replace y by – y in Identity 10, we get tan (x – y) = tan [x + (– y)] =

tan x + tan (− y ) tan x − tan y = 1 − tan x tan ( − y ) 1+ tan x tan y

12. If none of the angles x, y and (x + y) is a multiple of π, then cot ( x + y) =

cot x cot y – 1 cot y + cot x

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

67

Since, none of the x, y and (x + y) is multiple of π, we find that sin x sin y and sin (x + y) are non-zero. Now, cot ( x + y) =

cos ( x + y ) cos x cos y – sin x sin y = sin ( x + y ) sin x cos y + cos x sin y

Dividing numerator and denominator by sin x sin y, we have cot (x + y) =

**cot x cot y – 1 cot y + cot x
**

cot x cot y + 1 cot y – cot x

13. cot (x – y) =

**If we replace y by –y in identity 12, we get the result
**

1 – tan 2 x 14. cos 2x = cos x – sin x = 2 cos x – 1 = 1 – 2 sin x = 1 + tan 2 x

2 2 2

2

We know that cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y Replacing y by x, we get cos 2x = cos2x – sin2 x = 2 cos2 x – 1 = cos2 x – (1 – cos2 x) = 2 cos2x – 1 Again, cos 2x = cos2 x – sin2 x = 1 – sin2 x – sin2 x = 1 – 2 sin2 x. We have

cos2 x − sin 2 x cos 2x = cos x – sin x = cos2 x + sin 2 x

2 2

**Dividing each term by cos2 x, we get cos 2x =
**

1 – tan 2 x 1 + tan 2 x

15. sin 2x = 2 sinx cos x = We have

2tan x 1 + tan 2 x

sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y Replacing y by x, we get sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x. Again sin 2x =

2sin x cos x cos2 x + sin 2 x

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MATHEMATICS

Dividing each term by cos2 x, we get sin 2x =

2tan x 1 +tan 2 x

16. tan 2x = We know that

2tan x 1 – tan 2 x

**tan x + tan y tan (x + y) = 1 – tan x tan y
**

Replacing y by x , we get tan 2 x =

2 tan x 1− tan 2 x

17. sin 3x = 3 sin x – 4 sin3 x We have, sin 3x = sin (2x + x) = sin 2x cos x + cos 2x sin x = 2 sin x cos x cos x + (1 – 2sin2 x) sin x = 2 sin x (1 – sin2 x) + sin x – 2 sin3 x = 2 sin x – 2 sin3 x + sin x – 2 sin3 x = 3 sin x – 4 sin3 x 18. cos 3x = 4 cos3 x – 3 cos x We have, cos 3x = cos (2x +x) = cos 2x cos x – sin 2x sin x = (2cos2 x – 1) cos x – 2sin x cos x sin x = (2cos2 x – 1) cos x – 2cos x (1 – cos2 x) = 2cos3 x – cos x – 2cos x + 2 cos3 x = 4cos3 x – 3cos x. 19. tan 3 x =

3 tan x – tan 3 x 1 – 3tan 2 x

**We have tan 3x =tan (2x + x)
**

2tan x + tan x 1 – tan 2 x tan 2 x + tan x = = 1 – tan 2 x tan x 1 – 2tan x . tan x 1 – tan 2 x

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

69

=

2tan x + tan x – tan 3 x 3 tan x – tan 3 x = 1 – tan 2 x – 2tan 2 x 1 – 3tan 2 x

20.

(i) cos x + cos y = 2cos

x+ y x– y cos 2 2 x+ y x– y sin 2 2

(ii) cos x – cos y = – 2sin (iii) sin x + sin y = 2sin (iv) sin x – sin y = 2cos

x+ y x– y cos 2 2 x+ y x– y sin 2 2

... (1) ... (2) ... ... ... ... (3) (4) (5) (6)

We know that cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y and cos (x – y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y Adding and subtracting (1) and (2), we get cos (x + y) + cos(x – y) = 2 cos x cos y and cos (x + y) – cos (x – y) = – 2 sin x sin y Further sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y and sin (x – y) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y Adding and subtracting (5) and (6), we get sin (x + y) + sin (x – y) = 2 sin x cos y sin (x + y) – sin (x – y) = 2cos x sin y Let x + y = θ and x – y = φ. Therefore

... (7) ... (8)

⎛ θ+φ ⎞ ⎛ θ−φ ⎞ x =⎜ ⎟ and y = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Substituting the values of x and y in (3), (4), (7) and (8), we get

**⎛ θ+φ ⎞ ⎛ θ −φ ⎞ cos θ + cos φ = 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
**

⎛θ+φ⎞ ⎛θ – φ⎞ cos θ – cos φ = – 2 sin ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ θ+φ ⎞ ⎛ θ−φ ⎞ sin θ + sin φ = 2 sin ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

70

MATHEMATICS

⎛ θ+φ ⎞ ⎛ θ−φ ⎞ sin θ – sin φ = 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Since θ and φ can take any real values, we can replace θ by x and φ by y. Thus, we get

cos x + cos y = 2 cos sin x + sin y = 2 sin

x+ y x− y x+ y x− y cos sin ; cos x – cos y = – 2 sin , 2 2 2 2

x+ y x− y x+ y x− y cos sin ; sin x – sin y = 2 cos . 2 2 2 2

Remarks As a part of identities given in 20, we can prove the following results: 21. (i) 2 cos x cos y = cos (x + y) + cos (x – y) (ii) –2 sin x sin y = cos (x + y) – cos (x – y) (iii) 2 sin x cos y = sin (x + y) + sin (x – y) (iv) 2 cos x sin y = sin (x + y) – sin (x – y). Example 10 Prove that

**π π 5π π 3sin sec − 4sin cot =1 6 3 6 4 Solution We have π π 5π π L.H.S. = 3sin sec − 4sin cot 6 3 6 4
**

=3×

π⎞ ⎛ 1 π × 2 – 4 sin ⎜ π − ⎟ × 1 = 3 – 4 sin 6⎠ 2 6 ⎝

**1 = 1 = R.H.S. 2 Example 11 Find the value of sin 15°.
**

=3–4× Solution We have sin 15° = sin (45° – 30°) = sin 45° cos 30° – cos 45° sin 30° =

1 3 1 1 3 –1 × − × = . 2 2 2 2 2 2

Example 12 Find the value of tan

13 π . 12

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

71

Solution We have tan

13 π = tan 12

**π⎞ π ⎛ ⎛π π⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ π + ⎟ = tan 12 12 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝4 6⎠
**

1 3 = 3 −1 = 2 − 3 1 3 +1 3

**π π 1− tan − tan 4 6 = = π π 1 + tan tan 1+ 4 6
**

Example 13 Prove that

**sin ( x + y ) tan x + tan y = sin ( x − y ) tan x − tan y .
**

Solution We have L.H.S.

=

sin (x + y) sin x cos y + cos x sin y = sin (x − y) sin x cos y − cos x sin y

Dividing the numerator and denominator by cos x cos y, we get

**sin ( x + y ) tan x + tan y = sin ( x − y ) tan x − tan y .
**

Example 14 Show that tan 3 x tan 2 x tan x = tan 3x – tan 2 x – tan x Solution We know that 3x = 2x + x Therefore, tan 3x = tan (2x + x) or

tan 3x =

tan 2 x + tan x 1– tan 2 x tan x

or tan 3x – tan 3x tan 2x tan x = tan 2x + tan x or tan 3x – tan 2x – tan x = tan 3x tan 2x tan x or tan 3x tan 2x tan x = tan 3x – tan 2x – tan x. Example 15 Prove that

**⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ cos ⎜ + x ⎟ + cos ⎜ − x ⎟ = 2 cos x ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠
**

Solution Using the Identity 20(i), we have

72

MATHEMATICS

**⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ L.H.S. = cos ⎜ + x ⎟ + cos ⎜ − x ⎟ ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠
**

π π ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 4 +x+ 4 −x⎟ ⎜ 4 + x – ( 4 − x) ⎟ = 2cos ⎜ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

= 2 cos

1 π cos x = 2 × cos x = 2 4

2 cos x = R.H.S.

Example 16 Prove that

cos 7 x + cos 5 x = cot x sin 7 x – sin 5 x

**Solution Using the Identities 20 (i) and 20 (iv), we get
**

7 x + 5x 7 x − 5x cos cos x 2 2 = cot x = R.H.S. = = 7 x + 5x 7 x − 5x sin x 2cos sin 2 2 2cos

L.H.S.

Example 17 Prove that = Solution We have L.H.S. =

sin 5 x − 2sin 3x + sin x = tan x cos5 x − cos x

sin 5 x + sin x − 2sin 3x sin 5 x − 2sin 3 x + sin x = cos5 x − cos x cos5 x − cos x 2sin 3 x cos 2 x − 2sin 3 x sin 3 x (cos 2 x − 1) =– – 2sin 3x sin 2x sin 3x sin 2x

1 − cos 2 x 2sin 2 x = = tan x = R.H.S. sin 2 x 2sin x cos x

=

=

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

73

EXERCISE 3.3

Prove that: 1. sin2

2 3. cot

π 1 π π + cos2 – tan2 = – 6 3 4 2

2. 2sin2

7π π 3 π cos 2 = + cosec2 6 3 2 6

**π 5π π π π 2 3π + cosec + 3tan 2 = 6 + 2cos 2 + 2sec 2 = 10 4. 2sin 6 6 6 4 4 3 5. Find the value of: (i) sin 75° (ii) tan 15°
**

6. Prove the following:

**⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ cos ⎜ − x ⎟ cos ⎜ − y ⎟ − sin ⎜ − x ⎟ sin ⎜ − y ⎟ = sin ( x + y) ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎠
**

⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ + x ⎟ ⎝4 ⎠ = ⎛ 1 + tan ⎜ ⎛π ⎞ ⎝ 1 − tan tan ⎜ − x ⎟ ⎝4 ⎠ x⎞ ⎟ x⎠

2

7.

8.

cos (π + x) cos ( − x ) = cot 2 x ⎛π ⎞ sin (π − x) cos ⎜ + x ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠

⎡ ⎤ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ 9. cos ⎜ + x ⎟ cos (2π + x) ⎢ cot ⎜ − x ⎟ + cot (2π + x) ⎥ = 1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 10. sin (n + 1)x sin (n + 2)x + cos (n + 1)x cos (n + 2)x = cos x

11.

**⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos ⎜ + x ⎟ − cos ⎜ − x ⎟ = − 2 sin x ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠
**

13. cos2 2x – cos2 6x = sin 4x sin 8x

12. sin2 6x – sin2 4x = sin 2x sin 10x

**14. sin2 x + 2 sin 4x + sin 6x = 4 cos2 x sin 4x 15. cot 4x (sin 5x + sin 3x) = cot x (sin 5x – sin 3x) 16. 18. 20.
**

cos 9 x − cos 5 x sin 17 x − sin 3 x =− sin 2 x cos 10 x sin 5x + sin 3 x cos 5x + cos 3 x sin x + sin 3 x cos x + cos 3 x

17. 19. 21.

= tan 4 x = tan 2 x

**sin x − sin y cos x + cos y
**

2 2

= tan

x− y 2

sin x − sin 3x sin x − cos x

= 2 sin x

cos 4 x + cos 3x + cos 2 x sin 4 x + sin 3x + sin 2 x

= cot 3x

74

MATHEMATICS

**22. cot x cot 2x – cot 2x cot 3x – cot 3x cot x = 1 23.
**

tan 4 x = 4tan x (1 − tan 2 x) 1 − 6 tan 2 x + tan 4 x

24.

cos 4x = 1 – 8sin2 x cos2 x

25. cos 6x = 32 cos6 x – 48cos4 x + 18 cos2 x – 1

3.5 Trigonometric Equations

Equations involving trigonometric functions of a variable are called trigonometric equations. In this Section, we shall find the solutions of such equations. We have already learnt that the values of sin x and cos x repeat after an interval of 2π and the values of tan x repeat after an interval of π. The solutions of a trigonometric equation for which 0 ≤ x < 2π are called principal solutions. The expression involving integer ‘n’ which gives all solutions of a trigonometric equation is called the general solution. We shall use ‘Z’ to denote the set of integers. The following examples will be helpful in solving trigonometric equations: Example 18 Find the principal solutions of the equation sin x =

3 2

.

Solution We know that, sin

2π π⎞ π 3 ⎛ π 3 = sin ⎜ π − ⎟ = sin = = and sin . 3 3⎠ 3 2 3 2 ⎝

Therefore, principal solutions are x =

π 2π and . 3 3 1 3

.

**Example 19 Find the principal solutions of the equation tan x = − Solution We know that, tan
**

π = 6

π⎞ π 1 ⎛ 1 . Thus, tan ⎜ π – ⎟ = – tan = – 6⎠ 6 3 ⎝ 3

and Thus

π⎞ π 1 ⎛ tan ⎜ 2π − ⎟ = − tan = − 6⎠ 6 3 ⎝

tan

5π 11π 1 = tan =− . 6 6 3

Therefore, principal solutions are

5π 11π and . 6 6 We will now find the general solutions of trigonometric equations. We have already

sin x = sin y implies x = nπ + (–1)n y. then 2 . where n ∈ Z Proof If cos x = cos y. we get x = nπ + (–1)n y. –2 sin sin x+ y 2 x− y 2 x+ y π x− y sin =0 Thus Therefore i. where n ∈ Z Proof If sin x = sin y. then cos x – cos y = 0 i. cos x = cos y.. x = (2n + 1) π – y or x = 2nπ + y. implies x = 2nπ ± y. Hence sin x+ y 2 =0 or x− y x− y 2 =0 x+ y 2 = nπ. where n ∈ Z π . where n ∈ Z 2 2 2 i. then sin x – sin y = 0 or 2cos which gives Therefore cos x+ y 2 x+ y 2 sin x− y 2 =0 = 0 or sin x− y 2 =0 = nπ. where n ∈ Z = nπ or x = 2nπ ± y.e. where n ∈ Z 2 x = 2nπ – y or x = 2nπ + y. Combining these two results. where n ∈ Z.e. where n ∈ Z.e. where n ∈ Z Theorem 3 Prove that if x and y are not odd mulitple of tan x = tan y implies x = nπ + y. where n∈Z Hence x = (2n + 1)π + (–1)2n + 1 y or x = 2nπ +(–1)2n y. 2 We shall now prove the following results: cos x =0 gives x = (2n + 1) Theorem 1 For any real numbers x and y. where n ∈ Z.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 75 seen that: sin x =0 gives x = nπ. where n ∈ Z π . = (2n + 1) or Theorem 2 For any real numbers x and y.

where n ∈ Z. Example 21 Solve cos x = Solution We have.. then tan x – tan y = 0 sin x cos y − cos x sin y cos x cos y =0 which gives Therefore sin (x – y) = 0 (Why?) x – y = nπ. The solutions obtained will be the same 2 although these may apparently look different. tan 2 x = − cot ⎛ x + π ⎞ = tan ⎜ + x + ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝2 3⎠ ⎝ . 3⎠ ⎝ π⎞ ⎛π Solution We have. which gives 3 4π . 3 x = nπ + ( − 1) n Note 4π 3 is one such value of x for which sin x = − .e. where n ∈ Z. Solution We have sin x = – Hence sin x = sin = − sin π π⎞ 4π ⎛ = sin ⎜ π + ⎟ = sin 3 3⎠ 3 ⎝ 4π . 3 π⎞ ⎛ Example 22 Solve tan 2 x = − cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . where n ∈ Z 3 2 Example 20 Find the solution of sin x = – 3 2 . x = nπ + y. 1 π = cos 2 3 x = 2nπ ± π . i. cos x = Therefore 1 2 other value of x for which sin x = − . One may take any 3 2 3 .76 MATHEMATICS Proof or If tan x = tan y.

e. 2 6 sin x = − . where n∈Z. where n∈Z 3 nπ π or x = nπ ± . sin 4 x (2 cos 2 x − 1) = 0 Therefore i. Hence i.e. 6 Example 23 Solve sin 2x – sin4 x + sin 6x = 0. 4 6 Example 24 Solve 2 cos2 x + 3 sin x = 0 Solution The equation can be written as 2 ( 1 − sin 2 x ) + 3 sin x = 0 or or Hence But Therefore 2 sin x − 3 sin x − 2 = 0 2 (2sinx + 1) (sinx − 2) = 0 sin x = − 1 or sin x = 2 2 sin x = 2 is not possible (Why?) 1 7π = sin . where n∈Z 6 5π . Solution The equation can be written as sin 6 x + sin 2 x − sin 4 x = 0 or 2 sin 4 x cos 2 x − sin 4 x = 0 i. sin 4x = 0 or cos 2 x = 1 2 π 3 sin4 x = 0 or cos 2 x = cos 4 x = nπ or 2 x = 2nπ ± x= π .TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 77 or Therefore or 5π ⎞ ⎛ tan2 x = tan ⎜ x + ⎟ 6 ⎠ ⎝ 2 x = nπ + x + x = nπ + 5π .e. where n∈Z.

Example 25 If sin x = 3 . Therefore. sin y. cosec x = – 2 3. where n ∈ Z. (1) = 16 25 4 cos x = ± . Hence Now i. cos 3x + cos x – cos 2x = 0 7. the solution is given by x = nπ + ( − 1) n 7π .. we get . sin 2x + cos x = 0 8. sec2 2x = 1– tan 2x 9. cos x = − 4 5 144 169 = 25 169 sin2y = 1 – cos2y = 1 – sin y = ± 5 13 . sin x + sin 3x + sin 5x = 0 Miscellaneous Examples 5 find the value of sin (x + y). cos 4 x = cos 2 x 6. hence sin y is positive. tan x = 3 2. cos x and cos y in (1). 6 EXERCISE 3. where x and y both lie in second quadrant.78 MATHEMATICS Hence. Solution We know that sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y Now Therefore cos2 x = 1 – sin2 x = 1 – 9 25 .e. 5 Since x lies in second quadrant. cos y = − 12 13 .. 5 13 Since y lies in second quadrant. sec x = 2 4. cot x = − 3 Find the general solution for each of the following equations: 5. Substituting . cos x is negative.4 Find the principal and general solutions of the following equations: 1. sin y = the values of sin x.

8 π π .TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 79 sin( x + y ) = 3 ⎛ 12 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎞ 5 × ⎜ − ⎟ + ⎜ − ⎟× 5 ⎝ 13 ⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ 13 = − 36 20 56 − =− .S. 65 65 65 Example 26 Prove that Solution x 9x 5x cos 2 x cos − cos 3 x cos = sin 5 x sin .H. ⎝ 2⎠ 2 Example 27 Find the value of tan Solution Let x = Now π . 2 2 2 We have x 1 ⎡ 9x ⎤ ⎢ 2cos 2 x cos 2 − 2cos 2 cos 3x ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ 1⎡ ⎛ x⎞ x⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 9x ⎞ ⎛ 9x ⎞⎤ ⎢ cos ⎜ 2 x + 2 ⎟ + cos ⎜ 2 x − 2 ⎟ − cos ⎜ 2 + 3x ⎟ − cos ⎜ 2 − 3x ⎟ ⎥ 2⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ 1⎡ 5x 3x 15x 3x ⎤ 1 ⎡ 5x 15x ⎤ ⎢ cos 2 + cos 2 − cos 2 − cos 2 ⎥ = 2 ⎢ cos 2 − cos 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ 2⎣ L. = = = ⎡ ⎧ 5 x 15 x ⎫ ⎧ 5 x 15 x ⎫⎤ ⎪ 2 + 2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 − 2 ⎪⎥ 1⎢ ⎢ −2sin ⎨ ⎬ sin ⎨ ⎬⎥ = 2⎢ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎥ ⎢ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5x ⎛ 5x ⎞ = − sin 5x sin ⎜ − ⎟ = sin 5x sin = R. 8 4 2 tan x 1 − tan 2 x tan 2 x = or π 2tan π 8 tan = 4 1 − tan 2 π 8 2y π . Then 1 = 1− y2 8 Let y = tan .S.H. Then 2 x = .

9 16 = 25 16 sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x = 1 + cos2 x = 16 25 or cos x = – 4 5 (Why?) 2 sin 2 sin2 sin x 2 x 2 x 4 9 = 1 – cos x = 1 + = . cos x is negative.80 MATHEMATICS or Therefore Since y2 + 2y – 1 = 0 y= −2 ± 2 2 2 = − 1± 2 π π lies in the first quadrant. π < x < 4 2 2 2 2 Solution Since π < x < Also Therefore. sin Now Therefore Now Therefore or Again Therefore x 2 3π . Hence 8 8 tan π = 2 −1 . 5 5 2 = 9 10 = x 2 3 10 (Why?) 4 5 = 1 5 2cos2 cos2 = 1+ cos x = 1 − = 1 10 x 2 . find the value of sin . cos and tan . 2 π x 3π < < . 2 2 4 is positive and cos x 2 is negative. 8 x x x 3 3π . Example 28 If tan x = . y = tan is positve.

H.H.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 81 or cos x 2 x 2 =− sin 1 10 x 2 = x 2 (Why?) ⎛ − 10 ⎞ ×⎜ ⎟ = – 3. 10 ⎝ 1 ⎠ 3 Hence tan = cos 2 Example 29 Solution π⎞ π⎞ 3 ⎛ ⎛ Prove that cos x + cos2 ⎜ x + ⎟ + cos 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ = . ⎝ ⎝ + 2 2 1⎡ 2π ⎞ 2π ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ⎛ ⎢ 3 + cos 2 x + cos ⎜ 2 x + 3 ⎟ + cos ⎜ 2 x − 3 ⎟ ⎥ 2⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ = 1⎡ 2π ⎤ ⎢3 + cos 2 x + 2cos 2 x cos 3 ⎥ 2⎣ ⎦ 1⎡ π ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎢3 + cos 2 x + 2cos 2 x cos ⎜ π − 3 ⎟ ⎥ 2⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ = = = 1⎡ π⎤ ⎢3 + cos 2 x − 2cos 2 x cos 3 ⎥ 2⎣ ⎦ 1 3 [3 + cos 2 x − cos 2 x ] = = R. 3⎠ 3⎠ 2 ⎝ ⎝ We have L. 2. = 1 + cos 2 x + 2 = 2π ⎞ 2π ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 1 + cos ⎜ 2 x + ⎟ 1 + cos ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 3 ⎠ 3 ⎠ .S. 2 cos π 9π 3π 5π cos + cos + cos =0 13 13 13 13 (sin 3x + sin x) sin x + (cos 3x – cos x) cos x = 0 . 2 2 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 3 Prove that: 1.S.

tan x = − . (cos x – cos y)2 + (sin x – sin y)2 = 4 sin2 x+ y 2 x− y 2 5. sin x = 1 . (sin 7 x + sin 5 x ) + (sin 9 x + sin 3 x) = tan 6 x (cos 7 x + cos 5 x ) + (cos 9 x + cos 3 x ) x 2 7.82 MATHEMATICS 3. sin x + sin 3x + sin 5x + sin 7x = 4 cos x cos 2x sin 4x 6. cos x 2 and tan x 2 in each of the following : 1 9. an arc of length l subtends and angle of θ radians. then l=rθ Radian measure = Degree measure = cos2 x + sin2 x = 1 1 + tan2 x = sec2 x 1 + cot2 x = cosec2 x cos (2nπ + x) = cos x sin (2nπ + x) = sin x sin (– x) = – sin x cos (– x) = cos x π × Degree measure 180 180 × Radian measure π . (cos x + cos y)2 + (sin x – sin y)2 = 4 cos2 4. sin 3x + sin 2x – sin x = 4sin x cos Find sin x 2 cos 3x 2 . x in quadrant III 3 4 8. x in quadrant II 3 10. cos x = − . x in quadrant II 4 Summary If in a circle of radius r.

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 83 cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y cos (x – y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y cos ( sin ( π − x ) = sin x 2 π − x ) = cos x 2 sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y sin (x – y) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y ⎛π ⎞ cos ⎜ + x ⎟ = – sin x ⎝2 ⎠ cos (π – x) = – cos x cos (π + x) = – cos x cos (2π – x) = cos x ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ + x ⎟ = cos x ⎝2 ⎠ sin (π – x) = sin x sin (π + x) = – sin x sin (2π – x) = – sin x If none of the angles x. then 2 tan x + tan y 1 − tan x tan y tan x − tan y 1 + tan x tan y tan (x – y) = If none of the angles x. y and (x ± y) is a multiple of π. then cot (x + y) = cot x cot y − 1 cot y + cot x cot x cot y + 1 cot (x – y) = cot y − cot x cos 2x = cos2 x – sin2 x = 2cos2 x – 1 = 1 – 2 sin2 x = 1 – tan 2 x 1 + tan 2 x . y and (x ± y) is an odd multiple of tan (x + y) = π .

where n ∈ Z. sin x = 0 gives x = nπ. where n ∈ Z. where n ∈ Z. cos x = cos y. where n ∈ Z. implies x = 2nπ ± y. cos x = 0 gives x = (2n + 1) π . tan x = tan y implies x = nπ + y. . where n ∈ Z. 2 sin x = sin y implies x = nπ + (– 1)n y.84 MATHEMATICS sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x = 2tanx 1 − tan 2 x 2 tan x 1 + tan 2 x tan 2x = sin 3x = 3sin x – 4sin3 x cos 3x = 4cos3 x – 3cos x 3tan x − tan 3 x tan 3x = 1− 3tan 2 x (i) cos x + cos y = 2cos (ii) cos x – cos y = – 2sin (iii) sin x + sin y = 2 sin (iv) sin x – sin y = 2cos x+ y x− y cos 2 2 x+ y x− y sin 2 2 x+ y x− y cos 2 2 x+ y x− y sin 2 2 (i) 2cos x cos y = cos ( x + y) + cos ( x – y) (ii) – 2sin x sin y = cos (x + y) – cos (x – y) (iii) 2sin x cos y = sin (x + y) + sin (x – y) (iv) 2 cos x sin y = sin (x + y) – sin (x – y).

C. Hersehel (1813 A. were suggested by the astronomer Sir John F..D. Problems on height and distance using the similarity property are also found in ancient Indian works. All this knowledge first went from India to middle-east and from there to Europe.D.) and Bhaskara II (1114 A. cos–1 x. The symbols sin–1 x.. Exact expressin for sines or cosines of 18°.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 85 Historical Note The study of trigonometry was first started in India. it was immediately adopted throughout the world. In India.D.) is invariably associated with height and distance problems. arc cos x.D.) The names of Thales (about 600 B. etc. He is credited with the determination of the height of a great pyramid in Egypt by measuring shadows of the pyramid and an auxiliary staff (or gnomon) of known height. and the introduction of the sine function represents the main contribution of the siddhantas (Sanskrit astronomical works) to the history of mathematics. etc. Bhaskara I (600 A. Brahmagupta (598 A. etc.D. and comparing the ratios: H h = = tan (sun’s altitude) S s Thales is also said to have calculated the distance of a ship at sea through the proportionality of sides of similar triangles.) gave formulae to find the values of sine functions for angles more than 90°.) got important results. Aryabhatta (476A.W.. are given by Bhaskara II.D.). The ancient Indian Mathematicians.). — — . A sixteenth century Malayalam work Yuktibhasa (period) contains a proof for the expansion of sin (A + B). known as the sine of an angle. the predecessor of the modern trigonometric functions. for arc sin x. 72°. 36°. 54°. The Greeks had also started the study of trigonometry but their approach was so clumsy that when the Indian approach became known. Bhaskara I (about 600 A.

Thus. (b) All men are mortal. and developing a conjecture by observing incidences till we have observed each and every case.e. often called a conjecture or a theorem in mathematics. therefore. In contrast to deduction. Thus. then the truth of (c) is established. It is frequently used in mathematics and is a key aspect of scientific reasoning. i. and example of deductive reasoning. inductive reasoning depends on working with each case. (1858-1932) therefore. (c) Socrates is mortal. To make this simple mathematical example. – LAPLACE 4. An informal.Chapter 4 PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION Analysis and natural philosopy owe their most important discoveries to this fruitful means. we could write: (i) Eight is divisible by two. G . If statements (a) and (b) are true. Peano (ii) Any number divisible by two is an even number. in simple language. we can say the word induction means the generalisation from particular cases or facts. is an argument expressed in three statements: (a) Socrates is a man. which is called induction. borrowed from the study of logic. deduction in a nutshell is given a statement to be proven. (iii) Eight is an even number. . Newton was indebted to it for his theorem of the binomial and the principle of universal gravity. where collecting and analysing data is the norm. valid deductive steps are derived and a proof may or may not be established. deduction is the application of a general case to a particular case.1 Introduction One key basis for mathematical thinking is deductive reasoning..

is known as the principle of mathematical induction. as shown in Fig 4... Since N is the smallest subset of R which is an inductive set. 2 How can this formula actually be proved? We can. when n = 4 and so on and suppose that in some manner we are led to believe that the formula 1 + 2 + 3+. 2. the value 1 + 2 + 3 + 4.1 When the first tile is pushed in the indicated direction. 4.. In fact. but this process will not prove the formula for all values of n.. To understand the basic principles of mathematical induction. We know. suppose a set of thin rectangular tiles are placed on one end.PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 87 In algebra or in other discipline of mathematics. all the tiles will fall. Fig 4. the set of natural numbers N is a special ordered subset of the real numbers. This is the underlying principle of mathematical induction. To prove such statements the well-suited principle that is used–based on the specific technique. and (b) In the event that any tile falls its successor necessarily falls.+ n = n ( n + 1) is the correct one. What is needed is some kind of chain reaction which will . there are certain results or statements that are formulated in terms of n. it follows that any subset of R that is an inductive set must contain N. it is sufficient to know that (a) The first tile falls. we use a form of complete induction called mathematical induction. 3.1. N is the smallest subset of R with the following property: A set S is said to be an inductive set if 1∈ S and x + 1 ∈ S whenever x ∈ S. a formula which will give the value of 1 + 2 + 3 when n = 3.2 Motivation In mathematics.. where n is a positive integer. of course.n. Illustration Suppose we wish to find the formula for the sum of positive integers 1. To be absolutely sure that all the tiles will fall. that is.. verify the statement for as many positive integral values of n as we like.

. P(1) is true. Here. So.. Property (i) is simply a statement of fact. then the statement is also true for n = k + 1. sum of the first three odd natural numbers is the square of third natural number and so on.Thus. i.3 The Principle of Mathematical Induction Suppose there is a given statement P(n) involving the natural number n such that (i) The statement is true for n = 1. It does not assert that the given statement is true for n = k. to prove that the property holds .. then it is also true for n = k +1. i. from this pattern it appears that 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + . This step is called the basic step. only prove that conditional proposition: If the statement is true for n = k. Obviously 1 = 12. Let us write P(n): 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + . The next step is called the inductive step. the sum of the first n odd natural numbers is the square of n. Property (ii) is a conditional property. i. but only that if it is true for n = k. There may be situations when a statement is true for all n ≥ 4. then it is also true for n = k + 1. + (2n – 1) = n2. P(n) is true for all natural numbers n.e. + (2n – 1) = n2 . This is sometimes referred to as the inductive step.e... Then.e. P(1) is true. i. frequently in mathematics. We wish to prove that P(n) is true for all n. P(4).88 MATHEMATICS have the effect that once the formula is proved for a particular positive integer the formula will automatically follow for the next positive integer and the next indefinitely. truth of P(k) implies the truth of P (k + 1). 4.. The first step in a proof that uses mathematical induction is to prove that P (1) is true. The assumption that the given statement is true for n = k in this inductive step is called the inductive hypothesis.e.. For example. In this case. step 1 will start from n = 4 and we shall verify the result for n = 4. i. we suppose that P (k) is true for some . Such a reaction may be considered as produced by the method of mathematical induction. It is worth to be noted that the sum of the first two odd natural numbers is the square of second natural number. a formula will be discovered that appears to fit a pattern like 1 = 12 =1 4 = 22 = 1 + 3 9 = 32 = 1 + 3 + 5 16 = 42 = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7. etc..e. and (ii) If the statement is true for n = k (where k is some positive integer).

P (k + 1) is true and the inductive proof is now completed... the statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers N. Now. (1) Consider 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + .. P(n) : 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 +…+ n2 = For n = 1. (2) 2 2 [Using (1)] = k + (2k + 1) = (k + 1) Therefore. 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 +…+ k2 = . Hence. Example 1 For all n ≥ 1.e. whenever P (k) is true.PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 89 positive integer k and we need to prove that P (k + 1) is true. 6 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 6 Solution Let the given statement be P(n). P(1): 1 = 1(1 + 1) (2 × 1 + 1) 1× 2× 3 =1 which is true... i. we have (12 +22 +32 +42 +…+k2 ) + (k + 1) 2 = k (k + 1)(2k + 1) + ( k + 1)2 6 [Using (1)] k (k + 1) (2k + 1) + 6(k + 1)2 = 6 = = (k + 1) (2k 2 + 7 k + 6) 6 (k + 1)( k + 1 + 1){2( k + 1) + 1} 6 Thus P(k + 1) is true. from the principle of mathematical induction.. Since P (k) is true.... = 6 6 Assume that P(k) is true for some positive integers k. + (2k – 1) = k2 . we have 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + .e. i... (1) k (k + 1)(2k + 1) 6 We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is also true.. Hence P(n) is true for all natural numbers n. + (2k – 1) + {2(k +1) – 1} . prove that 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 +…+ n2 = n (n + 1)(2 n + 1) . .

.4 k (k + 1) ( k + 1) (k + 2) ⎡ 1 1 1 1 ⎤ 1 + + . we get 2.. Multiplying both sides of (1) by 2... Solution We can write P(n): 1 1 1 1 n + + + . prove that 1 1 1 1 n + + + .. + = 1. P(n) is true for every positive integer n. + = 1.4 k ( k + 1) k + 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + . (1) > 2k = k + k > k + 1 Therefore. + + 1.3 3. Solution Let P(n): 2n > n When n =1.3 3. which is true. 2k > 2k i.2 2. Thus. Hence.3 3.4 n(n + 1) n + 1 .2 2. 1.2 2. by principle of mathematical induction. P(n) is true for n = 1.. 2k > k We shall now prove that P(k +1) is true whenever P(k) is true.2 2. 21 >1... Assume that P(k) is true for any positive integers k.2 2... P(k + 1) is true when P(k) is true..4 n( n + 1) n + 1 1 1 1 = = . i. 2 k+1 .. Example 3 For all n ≥ 1.3 3. i.e.e.e.. 1 1 1 1 k + + + .... + = ⎢ + ⎥+ 1. We have = k 1 + k + 1 (k + 1)( k + 2) [Using (1)] .90 MATHEMATICS Example 2 Prove that 2n > n for all positive integers n.. Hence P(1) is true. + = 1.2 2 1 +1 We note that P(1): Assume that P(k) is true for some natural numbers k.4 k ( k + 1) ⎦ ( k + 1) ( k + 2) ⎣ . (1) We need to prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.3 3.

we wish to prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. Therefore . Thus. Example 5 Prove that (1 + x)n ≥ (1 + nx). prove that 7n – 3n is divisible by 4. Now. Solution Let P(n) be the given statement.. We note that P(1): 71 – 31 = 4 which is divisile by 4. Consider the identity (1 + x)k + 1 = (1 + x)k (1 + x) Given that x > –1.. where d ∈ N. Now 7(k + 1) – 3(k + 1) = 7(k + 1) – 7.. for x > – 1. by using (1 + x)k ≥ (1 + kx). P(k + 1) is true when P(k) is true.e. We can write 7k – 3k = 4d. Solution We can write P(n) : 7n – 3n is divisible by 4..3k + 7. Thus P(n) is true for n = 1 Let P(k) be true for some natural number k.PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 91 (k 2 + 2k + 1) k +1 k +1 k (k + 2) + 1 ( k + 1)2 = = = = = (k + 1) ( k + 2) k + 2 ( k + 1) + 1 (k + 1)(k + 2) ( k + 1) ( k + 2 ) Thus P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. where x > – 1. P(n): (1 + x)n ≥ (1 + nx). P(k) : 7k – 3k is divisible by 4. We note that P(n) is true when n = 1.3k = 4(7d + 3k) From the last line. (1) . x > – 1 is true. P(n) is true for all natural numbers. We want to prove that P(k + 1) is true for x > –1 whenever P(k) is true... i.e. . i. we have (1 + x) k + 1 ≥ (1 + kx)(1 + x) i. since ( 1+x) ≥ (1 + x) for x > –1 Assume that P(k): (1 + x)k ≥ (1 + kx). Example 4 For every positive integer n. we see that 7(k + 1) – 3(k + 1) is divisible by 4.e. (3) .. (2) . by the principle of mathematical induction. so (1+x) > 0. Therefore. (1 + x)k + 1 ≥ (1 + x + kx + kx2). for all natural number n. Hence..3k – 3(k + 1) = 7(7k – 3k) + (7 – 3)3k = 7(4d) + (7 – 3)3k = 7(4d) + 4. by princlple of mathematical induction the statement is true for every positive integer n.

5k + 5] + 3. Assume that P(k) is true i. and so we obtain (1 + x)k + 1 ≥ (1 + x + kx) i. (2) The expresion on the R.5 – 5 = 24.7 + 3. (1) Now.7n + 3.5k .7k + 3.5k – 5 = 7 × 24q – 6. 51 – 5 = 7 [2.5k+1 – 5 = 2... of (1) is divisible by 24.S.H.5k –5 = 7 × 24q – 21. we wish to prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. .e. 2. which is divisible by 24. Thus P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. P(n) is true for all n ∈ N. Therefore (1 + x + kx + kx2) ≥ (1 + x + kx). the statement in (2) is established. r = 7q – p. Solution Let the statement P(n) be defined as P(n) : 2.5n – 5 is divisible by 24.5k + 30 = 7 × 24q – 6 (5k – 5) = 7 × 24q – 6 (4p) [(5k – 5) is a multiple of 4 (why?)] = 7 × 24q – 24p = 24 (7q – p) = 24 × r.5k . P(n) is true for all natural numbers.7k+1 + 3. by the principle of mathematical induction.5k – 5 = 24q. (1 + x)k + 1 ≥ [1 + (1 + k)x] Thus.5n – 5 is divisible by 24.5k + 35 + 15. for all n ∈ N.. We have 2. .. Hence. Example 6 Prove that 2. Hence. 71 + 3.5k – 5 – 3. is some natural number. 5 – 5 = 7 [24q – 3. when q ∈ N .7n + 3. since 2. by principle of mathematical induction.7k + 3.5k + 5] + 15.e. We note that P(n) is true for n = 1.7k .92 MATHEMATICS Here k is a natural number and x2 ≥ 0 so that kx2 ≥ 0.

We have 12 + 22 + 32 + . Hence.. + k 2 + ( k + 1) > 2 ( ) k3 2 + ( k + 1) 3 [by (1)] = = 1 3 [k + 3k2 + 6k + 3] 3 1 1 [(k + 1)3 + 3k + 2] > (k + 1)3 3 3 Therefore. 12 + 22 + . Now. We note that P(n) is true for n = 1 since (ab)1 = a1b1. (1) .. P(k) : 12 + 22 + . P(k + 1) is also true whenever P(k) is true.e... + k2 + (k + 1)2 = 12 + 22 + . i. + n2 > n3 .. P(n) : (ab)n = anbn. we have (ab)k + 1 = (ab)k (ab) . + n2 > i.. by mathematical induction P(n) is true for all n ∈ N..(1) We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.. Let P(k) be true.... n∈N 3 2 We note that P(n) is true for n = 1 since 1 > 13 3 Assume that P(k) is true i.n∈N 3 Solution Let P(n) be the given statement.e. Example 8 Prove the rule of exponents (ab)n = anbn by using principle of mathematical induction for every natural number.e.. Solution Let P(n) be the given statement i.. P(n) : 12 + 22 + .. (ab)k = akbk We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.. + k2 > k3 3 .e..PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 93 Example 7 Prove that n3 .

1.2 + 2.. 1+ (1 + 2) + (1 + 2 + 3) + .22 + 3. 11.94 MATHEMATICS = (ak bk) (ab) = (ak . 1.5 + 5. 13 + 23 + 33 + … +n3 = ⎜ ⎟ .11 (3n − 1)(3n + 2) (6n + 4) .32 + 3..4 +…+ n(n+1) (n+2) = 5. P(k + 1) is also true whenever P(k) is true. 2 2 ⎛ n(n + 1) ⎞ 2. + n = 1 − n .5 n( n + 1) ( n + 2) 4( n + 1) ( n + 2) . 1.3 + 2.3 + 3. 3 8. 4.3 + 2. 2 4 8 2 2 10.3 + 3.4 3..3.3 2.7 +…+ (2n–1) (2n+1) = n(4n 2 + 6n − 1) . 1 + 3 + 32 + .. EXERCISE 4. 1 1 1 1 n(n + 3) + + + . 1.2 + 2. 4 ⎡ n( n + 1) (n + 2) ⎤ 6. 9. 3 ⎣ ⎦ 7. b1) = ak+1 . + 3n – 1 = (3n − 1) .4..n) = (n + 1) . by principle of mathematical induction. P(n) is true for all n ∈ N.. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1 1 1 2n 3..1 Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all n ∈ N: 1. bk+1 [by (1)] Therefore.2n = (n–1) 2n + 1 + 2.+n. 1.3n = n( n + 1) (n + 2) ( n + 3) .22 + .. a1) (bk .2. + = 2.2.(n+1) = ⎢ ⎥.33 +…+ n.+ (1 + 2 + 3 + .8 8..4 +…+ n. 1 1 1 1 1 + + + . 4 (2n − 1)3n +1 + 3 .5 5.. 1 1 1 1 n + + + ...3. . + = 1.. Hence..

17. Summary One key basis for mathematical thinking is deductive reasoning.7 + 7.⎜ 1 + ⎟ = ( n + 1) . + (3n − 2)(3n + 1) = (3n + 1) .4 + 4.. 12 + 32 + 52 + …+ (2n–1)2 = n(2n − 1)(2n + 1) .. 23.10 + . 1 + 2 + 3 +…+ n < 1 (2n + 1)2. 102n – 1 + 1 is divisible by 11.5 5. 24.. In contrast to deduction. 8 19. 1 1 1 1 n + + + .⎜ 1 + ⎟ = (n + 1) . n (n + 1) (n + 5) is a multiple of 3... x2n – y2n is divisible by x + y. 9⎠ ⎝ n2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ . 22.PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION 95 12. 41n – 14n is a multiple of 27. inductive reasoning depends on working with different cases and developing a conjective by observing incidences till we have observed each and every case. ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 7 ⎞ ⎛ (2n + 1) ⎞ 2 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ . for which the correctness . 32n+2 – 8n – 9 is divisible by 8.7 7. ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ ⎝ 4⎠ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 14.. 1. Thus. 20.. 3 1 1 1 1 n 16. in simple language we can say the word ‘induction’ means the generalisation from particular cases or facts. a + ar + ar2 +…+ arn-1 = a (r n − 1) . 18.. 21.9 (2n + 1)(2n + 3) 3(2n + 3) . (2n + 7) < (n + 3)2. ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ n⎠ 15. r −1 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ 13. The principle of mathematical induction is one such tool which can be used to prove a wide variety of mathematical statements. + = 3. Each such statement is assumed as P(n) associated with positive integer n.

the truth of P (k+1) is established. Historical Note Unlike other concepts and methods. The name induction was used by the English mathematician John Wallis. Peano undertook the task of deducing the properties of natural numbers from a set of explicitly stated assumptions. G. Later the principle was employed to provide a proof of the binomial theorem. The French mathematician Blaise Pascal is credited with the origin of the principle of mathematical induction. Then assuming the truth of P(k) for some positive integer k. It is said that the principle of mathematical induction was known by the Phythagoreans. — — . now known as Peano’s axioms. He was the first person to define and name “mathematical induction” and developed De Morgan’s rule to determine the convergence of a mathematical series.The principle of mathematical induction is a restatement of one of the Peano’s axioms.96 MATHEMATICS for the case n = 1 is examined. De Morgan contributed many accomplishments in the field of mathematics on many different subjects. proof by mathematical induction is not the invention of a particular individual at a fixed moment.

Hamilton (1805-1865) Let us denote −1 by the symbol i. . denoted by Re z and b is called the imaginary part denoted by Im z of the complex number z. 2 + i3. where D = b2 – 4ac < 0. if z = 2 + i5. which is not possible in the system of real numbers. where a and b are real numbers. a is called the real part. A number of the form a + ib. Two complex numbers z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id are equal if a = c and b = d. This means that i is a solution of the equation x2 + 1 = 0. 5. is defined to be a ⎛ −1 ⎞ complex number. we have i = −1 .Chapter 5 COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Mathematics is the Queen of Sciences and Arithmetic is the Queen of Mathematics. (– 1) + i 3 . we need to extend the real number system to a larger system so that we can find the solution of the equation x2 = – 1. 4 + i ⎜ ⎟ are complex numbers. In fact. ⎝ 11 ⎠ For the complex number z = a + ib. then Re z = 2 and Im z = 5. we have studied linear equations in one and two variables and quadratic equations in one variable. For example. For example. So. We have seen that the equation x2 + 1 = 0 has no real solution as x2 + 1 = 0 gives x2 = – 1 and square of every real number is non-negative.2 Complex Numbers 2 W.1 Introduction In earlier classes. Then. R. the main objective is to solve the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. – GAUSS 5.

z 2. (1) 3 33 and y = .. (ii) The commutative law For any two complex numbers z 1 and z 2 . i. (6 + 3i) – (2 – i) = (6 + 3i) + (– 2 + i ) = 4 + 4i and (2 – i) – (6 + 3i) = (2 – i) + ( – 6 – 3i) = – 4 – 4i . For example.3. (z1 + z2) + z3 = z1 + (z2 + z3).2 Difference of two complex numbers Given any two complex numbers z1 and z2. for every complex number z. 3x – y = – 6.. z + 0 = z. 5.1 Addition of two complex numbers Let z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id be any two complex numbers. (v) The existence of additive inverse To every complex number z = a + ib. we get 4x = 3. We observe that z + (–z) = 0 (the additive identity). (2 + i3) + (– 6 +i5) = (2 – 6) + i (3 + 5) = – 4 + i 8 The addition of complex numbers satisfy the following properties: (i) The closure law The sum of two complex numbers is a complex number. Solution We have 4x + i (3x – y) = 3 + i (–6) Equating the real and the imaginary parts of (1). give x = . which is again a complex number. Then.3. we have the complex number – a + i(– b) (denoted as – z).98 MATHEMATICS Example 1 If 4x + i(3x – y) = 3 + i (– 6). called the additive inverse or negative of z. then find the values of x and y. on solving simultaneously. called the additive identity or the zero complex number. which. 5. z 3 . z1 + z2 is a complex number for all complex numbers z1 and z2. For example. the difference z1 – z2 is defined as follows: z1 – z2 = z1 + (– z2). such that.3 Algebra of Complex Numbers In this Section.e. we shall develop the algebra of complex numbers. the sum z1 + z2 is defined as follows: z1 + z2 = (a + c) + i (b + d). where x and y are real numbers. z 1 + z 2 = z 2 + z1 (iii) The associative law For any three complex numbers z 1. (iv) The existence of additive identity There exists the complex number 0 + i 0 (denoted as 0).. 4 4 5.

called the multiplicative inverse 2 2 (denoted by a +b a +b z of z such that 2 1 z. (i) The closure law The product of two complex numbers is a complex number.3. Then.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 99 5. (3 + i5) (2 + i6) = (3 × 2 – 5 × 6) + i(3 × 6 + 5 × 2) = – 24 + i28 The multiplication of complex numbers possesses the following properties. = 1 (the multiplicative identity). which we state without proofs. z3. we have the complex number a –b 1 +i 2 or z–1 ). (z1 z2) z3 = z1 (z2 z3). (iii) The associative law For any three complex numbers z 1 . the product z1 z2 is a complex number for all complex numbers z1 and z2. (a) z1 (z2 + z3) = z1 z2 + z1 z3 (b) (z1 + z2) z3 = z1 z3 + z2 z3 5. z 2 . the quotient z is defined by 2 z1 1 = z1 z2 z2 z1 For example. z1 z2 = z2 z1 .4 Division of two complex numbers Given any two complex numbers z1 and z2. (ii) The commutative law For any two complex numbers z1 and z2. (v) The existence of multiplicative inverse For every non-zero complex number z = a + ib or a + bi(a ≠ 0. called the multiplicative identity such that z. b ≠ 0).3. z2.1 = z. where z2 ≠ 0 . for every complex number z. z (vi) The distributive law For any three complex numbers z1. let z1 = 6 + 3i and z2 = 2 – i Then z1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ⎜ (6 + 3i) × ⎟ = 6 + 3i ) 2−i⎠ ( z2 ⎝ ⎛ − ( −1) ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ +i 2 2 ⎜ 22 + ( −1)2 2 + ( −1) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ .3 Multiplication of two complex numbers Let z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id be any two complex numbers. z 3 . the product z1 z2 is defined as follows: z1 z2 = (ac – bd) + i(ad + bc) For example. (iv) The existence of multiplicative identity There exists the complex number 1 + i 0 (denoted as 1).

b < 0? Let us examine. b < 0 or a < 0. the square roots of –3 are Again. we have 1 i i = − i. the square roots of – 1 are i. b > 0. we would mean i only..100 MATHEMATICS ⎛ 2+i ⎞ 1 1 = ( 6 + 3i ) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎡12 − 3 + i ( 6 + 6 ) ⎤ = ( 9 + 12i ) ⎦ 5 5 ⎠ 5⎣ ⎝ 5. 3 i only.3. Note that . 2 −1 i 1 1 i i 1 1 = × = = i. i = –1. i = i. i = 1. the symbol i2 = – 3 3 i and − 3 i . 2 i6 = i2 ( ) 3 = ( − 1) = −1 . for any integer k. Now. i5 = i 2 i4 = i2 ( ) 2 = ( −1) = 1 2 ( ) 2 i = ( −1) i = i . i −1 = × = i i −1 i −3 = i− 2 = 1 1 = = − 1. i. What if a < 0. Generally. i −4 = 4 = = 1 3 −i i 1 1 i i 4k 4k + 1 4k + 2 4k + 3 In general. if a is a positive real number. we can see that i and –i both are the solutions of the equation x2 + 1 = 0 or x2 = –1. This result also holds true when either a > 0. etc. – i. i =–i 5. However. by the symbol − .6 The square roots of a negative real number Note that i2 = –1 and ( – i)2 = i2 = – 1 Therefore. Similarly ( 3 i) = ( 3) 2 2 2 i2 = 3 (– 1) = – 3 2 ( − 3 i) = (− 3 ) Therefore.e.3. 3i . 3 Also. We already know that a × b = ab for all positive real number a and b.5 Power of i we know that i 3 = i 2 i = ( −1) i = −i . a −1 = −3 is meant to represent −a = −3 = a i.

we can prove the following identities: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) ( z1 − z2 ) ( z1 − z2 ) 2 2 = z12 − 2 z1 z2 + z2 3 2 3 = z1 + 3 z12 z2 + 3z1 z2 + z2 3 2 3 = z1 − 3z12 z2 + 3 z1 z2 − z2 ( z1 + z2 ) 3 3 2 z12 – z 2 = ( z1 + z 2 ) ( z1 – z 2 ) In fact. Proof We have. Therefore.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 101 i 2 = −1 −1 = ( −1) ( −1) (by assuming a× b = ab for all real numbers) = 1 = 1. = (z1 + z2) z1 + (z1 + z2) z2 2 = z12 + z2 z1 + z1 z2 + z2 2 = z12 + z2 z1 + z1 z2 + z2 2 = z12 + 2 z1 z2 + z2 (Distributive law) (Distributive law) (Commutative law of multiplicatoin) Similarly. then.7 Identities We prove the following identity ( z1 + z2 ) 2 2 2 = z1 + z2 + 2 z1 z2 . if any of a and b is zero. 5. Example 2 Express the following in the form of a + bi: (i) ( −5i ) ⎛ ⎜ ( −5i ) ⎛ ⎜ 1 ⎞ i⎟ ⎝8 ⎠ (ii) ( −i ) ( 2i ) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜− i⎟ ⎝ 8 ⎠ 3 Solution (i) 1 ⎞ −5 2 −5 5 5 i⎟ = i = ( −1) = = + i0 8 ⎠ 8 8 8 8 ⎝ 3 1 1 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ × i5 = i (ii) ( −i ) ( 2i ) ⎜ − i ⎟ = 2 × 8× 8×8 256 ⎝ 8 ⎠ ( ) 2 i= 1 i. for all complex numbers z1 and z2. a × b ≠ ab if both a and b are negative real numbers. clearly.3. (z1 + z2)2 = (z1 + z2) (z1 + z2). which is a contradiction to the fact that i = − . 256 . many other identities which are true for all real numbers. a × b = ab = 0. Further. can be proved to be true for all complex numbers.

− 3 + −2 ( )( ) ( ) (2 3 −i = −6 + 3i + 2 6i − ) = (− 3 + 2 i) (2 3 − i ) 2 i = ( −6 + 2 ) + 3 (1 + 2 2 ) i 2 5. 3 + i = 3 − i . z = a – ib.102 MATHEMATICS Example 3 Express (5 – 3i)3 in the form a + ib. 2 − 5 i = 2 + 5 i . −3i − 5 = 3i – 5 Observe that the multiplicative inverse of the non-zero complex number z is given by z–1 = or a −b a − ib 1 +i 2 = 2 = 2 2 = a +b a +b a 2 + b2 a + ib 2 z z 2 z z= z Furthermore. the following results can easily be derived. Solution We have. 2 ⎝ 2⎠ (iii) z1 z2 = z1 z2 (iv) . i. of z.. the modulus of z. we have (i) z1 z2 = z1 z2 (ii) z z1 = 1 provided z ≠ 0 2 z2 z2 ⎛ z1 ⎞ z1 z1 ± z2 = z1 ± z2 (v) ⎜ z ⎟ = z provided z2 ≠ 0. i.e. For any two compex numbers z1 and z2 . Example 4 Express − 3 + −2 2 3 − i in the form of a + ib Solution We have. is the complex number a – ib. and 3 + i = 32 + 12 = 10 .4 The Modulus and the Conjugate of a Complex Number Let z = a + ib be a complex number. (5 – 3i)3 = 53 – 3 × 52 × (3i) + 3 × 5 (3i)2 – (3i)3 = 125 – 225i – 135 + 27i = – 10 – 198i. is defined to be the non-negative real number a 2 + b 2 . denoted as z .. denoted by | z |. Then. | z | = a 2 + b 2 and the conjugate 2 − 5i = 22 + ( − 5)2 = 29 .e. For example.

= 5 + 5 2i + 2i − 2 1− ( 2i ) 2 = −35 (ii) i = 3 + 6 2i 3(1 + 2 2i) = = 1 + 2 2i . 1+ 2 3 1 i 35 = 1 (i ) 2 17 = i i 1 i × = 2 =i −i −i i EXERCISE 5. z–1 = 1 2 + 3i = 2 − 3i (2 − 3i )(2 + 3i) = 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 3 = = + i 2 13 13 13 2 − (3i) 2 Example 6 Express the following in the form a + ib (i) 5 + 2i 1 − 2i 5 + 2i 1 − 2i = (ii) i–35 5 + 2i 1 + 2i × 1 − 2i 1 + 2i Solution (i) We have. 1. i − . ( 5i ) ⎛ − ⎜ 3 ⎞ i⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ 2.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 103 Example 5 Find the multiplicative inverse of 2 – 3i. i + i 3. the multiplicative inverse of 2 − 3i is given by z–1 = z z 2 = 2 + 3i 2 3 = + i 13 13 13 The above working can be reproduced in the following manner also.1 Express each of the complex number given in the Exercises 1 to 10 in the form a + ib. Solution Then Let z = 2 – 3i z = 2 + 3i and z 2 = 22 + ( − 3) 2 = 13 Therefore.

E. 0). 0 + 1i. 3). 2 + 0i. ⎡⎛ 1 7 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎢⎜ 3 + i 3 ⎟ + ⎜ 4 + i 3 ⎟ ⎥ − ⎜ − 3 + i ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣⎝ 3 5⎞ ⎛1 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ +i ⎟−⎜4+i ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝5 5⎠ ⎝ 4 8. . y) can be represented geometrically as the unique point P(x.104 MATHEMATICS 4. The complex number x + iy which corresponds to the ordered pair (x. y). ( –5. ⎜ −2 − i ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Find the multiplicative inverse of each of the complex numbers given in the Exercises 11 to 13. (1 – i) ⎛1 ⎞ 9. – 2 + 3i. (1 – i) – ( –1 + i6) 7.5 Argand Plane and Polar Representation We already know that corresponding to each ordered pair of real numbers (x. D. (3 + i 5 ) (3 − i 5 ) ( 3 + 2 i) − ( 3 − i 2 ) 5. The plane having a complex number assigned to each of its point is called the complex plane or the Argand plane. – i 5 + 3i 14. y) in the XY-plane and vice-versa. ( – 2. 3(7 + i7) + i (7 + i7) 6. and (1. we get a unique point in the XYplane and vice-versa with reference to a set of mutually perpendicular lines known as the x-axis and the y-axis. respectively. B. –2).1. respectively in the Fig 5. 5. – 2). Some complex numbers such as 2 + 4i. C. ⎜ + 3i ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 10. – 5 –2i and Fig 5. 4 – 3i 13. (2. 11. Express the following expression in the form of a + ib : 12. 4). have been represented geometrically by the points A. (0. and F. 1).1 1 – 2i which correspond to the ordered pairs (2.

0) (Fig 5. respectively. y) on the real axis (Fig 5. – y). The x-axis and y-axis in the Argand plane are called. in the Argand plane. the point (x. the points P (x.2 0 + i b. Fig 5. y) to the origin O (0. the modulus of the complex number x + iy = x 2 + y 2 is the distance between the point P(x.2).3 . respectively. – y) is the mirror image of the point (x. the real axis and the imaginary axis. The points on the x-axis corresponds to the complex numbers of the form a + i 0 and the points on the y-axis corresponds to the complex numbers of the form Fig 5.3). The representation of a complex number z = x + iy and its conjugate z = x – iy in the Argand plane are. Geometrically.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 105 Obviously. y) and Q (x.

1 Polar representation of a complex number Let the point P represent the nonzero complex number z = x + iy. called principal argument of z and is denoted by arg z. We have. For any complex number z ≠ 0. 5. (Figs. there corresponds only one value of θ in 0 ≤ θ < 2π.106 MATHEMATICS 5. We may note that the point P is uniquely determined by the ordered pair of real numbers (r.6) Fig 5. any other interval of length 2π. called the polar coordinates of the point P. We consider the origin as the pole and the positive Fig 5.5. However. can be such an interval.4 direction of the x axis as the initial line. θ). Here r = x 2 + y 2 = z is the modus of z and θ is called the argument (or amplitude) of z which is denoted by arg z.6 (– π < θ ≤ π ) . The latter is said to be the polar form of the complex number. z = r (cos θ + i sin θ). x = r cos θ.4).5 and 5. Let the directed line segment OP be of length r and θ be the angle which OP makes with the positive direction of x-axis (Fig 5.We shall take the value of θ such that – π < θ ≤ π. y = r sin θ and therefore.5 ( 0 ≤ θ < 2π ) Fig 5. unless specified otherwise. for example – π < θ ≤ π.

. which gives θ = 2 2 Fig 5.8). Example 8 Convert the complex number Solution The given complex number −16 1+ i 3 = −16 1 − i 3 × 1+ i 3 1− i 3 −16 1 − i 3 = 2 ( ) = −16 (1 − i 3 ) =− ( 1+ 3 1 − (i 3 ) 16 + 48 = r 2 cos 2θ + sin 2θ −i )=− +i (Fig 5. sin θ = Fig 5. By squaring and adding.7.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 107 Example 7 Represent the complex number z = 1 + i 3 in the polar form.e. we get r 2 cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 4 ( ) i. Therefore. Solution Let 1 = r cos θ.e. 1+ i 3 is represented as shown in Fig 5. = r sin θ By squaring and adding. = r sin θ Let – 4 = r cos θ. i.8 2 θ=π– π 2π = 3 3 2π 2π ⎞ ⎛ + i sin ⎟ Thus.. we get ( ) which gives Hence r = 64. r >0) cos θ = π 1 3 . r = = (conventionally. sin θ = . the required polar form is 8 ⎜ cos 3 3 ⎠ ⎝ .7 π π⎞ ⎛ Therefore. r = 8 cos θ = − . required polar form is z = 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 3 3⎠ ⎝ The complex number z = + i −16 into polar form.

≥ 0. Let us consider the following quadratic equation: ax 2 + bx + c = 0 with real coefficients a. the following result. let us assume that the b2 – 4ac < 0. z = – 1 – i Convert each of the complex numbers given in Exercises 3 to 8 in the polar form: 3. 2. – 1 – i 6. z = – +i 1. b2 – 4ac = 12 – 4 × 1 × 1 = 1 – 4 = – 3 .. i. Also. c and a ≠ 0. Now.6 Quadratic Equations We are already familiar with the quadratic equations and have solved them in the set of real numbers in the cases where discriminant is non-negative. we know that we can find the square root of negative real numbers in the set of complex numbers. i 5. 1 – i 4. – 3 7. some would be interested to know as to how many roots does an equation have? In this regard. the following theorem known as the Fundamental theorem of Algebra is stated below (without proof). – 1 + i 5. the solutions to the above equation are available in the set of complex numbers which are given by x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac −b ± 4ac − b 2 i = 2a 2a Note At this point of time.” As a consequence of this theorem. b.e. Therefore.e. x = ± −2 = ± 2 i Example 10 Solve x2 + x + 1= 0 Solution Here.2 Find the modulus and the arguments of each of the complex numbers in Exercises 1 to 2. is arrived at: “A polynomial equation of degree n has n roots. +i 8..” Example 9 Solve x2 + 2 = 0 Solution We have.108 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 5. which is of immense importance. x2 + 2 = 0 or x2 = – 2 i. “A polynomial equation has at least one root.

3 Solve each of the following equations: 1. – x + x – 2 = 0 7. conjugate of (3 − 2i ) (2 + 3i ) 63 16 is + i (1 + 2i) (2 − i ) 25 25 . 9. 2 x2 + x + 2 = 0 3. x2 + 3 = 0 2. (3 − 2i ) (2 + 3i ) (1 + 2i) (2 − i ) = 6 + 9i − 4i + 6 12 + 5i 4 − 3i × = 4 + 3i 4 − 3i 2 − i + 4i + 2 63 16 48 − 36i + 20i + 15 63 −16i − i = = 25 25 16 + 9 25 = Therefore. 2x2 + x + 1 = 0 2 5. 10. x2 + 3x + 9 = 0 6. 2 5 2 5 EXERCISE 5. x2 + 3x + 5 = 0 4. the solutions are given by x = Example 11 Solve −1 ± −3 −1 ± 3i = 2 ×1 2 5 x2 + x + 5 = 0 Solution Here. the solutions are −1 ± −19 −1 ± 19i = . Solution We have . 3 x2 − 2 x + 3 3 = 0 x2 + x +1 = 0 2 x2 + x + 1 =0 2 Miscellaneous Examples Example 12 Find the conjugate of (3 − 2i) (2 + 3i ) (1 + 2i ) (2 − i ) .COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 109 Therefore. x2 – x + 2 = 0 8. the discriminant of the equation is 12 − 4 × 5 × 5 = 1 – 20 = – 19 Therefore. .

– = r sin θ 2 2 1 1 −1 . let us put 0 = r cos θ. 1+ i 1 + i 1+ i 1 − 1+ 2i × = =i= 0 + i = 1 − i 1− i 1+ i 1+ 1 1 = r sin θ Now. θ = π 2 1+ i π is 1 and the argument is . 1− i 2 Hence. sin θ = 2 2 2 Proceeding as in part (i) above. 2 1+ i 4 Hence. the modulus of Example 14 If x + iy = Solution We have. prove that x + y = 1. r = 1 so that cos θ = 0.. r = 1 i.e. we get r = Therefore θ = −π 4 1 1 −π is . the modulus of (ii) We have 1 1− i 1− i 1 i = = = − 1 + i (1 + i) (1 − i) 1 + 1 2 2 Let 1 1 = r cos θ. sin θ = 1 Therefore.110 MATHEMATICS Example 13 Find the modulus and argument of the complex numbers: (i) 1+ i . 2 Squaring and adding. (a + ib) (a + ib) a 2 − b 2 + 2abi a2 − b2 2 ab x + iy = ( a − ib) ( a + ib) = = 2 2 + 2 2i 2 2 a +b a +b a +b . cosθ = . a + ib 2 2 a − ib . 1− i (ii) 1 1+ i Solution (i) We have. argument is .

3 + 2i sinθ (3 + 2i sinθ) (1 + 2i sinθ) = (1 − 2i sinθ) (1 + 2i sinθ) 1 − 2i sinθ 3+ 6i sinθ + 2i sinθ – 4sin 2θ 3 − 4sin 2θ 8i sinθ + = = 1+ 4sin 2θ 1 + 4sin 2 θ 1 + 4sin 2θ We are given the complex number to be real. put 3 −1 = r cosθ . i −1 π π in the polar form. n ∈ Z. z = i −1 1 3 + i 2 2 = 2(i − 1) 1 − 3i 2 i + 3 − 1 + 3i × = = 1+ 3 1 + 3i 1 − 3i 3 +1 = r sin θ 2 ( ) 3 −1 + 2 3 +1 i 2 Now. 1− 2i sinθ Solution We have.e. i.. 2 . cos + i sin 3 3 Example 16 Convert the complex number z = Solution We have. Therefore.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 111 So that. a 2 − b2 2ab x – iy = 2 2 − 2 2 i a +b a +b x2 + y2 = (x + iy) (x – iy) = ( a 2 − b 2 )2 4a 2b 2 (a 2 + b 2 ) 2 + 2 2 2 = 2 2 2 =1 2 2 2 (a + b ) (a + b ) (a + b ) Example 15 Find real θ such that 3 + 2i sinθ is purely real. sin θ = 0 1 + 4sin 2θ Thus θ = nπ. Therefore 8sinθ = 0.

Convert the following in the polar form: 1 + 7i (i) ( 2 − i )2 . For any two complex numbers z1 and z2. c − id c + d2 5. r = 2 which gives Therefore. 20 =0 3 (ii) 1 + 3i 1 – 2i Solve each of the equation in Exercises 6 to 9. ⎝ 1 − 4i 1 + i ⎠ ⎝ 5 + i ⎠ 4. If x − iy = a − ib a 2 + b2 x2 + y 2 = 2 prove that . 3 x − 4 x + 7. Evaluate: ⎢ i + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ . 2 6. 27 x 2 − 10 x + 1 = 0 . the polar form is 5π 5π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 12 12 ⎠ ⎝ Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 5 ⎡ 18 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 25 ⎤ 1. x2 − 2 x + 3 =0 2 8. Reduce ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ to the standard form . sinθ = 2 2 2 2 π π 5π (Why?) + = 4 6 12 Hence. we obtain 2 2 ⎛ 3 −1⎞ ⎛ 3 +1⎞ 2⎛ ⎜ r =⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ +⎜ 2 ⎟ = ⎝ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ( 3) + 1⎞ ⎟ 2× 4 ⎠= =2 4 4 2 Hence. 2 ⎞ ⎛ 3 − 4i ⎞ ⎛ 1 − 3. prove that Re (z1 z2) = Re z1 Re z2 – Imz1 Imz2.112 MATHEMATICS Squaring and adding. ⎝i⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ 3 2. θ = cosθ = 3 −1 3 +1 .

⎝ z1 z1 ⎠ 1+ 2i . Find the real numbers x and y if (x – iy) (3 + 5i) is the conjugate of –6 – 24i. z2 = 1 + i. If (a + ib) (c + id) (e + if) (g + ih) = A + iB. ⎝1 – i ⎠ m . 1 2 ( x 2 + 1) 2 ( x + i )2 2 2 11. = 2x . 2 x2 + 1 ( ) 12. ⎛1+ i ⎞ 20. If z1 = 2 – i. then show that β–α 17. If (x + iy)3 = u + iv. then show that (a2 + b2) (c2 + d2) (e2 + f 2) (g2 + h2) = A2 + B2 x . Find the number of non-zero integral solutions of the equation 1 – i 19. u v + = 4( x 2 – y 2 ) . ⎝ 1 ⎠ (ii) Im ⎜ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟. 1 − 3i 14. If a + ib = . 13.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 113 9. 21x 2 − 28 x + 10 = 0 z1 + z2 +1 10. then find the least integral value of m. z2 = –2 + i. Find the modulus and argument of the complex number 15. find z – z + i . x y 16. If α and β are different complex numbers with β = 1 . If ⎜ ⎟ = 1 . Let z1 = 2 – i. then find 1 – α β 18. Find ⎛ z1 z2 ⎞ (i) Re ⎜ z ⎟ . prove that a + b = 2 x 2 + 1 2 . Find the modulus of 1+ i 1− i − 1 − i 1+ i .

i4k = 1. are given by x = −b ± 4ac − b 2 i 2a . . The solutions of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0. i4k + 1 = i. a ≠ 0. is called a complex number. b ≠ 0). where a and b are real numbers. c ∈ R. a is called the real part and b is called the imaginary part of the complex number. r= x 2 + y 2 (the modulus of z) and cosθ = A polynomial equation of n degree has n roots. i4k + 2 = – 1. i4k + 3 = – i The conjugate of the complex number z = a + ib. is given by z = a – ib.114 MATHEMATICS Summary A number of the form a + ib. is called the principal argument of z. (θ is known as the r r argument of z. Then (i) z1 + z2 = (a + c) + i (b + d) (ii) z1 z2 = (ac – bd) + i (ad + bc) For any non-zero complex number z = a + ib (a ≠ 0. there exists the complex number a −b 1 +i 2 . called the 2 a +b a + b2 z 2 ⎛ a2 −b ⎞ +i 2 ⎟ = 1 + i0 =1 multiplicative inverse of z such that (a + ib) ⎜ 2 2 a + b2 ⎠ ⎝ a +b For any integer k. denoted by z . Let z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id. sinθ = . denoted by or z –1. b2 – 4ac < 0. where x y . where a. The polar form of the complex number z = x + iy is r (cosθ + i sinθ). such that – π < θ ≤ π. The value of θ. b.

— — .D. Euler was the first to introduce the symbol i for −1 and W. no square root”.D. written in 1150.” Cardan (1545 A. Albert Girard (about 1625 A. “There is no square root of a negative quantity. He obtained x = 5 + −15 and y = 5 – −15 as the solution of it.COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 115 Historical Note The fact that square root of a negative number does not exist in the real number system was recognised by the Greeks. Bhaskara. another Indian mathematician. But the credit goes to the Indian mathematician Mahavira (850 A.) who first stated this difficulty clearly. A. which was discarded by him by saying that these numbers are ‘useless’. “He mentions in his work ‘Ganitasara Sangraha’ as in the nature of things a negative (quantity) is not a square (quantity)’.D.) considered the problem of solving x + y = 10. for it is not a square.D. Hamilton (about 1830 A. also writes in his work Bijaganita. xy = 40.) accepted square root of negative numbers and said that this will enable us to get as many roots as the degree of the polynomial equation.R. therefore.D. it has.) regarded the complex number a + ib as an ordered pair of real numbers (a. b) thus giving it a purely mathematical definition and avoiding use of the so called ‘imaginary numbers’.

In this Chapter.2 Inequalities Let us consider the following situations: (i) Ravi goes to market with Rs 200 to buy rice. he has to buy rice in packets only. Here we get certain statements involving a sign ‘<’ (less than). statistics. The price of one packet of rice is Rs 30. etc.. (Why?) Hence 30x < 200 . which is available in packets of 1kg.. which he buys. then the total amount spent by her is Rs (40x + 20y) and we have 40x + 20y ≤ 120 . ‘≤’ (less than or equal) and ≥ (greater than or equal) which are known as inequalities. economics. the number of pens which Reshma buys. we will study linear inequalities in one and two variables. psychology. optimisation problems. we have studied equations in one variable and two variables and also solved some statement problems by translating them in the form of equations. Your classroom can occupy atmost 60 tables or chairs or both. The study of inequalities is very useful in solving problems in the field of science. Since. (1) Clearly the statement (i) is not an equation as it does not involve the sign of equality. In this case. (ii) Reshma has Rs 120 and wants to buy some registers and pens. The cost of one register is Rs 40 and that of a pen is Rs 20. mathematics.1 Introduction In earlier classes. 6. then the total amount spent by him is Rs 30x.. the height of all the students in your class is less than 160 cm. – MAXWELL 6. he may not be able to spend the entire amount of Rs 200. if x denotes the number of registers and y. ‘>’ (greater than). (2) . If x denotes the number of packets of rice.Chapter 6 LINEAR INEQUALITIES Mathematics is the art of saying many things in many different ways. Now a natural question arises: ‘Is it always possible to translate a statement problem in the form of an equation? For example..

..... x ≥ 3. i. .. and (13) are slack inequalities... these are quadratic inequalities in one variable x when a ≠ 0).. (10) and (14) are strict inequalities while inequalities (7).... (11). (13) .. 7 > 5 are the examples of numerical inequalities while x < 5. Inequalities (13) and (14) are not linear (in fact. Definition 1 Two real numbers or two algebraic expressions related by the symbol ‘<’. y ≤ 4 are the examples of literal inequalities. (10) . (5) . (12) . (6). (7) . (8).. In this Chapter. ‘≤’ or ‘≥’ form an inequality. 3 < 5. Inequalities from (5) to (8) are linear inequalities in one variable x when a ≠ 0.. (12).. Statements such as (1). (11) ...LINEAR INEQUALITIES 117 Since in this case the total amount spent may be upto Rs 120.. we shall confine ourselves to the study of linear inequalities in one and two variables only... (14) Inequalities (5). b ≠ 0... y > 2. (9) . 3 < 5 < 7 (read as 5 is greater than 3 and less than 7). (6) . Note that the statement (2) consists of two statements and 40x + 20y < 120 40x + 20y = 120 . Some more examples of inequalities are: ax + b < 0 ax + b > 0 ax + b ≤ 0 ax + b ≥ 0 ax + by < c ax + by > c ax + by ≤ c ax + by ≥ c ax2 + bx + c ≤ 0 ax + bx + c > 0 2 . 3 < x < 5 (read as x is greater than or equal to 3 and less than 5) and 2 < y < 4 are the examples of double inequalities.e.. (8) . (3) . while inequalities from (9) to (12) are linear inequalities in two variables x and y when a ≠ 0. (9). it is an inequality while statement (4) is an equation. (4) Statement (3) is not an equation. ‘>’. (2) and (3) above are inequalities..

).4. Obviously. For x = 3. which is false.S.S.118 MATHEMATICS 6. L.4.S.).5. = 30 (4) = 120 < 200.. For x = 5.6.H.S. we find that the values of x.e. L. are 0. = 30 (6) = 180 < 200.6} is called its solution set. Left hand side (L. L.S. this method is time consuming and sometimes not feasible. Therefore. L. viz.S.1.3. which make above inequality a true statement. We have found the solutions of the above inequality by trial and error method which is not very efficient. L. which is true. are called solutions of inequality and the set {0. – 8 < – 7 while (– 8) (– 2) > (– 7) (– 2) .. which is true.5. It is evident from the facts that 3 > 2 while – 3 < – 2. For x = 6. L.S.H.3 Algebraic Solutions of Linear Inequalities in One Variable and their Graphical Representation Let us consider the inequality (1) of Section 6. L. Obviously. i. which is true.2. For x = 2. In the case of solving inequalities. we followed the following rules: Rule 1 Equal numbers may be added to (or subtracted from) both sides of an equation.H.H. the sign of inequality is reversed (i.S.H. = 30 (3) = 90 < 200. which is true. which is true.H. L. which is true.H. = 30 (0) = 0 < 200 (R. . ≤’ becomes ‘≥’ and so on) whenever we multiply (or divide) both sides of an inequality by a negative number.) of this inequality is 30x and right hand side (RHS) is 200.2.e.S. any solution of an inequality in one variable is a value of the variable which makes it a true statement.H. For x = 1. For x = 7. = 30 (5) = 150 < 200. These values of x.S.H. Rule 2 Both sides of an equation may be multiplied (or divided) by the same non-zero number. ‘<‘ becomes ‘>’. which makes the above inequality a true statement.3. x cannot be a negative integer or a fraction.1. = 30 (2) = 60 < 200. Thus.2. You will recall that while solving linear equations. which is true. = 30 (1) = 30 < 200 (R. 16 > 14.S. we again follow the same rules except with a difference that in Rule 2.H. = 30 (7) = 210 < 200. For x = 4. We must have some better or systematic techniques for solving inequalities. we have For x = 0. 30x < 200 Note that here x denotes the number of packets of rice. In the above situation.H. Before that we should go through some more properties of numerical inequalities and follow them as rules while solving the inequalities.

x < 20 / 3. 5.. 0.. 30 x 200 < (Rule 2).. 6. i. Henceforth. – 1. Rule 2 Both sides of an inequality can be multiplied (or divided) by the same positive number. 6} or Example 2 Solve 5x – 3 < 3x +1 when (i) x is an integer.3.. 2. in this case the following values of x make the statement true.e.–1. (ii) When x is an integer... The solution set of the inequality is {1. Now. 3. 1.e. 5.. Solution We have. 5.. set of integers and in the set of real numbers. 2). let us consider some examples.. – 3.6}. . then the sign of inequality is reversed.. 4. 2. 4. 1. Example 1 Solve 30 x < 200 when (i) x is a natural number. the solutions of the given inequality are . 0. the solution set of the inequality is x ∈ (– ∞. We have considered solutions of inequalities in the set of natural numbers. –2.. – 2. 5x –3 < 3x + 1 or 5x –3 + 3 < 3x +1 +3 (Rule 1) or 5x < 3x +4 or 5x – 3x < 3x + 4 – 3x (Rule 1) or 2x < 4 or x < 2 (Rule 2) (i) When x is an integer. 0. –2. (ii) x is a real number.4. 3. the solutions of the inequality are given by x < 2. Solution We are given 30 x < 200 (ii) x is an integer. 30 30 (i) When x is a natural number. i. all real numbers x which are less than 2. 1 (ii) When x is a real number. But when both sides are multiplied or divided by a negative number. 4. we shall solve the inequalities in this Chapter in the set of real numbers. we state the following rules for solving an inequality: Rule 1 Equal numbers may be added to (or subtracted from) both sides of an inequality without affecting the sign of inequality. – 4. 6 The solution set of the inequality is {.5. unless stated otherwise. – 3.–3. the solutions of the given inequality are . 2. –1. 3. 1.LINEAR INEQUALITIES 119 Thus.2. Therefore.

i.. Show the graph of the solutions on number line. Example 5 Solve 7x + 3 < 5x + 9. are the solutions of the given inequality. all the real numbers which are greater than –2.e.120 MATHEMATICS Example 3 Solve 4x + 3 < 6x +7.e. 4x + 3 < 6x + 7 or 4x – 6x < 6x + 4 – 6x or – 2x < 4 or x > – 2 i.. Show the graph of the solutions on number line. Example 4 Solve Solution We have 5 – 2x x ≤ –5.1 Example 6 Solve Solution We have 3x − 4 x + 1 ≥ −1 .1. Fig 6. ∞). or 10 – 4x ≤ x – 30 or – 5x ≤ – 40.e. Hence. i. 3 6 5 – 2x x ≤ –5 3 6 or 2 (5 – 2x) ≤ x – 30. all real numbers x which are greater than or equal to 8 are the solutions of the given inequality. x ≥ 8 Thus. x ∈ [8. 2 4 3x − 4 x + 1 ≥ −1 2 4 or or 3x − 4 x − 3 ≥ 2 4 2 (3x – 4) ≥ (x – 3) . ∞). Solution We have 7x + 3 < 5x + 9 or 2x < 6 or x < 3 The graphical representation of the solutions are given in Fig 6. Solution We have.. the solution set is (–2.

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or or

6x – 8 ≥ x – 3 5x ≥ 5 or x ≥ 1

The graphical representation of solutions is given in Fig 6.2.

Fig 6.2

Example 7 The marks obtained by a student of Class XI in first and second terminal examination are 62 and 48, respectively. Find the number of minimum marks he should get in the annual examination to have an average of at least 60 marks. Solution Let x be the marks obtained by student in the annual examination. Then

62 + 48 + x ≥ 60 3 or 110 + x ≥ 180 or x ≥ 70 Thus, the student must obtain a minimum of 70 marks to get an average of at least 60 marks.

Example 8 Find all pairs of consecutive odd natural numbers, both of which are larger than 10, such that their sum is less than 40. Solution Let x be the smaller of the two consecutive odd natural number, so that the other one is x +2. Then, we should have x > 10 and x + ( x + 2) < 40 Solving (2), we get 2x + 2 < 40 i.e., x < 19 From (1) and (3), we get 10 < x < 19 ... (1) ... (2)

... (3)

Since x is an odd number, x can take the values 11, 13, 15, and 17. So, the required possible pairs will be (11, 13), (13, 15), (15, 17), (17, 19)

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EXERCISE 6.1

1. Solve 24x < 100, when (i) x is a natural number. 2. Solve – 12x > 30, when (i) x is a natural number. 3. Solve 5x – 3 < 7, when (i) x is an integer. 4. Solve 3x + 8 >2, when (i) x is an integer. (ii) x is an integer. (ii) x is an integer. (ii) x is a real number. (ii) x is a real number.

Solve the inequalities in Exercises 5 to 16 for real x. 5. 4x + 3 < 6x + 7 6. 3x – 7 > 5x – 1 7. 3(x – 1) ≤ 2 (x – 3) 8. 3 (2 – x) ≥ 2 (1 – x) 9.

x x x + + < 11 2 3

10.

x x > +1 3 2

3( x − 2) 5(2 − x) ≤ 5 3 13. 2 (2x + 3) – 10 < 6 (x – 2)

11. 15.

12.

1 ⎛ 3x ⎞ 1 ⎜ + 4 ⎟ ≥ ( x − 6) 2⎝ 5 ⎠ 3 14. 37 – (3x + 5) > 9x – 8 (x – 3)

x (5 x − 2) (7 x − 3) < − 4 3 5

16.

(2 x −1) (3 x − 2) (2 − x) ≥ − 3 4 5

Solve the inequalities in Exercises 17 to 20 and show the graph of the solution in each case on number line 17. 3x – 2 < 2x + 1 19. 3 (1 – x) < 2 (x + 4) 21. 22. 18. 5x – 3 > 3x – 5 20.

23. 24.

x (5 x − 2) (7 x − 3) < − 2 3 5 Ravi obtained 70 and 75 marks in first two unit test. Find the number if minimum marks he should get in the third test to have an average of at least 60 marks. To receive Grade ‘A’ in a course, one must obtain an average of 90 marks or more in five examinations (each of 100 marks). If Sunita’s marks in first four examinations are 87, 92, 94 and 95, find minimum marks that Sunita must obtain in fifth examination to get grade ‘A’ in the course. Find all pairs of consecutive odd positive integers both of which are smaller than 10 such that their sum is more than 11. Find all pairs of consecutive even positive integers, both of which are larger than 5 such that their sum is less than 23.

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25. The longest side of a triangle is 3 times the shortest side and the third side is 2 cm shorter than the longest side. If the perimeter of the triangle is at least 61 cm, find the minimum length of the shortest side. 26. A man wants to cut three lengths from a single piece of board of length 91cm. The second length is to be 3cm longer than the shortest and the third length is to be twice as long as the shortest. What are the possible lengths of the shortest board if the third piece is to be at least 5cm longer than the second? [Hint: If x is the length of the shortest board, then x , (x + 3) and 2x are the lengths of the second and third piece, respectively. Thus, x + (x + 3) + 2x ≤ 91 and 2x ≥ (x + 3) + 5].

**6.4 Graphical Solution of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
**

In earlier section, we have seen that a graph of an inequality in one variable is a visual representation and is a convenient way to represent the solutions of the inequality. Now, we will discuss graph of a linear inequality in two variables. We know that a line divides the Cartesian plane into two parts. Each part is known as a half plane. A vertical line will divide the plane in left and right half planes and a non-vertical line will divide the plane into lower and upper half planes (Figs. 6.3 and 6.4).

Fig 6.3

Fig 6.4

A point in the Cartesian plane will either lie on a line or will lie in either of the half planes I or II. We shall now examine the relationship, if any, of the points in the plane and the inequalities ax + by < c or ax + by > c. Let us consider the line ax + by = c, a ≠ 0, b ≠ 0 ... (1)

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There are three possibilities namely: (i) ax + by = c (ii) ax + by > c (iii) ax + by < c. In case (i), clearly, all points (x, y) satisfying (i) lie on the line it represents and conversely. Consider case (ii), let us first assume that b > 0. Consider a point P (α,β) on the line ax + by = c, b > 0, so that aα + bβ = c.Take an arbitrary point Q (α , γ) in the half plane II (Fig 6.5). Now, from Fig 6.5, we interpret, γ > β (Why?) or b γ > bβ or aα + b γ > aα + bβ (Why?) or aα + b γ > c i.e., Q(α, γ ) satisfies the inequality ax + by > c. Fig 6.5 Thus, all the points lying in the half plane II above the line ax + by = c satisfies the inequality ax + by > c. Conversely, let (α, β) be a point on line ax + by = c and an arbitrary point Q(α, γ) satisfying ax + by > c so that aα + bγ > c aα + b γ > aα + bβ (Why?) ⇒ γ>β (as b > 0) ⇒ This means that the point (α, γ ) lies in the half plane II. Thus, any point in the half plane II satisfies ax + by > c, and conversely any point satisfying the inequality ax + by > c lies in half plane II. In case b < 0, we can similarly prove that any point satisfying ax + by > c lies in the half plane I, and conversely. Hence, we deduce that all points satisfying ax + by > c lies in one of the half planes II or I according as b > 0 or b < 0, and conversely. Thus, graph of the inequality ax + by > c will be one of the half plane (called solution region) and represented by shading in the corresponding half plane. Note 1 The region containing all the solutions of an inequality is called the solution region. 2. In order to identify the half plane represented by an inequality, it is just sufficient to take any point (a, b) (not online) and check whether it satisfies the inequality or not. If it satisfies, then the inequality represents the half plane and shade the region

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which contains the point, otherwise, the inequality represents that half plane which does not contain the point within it. For convenience, the point (0, 0) is preferred. 3. If an inequality is of the type ax + by ≥ c or ax + by ≤ c, then the points on the line ax + by = c are also included in the solution region. So draw a dark line in the solution region. 4. If an inequality is of the form ax + by > c or ax + by < c, then the points on the line ax + by = c are not to be included in the solution region. So draw a broken or dotted line in the solution region. In Section 6.2, we obtained the following linear inequalities in two variables x and y: 40x + 20y ≤ 120 ... (1) while translating the word problem of purchasing of registers and pens by Reshma. Let us now solve this inequality keeping in mind that x and y can be only whole numbers, since the number of articles cannot be a fraction or a negative number. In this case, we find the pairs of values of x and y, which make the statement (1) true. In fact, the set of such pairs will be the solution set of the inequality (1). To start with, let x = 0. Then L.H.S. of (1) is 40x + 20y = 40 (0) + 20y = 20y. Thus, we have 20y ≤ 120 or y ≤ 6 ... (2) For x = 0, the corresponding values of y can be 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 only. In this case, the solutions of (1) are (0, 0), (0, 1), (0,2), (0,3), (0,4), (0, 5) and (0, 6). Similarly, other solutions of (1), when x = 1, 2 and 3 are: (1, 0), (1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 0), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 0) This is shown in Fig 6.6. Let us now extend the domain of x and y from whole numbers to real numbers, and see what will be the solutions of (1) in this case. You will see that the graphical method of solution will be very convenient in this case. For this purpose, let us consider the (corresponding) equation and draw its graph. 40x + 20y = 120 ... (3) In order to draw the graph of the inequality (1), we take one point say (0, 0), in half plane I and check whether values of x and y satisfy the Fig 6.6 inequality or not.

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We observe that x = 0, y = 0 satisfy the inequality. Thus, we say that the half plane I is the graph (Fig 6.7) of the inequality. Since the points on the line also satisfy the inequality (1) above, the line is also a part of the graph. Thus, the graph of the given inequality is half plane I including the line itself. Clearly half plane II is not the part of the graph. Hence, solutions of inequality (1) will consist of all the points of its graph (half plane I including the line). We shall now consider some examples to explain the above procedure for solving a linear inequality involving two variables. Example 9 Solve 3x + 2y > 6 graphically.

Fig 6.7

Solution Graph of 3x + 2y = 6 is given as dotted line in the Fig 6.8. This line divides the xy-plane in two half planes I and II. We select a point (not on the line), say (0, 0), which lies in one of the half planes (Fig 6.8) and determine if this point satisfies the given inequality, we note that 3 (0) + 2 (0) > 6 or 0 > 6 , which is false. Hence, half plane I is not the solution region of the given inequality. Clearly, any point on the line does not satisfy the given strict inequality. In other words, the shaded half plane II Fig 6.8 excluding the points on the line is the solution region of the inequality. Example 10 Solve 3x – 6 ≥ 0 graphically in two dimensional plane. Solution Graph of 3x – 6 = 0 is given in the Fig 6.9. We select a point, say (0, 0) and substituting it in given inequality, we see that: 3 (0) – 6 ≥ 0 or – 6 ≥ 0 which is false. Thus, the solution region is the shaded region on the right hand side of the line x = 2.

Fig 6.9

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Example 11 Solve y < 2 graphically. Solution Graph of y = 2 is given in the Fig 6.10. Let us select a point, (0, 0) in lower half plane I and putting y = 0 in the given inequality, we see that 1 × 0 < 2 or 0 < 2 which is true. Thus, the solution region is the shaded region below the line y = 2. Hence, every point below the line (excluding all the points on the line) determines the solution of the given inequality.

Fig 6.10

EXERCISE 6.2

Solve the following inequalities graphically in two-dimensional plane: 1. x + y < 5 2. 2x + y ≥ 6 3. 3x + 4y ≤ 12 4. y + 8 ≥ 2x 5. x – y ≤ 2 6. 2x – 3y > 6 7. – 3x + 2y ≥ – 6 8. 3y – 5x < 30 9. y < – 2 10. x > – 3. 6.5 Solution of System of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables In previous Section, you have learnt how to solve linear inequality in one or two variables graphically. We will now illustrate the method for solving a system of linear inequalities in two variables graphically through some examples. Example 12 Solve the following system of linear inequalities graphically. x+y≥5 ... (1) x–y≤3 ... (2) Solution The graph of linear equation x+y=5 is drawn in Fig 6.11. We note that solution of inequality (1) is represented by the shaded region above the line x + y = 5, including the points on the line. On the same set of axes, we draw the graph of the equation x – y = 3 as Fig 6.11 shown in Fig 6.11. Then we note that inequality (2) represents the shaded region above

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the line x – y = 3, including the points on the line. Clearly, the double shaded region, common to the above two shaded regions is the required solution region of the given system of inequalities. Example 13 Solve the following system of inequalities graphically 5x + 4y ≤ 40 ... (1) x≥2 ... (2) y≥3 ... (3) Solution We first draw the graph of the line 5x + 4y = 40, x = 2 and y = 3 Then we note that the inequality (1) represents shaded region below the line 5x + 4y = 40 and inequality (2) represents the shaded region right of line x = 2 but inequality (3) represents the shaded region above the line y = 3. Hence, shaded region (Fig 6.12) including all the point on the lines are also the solution of the given system of the linear inequalities. In many practical situations involving system of inequalities the variable x and y often represent quantities that cannot have negative values, for example, number of units produced, number of articles purchased, number of hours worked, etc. Clearly, in such cases, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 and the solution region lies only in the first quadrant. Example 14 Solve the following system of inequalities 8x + 3y ≤ 100 ... (1) x≥0 ... (2) y≥0 ... (3) Solution We draw the graph of the line 8x + 3y = 100 The inequality 8x + 3y ≤ 100 represents the shaded region below the line, including the points on the line 8x +3y =100 (Fig 6.13).

Fig 6.12

Fig 6.13

LINEAR INEQUALITIES

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Since x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, every point in the shaded region in the first quadrant, including the points on the line and the axes, represents the solution of the given system of inequalities. Example 15 Solve the following system of inequalities graphically x + 2y ≤ 8 ... (1) 2x + y ≤ 8 ... (2) ... (3) x>0 ... (4) y>0 Solution We draw the graphs of the lines x + 2y = 8 and 2x + y = 8. The inequality (1) and (2) represent Fig 6.14 the region below the two lines, including the point on the respective lines. Since x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, every point in the shaded region in the first quadrant represent a solution of the given system of inequalities (Fig 6.14).

EXERCISE 6.3

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: 1. x ≥ 3, y ≥ 2 3. 2x + y ≥ 6, 3x + 4y < 12 5. 2x – y >1, x – 2y < – 1 7. 2x + y ≥ 8, x + 2y ≥ 10 9. 5x + 4y ≤ 20, x ≥ 1, y ≥ 2 10. 3x + 4y ≤ 60, x +3y ≤ 30, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 11. 2x + y ≥ 4, x + y ≤ 3, 2x – 3y ≤ 6 12. x – 2y ≤ 3, 3x + 4y ≥ 12, x ≥ 0 , y ≥ 1. 13. 4x + 3y ≤ 60, y ≥ 2x, x ≥ 3, x, y ≥ 0 14. 3x + 2y ≤ 150, x + 4y ≤ 80, x ≤ 15, y ≥ 0 15. x + 2y ≤ 10, x + y ≥ 1, x – y ≤ 0, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 2. 3x + 2y ≤ 12, x ≥ 1, y ≥ 2 4. x + y > 4, 2x – y > 0 6. x + y ≤ 6, x + y ≥ 4 8. x + y ≤ 9, y > x, x ≥ 0

from inequality (2). Solution In this case. 2≤x<6 . .. (4) If we draw the graph of inequalities (3) and (4) on the number line.e... which we will solve simultaneously. solution of the system are real numbers x lying between 2 and 6 including 2. (3) Also.15 Thus. we have 11 – 5 x ≤ 1 or – 5 x ≤ – 10 i. we see that the values of x. are shown by bold line in Fig 6.... i. which are common to both... – 8 ≤ 5x – 3 and 5x – 3 < 7. We have – 8 ≤ 5x –3 < 7 or –5 ≤ 5x < 10 or –1 ≤ x < 2 Example 17 Solve – 5 ≤ Solution We have – 5 ≤ or or –10 ≤ 5 – 3x ≤ 16 5≥x≥– 5 – 3x ≤ 8. (2) Solution From inequality (1).. we have two inequalities. Fig 6. we have 3x – 7 < 5 + x or x<6 ..15. x ≥ 2 .e. 2 5 – 3x ≤8 2 or – 15 ≤ – 3x ≤ 11 11 3 which can be written as –11 ≤ x ≤5 3 Example 18 Solve the system of inequalities: 3x – 7 < 5 + x 11 – 5 x ≤ 1 and represent the solutions on the number line.130 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Examples Example 16 Solve – 8 ≤ 5x – 3 < 7. (1) .

Putting C= 30 < or 5 (F – 32). 120 < x < 300 and or and or or i. Example 20 A manufacturer has 600 litres of a 12% solution of acid. Thus.LINEAR INEQUALITIES 131 Example 19 In an experiment. Then Total mixture = (x + 600) litres Therefore 30% x + 12% of 600 > 15% of (x + 600) and 30% x + 12% of 600 < 18% of (x + 600) or 30 x 12 15 + (600) > (x + 600) 100 100 100 30 x 12 18 + (600) < (x + 600) 100 100 100 30x + 7200 > 15x + 9000 30x + 7200 < 18x + 10800 15x > 1800 and 12x < 3600 x > 120 and x < 300. What is the range of temperature in degree Fahrenheit if conversion formula is given by C = 5 (F – 32). . Solution It is given that 30 < C < 35. where C and F represent temperature in degree 9 Celsius and degree Fahrenheit.e. we get 9 5 (F – 32) < 35. How many litres of a 30% acid solution must be added to it so that acid content in the resulting mixture will be more than 15% but less than 18%? Solution Let x litres of 30% acid solution is required to be added. 9 9 9 × (30) < (F – 32) < × (35) 5 5 or 54 < (F – 32) < 63 or 86 < F < 95. respectively. a solution of hydrochloric acid is to be kept between 30° and 35° Celsius. the required range of temperature is between 86° F and 95° F.

5x – 1 < 24 2 (x – 1) < x + 5. The resulting mixture is to be more than 4% but less than 6% boric acid. 3 (x + 2) > 2 – x 3x – 7 > 2 (x – 6) . Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 6 Solve the inequalities in Exercises 1 to 6. –3≤4− −12 < 4 − 7x ≤ 18 2 3x ≤2 −5 −15 < 3( x − 2 ) ≤0 5 6. how many litres of the 2% solution will have to be added? 13.132 MATHEMATICS Thus. 2 Solve the inequalities in Exercises 7 to 11 and represent the solution graphically on number line. A solution is to be kept between 68° F and 77° F. 5. 1. 11. IQ of a person is given by the formula IQ = MA × 100. How many litres of water will have to be added to 1125 litres of the 45% solution of acid so that the resulting mixture will contain more than 25% but less than 30% acid content? 14. If 80 ≤ IQ ≤ 140 for a group of 12 years old children. 8. . 10. find the range of their mental age. If we have 640 litres of the 8% solution. 9. 7. CA where MA is mental age and CA is chronological age. 6 – x > 11 – 2x 5 (2x – 7) – 3 (2x + 3) ≤ 0 . 7 ≤ ( 3x +11 ) ≤ 11 . A solution of 8% boric acid is to be diluted by adding a 2% boric acid solution to it. 6 ≤ – 3 (2x – 4) < 12 4. What is the range in temperature in degree Celsius (C) if the Celsius / Fahrenheit (F) conversion formula is given by F= 9 C + 32 ? 5 12. 2x + 19 ≤ 6x + 47 . 2. 5x + 1 > – 24. 2 ≤ 3x – 4 ≤ 5 3. the number of litres of the 30% solution of acid will have to be more than 120 litres but less than 300 litres.

which make an inequality a true statement. then the inequality is reversed. To represent x < a (or x > a) on a number line. put a circle on the number a and dark line to the left (or right) of the number a. >.LINEAR INEQUALITIES 133 Summary Two real numbers or two algebraic expressions related by the symbols <. ≤ or ≥ form an inequality. But when both sides are multiplied (or divided) by a negative number. Equal numbers may be added to (or subtracted from ) both sides of an inequality. The solution region of a system of inequalities is the region which satisfies all the given inequalities in the system simultaneously. If an inequality is having ≤ or ≥ symbol. Both sides of an inequality can be multiplied (or divided ) by the same positive number. are called solutions of the inequality. If an inequality is having < or > symbol. then the points on the line are not included in the solutions of the inequality and the graph of the inequality lies to the left (below) or right (above) of the graph of the corresponding equality represented by dotted line that satisfies an arbitrary point in that part. then the points on the line are also included in the solutions of the inequality and the graph of the inequality lies left (below) or right (above) of the graph of the equality represented by dark line that satisfies an arbitrary point in that part. The values of x. put a dark circle on the number a and dark the line to the left (or right) of the number x. — — . To represent x ≤ a (or x ≥ a) on a number line.

You remember only the first digit which is 7. you may. In order to open the lock. there are 2 choices of a shirt. we shall examine a principle which is most fundamental to the learning of these techniques. these techniques will be useful in determining the number of different ways of arranging and selecting objects without actually listing them.2 Fundamental Principle of Counting Let us consider the following problem. Some how. because there are 3 pants available. Therefore. Similarly. because the number of possible (1654-1705) sequences may be large. how many sequences of 3-digits you may have to check with? To answer this question. As a first step. in this Chapter. we shall learn some basic counting techniques which will enable us to answer this question without actually listing 3-digit arrangements. For every choice of a pant. there are 3 × 2 = 6 pairs of a pant and a shirt. 7. How many different pairs of a pant and a shirt. But. Mohan has 3 pants and 2 shirts. Here.Chapter 7 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS Every body of discovery is mathematical in form because there is no other guidance we can have – DARWIN 7. can he dress up with? There are 3 ways in which a pant can be chosen. The number lock has 4 wheels each labelled with 10 digits from 0 to 9. In fact. Jacob Bernoulli this method will be tedious. . a shirt can be chosen in 2 ways. The lock can be opened if 4 specific digits are arranged in a particular sequence with no repetition. start listing all possible arrangements of 9 remaining digits taken 3 at a time. immediately. you have forgotten this specific sequence of digits.1 Introduction Suppose you have a suitcase with a number lock.

the three tiffin boxes as T1. After a school bag is chosen. B2. these six possibilities can be illustrated in the Fig. a tiffin box can be chosen in 3 different ways. 7. W2. For each of these pairs a water Fig 7.2.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 135 Let us name the three pants as P1. Hence. In how many ways can she carry these items (choosing one each). T2. S2. T3 and the two water bottles as W1. P3 and the two shirts as S1.1. P2 . 3 tiffin boxes and 2 water bottles. there are 2 × 3 = 6 pairs of school bag and a tiffin box. 7. Sabnam can carry these items to school.2 . there are 6 × 2 = 12 different ways in which. Hence.1 bottle can be chosen in 2 differnt ways. these possibilities can be illustrated in the Fig. A school bag can be chosen in 2 different ways. Sabnam has 2 school bags. If we name the 2 school bags as B1. Then. Fig 7. Let us consider another problem of the same type.

S. following which a third event can occur in p different ways. with or without meaning. simply. the fourth place can be filled in 1 way. Here. is 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 24. following which another event can occur in n different ways. following which. .” In the first problem. the required number of words is 24. keeping in mind that the repetition is not allowed. following which another event can occur in n different ways. In the second problem. then the total number of occurrence to ‘the events in the given order is m × n × p. But. then the total number of occurrence of the events in the given order is m×n. which can be formed out of the letters of the word ROSE.O. the required number of ways of wearing a pant and a shirt was the number of different ways of the occurence of the following events in succession: (i) (ii) the event of choosing a pant the event of choosing a shirt. where the repetition of the letters is not allowed. the principle is as follows: ‘If an event can occur in m different ways. the events in each problem could occur in various possible orders. by the multiplication principle. Thus. we have to choose any one of the possible orders and count the number of different ways of the occurence of the events in this chosen order. for 3 events. Solution There are as many words as there are ways of filling in 4 vacant places by the 4 letters. which states that “If an event can occur in m different ways. The first place can be filled in 4 different ways by anyone of the 4 letters R. Example 1 Find the number of 4 letter words. For example.136 MATHEMATICS In fact. Hence.” The above principle can be generalised for any finite number of events. or. the multiplication principle. the required number of ways was the number of different ways of the occurence of the following events in succession: (i) (ii) (iii) the event of choosing a school bag the event of choosing a tiffin box the event of choosing a water bottle. Following which. the number of ways in which the 4 places can be filled.E. following which the third place can be filled in 2 different ways. in both the cases. the second place can be filled in by anyone of the remaining 3 letters in 3 different ways. the problems of the above types are solved by applying the following principle known as the fundamental principle of counting.

4. if a signal requires the use of 2 flags one below the other? Solution There will be as many signals as there are ways of filling in 2 vacant places in succession by the 4 flags of different colours. 10. 3. 4 flags and 5 flags separately and then add the respective numbers. . the required number of two digits even numbers is 2 × 5. because the options for this place are 2 and 4 only and this can be done in 2 ways. if five different flags are available. there will be as many 3 flag signals as there are ways of filling in 3 vacant places in succession by the 5 flags. 3 flags. 3 flags. 2. Now. Hence. let us count the possible number of signals consisting of 2 flags. the required number of signals = 4 × 3 = 12. Example 3 How many 2 digit even numbers can be formed from the digits 1. how many words can be formed? One can easily understand that each of the 4 vacant places can be filled in succession in 4 different ways. the lower vacant place can be filled in 3 different ways by anyone of the remaining 3 different flags. i. Solution A signal can consist of either 2 flags. by the multiplication principle. the required number of words = 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 = 256. Example 4 Find the number of different signals that can be generated by arranging at least 2 flags in order (one below the other) on a vertical staff. Therefore. Here. 4 flags or 5 flags. we start filling in unit’s place. following which.. 5 if the digits can be repeated? Solution There will be as many ways as there are ways of filling 2 vacant places in succession by the five given digits. Example 2 Given 4 flags of different colours. the number of ways is 5 × 4 = 20. how many different signals can be generated. The upper vacant place can be filled in 4 different ways by anyone of the 4 flags. in this case.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 137 Note If the repetition of the letters was allowed.e. by the multiplication principle. following which the ten’s place can be filled by any of the 5 digits in 5 different ways as the digits can be repeated. By Multiplication rule. Hence. There will be as many 2 flag signals as there are ways of filling in 2 vacant places in succession by the 5 flags available. Similarly.

The required number of words = 6 × 5 × 4 = 120 (by using multiplication principle). In other words.3 Permutations In Example 1 of the previous Section. 3. 3. REOS. the required no of signals = 20 + 60 + 120 + 120 = 320. Here. we are actually counting the different possible arrangements of the letters such as ROSE. 3. .. Here. in this list. if we have to determine the number of 3-letter words. NMU. 6 if the digits can be repeated? How many 4-letter code can be formed using the first 10 letters of the English alphabet. NUB. the order of writing the letters is important. repetition of the digits is allowed? repetition of the digits is not allowed? How many 3-digit even numbers can be formed from the digits 1. If the repetition of the letters was allowed. 5. ... EXERCISE 7. with or without meaning. 6. etc. where the repetition of the letters is not allowed. 5... 4. how many different signals can be generated if each signal requires the use of 2 flags.138 MATHEMATICS The number of ways is 5 × 4 × 3 = 60. we are counting the permutations of 6 different letters taken 3 at a time. Each arrangement is called a permutation of 4 different letters taken all at a time. one below the other? 7. 4 and 5 assuming that (i) (ii) 2. How many possible outcomes are there? Given 5 flags of different colours.1 1. we find that The number of 4 flag signals = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 = 120 and the number of 5 flag signals = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 120 Therefore. if no letter can be repeated? How many 5-digit telephone numbers can be constructed using the digits 0 to 9 if each number starts with 67 and no digit appears more than once? A coin is tossed 3 times and the outcomes are recorded. 4. 2. How many 3-digit numbers can be formed from the digits 1. 2.. MUN. we need to count the arrangements NUM. which can be formed out of the letters of the word NUMBER. Now. each arrangement is different from other. . the required number of words would be 6 × 6 × 6 = 216. Continuing the same way. etc.

. which is denoted by nPr. . .3. We read this symbol as ‘n factorial’. where 0 < r ≤ n and the objects do not repeat is n ( n – 1) ( n – 2). we shall obtain the formula needed to answer these questions immediately. the rth place can be filled in (n – (r – 1)) ways. 7. . (n – (r – 1)) or n ( n – 1) (n – 2) . We define 0 ! = 1 We can write 5 ! = 5 × 4 ! = 5 × 4 × 3 ! = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 ! = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1! Clearly... × (n – 1) × n = n ! 1=1! 1×2=2! 1× 2 × 3 = 3 ! 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 4 ! and so on. 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 . In the following text we will learn what actually n! means. Therefore. The first place can be filled in n ways.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 139 Definition 1 A permutation is an arrangement in a definite order of a number of objects taken some or all at a time. the product 1 × 2 × 3 × ..3. Proof There will be as many permutations as there are ways of filling in r vacant places .. Thus. .2 Factorial notation The notation n! represents the product of first n natural numbers.. In the following sub Section. i. . .1 Permutations when all the objects are distinct Theorem 1 The number of permutations of n different objects taken r at a time. the second place can be filled in (n – 1) ways. × (n – 1) × n is denoted as n!. The symbol n! (read as factorial n or n factorial ) comes to our rescue. following which the third place can be filled in (n – 2) ways.. the number of ways of filling in r vacant places in succession is n(n – 1) (n – 2) .. . for a natural number n n ! = n (n – 1) ! = n (n – 1) (n – 2) ! [provided (n ≥ 2)] = n (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) ! [provided (n ≥ 3)] and so on.( n – r + 1). .. ← r vacant places → by the n objects.. following which. 7.e. (n – r + 1) This expression for nPr is cumbersome and we need a notation which will help to reduce the size of this expression.

= 2 !( 5 − 2 )! 2! × 3! 2 We have Example 8 If 1 1 x + = 8! 9! 10! . 1 1 x Solution We have 8! + 9 × 8! = 10 × 9 × 8! Therefore So 1 x = or 9 10 × 9 x = 100. r = 2. Evaluate (i) 8 ! (ii) 4 ! – 3 ! . 1+ 10 x = 9 10 × 9 EXERCISE 7.140 MATHEMATICS Example 5 Evaluate (i) 5 ! Solution and (ii) 7 ! (iii) 7 ! – 5! (i) 5 ! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 = 120 (ii) 7 ! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 ×7 = 5040 (iii) 7 ! – 5! = 5040 – 120 = 4920. ( ) Solution 5! We have to evaluate 2! 5 − 2 ! (since n = 5. Example 6 Compute (i) 7! 5! 12! (ii) 10! (2!) ( ) Solution (i) We have 7 × 6 × 5! 7! = = 7 × 6 = 42 5! 5! and (ii) 12 × 11 × (10!) 12! = = 6 × 11 = 66. (10!) × ( 2 ) (10!) ( 2!) n! Example 7 Evaluate r ! n − r ! .2 1. when n = 5. r = 2) ( ) 5! 5! 4×5 = = 10 . find x.

. find x 6! 7! 8! 5.. n! = n! 0! Counting permutations is merely counting the number of ways in which some or all objects at a time are rearranged.0≤r ≤n . Is 3 ! + 4 ! = 7 ! ? n! Evaluate n − r ! . Thus n Pr = n! .0≤r≤n ( n − r )! n Let us now go back to the stage where we had determined the following formula: Pr = n (n – 1) (n – 2) . (n – r + 1) Multiplying numerator and denomirator by (n – r) (n – r – 1) .3. we can have In particular. we get n Pr = n ( n − 1) ( n − 2 ) .. Arranging no object at all is the same as leaving behind all the objects and we know that there is only one way of doing so..3 × 2 × 1 n! = . n Pn = n P0 = 1 = n! n! = n ! ( n − 0)! . when ( ) 3.. .3 × 2 × 1 ( n − r )! n Thus Pr = n! ( n − r )! . ( n − r )( n − r − 1) .3 Derivation of the formula for nPr n Pr = n! . If 1 1 x + = . the formula (1) is applicable for r = 0 also.. .. when r = n... r = 2 (ii) n = 9. Compute 8! 6! × 2! 4. r = 5. ( n − r )! . where 0 < r ≤ n This is a much more convenient expression for nPr than the previous one.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 141 2. (i) n = 6.( n − r + 1)( n − r )( n − r − 1) . . Thus. (1) Therefore. 3 × 2 × 1. 7.

Here. say. The number of 3-letter words which can be formed by the letters of the word 6! 6 NUMBER = P3 = 3! = 4 × 5 × 6 = 120.4 Permutations when all the objects are not distinct objects Suppose we have to find the number of ways of rearranging the letters of the word ROOT. Proof is very similar to that of Theorem 1 and is left for the reader to arrive at. RO 1O2T.e. Corresponding to this permutation. the required number of words would be 44 = 256. where repetition is allowed. the required number of words = 4P4 = 4! = 24. in this case also.. In Example 1.3. Consider one of these permutations say. The number of ways in which a Chairman and a Vice-Chairman can be chosen from amongst a group of 12 persons assuming that one person can not hold more than one position. Let us treat. RO1O 2 T ⎤ RO 2 O1T ⎥ ⎦ T O1O 2 R ⎤ T O2 O1R ⎥ ⎦ Permutations when O1. Here repetition is not allowed. If repeation is allowed. the required number of permutations = 2! = 3 × 4 = 12 . taken all at a time is 4!. if O1 and O2 are the same O at both places.we have 2 ! permutations RO1O2T and RO2O1T which will be exactly the same permutation if O1 and O2 are not treated as different. O1 and O2. in this case.the required number of words would be 63 = 216. If the repetition is allowed. Here. temporarily. O2 are the same O. i. is nr. Permutations when O1. which are of the same kind. 4! Therefore. O2 are different. ROOT TOOR . There are 2 Os. In this case. the letters of the word are not all different. we are solving some of the problems of the pervious Section using the formula for nPr to illustrate its usefulness.142 MATHEMATICS Theorem 2 The number of permutations of n different objects taken r at a time. 10! 7. the repetition is not allowed. the 2 Os as different. The number of permutations of 4-different letters. clearly 12 P2 = 12! = 11 × 12 = 132.

In this case there are 9 letters. say. taken all at a time is 9 !. The number of permutations of 9 different letters. in which I appears 2 times and T appears 3 times.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 143 R O1T O 2 ⎤ R O 2 T O1 ⎥ ⎦ ROTO T O1R O 2 ⎤ T O 2 R O1 ⎥ ⎦ R T O1 O 2 ⎤ R T O 2 O1 ⎥ ⎦ TORO RTOO T R O1 O 2 ⎤ T R O 2 O1 ⎥ ⎦ O1 O 2 R T ⎤ O2 O1 T R ⎥ ⎦ TROO OORT O1 R O 2 T ⎤ O 2 R O1 T ⎥ ⎦ O1 T O 2 R ⎤ O 2 T O1 R ⎥ ⎦ OROT OTOR O1 R T O 2 ⎤ O 2 R T O1 ⎥ ⎦ O1 T R O 2 ⎤ O 2 T R O1 ⎥ ⎦ ORTO OTRO O1 O 2 T R ⎤ O 2 O1 T R ⎥ ⎦ OOTR Let us now find the number of ways of rearranging the letters of the word INSTITUTE. let us treat these letters different and name them as I1. I2 are not same . T2. Temporarily. Here if I1. Consider one such permutation. T3. I2. T1. in this case. I1 NT1 SI2 T2 U E T3.

2.. . 1. the required 4 digit numbers = P4 = 9! 9! = = 9 × 8 × 7 × 6 = 3024.. there are 9 objects (letters) of which there are 4A’s. T2. 9 Therefore. 2 L’s and rest are all different. p2 are of second kind. if any. p1! p2! . Therefore. there will be as many 4 digit numbers as there are permutations of 9 different digits taken 4 at a time. Solution Here.. T3 can be arranged in 3! ways. pk are of kth kind and the rest. I2 can be arranged in 2! ways and T1. we have a more general theorem. total number of different permutations will be 9! 2! 3! We can state (without proof) the following theorems: Theorem 3 The number of permutations of n objects. Hence.. first. We. Theorem 4 The number of permutations of n objects. where p objects are of the same kind and rest are all different = n! p! . 3. In fact. are of different kind is n! . then I1. ( 9 – 4 )! 5! Example 11 How many numbers lying between 100 and 1000 can be formed with the digits 0. where p1 objects are of one kind. Therefore. 4. if the repetition of the digits is not allowed? Solution Every number between 100 and 1000 is a 3-digit number. T2. pk! Example 9 Find the number of permutations of the letters of the word ALLAHABAD. 5. 2! × 3! permutations will be just the same permutation corresponding to this chosen permutation I1NT1SI2T2UET3. have to .144 MATHEMATICS and T1.. T3 are not same. Therefore. the required number of arrangements = 9! 5× 6× 7 ×8× 9 = = 7560 4! 2! 2 Example 10 How many 4-digit numbers can be formed by using the digits 1 to 9 if repetition of digits is not allowed? Solution Here order matters for example 1234 and 1324 are two different numbers.

PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 145 count the permutations of 6 digits taken 3 at a time. . etc are such numbers which are actually 2-digit numbers and hence the number of such numbers has to be subtracted from 6P3 to get the required number. these permutations will include those also where 0 is at the 100’s place. n (ii) Given that Therefore or or n –1 P4 5 = P4 3 3n (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) = 5(n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) (n – 4) 3n = 5 (n – 4) [as (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) ≠ 0. we fix 0 at the 100’s place and rearrange the remaining 5 digits taking 2 at a time. For example. So The required number = 6 P3 − 5 P2 = 6! 5! − 3! 3! = 4 × 5 × 6 – 4 ×5 = 100 Example 12 Find the value of n such that n (i) n P5 = 42 n P3 . 092. . This number is 5P2.. 042. by dividing both sides by n(n – 1) (n – 2). . To get the number of such numbers. n > 4] n = 10. But. . This number would be 6P3. so n = 10. n > 4 (ii) n –1 P4 5 = . we get (n – 3 (n – 4) = 42 or or or n2 – 7n – 30 = 0 n2 – 10n + 3n – 30 (n – 10) (n + 3) = 0 or n – 10 = 0 or n + 3 = 0 or n = 10 or n = – 3 As n cannot be negative.n>4 P4 3 Solution (i) Given that or Since P5 = 42 n P3 n (n – 1) (n – 2) (n – 3) (n – 4) = 42 n(n – 1) (n – 2) n n>4 so n(n – 1) (n – 2) ≠ 0 Therefore.

This number would be 6P6 = 6!. if 5 4Pr = 6 5Pr–1 . Example 14 Find the number of different 8-letter arrangements that can be made from the letters of the word DAUGHTER so that (ii) all vowels do not occur together. U. Then we count permutations of these 6 objects taken all at a time. by the multiplication principle the required number of permutations = 6 ! × 3 ! = 4320. A. Since the vowels have to occur together. in which there are 3 vowels.146 MATHEMATICS Example 13 Find r. (i) all vowels occur together Solution (i) There are 8 different letters in the word DAUGHTER. we shall have 3! permutations of the three vowels A. assume them as a single object (AUE). we have to subtract from this number. the number of permutations in which the vowels are always together. 3 yellow and 2 green discs be arranged in a row if the discs of the same colour are indistinguishable ? Solution Total number of discs are 4 + 3 + 2 = 9. which can be done in 8! ways. 4 are of the first kind . (ii) If we have to count those permutations in which all vowels are never together. Hence. we first have to find all possible arrangments of 8 letters taken all at a time. Solution We have 5 4 Pr = 6 5 Pr −1 or 5× 4! 5! = 6× ( 4 − r )! ( 5 − r + 1)! or or or or or or Hence 5! 6 × 5! = ( 4 − r )! ( 5 − r + 1) ( 5 − r )( 5 − r − 1)! (6 – r) (5 – r) = 6 r2 – 11r + 24 = 0 r2 – 8r – 3r + 24 = 0 (r – 8) (r – 3) = 0 r = 8 or r = 3. This single object together with 5 remaining letters (objects) will be counted as 6 objects. Out of 9 discs. r = 8. Corresponding to each of these permutations. we can for the time being. 3. namely. Then. Therefore. U and E. the required number 8 ! – 6 ! × 3 ! = 6 ! (7×8 – 6) = 2 × 6 ! (28 – 3) = 50 × 6 ! = 50 × 720 = 36000 Example 15 In how many ways can 4 red. E taken all at a time .

4! 3! 2! Example 16 Find the number of arrangements of the letters of the word INDEPENDENCE. 3 are of the second kind (yellow) and 2 are of the third kind (green). E appears 4 times and D appears 2 times and the rest are all different. we treat them as a single object being. E and I can be rearranged in 5! ways. Therefore. Therefore 12! The required number of arrangements = 3! 4! 2! = 1663200 (i) Let us fix P at the extreme left position. (i) do the words start with P (ii) do all the vowels always occur together (iii) do the vowels never occur together (iv) do the words begin with I and end in P? Solution There are 12 letters. the required of words starting with P are = (ii) 11! = 138600 . .PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 147 (red). the number of arrangements 9! = 1260 . of which N appears 3 times. by multiplication principle the 4! required number of arrangements = 8! 5! × = 16800 3! 2! 4! (iii) The required number of arrangements = the total number of arrangements (without any restriction) – the number of arrangements where all the vowels occur together. Since. 3! 2! 4! for the time There are 5 vowels in the given word. Therefore. E. in which there are 3Ns and 2 Ds. the 5 vowels E. Therefore. In how many of these arrangements. These 8 objects. they have to always occur together. can be rearranged in 8! 3! 2! ways. count the arrangements of the remaining 11 letters. which are 4 Es and 1 I. then. E. we. Corresponding to each of these arrangements. This single object together with 7 remaining objects will account for 8 objects.

A team consisting of 2 players is to be formed. in how many ways can we choose a chairman and a vice chairman assuming one person can not hold more than one position? 6. 4. if no digit is repeated? 4. How many 3-digit even numbers can be made using the digits 1. there are only 3 possible ways in which the team could be constructed.148 MATHEMATICS (iv) = 1663200 – 16800 = 1646400 Let us fix I and P at the extreme ends (I at the left end and P at the right end). Find r if (i) 5 Pr = 2 6 Pr−1 (ii) 5 Pr = 6 Pr −1 . (i) 4 letters are used at a time. . 8. 2. Hence. 6. In how many ways can the letters of the word PERMUTATIONS be arranged if the (ii) vowels are all together. (ii) all letters are used at a time. (iii) all letters are used but first letter is a vowel? 10. 5 if no digit is repeated. How many 4-digit numbers are there with no digit repeated? 3. if. How many of these will be even? 5. In fact. 3. assuming that no letter is repeated. (i) words start with P and end with S.4 Combinations Let us now assume that there is a group of 3 lawn tennis players X. order is not important. using each letter exactly once? 9. How many 3-digit numbers can be formed by using the digits 1 to 9 if no digit is repeated? 2. We are left with 10 letters. In how many ways can we do so? Is the team of X and Y different from the team of Y and X ? Here. (iii) there are always 4 letters between P and S? 7. From a committee of 8 persons. Find n if n – 1P3 : nP4 = 1 : 9. How many words. Find the number of 4-digit numbers that can be formed using the digits 1. How many words. 4. 3.3 1. Y. Z. the required number of arrangements = 10! = 12600 3! 2! 4! EXERCISE 7. 7. with or without meaning can be made from the letters of the word MONDAY. can be formed using all the letters of the word EQUATION. 7. In how many of the distinct permutations of the letters in MISSISSIPPI do the four I’s not come together? 11. with or without meaning. 2.

B. On the other hand. these will be ABC. ADE. the order is not important. Here. if we have to make combinations. Taking 2 at a time. C. we obtain the formula for finding the number of combinations of n different objects taken r at a time. there are 3! permutations. Corresponding to each combination in the list. because. E. In a combination. Seven points lie on a circle. the number of permutations of 4 different things taken 2 at a time = 4P2.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 149 Fig.e. AB and BA are the same combination as order does not alter the combination. we can arrive at 2! permutations as 2 objects in each combination can be rearranged in 2! ways. CDE.3). 7. There will be as many hand shakes as there are combinations of 12 different things taken 2 at a time. Corresponding to each of these 5C3 combinations. D. BC. BCD. Hence. BCE. Here. AD. ABD. denoted by nCr. i. This is why we have not included BA.. BD. BDE. YZ and ZX (Fig 7. CA. Suppose we have 4 different objects A. Therefore 4 P2 = 4C2 × 2! or 4! = 4C2 ( 4 − 2 )! 2! Now. DA. if we have to make combinations. Now consider some more illustrations. 4C2 = 6. CB. AC. X shaking hands with Y and Y with X will not be two different hand shakes. ACD. the three objects in each combination can be . Twelve persons meet in a room and each shakes hand with all the others. C and D. let us suppose that we have 5 different objects A. CD. How do we determine the number of hand shakes.. ACE. each selection is called a combination of 3 different objects taken 2 at a time. Here. B. order is not important. How many chords can be drawn by joining these points pairwise? There will be as many chords as there are combinations of 7 different things taken 2 at a time. these will be AB. Now. Taking 3 at a time. There are as many as 6 combinations of 4 different objects taken 2 at a time. DB and DC in this list. the number of permutations = 4C2 × 2!. ABE.3 These are XY.

n Cn− r = n! n! = n − r !r ! = n C r . the number of combinations of n different things taken nothing at all is considered to be 1. n! = 1. On the other hand. This way we define nC0 = 1. if r = n . n! = 1 = n C0 . Proof Corresponding to each combination of nCr we have r ! permutations. From above ( n − r )! = C r × r! .e. the total of permutations = 5 C3 × 3! Therefore 5 P3 = 5C3 × 3! or 5! = 5 C3 ( 5 − 3)! 3! These examples suggest the following theorem showing relationship between permutaion and combination: Theorem 5 n Pr = n C r r! . Therefore. i.150 MATHEMATICS rearranged in 3 ! ways. 0 ≤ r ≤ n.. 0 < r ≤ n . it is n n r . 4. r (n − r ) Hence n r = r (n − r ) . ( n − r )!( n − ( n − r ) )! ( ) . Hence. Thus Pr = n C r × r! . the formula 0!( n − 0 )! n n r = n is applicable for r = 0 also. Counting combinations is merely counting the number of ways in which some or all objects at a time are selected. n In particular. Cn = Cr = n! r!( n − r )! . Selecting nothing at all is the same as leaving behind all the objects and we know that there is only one way of doing so.e. n! 0! 2. because r objects in every combination can be rearranged in r ! ways. As 3. the total number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time is nCr × r!. n n! n Remarks 1.. i. 0 < r ≤ n. We define nC0 = 1.

find Solution We have n C9 = n C8 i. n Ca = nCb ⇒ a = b or a = n – b. we need to count combinations. 1 man can be selected from 2 men in 2C1 ways and 2 women can be selected from 3 women in 3C2 ways. There will be as many committees as there are combinations of 5 different persons 5 taken 3 at a time. .e. the required number of committees . the required number of ways = C3 = 5! 4 × 5 = = 10 . Therefore. order does not matter. Therefore. i. 5. or n = 17 C17 = 17 Example 18 A committee of 3 persons is to be constituted from a group of 2 men and 3 women.. Hence. In how many ways can this be done? How many of these committees would consist of 1 man and 2 women? Solution Here.. selecting r objects out of n objects is same as rejecting (n – r) objects. n = a + b n Theorem 6 C r + n C r −1 = n n +1 Cr Proof We have Cr + n Cr −1 = n! n! + r!( n − r )! ( r − 1)!( n − r + 1)! = n! n! + r × ( r − 1)!( n − r )! ( r − 1)!( n − r + 1) ( n − r )! = 1 ⎤ n! ⎡1 ⎢ r + n − r + 1⎥ ( r − 1)!( n − r )! ⎣ ⎦ n! n − r +1+ r ( n + 1)! = n +1 C × = r ( r − 1)!( n − r )! r ( n − r + 1) r!( n + 1 − r )! n = Example 17 If n C9 = n C8 .PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 151 i. n! n! = 9!( n − 9 )! ( n − 8 )! 8! or Therefore 1 1 = 9 n −8 n or n – 8 = 9 C17 = 1 ..e. 3! 2! 2 Now.e.

four cards belong to four different suits. cards are of the same colour? Solution There will be as many ways of choosing 4 cards from 52 cards as there are combinations of 52 different things. 13 C1 ways of choosing 1 card from 13 cards of hearts. Similarly. the required number of ways = 13C1 × 13C1 × 13C1× 13C1 = 134 (iii) There are 12 face cards and 4 are to be slected out of these 12 cards. the required number of ways = 13! = 2860 4! 9! 12! = 495 . This can be done in 12C4 ways. spade. Therefore. there are 13C4 ways of choosing 4 diamonds. Therefore. Therefore. Hence. 13C1 ways of choosing 1 card from 13 cards of spades. = 4× (ii) There are13 cards in each suit. heart and there are 13 cards of each suit. 13C1 ways of choosing 1 card from 13 cards of clubs. club. Therefore The required number of ways = 13C4 + 13C4 + 13C4 + 13C4. there are 13 C4 ways of choosing 4 clubs. 4! 8! .152 MATHEMATICS 2 3 = C1 × C2 = 2! 3! × = 6. are face cards. Therefore The required number of ways = 52 C4 = 52! 49 × 50 × 51× 52 = 4! 48! 2× 3× 4 = 270725 (i) There are four suits: diamond. two are red cards and two are black cards. 13C4 ways of choosing 4 spades and 13C4 ways of choosing 4 hearts. 1! 1! 2! 1! Example 19 What is the number of ways of choosing 4 cards from a pack of 52 playing cards? In how many of these (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) four cards are of the same suit. taken 4 at a time. there are 13C1 ways of choosing 1 card from 13 cards of diamond. by multiplication principle.

6. find nC2. Therefore. 3. L and T. V. with or without meaning. the required number of ways = 26C4 + 26C4 = 2× 26! = 29900. 2.4 1. N. namely.Uand 4 consonants. In how many ways can one select a cricket team of eleven from 17 players in which only 5 players can bowl if each cricket team of 11 must include exactly 4 bowlers? A bag contains 5 black and 6 red balls.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 153 (iv) There are 26 red cards and 26 black cards.E. Determine the number of ways in which 2 black and 3 red balls can be selected. I.O. . Miscellaneous Examples Example 20 How many words. Therefore. namely. Determine the number of 5 card combinations out of a deck of 52 cards if there is exactly one ace in each combination. each of 3 vowels and 2 consonants can be formed from the letters of the word INVOLUTE ? Solution In the word INVOLUTE. In how many ways can a student choose a programme of 5 courses if 9 courses are available and 2 specific courses are compulsory for every student? 8. 5. Determine n if (ii) 2nC3 : nC3 = 11 : 1 (i) 2nC2 : nC2 = 12 : 1 How many chords can be drawn through 21 points on a circle? In how many ways can a team of 3 boys and 3 girls be selected from 5 boys and 4 girls? Find the number of ways of selecting 9 balls from 6 red balls. 26 2 C 4 ways. the required number of ways = 26C2 × 26C2 ⎛ 26! ⎞ 2 =⎜ ⎟ = ( 325) = 105625 2! 24! ⎠ ⎝ (v) 4 red cards can be selected out of 26 red cards on 4 black cards can be selected out of 26 black cards in 26C4ways. 4! 22! EXERCISE 7. If nC8 = nC2. 5 white balls and 5 blue balls if each selection consists of 3 balls of each colour. 4. 7. 9. there are 4 vowels.

the team has to consist of at least 3 girls. Therefore. Therefore. the required number of different words is 24 × 5 ! = 2880. the required number of ways = 7C1 × 4C4 + 7C2 × 4C3 + 7C3 × 4C2 + 7C4 × 4C1 = 7 + 84 + 210 + 140 = 441 (iii) Since. the required number of ways = 4C3 × 7C2 + 4C4 × 7C1 = 84 + 7 = 91 . the team can consist of (a) 3 girls and 2 boys. 4 boys and 1 girl can be selected in 7C4 × 4C1 ways. each of these 24 combinations has 5 letters which can be arranged among themselves in 5 ! ways. 5 boys out of 7 boys can be selected in 7C5 ways. 3 boys and 2 girls can be selected in 7C3 × 4C2 ways. 3 girls and 2 boys can be selected in 4C3 × 7C2 ways. Therefore. Now. the team can consist of (a) 1 boy and 4 girls (c) 3 boys and 2 girls (b) 2 boys and 3 girls (d) 4 boys and 1 girl. Therefore. the number of combinations of 3 vowels and 2 consonants is 4 × 6 = 24. the group has only 4 girls. the team will not include any girl. 4 girls and 1 boy can be selected in 4C4 × 7C1 ways. Therefore. the required number of ways (ii) 7! 6× 7 7 = C5 = 5! 2! = 2 = 21 Since. 2 boys and 3 girls can be selected in 7C2 × 4C3 ways. because. Note that the team cannot have all 5 girls. only boys are to be selected. or (b) 4 girls and 1 boy. Example 21 A group consists of 4 girls and 7 boys. at least one boy and one girl are to be there in every team.154 MATHEMATICS The number of ways of selecting 3 vowels out of 4 = 4C3 = 4. Therefore. 1 boy and 4 girls can be selected in 7C1 × 4C4 ways. In how many ways can a team of 5 members be selected if the team has (i) no girl ? (ii) at least one boy and one girl ? (iii) at least 3 girls ? Solution (i) Since. therefore. The number of ways of selecting 2 consonants out of 4 = 4C2 = 6.

0. The 50th word is NAAIG. Similarly. 2s and 2. Therefore. There will be as many arrangements of these 4 letters taken 4 at a time as there are permutations of 4 different things taken 4 at a time. 2. 2. 2. The 49th word is NAAGI. Therefore. Hence. A. 2. the number of words starting with A = 4! = 24. we are left with the letters A. Then.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 155 Example 22 Find the number of words with or without meaning which can be made using all the letters of the word AGAIN. The number of numbers beginning with 1 = 6! 4 × 5 × 6 = = 60. 2! To get the number of words starting with A. the numbers have to be greater than 1000000. the remaining digits to be rearranged will be 0. I and N. Total number of words so far obtained = 24 + 12 + 12 =48. 4. 4? Solution Since. 4s. 4. so they can begin either with 1. Example 23 How many numbers greater than 1000000 can be formed by using the digits 1. the number of words = 4! = 12 as after placing G 2! at the extreme left position. we fix the letter A at the extreme left position. in which A appears 2 times. 2. 2. what will be the 50th word? Solution There are 5 letters in the word AGAIN. in which there are 3. Total numbers begining with 2 = 6! 3× 4 × 5 × 6 = = 180 2! 2! 2 6! = 4 × 5 × 6 = 120 3! and total numbers begining with 4 = . 2 or 4. as when 1 is 3! 2! 2 fixed at the extreme left position. the required number of words = 5! = 60 . 4. there are 12 words starting with the next letter I. the numbers to be counted will be 7-digit only. If these words are written as in a dictionary. 1000000 is a 7-digit number and the number of digits to be used is also 7. starting with G. we then rearrange the remaining 4 letters taken all at a time. Also.

156 MATHEMATICS Therefore. it will be understood that in any number. can be formed using all the letters of the word EQUATION at a time so that the vowels and consonants occur together? 3. Note If one or more than one digits given in the list is repeated.g. Example 24 In how many ways can 5 girls and 3 boys be seated in a row so that no two boys are together? Solution Let us first seat the 5 girls. the three boys can be seated only at the cross marked places. the total number of ways 6! 3! = 4 × 5 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 = 14400. by multiplication principle. respectively. Hence. There are 6 cross marked places and the three boys can be seated in 6P3 ways.. But. with or without meaning. This can be done in 5! ways. the required number of numbers = 60 + 180 + 120 = 360. which have 0 at the extreme left position. clearly. this will include those numbers also. How many words. in the above example 1 and 0 can be used only once whereas 2 and 4 can be used 3 times and 2 times. If the different permutations of all the letter of the word EXAMINATION are . = 5! × 6P3 = 5!× Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 7 1. For each such arrangement. In how many ways can this be done when the committee consists of: (i) exactly 3 girls ? (ii) atleast 3 girls ? (iii) atmost 3 girls ? 4. each of 2 vowels and 3 consonants can be formed from the letters of the word DAUGHTER ? 2. A committee of 7 has to be formed from 9 boys and 4 girls. How many words. 3! 2! = 420 . e. the required number of numbers = 420 – 60 = 360. The number of such 6! arrangements 3! 2! (by fixing 0 at the extreme left position) = 60. × G × G × G × G × G ×. Therefore. the digits can be used as many times as is given in the list. Alternative Method 7! The number of 7-digit arrangements. with or without meaning.

a question paper consists of 12 questions divided into two parts i. There are 3 students who decide that either all of them will join or none of them will join. is denoted by nPr and is given by nPr = n! (n − r )! . where repetition is not allowed.. 11. In how many ways can the excursion party be chosen ? In how many ways can the letters of the word ASSASSINATION be arranged so that all the S’s are together ? Summary Fundamental principle of counting If an event can occur in m different ways. 1. 6. In how many ways can a student select the questions ? Determine the number of 5-card combinations out of a deck of 52 cards if each selection of 5 cards has exactly one king. 10 are to be chosen for an excursion party. n! = 1 × 2 × 3 × . then the total number of occurrence of the events in the given order is m × n. 5. where repeatition is allowed. 10. 7. listed as in a dictionary. where 0 ≤ r ≤ n. How many words with two different vowels and 2 different consonants can be formed from the alphabet ? In an examination. 9..×n n! = n × (n – 1) ! The number of permutations of n different things. It is required to seat 5 men and 4 women in a row so that the women occupy the even places. The number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time. following which another event can occur in n different ways. where p1 objects . how many words are there in this list before the first word starting with E ? How many 6-digit numbers can be formed from the digits 0. How many such arrangements are possible ? From a class of 25 students. is nr. containing 5 and 7 questions. A student is required to attempt 8 questions in all.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 157 5. 3.. 8. respectively. selecting at least 3 from each part. Part I and Part II.e. The number of permutations of n objects taken all at a time. 7 and 9 which are divisible by 10 and no digit is repeated ? The English alphabet has 5 vowels and 21 consonants. taken r at a time.

1 2 k The number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time. are all different is p ! p !. Pingala.. The credit. two at a time. asserts that 63 combinations can be made out of 6 different tastes.. Historical Note The concepts of permutations and combinations can be traced back to the advent of Jainism in India and perhaps even earlier.C.) is perhaps the world’s first mathematician credited with providing the general formulae for permutations and combinations. is given by nCr = = n! r!( n − r )! .. since in 213 B..) treated the subject matter of permutations and combinations under the name Anka Pasha in his famous work Lilavati. This was around 1140 A. pk objects are of the kth n! kind and rest. Mahavira.D. Among the Jains. Some Arabic and Hebrew writers used the concepts of permutations and combinations in studying astronomy.. Rabbi ben Ezra.. Outside India.158 MATHEMATICS are of first kind. in his medicinal work.C. taken one at a time. Sushruta Samhita.D. It is difficult to give the approximate time of this work.C.. if any. In the 6th century B. Greeks and later Latin writers also did some scattered work on the theory of permutations and combinations. however. Bhaskaracharya gives several important theorems and results concerning the subject. . Bhaskaracharya (born 1114 A. p ! . gives the method of determining the number of combinations of a given number of letters. Sushruta. three at a time and so on. p2 objects are of the second kind. two at a time. 0 ≤ r ≤ n. etc. etc. under the name Vikalpa. denoted by n Cr . It appears that Rabbi ben Ezra did not . a Sanskrit scholar around third century B. the subject matter of permutations and combinations had its humble beginnings in China in the famous book I–King (Book of changes). the emperor had ordered all books and manuscripts in the country to be burnt which fortunately was not completely carried out. in his work Chhanda Sutra. for instance. (around 850 A.D.. goes to the Jains who treated its subject matter as a self-contained topic in mathematics. In addition to the general formulae for nCr and nPr already provided by Mahavira. taken one at a time. determined the number of combinations of known planets taken two at a time.

posthumously published in 1713 A. — — .D. The first book which gives a complete treatment of the subject matter of permutations and combinations is Ars Conjectandi written by a Swiss. Jacob Bernoulli (1654 – 1705 A. he was aware that nCr = nCn–r for specific values n and r.. However.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 159 know the formula for nCr. another Hebrew writer came up with the formulae for nPr . nPn and the general formula for nCr.D.D. Levi Ben Gerson. In 1321 A. This book contains essentially the theory of permutations and combinations as is known today.).

– C.. we could evaluate the numerical values of numbers like (98)2 = (100 – 2)2.2 Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Indices Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) Let us have a look at the following identities done earlier: (a+ b)0 = 1 a+b≠0 (a+ b)1 = a + b (a+ b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 (a+ b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3 (a+ b)4 = (a + b)3 (a + b) = a4 + 4a3b + 6a2b2 + 4ab3 + b4 In these expansions. number of terms is 3 whereas the index of (a + b)2 is 2. It gives an easier way to expand (a + b)n. we have learnt how to find the squares and cubes of binomials like a + b and a – b. (101)6.P. we study binomial theorem for positive integral indices only. in the expansion of (a + b)2 . for higher powers like (98)5. (999)3 = (1000 – 1)3. This difficulty was overcome by a theorem known as binomial theorem. in the successive terms. etc. However. the calculations become difficult by using repeated multiplication. In this Chapter. STEINMETZ 8. For example. (iii) In each term of the expansion. . the sum of the indices of a and b is the same and is equal to the index of a + b.1 Introduction In earlier classes. 8.Chapter 8 BINOMIAL THEOREM Mathematics is a most exact science and its conclusions are capable of absolute proofs. we observe that (i) The total number of terms in the expansion is one more than the index. Using them. where n is an integer or a rational number. (ii) Powers of the first quantity ‘a’ go on decreasing by 1 whereas the powers of the second quantity ‘b’ increase by 1. etc.

(ii) and (iii).2 looks like a triangle with 1 at the top vertex and running down the two slanting sides. Let us expand (2x + 3y)5 by using Pascal’s triangle. we get (2x + 3y)5 = (2x)5 + 5(2x)4 (3y) + 10(2x)3 (3y)2 +10 (2x)2 (3y)3 + 5(2x)(3y)4 +(3y)5 = 32x5 + 240x4y + 720x3y2 + 1080x2y3 + 810xy4 + 243y5.1 Do we observe any pattern in this table that will help us to write the next row? Yes we do. Fig 8. gives rise to 3 and 3 in the row for index 3 and so on.BINOMIAL THEOREM 161 We now arrange the coefficients in these expansions as follows (Fig 8.2 Pascal’s Triangle The structure given in Fig 8. The row for index 5 is 1 5 10 10 5 1 Using this row and our observations (i). We can extend the pattern given in Fig 8. This array of numbers is known as Pascal’s triangle. after the name of French mathematician Blaise Pascal. 1 is present at the beginning and at the end of each row. This can be continued till any index of our interest. Also. 2 and 2. 1 in the row for index 2. Expansions for the higher powers of a binomial are also possible by using Pascal’s triangle.2 by writing a few more rows. .1): Fig 8. It can be seen that the addition of 1’s in the row for index 1 gives rise to 2 in the row for index 2. It is also known as Meru Prastara by Pingla. The addition of 1.

3) Fig 8. using this row and the observations (i). (ii) and (iii). we are first required to get the row for index 12. We are now in a position to write the expansion of a binomial to any positive integral index. . as you observe. 0 ≤ r ≤ n and n is a non-negative integer. that come before the row of the desired index. we can now write the row of the Pascal’s triangle for any index without writing the earlier rows. will become more difficult. Also. Thus. We know that n Cr = n! r!(n – r )! . This is a slightly lengthy process. for the index 7 the row would be 7 C0 7C1 7C2 7C3 7C4 7C5 7C6 7C7. We thus try to find a rule that will help us to find the expansion of the binomial for any power without writing all the rows of the Pascal’s triangle. For this. nC0 = 1 = nCn The Pascal’s triangle can now be rewritten as (Fig 8.3 Pascal’s triangle Observing this pattern. For example. we have (a + b)7 = 7C0 a7 + 7C1a6b + 7C2a5b2 + 7C3a4b3 + 7C4a3b4 + 7C5a2b5 + 7C6ab6 + 7C7b7 An expansion of a binomial to any positive integral index say n can now be visualised using these observations. if we need the expansions involving still larger powers. we make use of the concept of combinations studied earlier to rewrite the numbers in the Pascal’s triangle. if we want to find the expansion of (2x + 3y)12.162 MATHEMATICS Now. This can be done by writing all the rows of the Pascal’s triangle till index 12. The process.

2 + 6C2x422 + 6C3x3..BINOMIAL THEOREM 163 8.26.. i.. it has been proved that P (k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. Suppose P (k) is true for some positive integer k.. Therefore. .....23 + 6C4x2...bn–1 + nCnbn Proof The proof is obtained by applying principle of mathematical induction. + (kCk+ kCk–1) abk + kCkbk + 1 (by using k+1 [grouping like terms] = k + 1C0a k + 1 + k + 1C1akb + k + 1C2 ak – 1b2 +.+ kCk – 1 a2bk – 1 + kCk abk + kC0 akb + kC1ak – 1b2 + kC2ak – 2b3+. We illustrate this theorem by expanding (x + 2)6: (x + 2)6 = 6C0x6 + 6C1x5.+ nCn – 1a.1 Binomial theorem for any positive integer n. (1) C0 ak + 1 + k+1 C 1 ak b + k+1 C2 ak – 1b2 + .. Let the given statement be P(n) : (a + b)n = nC0an + nC1an – 1b + nC2an – 2b2 + .+ k + 1Ckabk + k + 1Ck + 1 bk +1 C0=1.e.e.25 + 6C6.bn – 1 + nCnbn For n = 1.. (a + b)k + 1 = k+1 .2.. P(n) is true for every positive integer n. P (1) is true.. (a + b)k = kC0ak + kC1ak – 1b + kC2ak – 2b2 + .+ k+1 Ck+1 bk + 1 Now....24 + 6C5x.+ kCk-1abk + kCkbk + 1 [by actual multiplication] = kC0ak + 1 + (kC1+ kC0) akb + (kC2 + kC1)ak – 1b2 + . by principle of mathematical induction... = x6 + 12x5 + 60x4 + 160x3 + 240x2 + 192x + 64 Thus (x + 2)6 = x6 + 12x5 + 60x4 + 160x3 + 240x2 + 192x + 64. (a + b)k + 1 = (a + b) (a + b)k = (a + b) (kC0 ak + kC1ak – 1 b + kC2 ak – 2 b2 +.+ nCn–1a.+ kCkbk We shall prove that P(k + 1) is also true.. kCr + kCr–1 = k+1 Cr and k Ck = 1= k + 1Ck + 1) Thus. (a + b)n = nC0an + nC1an–1b + nC2an–2 b2 + .+ kCk – 1 abk – 1 + kCk bk) [from (1)] = kC0 ak + 1 + kC1 akb + kC2ak – 1b2 +. i. we have P (1) : (a + b)1 = 1C0a1 + 1C1b1 = a + b Thus..

+ nCnxn = nC0 + nC1x + nC2x2 + nC3x3 + . (ii) Taking a = 1... starting with zero in the first term. There are (n+1) terms in the expansion of (a+b)n.. Hence the theorem can also be stated as ( a + b) n = ∑ n C k a n − k b k . (n–1) in the second term. and so on ending with zero in the last term. i. 5.. + (–1)n nCn yn Thus (x–y)n = nC0xn – nC1xn – 1 y + nC2xn – 2 y2 + . In the expansion of (a+b)n. we have (x–2y)5 = 5 5 C0x5 – 5C1x4 (2y) + 5C2x3 (2y)2 – 5C3x2 (2y)3 + C4 x(2y)4 – 5C5(2y)5 = x5 –10x4y + 40x3y2 – 80x2y3 + 80xy4 – 32y5. k =0 n 2. + nCnxn Thus (1 + x)n = nC0 + nC1x + nC2x2 + nC3x3 + .2 Some special cases In the expansion of (a + b)n.164 MATHEMATICS Observations 1.. 3...e. 8. it can be seen that the sum of the indices of a and b is n in every term of the expansion.2.. 1 in the second and so on ending with n in the last term.. we obtain (x – y)n = [x + (–y)]n = nC0xn + nC1xn – 1(–y) + nC2xn–2(–y)2 + nC3xn–3(–y)3 + . Thus. In the successive terms of the expansion the index of a goes on decreasing by unity... The notation n n 0 n ∑ k =0 n n C k a n− k b k stands for C0a b + C1an–1b1 + . The coefficients nCr occuring in the binomial theorem are known as binomial coefficients. + (–1)n nCn yn Using this. (i) Taking a = x and b = – y.+nCnan–nbn. the sum of the indices of a and b is n + 0 = n in the first term.. we obtain (1 + x)n = nC0(1)n + nC1(1)n – 1x + nC2(1)n – 2 x2 + . + nCnxn . b = x. where b0 = 1 = an–n.... It is n in the first term. one more than the index. At the same time the index of b increases by unity. + nCn (–y)n = nC0xn – nC1xn – 1y + nC2xn – 2y2 – nC3xn – 3y3 + .+ nC ran–rbr + ... 4. (n – 1) + 1 = n in the second term and so on 0 + n = n in the last term.

2 + 5C2 (100)322 – 5C3 (100)2 (2)3 + 5C4 (100) (2)4 – 5C5 (2)5 = 10000000000 – 5 × 100000000 × 2 + 10 × 1000000 × 4 – 10 ×10000 × 8 + 5 × 100 × 16 – 32 = 10040008000 – 1000800032 = 9039207968. + (– 1)n nCnxn In particular. x x4 = x8 + 12x5 + 54x2 + Example 2 Compute (98)5. Write 98 = 100 – 2 Therefore. we have 4 ⎛3⎞ ⎛ 2 3⎞ 4 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎜ x + ⎟ = C0(x2)4 + 4C1(x2)3 ⎜ x ⎟ + 4C2(x2)2 ⎜ ⎟ + 4C3(x2) ⎜ ⎟ + 4C4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ x⎠ ⎝ x⎠ ⎝ x⎠ 2 3 4 4 = x8 + 4. we have 2n = nC0 + nC1 + nC2 + .01 and using binomial theorem to write the first few terms we have .. and then use Binomial Theorem.000? Solution Splitting 1. we obtain (1– x)n = nC0 – nC1x + nC2x2 – .. Example 3 Which is larger (1..BINOMIAL THEOREM 165 In particular.01)1000000 or 10. (iii) Taking a = 1.. 3 9 27 81 + 6. 3 + 4 x x x x 108 81 + .. 2 + 4. + (–1)n nCn ⎛ 2 3⎞ Example 1 Expand ⎜ x + ⎟ . for x = 1. x ≠ 0 x⎠ ⎝ Solution By using binomial theorem.. Solution We express 98 as the sum or difference of two numbers whose powers are easier to calculate. we get 0 = nC0 – nC1 + nC2 – . + nCn. b = – x. (98)5 = (100 – 2)5 = 5C0 (100)5 – 5C1 (100)4.x6 .x4 .x2. for x = 1.

166

MATHEMATICS

(1.01)1000000 = (1 + 0.01)1000000 =

1000000

C0 +

1000000

C1(0.01) + other positive terms

= 1 + 1000000 × 0.01 + other positive terms = 1 + 10000 + other positive terms > 10000 Hence (1.01)1000000 > 10000

Example 4 Using binomial theorem, prove that 6n–5n always leaves remainder 1 when divided by 25. Solution For two numbers a and b if we can find numbers q and r such that a = bq + r, then we say that b divides a with q as quotient and r as remainder. Thus, in order to show that 6n – 5n leaves remainder 1 when divided by 25, we prove that 6n – 5n = 25k + 1, where k is some natural number. We have (1 + a)n = nC0 + nC1a + nC2a2 + ... + nCnan For a = 5, we get (1 + 5)n = nC0 + nC15 + nC252 + ... + nCn5n i.e. i.e. or or (6)n = 1 + 5n + 52.nC2 + 53.nC3 + ... + 5n 6n – 5n = 1+52 (nC2 + nC35 + ... + 5n-2) 6n – 5n = 1+ 25 (nC2 + 5 .nC3 + ... + 5n-2) 6n – 5n = 25k+1 where k = nC2 + 5 .nC3 + ... + 5n–2.

This shows that when divided by 25, 6n – 5n leaves remainder 1.

EXERCISE 8.1

Expand each of the expressions in Exercises 1 to 5. 1. (1–2x)5

⎛2 x⎞ 2. ⎜ – ⎟ ⎝ x 2⎠

5

3. (2x – 3)6

BINOMIAL THEOREM

167

⎛x 1⎞ 4. ⎜ + ⎟ ⎝3 x⎠

5

1⎞ ⎛ 5. ⎜ x + ⎟ x⎠ ⎝

6

Using binomial theorem, evaluate each of the following: 7. (102)5 8. (101)4 6. (96)3 9. (99)5 10. Using Binomial Theorem, indicate which number is larger (1.1)10000 or 1000. 11. Find (a + b)4 – (a – b)4. Hence, evaluate ( 3 + 2)4 – ( 3 –

2 )4 .

12. Find (x + 1)6 + (x – 1)6. Hence or otherwise evaluate ( 2 + 1)6 + ( 2 – 1)6. 13. Show that 9n+1 – 8n – 9 is divisible by 64, whenever n is a positive integer. 14. Prove that

∑3

r=0

n

r n

C r = 4n .

8.3

1.

**General and Middle Terms
**

In the binomial expansion for (a + b)n, we observe that the first term is n C0an, the second term is nC1an–1b, the third term is nC2an–2b2, and so on. Looking at the pattern of the successive terms we can say that the (r + 1)th term is n Cran–rbr. The (r + 1)th term is also called the general term of the expansion (a + b)n. It is denoted by Tr+1. Thus Tr+1 = nCr an–rbr. Regarding the middle term in the expansion (a + b)n, we have (i) If n is even, then the number of terms in the expansion will be n + 1. Since

2.

**⎛ n +1+1⎞ ⎟ , i.e., n is even so n + 1 is odd. Therefore, the middle term is ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠
**

th

**⎛n ⎞ ⎜ +1⎟ term. ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛8 ⎞ For example, in the expansion of (x + 2y) , the middle term is ⎜ +1 ⎟ i.e., ⎝2 ⎠
**

8

th

th

5th term. (ii) If n is odd, then n +1 is even, so there will be two middle terms in the

168

MATHEMATICS

**⎛ n +1 ⎞ ⎛ n +1 ⎞ + 1⎟ term. So in the expansion ⎟ term and ⎜ expansion, namely, ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
**

th

th

**⎛ 7 +1 ⎞ ⎛ 7 +1 ⎞ + 1⎟ , i.e., 5th term. ⎟ , i.e., 4th and ⎜ (2x – y) , the middle terms are ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
**

th th

7

3.

**1⎞ ⎛ In the expansion of ⎜ x + ⎟ , where x ≠ 0, the middle term is x⎠ ⎝
**

i.e., (n + 1)th term, as 2n is even.

2n

⎛ 2 n +1 + 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ , 2 ⎝ ⎠

th

**⎛1⎞ It is given by Cnx ⎜ ⎟ = 2nCn (constant). ⎝x⎠
**

2n n

n

This term is called the term independent of x or the constant term. Example 5 Find a if the 17th and 18th terms of the expansion (2 + a)50 are equal. Solution The (r + 1)th term of the expansion (x + y)n is given by Tr + 1 = nCrxn–ryr. For the 17th term, we have, r + 1 = 17, i.e., r = 16 Therefore, T17 = T16 + 1 = 50C16 (2)50 – 16 a16 = 50C 16 234 a16. Similarly, Given that So

50

T18 = 50C 17 233 a17 T17 = T 18

**C 16 (2)34 a16 = 50C 17 (2)33 a17
**

50

C 16 . 2 34 C 17 . 2 33

=

Therefore

50

50

=

a 17 a 16

i.e.,

a=

C16 × 2

50

C17

50! 17! . 33! × × 2 =1 16!34! 50!

Example 6 Show that the middle term in the expansion of (1+x) 2n is

1.3.5...(2n − 1) 2n xn, where n is a positive integer. n!

BINOMIAL THEOREM

169

⎛ 2n ⎞ + 1⎟ , Solution As 2n is even, the middle term of the expansion (1 + x)2n is ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ i.e., (n + 1)th term which is given by,

th

Tn+1 = 2nCn(1)2n – n(x)n = 2nCnxn =

(2n)! n x n! n!

=

2n (2n − 1) (2n − 2) ...4.3.2.1 n x n! n!

=

1.2.3.4...(2n − 2) (2n − 1) (2n) n x n!n! [1.3.5 ... (2n – 1)][2.4.6...( 2n)] n x n!n!

=

=

[1.3.5...(2n − 1)]2 n [1.2.3...n] n x n!n!

[1.3.5...(2n − 1)] n! n n 2 .x n! n!

=

=

1.3.5...( 2n − 1) n n 2 x n!

Example 7 Find the coefficient of x6y3 in the expansion of (x + 2y)9. Solution Suppose x6y3 occurs in the (r + 1)th term of the expansion (x + 2y)9. Now Tr+1 = 9Cr x9 – r (2y)r = 9Cr 2 r . x9 – r . y r . Comparing the indices of x as well as y in x6y3 and in Tr + 1 , we get r = 3. Thus, the coefficient of x6y3 is

9

C3 2 3 =

9! 3 9.8.7 3 .2 = . 2 = 672. 3.2 3! 6!

Example 8 The second, third and fourth terms in the binomial expansion (x + a)n are 240, 720 and 1080, respectively. Find x, a and n. Solution Given that second term T2 = 240

170

MATHEMATICS

We have So Similarly

T2 = nC1xn – 1 . a

n n n

**C1xn–1 . a = 240 C2xn–2 a2 = 720
**

n–3 3

... (1) ... (2) ... (3)

**C3x a = 1080 and Dividing (2) by (1), we get
**

n

C 2 x n− 2 a 2 720 = i.e., n 240 C1 x n −1a

(n − 1)! a . =6 (n − 2)! x

... (4)

or

a 6 = x ( n − 1)

a 9 = x 2( n − 2)

Dividing (3) by (2), we have ... (5)

From (4) and (5),

6 9 = n −1 2 (n − 2) .

Hence, from (1), 5x4a = 240, and from (4),

Thus, n = 5

a 3 = x 2

Solving these equations for a and x, we get x = 2 and a = 3. Example 9 The coefficients of three consecutive terms in the expansion of (1 + a)n are in the ratio1: 7 : 42. Find n. Solution Suppose the three consecutive terms in the expansion of (1 + a)n are (r – 1)th, rth and (r + 1)th terms. The (r – 1)th term is nCr – 2 ar – 2, and its coefficient is nCr – 2. Similarly, the coefficients of rth and (r + 1)th terms are nCr – 1 and nCr , respectively. Since the coefficients are in the ratio 1 : 7 : 42, so we have,

n n

Cr −2 1 = , i.e., n – 8r + 9 = 0 7 C r −1 C r −1 7 = , i.e., n – 7r + 1 = 0 42 Cr

... (1)

n

and

n

... (2)

Solving equations(1) and (2), we get, n = 55.

BINOMIAL THEOREM

171

EXERCISE 8.2

Find the coefficient of 1. x5 in (x + 3)8 2. a5b7 in (a – 2b)12 . 4. (x2 – yx)12, x ≠ 0.

Write the general term in the expansion of 3. (x2 – y)6 5.

**Find the 4th term in the expansion of (x – 2y)12.
**

⎛ 1 ⎞ Find the 13 term in the expansion of ⎜ 9 x − ⎟ , x ≠ 0. 3 x⎠ ⎝

th

18

6.

**Find the middle terms in the expansions of 7. 9.
**

⎛ x3 ⎞ ⎜3− ⎟ ⎜ 6 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

7

⎛x ⎞ 8. ⎜ + 9 y ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠

10

.

In the expansion of (1 + a)m+n, prove that coefficients of am and an are equal.

10. The coefficients of the (r – 1)th, rth and (r + 1)th terms in the expansion of (x + 1)n are in the ratio 1 : 3 : 5. Find n and r. 11. Prove that the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x)2n is twice the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x)2n – 1. 12. Find a positive value of m for which the coefficient of x2 in the expansion (1 + x)m is 6.

Miscellaneous Examples

1 ⎞ ⎛3 2 Example 10 Find the term independent of x in the expansion of ⎜ x − ⎟ . 3x ⎠ ⎝2 ⎛3 2⎞ = Cr ⎜ x ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠

6 6−r 6

Solution We have Tr + 1

⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎝ 3x ⎠

2 6−r

r

⎛3⎞ 6 = Cr ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠

6−r

(x )

( − 1)r

⎛1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ r⎟ ⎝ x⎠ ⎝3 ⎠

r

172

MATHEMATICS

r = ( − 1)

6

Cr

(3)6 − 2 r 12 − 3r x (2)6 − r

The term will be independent of x if the index of x is zero, i.e., 12 – 3r = 0. Thus, r = 4

**(3) 6−8 5 = . Hence 5 term is independent of x and is given by (– 1) C4 (2) 6− 4 12
**

th 4 6

Example 11 If the coefficients of ar – 1, ar and ar + 1 in the expansion of (1 + a)n are in arithmetic progression, prove that n2 – n(4r + 1) + 4r2 – 2 = 0. Solution The (r + 1)th term in the expansion is nCrar. Thus it can be seen that ar occurs in the (r + 1)th term, and its coefficient is nCr. Hence the coefficients of ar – 1, ar and ar + 1 are nCr – 1, nCr and nCr + 1, respectively. Since these coefficients are in arithmetic progression, so we have, nCr – 1+ nCr + 1 = 2.nCr. This gives

n! n! n! + =2× (r − 1)!(n − r + 1)! (r + 1)!(n − r − 1)! r!(n − r )!

i.e.

1 1 + (r − 1)!(n − r + 1) (n − r ) (n − r − 1)! (r + 1) (r ) (r − 1)!(n − r − 1)!

=2× 1 r ( r − 1)!(n − r ) ( n − r − 1)!

⎡ ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ ( n – r ) ( n − r + 1) + ( r + 1) (r ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

or

1 (r − 1)! (n − r − 1)!

= 2×

1 ( r − 1)! (n − r − 1)![r (n – r )]

i.e.

1 1 2 + = (n − r + 1) (n − r ) r (r + 1) r ( n − r ) , r (r + 1) + (n − r ) (n − r + 1) 2 = (n − r ) (n − r + 1)r (r + 1) r (n − r )

r(r + 1) + (n – r) (n – r + 1) = 2 (r + 1) (n – r + 1) r2 + r + n2 – nr + n – nr + r2 – r = 2(nr – r2 + r + n – r + 1)

or or or

BINOMIAL THEOREM

173

or i.e.,

n2 – 4nr – n + 4r2 – 2 = 0 n2 – n (4r + 1) + 4r2 – 2 = 0

Example 12 Show that the coefficient of the middle term in the expansion of (1 + x)2n is equal to the sum of the coefficients of two middle terms in the expansion of (1 + x)2n – 1. Solution As 2n is even so the expansion (1 + x)2n has only one middle term which is

⎛ 2n ⎞ + 1⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠

th

i.e., (n + 1)th term.

The (n + 1)th term is 2nCnxn. The coefficient of xn is 2nCn Similarly, (2n – 1) being odd, the other expansion has two middle terms,

⎛ 2n − 1 + 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2n − 1 + 1 ⎞ + 1⎟ i.e., nth and (n + 1)th terms. The coefficients of ⎜ ⎟ and ⎜ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ these terms are 2n – 1Cn – 1 and 2n – 1Cn, respectively. Now

2n – 1

th

th

Cn – 1 +

2n – 1

Cn= 2nCn

[As nCr – 1+ nCr =

n+1

Cr]. as required.

Example 13 Find the coefficient of a4 in the product (1 + 2a)4 (2 – a)5 using binomial theorem. Solution We first expand each of the factors of the given product using Binomial Theorem. We have (1 + 2a)4 = 4C0 + 4C1 (2a) + 4C2 (2a)2 + 4C3 (2a)3 + 4C4 (2a)4 = 1 + 4 (2a) + 6(4a2) + 4 (8a3) + 16a4. = 1 + 8a + 24a2 + 32a3 + 16a4 and (2 – a)5 = 5C0 (2)5 – 5C1 (2)4 (a) + 5C2 (2)3 (a)2 – 5C3 (2)2 (a)3 + 5C4 (2) (a)4 – 5C5 (a)5 = 32 – 80a + 80a2 – 40a3 + 10a4 – a5 Thus (1 + 2a)4 (2 – a)5 = (1 + 8a + 24a2 + 32a3+ 16a4) (32 –80a + 80a2– 40a3 + 10a4– a5) The complete multiplication of the two brackets need not be carried out. We write only those terms which involve a4. This can be done if we note that ar. a4 – r = a4. The terms containing a4 are 1 (10a4) + (8a) (–40a3) + (24a2) (80a2) + (32a3) (– 80a) + (16a4) (32) = – 438a4

174

MATHEMATICS

Thus, the coefficient of a4 in the given product is – 438. Example 14 Find the rth term from the end in the expansion of (x + a)n. Solution There are (n + 1) terms in the expansion of (x + a)n. Observing the terms we can say that the first term from the end is the last term, i.e., (n + 1)th term of the expansion and n + 1 = (n + 1) – (1 – 1). The second term from the end is the nth term of the expansion, and n = (n + 1) – (2 – 1). The third term from the end is the (n – 1)th term of the expansion and n – 1 = (n + 1) – (3 – 1) and so on. Thus rth term from the end will be term number (n + 1) – (r – 1) = (n – r + 2) of the expansion. And the (n – r + 2)th term is nCn – r + 1 xr – 1 an – r + 1.

⎛3 1 ⎞ Example 15 Find the term independent of x in the expansion of ⎜ x + 3 ⎟ , x > 0. 2 x⎠ ⎝

18

Solution We have Tr + 1 =

18

Cr

( x)

3

18 − r

⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝2 x ⎠

r

=

18

Cr x

18 − r 3

. 2

r

1

r 3 .x

=

18

C2

1 .x 2r

18 − 2 r 3

Since we have to find a term independent of x, i.e., term not having x, so take We get r = 9. The required term is 18C9

18 − 2r =0. 3

1 . 29

**Example 16 The sum of the coefficients of the first three terms in the expansion of
**

3 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ , x ≠ 0, m being a natural number, is 559. Find the term of the expansion x ⎠ ⎝ containing x3. 3 ⎞ ⎛ Solution The coefficients of the first three terms of ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ are mC0, (–3) mC1 x ⎠ ⎝ m and 9 C2. Therefore, by the given condition, we have

m

m

m

C0 –3 mC1+ 9 mC2 = 559, i.e., 1 – 3m +

9m (m − 1) = 559 2

2. r = 3. Find a if the coefficients of x2 and x3 in the expansion of (3 + ax)9 are equal. Now Tr + 1 = 12 Cr x12 – r ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜− 2 ⎟ = ⎝ x ⎠ r 12 Cr (– 3)r . Find n. respectively. Find an approximation of (0. . 7290 and 30375. we get r = – 4 or r = 14. Example 17 If the coefficients of (r – 5)th and (2r – 1)th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)34 are equal. 2 2 2 6. 8.99)5 using the first three terms of its expansion. So. Find the coefficient of x5 in the product (1 + 2x)6 (1 – x)7 using binomial theorem. 4.e. Solution The coefficients of (r – 5)th and (2r – 1)th terms of the expansion (1 + x)34 are 34Cr – 6 and 34C2r – 2. Evaluate ( 3+ 2 ) −( 6 3− 2 4 ) 6 . so put 12 – 3r = 3 i. – 5940 x3. the required term is 12C3 (– 3)3 x3. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 8 1. find r. Thus.e.. b and n in the expansion of (a + b)n if the first three terms of the expansion are 729. Find the value of a + a − 1 ( ) + (a n − a2 − 1 . x12 – 3r Since we need the term containing x3. r = 14. r = – 4 is not possible. [Hint write an = (a – b + b)n and expand] 5. whenever n is a positive integer. either r – 6 = 2r – 2 or r–6 = 34 – (2r – 2) [Using the fact that if nCr = nCp. respectively. Since they are equal so 34Cr – 6 = 34C2r – 2 Therefore. r being a natural number. if the ratio of the fifth term from the beginning to the fifth term from the ⎛4 1 ⎞ end in the expansion of ⎜ 2 + 4 ⎟ is 3⎠ ⎝ 6 :1 . Find a. 3. then either r = p or r = n – p] So. prove that a – b is a factor of an – bn. If a and b are distinct integers. ) 4 7. i..BINOMIAL THEOREM 175 which gives m = 12 (m being a natural number).

).7 and Oughtred (1631 A. The coefficients of the expansions are arranged in an array.. which is (a + b) n = n C 0 a n + n C 1 a n – 1b + n C 2 a n – 2b 2 + . This array is called Pascal’s triangle. ⎛n ⎞ In the expansion (a + b)n. The arrangement of these coefficients was in the form of a diagram called Meru-Prastara. Bombelli (1572 A.D..176 MATHEMATICS x 2⎞ ⎛ 9. — — . Michael Stipel (1486-1567A.D..) in 1665. Find the expansion of (3x – 2ax + 3a ) using binomial theorem. then the middle terms are ⎜ ⎟ and ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ th th th Historical Note The ancient Indian mathematicians knew about the coefficients in the expansions of (x + y)n.. 0 ≤ n ≤ 7. br. The arithmetic triangle.) also gave the coefficients in the expansion of (a + b)n. The term binomial coefficients was first introduced by the German mathematician..D. provided by Pingla in his book Chhanda shastra (200B.bn – 1 + nCnbn.) in approximately 1544 A. 2.D. This triangular arrangement is also found in the work of Chinese mathematician Chu-shi-kie in 1303 A. 4 Summary The expansion of a binomial for any positive integral n is given by Binomial Theorem.. 10. The general term of an expansion (a + b)n is Tr + 1 = nCran – r.+ n Cn – 1a.D.D..2 . if n is even. then the middle term is the ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛ n +1⎞ ⎛ n+1 ⎞ +1⎟ terms. 2 x⎠ ⎝ 2 2 3 10. The present form of the binomial theorem for integral values of n appeared in Trate du triange arithmetic. for n = 1. popularly known as Pascal’s triangle and similar to the Meru-Prastara of Pingla was constructed by the French mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623-1662 A. Expand using Binomial Theorem ⎜ 1 + − ⎟ .D. x ≠ 0 . term.) gave them for n = 1.C. written by Pascal and published posthumously in 1665 A.If n is odd...

second member.M. Sequences. Depreciated values of certain commodity occur in a sequence. Here. Sequences have important applications in several Fibonacci (1175-1250) spheres of human activities. and G. In previous class.. following specific patterns are called progressions. relationship between A. grandparents.P. population of human beings or bacteria at different times form a sequence. besides discussing more about A. In this Chapter..P). i. arithmetic mean. the total number of generations = 300 = 10 30 . etc.Chapter 9 SEQUENCES AND SERIES Natural numbers are the product of human spirit. “sequence” is used in much the same way as it is in ordinary English. parents. we are asked to find the number of ancestors. sum to n terms of squares of natural numbers and sum to n terms of cubes of natural numbers will also be studied. geometric mean. the word. The amount of money deposited in a bank.e..2 Sequences Let us consider the following examples: Assume that there is a generation gap of 30 years.M. – DEDEKIND 9.1 Introduction In mathematics. we usually mean that the collection is ordered in such a way that it has an identified first member. great grandparents. third member and so on. When we say that a collection of objects is listed in a sequence. that a person might have over 300 years. special series in forms of sum to n terms of consecutive natural numbers. For example. we have studied about arithmetic progression (A. 9. over a number of years form a sequence.

Consider for instance. For example.33333. we see that the nth term of this sequence can be written as an = 2n... if it is not a finite sequence. .3.3. ..3. In this process we get 3.. but the sequence is generated by the recurrence relation given by a1 = a 2 = 1 a 3 = a1 + a2 a n = a n – 2 + a n – 1. it is possible to express the rule. In fact.. n > 2 This sequence is called Fibonacci sequence. a10 = 1024.33. sequence of ancestors is a finite sequence since it contains 10 terms (a fixed number).. has no visible pattern.333. 4... . where n is a natural number. 8. 1. .. tenth generations are 2. a4 = 8 = 2 × 4 . . infinite in the sense that it never ends.. where n is a natural number.. 3. For example. etc.. 6.. …. a2 = 4. an = 2n – 1.178 MATHEMATICS The number of person’s ancestors for the first. an arrangement of numbers such as 1. and so on.5.. . third. which yields the various terms of a sequence in terms of algebraic formula. . . 5.... second. …. 2. in the example of successive quotients a1 = 3.. Similarly........ Consider the successive quotients that we obtain in the division of 10 by 3 at different steps of division. and so on. 1024.... The nth term is the number at the nth position of the sequence and is denoted by an.. the subscripts denote the position of the term.33. …. the nth term is given by the formula.. a6 = 3. a3 = 8. in the sequence of odd natural numbers 1.. the sequence of even natural numbers 2. ..3. Often.. 32. These numbers form what we call a sequence.3. We denote the terms of a sequence by a1. a2.3.. . A sequence containing finite number of terms is called a finite sequence.. a3. ….. These quotients also form a sequence. ….. etc. the sequence of successive quotients mentioned above is an infinite sequence. A sequence is called infinite. The nth term is also called the general term of the sequence. an. 4. ... . a23 = 46 = 2 × 23.. 16. In some cases. a3 = 3. … Here a1 = 2 = 2 × 1 a2 = 4 = 2 × 2 a3 = 6 = 2 × 3 . The various numbers occurring in a sequence are called its terms. a2 = 3. …. 8. Thus. the terms of the sequence of person’s ancestors mentioned above are: a1 = 2. a24 = 48 = 2 × 24. Similarly.. ….

Thus.. For example... We now consider some examples..7.k}. k =1 n Remark When the series is used. (ii) Here an = n−3 1− 3 1 1 = − . 2.3. we get a1 = 2(1) + 5 = 7.” we will mean the number that results from adding the terms.…+ an + . the required terms are 7. it refers to the indicated sum not to the sum itself. be a given sequence. the series a1 + a2 + a3 + . Example 1 Write the first three terms in each of the following sequences defined by the following: (i) an = 2n + 5. However.…. a2 = 9. the sum of the series is 16. 2. When we use the phrase “sum of a series. a2.3 Series Let a1.5. we should not expect that its terms will necessarily be given by a specific formula. Thus. Then. is called the series associated with the given sequence .The series is finite or infinite according as the given sequence is finite or infinite.…. a3. the expression a1 + a2 + a3 +. we expect a theoretical scheme or a rule for generating the terms a1. we find that there is no formula for the nth prime.an. a3 = 0 . Series are often represented in compact form. using the Greek letter ∑ (sigma) as means of indicating the summation involved. In view of the above. Sometimes. a sequence can be regarded as a function whose domain is the set of natural numbers or some subset of it of the type {1.…. Such sequence can only be described by verbal description. 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 is a finite series with four terms. we use the functional notation a(n) for an. (ii) an = n−3 . a1 = 4 4 2 4 . a3. + an is abbreviated as ∑ ak . 9. called sigma notation. 9 and 11. 3. a2 = − . a2.. 3..an. a3 = 11 Therefore.… in succession.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 179 In the sequence of primes 2. 4 Solution (i) Here an = 2n + 5 Substituting n = 1. In every sequence.

an = 2n . a9 n2 8. a24 9. Example 3 Let the sequence an be defined as follows: a1 = 1. 4 Find the indicated terms in each of the sequences in Exercises 7 to 10 whose nth terms are: 7. an = 2n n+1 2n − 3 4. The corresponding series is 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 +. an = n+3 . an = (–1) 5 6. an = an – 1 + 2 for n ≥ 2.1 Write the first five terms of each of the sequences in Exercises 1 to 6 whose nth terms are: 1. a2 = a1 + 2 = 1 + 2 = 3. a20 . – 1 and 0. the first three terms are – 1 . a4 = a3 + 2 = 5 + 2 = 7. Find first five terms and write corresponding series.. an = n n +1 n–1 3. EXERCISE 9. 10. a17. an = 6 5. Solution We have a1 = 1. an = 4n – 3. 2 4 Example 2 What is the 20th term of the sequence defined by an = (n – 1) (2 – n) (3 + n) ? Solution Putting n = 20 .7 and 9. a3 = a2 + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5.. a7 n(n – 2) .180 MATHEMATICS Hence. an = n (n + 2) 2. the first five terms of the sequence are 1. Hence.5. we obtain a20 = (20 – 1) (2 – 20) (3 + 20) = 19 × (– 18) × (23) = – 7866. a5 = a4 + 2 = 7 + 2 = 9. an = (–1)n – 1n3.3. a n = n n2 + 5 .

d = common difference. l = the last term. (ii) If a constant is subtracted from each term of an A. a1 = 3. a2. for n = 1. is divided by a non-zero constant then the resulting sequence is also an A. …. The Fibonacci sequence is defined by 1 = a1 = a2 and an = an – 1 + an – 2. We can verify the following simple properties of an A.P.P.P.P. A sequence a1. (in its standard form) with first term a and common difference d.P. we shall use the following notations for an arithmetic progression: a = the first term.P. Find 12. (iv) If each term of an A.P. . an = 3an – 1 + 2 for all n > 1 13. a1 = a2 = 2.n≥2 n an +1 an .e.4 Arithmetic Progression (A. Then the nth term (general term) of the A. an . then the resulting sequence is also an A. a + d. Let us consider an A. 4. an = an – 1–1.P. 3.…. a + 2d.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 181 Write the first five terms of each of the sequences in Exercises 11 to 13 and obtain the corresponding series: 11. Let a. (iii) If each term of an A.P. 2. a + (n – 1) d be an A.. n > 2.P. a. 5 9. is an = a + (n – 1) d. Here. i.. the resulting sequence is also an A... n > 2 14. : (i) If a constant is added to each term of an A. n ∈ N.P. Sn= the sum to n terms of A. a + d.P.… is called arithmetic sequence or arithmetic progression if an + 1 = an + d. a1 = – 1. is multiplied by a constant. n = the number of terms.P. an = an −1 .P. the resulting sequence is also an A. a + 2d. a3.P.) Let us recall some formulae and properties studied earlier.. Then l = a + (n – 1) d . where a1 is called the first term and the constant term d is called the common difference of the A.

… an be the given A.. and a= n+m–1 Therefore a p = a + (p – 1)d = n + m – 1 + ( p – 1) (–1) = n + m – p th Hence. where P and Q 2 1 n (n – 1) Q 2 Therefore S1 = a1 = P.. Solution Let a1. (4) 1 n(n – 1)Q . Find the ratio of their 12th terms. (3) .P. Example 6 The sum of n terms of two arithmetic progressions are in the ratio (3n + 8) : (7n + 15). Then Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 +.P. if mth term is n and the nth term is m.. and an = a + (n – 1) d = m Solving (1) and (2)..+ an–1 + an = nP + . where m ≠ n.P. Sn = n [ 2a + (n −1)d ] 2 n [a + l ] 2 Let us consider some examples. d2 be the first terms and common difference of the first and second arithmetic progression. 3n + 8 = Sum to n termsof second A.182 MATHEMATICS Sn = We can also write. find the common difference.P.. According to the given condition.. or d = – 1.. we have Sum to n terms of first A. the common difference is given by d = a2 – a1 = (P + Q) – P = Q.. find the pth term. we get (m – n) d = n – m. a2 and d1. S2 = a1 + a2 = 2P + Q So that a 2 = S2 – S 1 = P + Q Hence.. Solution We have am = a + (m – 1) d = n. (1) .. the p term is n + m – p. respectively. Example 5 If the sum of n terms of an A. Solution Let a1.P. a2. Example 4 In an A. (2) . 7 n + 15 . is nP + are constants.

P..e.M. Note that. of two numbers 4 and 16 is 10. 16 by inserting a number 10 between 4 and 16. 10.00.M. Using the sum formula.000. 3.) of the numbers a and b. Find the total amount.1 Arithmetic mean Given two numbers a and b.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 183 or n [ 2a1 + ( n −1 )d1 ] 3n + 8 2 = n [ 2a2 + ( n −1 )d 2 ] 7n +15 2 or 2a1 + ( n − 1) d1 3n + 8 = 2a2 + ( n − 1) d 2 7n + 15 12th term of first A. a +11d1 = 1 th 12 term of second A. 20 [600000 + 19 × 10000] = 10 (790000) = 79. A = a+b 2 We may also interpret the A.10. with a = 3. Example 7 The income of a person is Rs. (1) Now 2a1 + 22d1 3 × 23 + 8 = 2a2 + 22d 2 7 × 23 + 15 Therefore [By putting n = 23 in (1)] a1 + 11d1 12th term of first A. b is an A. the required ratio is 7 : 16.P. 4.000 as the total amount at the end of 20 years.. and n = 20.P.00. 7 = th = a2 + 11d 2 12 term of second A. Solution Here. We have.M. we have an A. S20 = 9.P. i.P. in this case. For example. We can insert a number A between them so that a.000. 2 Hence.000 to his income per year for the next 19 years. we have A – a = b – A. in the first year and he receives an increase of Rs. we get. between two numbers a and b as their average a+b . 16 Hence. d = 10.000.000.00. A.4.. thus 2 constructed an A.P a2 +11d 2 .00. he received in 20 years. the A. 79. the person received Rs. The natural . Such a number A is called the arithmetic mean (A.P.

i. given any two numbers a and b. Solution Let A1.. 18 and 21.. A5 and A6 be six numbers between 3 and 24 such that 3.P. A6 = a + 6d = 3 + 6 × 3 = 21. Here.P..P. A3 = a + 3d = 3 + 3 × 3 = 12... An.. b = 24.. A4. 9. 8. a = 3. b is the (n + 2) th term... A1. 12. Thus A1 = a + d = 3 + 3 = 6. six numbers between 3 and 24 are 6. 24 = 3 + (8 –1) d. A2. . Let A1. More generally.. so that d = 3. Therefore... ? Observe that two numbers 8 and 12 can be inserted between 4 and 16 so that the resulting sequence 4.P. b = a + [(n + 2) – 1]d = a + (n + 1) d. .. 16 becomes an A.. 15. 12.. A3... …. n numbers between a and b are as follows: A1 = a + d = a + A2 = a + 2d = a + A3 = a + 3d = a + .. Hence. 24 are in A. . b is an A... An = a + nd = a + n (b − a ) n +1 . A4. A3. A2 = a + 2d = 3 + 2 × 3 = 9. A5 = a + 5d = 3 + 5 × 3 = 18. . A3. A3. Here.. 3(b − a ) n +1 . A5.P.... A2... ....e. . A2. n +1 b−a n +1 2(b − a ) n +1 Thus..184 MATHEMATICS question now arises : Can we insert two or more numbers between given two numbers so that the resulting sequence comes out to be an A. we can insert as many numbers as we like between them such that the resulting sequence is an A. ….. A4 = a + 4d = 3 + 4 × 3 = 15. A2. This gives d= b−a . . Example 8 Insert 6 numbers between 3 and 24 such that the resulting sequence is an A.P. An be n numbers between a and b such that a... A6. n = 8. A1.

Find the ratio of their 18th terms. The ratio of the sums of m and n terms of an A. 22.P. Find the sum of all natural numbers lying between 100 and 1000. If the sum of first p terms of an A. 2. terms is Prove that a b c ( q − r ) + ( r − p ) + ( p − q) = 0 p q r 12. If the sum of n terms of an A. m numbers have been inserted in such a way that the resulting sequence is an A. – 5. Show that 20th term is –112. whose kth term is 5k + 1. is (pn + qn2). . In an A. Sum of the first p. 3. q and r terms of an A. 1 (pq +1).SEQUENCES AND SERIES 185 EXERCISE 9. − 11 . is m2 : n2.P. the first term is 2 and the sum of the first five terms is one-fourth of the next five terms. How many terms of the A. where p and q are constants. … is 116.. If a n + bn is the A.P. Between 1 and 31.P.2 1.P.M. Show that the ratio of mth and nth term is (2m – 1) : (2n – 1).P. Insert five numbers between 8 and 26 such that the resulting sequence is an A. a n −1 + b n−1 16. The sums of n terms of two arithmetic progressions are in the ratio 5n + 4 : 9n + 6. 13. 2 If the sum of a certain number of terms of the A. if pth term is 1 1 and qth term is . then find the sum of the first (p + q) terms. find the common difference.. In an A. a.P. 11.P.. … are needed to give the sum –25? 2 5. Find the last term. 4. which are multiples of 5.P. b and c. where p ≠ q. then find the value of n. Find the sum of odd integers from 1 to 2001.P. 9. respectively. 7. between a and b.P are. and the ratio of 7th and (m – 1)th numbers is 5 : 9. 10. P. prove that the sum of first pq p q 6. is equal to the sum of the first q terms. is 3n2 + 5n and its mth term is 164. Find the sum to n terms of the A. 8. 15. 19. 25. Find the value of m. If the sum of n terms of an A. 14. find the value of m. – 6.

a. term immediately preceding a1 a2 a3 1 it.8. 3 Such sequences are called geometric sequence or geometric progression abbreviated as G.. a3. 1 a –1 a –1 a –1 and so on. We shall use the following notations with these formulae: a = the first term. state how do the terms in (iii) progress? It is observed that in each case. ar. what amount he will pay in the 30th instalment? 18.. if each term is non-zero and ak + 1 ak = r (constant). 100. the constant ratio is 0.) Let us consider the following sequences: (i) 2.5 Geometric Progression (G. ar2.01.4. a1 = . 9 27 81 243 . A man starts repaying a loan as first instalment of Rs. In each of these sequences. this constant ratio is 2. 3 As in case of arithmetic progression. If he increases the instalment by Rs 5 every month. ….. (ii) 1 –1 1 –1 . we obtain a geometric progression.01. A sequence a1. In (ii). Common ratio in 1 and 0.P.. the problem of finding the nth term or sum of n terms of a geometric progression containing a large number of terms would be difficult without the use of the formulae which we shall develop in the next Section.. The difference between any two consecutive interior angles of a polygon is 5°.. – . P. l = the last term. 9. geometric progression (i). 4 = 2 every term except the first term bears a constant ratio 2 = 2. a a a a1 = 2. we observe. except the first progresses in a definite order. 3 = . In (i). an. In (i). a2.. how their terms progress? We note that each term.. find the number of the sides of the polygon. where a is called the first term and r is called the common ratio of the G.. to the 3 = 2. . it is – and in (iii).P.. . ar3. … is called geometric progression. respectively.. (iii) . for k ≥ 1. we have and so on. r = the common ratio. (ii) and (iii) above are 2.01. 2 = .186 MATHEMATICS 17.000001. By letting a1 = a.16..….0001. 4 = 9 a1 3 a2 3 a3 3 Similarly. If the smallest angle is 120° . in (ii).

P.. 2.. with first non-zero term ‘a’ and common ratio ‘r’..P. we have rSn = ar + ar2 + ar3 + . Here a = 2 and r = 4.8. Let us consider a G. respectively. G.1 General term of a G . Similarly. ar.P.P.... Let the first term of a G. 3rd term = a3 = ar2 = ar3–1 4th term = a4 = ar3 = ar4–1.+ arn–1 . the pattern suggests that the nth term of a G.. + a (n terms) = na If r ≠ 1. + arn–1 or a + ar + ar2 + .P. We write below these and few more terms. i. 9.2. n = 9.are called finite or infinite geometric series.P. ar3. . a. we get (1 – r) Sn = a – arn = a(1 – rn) Case 2 a( r n −1) r −1 th th Example 9 Find the 10 and n terms of the G. (1) Case 1 If r = 1. multiplying (1) by r. up to n terms is 131072? Solution Let 131072 be the nth term of the given G. be a and the common ratio be r. + arn Subtracting (2) from (1). So that n – 1 = 8. 5th term = a5 = ar4 = ar5–1 Do you see a pattern? What will be 16th term? a16 = ar16–1 = ar15 Therefore. Sum to n terms of a G .5.. ar2.. … arn – 1..P. The series a + ar + ar2 + .. .P.125. Thus.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 187 n = the numbers of terms. Sn = the sum of n terms. Thus. and so on.P. .... Solution Here a = 5 and r = 5. Then Sn = a + ar + ar2 +. can be written as a. The second term is obtained by multiplying a by r. a. ar2. Write a few terms of it.. 5. ar.5. a3 = a2r = ar2. . is given by an = ar n−1 ... st 1 term = a1 = a = ar1–1.arn – 1. is finite or infinite. we have Sn = a + a + a + .. 9.P..P. Therefore 131072 = an = 2(4)n – 1 or 65536 = 4n – 1 This gives 48 = 4n – 1. Let us denote by Sn the sum to first n terms of G. Thus. thus a2 = ar.according as G... 2nd term = a2 = ar = ar2–1.e. third term is obtained by multiplying a2 by r.… .. 131072 is the 9th term of the G.. (2) This gives Sn = a (1 − r n ) 1− r or Sn = Example10 Which term of the G. 25. Hence.P.32.. a10 = 5(5)10–1 = 5(5)9 = 510 and an = arn–1 = 5(5)n–1 = 5n . + arn–1 +... respectively.

. 81 3 3 Example 13 How many terms of the G. (1) and a6 = ar = 192 . Given that a = 3.P.P.. the 3rd term is 24 and the 6th term is 192. Therefore 3 ⎡ ⎛ 2 ⎞n ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ n ⎡ ⎤ a (1 − r n ) ⎢ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎥ 3 ⎢1− ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎜ ⎟ = Sn = = 2 ⎢ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎥ 1− r ⎣ ⎦ 1− 3 ⎡ ⎛ 2 ⎞5 ⎤ 211 In particular. Example12 Find the sum of first n terms and the sum of first 5 terms of the geometric 2 4 series 1 + + + .. 3. (2) Dividing (2) by (1)..188 MATHEMATICS Example11 In a G.. Solution Here. Hence a10 = 6 (2)9 = 3072.Find the 10th term. . are needed to give the 2 4 3069 sum 512 ? Solution Let n be the number of terms needed.. a3 = ar = 24 2 5 .. Substituting r = 2 in (1).. we get r = 2. 3 9 Solution Here a = 1 and r = 2 . r = Since Sn = a (1 – r n ) 1− r 1 3069 and Sn = 2 512 Therefore 3069 = 512 3(1 − 1 ) 2n = 6 ⎛ 1− 1 ⎞ ⎜ n ⎟ 1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1− 2 . we get a = 6.. S5 = 3 ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = 3 × 243 ⎢ ⎝ 3⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 211 .. .

r 12 3 4 or – .P. we get r = – Solution This is not a G. which gives n = 10.. 77....n terms] 9 .. (2) 1 13 – –1 – r = or 12r2 + 25r + 12 = 0. Example 14 The sum of first three terms of a G. ar be the first three terms of the G.. a.. 3 4 4 4 3 3 Example15 Find the sum of the sequence 7.. are : . Then r a 13 + ar + a = 12 r . we can relate it to a G. a = – 1 (considering only real roots) and Substituting a = –1 in (1). solving..SEQUENCES AND SERIES 189 or or or 1 3069 = 1− n 3072 2 1 3069 3 1 1− = = n = 3072 3072 1024 2 2n = 1024 = 210. by writing the terms as Sn = 7 + 77 + 777 + 7777 + . 7777. – 1. Solution Let 13 and their product is – 1. 4 3 4 3 –3 3 4 –4 and . 777..to n term] 9 7 [(10 − 1) + (102 − 1) + (103 −1) + (104 − 1) + .P. i. for r = . we get a3 = – 1.P. – 1.. the three terms of G. to n terms = = 7 [9 + 99 + 999 + 9999 + .e. This is a quadratic in r. (1) ⎛a⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (a ) (ar ) = – 1 ⎝r⎠ From (2). . 12 a . to n terms... we have .. however.P. is Find the common ratio and the terms.P. for r = Thus.

we have b = ar n + 1 .256 is a G. ⎝a⎠ ⎝a⎠ ⎛ b ⎞ n +1 G n = ar = a ⎜ ⎟ ⎝a⎠ n n Example17 Insert three numbers between 1 and 256 so that the resulting sequence is a G. Thus.P. = Solution Here a = 2. Solution Let G1. r = 2 and n = 10 Using the sum formula Sn = a (r n −1) r −1 We have S10 = 2(210 – 1) = 2046 Hence. We observe that the three numbers 2..5. the geometric mean of 2 and 8 is 4.190 MATHEMATICS = 7 [(10 + 102 + 103 + . the number of ancestors preceding the person is 2046.) The geometric mean of two positive numbers a and b is the number ab .P.G1.G3 be three numbers between 1 and 256 such that 1.P.….n terms) – (1+1+1+. Given any two positive numbers a and b. ⎢ 9 ⎣ 10 − 1 9 ⎦ 9⎣ ⎦ Example 16 A person has 2 parents.b is a G.P.8 are consecutive terms of a G. we can insert as many numbers as we like between them to make the resulting sequence in a G. r=⎜ ⎟ ⎝a⎠ ⎛ b ⎞ n+1 G 3 = ar = a ⎜ ⎟ .n terms)] 9 ⎤ 7 ⎡ 10 (10n − 1) ⎤ 7 ⎡ 10(10n − 1) − n⎥ = ⎢ − n⎥ . Gn be n numbers between positive numbers a and b such that a. This leads to a generalisation of the concept of geometric means of two numbers.. and so on.P. b being the (n + 2)th term. or 1 ⎛ b ⎞n + 1 ..G2. ⎝a⎠ 3 3 1 Hence 2 ⎛ b ⎞ n+1 G1 = ar = a ⎜ ⎟ . 4 grandparents.3 Geometric Mean (G . G2.G2.G3 .M. . ⎛ b ⎞ n+1 2 G 2 = ar = a ⎜ ⎟ .….Gn.4. G2. Let G1. 9. Find the number of his ancestors during the ten generations preceding his own.. G1. Therefore.G3. 8 great grandparents.

G3 = ar3 = 64 Similarly.M. respectively. for r = – 4.. 16 or 16.. –64. and G. A..M.. we have a+b and G = ab 2 A–G= a +b a + b − 2 ab − ab = 2 2 ≥0 2 From (1). Solution Given that and From (1) and (2). 4. 16.. (4) in the identity (a – b) = (a + b)2 – 4ab. = ab = 8 . b = 16 or a = 16. (1) Example 18 If A.M. of two given positive real numbers a and b. b = 4 Thus. respectively. we obtain a = 4.P..6 Relationship Between A. 9. we get a + b = 20 . find the numbers. (2) G. Let A and G be A. of two positive numbers a and b are 10 and 8.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 191 Therefore 256 = r4 giving r = ± 4 (Taking real roots only) For r = 4.M. = ( a− b ) 2 ..M. we can insert.. G2 = ar2 = 16.. (4) 2 Putting the value of a and b from (3).. and G. = a+b =10 2 . Then A= Thus. between 1 and 256 so that the resulting sequences are in G. 4 respectively..M.M. Hence. numbers are – 4. and G.M. (3) ab = 64 . 64 or – 4. the numbers a and b are 4. (5) Solving (3) and (5).16 and – 64. (1) . we have G1 = ar = 4. we obtain the relationship A ≥ G. we get (a – b)2 = 400 – 256 = 144 or a – b = ± 12 . 16..

15.. 0. 10th and 16th terms of a G.. Determine its 7th term.192 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 9. 13.P. 21 .. 8 th and 11 th terms of a G. 2. Find a G. n terms. Which term of the following sequences: 2. determine S7. . 33. 0..P. 9. 2 4 8 Find the 12th term of a G. is 128 ? (a) (c) (b) 3 .P.015. Find the 20th and nth terms of the G.P. 3. The sum of first three terms of a G. k =1 11 39 and their product is 1. respectively. is ? 3 9 27 19683 2 2 .3. . . The sum of first three terms of a G. 3. The 4th term of a G. a2. z are in G.P. Show that q2 = ps. q and s. the common ratio and the sum to n terms of the G. n terms (if a ≠ – 1). and the first term is – 3. – a3. .P. Find the 12. The 5 th. with a = 729 and 7th term 64. the numbers – 8.P. are x. are p. – a. 17. .. 0..15.P.. . 32. 11. . Prove that x. . 2 2 . y..P. . respectively. 3 7 .. – are in G...P. is 10 common ratio and the terms.3 1. For what values of x.. 1. x3. 6.. 7 . Determine the first term. is729 ? 1 1 1 1 . 5 5 5 ...? 7 7 Find the sum to indicated number of terms in each of the geometric progressions in Exercises 7 to 10: 7. whose 8th term is 192 and the common ratio is 2.. Given a G. 10. 4. If the 4th. … are needed to give the sum 120? 14.. for which sum of the first two terms is – 4 and the fifth term is 4 times the third term.0015. . 16. x5. How many terms of G. y and z. 20 terms. x. is square of its second term.. x7.P. is 16 and the sum of the next three terms is 128. 5..P.P. 4. n terms (if x ≠ ± 1). Evaluate ∑ (2 + 3k ) .3 3 .

P.. Find the value of n so that a and b. 8. If a.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 193 18. What will Rs 500 amounts to in 10 years after its deposit in a bank which pays annual interest rate of 10% compounded annually? 32. a n+1 + b n+1 may be the geometric mean between a n + bn ( )( ) 30. AR. b. prove that P2 = (ab)n. 22. . are a. and G. ar.P. 2 Show that the products of the corresponding terms of the sequences a. If the first and the nth term of a G. 26. 29. 28. and the second term is greater than the 4th by 18.P. 24. If there were 30 bacteria present in the culture originally. 1 . 19.M. prove that the numbers are A ± ( A + G )( A − G ) . 8.M. 8888… . qth and rth terms of a G. Find four numbers forming a geometric progression in which the third term is greater than the first term by 9. 888. respectively between two positive numbers. Insert two number between 3 and 81 so that the resulting sequence is G. If A. then obtain the quadratic equation. If the pth. If A and G be A.M. Prove that aq – r br – pcP – q = 1. respectively. of roots of a quadratic equation are 8 and 5.P. 23. and if P is the product of n terms. 32 and 128. Find the sum to n terms of the sequence.M. AR2. respectively. and G.P. 88. rn 25. 8. how many bacteria will be present at the end of 2nd hour. Show that the ratio of the sum of first n terms of a G. b and c. 27.P. The sum of two numbers is 6 times their geometric means. 4th hour and nth hour ? 31. …arn – 1 and A. to the sum of terms from 16. show that numbers are in the ratio 3 + 2 2 : 3 − 2 2 . The number of bacteria in a certain culture doubles every hour. … ARn – 1 form a G. 20. 32. respectively. c and d are in G. are a and b. (n + 1)th to (2n)th term is 1 . Find the sum of the products of the corresponding terms of the sequences 2. 2. 4. 21. show that (a2 + b2 + c2) (b2 + c2 + d2) = (ab + bc + cd)2 . ar2. and find the common ratio.

...... (i) 1 + 2 + 3 +… + n (sum of first n natural numbers) (ii) 12 + 22 + 32 +… + n2(sum of squares of the first n natural numbers) (iii) 13 + 23 + 33 +… + n3(sum of cubes of the first n natural numbers)...... n3 – (n – 1)3 = 3 (n)2 – 3 (n) + 1 Adding both sides.4) (ii) Here Sn= 12 + 22 + 32 + … + n2 We consider the identity k3 – (k – 1)3 = 3k2 – 3k + 1 Putting k = 1........ 3… n........ 2… successively.. we obtain 13 – 03 = 3 (1)2 – 3 (1) + 1 23 – 13 = 3 (2)2 – 3 (2) + 1 33 – 23 = 3(3)2 – 3 (3) + 1 ....... 2... we get = .....194 MATHEMATICS 9....7 Sum to n Terms of Special Series We shall now find the sum of first n terms of some special series. (i) Sn=1 + 2 + 3 + … + n............. (k + 1)4 – k4 = 4k3 + 6k2 + 4k + 1 Putting k = 1... we get n3 – 03 = 3 (12 + 22 + 32 + .... namely....... we know that n ∑ k =1 + 2 + 3 + ....................... ............ Let us take them one by one. + n = k =1 n n (n + 1) 2 1 ⎡ 3 3n (n + 1) ⎤ 1 2 − n ⎥ = (2n3 + 3n 2 + n) Hence Sn = ∑ k = ⎢ n + 3⎣ 2 ⎦ 6 k =1 n (n +1)(2n + 1) 6 (iii) Here Sn = 13 + 23 + ......... + n2) – 3 (1 + 2 + 3 + ... .....+n3 We consider the identity. then Sn = n (n + 1) 2 (See Section 9......... + n) + n n3 = 3 ∑ k 2 – 3 ∑ k + n k –1 k –1 n n By (i)...

... + an–1 + an Sn = 5 + 11 + 19 + ..........+ n3) + 6(12 + 22 + 32 + .................... (n – 1)4 – (n – 2)4 = 4(n – 2)3 + 6(n – 2)2 + 4(n – 2) + 1 n4 – (n – 1)4 = 4(n – 1)3 + 6(n – 1)2 + 4(n – 1) + 1 (n + 1)4 – n4 = 4n3 + 6n2 + 4n + 1 Adding both sides.......... we know that k =1 ∑k = n n n (n + 1) 2 and k =1 ∑ k2 = n n (n + 1) (2n + 1) 6 Putting these values in equation (1)............. we get Sn = 5 + 11 + 19 + 29 + ............. ........ Example 19 Find the sum to n terms of the series: 5 + 11 + 19 + 29 + 41… Solution Let us write or On subtraction....... n 2 (n + 1) 2 [ n (n + 1) ] Sn = = 4 4 2 Hence...+ n) + n = 4∑ k3 + 6∑ k2 + 4∑ k + n k =1 k =1 k =1 n n n ..................... we obtain 4 ∑ k 3 = n 4 + 4n 3 + 6n 2 + 4 n – k =1 6n (n + 1) (2n + 1) 4n (n + 1) – –n 6 2 or 4Sn = n4 + 4n3 + 6n2 + 4n – n (2n2 + 3n + 1) – 2n (n + 1) – n = n4 + 2n3 + n2 = n2(n + 1)2.......... we get (n + 1)4 – 14 = 4(13 + 23 + 33 +......... (1) From parts (i) and (ii)................. + an–2 + an–1 + an .........+ n2) + 4(1 + 2 + 3 +............... .SEQUENCES AND SERIES 195 24 – 14 = 4(1)3 + 6(1)2 + 4(1) + 1 34 – 24 = 4(2)3 + 6(2)2 + 4(2) + 1 44 – 34 = 4(3)3 + 6(3)2 + 4(3) + 1 ......

(n – 1) terms] – an or an = 5 + (n – 1)[12 + (n − 2) × 2] 2 = 5 + (n – 1) (n + 4) = n2 + 3n + 1 Hence Sn = ∑ a = ∑ (k k =1 k k =1 n n 2 + 3k + 1) = ∑ k 2 + 3∑ k + n k =1 1 n n = n(n + 2)(n + 4) n(n +1)(2n + 1) 3n(n + 1) + +n = .. 1 × 2 × 3 + 2 × 3 × 4 + 3 × 4 × 5 + . 10.. 1 1 1 + + + 1× 2 2 × 3 3× 4 .. n (n+1) (n+4). 3 × 8 + 6 × 11 + 9 × 14 + . 12 + (12 + 22) + (12 + 22 + 32) + . . 6 2 3 EXERCISE 9. n2 + 2n 2...196 MATHEMATICS 0 = 5 + [6 + 8 + 10 + 12 + . 1 × 2 + 2 × 3 + 3 × 4 + 4 × 5 +.. 6.. 3 × 12 + 5 × 22 + 7 × 32 + . + 202 7... Solution Given that an = n (n + 3) = n2 + 3n Thus...... Find the sum to n terms of the series in Exercises 8 to 10 whose nth terms is given by 8. 1. 3.. 3 6 2 Example 20 Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth term is n (n+3).4 Find the sum to n terms of each of the series in Exercises 1 to 7. 52 + 62 + 72 + . 5. 4.. (2n – 1) 2 9. the sum to n terms is given by 2 Sn = ∑ ak = ∑ k + 3∑ k k =1 k =1 k =1 n n n = n (n + 1) (2n + 1) 3n (n + 1) n(n + 1)(n + 5) + = .

P. c. (r – s) are also in G.P.... b = ky and c = kz... Solution Here ap = a + (p –1) d aq = a + (q –1) d ar = a + (r –1) d as = a + (s –1) d Given that ap. x. b.. ar and as are in G. (5) Similarly ar as ar − as r − s = = = aq ar aq − ar q − r (why ?) . z are in A..P.P. So aq ap = ar aq − ar q − r = = aq a p − aq p − q (why ?) . b. b. c are in G. qth... and a x = b y = c z . d and p are different real numbers such that (a2 + b2 + c2)p2 – 2(ab + bc + cd) p + (b2 + c2 + d2) ≤ 0.P. y.P. Since a. (3) . we get k2y = kx + z.P. then show that (p – q). Solution Let a = b = = k Then a = kx .. (1) . (2) . (1) .P. y and z are in A.. (1) . which gives 2y = x + z. p – q. therefore. (q – r). r th and sth terms of an A. (2) Example 23 If a. (4) ... 1 x 1 y 1 cz .SEQUENCES AND SERIES 197 Miscellaneous Examples Example21 If pth. by (5) and (6) q – r r – s .P. = p–q q–r 1 1 1 Example 22 If a.. q – r and r – s are in G. aq.. Solution Given that (a2 + b2 + c2) p2 – 2 (ab + bc + cd) p + (b2 + c2 + d2) ≤ 0 .e.. b2 = ac Using (1) in (2).. c and d are in G.. prove that x.P.. Hence. c are in G. then show that a.. b.. i. (6) Hence. are in G.

.P. .. p q r .198 MATHEMATICS But L. px2 + 2qx + r = 0 and dx2 + 2ex + f = 0 have a common root.S. (2) Since the sum of squares of real numbers is non negative. r are in G. (1) Dividing (1) by pq2 and using q2 = pr.. q2 = pr. p q r The equation px2 + 2qx + r = 0 has roots given by x= −2q ± 4q 2 − 4rp 2p Since p . from (1) and (2). . we have. c and d are in G. therefore.H. are in A. or q p r p q pr Hence d e f .. ⎝ p ⎠ ⎝ p ⎠ 2 or dq2 – 2eqp + fp2 = 0 . = (a2p2 – 2abp + b2) + (b2p2 – 2bcp + c2) + (c2p2 – 2cdp + d2). (ap – b)2 + (bp – c)2 + (cp – d)2 = 0 or ap – b = 0.P. and the equations. then show that Solution d e f . cp – d = 0 This implies that b c d = = =p a b c Hence a.q. Thus x = dx2 + 2ex + f = 0 (Why ?). we get 2e d f d 2e fp = + − + = 0.P. bp – c = 0. b.P.r are in G.q. Example 24 If p.P. Therefore −q −q but is also root of p p ⎛ −q ⎞ ⎛ −q ⎞ d⎜ ⎟ + 2e ⎜ ⎟ + f = 0. are in A. which gives (ap – b)2 + (bp – c)2 + (cp – d)2 ≥ 0 .

be S1. 18. If a and b are the roots of x2 – 3x + p = 0 and c. If a.P.P. 2n. is equal to twice the mth term. is 56. If a + bx b + cx c + dx = = ( x ≠ 0) . consists of an even number of terms.P. If its first term is 11. Let the sum of n. (cn + dn) are in G.P. prove that (an + bn). Show that the sum of (m + n)th and (m – n)th terms of an A. b. is 24 and their product is 440. . c are in A. (bn + cn).P. 3.P. prove that a. The sum of the last four terms is 112. Let S be the sum.P. If we subtract 1. is 1. The sum of some terms of G.. find the numbers. 21 from these numbers in that order. 7. Prove that P2Rn = Sn.P. If a ⎜ + ⎟ . then find its common ratio.P. we obtain an arithmetic progression. is 56. c. are a. qth and rth terms of an A. 2. Prove that (q + p) : (q – p) = 17:15. 7. The pth.P.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 199 Miscellaneous Exercise On Chapter 9 1. 3n terms of an A. respectively. respectively. then find the number of terms.. 10. Find the common ratio of G. b. respectively. find the value of n. The first term of a G. Find the sum of all numbers between 200 and 400 which are divisible by 7. d are roots of x2 – 12x + q = 0. Find the sum of integers from 1 to 100 that are divisible by 2 or 5.P. If f is a function satisfying f (x +y) = f(x) f(y) for all x. 6. ⎝b c⎠ ⎝c a⎠ ⎝a b⎠ 17. c.b ⎜ + ⎟ . Show that (q – r )a + (r – p )b + (p – q )c = 0 ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ 1 1⎞ 16. d are in G. y ∈ N such that f(1) = 3 and x =1 ∑ f (x) = 120 . then show that a. n 8. S2 and S3. If the sum of three numbers in A. show that S3 = 3(S2 – S1) 4. Find the last term and the number of terms.P. A G. c and d are in G. The sum of the third term and fifth term is 90. d form a G. 11.P. a − bx b − cx c − dx 14. c. 13. b. The sum of the first four terms of an A. is 315 whose first term and the common ratio are 5 and 2. The sum of three numbers in G.P. 5. P the product and R the sum of reciprocals of n terms in a G. 12. b. yields 1 as remainder. Find the sum of all two digit numbers which when divided by 4. Find the numbers. 15. If the sum of all the terms is 5 times the sum of terms occupying odd places. b.P. 9.P.P.c ⎜ + ⎟ are in A. where a.

. He pays Rs 6000 cash and agrees to pay the balance in annual instalments of Rs 500 plus 12% interest on the unpaid amount. + n2 × (n + 1) 3n + 1 . 2 25.. . their squares and their cubes. 15625..P.. 31.M. b.P. prove that a. How much will the scooter cost him? A person writes a letter to four of his friends. 21. 4 workers dropped out on second day. 32. If S1.P. Assuming that the chain is not broken and that it costs 50 paise to mail one letter. b.. 150 workers were engaged to finish a job in a certain number of days.6 +. will depreciate each year by 20%. c are in A. The ratio of the A. 4 more workers dropped out on third day and so on.. 29. is m : n. 23. 1 1 1 20. Find the sum of the following series up to n terms: 13 13 + 22 13 + 23 + 33 + + + .. and . 28. If a. + n × (n + 1) 2 3n + 5 = 12 × 2 + 2 2 × 3 + . c.200 MATHEMATICS 19. of two positive numbers a and b.P. Find the sum of the first n terms of the series: 3+ 7 +13 +21 +31 +… 24. are in A. He asks each one of them to copy the letter and mail to four different persons with instruction that they move the chain similarly. respectively. Find the estimated value at the end of 5 years. A man deposited Rs 10000 in a bank at the rate of 5% simple interest annually.M. which costs him Rs. 666+… th 22. show that 9 S2 = S3 (1 + 8S1). A farmer buys a used tractor for Rs 12000. . 1 × 22 + 2 × 32 + .. 66 +. e c d e are in G. S3 are the sum of first n natural numbers. Find the sum of the following series up to n terms: (i) 5 + 55 +555 + … (ii) . Show that a : b = m + m2 – n 2 : m – m2 – n 2 ( )( ). c. S2. Find the amount in 15th year since he deposited the amount and also calculate the total amount after 20 years. Show that 27.. + n terms. Find the 20 term of the series 2 × 4 + 4 × 6 + 6 × 8 + . He pays Rs 4000 cash and agrees to pay the balance in annual instalment of Rs 1000 plus 10% interest on the unpaid amount. 30. 1 1+ 3 1+ 3 + 5 26. How much will the tractor cost him? Shamshad Ali buys a scooter for Rs 22000. and G. A manufacturer reckons that the value of a machine. Find the amount spent on the postage when 8th set of letter is mailed. d are in G.

P.. 3. be the sequence. if the ratio of any term to its preceding term is same throughout.P. we denote the first term of a G..P. The sum Sn of the first n terms of G. by a and its common ratio by r. is given by . then the sum expressed as a1 + a2 + a3 + .SEQUENCES AND SERIES 201 It took 8 more days to finish the work. the common difference by d and the last term by l.... the 2 The arithmetic mean A of any two numbers a and b is given by sequence a.P.P. Let a1.P. ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 a+b i. we mean an arrangement of a number in a definite order according to some rule. An arithmetic progression (A. A series is called finite series if it has got finite number of terms. A sequence is said to be a geometric progression or G.P. a3.P. is called series. The general term or the nth term of the A. we denote the first terms of A. Usually. is given by an= arn – 1. A sequence containing a finite number of terms is called a finite sequence.e. A. . The general or the nth term of G. This constant factor is called the common ratio.P. Summary By a sequence. by a. a2. Also. we define a sequence as a function whose domain is the set of natural numbers or some subsets of the type {1.k). Usually. Find the number of days in which the work was completed.) is a sequence in which terms increase or decrease regularly by the same constant. A sequence is called infinite if it is not a finite sequence. The sum Sn of the first n terms of an A. is given by n n Sn = ⎡2a + ( n – 1) d ⎤ = ( a + l ) . 2. b is in A.... This constant is called common difference of the A. is given by an = a + (n – 1) d..P.

). Noted Indian mathematicians Brahmgupta (598 A.) of any two positive numbers a and b is given by ab i. if r ≠ 1 n 1–r The geometric mean (G. knew of arithmetic and geometric sequences.D.) also considered the sum of squares and cubes. Another specific type of sequence having important applications in mathematics.e. Seventeenth century witnessed the classification of series into specific forms. called Fibonacci sequence. written around 499 A. Among the Indian mathematician. some 4000 years ago.) and Bhaskara (1114-1185 A. Historical Note Evidence is found that Babylonians.D.P.) was the first to give the formula for the sum of squares and cubes of natural numbers in his famous work Aryabhatiyam. was discovered by Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci (1170-1250 A. G.D. James Gregory used the term infinite series in connection with infinite sequence.). b is G. According to Boethius (510 A. — — . He also gave the formula for finding the sum to n terms of an arithmetic sequence starting with p th term.D.. the sequence a.D. In 1671 A. Aryabhatta (476 A.D.).M. It was only through the rigorous development of algebraic and set theoretic tools that the concepts related to sequence and series could be formulated suitably. arithmetic and geometric sequences were known to early Greek writers. Mahavira (850 A.202 MATHEMATICS a rn – 1 Sn = r –1 ( ) or a (1– r ) .D.D.

– 4) is at 6 units distance from the y-axis measured along the positive x-axis and at 4 units distance from the x-axis measured along the negative y-axis. the point (3. This book introduced the notion of the equation of a curve and related analytical methods into the study of geometry.1 We also studied there following important formulae: . All these concepts are the basics of coordinate geometry. Mainly. In the earlier classes. is a means and even the most powerful means to make children feel the strength of the human spirit that is of their own spirit. distance between two points. we initiated René Descartes the study of coordinate geometry. Let us have a brief recall of coordinate geometry done in earlier classes. plotting of points in a plane. where we studied about (1596 -1650) coordinate axes. etc. Similarly. it is a combination of algebra and geometry. FREUDENTHAL 10. To recapitulate. Fig 10.1. 0) in the XY-plane is shown in Fig 10.1 Introduction We are familiar with two-dimensional coordinate geometry from earlier classes. – H. A systematic study of geometry by the use of algebra was first carried out by celebrated French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes. The resulting combination of analysis and geometry is referred now as analytical geometry. as a logical system. 0) is at 3 units distance from the y-axis measured along the positive x-axis and has zero distance from the x-axis. published in 1637. the location of the points (6. in his book ‘La Géométry. We may note that the point (6. – 4) and (3.Chapter 10 STRAIGHT LINES G eometry. coordinate plane. section formule.

(x2. The coordinates of a point dividing the line segment joining the points (x1. the line is a vital concept of geometry and enters into our daily experiences in numerous interesting and useful ways. y2) and (x3. whose vertices are (4.204 MATHEMATICS I. B and C lie on a line. . if m = n. 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 IV. ⎟. i. they are collinear. for which slope is most essential. 9) internally. 10. 16) is − 54 1 4( −2 − 16) + 3(16 − 4) + (−3)(4 + 2) = = 27. (3.(− 3) = 0.9 + 3.e. in the ratio 1: 3 are given by x = and y = 1. In particular. II. then three points A. y2) internally. in the ratio m: n are ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ m x 2 + n x1 m y 2 + n y1 ⎞ ⎟. we shall continue the study of coordinate geometry to study properties of the simplest geometric figure – straight line. Despite its simplicity. Distance between the points P (x1. 0) is ( 3 − 6 )2 + ( 0 + 4 )2 = 9 + 16 = 5 units. –3) and B (–3. which are supplementary. – 4) and (3. y1) and (x2. . y2) are ⎜ ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y 2 ⎞ . Area of the triangle whose vertices are (x1. the area of the triangle. – 2) and (– 3. 2 For example. distance between the points (6.. 2 2 Remark If the area of the triangle ABC is zero.( − 3) + 3. y2) is PQ = (x 2 – x1 ) + ( y2 – y1 ) 2 2 For example.2 Slope of a Line A line in a coordinate plane forms two angles with the x-axis. 4).1 =0 1+ 3 For example. y1) and (x2. the coordinates of the mid-point of the line segment joining the points (x1. y1) and Q (x2. the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining A (1. m+n ⎟ ⎝ m+n ⎠ 1. Main focus is on representing the line algebraically. y3) is 1 x1 ( y 2 − y 3 ) + x 2 ( y 3 − y 1 ) + x 3 ( y1 − y 2 ) . 1+ 3 III. y1). In the this Chapter.

Let P(x 1. Therefore. Hence. The slope of a line whose inclination is 90° is not defined. x1 ≠ x2. 10. 3 (i) . have inclination of 0°. Let us take these two cases. θ ≠ 90° It may be observed that the slope of x-axis is zero and slope of y-axis is not defined. Thus. Case 1 When angle θ is acute: In Fig 10. 10.1 Slope of a line when coordinates of any two points on the line are given We know that a line is completely determined when we are given two points on it. (1) MQ y2 − y1 . y 2 ) be two points on non-vertical line l whose inclination is θ. The slope of a line is denoted by m. Obviously 0° ≤ θ ≤ 180° (Fig 10.. then tan θ is called the slope or gradient of Fig 10. (2) .STRAIGHT LINES 205 The angle (say) θ made by the line l with positive direction of x-axis and measured anti clockwise is called the inclination of the line. Obviously. y 1 ) and Q(x 2. slope of line l = m = tan θ. The inclination of the line l may be acute or obtuse. otherwise the line will become perpendicular to x-axis and its slope will not be defined. m = tan θ.2.3 (i).. we have tan θ = Fig 10. = MP x2 − x1 . We observe that lines parallel to x-axis. The inclination of a vertical line (parallel to or coinciding with y-axis) is 90°. But in ∆MPQ.3 (i) and (ii).2 the line l.. or coinciding with x-axis.. Draw perpendicular QR to x-axis and PM perpendicular to RQ as shown in Figs. ∠MPQ = θ.2). Definition 1 If θ is the inclination of a line l. we proceed to find the slope of a line in terms of the coordinates of two points on the line.

. tan α = tan β Therefore m1 = m2. i. α = β. y1) and (x2. and hence. i. . if the slope of two lines l1 and l2 is same.. slope of the line l Fig 10. Now. Then tan α = tan β. suppose that non-vertical lines l1 and l2 have slopes m1 and m2. 3 (ii) m = tan θ = tan ( 180° – ∠MPQ) = – tan ∠MPQ = − y2 − y1 MQ y −y . we have m= y2 − y1 . If the line l1 is parallel to l2 (Fig 10. x2 − x1 Case II When angle θ is obtuse: In Fig 10. respectively. α = β. m1 = m2.4). respectively. the lines are parallel. Therefore.e.3 (ii).2. 4 By the property of tangent function (between 0° and 180°). y2) is given by m = y2 − y1 . Therefore.2 Conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity of lines in terms of their slopes In a coordinate plane. their slopes are equal. Conversely. i.. Let their inclinations be α and β.206 MATHEMATICS From equations (1) and (2). we have ∠MPQ = 180° – θ. then their inclinations are equal. =− 2 1 = x2 − x1 x1 − x2 MP Consequently. x2 − x1 10. we see that in both the cases the slope m of the line through the points (x1.e. θ = 180° – ∠MPQ. Fig 10.e.

– 2) and (3.STRAIGHT LINES 207 Hence. tan α tan β = – 1. Therefore. two non vertical lines l1 and l2 are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal. 4) is . if m1 m2 = – 1. Example 1 Find the slope of the lines: (a) (b) (c) (d) Passing through the points (3. Then tan α = – cot β = tan (β + 90°) or tan (β – 90°) Fig 10. m1 Let us consider the following example. m2= − 1 or. α and β differ by 90°. – 2).. two non-vertical lines are perpendicular to each other if and only if their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. – 2) and (7. 7−3 4 (c) The slope of the line through the points (3. 1 tan α m1 m2 = – 1 1 m2 = − m 1 or Conversely. Passing through the points (3.e. then β = α + 90°.tan β = tan (α + 90°) = – cot α = − i. Passing through the points (3. Solution (a) The slope of the line through (3. 4) is m= 4 − ( −2) 6 3 = =− . lines l1 and l2 are perpendicular to each other.e.. −1 − 3 −4 2 (b) The slope of the line through the points (3.e. 4). – 2) is m= − 2 − ( − 2) 0 = = 0.. Making inclination of 60° with the positive direction of x-axis.5). – 2) and (3. i. – 2) and (7. i. If the lines l1 and l2 are perpendicular (Fig 10. 5 Therefore. – 2) and (– 1. – 2) and (–1. m1 m2 = – 1. Hence. 4). Thus.

respectively. 6 Now. there arise two cases: . We know that when two lines intersect each other.2. α2 ≠ 90°. slope of the line is m= m = tan 60° = 3. then we find that these lines are either intersecting or parallel. If α1 and α2 are the inclinations of lines L1 and L2. which is not defined. Then θ = α2 – α1 and α1. Let θ and φ be the adjacent angles between the lines L1 and L2 (Fig10. Here we will discuss the angle between two lines in terms of their slopes. Therefore tan θ = tan (α2 – α1) = and φ = 180° – θ so that tan φ = tan (180° – θ ) = – tan θ = – tan α 2 − tan α1 m − m1 = 2 1 + tan α1 tan α 2 1 + m1m2 (as 1 + m1m2 ≠ 0) m2 − m1 .208 MATHEMATICS 4 − ( − 2) 6 = . as 1 + m1m2 ≠ 0 1 + m1m2 Fig 10. Therefore. respectively. Then m1 = tan α1 and m2 = tan α2 . they make two pairs of vertically opposite angles such that sum of any two adjacent angles is 180°.6).3 Angle between two lines When we think about more than one line in a plane. 10. Let L1 and L2 be two non-vertical lines with slopes m1 and m2. 3−3 0 (d) Here inclination of the line α = 60°.

is given by tan θ = m 2 − m1 . as 1 + m1m 2 ≠ 0 1 + m1m 2 . 1 + m1 m 2 which means θ will be acute and φ will be obtuse. Example 2 If the angle between two lines is π 1 and slope of one of the lines is . Case II If which means that θ will be obtuse and φ will be acute. 3 . Thus... respectively. putting these values in (1). which gives 1 1 m− 2 = 1 or − 2 = –1. find 4 2 the slope of the other line. the acute angle (say θ) between lines L1 and L2 with slopes m1 and m2. (1) Let m1 = 1 π . we get π tan = 4 m− 1 2 1 1+ m 2 or 1 = m− 1 2 1 1+ m 2 . then tan θ will be positive and tan φ will be negative.STRAIGHT LINES 209 Case I If m 2 − m1 is positive. 1 + m1 m 2 m 2 − m1 is negative.. Solution We know that the acute angle θ between two lines with slopes m1 and m2 is given by tan θ = m2 − m1 1 + m1m 2 . (1) The obtuse angle (say φ) can be found by using φ =1800 – θ. 1 1 1+ m 1+ m 2 2 m− 1 Therefore m = 3 or m = − . then tan θ will be negative and tan φ will be positive. m2 = m and θ = .. 4 2 Now.

Fig 10. 7 Example 3 Line through the points (–2.e. 24) is 24 − 12 12 = x−8 x −8 Since two lines are perpendicular. three points are collinear (Fig 10. If two lines having the same slope pass through a common point. B and C are three points in the XY-plane.2..210 MATHEMATICS Hence. 12) and (x. i. 12) and (x. Fig 10.7 explains the 3 reason of two answers. if A. 6) and (4. then two lines will coincide. m1 m2 = –1. then they will lie on a line. Find the value of x. Solution Slope of the line through the points (– 2. 8) is m1 = 8−6 2 1 = = 4 − ( −2 ) 6 3 Slope of the line through the points (8. slope of the other line is 1 3 or − . 8 . 3 x −8 10.8) if and only if slope of AB = slope of BC. Fig 10. 6) and (4.4 Collinearity of three points We know that slopes of two parallel lines are equal. which gives m2 = 1 12 × = −1 or x = 4 . Hence. 24). 8) is perpendicular to the line through the points (8.

which passes through the origin. Therefore. we have Slope of PQ = Slope of QR. find law of motion. (ii) PQ is parallel to the x-axis. 8) and (T.e. Example 5 In Fig 10. 5).STRAIGHT LINES 211 Example 4 Three points P (h. 6) and (3. 2). .1 1. (3. 3. Also. how distance depends upon time. and the mid-point of the line segment joining the points P (0. – 5) and (– 4. 4. y2) lie on a line. Find vertices of the triangle.9 8 − 2 D −8 or = 3−0 T −3 or D = 2(T + 1). find its area.9. y2) when : (i) PQ is parallel to the y-axis. 5. where D denotes the distance at time T. y1) and R (x2. D) be any point on the line. when T = 0. time and distance graph of a linear motion is given. Find a point on the x-axis. points (0. (0. Show that (h – x1) (y2 – y1) = (k – y1) (x2 – x1). Draw a quadrilateral in the Cartesian plane. which is equidistant from the points (7. Q (x1. The base of an equilateral triangle with side 2a lies along the y-axis such that the mid-point of the base is at the origin. y1) and Q (x2. D = 8. 0). 7). (h – x1) (y2 – y1) = (k – y1) (x2 – x1).. Find the distance between P (x1. which is the required relation. whose vertices are (– 4. 4). k). Solution Let (T. i. 2. i. Using the concept of slope.e. Two positions of time and distance are recorded as. –2). Q and R are collinear. – 4) and B (8. D) are collinear so that Fig 10. y1 − k y −y = 2 1 x1 − h x2 − x1 or or k − y1 y 2 − y1 = h − x1 x2 − x1 .. Find the slope of a line. Solution Since points P. D = 2 and when T = 3. 6 (T − 3) = 3 (D − 8) EXERCISE 10. (5.

The slope of a line is double of the slope of another line. find what will be the population in the year 2010? Fig 10. show that the points (4.10 10. 5) and (–1. Find the value of x for which the points (x. If three points (h. 10. Without using the Pythagoras theorem. 5) are collinear. If slope of the line is m. 9. 8. 3) and (–3. 0). k) lie on a line. (4. 13. This relationship between line and points leads us to find the solution of the following problem: . (a. (3.–1) and (4. (3. b) and (0. 2) are the vertices of a parallelogram. show that k – y1 = m (h – x1).212 MATHEMATICS 6.10). show that a b + = 1. If tangent of the angle between them is 1 . Find the angle between the x-axis and the line joining the points (3. 0). (2. A line passes through (x1. – 1). find the slope of the line AB and using it. –1) are the vertices of a right angled triangle. which makes an angle of 30° with the positive direction of y-axis measured anticlockwise.3 Various Forms of the Equation of a Line We know that every line in a plane contains infinitely many points on it. – 1). show that points (– 2.1) and (4. y1) and (h. Find the slope of the line. Without using distance formula. find the slopes of the lines. 11. Consider the following population and year graph (Fig 10.–2). k). 3 12. h k 14. 4). 7.

therefore.11 (a)]. equation of the line parallel tox-axis and passing through (– 2.STRAIGHT LINES 213 How can we say that a given point lies on the given line? Its answer may be that for a given line we should have a definite condition on the points lying on the line. when P is on L. Of course the statement is merely an algebraic equation involving the variables x and y. Similarly. we wish to construct a statement or condition for the point P that is true. the equation of a vertical line at a distance b from the x-axis is either x = b or x = – b [Fig 10. Therefore. 10. y) is an arbitrary point in the XY-plane and L is the given line. For the equation of L. The y-coordinate of every point on the line parallel to x-axis is 3. Similarly.12 . Now. Fig 10. 3). equation of the line L is either y = a or y = – a. 3) is y = 3.11(b)].1 Horizontal and vertical lines If a horizontal line L is at a distance a from the x-axis then ordinate of every point lying on the line is either a or – a [Fig 10.12. we will discuss the equation of a line under different conditions. 3) is x = – 2. Suppose P (x. Solution Position of the lines is shown in the Fig 10.3. equation of the line parallel to y-axis and passing through (– 2. Choice of sign will depend upon the position of the line according as the line is above or below the y-axis.11 Example 6 Find the equations of the lines parallel to axes and passing through (– 2. Fig 10. otherwise false.

y0) is a fixed point on a non-vertical line L.3.. x 2 − x1 . 3) with slope – 4.3 Two-point form Let the line L passes through two given points P1 (x1. y − y 0 = m ( x − x 0 ) x − x0 . By slope-intercept form formula (1) above. The three points P1.14).(1) Since the point P0 (x0 .13).e. y − y1 y 2 − y1 = . y0). Equation (1) is indeed the equation for the given line L. 3). the slope of L is given by m= y − y0 . y) be an arbitrary point on L (Fig 10.e. Let P (x.. P2 and P are collinear. y0) along with all points (x. y0) is (– 2. y1) and P2 (x2.. y2). equation of the given line is y – 3 = – 4 (x + 2) or 4x + y + 5 = 0.214 MATHEMATICS 10. y) be a general point on L (Fig 10. y) lies on the line with slope m through the fixed point (x0. Fig 10.3. therefore. 10.13 Thus. which is the required equation.2 Point-slope form Suppose that P0 (x0.. the point (x. Let P (x.14 i. Then. its coordinates satisfy the equation y – y0 = m (x – x0) Example 7 Find the equation of the line through (– 2. y) on L satisfies (1) and no other point in the plane satisfies (1). x − x1 x 2 − x1 or y − y 1 = y 2 − y1 ( x − x1 ). we have slope of P1P = slope of P1P2 Fig 10. i. Solution Here m = – 4 and given point (x0 . whose slope is m. if and only if. by the definition.

–1) and (3. x2 = 3 and y2 = 5. respectively. which is the required equation... the equation of L is y − c = m ( x − 0 ) or y = mx + c Thus. Example 9 Write the equation of the lines for which tan θ = inclination of the line and (i) y-intercept is – y = m( x − d ) 1 . c). Case I Suppose a line L with slope m cuts the y-axis at a distance c from the origin (Fig10.(3) Note that the value of c will be positive or negative according as the intercept is made on the positive or negative side of the y-axis. Thus. L has slope m and passes through a fixed point (0.3. 10. 5). Then equation of L is . Therefore..15).4 Slope-intercept form Sometimes a line is known to us with its slope and an intercept on one of the axes. equation of the line passing through the points (x1. y) on the line with slope Fig 10. y1 = – 1... we have y − (− 1) = or 5 − (− 1) (x − 1) 3 −1 − 3 x + y + 4 = 0 . y1) and (x2. coordinates of the point where the line meet the y-axis are (0. Using two-point form (2) above for the equation of the line. where θ is the 2 3 (ii) x-intercept is 4. (2) Example 8 Write the equation of the line through the points (1. by point-slope form. the point (x.15 m and y-intercept c lies on the line if and only if y = mx + c .. The distance c is called the yintercept of the line L. (4) Students may derive this equation themselves by the same method as in Case I. y2) is given by y − y1 = y 2 − y1 ( x − x1) x 2 − x1 . Case II Suppose line L with slope m makes x-intercept d. Obviously. 2 . We will now find equations of such lines. Solution Here x1 = 1. c).STRAIGHT LINES 215 Thus.

By intercept form (5) above. b) (Fig . equation of the line is x y + =1 −3 2 or 2x − 3 y + 6 = 0 .5 Intercept .and y-axes respectively. equation of the line making intercepts a and b on x-and y-axis. 10. . 0) and y-axis at the point (0. 1 3 x − or 2 y − x + 3 = 0 . slope of the line is m = tan θ = 1 3 and y . By two-point form of the equation of the line. is x y + =1 a b .16). 2 (ii) Here. Solution Here a = –3 and b = 2.. (5) Example 10 Find the equation of the line. respectively. a b Fig 10. 2 which is the required equation..intercept c = – .16 Thus. 2 2 Therefore.. which makes intercepts –3 and 2 on the x. we have m = tan θ = Therefore.10. by slope-intercept form (3) above. the equation of the line is y= 1 ( x − 4) or 2 y − x + 4 = 0 . 0−a x y + = 1. 2 2 1 and d = 4. Obviously L meets x-axis at the point (a. b−0 (x − a) or ay = −bx + ab . we have y−0= i. the equation of the line is y= which is the required equation.216 MATHEMATICS Solution (i) Here.3. by slope-intercept form (4) above.form Suppose a line L makes x-intercept a and y-intercept b on the axes.e.

17. Therefore The slope of the line L = − Thus. slope of OA tan ω sin ω cos ω and point A ( p cos ω. the equation of the line L is . Therefore. The possible positions of line L in the Cartesian plane are shown in the Fig 10. p sin ω). line L is perpendicular to OA. (ii) Angle which normal makes with the positive direction of x-axis. by sin ω point-slope form.17 In each case.3. Draw perpendicular AM on the x-axis in each case.STRAIGHT LINES 217 10. Fig 10. Let L be the line. p sin ω) on it. Further. Now. so that the coordinates of the point A are (p cos ω. we have OM = p cos ω and MA = p sin ω.6 Normal form Suppose a non-vertical line is known to us with following data: (i) Length of the perpendicular (normal) from origin to the line. whose perpendicular distance from origin O be OA = p and the angle between the positive x-axis and OA be ∠XOA = ω. our purpose is to find slope of L and a point on it. the line L has slope − 1 1 cos ω =− =− .

Now cos 15° = 3 +1 2 2 3 −1 (Why?) 2 2 and sin 15º = By the normal form (6) above. K= . Given that K = 273 when F = 32 and that K = 373 when F = 212. the equation of the line having normal distance p from the origin and angle ω which the normal makes with the positive direction of x-axis is given by x cos ω + y sin ω = p .18). By two-point form.218 MATHEMATICS y − p sin ω = − cos ω ( x − p cos ω ) or sin ω x cos ω + y sin ω = p (sin 2ω + cos 2ω) or x cos ω + y sin ω = p. the point (F. (6) Example 11 Find the equation of the line whose perpendicular distance from the origin is 4 units and the angle which the normal makes with positive direction of x-axis is 15°. we are given p = 4 and ω = 150 (Fig10.. (1) 5 ( F − 32 ) + 273 9 which is the required relation. 273) and (212. ) Example 12 The Fahrenheit temperature F and absolute temperature K satisfy a linear equation.. Solution Here. we have two points (32. Hence. the equation of the line is Fig 10. K) satisfies the equation K − 273 = or 373 − 273 100 ( F − 32 ) or K − 273 = ( F − 32 ) 212 − 32 180 . x cos 150 + y sin 150 = 4 or ( 3 +1 x + ) ( 3 − 1 y = 8 2. Solution Assuming F along x-axis and K along y-axis. 373) in XY-plane.18 3 +1 3 −1 x+ y = 4 or 2 2 2 2 This is the required equation... Express K in terms of F and find the value of F. when K = 0.

we need two conditions satisfied by the equation of line. that the equation y = mx + c. we get 5 2297 F+ 9 9 which is the required relation. we can take equation in the form K = mF + c . Intersecting the y-axis at a distance of 2 units above the origin and making an angle of 30o with positive direction of the x-axis. namely. 9 9 . Passing through (0. 0) with slope m. 6. contains two constants. 2. Intersecting the x-axis at a distance of 3 units to the left of origin with slope –2. 273) and (212. find the equation of the line which satisfy the given conditions: 1. 1) and (2.. Passing through the points (–1.. 2 3 and inclined with the x-axis at an angle of 75o. 4... Equation (1) gives 0= 5 ( F − 32 ) + 273 9 or F − 32 = − 273 × 9 = − 491.4 . Therefore 273 = 32m + c . 2 ( ) . (4) gives F = – 459. Write the equations for the x-and y-axes.. – 4). In all the examples above. m and c.4 5 or F= − 459. 7. we are given two conditions to determine the equation of the line.. 373). (4) Putting the values of m and c in (1).2 In Exercises 1 to 8.. EXERCISE 10. (2) and 373 = 212m + c Solving (2) and (3). When K = 0. Passing through the point (– 4. (1) Equation (1) is satisfied by (32. Passing through 2. K= Note We know. we get m= . 5. (3) 5 2297 and c = . For finding these two constants. 1 . 3) with slope 3. Alternate method We know that simplest form of the equation of a line is y = mx + c.. Again assuming Falong x-axis and K along y-axis.STRAIGHT LINES 219 When K = 0.4.

Find the equation of the line passing through (–3. 15. By using the concept of equation of a line. A line perpendicular to the line segment joining the points (1. 3) and R (4. 5) and (–3. 3) divides it in the ratio 1: n. 0) and (2. k) divides a line segment between the axes in the ratio 1: 2. 16. 5) and perpendicular to the line through the points (2. 3).4 General Equation of a Line In earlier classes. prove that the three points (3. express L in terms of C. Show that equation Find equation of the line through the point (0. 12. – 2) and (8. (– 2. The vertices of ∆ PQR are P (2. b) is the mid-point of a line segment between axes. Q (–2. 2) and cutting off intercepts on the axes whose sum is 9. we have studied general equation of first degree in two variables. Find equation of the line. 2) are collinear. The length L (in centimetrs) of a copper rod is a linear function of its Celsius temperature C. Graph of the equation Ax + By + C = 0 is always a straight line. 10. 2) making an angle of the line is x y + = 2. . In an experiment. 0). 1). find the equation of the line. The owner of a milk store finds that. 9. Find the equation of a line that cuts off equal intercepts on the coordinate axes and passes through the point (2. Ax + By + C = 0. he can sell 980 litres of milk each week at Rs 14/litre and 1220 litres of milk each week at Rs 16/litre. 10. 6). 20. find the equation of line parallel to it and crossing the y-axis at a distance of 2 units below the origin. 11. Assuming a linear relationship between selling price and demand. 5). Point R (h. Find the equation of the line. 18.134 when C = 110. how many litres could he sell weekly at Rs 17/litre? P (a. if L = 124. The perpendicular from the origin to a line meets it at the point (–2. 17.220 MATHEMATICS 8. 9). Find equation of the median through the vertex R. 13. a b 19.942 when C = 20 and L= 125. where A. Find equation of the line passing through the point (2. B and C are real constants such that A and B are not zero simultaneously. Perpendicular distance from the origin is 5 units and the angle made by the perpendicular with the positive x-axis is 300. 14. Also. 2π with the 3 positive x-axis.

therefore. by the following procedures: (a) Slope-intercept form If B ≠ 0. then Ax + By + C = 0 can be written as x y x y + = 1 or + =1 C C a b − − A B where a= − C C and b = − . A B We know that equation (1) is intercept form of the equation of a line whose x-intercept is − C C and y-intercept is − . Thus. then Ax + By + C = 0 can be written as y=− where A C x − or y = mx + c B B .4. 10. then x = − x-intercept is − C .. A B If C = 0. A (b) Intercept form If C ≠ 0. and y-intercept is − .which is a vertical line whose slope is undefined and A C .. has zero intercepts on the axes. (c) Normal form Let x cos ω + y sin ω = p be the normal form of the line represented by the equation Ax + By + C = 0 or Ax + By = – C. any equation of the form Ax + By + C = 0. where A and B are not zero simultaneously is called general linear equation or general equation of a line. B B We know that Equation (1) is the slope-intercept form of the equation of a line m=− A C . A B C = =− p cos ω sin ω .1 Different forms of Ax + By + C = 0 The general equation of a line can be reduced into various forms of the equation of a line. B B whose slope is − If B = 0. both the equations are same and therefore. then Ax + By + C = 0 can be written as Ax + By = 0. which is a line passing through the origin and. (1) A C and c = − .STRAIGHT LINES 221 Therefore.

Proper choice of signs is made so that p should be positive. sin ω = ± B A +B 2 2 and p = ± C 2 A +B 2 .222 MATHEMATICS which gives 2 cos ω = − Ap Bp and sin ω = − . Find its (i) slope. we have x-intercept as a = − and a b 3 5 . 2 . Example 13 Equation of a line is 3x – 4y + 10 = 0. Solution (i) Given equation 3x – 4y + 10 = 0 can be written as y= 3 5 x+ 4 2 . C C Now 2 sin ω + cos ω = − ( ) ( ) Ap C 2 + − Bp C 2 =1 or 2 p = C 2 2 A +B 2 or p = ± C 2 A +B 2 Therefore cosω = ± A A +B 2 2 and sinω = ± B 2 A +B 2 . (2) Comparing (2) with y-intercept as b = x y 10 + = 1 . (1) Comparing (1) with y = mx + c... the normal form of the equation Ax + By + C = 0 is x cos ω + y sin ω = p. Thus.and y-intercepts. we have slope of the given line as m = (ii) Equation 3x – 4y + 10 = 0 can be written as 3 x − 4 y = −10 or x y + =1 10 5 − 3 2 3 ... (ii) x . 4 . where cos ω = ± A A +B 2 2 .

.. Hence.. Solution Given equation is 3 x + y − 8 = 0 into normal form. where b1.. b2 ≠ 0 are: . we get 3 1 x + y = 4 or cos 30° x + sin 30° y = 4 . Example 16 Show that two lines a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 and a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 = 0 .. 3 The acute angle (say) θ between two lines is given by tan θ = . y − 3 x − 5 = 0 or y = 3 x + 5 and . (1) . we get 1 − 3 3 tan θ = 1 1+ 3 × 3 = 1− 3 1 = 2 3 3 which gives θ = 30°.STRAIGHT LINES 223 Example 14 Reduce the equation of p and ω.. (1) ( 3) 2 + (1)2 = 2 . Find the values 3x + y − 8 = 0 Dividing (1) by . (2) 2 2 Comparing (2) with x cos ω + y sin ω = p.. Example15 Find the angle between the lines y − 3 x − 5 = 0 and Solution Given lines are 3y − x + 6 = 0 . we get p = 4 and ω = 30°. (3) Putting the values of m1 and m2 in (3). angle between two lines is either 30° or 180° – 30° = 150°... (2) 3 y − x + 6 = 0 or y = 3 x − 2 3 1 Slope of line (1) is m1 = 3 and slope of line (2) is m2 = m 2 − m1 1 + m1 m 2 1 ..

= − 2 or b1 b2 b1 b2 (ii) Lines are perpendicular.. – 2). – 2) is y − ( − 2) = − 2(x − 1) or y = − 2 x . which gives a 2 .(1) Slope of the line (1) is m1 = 1 . Now b2 − a1 a 2 a1 a = . . (2) Slopes of the lines (1) and (2) are m1 = − a1 and m2 = − (i) Lines are parallel. Solution Given line x − 2 y + 3 = 0 can be written as y= 1 3 x+ 2 2 .. if m1. slope of the line perpendicular to line (1) is 2 m2 = − 1 = −2 m1 Equation of the line with slope – 2 and passing through the point (1.m2 = – 1..224 MATHEMATICS (i) Parallel if a1 b1 = a2 b2 . (1) y = − a2 x − c2 b2 b2 b1 . = − 1 or a a + b b = 0 1 2 1 2 b1 b2 Example 17 Find the equation of a line perpendicular to the line x − 2 y + 3 = 0 and passing through the point (1.. Solution Given lines can be written as y = − a1 x − c1 b1 b1 and . and (ii) Perpendicular if a1 a 2 + b1 b 2 = 0 . if m1 = m2. which gives a1 a2 . Therefore. respectively... which is the required equation.

STRAIGHT LINES 225 10. the area of the triangle PQR B⎠ ⎝ 2 area (∆PQR) QR .19 the line meets the x-and y-axes at the points Q and R. Then. Draw a perpendicular PM from the point P to the line L (Fig10. (1) Also. A x1 + B y 1 + C . which gives PM = 2 ⎛ C ⎞ Q ⎜ − . area (∆PQR) = 1 C ⎞ ⎛ C ⎞⎛ C ⎛ ⎞ x1 ⎜ 0 + ⎟ + ⎜ − ⎟⎜ − − y1 ⎟ + 0 ( y 1 − 0 ) 2 B ⎠ ⎝ A ⎠⎝ B ⎝ ⎠ = 1 C C C2 x1 + y 1 + 2 B A AB or 2 area (∆PQR) = 2 C . coordinates of the points are is given by 1 area (∆PQR) = PM.QR . 0 ⎟ and R ⎝ A ⎠ C⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0. Thus. respectively. and AB ⎛ ⎞ QR = ⎜ 0 + C ⎟ + ⎝ A⎠ ( C − 0 B ) 2 = C AB 2 2 A +B Substituting the values of area (∆PQR) and QR in (1).19). Let L : Ax + By + C = 0 be a line.. If Fig10..5 Distance of a Point From a Line The distance of a point from a line is the length of the perpendicular drawn from the point to the line. − ⎟ . we get . y1) is d. whose distance from the point P (x1.

. 2 2 A +B Thus. two parallel lines can be taken in the form y = mx + c1 .e. the distance d between two parallel lines y = mx + c1 and y = mx + c2 is given by d= c1 − c2 1 + m2 .1 Distance between two parallel lines We know that slopes of two parallel lines are equal. ⎝ ⎠ Fig10. Therefore..20 Distance between two lines is equal to the length of the perpendicular from point A to line (2).. i. Therefore...226 MATHEMATICS PM = A x1 + B y 1 + C 2 2 A +B .20. 0 ⎟ as shown in Fig10. Ax + By + C1 = 0 and Ax + By + C2 = 0. If lines are given in general form.. distance between the lines (1) and (2) is ( −m) ⎛ − ⎜ c1 ⎞ ⎟ + ( −c2 ) ⎝ m⎠ 1 + m2 or d = c1 − c2 1 + m2 .5. (1) . 10. the perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By+ C = 0 from a point (x1. y1) is given by d= A x1 + B y1 + C 2 2 A +B or d= A x1 + B y1 + C . Thus. (2) and y = mx + c2 Line (1) will intersect x-axis at the point ⎛ c1 ⎞ A ⎜ − m .

(ii) 4x – 3y = 6.intercepts. (ii) y – 2 = 0. (iii) x – y = 4. 4. (iii) y = 0.3 + ( –4 )( –5 ) – 26 32 + ( –4 ) 2 3 = . Find the distance of the point (–1. –5). (i) x + 7y = 0. Therefore. Given point is (x1.. . Example 18 Find the distance of the point (3. (ii) 6x + 3y – 5 = 0. Reduce the following equations into normal form. – 5) from the line 3x – 4y –26 = 0. 2. y1) = (3.intercept form and find their slopes and the y . B = –4. the required distance is d= 7–5 32 + ( –4 ) 2 2 = . Reduce the following equations into intercept form and find their intercepts on the axes. 1) from the line 12(x + 6) = 5(y – 2). Find their perpendicular distances from the origin and angle between perpendicular and the positive x-axis. B = – 4 and C = – 26. (i) x – 3y + 8 = 0. 5 EXERCISE 10. Find the points on the x-axis.. we get A = 3. (iii) 3y + 2 = 0. Reduce the following equations into slope . Solution Given line is 3x – 4y –26 = 0 . whose distances from the line x y + = 1 are 4 units. 3. C1 = 7 and C2 = 5. (i) 3x + 2y – 12 = 0. (1) Comparing (1) with general equation of line Ax + By + C = 0.STRAIGHT LINES 227 then above formula will take the form d = C1 − C 2 A 2 + B2 Students can derive it themselves. 5. 3 4 6. The distance of the given point from given line is d= Ax1 + By1 + C A +B 2 2 = 3.3 1. 5 Example 19 Find the distance between the parallel lines 3x – 4y +7 = 0 and 3x – 4y + 5 = 0 Solution Here A = 3. Find the distance between parallel lines (i) 15x + 8y – 34 = 0 and 15x + 8y + 31 = 0 (ii) l (x + y) + p = 0 and l (x + y) – r = 0.

. 2). Find the coordinates of the foot of perpendicular from the point (–1. 12. 15. 2 p a b Miscellaneous Examples Example 20 If the lines 2 x + y − 3 = 0 . (1) 5x + ky – 3 = 0 . 16. B (4. Prove that the line through the point (x1. 1) intersects the line 7 x − 9 y − 19 = 0. point of intersection of any two lines lies on the third line. then show that 1 1 1 = 2 + 2. 11.. respectively. Find equation of the line parallel to the line 3 x − 4 y + 2 = 0 and passing through the point (–2. The line through the points (h. The perpendicular from the origin to the line y = mx + c meets it at the point (–1. 13. Find the value of h. 5 x + ky − 3 = 0 and 3 x − y − 2 = 0 are concurrent. find the equation and length of altitude from the vertex A.. Here given lines are 2x + y – 3 = 0 . 17. y1) and parallel to the line Ax + By + C = 0 is A (x –x1) + B (y – y1) = 0. If p is the length of perpendicular from the origin to the line whose intercepts on the axes are a and b. Find angles between the lines 3 x + y = 1and x + 3 y = 1. Find equation of the line perpendicular to the line x – 7y + 5 = 0 and having x intercept 3. 2). 4) and (–1. (2) . 18. 10. 3). at right angle.228 MATHEMATICS 7. 3) to the line 3x – 4y – 16 = 0. Two lines passing through the point (2. If slope of one line is 2. 2). Find the values of m and c. Solution Three lines are said to be concurrent. 3). Find the equation of the right bisector of the line segment joining the points (3. In the triangle ABC with vertices A (2. 8. –1) and C (1. 3) and (4. i.e. find equation of the other line. 9. prove that p2 + 4q2 = k2. if they pass through a common point. find the value of k.. 3) intersects each other at an angle of 60o. 14.. If p and q are the lengths of perpendiculars from the origin to the lines x cos θ − y sin θ = k cos 2θ and x sec θ + y cosec θ = k.

1 – 3 = 0 or k = – 2. y = 1 . Solution Let Q (h. distance of line (1) from the point P (4. we have to find the point of intersection of both the lines... Slope of second line is tan 135° = –1. 1) measured along the line making an angle of 135° with the positive x-axis.. 1) is . 4). = (1 − 4 )2 + ( 4 − 1)2 = 3 2 units . 1) along the line (2) = The distance between the points P (4. 2) in the line x − 3 y + 4 = 0 . 2) in the line x – 3y + 4 = 0 ..STRAIGHT LINES 229 3x – y – 2 = 0 Solving (1) and (3) by cross-multiplication method. the point of intersection of two lines is (1. Example 21 Find the distance of the line 4x – y = 0 from the point P (4. we get . Solution Given line is 4x – y = 0 In order to find the distance of the line (1) from the point P (4. k) is the image of the point P (1.. (1) . (3) 1 x y = = or x = 1. we get x = 1 and y = 4 so that point of intersection of the two lines is Q (1. (2) Solving (1) and (2).. Since above three lines are concurrent.21). 1). Equation of the line with slope – 1 through the point P (4. −2−3 −9+ 4 −2−3 Therefore. 1) will satisfy equation (3) so that 5. we will first find the equation of the second line (Fig 10. (1) Fig 10. 1) along another line. 1) and Q (1. 4). Example 22 Assuming that straight lines work as the plane mirror for a point.. the point (1.. For this purpose.21 y – 1 = – 1 (x – 4) or x + y – 5 = 0 . Now.1 + k . find the image of the point (1.

(3) 6 7 and k = ..230 MATHEMATICS Fig10. ⎟ . the line (1) is the perpendicular bisector of line segment PQ (Fig 10. we get h = . 2) in the line (1) is ⎜ . i. y = m 2 x + c 2 (c –c ) and x = 0 is 1 2 2 2 m1 − m 2 . Hence so that Slope of line PQ = k − 2 −1 = h −1 1 3 −1 . the image of the point (1. ⎝5 5⎠ Example 23 Show that the area of the triangle formed by the lines y = m1 x + c1 .. 5 5 ⎛6 7⎞ Hence.22 Therefore.. point ⎜ ⎛ h +1 k + 2 ⎞ .e.22).. ⎟ will satisfy the equation (1) so that 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 h +1 ⎛ k + 2 ⎞ − 3⎜ ⎟ + 4 = 0 or h − 3k = −3 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ Solving (2) and (3). Slope of line x − 3 y + 4 = 0 . (2) or 3h + k = 5 and the mid-point of PQ.. .

..1 ( c2 − c1 ) + 0 ⎜ c1 − 1 2 0 ⎜ 1 2 ⎟= 2 m1 − m2 ⎠ 2 m1 − m 2 ⎝ m1 − m2 ⎠ m1 − m2 ⎝ ( c 2 − c1 ) 2 Example 24 A line is such that its segment between the lines 5x – y + 4 = 0 and 3x + 4y – 4 = 0 is bisected at the point (1. β1) and (α2... Obtain its equation. (2) Let the required line intersects the lines (1) and (2) at the points . two vertices of the triangle formed by lines (1) to (3) are P (0.. (1) y = m1 x + c1 . Therefore 5α1 – β1 + 4 = 0 and 3 α2 + 4 β 2 – 4 = 0 Fig 10..23 ⎛ ( c2 − c1 ) ( m1c2 − m2 c1 ) ⎞ ⎟ Therefore. β2).24 . Third vertex can be obtained by solving equations (1) and (2).. we get x= ( c2 − c1 ) ( m1 − m2 ) and y = ( m1c2 − m2c1 ) ( m1 − m2 ) Fig 10. c1) and Q (0. respectively (Fig10. (1) 5x – y + 4 = 0 3x + 4y – 4 = 0 . (2) y = m2 x + c2 x=0 . 2) ⎝ 1 ⎠ Now..24). 5). c2) (Fig 10..STRAIGHT LINES 231 Solution Given lines are . third vertex of the triangle is R ⎜ m − m .. c). (3) We know that line y = mx + c meets the line x = 0 (y-axis) at the point (0. Solving (1) and (2). 23). ⎜( ( m1 − m2 ) ⎟ . the area of the triangle is = ⎛ m c − m2 c1 ⎞ c −c ⎛ 1 m c − m2 c1 ⎞ − c2 ⎟ + 2 . (α1. Therefore. Solution Given lines are .

(3) or α1 + α 2 = 2 and 20 α1 − 3 α 2 = 20 Solving equations in (3) for α1 and α2. k) is any point. β1) and (α2. whose distances from the lines (1) and (2) are equal. we get α1 = 26 222 20 26 +4= and α 2 = and hence. Example 25 Show that the path of a moving point such that its distances from two lines 3x – 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 5 are equal is a straight line.232 MATHEMATICS 4 – 3α 2 . Therefore or β1 = 5α1 + 4 and β 2 = β +β α1 + α 2 = 1 and 1 2 = 5 . 2 2 or α1 + α 2 = 2 and 5 α1 + 4 + 2 4 − 3α2 4 = 5. 5). β1 = 5. . . Solution Given lines are 3x – 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 5 … (1) … (2) Let (h. which is the equation of required line. β2) is (1. 5) and (α1. 23 23 23 23 223 Equation of the required line passing through (1. which gives 3h – 2k – 5 = 3h + 2k – 5 or – (3h – 2k – 5) = 3h + 2k – 5... β1) is −5 β −5 ( x − 1) or y − 5 = 23 y −5 = 1 (x − 1) 26 α1 − 1 −1 23 or 107x – 3y – 92 = 0. 4 We are given that the mid point of the segment of the required line between (α1. Therefore 3h − 2k − 5 9+4 = 3h + 2k − 5 9+4 or 3h − 2k − 5 = 3h + 2k − 5 . .

Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines y – x = 0. sin θ) and (cos φ. which cut-off intercepts on the axes whose sum and product are 1 and – 6. which represent straight lines. 4. (c) Passing through the origin. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 10 1. px + 2 y – 3 = 0 and 2x – y – 3 = 0 may intersect at one point. Find the equation of a line drawn perpendicular to the line x y + = 1 through the 4 6 8. 2. 7. k) satisfy the 3 5 . What are the points on the y-axis whose distance from the line x y + = 1 is 3 4 4 units. Thus. 6. if the equation x cos θ + y sinθ = p is the normal form of the line 3 x + y + 2 = 0. Find the equation of the line passing through the point of intersection of the lines 4x + 7y – 3 = 0 and 2x – 3y + 1 = 0 that has equal intercepts on the axes. respectively. 12. point. 10. y = m2x + c2 and y = m3x + c3 are concurrent.STRAIGHT LINES 233 Solving these two relations we get k = 0 or h = equations y = 0 or x = 5 . Find perpendicular distance from the origin of the line joining the points (cosθ. 3. Hence. (b) Parallel to the y-axis. Find the equations of the lines. If three lines whose equations are y = m1x + c1. then show that m1(c2 – c3) + m2 (c3 – c1) + m3 (c1 – c2) = 0. . x + y = 0 and x – k = 0. Find the equation of the lines through the point (3. path of the point 3 equidistant from the lines (1) and (2) is a straight line. where it meets the y-axis. 2) which make an angle of 45o with the line x – 2y = 3. 5. Find the equation of the line parallel to y-axis and drawn through the point of intersection of the lines x – 7y + 5 = 0 and 3x + y = 0. Find the value of p so that the three lines 3x + y – 2 = 0. Find the values of θ and p. Find the values of k for which the line (k–3) x – (4 – k2) y + k2 –7k + 6 = 0 is (a) Parallel to the x-axis. the point (h. 9. sin φ). 11.

3) and (– 4. Find the direction in which a straight line must be drawn through the point (–1. is given by m = . Find the image of the point (3. 2) so that its point of intersection with the line x + y = 4 may be at a distance of 3 units from this point. y1) and (x2. 19. Find the coordinates of A. 18. a b 24. Show that P must move on a line. then the slope of the line is given by m = tan α. 17. If the lines y = 3x +1 and 2y = x + 3 are equally inclined to the line y = mx + 4. The hypotenuse of a right angled triangle has its ends at the points (1. Find equation of the line which is equidistant from parallel lines 9x + 6y – 7 = 0 and 3x + 2y + 6 = 0. 3). Prove that the product of the lengths of the perpendiculars drawn from the x y cosθ + sin θ = 1is b 2 . 2) along the line 2x – y = 0. 16. 1). Find the equation of the legs (perpendicular sides) of the triangle. 2) reflects on the x-axis at point A and the reflected ray passes through the point (5. 1) and (5. 8) with respect to the line x +3y = 7 assuming the line to be a plane mirror.0 to the line ) ( ) Summary Slope (m) of a non-vertical line passing through the points (x1. 22.0 and − a 2 − b2 . Show that the equation of the line passing through the origin and making an angle θ with the line y = mx + c is y m + tan θ = ± . y) from the lines x + y – 5 = 0 and 3x – 2y +7 = 0 is always 10. x 1 ≠ x 2. Slope of horizontal line is zero and slope of vertical line is undefined. find the value of m. 20. points ( a 2 − b 2 . x 2 − x1 x1 − x 2 If a line makes an angle á with the positive direction of x-axis. α ≠ 90°. y2) y 2 − y1 y1 − y 2 = . 23. Find the distance of the line 4x + 7y + 5 = 0 from the point (1. x 1 − m tan θ 14. A ray of light passing through the point (1. If sum of the perpendicular distances of a variable point P (x. the line joining (–1. In what ratio. 7) is divided by the line x + y = 4? 15. Find equation of the path that he should follow. A person standing at the junction (crossing) of two straight paths represented by the equations 2x – 3y + 4 = 0 and 3x + 4y – 5 = 0 wants to reach the path whose equation is 6x – 7y + 8 = 0 in the least time. 21.234 MATHEMATICS 13.

y) lies on the line with slope m and through the fixed point (xo. Equation of the line passing through the points (x1.STRAIGHT LINES 235 An acute angle (say θ) between lines L1 and L2 with slopes m1 and m2 is m2 – m1 given by tanθ = 1 + m m . 2 2 A +B Distance between the parallel lines Ax + By + C1 = 0 and Ax + By + C2 = 0.1 + m1 m2 ≠ 0 . a b The equation of the line having normal distance from origin p and angle between normal and the positive x-axis ω is given by x cos ω + y sin ω = p . The perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By+ C = 0 from a point (x1. y1) . Equation of the horizontal line having distance a from the x-axis is either y = a or y = – a. is x y + = 1. x 2 − x1 The point (x. Then equation of the line is y = m (x – d). is called the general linear equation or general equation of a line. if and only if slope of AB = slope of BC. Three points A. Two lines are perpendicular if and only if product of their slopes is –1. simultaneously. if and only if its coordinates satisfy the equation y – y o = m (x – xo). respectively. . Any equation of the form Ax + By + C = 0. 1 2 Two lines are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal. Equation of the vertical line having distance b from the y-axis is either x = b or x = – b. is given by d = is given by d = Ax1 + B y1 + C C1 − C 2 2 2 A +B . with A and B are not zero. y1) and (x2. Equation of a line making intercepts a and b on the x-and y-axis. The point (x. y2) is given by y − y1 = y 2 − y1 ( x − x1). B and C are collinear. If a line with slope m makes x-intercept d. y) on the line with slope m and y-intercept c lies on the line if and only if y = mx + c . yo).

These curves have a very wide range of applications in fields such as planetary motion. known as conic sections or more commonly conics because they can be obtained as intersections of a plane with a double napped right circular cone.Chapter 11 CONIC SECTIONS Let the relation of knowledge to real life be very visible to your pupils and let them understand how by knowledge the world could be transformed.1 Introduction In the preceding Chapter 10. 1 .1).) design of telescopes and antennas. circles. -190 B. parabolas and hyperbolas. Apollonius (262 B. The names parabola and hyperbola are given by Apollonius. we have studied various forms of the equations of a line. etc.. Now. 11. we shall study about some other curves.C. reflectors in flashlights and automobile headlights. – BERTRAND RUSSELL 11. Suppose we rotate the line m around the line l in such a way that the angle α remains constant. These curves are in fact. in the subsequent sections we will see how the intersection of a plane with a double napped right circular cone results in different types of curves. ellipses. Then the surface generated is a double-napped right circular hollow cone herein after referred as Fig 11. viz. In this Chapter.C.2 Sections of a Cone Let l be a fixed vertical line and m be another line intersecting it at a fixed point V and inclined to it at an angle α (Fig11.

(In each of the above three situations. 11. the section is an ellipse (Fig11. the section is a circle (Fig11. 2 Fig 11. the section is a parabola (Fig11. ellipse.4). The intersection of the plane with the cone can take place either at the vertex of the cone or at any other part of the nappe either below or above the vertex. . parabola and hyperbola When the plane cuts the nappe (other than the vertex) of the cone. the plane cuts through both the nappes and the curves of intersection is a hyperbola (Fig11. we have the following situations: (a) When β = 90o.3). conic sections are the curves obtained by intersecting a right circular cone by a plane. Let β be the angle made by the intersecting plane with the vertical axis of the cone (Fig11.6). The vertex separates the cone into two parts called nappes. the plane cuts entirely across one nappe of the cone). The point V is called the vertex. the section so obtained is called a conic section. the line l is the axis of the cone.5).7). If we take the intersection of a plane with a cone.CONIC SECTIONS 237 Fig 11. (b) When α < β < 90o. (c) When β = α. The rotating line m is called a generator of the cone.2). We obtain different kinds of conic sections depending on the position of the intersecting plane with respect to the cone and by the angle made by it with the vertical axis of the cone. 3 cone and extending indefinitely far in both directions (Fig11.1 Circle. Thus.2. (d) When 0 ≤ β < α.

2 Degenerated conic sections When the plane cuts at the vertex of the cone.9). 5 Fig 11. 6 Fig 11. the plane contains a generator of the cone and the section is a straight line (Fig11. then the section is a point (Fig11. the section is a pair of intersecting straight lines (Fig11. It is the degenerated case of a parabola. It is the degenerated case of a hyperbola. 7 11. .8). (c) When 0 ≤ β < α.238 MATHEMATICS Fig 11.10).2. we have the following different cases: (a) When α < β ≤ 90o. 4 Fig 11. (b) When β = α.

11). 10 Definition 1 A circle is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed point in the plane. The fixed point is called the centre of the circle and the distance from the centre to a point on the circle is called the radius of the circle (Fig 11.3 Circle Fig 11. . Fig 11. 9 11. we shall obtain the equations of each of these conic sections in standard form by defining them based on geometric properties. 8 Fig 11.CONIC SECTIONS 239 In the following sections.

Example 2 Find the equation of the circle with centre (–3. 12 The equation of the circle is simplest if the centre of the circle is at the origin. | CP | = r .e. –5) and radius 7. . the given circle has centre at (– 4. {x – (– 4)}2 + {y – (–5)}2 = 72 Therefore. (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2 This is the required equation of the circle with centre at (h. 2) and radius 4. we have (x – h)2 + (y – k )2 = r i. 11 Fig 11. Then.12). by the definition. (x + 4)2 + (y + 5)2 = 49 i.e. By the distance formula. completing the squares within the parenthesis. However.12). Let P(x. we get (x2 + 8x + 16) + (y2 + 10y + 25) = 8 + 16 + 25 i. Example 1 Find an equation of the circle with centre at (0. we derive below the equation of the circle with a given centre and radius (Fig 11.k) and radius r . Therefore. Given C (h. k) be the centre and r the radius of circle. the equation of the required circle is (x + 3)2 + (y –2)2 = 16 Example 3 Find the centre and the radius of the circle x2 + y2 + 8x + 10y – 8 = 0 Solution The given equation is (x2 + 8x) + (y2 + 10y) = 8 Now. Therefore. Solution Here h = –3. Solution Here h = k = 0.e. k = 2 and r = 4.240 MATHEMATICS Fig 11.0) and radius r. the equation of the circle is x2 + y2 = r2. y) be any point on the circle (Fig11.

find the equation of the circle with 1. x2 + y2 – 4x – 8y – 45 = 0 9. outside or on the circle x2 + y2 = 25? .. (1) 2 2 2 and (3 – h) + (4 – k) = r .. Since the circle passes through (2.1) and (6.3) and (–1. 13. – 2) and (3. (2) and (3).1) and whose centre is on the line x – 3y – 11 = 0. 15. k = 1.4). we have h+k=2 . we have (2 – h)2 + (–2 – k)2 = r2 . 7. centre (1. 3.0) and making intercepts a and b on the coordinate axes. centre ( 2.5) lie inside. Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (2. ) and radius 12 2 4 2 5. –b) and radius 6.58 Hence. 14. 12. Find the equation of a circle with centre (2.2) and passes through the point (4.3).2) and radius 2 3. Find the equation of the circle with radius 5 whose centre lies on x-axis and passes through the point (2. Solution Let the equation of the circle be (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2. (x + 5)2 + (y – 3)2 = 36 8.5. (3) Solving the equations (1).7)2 + (y – 1.. 11. 10.. find the centre and radius of the circles.7. 2x2 + 2y2 – x = 0 In each of the following Exercises 6 to 9.3) and radius 4 4.. – 2). centre (–2. x2 + y2 – 8x + 10y – 12 = 0 a2 − b2 . EXERCISE 11.3)2 = 12. we get h = 0. Does the point (–2. the equation of the required circle is (x – 0.5) and whose centre is on the line 4x + y = 16. Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (4. and (3. Find the equation of the circle passing through (0.5).CONIC SECTIONS 241 Example 4 Find the equation of the circle which passes through the points (2.4) and whose centre lies on the line x + y = 2.. centre (–a.1) and radius 1 1 1 . (2) Also since the centre lies on the line x + y = 2.3 and r2 = 12.58. centre (0.1 In each of the following Exercises 1 to 5.

The four possible such orientations of parabola are shown below in Fig11.1 Standard equations of parabola The Fig 11.14 equation of a parabola is simplest if the vertex is at the origin and the axis of symmetry is along the x-axis or y-axis. which are equidistant from the fixed point and the fixed line is the straight line through the fixed point and perpendicular to the fixed line. We call this straight line as degenerate case of the parabola. Fig 11. A line through the focus and perpendicular to the directrix is called the axis of the parabola..15 (a) to (d). The point of intersection of parabola with the axis is called the vertex of the parabola (Fig11. 13 11. i. The fixed line is called the directrix of the parabola and the fixed point F is called the focus (Fig 11. then the set of points in the plane.e.13). .4 Parabola Definition 2 A parabola is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed line and a fixed point (not on the line) in the plane.242 MATHEMATICS 11.4. the shape described when you throw a ball in the air). (‘Para’ means ‘for’ and ‘bola’ means ‘throwing’.14). Note If the fixed point lies on the fixed line.

16 Let P(x. . By the distance formula. OX the x-axis and OY perpendicular to it as the y-axis. y) be any point on the parabola such that PF = PB. Take O as origin.. . the mid-point O is on the parabola and is called the vertex of the parabola.16. and the equation of the directrix is x + a = 0 as in Fig11. Then.. 0). Let FM be perpendicular to the directrix and bisect FM at the point O. By the definition of parabola. the coordinates of the focus are (a. y). (1) where PB is perpendicular to l. The coordinates of B are (– a. (x – a)2 + y2 = (x + a)2 or x2 – 2ax + a2 + y2 = x2 + 2ax + a2 or y2 = 4ax ( a > 0).15 (a) to (d) We will derive the equation for the parabola shown above in Fig 11. Produce MO to X. we have (x – a) 2 + y 2 and PB = Since PF = PB. and directricx x = – a as below: Let F be the focus and l the directrix.e. 0) a > 0. we have PF = (x + a) 2 (x – a ) 2 + y 2 = (x + a )2 i. Fig 11. Let the distance from the directrix to the focus be 2a.15 (a) with focus at (a.CONIC SECTIONS 243 Fig 11.

15.244 MATHEMATICS Hence. vertex at the origin and thereby the directrix is parallel to the other coordinate axis.. Fig11. x can assume any positive value or zero but no negative value and the curve extends indefinitely far into the first and the fourth quadrants. When the axis of symmetry is along the y-axis the parabola opens (c) upwards if the coefficient of y is positive. Fig 11. y) satisfy the equation (2) PF = = (x – a) 2 + y 2 . any point on the parabola satisfies y2 = 4ax. Parabola is symmetric with respect to the axis of the parabola.0) and directrix x = – a is y2 = 4ax.If the equation has a y2 term. Similarly. Discussion In equation (2). Conversely. (3) and so P(x. from (2) and (3) we have proved that the equation to the parabola with vertex at the origin..y) lies on the parabola. then the axis of symmetry is along the y-axis. From the standard equations of the parabolas. Thus. let P(x. (d) downwards if the coefficient of y is negative.15 (c) as x2 = 4ay. However. since a > 0. (b) left if the coefficient of x is negative. 3. These four equations are known as standard equations of parabolas.15 (d) as x2 = – 4ay. 2. .15 (b) as y2 = – 4ax. we can derive the equations of the parabolas in: Fig 11. then the axis of symmetry is along the x-axis and if the equation has an x2 term. focus at (a. The axis of the parabola is the positive x-axis. (2) = (x – a) 2 + 4ax (x + a) 2 = PB . we have the following observations: 1.. Note The standard equations of parabolas have focus on one of the coordinate axis.. the study of the equations of parabolas with focus at any point and any line as directrix is beyond the scope here. When the axis of symmetry is along the x-axis the parabola opens to the (a) right if the coefficient of x is positive. Fig 11.

Comparing with the given equation y2 = 4ax. the focus of the parabola is (2. But Hence AC = FM = 2a AF = 2a. AF = AC. we find that a = 2.CONIC SECTIONS 245 11. The coefficient of x is positive so the parabola opens to the right. Fig 11.18). And since the parabola is symmetric with respect to x-axis AF = FB and so AB = Length of the latus rectum = 4a. Fig 11.17). through the focus and whose end points lie on the parabola (Fig11. 0) and the equation of the directrix of the parabola is x = – 2 (Fig 11. so the axis of symmetry is along the x-axis. By the definition of the parabola. . axis.17 Fig 11.18 Example 5 Find the coordinates of the focus. Solution The given equation involves y2.2 Latus rectum Definition 3 Latus rectum of a parabola is a line segment perpendicular to the axis of the parabola. the equation of the directrix and latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 8x.19). Length of the latus rectum is 4a = 4 × 2 = 8. To find the Length of the latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 4ax (Fig 11.19 Thus.4.

But the parabola passes through (2.0). x2 = – 16y 2. 0) and focus at (0. the equation of the directrix and the length of the latus rectum. x2 = 8y. i.e. the x-axis itself is the axis of the parabola. equation of the parabola is of the form x2 = 4ay. Example 8 Find the equation of the parabola which is symmetric about the y-axis.. Since the parabola passes through ( 2. y2 = – 8x x2 = – 9y In each of the Exercises 7 to 12. the parabola is to be of the form y 2 = 4ax with a = 2.0) and the focus is at (0. Hence the required equation is y2 = 4(2)x = 8x Example 7 Find the equation of the parabola with vertex at (0. ⎝ 3⎠ EXERCISE 11. Thus the equation is of the form x2 = – 4ay. we have 22 = – 4a (–3).–3). Since the directrix is x = – 2 and the focus is (2. find the coordinates of the focus..–3) which lies in the fourth quadrant. Solution Since the parabola is symmetric about y-axis and has its vertex at the origin. 3x2 = – 4y. 6. find the equation of the parabola that satisfies the given conditions: . Solution Since the vertex is at (0.246 MATHEMATICS Example 6 Find the equation of the parabola with focus (2. it must open downwards. where the sign depends on whether the parabola opens upwards or downwards.e. Solution Since the focus (2. thus. Therefore. y2 = 12x 4. the equation is of the form x2 = 4ay or x2 = – 4ay.–3). we have x2 = 4(2)y.2) which lies on y-axis. axis of the parabola. i. the equation of the parabola is 1 3 ⎛1⎞ x2 = − 4 ⎜ ⎟ y. a = Therefore.e.0) lies on the x-axis..0) and directrix x = – 2. the y-axis is the axis of the parabola. y2 = 10x 3. 2). 1.2 In each of the following Exercises 1 to 6. Hence the equation of the parabola is of the form either y2 = 4ax or y2 = – 4ax. and passes through the point (2. i. x2 = 6y 5.

. directrix y = 3 10. passing through (5.0).–3).20 The mid point of the line segment joining the foci is called the centre of the ellipse.0) passing through (2. Vertex (0.20). The line segment through the foci of the ellipse is called the major axis and the line segment through the centre and perpendicular to the major axis is called the minor axis.22 We denote the length of the major axis by 2a. Vertex (0. the length of the semi major axis is a and semi-minor axis is b (Fig11. The end points of the major axis are called the vertices of the ellipse(Fig 11.0) 8.22). 5 Ellipse Definition 4 An ellipse is the set of all points in a plane. The two fixed points are called the foci (plural of ‘focus’) of the ellipse (Fig11.0) 11. 12.0).21 Fig 11. focus (–2. Vertex (0.CONIC SECTIONS 247 7. focus (3. the length of the minor axis by 2b and the distance between the foci by 2c. Focus (0. Thus. Fig 11. directrix x = – 6 9.3) and axis is along x-axis. Focus (6.0). the sum of whose distances from two fixed points in the plane is a constant. Vertex (0.0). Note The constant which is the sum of the distances of a point on the ellipse from the two fixed points is always greater than the distance between the two fixed points. 11.21).2) and symmetric with respect to y-axis. Fig 11.

23). e = c .248 MATHEMATICS 11. we have 2 b 2 + c 2 = 2a. i. semi-minor axis and the distance of the focus from the centre of the ellipse (Fig 11... a . a = b.e. F1P = F1O + OP) = c + a + a – c = 2a Take a point Q at one end of the minor axis.. i. both foci merge together with the centre of the ellipse and a2 = b2.. Fig 11. or a 2 = b2 + c2 .1 Relationship between semi-major axis.3 Eccentricity Fig 11. Sum of the distances from the point Q to the foci is F1Q + F2Q = Fig 11. the resulting ellipses will vary in shape.5. and so the ellipse becomes circle (Fig11.24 11. Case (i) When c = 0. The ellipse reduces to the line segment F1F2 joining the two foci (Fig11.23 b2 + c2 + b2 + c2 = 2 b2 + c 2 Since both P and Q lies on the ellipse. if we keep a fixed and vary c from 0 to a. a 2 − b2 . Sum of the distances of the point P to the foci is F1 P + F2P = F1O + OP + F2P (Since.e.5. circle is a special case of an ellipse which is dealt in Section 11.3. then b = 0.e.25). Take a point P at one end of the major axis. By the definition of ellipse.25 Definition 5 The eccentricity of an ellipse is the ratio of the distances from the centre of the ellipse to one of the foci and to one of the vertices of the ellipse (eccentricity is denoted by e) i. a = b2 + c 2 c= 11. Thus. i.24).5.e. Case (ii) When c = a.2 Special cases of an ellipse In the equation c2 = a2 – b2 obtained above.

we have ( x + c) 2 + y 2 + i.4 Standard equations of an ellipse The equation of an ellipse is simplest if the centre of the ellipse is at the origin and the foci are (a) Fig 11. Let the coordinates of F1 be (– c.e. ( x − c) 2 + y 2 = 2a ( x − c )2 + y 2 ( x + c) 2 + y 2 = 2a – . in terms of the eccentricity the focus is at a distance of ae from the centre.. Let O be the origin and the line from O through F2 be the positive x-axis and that through F1as the negative x-axis. Let P(x.26 (a) with foci on the x-axis. 0) (Fig 11.CONIC SECTIONS 249 Then since the focus is at a distance of c from the centre. y) be any point on the ellipse such that the sum of the distances from P to the two x2 y 2 + =1 foci be 2a so given a 2 b2 . Fig 11.27). We will derive the equation for the ellipse shown above in Fig 11..26 on the x-axis or y-axis.. Let F1 and F2 be the foci and O be the midpoint of the line segment F1F2. The two such possible orientations are shown in Fig 11.5.27 Using the distance formula. (1) PF1 + PF2 = 2a. Let. the line through O perpendicular to the x-axis be the y-axis.26. 11. 0) and F2 be (c.

Then ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜ 1− 2 ⎟ y =b ⎜ a ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 Therefore. let P (x. PF1 = ( x + c) 2 + y 2 = ⎛ a2 − x2 ⎞ ( x + c) 2 + b 2 ⎜ ⎜ a2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ a2 − x2 ⎞ ( x + c) + ( a − c ) ⎜ ⎟ (since b2 = a2 – c2) a2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 2 = cx ⎞ c ⎛ ⎜a+ ⎟ =a+ x a⎠ a ⎝ 2 Similarly PF2 = a − x a c ..250 MATHEMATICS Squaring both sides. x2 y2 + 2 =1 a2 b x2 y2 + 2 = 1.e. (2) Conversely. y) satisfy the equation (2) with 0 < c < a. we get c x a x2 y2 + 2 =1 a2 a − c2 i.. a2 b (Since c2 = a2 – b2) Hence any point on the ellipse satisfies . we get (x + c)2 + y2 = 4a2 – 4a which on simplification gives ( x − c) 2 + y 2 + ( x − c) 2 + y 2 ( x − c) 2 + y 2 = a − Squaring again and simplifying..

y) on the ellipse. it follows that for every point P (x. major axis is along the x-axis if the coefficient of x2 has the larger denominator and it is along the y-axis if the coefficient of y2 has the larger denominator. any point that satisfies x2 y2 + 2 = 1. then (– x. Ellipse is symmetric with respect to both the coordinate axes since if (x. we can derive the equation of the ellipse in Fig 11. (x.e. The major axis can be determined by finding the intercepts on the axes of symmetry.CONIC SECTIONS 251 Hence PF1 + PF2 = a + c c x + a – x = 2a a a .26). Hence from (2) and (3).. Note The standard equations of ellipses have centre at the origin and the major and minor axis are coordinate axes. The foci always lie on the major axis. the study of the ellipses with centre at any other point. so – a ≤ x ≤ a. From the standard equations of the ellipses (Fig11. we have x2 y2 = 1 − 2 ≤ 1. y) is a point on the ellipse. b2 a 2 . x2 ≤ a2. –y) are also points on the ellipse. That is.26 (b) as These two equations are known as standard equations of the ellipses. satisfies the geometric condition and so a2 b P(x. a 2 b2 Discussion From the equation of the ellipse obtained above. Similarly. –y) and (– x. y) lies on the ellipse. a2 b Therefore. we have the following observations: 1. and any line through the centre as major and the minor axes passing through the centre and perpendicular to major axis are beyond the scope here. i. the ellipse lies between the lines y = – b and y = b and touches these lines. the ellipse lies between the lines x = – a and x = a and touches these lines. x2 y2 + =1 . (3) So. However. y). we proved that the equation of an ellipse with centre of the origin and major axis along the x-axis is x2 y 2 + = 1. 2. Similarly...

Then the coordinates of A are (c.5. l ).252 MATHEMATICS 11. To find the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse x2 y 2 + =1 a 2 b2 Fig 11.5 Latus rectum Definition 6 Latus rectum of an ellipse is a line segment perpendicular to the major axis through any of the foci and whose end points lie on the ellipse (Fig 11. a Example 9 Find the coordinates of the foci. AF2 = F2B and so length of the latus rectum is 2b2 . 28 Let the length of AF2 be l. the eccentricity and the latus rectum of the ellipse x2 y 2 + =1 25 9 Solution Since denominator of x2 y2 is larger than the denominator of . i.28). the vertices.e. l = a2 a Therefore l2 = Since the ellipse is symmetric with respect to y-axis (of course..e. we have a b (ae) 2 l 2 – 2 =1 a2 b ⇒ l2 = b2 (1 – e2) But e2 = c2 a2 – b 2 b2 = =1 – 2 a2 a2 a b4 b2 .. the minor axis. the length of major axis.r.i. it is symmetric w. (ae.t. l ) x2 y 2 Since A lies on the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1 . the major 25 9 . both the coordinate axes).

–3). the length of the minor axis is 4 units and the eccentricity of the 5 .3) and (0. 0).CONIC SECTIONS 253 axis is along the x-axis. the coordinates of the foci are (– 4. we get a 2 b2 c = a 2 – b 2 = 25 – 9 = 4 Therefore. 0). 5 a 5 Example 10 Find the coordinates of the foci.0). b2 a 2 Also and c= e= a2 – b2 c 5 = a 3 = 9–4= 5 Hence the foci are (0. length of the major axis is 6 units. 3 Example 11 Find the equation of the ellipse whose vertices are (± 13. where a is the semi-major axis. the equation will be of the form ellipse is x2 y 2 + = 1 . 5 ) and (0. Comparing the given equation with a = 5 and b = 3. eccentricity is Solution The given equation of the ellipse can be written in standard form as x2 y2 + =1 4 9 y2 x2 Since the denominator of is larger than the denominator of . Length of the major axis is 10 units length of the minor axis 2b is 6 units and the 2b 2 18 4 = and latus rectum is . a 2 b2 . the lengths of major and minor axes and the eccentricity of the ellipse 9x2 + 4y2 = 36.0) and (4. Also x2 y 2 + = 1 . the major axis is 9 4 along the y-axis. Solution Since the vertices are on x-axis. Comparing the given equation with the standard equation x2 y2 + = 1 . vertices are (– 5. – 5 ). 0) and foci are (± 5. the vertices. we have b = 2 and a = 3. 0) and (5. vertices are (0.

(1) 16 9 + 2 =1 2 a b and 1 16 + 2 =1 2 a b 247 247 2 and b = . the equation of the ellipse is x2 y2 + =1 75 100 Example 13 Find the equation of the ellipse. So.(2) 2 Solving equations (1) and (2). Solution The standard form of the ellipse is and (–1. from the relation c2 = a2 – b2.. Solution Since the foci are on y-axis. 7 15 …. 3) and (– 1. whose length of the major axis is 20 and foci are (0. b = 12 x2 y2 + = 1. Since the points (4. ± 5). we get 25 = 169 – b2 . b2 a 2 20 = 10 2 c 2 = a2 – b2 gives 52 = 102 – b2 i. with major axis along the x-axis and passing through the points (4. 4) lie on the ellipse..e. Hence the equation of the ellipse is 169 144 Example 12 Find the equation of the ellipse. the major axis is along the y-axis. equation of the ellipse is of the form Given that a = semi-major axis = and the relation x2 y2 + =1. we find that a = Hence the required equation is . b2 = 75 Therefore.254 MATHEMATICS Given that a = 13. i... c = ± 5. 3) a2 b . Therefore.4). we have x2 y2 + 2 = 1.e.

36x2 + 4y2 = 144 8. 2) and (1. find the coordinates of the foci. a = 4 b = 3. the length of major axis. 0) Length of minor axis 16. foci (± 4. 13. 16.0). 0). ± 5 ).2). ± 6). 11. ends of minor axis (0. 0). 19. i. . 0) Vertices (0. the vertices. foci (± 4. centre at the origin. 12. 17. foci (0. 20.e. find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: 10. the eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse. 0) Ends of major axis (± 3. x2 y2 + =1 36 16 x2 y2 + =1 25 100 2.3 In each of the Exercises 1 to 9. x2 y2 + =1 4 25 x2 y 2 + =1 49 36 3. 7x2 + 15y2 = 247. 15. 18. ⎛ 247 ⎞ 247 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 7 ⎠ 15 EXERCISE 11. Vertices (± 5. major axis on the y-axis and passes through the points (3. the minor axis. c = 4. 14. ± 5) Vertices (± 6.CONIC SECTIONS 255 x2 y2 + = 1 . 4x2 + 9y2 = 36 In each of the following Exercises 10 to 20. 6. x2 y2 + =1 100 400 7..6). Centre at (0. foci on a x axis. 0) Length of major axis 26. 5. ends of minor axis (± 1. Foci (± 3. 1. foci (± 5. x2 y2 + =1 16 9 4. Major axis on the x-axis and passes through the points (4. 0). 0).6 Hyperbola Definition 7 A hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane. 16x2 + y2 = 16 9. ± 13). ± 2) Ends of major axis (0.3) and (6. 11. the difference of whose distances from two fixed points in the plane is a constant. foci (0.

we have BF1 – BF2 = AF2 – AF1 (by the definition of the hyperbola) BA +AF1– BF2 = AB + BF2– AF1 i.256 MATHEMATICS Fig 11. The two fixed points are called the foci of the hyperbola. AF1 = BF2 So that. The line through the foci is called the transverse axis and the line through the centre and perpendicular to the transverse axis is called the conjugate axis. BF1 – BF2 = BA + AF1– BF2 = BA = 2a . the distance between two vertices (the length of the transverse axis) by 2a and we define the quantity b as b = c2 – a2 Fig 11.. We denote the distance between the two foci by 2c.29 The term “difference” that is used in the definition means the distance to the further point minus the distance to the closer point. To find the constant P1F2 – P1F1 : By taking the point P at A and B in the Fig 11.30.29).30 Also 2b is the length of the conjugate axis (Fig 11. The points at which the hyperbola intersects the transverse axis are called the vertices of the hyperbola (Fig 11. The mid-point of the line segment joining the foci is called the centre of the hyperbola.30).e.

PF1 – PF2 = 2a Fig 11. The line through O perpendicular to the x-axis be the y-axis.CONIC SECTIONS 257 11. 11. the eccentricity is never less than one.0) and F2 be (c. So given.31 (b) We will derive the equation for the hyperbola shown in Fig 11.2 Standard equation of Hyperbola The equation of a hyperbola is simplest if the centre of the hyperbola is at the origin and the foci are on the x-axis or y-axis. Let P(x.6. Let the coordinates of F1 be (– c.31(a) with foci on the x-axis. (a) Fig 11. the foci are at a distance of ae from the centre.32 . Let F1 and F2 be the foci and O be the mid-point of the line segment F1F2. the ratio e = c is called the eccentricity of the a hyperbola.6.32).1 Eccentricity Definition 8 Just like an ellipse. Let O be the origin and the line through O through F2 be the positive x-axis and that through F 1 as the negative x-axis. In terms of the eccentricity.31. Since c ≥ a. The two such possible orientations are shown in Fig11. y) be any point on the hyperbola such that the difference of the distances from P to the farther point minus the closer point be 2a.0) (Fig 11.

Therefore. PF2 = a – a x c c x > a.e. x2 y 2 – =1 a 2 b2 (Since c2 – a2 = b2) x2 y 2 Hence any point on the hyperbola satisfies 2 – 2 = 1 1. a– c c x becomes negative. we get (x + c)2 + y2 = 4a2 + 4a and on simplifying.. we get (x – c ) 2 + y 2 + (x – c)2 + y2 cx –a= a (x – c) 2 + y 2 On squaring again and further simplifying. (x + c ) 2 + y 2 = 2a + (x – c) 2 + y 2 Squaring both side. let P(x. x > a. we get x2 y2 – 2 =1 2 a c – a2 i.. a a . Then ⎛ x2 – a2 ⎞ ⎟ y 2 = b2 ⎜ 2 ⎝ a ⎠ Therefore. PF1 = + = + (x + c ) 2 + y 2 ⎛ x2 – a2 ⎞ c (x + c )2 + b 2 ⎜ x ⎟ = a+ 2 a ⎝ a ⎠ Similarly. y) satisfy the above equation with 0 < a < c. a In hyperbola c > a. we have (x + c ) 2 + y 2 – (x – c ) 2 + y 2 = 2a i.258 MATHEMATICS Using the distance formula. a b Conversely. Thus. PF2 = x – a. and since P is to the right of the line x = a.e.

y).e. no real intercept on the conjugate axis). have for every point (x.29). there are hyperbolas with any two perpendicular lines as transverse and conjugate axes. Note The standard equations of hyperbolas have transverse and conjugate axes as the coordinate axes and the centre at the origin.CONIC SECTIONS 259 Therefore c cx x – + a = 2a a a Also. However. 2 a b i. but the study of such cases will be dealt in higher classes. So. a ⎠ a ⎝ In that case P F2 – PF1 = 2a. since if (x. Therefore. (x.. we have the following observations: 1. then PF1 – PF2 = a + c ⎞ ⎛ c PF1 = – ⎜ a + x ⎟ .e. we proved that the equation of hyperbola with origin (0. no portion of the curve lies between the a lines x = + a and x = – a. any point that satisfies x2 y 2 – = 1 . Hyperbola is symmetric with respect to both the axes. – y) are also points on the hyperbola. From the standard equations of hyperbolas (Fig11. (i.31 (b) as 2 − 2 = 1 a b These two equations are known as the standard equations of hyperbolas. y) is a point on the hyperbola. we x2 y2 = 1 + 2 ≥ 1. we can derive the equation of the hyperbola in Fig 11. y 2 x2 Similarly. y) on the hyperbola.e. note that if P is to the left of the line x = – a. PF2 = a – x .0) and transverse axis x2 y 2 along x-axis is 2 – 2 = 1 . i. it follows that. then (– x. . x ≥ 1. lies on the a 2 b2 hyperbola. Discussion From the equation of the hyperbola we have obtained. – y) and (– x. Thus. a b Note A hyperbola in which a = b is called an equilateral hyperbola. x ≤ – a or x ≥ a.

we have y 2 x2 Comparing the equation with the standard equation 2 – 2 = 1 . has transverse axis along x-axis of length 6. a Example 14 Find the coordinates of the foci and the vertices. For example. x2 y 2 – =1 9 16 y 2 x2 – =1 25 16 11.the length of the latus rectum of the hyperbolas: (i) x2 y2 – = 1 . 0). 0) and that of vertices are (± 3. The latus rectum = = a 3 a 3 y 2 x2 – =1 16 1 (ii) Dividing the equation by 16 on both sides. The eccentricity e = c 5 2b 2 32 = .6. b = 1 and c = a 2 + b2 = 16 + 1 = 17 . while has transverse axis along y-axis of length 10. it is easy to show that the length of the latus rectum in hyperbola is 2b 2 . b = 4 and c = a 2 + b 2 = 9 + 16 = 5 Therefore. It is the positive term whose denominator gives the transverse axis.260 MATHEMATICS 2.3 Latus rectum Definition 9 Latus rectum of hyperbola is a line segment perpendicular to the transverse axis through any of the foci and whose end points lie on the hyperbola.Also. (ii) y2 – 16x2 = 1 9 16 x2 y 2 – = 1 with the standard equation Solution (i) Comparing the equation 9 16 x2 y 2 – =1 a 2 b2 Here. the coordinates of the foci are (± 5. As in ellipse. The foci are always on the transverse axis. . a = 3. the eccentricity. we find that a b a = 4.

the equation of the required hyperbola is x2 y2 – = 1 .. a = – 24. ± 11 11 ). ± 3). a = 2 2 Also. So Since a cannot be negative.e. the equation of the hyperbola is x2 y2 – = 1. 2 Solution Since the foci is on y-axis. Therefore Therefore. i.e. 6. the coordinates of the foci are (0. it follows that c = 12. i. 2b 2 = 36 or b2 = 18a Length of the latus rectum = a c2 = a2 + b2. ± (0. c = 3 and b2 = c2 – a2 = 25/4. we take a = 6 and so b2 = 108. 100 y2 – 44 x2 = 275. Solution Since foci are (0. ± 3) and vertices (0. The eccentricity e = 17 ) and that of the vertices are 2b 2 1 17 c = . ± 12). the equation of the hyperbola is of the form y 2 x2 =1 – a 2 b2 Since vertices are (0. since foci are (0.. ± 4). ± 11 ). gives 144 = a2 + 18a a2 + 18a – 144 = 0. Also. ⎛ 11 ⎞ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ Example 16 Find the equation of the hyperbola where foci are (0.e. Therefore.. 2 a 4 a Example 15 Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (0. i. 3y2 – x2 = 108 36 108 . The latus rectum = 2 = .CONIC SECTIONS 261 Therefore. ±12) and the length of the latus rectum is 36.

vertices (± 7. foci (± 3. Vertices (± 2. 13. We have. 0). In each of the Exercises 7 to 15. ±13). Foci (± 5.262 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 11. 3. If the origin is taken at the vertex and the axis of the mirror lies along the positive x-axis. find the equations of the hyperbola satisfying the given conditions.4 In each of the Exercises 1 to 6. ± 10 ). the eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the hyperbolas. find the distance AB (Fig 11. 0) 8. the latus rectum is of length 8. 3 Miscellaneous Examples Example 17 The focus of a parabolic mirror as shown in Fig 11. 49y2 – 16x2 = 784. Foci (± 3 5 . ± 5). Solution Since the distance from the focus to the vertex is 5 cm. ± 3). the latus rectum is of length 12 14. Vertices (0. 16 9 9 27 4. 11. Vertices (0.0). there . 0). find the coordinates of the foci and the vertices. ± 5) 10. 16x2 – 9y2 = 576 5. the equation of the parabolic section is y2 = 4 (5) x = 20 x Note that x = 45. Foci (0. 0). 5y2 – 9x2 = 36 6. a = 5. foci (0. Foci (0. the transverse axis is of length 8.33 Example 18 A beam is supported at its ends by supports which are 12 metres apart.33).3) 4 . x2 y2 y 2 x2 – =1 – =1 2. passing through (2. Since the load is concentrated at its centre. 9y2 – 4x2 = 36 1. Foci (± 4. 0). Fig 11.33 is at a distance of 5 cm from its vertex. Thus y2 = 900 Therefore y = ± 30 Hence AB = 2y = 2 × 30 = 60 cm. ± 8) 9. 7. If the mirror is 45 cm deep. foci (0. e = 15. 12. the conjugate axis is of length 24.

y) is taken on the rod in such a way that AP = 6 cm. i. we have (6)2 = 4a ⎜ 12 ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 ⎠ Let AB is the deflection of the beam which is Therefore i. a = ⎜ 6. Show that the locus of P is an ellipse. x 2 = 4 × 300 × x= 1 2 m. 100 100 2 = 24 100 24 = 2 6 metres Example 19 A rod AB of length 15 cm rests in between two coordinate axes in such a way that the end point A lies on x-axis and end point B lies on y-axis.35 . ). respectively.. Since AB = 15 cm.e. A point P(x.34. ⎟ . From P draw PQ and PR perpendicular on y-axis and x-axis. Let the coordinate axis be chosen as shown in Fig 11. we have PB = 9 cm.34 The equation of the parabola takes the form x2 = 4ay. y) the point on it such that AP = 6 cm.e.35 and P (x. Coordinates of B are (x. Solution Let AB be the rod making an angle θ with OX as shown in Fig 11.CONIC SECTIONS 263 is a deflection of 3 cm at the centre and the deflected beam is in the shape of a parabola. Fig 11. Since it passes through 36 ×100 ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ = 300 m ⎟ . How far from the centre is the deflection 1 cm? Solution Let the vertex be at the lowest point and the axis vertical. Fig 11.

6. which is 3 cm from the end in contact with the x-axis. Determine the equation of the locus of a point P on the rod. 5. Find the length of the side of the triangle. A man running a racecourse notes that the sum of the distances from the two flag posts from him is always 10 m and the distance between the flag posts is 8 m. The roadway which is horizontal and 100 m long is supported by vertical wires attached to the cable.5 m from one end. Find the height of the arch at a point 1. 3. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 11 1. It is 8 m wide and 2 m high at the centre. How wide is it 2 m from the vertex of the parabola? The cable of a uniformly loaded suspension bridge hangs in the form of a parabola. find the focus. . If a parabolic reflector is 20 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep. Find the length of a supporting wire attached to the roadway 18 m from the middle. An equilateral triangle is inscribed in the parabola y2 = 4 ax. A rod of length 12 cm moves with its ends always touching the coordinate axes. sin θ = cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1 ⎛ x⎞ ⎛ y⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝9⎠ ⎝6⎠ 2 2 x 9 From Since y 6 or x2 y2 + =1 81 36 Thus the locus of P is an ellipse. An arch is in the form of a semi-ellipse. 7. Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines joining the vertex of the parabola x2 = 12y to the ends of its latus rectum. 2. where one vertex is at the vertex of the parabola. 4.264 MATHEMATICS From ∆ PBQ. cos θ = ∆ PRA. Find the equation of the posts traced by the man. An arch is in the form of a parabola with its axis vertical. 8. The arch is 10 m high and 5 m wide at the base. the longest wire being 30 m and the shortest being 6 m.

a b a The eccentricity of an ellipse is the ratio between the distances from the centre of the ellipse to one of the foci and to one of the vertices of the ellipse. The equation of a hyperbola with foci on the x-axis is : x2 y 2 − =1 a 2 b2 . the sum of whose distances from two fixed points in the plane is a constant. A circle is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed point in the plane. The equation of a circle with centre (h.CONIC SECTIONS 265 Summary In this Chapter the following concepts and generalisations are studied. Latus rectum of a parabola is a line segment perpendicular to the axis of the parabola. x2 y 2 2b 2 Length of the latus rectum of the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1 is . The equation of the parabola with focus at (a. A hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane. k) and the radius r is (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2. the difference of whose distances from two fixed points in the plane is a constant. x2 y 2 The equations of an ellipse with foci on the x-axis is 2 + 2 = 1 . Length of the latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 4ax is 4a. 0) a > 0 and directrix x = – a is y2 = 4ax. a b Latus rectum of an ellipse is a line segment perpendicular to the major axis through any of the foci and whose end points lie on the ellipse. An ellipse is the set of all points in a plane. through the focus and whose end points lie on the hyperbola. A parabola is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed line and a fixed point in the plane.

D.) was the first to give the distance formula although in clumsy form. Leibnitz used the terms ‘abscissa’.) whose relevant ‘La Geometrie’ was published in 1637. He also gave the intercept form of the linear equation. etc. L’ Hospital (about 1700 A.D. He used several types of coordinates including polar and bipolar. Length of the latus rectum of the hyperbola : x2 y 2 2b2 − 2 = 1 is : .D. Modern analytic geometry is called ‘Cartesian’ after the name of Rene Descartes (1596-1650 A.).. a2 b a The eccentricity of a hyperbola is the ratio of the distances from the centre of the hyperbola to one of the foci and to one of the vertices of the hyperbola.. But the fundamental principle and method of analytical geometry were already discovered by Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665 A. Apollonius wrote a book called ‘The Conic’ which was all about conic sections with many important discoveries that have remained unsurpassed for eighteen centuries.C. So. entitled Ad Locus Planos et So LIDOS Isagoge (Introduction to Plane and Solid Loci) was published only posthumously in 1679 A. Unfortunately. The synthetic approach to the subject of geometry as given by Euclid and in Sulbasutras.) wrote an important textbook on analytical geometry. Euclid wrote his treatise on geometry around 300 B. was continued for some 1300 years. Isaac Barrow avoided using cartesian method. ‘ordinate’ and ‘coordinate’. Clairaut (1729 A.D. In the 200 B.D. Fermats treatise on the subject. Cramer . Historical Note Geometry is one of the most ancient branches of mathematics. The Greek geometers investigated the properties of many curves that have theoretical and practical importance. Descartes came to be regarded as the unique inventor of the analytical geometry. He was the first who organised the geometric figures based on certain axioms suggested by physical considerations.266 MATHEMATICS Latus rectum of hyperbola is a line segment perpendicular to the transverse axis through any of the foci and whose end points lie on the hyperbola. Geometry as initially studied by the ancient Indians and Greeks.C. who made essentially no use of the process of algebra. Newton used method of undetermined coefficients to find equations of curves.

C. of ⎝ ⎠ course. surprising that one has to wait for more than 150 years after the invention of analytical geometry before finding such essential basic formula. He gave the ‘two-point’ form of equation of a line as y –β= β′ – β (x – α) α′ – α (β – ax – b) 1 + a2 .CONIC SECTIONS 267 (1750 A.) gave the modern ‘point-slope’ form of equation of a line as y – y′ = a (x – x′) and the condition of perpendicularity of two lines as aa′ + 1 = 0. In 1818. gave mE + m′E′ = 0 as the curve passing through the points of intersection of two loci E = 0 and E′ = 0. Monge (1781 A. Lame.D. S. C. The Greeks particularly Archimedes (287–212 B.) studied conic sections for their own beauty.) made formal use of the two axes and gave the equation of a circle as ( y – a)2 + (b – x)2 = r He gave the best exposition of the analytical geometry of his time. a civil engineer. These curves are important tools for present day exploration of outer space and also for research into behaviour of atomic particles. and the length of the perpendicular from (α. β) on y = ax + b as ⎛ a′ – a ⎞ His formula for finding angle between two lines was tan θ = ⎜ 1 + aa′ ⎟ . — — .D.F. Many important discoveries. both in Mathematics and Science. It is.) was a prolific textbook writer. Lacroix (1765–1843 A. have been linked to the conic sections.D.C. but his contributions to analytical geometry are found scattered.) and Apollonius (200 B.

In this Chapter. we do not have to deal with points lying in a plane only. we shall study the basic concepts of geometry in three dimensional space. “A Hand Book for designing Mathematics Laboratory in Schools”. we will not only require the perpendicular distances of the point to be located from two perpendicular walls of the room but also the height of the point from the floor of the room.* * For various activities in three dimensional geometry one may refer to the Book. Therefore.Chapter 12 INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY Mathematics is both the queen and the hand-maiden of all sciences – E. if we were to locate the position of the Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) lowest tip of an electric bulb hanging from the ceiling of a room or the position of the central tip of the ceiling fan in a room. So.T. a point in space has three coordinates. consider the position of a ball thrown in space at different points of time or the position of an aeroplane as it flies from one place to another at different times during its flight. NCERT. we need not only two but three numbers representing the perpendicular distances of the point from three mutually perpendicular planes. BELL 12. These lines are called the coordinate axes and the two numbers are called the coordinates of the point with respect to the axes. . namely the floor of the room and two adjacent walls of the room.1 Introduction You may recall that to locate the position of a point in a plane. we need two intersecting mutually perpendicular lines in the plane. The three numbers representing the three distances are called the coordinates of the point with reference to the three coordinate planes. 2005. For example. In actual life. Similarly.

y and z would change . the signs of x. respectively. The three coordinate planes divide the space into eight parts known as octants. . and denoted by I. as to how. given a triplet of three numbers (x. VIII . we locate a point in the space. the distance measured to the right of ZX-plane along OY are taken as positive.2. Y′OY and Z′OZ. respectively.y and z are called the x. z) lies in the octant XOYZ and so all x. then the line Z′OZ will be vertical. X′OY′Z. X′OY′Z′ and XOY′Z′. Similarly. from the point M. z are positive. y and z coordinates. LM be y and MP be z. y.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 269 12. y. we may note that the point P (x. Then.. y. called. we now explain. respectively.2 perpendicular PM on the XY-plane with M as the foot of this perpendicular (Fig 12. Then x.y.2 Coordinate Axes and Coordinate Planes in Three Dimensional Space Consider three planes intersecting at a point O such that these three planes are mutually perpendicular to each other (Fig 12. given a point in the space. The point O is called the origin of the coordinate system. to the left of ZX-plane and along OY′ as negative. in front of the YZ-plane along OX as positive and to the back of it along OX′ as negative.3 Coordinates of a Point in Space Having chosen a fixed coordinate system in the space. Let OL be x.1 the XOY plane as the plane of the paper and the line Z′OZ as perpendicular to the plane XOY. XOY′Z. we draw a perpendicular ML to the x-axis. III. X′OYZ. of the point P in the space.z) and conversely. X′OYZ′. consisting of coordinate axes. II. we drop a Fig 12. 12. z). we associate with it three coordinates (x. If P was in any other octant. YOZ and ZOX. In Fig 12. We take Fig 12. Given a point P in space. If the plane of the paper is considered as horizontal. coordinate planes and the origin. We may note that these lines are mutually perpendicular to each other. are known as the three coordinate planes. XOYZ′.2). meeting it at L. These octants could be named as XOYZ. respectively the XY-plane. y and z-axes. These lines constitute the rectangular coordinate system.. The planes XOY. YZ-plane and the ZX-plane. called the x. The distances measured from XY-plane upwards in the direction of OZ are taken as positive and those measured downwards in the direction of OZ′ are taken as negative. how.1).. These three planes intersect along the lines X′OX.

3). meeting the x-axis. y. z). respectively. y and z. y) are the coordinates of the point M in the XY-plane. Thus. respectively (Fig 12. The coordinates of any point on the x-axis will be as (x. The following table shows the signs of the coordinates in eight octants. ZX-plane and XY-plane.0) and the coordinates of any point in the YZ-plane will be as (0. OB = y and OC = z. there is a one to one correspondence between the points in space and ordered triplet (x. namely. Table 12. BDPE and CEPF is obviously the point P. Let OA = x. corresponding to the ordered triplet (x. Conversely. given any triplet (x. Alternatively. ADPF.270 MATHEMATICS accordingly. we draw a perpendicular MP to the XY-plane and locate on it the point P corresponding to z. y. y and z and we write P (x. Remark The sign of the coordinates of a point determine the octant in which the point lies. z). Having reached the point M. we locate the three points A.0.0). z) of real numbers. z) is any point in the space. the point P will have the coordinates x. y.3 the YZ-plane. y. B and C on the three coordinate axes. we would first fix the point L on the x-axis corresponding to x. z). The point P so obtained has then the coordinates (x. y. y. through the point P in the space. We observe that if P (x. B and C we draw planes parallel to Fig 12. Through the points A. B and C. z) of real numbers. we draw three planes parallel to the coordinate planes. y. to each point P in the space there corresponds an ordered triplet (x. y.1 s ant Oct nates rdi Coo I + + + II – + + III – – + IV + – + V + + – VI – + – VII – – – VIII + – – x y z . z). Note that LM is perpendicular to the x-axis or is parallel to the y-axis. y-axis and z-axis in the points A. Thus. ZX and XY planes. then locate the point M in the XY-plane such that (x. then x. z). Conversely. y and z are perpendicular distances from YZ.0. given x. Then. respectively. The point of interesection of these three planes. Note The coordinates of the origin O are (0.

– 2) lie.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 271 Example 1 In Fig 12. (– 4.5). 1.5). the coordinates of F are (2. What are its y-coordinate and z-coordinates? A point is in the XZ-plane. Fill in the blanks: (i) The x-axis and y-axis taken together determine a plane known as_______. it follows that.1. (1) Also. (4. y1. find the coordinates of F. 2) lies in second octant and the point (–3. (ii) The coordinates of points in the XY-plane are of the form _______. if P is (2.. 2. 3). (4. in triangle PAQ. –2. the distance measured along OY is zero. Example 2 Find the octant in which the points (–3. Let P(x1. 12.1. (4.. 3). 2. (–3. 2. z2) be two points referred to a system of rectangular axes OX.3. 5). . the point (–3. 2. Solution For the point F. Let us now extend this study to three-dimensional system. z1) and Q ( x2. –5). A point is on the x -axis. – 4. PQ2 = PA 2 + AQ2 Fig 12. –5). Therefore. –2.4). Solution From the Table 12. 4. –5). y2. Through the points P and Q draw planes parallel to the coordinate planes so as to form a rectangular parallelopiped with one diagonal PQ (Fig 12..2) and (–3. –7). Now. OY and OZ. triangle ANQ is right angle triangle with ∠ANQ a right angle.0.1. What can you say about its y-coordinate? Name the octants in which the following points lie: (1.1. – 2) lies in octant VI. 2.1 1. (– 4. since ∠PAQ is a right angle. (iii) Coordinate planes divide the space into ______ octants. EXERCISE 12.4 . 6) (2. –1. 3.4 Distance between Two Points We have studied about the distance between two points in two-dimensional coordinate system.4.

2) is PQ = = = (−4 − 1) 2 + (1 + 3) 2 + (2 − 4) 2 25 + 16 + 4 45 = 3 5 units Example 4 Show that the points P (–2. P. 4) and Q (– 4. y2. 6. PQ + QR = PR. 2).. 3) and R (7. 20. 9). point P is origin O. Q (1. 1. we have PQ2 = PA2 + AN2 + NQ2 PA = y2 – y1. AN = x2 – x1 and NQ = z2 – z1 PQ2 = (x2 – x1)2 + (y2 – y1) + (z2 – z1)2 PQ = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 +( y 2 − y1 ) 2 +( z2 − z1 ) 2 2 This gives us the distance between two points (x1. –3. the vertices of a right angled triangle? Solution By the distance formula.. 3. 0. –1) are collinear. 5). y1. which gives the distance between the origin O and any point Q (x2. y2. 1. Solution The distance PQ between the points P (1. In particular.e. Q and R are collinear. Example 3 Find the distance between the points P(1. z2). 2. if x1 = y1 = z1 = 0.–3. i. 4) and Q (– 4. z2).272 MATHEMATICS Therefore . 5). PQ = QR = and PR = (1 + 2) 2 + ( 2 − 3) 2 + (3 − 5) 2 = 9 + 1 + 4 = 14 (7 − 1) 2 + (0 − 2) 2 + (−1− 3) 2 = 36 + 4 + 16 = 56 = 2 14 (7 + 2) 2 + (0 − 3) 2 + (−1− 5) 2 = 81 + 9 + 36 = 126 = 3 14 Thus. (2) From Now Hence Therefore AQ2 = AN2 + NQ2 (1) and (2). 30) and C (25. Now. then OQ = 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 . – 41. B (10. Example 5 Are the points A (3. Hence. Solution We know that points are said to be collinear if they lie on a line. we have AB 2 = (10 – 3)2 + (20 – 6)2 + (30 – 9)2 = 49 + 196 + 441 = 686 BC 2 = (25 – 10)2 + (– 41 – 20)2 + (5 – 30)2 .. z1) and (x2.

. 3. 10). z1) and Q (x2. –1) (iv) (2. 3. 12. 9. 2. 0) is equal to 10. Now. –1) are collinear. 2) and (2. –3.2 1. y. 3. z) . the triangle ABC is not a right angled triangle. – 6) and (4. the sum of whose distances from A (4. 5. 0.e. 1. 1) (iii) (–1. 6. – 4) and (1. respectively. 7. (ii) (0. 5) and (4. 2. Show that the points (–2. we extend this to three dimensional geometry as follows: Let the two given points be P(x1. 8) and (2. Let the point R (x. (4. Find the distance between the following pairs of points: (i) (2. Solution Let the coordinates of point P be (x. –1). 4) are the vertices of a parallelogram.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 273 = 225 + 3721 + 625 = 4571 CA 2 We find that = (3 – 25)2 + (6 + 41)2 + (9 – 5)2 = 484 + 2209 + 16 = 2709 CA2 + AB2 ≠ BC2. (–1. 6. 5) and (–1. 6) are the vertices of a right angled triangle. Find the equation of the set of points P. we have learnt how to find the coordinates of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio internally. (1. – 6) are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. 5). Find the equation of the set of points which are equidistant from the points (1. Example 6 Find the equation of set of points P such that PA2 + PB2 = 2k2. (1. 4. 4. –7). Verify the following: (i) (0. 1). 2. 9.5 Section Formula In two dimensional geometry. 3) and (7. 3). EXERCISE 12. (iii) (–1. z2). 6) and (– 4. 5). 4. –3. 2. 0. Here PA2 = (x – 3)2 + (y – 4)2 + ( z – 5)2 PB2 = (x + 1)2 + (y – 3)2 + (z + 7)2 By the given condition PA2 + PB2 = 2k2. –2. y2. we have (x – 3)2 + (y – 4)2 + (z – 5)2 + (x + 1)2 + (y – 3)2 + (z + 7)2 = 2k2 i. 7. 3. 2x2 + 2y2 + 2z2 – 4x – 14y + 4z = 2k2 – 109. Hence. y1. 3) and (–2. (ii) (–3. –10). 0) and B (– 4. 0. –1. 3) and (3. where A and B are the points (3. y. 2. 4) 3. –7. 7. (1. z). 3.

Obviously PL || RN || QM and feet of these perpendiculars lie in a XY-plane. y2. Through the point R draw a line ST parallel to the line LM.5. Therefore. m+n . The points L. m+n ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If the point R divides PQ externally in the ratio m : n. Also note that quadrilaterals LNRS and NMTR are parallelograms. ⎜ ⎟ m−n m−n ⎠ ⎝ m−n Case 1 Coordinates of the mid-point: In case R is the mid-point of PQ. M and N will lie on a line which is the intersection of the plane containing PL. then its coordinates are obtained by replacing n by – n so that coordinates of point R will be ⎛ mx2 − nx1 my2 − ny1 mz 2 − nz1 ⎞ . y1. RN and QM with the XY-plane. by drawing perpendiculars to the XZ and YZ-planes. Line ST will intersect the line LP externally at the point S and the line MQ at T. QM and RN perpendicular to the XY-plane. Fig 12.5 m PR SP SL − PL NR – PL z − z1 = = = = = n QR QT QM − TM QM – NR z2 − z This implies z= mz 2 +nz1 m+n Similarly. we get y = my2 + ny1 mx2 + nx1 and x = m+n m+n Hence. 2 2 2 . z2) internally in the ratio m : n are ⎛ mx2 + nx1 my2 + ny1 mz2 + nz1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ m+n . z1) and Q (x2. as shown in Fig 12. Draw PL. The triangles PSR and QTR are similar.274 MATHEMATICS divide PQ in the given ratio m : n internally. then m : n = 1 : 1 so that x = x1 + x2 y + y2 z + z2 . the coordinates of the point R which divides the line segment joining two points P (x1.y = 1 and z = 1 . .

y. y= = 2+3 5 2+3 5 . Therefore x= 2(3) +3(1) 9 2(4) + 3( −2) 2 = . Let the point P divides AB in the ratio k : 1. y1. Solution (i) Let P (x. 6. 6. y2. 0. 1+k ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Generally. prove that the three points (– 4. ⎟ ⎝5 5 5 ⎠ (ii) Let P (x. z) be the point which divides segment joining A (1. the required point is (–3. Example 8 Using section formula. –5) internally in the ratio 2 : 3. –5) in the ratio 2 : 3 (i) internally. y = = − 14 . 10).INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 275 These are the coordinates of the mid point of the segment joining P (x1. this result is used in solving problems involving a general point on the line passing through two given points. z1) and Q (x2. 4. . 6) and (14. Case 2 The coordinates of the point R which divides PQ in the ratio k : 1 are obtained by taking k = m which are as given below: n ⎛ k x 2 + x1 ky2 + y1 kz 2 + z1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 1+k . 1+k . 4. 19). z2). Example 7 Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points (1. B (2. –2. Then Thus. Solution Let A (– 4. 4. –14. . 6) and C(14. (2. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ k +1 k +1 k +1 ⎠ Let us examine whether for some value of k. 4. z) be the point which divides line segment joining A(1. z = = 19 2 + (−3) 2 + ( −3) 2 + ( −3) Therefore. y. –5) externally in the ratio 2 : 3. the point P coincides with point C. z= 2(−5) + 3(3) − 1 = 2+3 5 ⎛ 9 2 −1⎞ ⎜ . – 2. 3) and (3. – 2) be the given points. 3) and B (3. and (ii) externally. –2) are collinear. 3) and B (3. 10). the required point is x = 2(3) + ( −3)(1) 2( 4) + ( −3)(−2) 2(−5) + ( −3)(3) = − 3. 0. . 4. Then coordinates of the point P are ⎛ 2 k − 4 4 k + 6 6 k + 10 ⎞ . –2.

Solution Let YZ-plane divides the line segment joining A (4. 0. 8.Hence A. C are collinear. . 10) and (6. z) in the ratio k : 1. y1. z3). (x2. y1. B. 10) and B (6. Let the coordinates of the vertices A. . (x2. Solution Let ABC be the triangle. y3. ⎜ ⎟ 3 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ Example 10 Find the ratio in which the line segment joining the points (4. Then the coordinates of P are . z2) and (x3. it divides the median AD in the ratio 2 : 1. 10. z2) and (x3. – 8) is divided by the YZ-plane. C (14. z1). 10. ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 Let G be the centroid of the triangle. Let D be the mid-point of BC. z1). Hence.C be (x1. B. –2) is a point which divides AB externally in the ratio 3 : 2 and is same as P. y3. y2. Therefore. 8. Example 9 Find the coordinates of the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are (x1. y2. then k +1 2 and 3 6( − ) + 10 6k + 10 2 = = −2 3 k +1 − +1 2 Therefore.276 MATHEMATICS On putting 2k − 4 =14 . – 8) at P (x. z3). respectively. the coordinates of G are ⎛ ⎛ x2 + x3 ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ y2 + y3 ⎞ ⎛ z 2 + z3 ⎞ ⎜ 2⎜ ⎟ + x1 2 ⎜ ⎟ + y1 2 ⎜ ⎟ + z1 ⎟ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎟ . Hence coordinates of D are ⎛ x2 + x3 y 2 + y3 z2 + z3 ⎞ . we get k = − 3 k +1 2 3 4( − ) + 6 2 =0 3 − +1 2 When 4k + 6 3 = k = − . ⎝ . ⎝ 2 +1 2 +1 2 +1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ or ⎛ x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3 z1 + z2 + z3 ⎞ . y.

Given that P (3. but it is not a rectangle. YZ-plane divides AB externally in the ratio 2 : 3. . 3). –3. 2. –1). ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ k +1 k +1 k +1 ⎠ Since P lies on the YZ-plane. k =− EXERCISE 12. 2. Miscellaneous Examples Example 11 Show that the points A (1. Find the ratio in which the YZ-plane divides the line segment formed by joining the points (–2. Solution To show ABCD is a parallelogram we need to show opposite side are equal Note that. –2. . 7.. 7) and (3. Using section formula. Q (5. show that the points A (2. – 6) and Q (10. ⎛ 1 ⎞ C ⎜ 0 . 2. 2. 6) in the ratio (i) 2 : 3 internally. B (–1. Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points (– 2. 2) and D (4. ⎝ 3 ⎠ Find the coordinates of the points which trisect the line segment joining the points P (4.3 1. 4. 3. (ii) 2 : 3 externally. – 6) and R (9. 3. 8). 5) and (1. . its x-coordinate is zero. 8. ABCD is a parallelogram.e. –16.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 277 ⎛ 4 + 6k 8 + 10k 10 − 8k ⎞ . B (–1. 2. 4. AB = BC = CD = DA = (−1 − 1) 2 +(−2 − 2) 2 +(−1 − 3) 2 = (2 + 1) 2 +(3 + 2) 2 +( 2 + 1) 2 = ( 4 − 2) 2 +(7 − 3) 2 +(6 − 2) 2 = (1 − 4) 2 +(2 − 7) 2 +(3 − 6) 2 = 4 + 16 + 16 = 6 9 + 25 + 9 = 43 4 + 16 + 16 = 6 9 + 25 + 9 = 43 Since AB = CD and BC = AD. – 4. 1) and 5. – 4). or 4 + 6k =0 k +1 2 3 Therefore. 3. 4. 4). i. –10) are collinear. –5. 6) are the vertices of a parallelogram ABCD. C (2. 6). 2 ⎟ are collinear. Find the ratio in which Q divides PR.

0. –5) and B (– 2. Solution If P (x. b and c. z = 2. For this. y = 1. Example 13 The centroid of a triangle ABC is at the point (1.. = 1. – 4) and C (– 1.e. 1. 1. Find the coordinates of the fourth vertex. –10) and R(8. it is required to prove that ABCD is not a rectangle. Three vertices of a parallelogram ABCD are A(3. B (1. z) and the coordinates of the centroid G be (1. i. i. 2). Example 12 Find the equation of the set of the points P such that its distances from the points A (3. 1). then find the values of a.. 6). 1. 0) and (6. z) be any point such that PA = PB. 3. 0).4. Then x + 3−1 y −5+ 7 z+7−6 = 1. find the coordinates of the point C. If the coordinates of A and B are (3. 3b. Find the lengths of the medians of the triangle with vertices A (0. Since AC ≠ BD. 2).278 MATHEMATICS Now. 6). If the origin is the centroid of the triangle PQR with vertices P (2a. 0. y. using the property that diagonals AC and BD bisect each other. Now or or ( x − 3) 2 + ( y − 4) 2 + ( z + 5) 2 = ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 + ( z − 4) 2 ( x − 3) 2 + ( y − 4) 2 + ( z + 5) 2 = ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 + ( z − 4) 2 10 x + 6y – 18z – 29 = 0. We have AC BD = = ( 2 − 1) 2 +(3 − 2) 2 +(2 − 3) 2 = 1 + 1 + 1= 3 ( 4 + 1) 2 +(7 + 2) 2 +(6 + 1) 2 = 25 + 81 + 49 = 155 .e. y. 2).e. – 6). 1). 1. 7) and (–1. 4) are equal. 2. we show that diagonals AC and BD are unequal. – 1. –5. 14.. 2. Note We can also show that ABCD is a parallelogram. 3 3 3 Hence. i. respectively. 7. 4. x = 1. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 12 1. B (0. 2c). ABCD is not a rectangle. = 1. 1. . 2. Q (– 4. coordinates of C are (1. Solution Let the coordinates of C be (x.

respectively. 0. ⎝ m+n ⎝ m–n respectively. . 0. 10). (i) Any point on x-axis is of the form (x. z2) is given by PQ = ( x2 − x1 )2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 + ( z2 − z1 )2 The coordinates of the point R which divides the line segment joining two points P (x1 y1 z1) and Q (x2. z). [Hint Suppose R divides PQ in the ratio k : 1. find the equation of the set of points P such that PA2 + PB2 = k2. The axes are called the x. –7). y. –3. . The coordinates of a point P in three dimensional geometry is always written in the form of triplet like (x. The three coordinate planes divide the space into eight parts known as octants. –2. Summary In three dimensions. where k is a constant. y and z are the distances from the YZ. A point R with x-coordinate 4 lies on the line segment joining the points P(2. z2) internally and externally in the ratio m : n are given by ⎛ mx2 + nx1 my2 + ny1 mz2 + nz1 ⎞ ⎛ mx2 – nx1 my2 – ny1 mz2 – nz1 ⎞ . ZX and XY-planes. y2. YZ and ZX-planes. ⎜ ⎟ and ⎜ ⎟ m+ n m+n ⎠ m–n m–n ⎠ . The coordinates of the mid-point of the line segment joining two points . Find the coordinates of the point R. 0) (iii) Any point on z-axis is of the form (0. y1. Find the coordinates of a point on y-axis which are at a distance of 5 2 from the point P (3. ⎝ k +1 k +1 k +1 ⎠ 6. The three planes determined by the pair of axes are the coordinate planes. 4. . 3. . 5). 5) and (–1. 0) (ii) Any point on y-axis is of the form (0. 5.If A and B be the points (3. called XY. y. 4) and Q (8. The coordinates of the point R are given ⎛ 8k + 2 − 3 10k + 4 ⎞ by ⎜ . Here x. z1) and Q (x2. y and z-axes. the coordinate axes of a rectangular Cartesian coordinate system are three mutually perpendicular lines. Distance between two points P(x1. 0.INTRODUCTION TO THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 279 4. y2. z). ⎟ ].

D. z1) and Q(x2. are ⎜ ⎟. in Chapter 5 of the appendix to the second volume of his “Introduction to Geometry” in 1748 A. essentially dealt with plane geometry only in 1637 A. The same is true of his co-inventor Pierre Fermat (1601-1665 A. z2) are ⎜ ⎟. to Leibnitz introduced the three coordinate planes which we use today. y1.D.D. It was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that geometry was extended to more than three dimensions. . y3. y1.) and La Hire (1640-1718 A.280 MATHEMATICS ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 z1 + z2 ⎞ . z3). .).D. Descartes had the idea of coordinates in three dimensions but did not develop it. 3 3 3 ⎝ ⎠ Historical Note Rene’ Descartes (1596–1650 A. (x2. P(x1.Bernoulli (1667-1748 A.D. the father of analytical geometry. Although suggestions for the three dimensional coordinate geometry can be found in their works but no details.D.D. — — . z2) and (x3. y2. J.) took up systematically the three dimensional coordinate geometry. y2. the well-known application of which is in the Space-Time Continuum of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. It was Antoinne Parent (1666-1716 A. z1) ⎛ x1 + x2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y3 z1 + z2 + x3 ⎞ . who gave a systematic development of analytical solid geometry for the first time in a paper presented to the French Academy in 1700 A. L.).D.).D.Euler (1707-1783 A. whose vertices are (x1. 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 The coordinates of the centroid of the triangle.D.) in a letter of 1715 A.

i.e.. Calculus is that branch of mathematics which mainly deals with the study of change in the value of a function as the points in the domain change. distance s in metres covered by the body as a function of time t in seconds is given by s = 4.9t2. We also obtain derivatives of certain standard functions. First. The objective is to find the veloctiy of the body at time t = 2 seconds from this data. Average velocity between t = t1 and t = t2 equals distance travelled between t = t1 and t = t2 seconds divided by (t2 – t1).1 Introduction This chapter is an introduction to Calculus. we give an intuitive idea of derivative (without actually defining it). Mathematics can be successfully applied to the explanation of the course of Nature – WHITEHEAD 13. Then we come back to a definition of derivative and study some algebra of derivatives. Then we give a naive definition of limit and study some algebra of limits.9t2 metres in t seconds.1 gives the distance travelled in metres at various intervals of time in seconds of a body dropped from a tall cliff. One way to approach this problem is to find the average velocity for various intervals of time ending at t = 2 seconds and hope that these throw some light on the velocity at t = 2 seconds. 13. Hence the average velocity in the first two seconds Sir Issac Newton (1642-1727) . The adjoining Table 13.2 Intuitive Idea of Derivatives Physical experiments have confirmed that the body dropped from a tall cliff covers a distance of 4.Chapter 13 LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES With the Calculus as a key.

Compute the average velocities for various time intervals starting at t = 2 seconds.2 gives the average velocity (v).95 2 2.15 1. t 0 1 1.95 19.9 19.7 1. t = t1 seconds and t = 2 seconds.9 ) m = 14. This conclusion is somewhat strengthened by the following set of computation.2 t1 v 0 9.6 20. we observe that the average velocity is gradually increasing.99 19. The following Table 13.9 11.282 MATHEMATICS Distance travelled between t2 = 2 and t1 = 0 = Time interval (t2 − t1 ) = Table 13.355 1.5 3 4 s 0 4. As we make the time intervals ending at t = 2 smaller.8 m / s .99 seconds and 2 seconds.876 17. we see that we get a better idea of the velocity at t = 2.551m/s.1 2.716 30.025 15. Hoping that nothing really dramatic happens between 1.1 (19.625 44.62 1.11 1.8 1 14.551 From Table 13.9 1.2 2.609 23.5 17.5 1.6 − 0 ) m = 9. the average velocity between t = 1 and t = 2 is (19.6 – 4.63225 19. As before the average velocity v between t = 2 seconds and t = t2 seconds is = Distance travelled between 2 seconds and t2 seconds t2 − 2 Distance travelled in t2 seconds − Distance travelled in 2 seconds t2 − 2 = .2.8 1. ( 2 − 0) s Similarly.8 18.689 18.1 78.59225 21.7 m/s ( 2 − 1) s Likewise we compute the average velocitiy between t = t1 and t = 2 for various t1.05 2.4 Table 13. we conclude that the average velocity at t = 2 seconds is just above 19.

we say that the instantaneous velocity at t = 2 is between 19.551 and 19. h2.2 2.551 m/s and 19.551m/s and 19.1.. An alternate way of viewing this limiting process is shown in Fig 13.649.3 gives the average velocity v in metres per second between t = 2 seconds and t2 seconds.1 sequence of ratios . This is a plot of distance s of the body from the top of the cliff versus the time t elapsed.1 2.4 24.01 29.649 m/s.09 19.05 20. As is well-known. what we have done is to find average velocities in increasing time intervals ending at t = 2 and then hope that nothing dramatic happens just before t = 2.3 t2 v 4 3 2. we get better idea of the velocity at t = 2. From the given data of distance covered at various time instants we have estimated the rate of change of the distance at a given instant of time. both these sequences of average velocities must approach a common limit. we have found the average velocities decreasing in time intervals ending at t = 2 and then hope that nothing dramatic happens just after t = 2.. .5 22. approaches zero.. We say that the derivative of the distance function s = 4.05 2.5 2.9t2 at t = 2 is between 19.845 19. We can safely conclude that the velocity of the body at t = 2 is between 19. In the limit as the sequence of time intervals h1.649 m/s.58 20. Table 13.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 283 = Distance travelled in t2 seconds − 19.649 Here again we note that if we take smaller time intervals starting at t = 2. In the first set of computations.6 t2 − 2 The following Table 13. Purely on the physical grounds. Hence what we have accomplished is the following. the sequence of average velocities approaches the same limit as does the Fig 13. velocity is the rate of change of distance. In the second set of computations. Technically.

x →a Consider the following function g(x) = |x|. We say lim f ( x ) = 0 x →0 (to be read as limit of f (x) as x tends to zero equals zero).. then l is called limit of the function f (x) which is symbolically written as lim f ( x ) = l . x−2 Compute the value of h(x) for values of x very near to 2 (but not at 2). Observe that g(0) is not defined. From the Fig 13. (See Fig 2. This is somewhat strengthened by considering the graph of the function y = h(x) given here (Fig 13.10 Chapter 2). x≠2. 13. h( x) = Fig 13. So. .1 it is safe to conclude that this latter sequence approaches the slope of the tangent to the curve at point A. AC1 AC2 AC3 where C1B1 = s1 – s0 is the distance travelled by the body in the time interval h1 = AC1. the value of f(x) also moves towards 0 (See Fig 2. In general as x → a. In other words. the instantaneous velocity v(t) of a body at time t = 2 is equal to the slope of the tangent of the curve s = 4.284 MATHEMATICS C1B1 C2 B2 C3 B3 . Computing the value of g(x) for values of x very near to 0. Observe that as x takes values very close to 0. The limit of f (x) as x tends to zero is to be thought of as the value f (x) should assume at x = 0. Consider the following function. Convince yourself that all these values are near to 4. x2 − 4 . we see that the value of g(x) moves towards 0.13. Chapter 2).9t2 at t = 2. .2 . f (x) → l.3 Limits The above discussion clearly points towards the fact that we need to understand limiting process in greater clarity. lim g(x) = 0. . We study a few illustrative examples to gain some familiarity with the concept of limits. x ≠ 0. Consider the function f(x) = x2.. etc.2). This is intuitively x→0 clear from the graph of y = |x| for x ≠ 0.

.001. .. we call that common value as the limit of f(x) at x = a and denote it by lim f(x). This value is called the right hand limit of f(x) at a.. Similarly. i. This naturally leads to two limits – the right hand limit and the left hand limit.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 285 In all these illustrations the value which the function should assume at a given point x = a did not really depend on how is x tending to a. 4. Similarly.. It is clear that the value of f at 0 dictated by values of f(x) with x ≤ 0 equals 1. consider the function ⎧ 1. x →a Illustration 1 Consider the function f(x) = x + 10. Values of the function at these points are tabulated below.e. 4. all the values of x near a could be less than a or could be greater than a. . x ≤ 0 f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩ 2. the right hand limit of f (x) at 0 is x →0 + lim f ( x ) = 2 . Let us compute the value of the function f(x) for x very near to 5. and hence we say that the limit of f (x) as x tends to zero does not exist (even though the function is defined at 0). i. Summary We say xlim– f(x) is the expected value of f at x = a given the values of f near →a x to the left of a. i. the left hand limit of f (x) at 0 is lim f ( x) =1 .3. This value is called the left hand limit of f at a. x→0 Similarly.9. Right hand limit of a function f(x) is that value of f(x) which is dictated by the values of f(x) when x tends to a from the right. 4.995. We say lim+ f ( x ) is the expected value f at x = a given the values of x→a f near x to the right of a. . If the right and left hand limits coincide. Fig 13. Some of the points near and to the left of 5 are 4.99. the left hand limit.. x > 0 Graph of this function is shown in the Fig 13. etc.95.e.e. the value of f at 0 dictated by values of f (x) with x > 0 equals 2. To illustrate this. Note that there are essentially two ways x could approach a number a either from left or from right. the real number 5. We want to find the limit of this function at x = 5.3 In this case the right and left hand limits are different.

Proceeding as in the previous case.997002999 and less than 1.9 4. x →5+ lim f ( x ) = 15 .1 From the Table 13.e. It is reasonable to assume that the value of the f(x) at x = 5 as dictated by the numbers to the left of 5 is 15.01 15..95 14.001.999 0. we deduce that value of f(x) at x = 5 should be greater than 14.01 1. Table 13.995 and less than 15.5.001 assuming nothing dramatic happens between x = 4. we deduce that value of f(x) at x = 1 should be greater than 0.99 0.01 5. In this figure.01.331 From this table.4 x f(x) 4.e.99 14. i. 5. i.4. Thus..995 14.001 5.286 MATHEMATICS 5. Table 13.729 0.003003001 assuming nothing dramatic happens between . Illustration 2 Consider the function f(x) = x3.1 1. we tabulate the value of f(x) at x near 1. This is given in the Table 13. Value of the function at these points are also given in the Table 13. when x approaches 5 from the right. x →5 – lim f ( x ) = 15 . We observe that the value of the function at x = 2 also happens to be equal to 12. Hence. the graph of the function f(x) = x +10 approaches the point (5. we note that as x appraches 5 from either right or left.995 5.995 and 5.1 are also points near and to the right of 5.003003001 1. 15). Let us try to find the limit of this function at x = 1. x →5 x →5 This conclusion about the limit being equal to 15 is somewhat strengthened by seeing the graph of this function which is given in Fig 2.4. Similarly.16.95 4.99 4.9 14. x →5 − lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 15 . f(x) should be taking value 15.997002999 1.030301 1. it is likely that the left hand limit of f(x) and the right hand limit of f(x) are both equal to 15. Chapter 2.1 15.9 0.001 1.001 15.5 x f(x) 0.970299 0.

95 5.. Here again we note that the value of the function at x = 2 coincides with the limit at x = 2. i. Illustration 3 Consider the function f(x) = 3x. The following Table 13. Let us try to find the limit of this function at x = 2.85 1. Thus. i.003 2.97 1. x →1− lim f ( x ) = 1 .11. In this figure. This function being the constant function takes the same Fig 13. We observe. when x approaches 1 from the right. lim f ( x ) = 1 . x →1 x →1 This conclusion about the limit being equal to 1 is somewhat strengthened by seeing the graph of this function which is given in Fig 2. Let us try to find its limit at x = 2. the graph of the function f(x) = x3 approaches the point (1. 1). Similarly.4 strengthens this fact.4 . Illustration 4 Consider the constant function f(x) = 3.e. we note that as x approaches 1 from either right or left. again. it is likely that the left hand limit of f(x) and the right hand limit of f(x) are both equal to 1.001 6.3 As before we observe that as x approaches 2 from either left or right. x →1− lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 1 .6 x f(x) 1. It is reasonable to assume that the value of the f(x) at x = 1 as dictated by the numbers to the left of 1 is 1..03 2.99 5.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 287 x = 0. Chapter 2. the value of f(x) seem to approach 6.7 1. x →1+ Hence.999 and 1.e. f(x) should be taking value 1.999 5.9 5.001.6 is now self-explanatory.01 6.1 6. Table 13.997 2.. that the value of the function at x = 1 also happens to be equal to 1. We record this as x →2 − lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 6 x →2 x →2 Its graph shown in Fig 13.

9 1. again we observe that the lim f (x) = f (1) x→1 Now.64 From this it is reasonable to deduce that x →1− lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 2 .7. 2). x →a Illustration 5 Consider the function f(x) = x2 + x.1 2.288 MATHEMATICS value (3. it is clear that as x approaches 1.999 1. Hence lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 3 x→2 x →2 x→2 Graph of f(x) = 3 is anyway the line parallel to x-axis passing through (0. the graph approaches (1.01 2.7 x f(x) 0.5 lim x 2 = 1. + x →1 x →1 From the graph of f(x) = x2 + x shown in the Fig 13.e. lim ( x + 1) = 1. Chapter 2. Here.99 1. ⎦ x →1 x →1 x →1 ⎣ lim x. its value at points close to 2 is 3. In fact..0301 1. convince yourself of the following three facts: Fig 13. it is easily observed that lim f ( x ) = 3 for any real number a. From this also it is clear that the required limit is 3.9. 3) and is shown in Fig 2.997001 1.2 2. in this case) everywhere. ⎦ x →1 ⎣ ⎦ x →1 x→1 x →1 ⎣ .71 0. i. Table 13.5. We want to find lim f ( x ) .2 = 2 = lim ⎡ x ( x + 1) ⎤ = lim ⎡ x 2 + x ⎤ .31 1.9701 0. lim x = 1 and lim x + 1 = 2 x →1 x →1 x →1 Then Also lim x 2 + lim x = 1 + 1 = 2 = lim ⎡ x 2 + x ⎤ . We x →1 tabulate the values of f(x) near x = 1 in Table 13.

8 x f(x) π − 0.01 1. π x→ 2 where the angle is measured in radians.9950 π − 0. x→0 Here we tabulate the (approximate) value of f(x) near 0 (Table 13.98995 – 0. Further.0009995 0. Now.9).01 2 0.9950 Illustration 7 Consider the function f(x) = x + cos x. can you convince yourself that lim [ x + cos x ] = lim x + lim cos x is indeed true? x →0 x →0 x→0 .00995 0.9999 π + 0.9. We are interested in lim sin x .9999 π + 0.1 2 0. we tabulate the (approximate) value of f(x) near this. we observe that lim f (x) = f (0) = 1. We want to find the lim f (x). we may deduce that x → 0− lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 1 x→0 x →0 x→0 In this case too. From 2 lim− f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 1 π 2 x→ π 2 x→ π 2 . x→ π 2 Table 13.01 0.8).9850 – 0.9 x f(x) – 0. Here. In this case too.1 2 0.001 0. this is supported by the graph of f(x) = sin x which is given in the Fig 3.01 2 0.1 0.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 289 Illustration 6 Consider the function f(x) = sin x. Table 13.9989995 0.1 1.0950 From the Table 13. we may deduce that x→ π (Table 13.001 1.8 (Chapter 3). we observe that lim sin x = 1.

From the Table 13. Observe that for negative values of x we need to evaluate x – 2 and for positive values. x > 0 ⎩ As usual we make a table of x near 0 with f(x).1 – 2. Illustration 8 Consider the function f ( x ) = Table 13. Illustration 9 We want to find lim f ( x ) .10 given below.001 0.11. when we tabulate the values of f(x).290 MATHEMATICS 1 for x > 0 .01 0. it does not make sense to talk of x approaching 0 from the left.01 2. We want to know lim f (x).11 x f(x) – 0. we need to evaluate x + 2.01 – 2. where x →0 ⎧ x − 2. x→0 x2 Here. f(x) becomes larger and larger. we see that as x tends to 0.1 From the first three entries of the Table 13. x = 0 ⎪ x + 2.01 – 0. we deduce that the value of the function is decreasing to –2 and hence.001 2.10 x f(x) Mathematically. Table 13. x < 0 ⎪ f ( x) = ⎨ 0 . What we mean here is that the value of f(x) may be made larger than any given number. x →0 − lim f ( x ) = −2 . Hence.001 0. we say 1 1 lim f ( x ) = + ∞ x →0 0. observe that the domain of the function is given to be all positive real numbers.1 – 0. Below we tabulate the values of the function for positive x close to 0 (in this table n denotes any positive integer).001 – 2.1 100 0.01 10000 10–n 102n We also remark that we will not come across such limits in this course.1 2.

99 0.e.1 As usual we tabulate the values of f(x) for x near 1.7 strengthens our deduction about the limit. we Fig 13. equal to 0. x →1+ lim f ( x ) = 3 . but the limit of the function at x = 0 is not even defined. x →1− lim f ( x ) = 3 . indeed. it seems that the function should take value 3 at x = 1. the value of f(x) should be 3 as dictated by values of f(x) at x greater than 1. + x →1 x →1 x →1− Graph of function given in Fig 13.12 Fig 13..9 2.1 3. Similarly. x →1 where ⎧x + 2 x ≠ 1 f ( x) = ⎨ x =1 ⎩ 0 Table 13. Illustration 10 As a final illustration. Here. i. we say that the limit of the function at 0 does not exist. But then the left and right hand limits coincide and hence lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) = 3 .999 1.99 2. we remark that the value of the function at x = 0 is well defined and is.999 2. Graph of this function is given in the Fig13. i.9 0.6 x f(x) 0.e.01 1..001 3. From the values of f(x) for x less than 1.6.7 .01 3. Here. we find lim f ( x ) .LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 291 From the last three entires of the table we deduce that the value of the function is increasing from 2 and hence x → 0+ lim f ( x ) = 2 Since the left and right hand limits at 0 do not coincide.001 1.

e. i.2 Limits of polynomials and rational functions A function f is said to be a polynomial function if f(x) is zero function or if f(x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 +. This is not a coincidence. x →a x →a x →a (iii) Limit of product of two functions is product of the limits of the functions.e.. lim [f(x) + g (x)] = lim f(x) + lim g(x). i. Hence x →a . g(x)] = lim f(x). subtraction. x →a x →a x →a (iv) Limit of quotient of two functions is quotient of the limits of the functions (whenever the denominator is non zero). In fact. we have lim ⎡( λ. i. f ) ( x ) ⎤ = λ. lim [f(x) – g(x)] = lim f(x) – lim g(x). x →a x →a x →a (ii) Limit of difference of two functions is difference of the limits of the functions. we illustrate how to exploit this theorem to evaluate limits of special types of functions. below we formalise these as a theorem without proof. 13.1 Algebra of limits In the above illustrations. we have observed that the limiting process respects addition.. + anxn. at a given point the value of the function and its limit may be different (even when both are defined). 13. lim x →a g ( x) f ( x) = lim f ( x ) x →a lim g ( x ) x→ a Note In particular as a special case of (iii). . lim g(x).e. We know that lim x = a. where ais are real numbers such that an ≠ 0 for some natural number n.292 MATHEMATICS note that in general.3. when g is the constant function such that g(x) = λ . .. Theorem 1 Let f and g be two functions such that both lim f (x) and lim g(x) exist. i. x →a x →a Then (i) Limit of sum of two functions is sum of the limits of the functions..3. ⎣ ⎦ x→a x →a In the next two subsections. lim [f(x) . for some real number λ .lim f ( x ) . multiplication and division as long as the limits and functions under consideration are well defined.e.

where k is the maximum of powers of (x – a) in g(x) Similarly. + an lim x x →a x →a x→ a = a0 + a1a + a2 a 2 + .... + lim an x x →a x→ a x→a x →a 2 n = a0 + a1 lim x + a2 lim x + .. In the former case we say that the limit does not exist. h(x) = (x – a)l h1 (x) as h (a) = 0. Now. Thinking of each of a0 .. + an a n = f (a) (Make sure that you understand the justification for each step in the above!) g ( x) A function f is said to be a rational function... there are two scenarios – (i) when g(a) ≠ 0 and (ii) when g(a) = 0.. if f(x) = h x . where g(x) and h(x) ( ) are polynomials such that h(x) ≠ 0. x ) = lim x. + an x n ⎤ ⎦ x →a ⎣ 2 n = lim a0 + lim a1 x + lim a2 x + . + an x n be a polynomial function. a1 x. if k ≥ l. Then lim f ( x ) = lim x →a x→ a g ( x) h( x) = lim g ( x ) x →a lim h ( x ) x→ a = g (a) h ( a) However.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 293 lim x 2 = lim ( x.. let f ( x ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + . if h(a) = 0... a = a 2 x→a x→ a x→a x→ a An easy exercise in induction on n tells us that lim x n = a n x →a Now.. In the latter case we can write g(x) = (x – a)k g1 (x).. a2 x 2 . we have lim f ( x ) = x→a lim g ( x ) x→ a lim h ( x ) x →a = lim ( x − a ) g1 ( x ) k x→ a lim ( x − a ) h1 ( x ) l x →a ..lim x = a. we have lim f x→a ( x ) = lim ⎡a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + . an x n as a function.

. ⎦ Solution The required limits are all limits of some polynomial functions. Hence the limits are the values of the function at the prescribed points. We have (i) lim [x3 – x2 + 1] = 13 – 12 + 1 = 1 x→1 ⎡ ⎤ (ii) lim ⎣ x ( x + 1)⎦ = 3 ( 3 + 1) = 3 ( 4 ) = 12 x →3 (iii) x →−1 ⎣ lim ⎡1 + x + x 2 + . + x10 ⎤ .. we try to 0 rewrite the function cancelling the factors which are causing the limit to be of the form 0 . 2 x →1 ⎣ x − x x − 3x + 2 x ⎥ ⎦ Solution All the functions under consideration are rational functions.. + ( −1)10 ⎦ = 1 − 1 + 1.294 MATHEMATICS lim ( x − a ) = x→a x →a ( k −l ) g1 ( x ) lim h1 ( x ) = 0. + 1 = 1 .. g1 ( a ) h1 ( a ) =0 If k < l. If this is of the form 0 .. 0 . Example 2 Find the limits: ⎡ x2 + 1 ⎤ lim ⎢ ⎥ (i) x →1 ⎣ x + 100 ⎦ ⎡ x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x ⎤ lim ⎢ ⎥ (ii) x →2 x2 − 4 ⎣ ⎦ (iii) ⎡ ⎤ x2 − 4 lim ⎢ 3 ⎥ 2 x →2 x − 4 x + 4 x ⎣ ⎦ (iv) ⎡ x3 − 2 x2 ⎤ lim ⎢ 2 ⎥ x →2 x − 5 x + 6 ⎣ ⎦ 1 ⎡ x−2 ⎤ − 3 (v) lim ⎢ 2 . + x10 ⎤ = 1 + ( −1) + ( −1)2 + . we first evaluate these functions at the prescribed points. 3 2 Example 1 Find the limits: (i) lim ⎡ x − x + 1⎤ ⎦ x →1 ⎣ (ii) lim ⎡ x ( x + 1) ⎤ ⎦ x →3 ⎣ (iii) x →−1 ⎣ lim ⎡1 + x + x 2 + . Hence.. the limit is not defined...

(iv) Evaluating the function at 2. it is of the form 2 x ( x − 2) x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x Hence lim = lim x → 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x→2 x2 − 4 = lim x →2 x ( x − 2) ( x + 2) = as x ≠ 2 = 2 ( 2 − 2) 2+2 0 = 0. 0 Evaluating the function at 2. we get it of the form 0 . 4 (iii) Evaluating the function at 2. 0 Hence lim x →2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x2 − 4 2 = lim x→2 x ( x − 2) x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x ( x + 2) 2+2 4 = lim x x − 2 = 2 2 − 2 = 0 x →2 ( ) ( ) which is not defined.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 295 (i) We have lim (ii) x2 + 1 12 + 1 2 = = x →1 x + 100 1 + 100 101 0 . = lim x →2 ( x − 3 ) 2 − 3 −1 2 . we get it of the form x2 ( x − 2) x3 − 2 x 2 lim = x →2 x→2 x 2 − 5 x + 6 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) 0 . 0 Hence lim ( 2) 4 x2 = = = −4.

lim xn − an = na n−1 . Theorem 2 For any positive integer n. x →1 ( ) ( ) We remark that we could cancel the term (x – 1) in the above evaluation because x ≠ 1. we get it of the form 0 . 0 Hence ⎡ x2 − 2 ⎤ x2 − 4x + 3 1 − 3 lim ⎢ 2 ⎥ = lim x →1 x − x x − 3x 2 + 2 x ⎦ x →1 x ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ⎣ ( x − 3)( x − 1) = lim x x − 1 x − 2 x →1 ( )( ) x−3 1− 3 = lim x x − 2 = 1 1 − 2 = 2. Evaluation of an important limit which will be used in the sequel is given as a theorem below. . we rewrite the function as a rational function.296 MATHEMATICS (v) First. x →a x − a Remark The expression in the above theorem for the limit is true even if n is any rational number and a is positive. ⎡ 1 1 ⎡ x−2 ⎤ ⎢ x−2 − ⎢ x 2 − x − x3 − 3x 2 + 2 x ⎥ = ⎢ x ( x − 1) x x 2 − 3 x + 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ( ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ x−2 ⎤ 1 = ⎢ x x −1 − x x −1 x − 2 ⎥ ) ( )( )⎥ ⎢ ( ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ x2 − 4x + 4 − 1 ⎤ = ⎢ x x −1 x − 2 ⎥ )( )⎥ ⎢ ( ⎣ ⎦ x2 − 4x + 3 = x x −1 x − 2 ( )( ) Evaluating the function at 1.

+ an–2 (a) +an–l = an–1 + an – 1 +. . so that y → 1 as x → 0. .. Then lim x →0 y −1 1+ x −1 = lim y →1 y – 1 x 1 1 y 2 − 12 = lim y →1 y −1 = 1 1 1 2 −1 (1) (by the remark above) = 2 2 ...+an–1 + an–1 (n terms) n −1 = na Example 3 Evaluate: x15 − 1 x →1 x10 − 1 Solution (i) We have (i) lim (ii) lim x →0 1+ x −1 x lim x →1 15 10 x15 − 1 lim ⎡ x − 1 ÷ x − 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ = x →1 x −1 ⎦ x10 − 1 ⎣ x −1 ⎡ x15 − 1 ⎤ ⎡ x10 − 1 ⎤ ÷ lim ⎢ lim ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ = x →1 ⎣ x − 1 ⎦ x →1 ⎣ x − 1 ⎦ = 15 (1)14 ÷ 10(1)9 (by the theorem above) = 15 ÷ 10 = 3 2 (ii) Put y = 1 + x. we see that xn – an = (x–a) (xn–1 + xn–2 a + xn–3 a2 + . lim xn − an = lim (xn–1 + xn–2 a + xn–3 a2 + . + x an–2 + an–1) x →a x − a x →a = an – l + a an–2 +.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 297 Proof Dividing (xn – an) by (x – a). + x an–2 + an–1) Thus....

For some a. This is illustrated in Fig 13. cos x < sin x <1 x for 0 < x < π 2 (*) . then lim f(x) ≤ lim g(x).298 MATHEMATICS 13. if both lim f(x) and x →a lim g(x) exist. if lim f(x) = l = lim h(x).4 Limits of Trigonometric Functions The following facts (stated as theorems) about functions in general come in handy in calculating limits of some trigonometric functions.9. For some real number a. then lim g(x) = l.9 Given below is a beautiful geometric proof of the following important inequality relating trigonometric functions. x →a x →a x →a Fig 13. Theorem 3 Let f and g be two real valued functions with the same domain such that f (x) ≤ g( x) for all x in the domain of definition.8 Theorem 4 (Sandwich Theorem) Let f. x→a x→a x→ a Fig 13. g and h be real functions such that f (x) ≤ g( x) ≤ h(x) for all x in the common domain of definition.8. This is illustrated in Fig 13.

Line segments B A and 2 CD are perpendiculars to OA. O is the centre of the unit circle such that π .LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 299 Proof We know that sin (– x) = – sin x and cos( – x) = cos x. tan x. OA < AB.10 1 x 1 OA.e. Thus OA sin x < OA. it is sufficient to prove the inequality for 0 < x < π .. cos x < Proposition 5 The following are two important limits. Taking reciprocals throughout. sinx is positive and thus by dividing throughout by sin x. x →0 x sin x is sandwiched between the x function cos x and the constant function which takes value 1. 2 In the Fig 13. x < OA. 2 2π 2 i. CD < x .(OA) 2 < OA. sin x = CD AB (since OC = OA) and hence CD = OA sin x. (i) lim sin x =1.10. Fig 13. Proof (i) The inequality in (*) says that the function . tan x. Since 0 < x < 1< π . Also tan x = and OA OA hence AB = OA. the angle AOC is x radians and 0 < x < i. we have 2 x 1 < . Since length OA is positive. From ∆ OCD. we have sin x cos x sin x <1 x which complete the proof. Hence. x →0 x (ii) lim 1 − cos x =0.CD < . Further.e. Then Area of ∆OAC < Area of sector OAC < Area of ∆ OAB.π. we have sin x < x < tan x.. join AC.AB .

2 (ii) lim Example 4 Evaluate: (i) lim sin 4 x x →0 sin 2 x tan x x →0 x Solution (i) lim x →0 ⎡ sin 4 x 2 x ⎤ sin 4 x = lim ⎢ . ⎝2⎠ Then 1 − cos x lim = lim x →0 x →0 x ⎛x⎞ ⎛ x⎞ 2sin 2 ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = lim ⎝ 2 ⎠ . since lim cos x = 1.2⎥ x →0 ⎣ 4 x sin 2 x ⎦ sin 2 x ⎡ sin 4 x ⎤ ⎡ sin 2 x ⎤ ÷ = 2.300 MATHEMATICS Further.1.1 = 2 (as x → 0. . ⎛x⎞ To prove (ii). we see that the proof of (i) of the theorem is x→0 complete by sandwich theorem. 4lim0 ⎢ ⎥ ÷ 2lim0 ⎢ 2 x ⎥ x→ ⎣ 4x ⎦ x→ ⎣ ⎦ = 2. This 2 x .lim sin ⎛ x ⎞ = 1.0 = 0 = lim ⎜2⎟ x x →0 x →0 ⎝ ⎠ 2 Observe that we have implicitly used the fact that x → 0 is equivalent to may be justified by putting y = x → 0 . we recall the trigonometric identity 1 – cos x = 2 sin2 ⎜ ⎟ . 4x → 0 and 2x → 0) .sin ⎛ x ⎞ ⎜2⎟ x →0 x x ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎛x⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ .lim ⎢ x→0 ⎣ 4 x ⎥ ⎢ 2 x ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ sin 4 x ⎤ ⎡ sin 2 x ⎤ = 2.

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

301

(ii) We have lim x →0

sin x sin x 1 tan x . lim = lim = lim = 1.1 = 1 x →0 x cos x x →0 x x →0 cos x x

A general rule that needs to be kept in mind while evaluating limits is the following.

f ( x) Say, given that the limit lim g x exists and we want to evaluate this. First we check x→a ( )

the value of f (a) and g(a). If both are 0, then we see if we can get the factor which is causing the terms to vanish, i.e., see if we can write f(x) = f1 (x) f2(x) so that f1 (a) = 0 and f2 (a) ≠ 0. Similarly, we write g(x) = g1 (x) g2(x), where g1(a) = 0 and g2(a) ≠ 0. Cancel out the common factors from f(x) and g(x) (if possible) and write

g ( x)

Then

f ( x)

=

q ( x ) , where q(x) ≠ 0. = q(a) . p(a)

p ( x)

lim

x →a

g ( x)

f ( x)

EXERCISE 13.1

Evaluate the following limits in Exercises 1 to 22. 1. lim x + 3 x →3 4. lim

**22 ⎞ ⎛ 2. lim ⎜ x − ⎟ x→π ⎝ 7 ⎠
**

5. lim

x10 + x 5 + 1 x −1

2 3. lim πr r →1

4x + 3 x →4 x − 2

3 x 2 − x − 10 x2 − 4

1

x → −1

6. lim

( x + 1)5 − 1

x

x→0

7. lim

x →2

8. lim

x →3

x 4 − 81 2 x2 − 5x − 3

9. lim

x →0

ax + b cx + 1

10. lim z →1

z3 −1

1 z6

11. lim

−1

ax 2 + bx + c ,a+b+c ≠ 0 x →1 cx 2 + bx + a

1 1 + 12. lim x 2 x →−2 x + 2

13. lim

x →0

sin ax bx

14. lim

x →0

sin ax , a, b ≠ 0 sin bx

302

MATHEMATICS

**sin ( π − x ) 15. lim π π − x x→π ( )
**

18. lim

16. lim

x →0

cos x π−x

17. lim

cos 2 x − 1 x →0 cos x − 1

x →0

**ax + x cos x b sin x sin ax + bx a, b, a + b ≠ 0 , ax + sin bx
**

tan 2 x π x− 2

19. lim x sec x x →0 21. lim (cosec x − cot x ) x →0

20. lim

x →0

22.

π x→ 2

lim

⎧ 2 x + 3, x ≤ 0 23. Find lim f ( x ) and lim f ( x ) , where f ( x ) = ⎨3 x + 1 , x > 0 x →0 x →1 ) ⎩ (

**⎧ 2 ⎪ x − 1, x ≤ 1 f ( x) = ⎨ 2 24. Find lim f ( x ) , where x →1 ⎪− x − 1, x > 1 ⎩
**

⎧| x | ⎪ , x≠0 25. Evaluate lim f ( x ) , where f ( x ) = ⎨ x x →0 ⎪ 0, x = 0 ⎩

**⎧ x ⎪ , x≠0 lim f ( x ) , where f ( x ) = ⎨ | x | 26. Find x →0 ⎪ 0, x = 0 ⎩
**

27. Find lim f ( x ) , where f ( x ) = | x | −5 x →5

⎧ a + bx , ⎪ 28. Suppose f ( x ) = ⎨4, ⎪ b − ax , ⎩

x→1

x <1 x =1 x >1

and if lim f (x) = f (1) what are possible values of a and b?

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

303

**29. Let a1, a2, . . ., an be fixed real numbers and define a function
**

f ( x ) = ( x − a1 ) ( x − a2 ) ... ( x − an ) .

**What is xlim (x) ? For some a ≠ a1, a2, ..., an, compute lim f (x). x→ a →a
**

1

⎧ x + 1, x < 0 ⎪ x=0 . 30. If f ( x ) = ⎨ 0, ⎪ x − 1, x > 0 ⎩

For what value (s) of a does lim f (x) exists? x →a 31. If the function f(x) satisfies lim

f ( x) − 2 x2 − 1

x →1

= π , evaluate lim f ( x ) . x →1

32.

⎧ mx 2 + n , x<0 ⎪ If f ( x ) = ⎨ nx + m , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 . For what integers m and n does both lim f ( x ) x →0 ⎪ 3 x >1 ⎩ nx + m ,

and lim f ( x ) exist? x →1

13.5 Derivatives

We have seen in the Section 13.2, that by knowing the position of a body at various time intervals it is possible to find the rate at which the position of the body is changing. It is of very general interest to know a certain parameter at various instants of time and try to finding the rate at which it is changing. There are several real life situations where such a process needs to be carried out. For instance, people maintaining a reservoir need to know when will a reservoir overflow knowing the depth of the water at several instances of time, Rocket Scientists need to compute the precise velocity with which the satellite needs to be shot out from the rocket knowing the height of the rocket at various times. Financial institutions need to predict the changes in the value of a particular stock knowing its present value. In these, and many such cases it is desirable to know how a particular parameter is changing with respect to some other parameter. The heart of the matter is derivative of a function at a given point in its domain of definition.

304

MATHEMATICS

**Definition 1 Suppose f is a real valued function and a is a point in its domain of definition. The derivative of f at a is defined by
**

h provided this limit exists. Derivative of f (x) at a is denoted by f′(a). lim f ( a + h) − f (a )

h→0

Observe that f′ (a) quantifies the change in f(x) at a with respect to x.

**Example 5 Find the derivative at x = 2 of the function f(x) = 3x. Solution We have f′ (2) = lim
**

f ( 2 + h ) − f ( 2) h 3( 2 + h ) − 3( 2) h

h→0

= lim

h→0

= lim

h →0

6 + 3h − 6 3h = lim = lim 3 = 3 . h →0 h h →0 h

The derivative of the function 3x at x = 2 is 3. Example 6 Find the derivative of the function f(x) = 2x2 + 3x – 5 at x = –1. Also prove that f ′ (0) + 3f ′ ( –1) = 0. Solution We first find the derivatives of f(x) at x = –1 and at x = 0. We have

f ' ( −1) = lim

f ( −1 + h ) − f ( −1) h

h→0

⎡ 2 ( −1 + h )2 + 3 ( −1 + h ) − 5⎤ − ⎡ 2 ( −1)2 + 3 ( −1) − 5⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h →0 h

= lim

2h 2 − h = lim ( 2h − 1) = 2 ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 h→0 h f (0 + h ) − f (0) h

h→0

and

f ' ( 0 ) = lim

h→0

⎡ 2 ( 0 + h )2 + 3 ( 0 + h ) − 5⎤ − ⎡ 2 ( 0 )2 + 3 ( 0 ) − 5⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = lim ⎣ h →0 h

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

305

= lim Clearly

2h 2 + 3h = lim ( 2h + 3) = 2 ( 0 ) + 3 = 3 h →0 h→0 h

f ' ( 0 ) + 3 f ' ( −1) = 0

Remark At this stage note that evaluating derivative at a point involves effective use of various rules, limits are subjected to. The following illustrates this. Example 7 Find the derivative of sin x at x = 0. Solution Let f(x) = sin x. Then f ′(0) = lim

f (0 + h) − f (0) h sin ( 0 + h ) − sin ( 0 ) h

h→0

= lim

h→0

= lim

sin h =1 h →0 h

Example 8 Find the derivative of f(x) = 3 at x = 0 and at x = 3. Solution Since the derivative measures the change in function, intuitively it is clear that the derivative of the constant function must be zero at every point. This is indeed, supported by the following computation.

f ' ( 0 ) = lim

f ( 0 + h ) − f (0) h f ( 3 + h ) − f ( 3) h

h→0

= lim = lim

h→0

3−3 0 = lim = 0 . h→0 h h 3−3 =0. h

Similarly

f ' ( 3) = lim

h→0

h→0

We now present a geometric interpretation of derivative of a function at a point. Let y = f(x) be a function and let P = (a, f(a)) and Q = (a + h, f(a + h) be two points close to each other on the graph of this function. The Fig 13.11 is now self explanatory.

Fig 13.11

306

MATHEMATICS

h From the triangle PQR, it is clear that the ratio whose limit we are taking is precisely equal to tan(QPR) which is the slope of the chord PQ. In the limiting process, as h tends to 0, the point Q tends to P and we have QR = lim Q → P PR h This is equivalent to the fact that the chord PQ tends to the tangent at P of the curve y = f(x). Thus the limit turns out to be equal to the slope of the tangent. Hence lim

h→0

We know that f ′ ( a ) = lim

f (a + h) − f (a)

h→0

f (a + h) − f (a)

f ′ ( a ) = tan ψ .

For a given function f we can find the derivative at every point. If the derivative exists at every point, it defines a new function called the derivative of f . Formally, we define derivative of a function as follows. Definition 2 Suppose f is a real valued function, the function defined by

h wherever the limit exists is defined to be the derivative of f at x and is denoted by f′(x). This definition of derivative is also called the first principle of derivative. lim f ( x + h) − f ( x)

h→0

Thus

h Clearly the domain of definition of f′ (x) is wherever the above limit exists. There are different notations for derivative of a function. Sometimes f′ (x) is denoted by

f ' ( x ) = lim

f ( x + h) − f ( x)

h→0

**d ( f ( x )) or if y = f(x), it is denoted by dy . This is referred to as derivative of f(x) dx dx or y with respect to x. It is also denoted by D (f (x) ). Further, derivative of f at x = a
**

is also denoted by

d f ( x) dx

a

or

df dx

a

⎛ df ⎞ or even ⎜ ⎟ . ⎝ dx ⎠ x = a

**Example 9 Find the derivative of f(x) = 10x. Solution Since f′ ( x) = lim
**

f ( x + h) − f ( x) h

h→0

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

307

= lim = lim

10 ( x + h ) − 10 ( x ) h

h→0

h →0

10h = lim (10 ) = 10 . h→ 0 h

**Example 10 Find the derivative of f(x) = x2. Solution We have, f ′(x) = lim
**

f ( x + h) − f ( x) h

h→0

=

( x + h )2 − ( x )2 lim

h→0

h

= lim ( h + 2 x ) = 2 x h →0

Example 11 Find the derivative of the constant function f (x) = a for a fixed real number a. Solution We have, f ′(x) = lim = lim

f ( x + h) − f ( x) h

h→0

h →0

a−a 0 = lim = 0 as h ≠ 0 h →0 h h

1 x

Example 12 Find the derivative of f(x) = Solution We have f ′(x) = lim

f ( x + h) − f ( x) h

h→0

1 1 – = lim ( x + h) x h →0 h

1 ⎡ x − ( x + h) ⎤ = lim h ⎢ x x + h ⎥ h →0 )⎥ ⎢ ( ⎣ ⎦

−1 1 ⎡ −h ⎤ = lim h ⎢ x x + h ⎥ = lim x x + h h →0 ) ) ⎥ h →0 ( ⎢ ( ⎣ ⎦

= −

1 x2

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MATHEMATICS

13.5.1 Algebra of derivative of functions Since the very definition of derivatives involve limits in a rather direct fashion, we expect the rules for derivatives to follow closely that of limits. We collect these in the following theorem. Theorem 5 Let f and g be two functions such that their derivatives are defined in a common domain. Then

**(i) Derivative of sum of two functions is sum of the derivatives of the functions.
**

d d d ⎡ f ( x ) + g ( x )⎤ = f ( x) + g ( x) . ⎣ ⎦ dx dx dx

(ii) Derivative of difference of two functions is difference of the derivatives of the functions.

d d d ⎡ f ( x ) − g ( x )⎤ = ⎦ dx f ( x) − dx g ( x ) . dx ⎣

(iii) Derivative of product of two functions is given by the following product rule.

d d d ⎡ f ( x ) . g ( x )⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ dx f ( x ) . g ( x) + f ( x) . dx g ( x) dx

(iv) Derivative of quotient of two functions is given by the following quotient rule (whenever the denominator is non–zero).

d d f ( x ) . g ( x) − f ( x) g ( x) d ⎛ f ( x ) ⎞ dx dx ⎜ ⎟= dx ⎝ g ( x ) ⎠ ( g ( x ) )2

The proofs of these follow essentially from the analogous theorem for limits. We will not prove these here. As in the case of limits this theorem tells us how to compute derivatives of special types of functions. The last two statements in the theorem may be restated in the following fashion which aids in recalling them easily: Let u = f ( x ) and v = g (x). Then

( uv )′

= u ′v + uv′

This is referred to a Leibnitz rule for differentiating product of functions or the product rule. Similarly, the quotient rule is

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES

309

⎛ u ⎞′ u ′v − uv′ ⎜ ⎟ = v2 ⎝v⎠

Now, let us tackle derivatives of some standard functions. It is easy to see that the derivative of the function f(x) = x is the constant function 1. This is because f’(x) = lim

f ( x + h) − f ( x) h

h→0

= lim

h →0

x+h−x h

= lim1 = 1 . h→0 We use this and the above theorem to compute the derivative of f(x) = 10x = x + .... + x (ten terms). By (1) of the above theorem

df ( x ) d = dx dx

=

( x + ... + x )

(ten terms)

d d x +. . .+ x (ten terms) dx dx = 1 + ... + 1 (ten terms) = 10. We note that this limit may be evaluated using product rule too. Write f(x) = 10x = uv, where u is the constant function taking value 10 everywhere and v(x) = x. Here, f(x) = 10x = uv we know that the derivative of u equals 0. Also derivative of v(x) = x equals 1. Thus by the product rule we have

f ′ ( x ) = (10 x )′ = ( uv )′ = u ′v + uv′ = 0.x + 10.1 = 10

On similar lines the derivative of f(x) = x2 may be evaluated. We have f(x) = x2 = x .x and hence

d d d df ( x.x ) = ( x ) .x + x. ( x ) = dx dx dx dx

= 1. x + x.1 = 2 x . More generally, we have the following theorem. Theorem 6 Derivative of f(x) = xn is nxn – 1 for any positive integer n. Proof By definition of the derivative function, we have

f ' ( x ) = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h

h→0

= lim

h →0

( x + h )n − x n

h

.

. + 2a2 x + a1 . + hn – 1).. ( n − 1) x n − 2 (by induction hypothesis) = x n −1 + ( n − 1) x n−1 = nx n−1 .4.. Remark The above theorem is true for all powers of x. Solution A direct application of the above theorem tells that the derivative of the above function is 600 x99 − 55 x54 + 1 ..2 Derivative of polynomials and trigonometric functions We start with the following theorem which tells us the derivative of a polynomial function.x n−1 x = dx dx = ( ) ( ) ( ) ) d d ( x ) . x n−1 (by product rule) dx dx n −1 ( ) ( = 1. The result is true for n = 1.e. i. Example 13 Compute the derivative of 6x100 – x55 + x. h →0 ( ) Alternatively. Thus df ( x ) ( x + h) − xn = lim dx h →0 h n = lim h nx n −1 + .. n can be any real number (but we will not prove it here). = nx n−1 . Theorem 7 Let f(x) = an x n + an−1 x n−1 + . we may also prove this by induction on n and the product rule as follows.x + x. the derivative function is given by df ( x ) = nan x n−1 + ( n − 1) an −1 x x − 2 + .. dx Proof of this theorem is just putting together part (i) of Theorem 5 and Theorem 6.. where ai s are all real numbers and an ≠ 0.. + a1 x + a0 be a polynomial function. + h ... .. which has been proved earlier...310 MATHEMATICS Binomial theorem tells that (x + h)n = ( n C0 x n + ) ( C )x n 1 n −1 h + . Then. + h n−1 h ( ) h →0 n −1 n −1 = lim nx + . + ( n C n h n and ) hence (x + h)n – xn = h(nxn – 1 +. xn −1 + x.. 13. We have d n d x..

.. .lim h →0 2 ⎠ h →0 h ⎝ 2 sin h 2 = cos x.. . Solution A direct application of the above Theorem 7 tells that the derivative of the above function is 1 + 2x + 3x2 + . We use the quotient rule with u = x + 1 and v = x. + 50 = ( 50 )( 51) 2 = 1275. Hence u′ = 1 and v′ = 1. Solution Let f(x) = tan x.1 = cos x = . + 50(1)49 = 1 + 2 + 3 + . Then f ( x + h) − f ( x) sin ( x + h ) − sin ( x ) df ( x ) = lim = lim h→0 h→0 dx h h ⎛ 2x + h ⎞ ⎛ h ⎞ 2cos ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ (using formula for sin A – sin B) = lim h →0 h h⎞ ⎛ lim cos ⎜ x + ⎟ . Example 17 Compute the derivative of tan x. . Then f ( x + h) − f ( x) tan ( x + h ) − tan ( x ) df ( x ) = lim = lim h→0 h→0 dx h h 1 ⎡ sin ( x + h ) sin x ⎤ = lim h ⎢ cos x + h − cos x ⎥ h →0 ( ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . Solution Let f(x) = sin x. Therefore Example 15 Find the derivative of f(x) = df ( x) d ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ d ⎛ u ⎞ u ′v − uv ′ 1( x ) − ( x + 1)1 1 = ⎜ = =− 2 ⎟ = dx ⎜ v ⎟ = 2 2 dx dx ⎝ x ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ v x x Example 16 Compute the derivative of sin x. At x = 1 the value of this function equals 1 + 2(1) + 3(1)2 + . + x50 at x = 1..LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 311 Example 14 Find the derivative of f(x) = 1 + x + x2 + x3 +. . x +1 x Solution Clearly this function is defined everywhere except at x = 0. + 50x49.

sin h 1 . 4. (i) (iii) x 3 − 27 (ii) (iv) ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) x +1 x −1 1 x2 5. . Find the derivative of x2 – 2 at x = 10. . Find the derivative of 99x at x = l00. For the function f ( x) = x100 x 99 x2 + +. EXERCISE 13. Find the derivative of the following functions from first principle. Find the derivative of x at x = 1. 2. 3. 100 99 2 . df ( x ) d = ( sin x sin x ) dx dx = ( sin x )′ sin x + sin x ( sin x )′ = ( cos x ) sin x + sin x ( cos x ) = 2sin x cos x = sin 2 x .lim h h→0 cos ( x + h ) cos x 1 = sec 2 x .312 MATHEMATICS ⎡ sin ( x + h ) cos x − cos ( x + h ) sin x ⎤ lim ⎢ ⎥ = h →0 h cos ( x + h ) cos x ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ sin ( x + h − x ) = lim h cos x + h cos x (using formula for sin (A + B)) h →0 ( ) = lim h →0 = 1.2 1. Solution We use the Leibnitz product rule to evaluate this. 2 cos x Example 18 Compute the derivative of f(x) = sin2 x.+ + x +1.

Find the derivative of for some constant a.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 313 Prove that f ′ (1) = 100 f ′ ( 0 ) . we have 2 ( x + h ) + 3 2x + 3 − f ( x + h) − f ( x) x+h−2 x−2 = lim f ′ ( x ) = lim h →0 h →0 h h . Find the derivative of cos x from first principle. Find the derivative of x n + ax n −1 + a 2 x n− 2 + . . 11. where f is given by (i) f (x) = 2x + 3 x−2 (ii) f (x) = x + 1 x Solution (i) Note that function is not defined at x = 2. + a n −1 x + a n for some fixed real number a. 7. . Find the derivative of (i) 2 x − (iii) (v) 3 4 (ii) ( 5x 3 + 3x − 1 ) ( x − 1) x −3 ( 5 + 3 x ) x −4 3 − 4 x −5 5 −9 (iv) x 3 − 6 x ( ) ( ) (vi) 2 x2 − x + 1 3x − 1 10. For some constants a and b. find the derivative of (i) ( x − a) ( x − b) (ii) ( ax 2 +b ) 2 (iii) x−a x −b xn − an 8. But. Find the derivative of the following functions: (i) sin x cos x (iv) cosec x (vi) 5sin x − 6 cos x + 7 (ii) sec x (v) 3cot x + 5cosec x (vii) 2 tan x − 7 sec x (iii) 5sec x + 4 cos x Miscellaneous Examples Example 19 Find the derivative of f from the first principles. 6. x−a 9.

Example 20 Find the derivative of f(x) from the first principles. The function is not defined at x = 0. we have (ii) f ′ ( x ) = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h h →0 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎜x+h+ + ⎟−⎜x+ x h⎠ ⎝ = lim ⎝ h →0 h 1⎞ ⎟ x⎠ = lim h →0 1⎡ 1 1⎤ ⎢h + x + h − x ⎥ h⎣ ⎦ ⎞⎤ 1⎡ x − x−h⎤ 1⎡ ⎛ 1 = lim h ⎢ h + x ( x + h ) ⎥ = lim h ⎢ h ⎜ 1 − x ( x + h ) ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ h →0 ⎢ ⎥ h →0 ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎦ ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎤ 1 1 = lim ⎢1 − x x + h ⎥ = 1 − 2 h →0 x ( )⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ Again.314 MATHEMATICS = lim h →0 ( 2 x + 2h + 3)( x − 2 ) − ( 2 x + 3)( x + h − 2 ) h ( x − 2 )( x + h − 2 ) ( 2 x + 3)( x − 2 ) + 2h ( x − 2 ) − ( 2 x + 3)( x − 2 ) − h ( 2 x + 3) h ( x − 2 )( x + h − 2 ) = lim h →0 –7 7 lim =− 2 = h →0 ( x − 2 ) ( x + h − 2 ) ( x − 2) Again. But. note that the function f ′ is not defined at x = 0. where f(x) is (i) sin x + cos x (ii) x sin x Solution (i) we have f ' ( x ) = = lim f ( x + h) − f ( x) h sin ( x + h ) + cos ( x + h ) − sin x − cos x h h→0 = lim h →0 sin x cos h + cos x sin h + cos x cos h − sin x sin h − sin x − cos x h . note that the function f ′ is also not defined at x = 2.

We use the quotient rule on this function sin x wherever it is defined.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 315 = lim sin h ( cos x − sin x ) + sin x ( cos h − 1) + cos x ( cos h − 1) h h →0 = lim ( cos h − 1) sin h ( cos h − 1) ( cos x − sin x ) + lim sin x + lim cos x h→0 h h→0 h→0 h h f ( x + h) − f ( x) h = lim = cos x − sin x (ii) f ' ( x ) = lim ( x + h ) sin ( x + h ) − x sin x h h→0 h→0 = lim ( x + h )( sin x cos h + sin h cos x ) − x sin x h x sin x ( cos h − 1) + x cos x sin h + h ( sin x cos h + sin h cos x ) h + lim h→0 x cos x sin h + lim ( sin x cos h + sin h cos x ) h→0 h h→0 = lim h→0 = lim x sin x ( cos h − 1) h h→0 = x cos x + sin x Example 21 Compute derivative of (i) f(x) = sin 2x (ii) g(x) = cot x Solution (i) Recall the trigonometric formula sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x. g(x) = cot x = cos x . Thus df ( x ) d d ( 2sin x cos x ) = 2 ( sin x cos x ) = dx dx dx = 2 ⎡( sin x )′ cos x + sin x ( cos x )′ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 2 ⎡( cos x ) cos x + sin x ( − sin x ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = 2 cos 2 x − sin 2 x ( ) (ii) By definition. dg d d ⎛ cos x ⎞ = (cot x) = ⎜ dx dx dx ⎝ sin x ⎟ ⎠ .

Alternatively. h′( x) = x 5 − cos x . We use the quotient rule on this function wherever sin x ( x 5 − cos x)′ sin x − ( x 5 − cos x) (sin x )′ (sin x ) 2 . this may be computed by noting that cot x = d d ⎛ 1 ⎞ dg (cot x ) = = dx dx ⎜ tan x ⎟ dx ⎝ ⎠ = (1)′ (tan x ) − (1) (tan x)′ (tan x) 2 (0) (tan x) − (sec x) 2 = (tan x) 2 = − sec 2 x = − cosec 2 x tan 2 x Example 22 Find the derivative of (i) x 5 − cos x sin x (ii) x + cos x tan x Solution (i) Let h( x ) = it is defined. we use the fact tan x that the derivative of tan x is sec2 x which we saw in Example 17 and also that the derivative of the constant function is 0.316 MATHEMATICS = (cos x)′ (sin x) − (cos x) (sin x)′ (sin x )2 = ( − sin x )(sin x) − (cos x)(cos x) (sin x) 2 sin 2 x + cos2 x = − cosec 2 x 2 sin x = − 1 . Here.

8. (x + a) ⎛r ⎞ 3. (ax + b) n (cx + d ) m 16. r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): (i) − x (ii) (− x) −1 (iii) sin (x + 1) (iv) cos (x – 2. cos x 1 + sin x . p. d. cosec x cot x 13. a b − 2 + cos x 4 x x 11. 10. 4 x − 2 14. q. Find the derivative of the following functions from first principles: π ) 8 Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a. tan x ( x + cos x)′ tan x − ( x + cos x ) (tan x)′ (tan x) 2 (1 − sin x ) tan x − ( x + cos x) sec2 x (tan x) 2 = Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 13 1. b.LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 317 (5 x 4 + sin x) sin x − ( x5 − cos x) cos x = sin 2 x = − x 5 cos x + 5 x 4 sin x + 1 (sin x )2 (ii) We use quotient rule on the function h′( x) = x + cos x wherever it is defined. c. 1 1− x 1+ 9. (ax + b) n 15. (px + q) ⎜ + s ⎟ ⎝x ⎠ 1 x 6. sin (x + a) 12. px 2 + qx + r ax + b 4. ( ax + b )( cx + d )2 1 ax + bx + c 2 ax + b 5. cx + d ax + b px + qx + r 2 7.

if they coincide. x sin n x 25. ( x + cos x ) ( x − tan x ) x 1 + tan x 4 x + 5sin x 26. 21. For functions f and g the following holds: lim [ f ( x ) ± g ( x) ] = lim f ( x ) ± lim g ( x) x →a x →a x →a lim [ f ( x). Similarly the right hand limit. 3 x + 7cos x 29. one may be defined and not the other one). lim f(x) and f (a) may not be same (In x →a fact. 23.318 MATHEMATICS 17. Limit of a function at a point is the common value of the left and right hand limits. sin x + cos x sin x − cos x a + b sin x c + d cos x 18. g ( x) ] = lim f ( x ). 20. sin n x 22. x 4 (5sin x − 3cos x ) (x 2 + 1 cos x ) ( ax 2 + sin x ) ( p + q cos x ) ⎛π ⎞ x 2 cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ 27. 24. sec x − 1 sec x + 1 sin( x + a) cos x 19. sin x 30. For a function f and a real number a.lim g ( x ) x →a x→ a x→a ⎡ f ( x) ⎤ lim f ( x) x →a lim ⎢ ⎥= x → a g ( x) ⎣ ⎦ lim g ( x) x→ a Following are some of the standard limits lim xn − an = na n−1 x →a x − a . ( x + sec x ) ( x − tan x ) Summary The expected value of the function as dictated by the points to the left of a point defines the left hand limit of the function at that point. 28.

LIMITS AND DERIVATIVES 319 lim sin x =1 x →0 x 1 − cos x =0 x →0 x The derivative of a function f at a is defined by lim f ( a + h) − f ( a) h →0 h Derivative of a function f at any point x is defined by f ′( a) = lim df ( x) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) = lim h →0 dx h For functions u and v the following holds: f ′( x) = (u ± v )′ = u ′ ± v′ (uv)′ = u ′v + uv′ ⎛ u ⎞′ u ′v − uv′ provided all are defined. After the advent of calculus many mathematicians contributed for further development of calculus. Leibnitz (1646 – 1717). Issac Newton (1642 – 1727) and G. Both of them independently invented calculus around the seventeenth century.W. d n ( x ) = nx n −1 dx d (sin x) = cos x dx d (cos x) = − sin x dx Historical Note In the history of mathematics two names are prominent to share the credit for inventing calculus. The rigorous concept is mainly attributed to the great . ⎜v⎟ = v2 ⎝ ⎠ Following are some of the standard derivatives.

He wrote ∆ x = i i → 0. Cauchy gave examples such as the limit of sin α α ∆ y f ( x + i ) − f ( x) . Before 1900. it was thought that calculus is quite difficult to teach. So calculus became beyond the reach of youngsters. and called the limit for for α = 0.L. But just in 1900. Cauchy gave the foundation of calculus as we have now generally accepted in our textbooks. Griffin. the “function derive’e. — — . A. F. y′ for f ′ (x)”. Cauchy used D’ Alembert’s limit concept to define the derivative of a function. J. Starting with definition of a limit. pioneered the teaching of calculus to first year students.L. This was regarded as one of the most daring act in those days. Economics and Biological Sciences are enjoying the fruits of calculus. Today not only the mathematics but many other subjects such as Physics.L. Cauchy. John Perry and others in England started propagating the view that essential ideas and methods of calculus were simple and could be taught even in schools. Chemistry.Lagrange and Karl Weierstrass.320 MATHEMATICS mathematicians.

. All of us know that human beings evolved from the lower species over many millennia. The main asset that made humans “superior” to other species was the ability to reason. In this Chapter. How well this ability can be used depends on each person’s power of reasoning. How to develop this power? Here. the president of India was a woman. as to grope for a thing in the dark when you have a candle stick standing by you.Chapter 14 MATHEMATICAL REASONING There are few things which we know which are not capable of mathematical reasoning and when these can not. we shall discuss the process of reasoning especially in the context of mathematics.1 Introduction In this Chapter. there are two kinds of reasoning – inductive and deductive. In mathematical language. it is a sign that our knowledge of them is very small and confused and where a mathematical reasoning can be had. An elephant weighs more than a human being.2 Statements The basic unit involved in mathematical reasoning is a mathematical statement. we shall discuss some fundamentals of deductive reasoning. George Boole (1815 . it is as great a folly to make use of another. Let us start with two sentences: In 2003. we shall discuss about some basic ideas of Mathematical Reasoning. – ARTHENBOT 14. We have already discussed the inductive reasoning in the context of mathematical induction.1864) 14.

it is false where x = 1. Where are you going? Are they statements? No. “tomorrow” or “yesterday” are not statements. the sentence Tomorrow is Friday . Therefore. For example. Such a sentence is not acceptable as a statement in mathematics. we immediately decide that the first sentence is false and the second is correct. All prime numbers are odd numbers. This is because it is not known what time is referred here. On the other hand. Can you think of an example of a sentence which is vague or ambiguous? Consider the sentence: The sum of x and y is greater than 0 Here. That means this sentence is ambiguous. the first two are true and the third one is false. Some examples are: Two plus two equals four. Regarding this sentence we cannot say whether it is always true or false . Of these sentences. they are statements. A sentence is called a mathematically acceptable statement if it is either true or false but not both. But the sentence: For any natural numbers x and y. unless we know what x and y are. The sum of two positive numbers is positive. Sentences involving variable time such as “today”. Whenever we mention a statement here. the second an order and the third a question. it is a “mathematically acceptable” statement. There is no ambiguity regarding these sentences. There is no confusion regarding these. Therefore. Now. None of these is considered as a statement in mathematical language. Some people may think it is true while others may disagree. the sum of x and y is greater than 0 is a statement. consider the following sentences : How beautiful! Open the door. this sentence is not a statement. y = –3 and true when x = 1 and y = 0. For example. While studying mathematics. because the first one is an exclamation. In mathematics such sentences are called statements. we come across many such sentences.322 MATHEMATICS When we read these sentences. we are not in a position to determine whether it is true or false. consider the sentence: Women are more intelligent than men.

(iii) It is a scientifically established fact that sun is a star and. therefore. (iv) This sentence is subjective in the sense that for those who like mathematics. it may be fun but for others it may not be. q. (ii) Every set is a finite set. the sentences She is a mathematics graduate. This is also written as p: Fire is always hot.. So. This means that this sentence is not always true. what makes a sentence a statement is the fact that the sentence is either true or false but not both. Therefore. Example 1 Check whether the following sentences are statements. r. this sentence is always true. (iv) Mathematics is fun. (ii) This sentence is also false since there are sets which are not finite. (i) 8 is less than 6. For example. (v) There is no rain without clouds.. Kashmir is far from here. Here is another sentence There are 40 days in a month. For example. we denote the statement “Fire is always hot” by p. are not statements. Hence it is a statement. Hence it is not a statement. Would you call this a statement? Note that the period mentioned in the sentence above is a “variable time” that is any of 12 months. (vi) How far is Chennai from here? Solution (i) This sentence is false because 8 is greater than 6. The sentence is correct (true) on a Thursday but not on other days. But we know that the sentence is always false (irrespective of the month) since the maximum number of days in a month can never exceed 31. this sentence is a statement. While dealing with statements. we usually denote them by small letters p.. The same argument holds for sentences with pronouns unless a particular person is referred to and for variable places such as “here”. Hence it is a statement. . Hence it is a statement. Give reasons for your answer. “there” etc.. (iii) The sun is a star.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 323 is not a statement.

this sentence is always true. 14. Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer. Here. This technique is to ask not only what it means to say that a given statement is true but also what it would mean to say that the given statement is not true. 2.3 New Statements from Old We now look into method for producing new statements from those that we already have. Let us consider the statement: p: New Delhi is a city The negation of this statement is . EXERCISE 14. Therefore.1 1. Hence it is a statement. (i) There are 35 days in a month. As a first step in our study of statements. (iv) The square of a number is an even number. Give reasons for the answers. An English mathematician. 14.3. “George Boole” discussed these methods in his book “The laws of Thought” in 1854. (vi) This is a question which also contains the word “Here”. (ii) Mathematics is difficult. we look at an important technique that we may use in order to deepen our understanding of mathematical statements. (vii) The product of (–1) and 8 is 8. (x) All real numbers are complex numbers.1 Negation of a statement The denial of a statement is called the negation of the statement. The above examples show that whenever we say that a sentence is a statement we should always say why it is so. Hence it is not a statement. (ix) Today is a windy day. Give three examples of sentences which are not statements. we shall discuss two techniques. (v) The sides of a quadrilateral have equal length.324 MATHEMATICS (v) It is a scientifically established natural phenomenon that cloud is formed before it rains. (vi) Answer this question. (viii) The sum of all interior angles of a triangle is 180°. This “why” of it is more important than the answer. (iii) The sum of 5 and 7 is greater than 10.

The denial of this sentence tells us that not everyone in Germany speaks German. Let us consider the statement p: Everyone in Germany speaks German.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 325 It is not the case that New Delhi is a city This can also be written as It is false that New Delhi is a city. Example 2 Write the negation of the following statements. Solution (i) This statement says that in a rectangle. by looking at the negation of a statement. The negation of this statement is It is false that both the diagonals in a rectangle have the same length This means the statement There is atleast one rectangle whose both diagonals do not have the same length. This can simply be expressed as New Delhi is not a city. We shall consider more examples. . This can also be rewritten as 7 is not rational. This means that if you take any rectangle. then the negation of p is also a statement and is denoted by ∼ p. It says merely that at least one person in Germany does not speak German. then both the diagonals have the same length. Note While forming the negation of a statement. and read as ‘not p’. (ii) The negation of the statement in (ii) may also be written as It is not the case that 7 is rational. “It is not the case” or “It is false that” are also used. (i) Both the diagonals of a rectangle have the same length. Here is an example to illustrate how. phrases like. we may improve our understanding of it. (ii) 7 is rational. both the diagonals have the same length. This does not mean that no person in Germany speaks German. Definition 1 If p is a statement.

(ii) There does not exist a quadrilateral which has all its sides equal. “or”. etc.3.2 Compound statements Many mathematical statements are obtained by combining one or more statements using some connecting words like “and”. (i) Australia is a continent. This can also be rewritten as Australia is not a continent.326 MATHEMATICS Example 3 Write the negation of the following statements and check whether the resulting statements are true. This is a false statement. (iv) The negation is It is false that the sum of 3 and 4 is 9. We know that this statement is false. 14. (iv) The sum of 3 and 4 is 9. (iii) The negation of the statement is It is false that every natural number is greater than 0. Solution (i) The negation of the statement is It is false that Australia is a continent. This can be rewritten as There exists a natural number which is not greater than 0. This statement tells us that there is something wrong with the bulb or there is . Consider the following statement p: There is something wrong with the bulb or with the wiring. This also means the following: There exists a quadrilateral which has all its sides equal. (iii) Every natural number is greater than 0. This can be written as The sum of 3 and 4 is not equal to 9. This statement is true. This statement is true because we know that square is a quadrilaterial such that its four sides are equal. (ii) The negation of the statement is It is not the case that there does not exist a quadrilateral which has all its sides equal.

This leads us to the following definition: Definition 2 A Compound Statement is a statement which is made up of two or more statements. (iv) 0 is a positive number or a negative number. (iii)The component statements are p: All rational numbers are real. suppose two statements are given as below: p: 7 is an odd number. The connecting word is ‘and’. In this case.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 327 something wrong with the wiring. (i) The sky is blue and the grass is green. Let us consider some examples. r: There is something wrong with the wiring. (iv)The component statements are . connected by “or” Now. each statement is called a component statement. (iii) All rational numbers are real and all real numbers are complex. Solution Let us consider one by one (i) The component statements are p: The sky is blue. The connecting word is ‘and’. q: It is cold. (ii) The component statements are p: It is raining. q: All real numbers are complex. q: 7 is a prime number. That means the given statement is actually made up of two smaller statements: q: There is something wrong with the bulb. q: The grass is green. Example 4 Find the component statements of the following compound statements. The connecting word is ‘and’. These two statements can be combined with “and” r: 7 is both odd and prime number. (ii) It is raining and it is cold. This is a compound statement.

(i) A square is a quadrilateral and its four sides equal. (iii) The component statements are p: A person who has taken Mathematics can go for MCA. (v) The component statements are . Here the connecting word is ‘and’. (iv) Chandigarh is the capital of Haryana and UP. q: A square has all its sides equal. The first statement is true but the second is false. 4 and 8. We know that both these statements are true. Here the connecting word is ‘and’. Here the connecting word is ‘or’. (ii) The component statements are p: All prime numbers are odd number. Example 5 Find the component statements of the following and check whether they are true or not. Solution (i) The component statements are p: A square is a quadrilateral. q: All prime numbers are even number. (v) 2 is a rational number or an irrational number. q: Chandigarh is the capital of UP. The connecting word is ‘or’. (ii) All prime numbers are either even or odd. Both these statements are true. (iii) A person who has taken Mathematics or Computer Science can go for MCA. q: 0 is a negative number. (iv) The component statements are p: Chandigarh is the capital of Haryana.328 MATHEMATICS p: 0 is a positive number. q: A person who has taken computer science can go for MCA. (vi) 24 is a multiple of 2. Both these statements are false and the connecting word is ‘or’.

11 and 5. (vi) The component statements are p: 24 is a multiple of 2. Here the connecting words are ‘and’. we observe that compound statements are actually made-up of two or more statements connected by the words like “and”. The first statement is false and second is true. These words have special meaning in mathematics. q: 24 is a multiple of 4. (i) Number 3 is prime or it is odd.2 1.4 Special Words/Phrases Some of the connecting words which are found in compound statements like “And”. 2 is an irrational number. etc.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 329 p: q: 2 is a rational number. 3. . r: 24 is a multiple of 8. The number x is a rational number. EXERCISE 14. Find the component statements of the following compound statements and check whether they are true or false. The number x is not an irrational number. Are the following pairs of statements negations of each other: (i) The number x is not a rational number. The number 2 is greater than 7. (v) Every natural number is an integer. We shall discuss this mattter in the following section. 2. All the three statements are true. (ii) (iii) All integers are positive or negative. Thus. 100 is divisible by 3. (ii) 14. The number x is an irrational number. Write the negation of the following statements: (i) Chennai is the capital of Tamil Nadu. (ii) (iii) (iv) 2 is not a complex number All triangles are not equilateral triangle. Here the connecting word is ‘or’. “or”.

p: A point occupies a position and its location can be determined. s: 42 is divisible by 7. are often used in Mathematical Statements. . r: Its location can be determined. 6 and 7. We have the following rules regarding the connective “And” 1. (iii) All living things have two legs and two eyes. 14. Example 6 Write the component statements of the following compound statements and check whether the compound statement is true or false. (i) A line is straight and extends indefinitely in both directions. The compound statement with ‘And’ is true if all its component statements are true. We discuss this below. we observe that both statements are true. etc. p: 42 is divisible by 5. Let us look at another statement. Here. Solution (i) The component statements are p: A line is straight. The statement can be broken into two component statements as q: A point occupies a position. r: 42 is divisible by 6. Here.1 The word “And” Let us look at a compound statement with “And”. The component statement with ‘And’ is false if any of its component statements is false (this includes the case that some of its component statements are false or all of its component statements are false). These are called connectives. (ii) 0 is less than every positive integer and every negative integer. When we use these compound statements. we know that the first is false while the other two are true. it is necessary to understand the role of these words.4. This statement has following component statements q: 42 is divisible by 5.330 MATHEMATICS “Or”. q: A line extends indefinitely in both directions. 2.

Note Do not think that a statement with “And” is always a compound statement as shown in the above example. This leads us to an important note. In order to understand statements with “Or” we first notice that the word “Or” is used in two ways in English language. Here we mean that the students who have taken both biology and chemistry can apply for the microbiology programme. the compound statement is false. Therefore. Here the word “And” refers to two things – alcohol and water. microbiology programme. (iii) The two component statements are p: All living things have two legs. That is. This sentence cannot be considered as a compound statement with “And”. Both these statements are false. This is called an exclusive “Or”. Therefore. A student who has taken biology or chemistry can apply for M. q: All living things have two eyes.4. This means that a person who does not want ice cream can have a pepsi along with Thali or one does not want pepsi can have an ice cream along with Thali. Alternatively. Therefore. consider the following statement. Let us first look at the following statement. we are using inclusive “Or”. p: An ice cream or pepsi is available with a Thali in a restaurant.2 The word “Or” Let us look at the following statement. That is this statement is true in both the situations. p: Two lines in a plane either intersect at one point or they are parallel. p: A mixture of alcohol and water can be separated by chemical methods. then they intersect at a point. q: 0 is less than every negative integer. who do not want a pepsi can have an ice cream. It is important to note the difference between these two ways because we require this when we check whether the statement is true or not. the word “And” is not used as a conjunction. Here is another statement. What does this mean? This means that if two lines in a plane intersect. if the two lines are not parallel. Now. A person cannot have both ice cream and pepsi. the compound statement is true.Sc. The second statement is false.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 331 Both these statements are true. as well as the students who have taken only one of these subjects. We know that this is a true statement. . the compound statement is false. In this case. then they are not parallel. 14. (ii) The component statements are p: 0 is less than every positive integer. therefore.

2. Both q and r are false. Give reasons for your answer. Consider another statement. the compound statement p is true. Example 7 For each of the following statements. Then. Therefore. . Solution (i) Here “Or” is inclusive since a person can have both a passport and a voter registration card to enter a country. Rule for the compound statement with ‘Or’ 1. the compound statement p is false. For example. p: 125 is a multiple of 7 or 8. (i) To enter a country. you need a passport or a voter registration card. (iv) Here also “Or” is exclusive because a student cannot take both French and Sanskrit. (iii) Two lines intersect at a point or are parallel. (iv) Students can take French or Sanskrit as their third language. r: Two lines are parallel. Its component statements are q: 125 is a multiple of 7.332 MATHEMATICS Let us look at an example. when q is true r is false and when r is true q is false. p: Two lines intersect at a point or they are parallel The component statements are q: Two lines intersect at a point. (ii) Here also “Or” is inclusive since school is closed on holiday as well as on Sunday. consider the following statement. (ii) The school is closed if it is a holiday or a Sunday. Therefore. r: 125 is a multiple of 8. determine whether an inclusive “Or” or exclusive “Or” is used. (iii) Here “Or” is exclusive because it is not possible for two lines to intersect and parallel together. A compound statement with an ‘Or’ is true when one component statement is true or both the component statements are true. A compound statement with an ‘Or’ is false when both the component statements are false.

an identity card or the letter. Consider another statement. the compound statement is false. (iii) Here “Or” is exclusive. (ii) To enter into a public library children need an identity card from the school or a letter from the school authorities. Therefore. (ii) The component statements are p: To get into a public library children need an identity card. we know that the first statement is false and the second is true and “Or” is exclusive. The component statements are q: Mumbai is the capital of Kolkata. p: Mumbai is the capital of Kolkata or Karnataka. Both q and r are true. The component statements are q: School is closed if there is a holiday. . the compound statement is true. as well as when they have both. consider the following statement: p: The school is closed. it is inclusive “Or” the compound statement is also true when children have both the card and the letter. When we look at the component statements.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 333 Again. the compound statement is true. (iii) A rectangle is a quadrilateral or a 5-sided polygon. Therefore. r: Mumbai is the capital of Karnataka. Children can enter the library if they have either of the two. Solution (i) The component statements are p: 2 is a rational number. Example 8 Identify the type of “Or” used in the following statements and check whether the statements are true or false: (i) 2 is a rational number or an irrational number. therefore. Here. Let us consider some examples. q: 2 is an irrational number. we get that the statement is true. q: To get into a public library children need a letter from the school authorities. if there is a holiday or Sunday. r: School is closed if there is a Sunday. Both these statements are false. Therefore.

A word closely connected with “there exists” is “for every” (or for all). in order for a piece of mathematical writing to make sense. For example. For every positive number x there exists a positive number y such that y < x. For example. We should also observe that it is important to know precisely where in the sentence a given connecting word is introduced. especially when we have to check the validity of different statements. In general. p: There exists a rectangle whose all sides are equal. (1) is true and (2) is false. Thus. As a matter of fact.334 MATHEMATICS 14. EXERCISE 14. compare the following two sentences: 1. (iii) The sand heats up quickly in the Sun and does not cool down fast at night. consider the statement. we have seen that many mathematical statements contain some special words and it is important to know the meaning attached to them. Another phrase which appears in mathematical statements is “there exists”.4. (ii) Square of an integer is positive or negative. 2.3 Quantifiers Quantifiers are phrases like. The words “And” and “Or” are called connectives and “There exists” and “For all” are called quantifiers. This means that if S denotes the set of all prime numbers. then for all the members p of the set S. “There exists” and “For all”. Although these statements may look similar. There exists a positive number y such that for every positive number x. p is an irrational number.3 1. (i) All rational numbers are real and all real numbers are not complex. they do not say the same thing. a mathematical statement that says “for every” can be interpreted as saying that all the members of the given set S where the property applies must satisfy that property. we have y < x. Thus. Consider a statement. For each of the following compound statements first identify the connecting words and then break it into component statements. (iv) x = 2 and x = 3 are the roots of the equation 3x2 – x – 10 = 0. This means that there is atleast one rectangle whose all sides are equal. all of the symbols must be carefully introduced and each symbol must be introduced at precisely the right place – not too early and not too late. p: For every prime number p. . p is an irrational number.

Give reasons for your answer.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 335 2.5 Implications In this Section. There are several ways of understanding “if p then q” statements. (ii) There exists real numbers x and y for which x + y = y + x. 4. The statements with “if-then” are very common in mathematics. State whether the “Or” used in the following statements is “exclusive “or” inclusive. Check whether the following pair of statements are negation of each other. we observe that it corresponds to two statements p and q given by p : you are born in some country. (i) Sun rises or Moon sets. 14. Then the sentence “if p then q” says that in the event if p is true. Identify the quantifier in the following statements and write the negation of the statements. When we look at this statement. For example. (iii) There exists a capital for every state in India. x is less than x + 1. “only if” and “if and only if ”. then q must be true. (ii) (iii) To apply for a driving licence. 3. To put it in other words” not happening of p has no effect on happening of q. (ii) For every real number x. q : you are citizen of that country. All integers are positive or negative. Another point to be noted for the statement “if p then q” is that the statement does not imply that p happens. if you are not born in the country. you should have a ration card or a passport. (i) There exists a number which is equal to its square. We shall illustrate these ways in the context of the following statement. For example. . Give reasons for your answer. q: a number is a multiple of 3. then you cannot say anything about q. then you are a citizen of that country. r: If you are born in some country. then it is a multiple of 3. One of the most important facts about the sentence “if p then q” is that it does not say any thing (or places no demand) on q when p is false. we shall discuss the implications of “if-then”. r: If a number is a multiple of 9. Let p and q denote the statements p : a number is a multiple of 9. consider the statement. (i) x + y = y + x is true for every real numbers x and y.

This says that knowing that a number as a multiple of 9 is sufficient to conclude that it is a multiple of 3. p is a sufficient condition for q. 5. then the biological environment changes. let us consider the following “if-then” statement. Example 9 Write the contrapositive of the following statement: (i) If a number is divisible by 9. 4. 14. we shall consider another term called converse. This says that when a number is a multiple of 9. Next.336 MATHEMATICS Then. ∼q implies ∼p. To understand this. (ii) If you are not a citizen of India. then it is not a multiple of 9. p implies q is denoted by p ⇒ q.1 Contrapositive and converse Contrapositive and converse are certain other statements which can be formed from a given statement with “if-then”. (iii) If a triangle is equilateral. 3. p only if q. then it is not equilateral. If the physical environment changes. (ii) If you are born in India. then it is divisible by 3. then the physical environment does not change. (iii) If a triangle is not isosceles. then p. This says that a number is a multiple of 9 implies that it is a multiple of 3. The converse of a given statement “if p. Note that both these statements convey the same meaning. it is isosceles. The above examples show the contrapositive of the statement if p. if p then q is the same as the following: 1. then you were not born in India. it is necessarily a multiple of 3. then q” is if q. let us consider more examples. Then the contrapositive of this statement is If the biological environment does not change. then q is “if ∼q. . The symbol ⇒ stands for implies. then ∼p”.5. then you are a citizen of India. 2. it is not divisible by 9. q is a necessary condition for p. This says that if a number is not a multiple of 3. For example. Solution The contrapositive of the these statements are (i) If a number is not divisible by 3. This says that a number is a multiple of 9 only if it is a multiple of 3.

(ii) If a and b are integers. then a – b is always a positive integer. Then check whether the statements are true or not. then you have done all the exercises of the book. Example 10 Write the converse of the following statements. since the product of two integers is an integer and therefore a rational number. Let us consider some more examples. Since an equilateral triangle is isosceles. then it is divisible by 10. we infer that the given compound statement is true. you get an A grade in the class. q : ab is a rational number. (i) p if and only if q (ii) q if and only if p . ‘If and only if’. Solution (i) The component statements are given by p : Triangle ABC is equilateral. q : Triangle ABC is Isosceles. then n is even. then it is isosceles. the converse of the statement p: If a number is divisible by 10.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 337 For example. the compound statement is true. represented by the symbol ‘⇔‘ means the following equivalent forms for the given statements p and q. (iii) If two integers a and b are such that a > b. then ab is a rational number. (ii) If you get an A grade in the class. first identify the corresponding component statements. then a > b. it is divisible by 5 is q: If a number is divisible by 5. (i) If a number n is even. (iii) If two integers a and b are such that a – b is always a positive integer. Example 11 For each of the following compound statements. then n2 is even. (ii) The component statements are given by p : a and b are integers. (i) If a triangle ABC is equilateral. (ii) If you do all the exercises in the book. Solution The converse of these statements are (i) If a number n2 is even.

338 MATHEMATICS (iii) p is necessary and sufficient condition for q and vice-versa (iv) p ⇔ q Consider an example. You cannot comprehend geometry if you do not know how to reason deductively. then the number is divisible by 3. To get an A+ in the class. The Bannana trees will bloom if it stays warm for a month. (ii) A number is divisible by 3 if and only if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3. (ii) p: If the sum of digits of a number is divisible by 3. then x is odd. Write the contrapositive and converse of the following statements. it is necessary that you do all the exercises of the book. then its square is also odd. If a natural number is odd. Example 12 Given below are two pairs of statements. .4 1. then all its four sides are equal. Combine these two statements using “if and only if ”. Write each of the following statements in the form “if-then” (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) You get a job implies that your credentials are good. then the rectangle is a square. then they do not intersect in the same plane. EXERCISE 14. If the two lines are parallel. 2. 3. Solution (i) A rectangle is a square if and only if all its four sides are equal. (i) p: If a rectangle is a square. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) If x is a prime number. then the sum of its digits is divisible by 3. x is an even number implies that x is divisible by 4. q: If all the four sides of a rectangle are equal. A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if its diagonals bisect each other. Something is cold implies that it has low temperature. Rewrite the following statement with “if-then” in five different ways conveying the same meaning. q: If a number is divisible by 3.

then you live in Delhi. we will discuss when a statement is true. “if-then”. then the quadrilateral is not a parallelogram. 14. then it is a parallelogram. Given statements in (a) and (b). Rule 2 Statements with “Or” If p and q are mathematical statements . Here. If you have winter clothes. one must answer all the following questions. then its diagonals bisect each other. show that q must be true.6 Validating Statements In this Section. To answer this question. Step-2 Show that the statement q is true. and which of the implications “if and only”. “there exists”. Case 2 By assuming that q is false. then in order to show that the statement “p or q” is true. We shall list some general rules for checking whether a statement is true or not. What does the statement mean? What would it mean to say that this statement is true and when this statement is not true? The answer to these questions depend upon which of the special words and phrases “and”. show that p must be true. then in order to show that the statement “p and q” is true. If you do not have winter clothes. we shall discuss some techniques to find when a statement is valid. “or”. then you do not live in Delhi. Identify the statements given below as contrapositive or converse of each other.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 339 4. If a quadrilateral is a parallelogram. Rule 1 If p and q are mathematical statements. the following steps are followed. Step-1 Show that the statement p is true. then you have winter clothes. and which of the quantifiers “for every”. Rule 3 Statements with “If-then” . appear in the given statement. Case 1 By assuming that p is false. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other. one must consider the following. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral do not bisect each other. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) (ii) If you live in Delhi.

Thus we have shown that ∼q ⇒ ∼p Note The above example illustrates that to prove p ⇒ q. Case 1 By assuming that p is true. This shows that p is not true. we need to show.(Direct method) Case 2 By assuming that q is false. If x. Solution Let p : x. This implies that we need to consider the negation of the statement q. y ∈ Z such that x and y are odd q : xy is odd To check the validity of the given statement. Suppose we want to check this by using Case 2 of Rule 3.340 MATHEMATICS In order to prove the statement “if p then q” we need to show that any one of the following case is true. Therefore. p is true means that x and y are odd integers. If x.(Contrapositive method) Rule 4 Statements with “if and only if ” In order to prove the statement “p if and only if q”. then q is true and (ii) If q is true. then xy is odd. This is possible only if either x or y is even. (i) If p is true. it is enough to show ∼q ⇒ ∼p which is the contrapositive of the statement p ⇒ q. Thus xy = (2m + 1) (2n + 1) = 2(2mn + m + n) + 1 This shows that xy is odd. That is assume that if p is true. for some integer n. This gives the statement ∼q : Product xy is even. Solution Let us name the statements as below . then p is true Now we consider some examples. then both x and y are odd. prove that p must be false. the given statement is true. then q is true. prove that q must be true. We assume that q is not true. Example 13 Check whether the following statement is true or not. y ∈ Ζ such that xy is odd. y ∈ Z are such that x and y are odd. y = 2n + 1. we apply Case 1 of Rule 3. Example 14 Check whether the following statement is true or false by proving its contrapositive. for some integer m. then we will proceed as follows. Then x = 2m + 1.

MATHEMATICAL REASONING 341 p : xy is odd. then it is half full. p : A tumbler is half empty. ∼p is true. That is ∼p is true. Thus. xy = 2ny for some integer n.e. This means that there exists positive integers a and b a 7 = . We can express this fact as If a tumbler is half empty. ∼q ⇒ ∼p Now ∼q : It is false that both x and y are odd. we have shown that ∼q ⇒ ∼p and hence the given statement is true. Now. Then. Squaring the equation. Now what happens when we combine an implication and its converse? Next. by checking its contrapositive statement i. We combine these two statements and get the following: A tumbler is half empty if and only if it is half full. we shall discuss this. b . Example 15 Verify by the method of contradiction. That is we assume that such that 7 is rational. then it is half empty. Therefore. then the first happens.1 By Contradiction Here to check whether a statement p is true. that is.e. Therefore. If a tumbler is half full. We have to check whether the statement p ⇒ q is true or not. q : A tumbler is half full. then the second happens and also if the second happens. Then x = 2n for some integer n. q : both x and y are odd. we conclude that p is true. we discuss another method. where a and b have no common factors. This implies that x (or y) is even. We know that if the first statement happens.. p: 7 is irrational Solution In this method. we assume that p is not true i. we arrive at some result which contradicts our assumption. Let us consider the following statements. 14.5. This shows that xy is even. we assume that the given statement is false.

5 1. then x is 0” is true by (i) direct method. we have discussed some techniques for checking whether a statement is true or not. p: If x is an integer and x2 is even. the statement 7 is irrational is true. there exists an integer c such b2 that a = 7c. Such an example is called a counter example. we conclude that the given statement is false. By giving a counter example. 3. Thus. Therefore. Then a2 = 49c2 and a2 = 7b2 Hence. then x is also even. The method involves giving an example of a situation where the statement is not valid. 9 is one such number. The name itself suggests that this is an example to counter the given statement. (ii) q: The equation x2 – 1 = 0 does not have a root lying between 0 and 2. If n is an odd integer. counter examples are used to disprove the statement. Note In mathematics. Example 16 By giving a counter example. 4. then the triangle is an obtuse angled triangle. . To show this we look for an odd integer n which is not a prime number. Next. a2 = b2 implies that a = b” is not true by giving a counter-example. 7b2 = 49c2 ⇒ b2 = 7c2 ⇒ 7 divides b. show that the following statements are not true. (ii) method of contradiction. Solution The given statement is in the form “if p then q” we have to show that this is false. show that the following statement is false. generating examples in favour of a statement do not provide validity of the statement. Show that the statement “For any real numbers a and b. Show that the statement p: “If x is a real number such that x3 + 4x = 0. (iii) method of contrapositive 2. EXERCISE 14. (i) p: If all the angles of a triangle are equal. However. For this purpose we need to show that if p then ∼q. So n = 9 is a counter example. This implies that 7 is a common factor of both of a and b which contradicts our earlier assumption that a and b have no common factors. we shall discuss a method by which we may show that a statement is false. Show that the following statement is true by the method of contrapositive. This shows that the we get 7 = assumption 7 is rational is wrong. Hence. then n is prime. In the above. But we have already shown that 7 divides a.342 MATHEMATICS a2 ⇒ a2 = 7b2 ⇒ 7 divides a.

(iv) s: All students study mathematics at the elementary level. (iii) r: Circle is a particular case of an ellipse. This can be expressed as ∼p: There exists a real number x such that x2 < x. This statement can be rewritten as ∼q: For all real numbers x. Here both the component statements are true and therefore. x2 ≠ 2 (iii) The negation of the statement is ∼r: There exists a bird which have no wings. Justify your answer. The component statements of the given statement are p : you are wet when it rains. (ii) q: The centre of a circle bisects each chord of the circle. Example 18 Write the negation of the following statements: (i) p: For every real number x. (iii) r: All birds have wings. (i) p: Each radius of a circle is a chord of the circle. the compound statement is true. (ii) q: There exists a rational number x such that x2 = 2. (iv) s: If x and y are integers such that x > y. ∼q: There does not exist a rational number x such that x2 = 2. then –x < – y. x2 > x.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 343 5. Solution “Or” used in the given statement is inclusive because it is possible that it rains and you are in the river. (v) t : 11 is a rational number. Thus ∼q is the statement. Solution (i) The negation of p is “It is false that p is” which means that the condition x2 > x does not hold for all real numbers. Miscellaneous Examples Example 17 Check whether “Or” used in the following compound statement is exclusive or inclusive? Write the component statements of the compound statements and use them to check whether the compound statement is true or not. (ii) Negation of q is “it is false that q”. q : You are wet when you are in a river. . t: you are wet when it rains or you are in a river. Which of the following statements are true and which are false? In each case give a valid reason for saying so.

then n is odd. n2 is even. we have to check whether “if p then q” and “if q then p” is true. Then n = 2k + 1 when k is an integer. Let p and q denote the statements p : the integer n is odd. Here the sufficient condition is “driving over 80 km per hour”: Similarly. That is . Case 1 If p. then p If q. then n2 is odd. then you will get a fine. Case 2 If q. The contrapositive of the given statement is: If n is an even integer. then q indicates that p is sufficient for q. We have to check whether this statement is true. q : you will get a fine. t: If you drive over 80 km per hour. then q is the statement: If the integer n is odd. Solution Let p and q denote the statements: p : you drive over 80 km per hour. We check this by contrapositive method. then q also indicates that q is necessary for p. Therefore. n2 is one more than an even number and hence is odd. then n2 is an even integer n is even implies that n = 2k for some k. Solution The necessary and sufficient condition that the integer n be odd is n2 must be odd. Then n2 = 4k2. To check the validity of “p if q”. Let us assume that n is odd. Example 20 For the given statements identify the necessary and sufficient conditions. The implication if p.344 MATHEMATICS (iv) The negation of the given statement is ∼s: There exists a student who does not study mathematics at the elementary level. Example 19 Using the words “necessary and sufficient” rewrite the statement “The integer n is odd if and only if n2 is odd”. then q If p. We have to check whether this statement is true. Thus n2 = (2k + 1)2 = 4k2 + 4k + 1 Therefore. That is driving over 80 km per hour is sufficient to get a fine. if p. Also check whether the statement is true. then p is the statement If n is an integer and n2 is odd. q : n2 is odd.

conveying the same meaning. either x > 1 or x < 1. then it is a rectangle and if a quadrilateral is a rectangle. Here the necessary condition is “getting a fine”. (ii) q: There is traffic jam whenever it rains. 4. (iii) r: If a quadrilateral is equiangular. then you watch television. 7. . p: If a triangle is equiangular. 6. (iv) s: There exists a number x such that 0 < x < 1. (ii) q: All cats scratch. 5. then it is an obtuse angled triangle. then q” (i) p: It is necessary to have a password to log on to the server. 1. (i) p: The sum of an irrational number and a rational number is irrational (by contradiction method). Rewrite each of the following statements in the form “p if and only if q” (i) p: If you watch television. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 14 Write the negation of the following statements: (i) p: For every positive real number x. then n2 > 9 (by contradiction method). then it is equiangular. (ii) q: If n is a real number with n > 3. In both cases check the validity of the compound statement. Given below are two statements p : 25 is a multiple of 5. (iii) r: You can access the website only if you pay a subsciption fee. Write the following statement in five different ways. q : 25 is a multiple of 8. (ii) q: I go to a beach whenever it is a sunny day. it is necessary and sufficient that you do all the homework regularly. you will necessarily get a fine. State the converse and contrapositive of each of the following statements: (i) p: A positive integer is prime only if it has no divisors other than 1 and itself. the number x – 1 is also positive. 2.MATHEMATICAL REASONING 345 When you drive over 80 km per hour. Write the compound statements connecting these two statements with “And” and “Or”. Check the validity of the statements given below by the method given against it. Write each of the statements in the form “if p. 3. then you feel thirsty. (iii) r: If it is hot outside. (ii) q: For you to get an A grade. (iii) r: For every real number x. then your mind is free and if your mind is free.

then q can be written in the following ways. “Or”. p implies q (denoted by p ⇒ q) p is a sufficient condition for q q is a necessary condition for p p only if q ∼q implies ∼p The contrapositive of a statement p ⇒ q is the statement ∼ q ⇒ ∼p . His idea was realised in the nineteenth century by the English mathematician George Boole (1815–1864 A. Leibnitz (1646 – 1716 A. .346 MATHEMATICS Summary A mathematically acceptable statement is a sentence which is either true or false. A sentence with if p. gives p if and only if q.C. The following methods are used to check the validity of statements: (i) direct method (ii) contrapositive method (iii) method of contradiction (iv) using a counter example. in the seventeenth century. The converse of a statement p ⇒ q is the statement q ⇒ p. The smaller statements are called component statements of the compound statement.) and Augustus De Morgan (1806–1871 A. – – – – – – – – – – Historical Note The first treatise on logic was written by Aristotle (384 B. “There exists” and “For every” in compound statements.D. who founded the modern subject of symbolic logic. The meaning of implications “If ”. p ⇒ q together with its converse.D.).) conceived the idea of using symbols in logic to mechanise the process of deductive reasoning.C. The role of “And”. W. Explained the terms: Negation of a statement p: If p denote a statement.-322 B.D.) . It was a collection of rules for deductive reasoning which would serve as a basis for the study of every branch of knowledge. Compound statements and their related component statements: A statement is a compound statement if it is made up of two or more smaller statements. then the negation of p is denoted by ∼p. Later. German mathematician G. “only if ”. “ if and only if ”.

median and mode are three measures of central tendency. we should also have an idea how the data are scattered or how much they are bunched around a measure of central tendency.. 53. 42. 71 Batsman B : 53. 52 Clearly. BODDINGTON 15. the mean and median of the data are Batsman A Batsman B Mean 53 53 Median 53 53 Recall that. 91. Recall mean (arithmetic mean). . 50.” – A.L. We have also studied the methods of finding a representative value for the given data. 48. we calculate the mean of a data (denoted by x ) by dividing the sum of the observations by the number of observations. 57. In earlier classes.BOWLEY & A. 5. 58. This representation reveals certain salient features or characteristics of the data. A measure of central Karl Pearson tendency gives us a rough idea where data points are (1857-1936) centred. in order to make better interpretation from the data.e. 80. 53. 46.Chapter 15 STATISTICS “Statistics may be rightly called the science of averages and their estimates. i. 64. Consider now the runs scored by two batsmen in their last ten matches as follows: Batsman A : 30. We can make decisions about the data by analysing and interpreting it.L. we have studied methods of representing data graphically and in tabular form. 60. This value is called the measure of central tendency.1 Introduction We know that statistics deals with data collected for specific purposes. 30. But. 0. 117.

. because the variability in the scores of batsman A is from 0 (minimum) to 117 (maximum).e. the measures of central tendency are not sufficient to give complete information about a given data. Like ‘measures of central tendency’ we want to have a single number to describe variability. we shall learn some of the important measures of dispersion and their methods of calculation for ungrouped and grouped data. .1 Fig 15. Thus. Variability is another factor which is required to be studied under statistics. then the median is ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ th observation. In this Chapter. Can we say that the performance of two players is same? Clearly No. 53. Let us now plot the above scores as dots on a number line. ⎝2 ⎠ We find that the mean and median of the runs scored by both the batsmen A and B are same i. the range of the runs scored by batsman B is from 46 to 60. th ⎛n⎞ If the number of observations is even. while those corresponding to batsman A are scattered or more spread out. This single number is called a ‘measure of dispersion’. then median is the mean of ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ th and ⎛n ⎞ ⎜ + 1⎟ observations.2 We can see that the dots corresponding to batsman B are close to each other and are clustering around the measure of central tendency (mean and median).348 MATHEMATICS x= 1 n i =1 ∑ xi n Also. the median is obtained by first arranging the data in ascending or descending order and applying the following rule. We find the following diagrams: For batsman A For batsman B Fig 15. Whereas. ⎛ n + 1⎞ If the number of observations is odd.

we know that a measure of central tendency lies between the maximum and the minimum values of the set of observations. For this purpose. . such measure must depend upon the difference (or deviation) of the values from the central tendency. Range of a series = Maximum value – Minimum value. Therefore. we must obtain the sum of the deviations. as far as the measure of dispersion is concerned.STATISTICS 349 15. This difference is called the ‘Range’ of the data. we had some idea of variability in the scores on the basis of minimum and maximum runs in each series. 15. the sum of the deviations from mean ( x ) is zero. 15. (ii) Quartile deviation. An absolute measure of dispersion is the mean of these deviations. we find the difference of maximum and minimum values of each series. To find the mean. some of the deviations will be negative and some positive. In this Chapter. Clearly.4 Mean Deviation Recall that the deviation of an observation x from a fixed value ‘a’ is the difference x – a. we find the deviations about a. Range = 117 – 0 = 117 and for batsman B. The range of data gives us a rough idea of variability or scatter but does not tell about the dispersion of the data from a measure of central tendency. the scores are scattered or dispersed in case of A while for B these are close to each other. Range = 60 – 46 = 14. Clearly. finding the mean of deviations about mean is not of any use for us. the sum of deviations may vanish. Thus. But. The important measures of dispersion. Thus. In case of batsman A. (iii) Mean deviation. Let us discuss them in detail. in the example of runs scored by two batsmen A and B. Range of A > Range of B. In order to find the dispersion of values of x from a central value ‘a’ . Therefore. There are following measures of dispersion: (i) Range. used there. we shall study all of these measures of dispersion except the quartile deviation. To obtain a single number for this. (iv) Standard deviation. Moreover. we need some other measure of variability. Also Mean of deviations = Sum of deviations 0 = =0 Number of observations n Thus.2 Measures of Dispersion The dispersion or scatter in a data is measured on the basis of the observations and the types of the measure of central tendency.3 Range Recall that. which depend upon the deviations of the observations from a central tendency are mean deviation and standard deviation.

Step 2 Find the deviation of each xi from a. where x = Mean and 1 n ∑ xi − M .. x2. x3.. Thus mean deviation about a central value ‘a’ is the mean of the absolute values of the deviations of the observations from ‘a’.4. i. x3 – a.e. i. ( x ) = n M. Number of observations Remark Mean deviation may be obtained from any measure of central tendency. . xn − a Step 4 Find the mean of the absolute values of the deviations. to find the measure of dispersion from a fixed number ‘a’ we may take the mean of the absolute values of the deviations from the central value. xn– a Step 3 Find the absolute values of the deviations.. M. x1 − a . The following steps are involved in the calculation of mean deviation about mean or median: Step 1 Calculate the measure of central tendency about which we are to find the mean deviation. i.e.D. we require the distance of each value from a central tendency or a fixed number ‘a’.1 Mean deviation for ungrouped data Let n observations be x1. Let us now learn how to calculate mean deviation about mean and mean deviation about median for various types of data 15.. (M) = ∑ xi − x i =1 n i =1 n . i. where M = Median . mean deviation from mean and median are commonly used in statistical studies.350 MATHEMATICS Remember that.. .D. in finding a suitable measure of dispersion. x2 − a .. drop the minus sign (–)..(a) = Thus ∑ xi − a i =1 n n 1 M.. Thus.. Let it be ‘a’. Therefore.(a) = Sum of absolute values of deviations from 'a' . . x2 – a..e.. Recall. This mean is called the ‘mean deviation’. xn.D. (a)..D. that the absolute value of the difference of two numbers gives the distance between the numbers when represented on a number line. if it is there. . M. This mean is the mean deviation about a.e. x3 − a .D. x1 – a.. However. . The mean deviation from ‘a’ is denoted as M.

2. 18. 5. 10 – 9.e. 13. 8. 1. 6. 12 Solution We proceed step-wise and get the following: Step 1 Mean of the given data is x= 6 + 7 + 10 + 12 + 13 + 4 + 8 + 12 72 = = 9 8 8 Step 2 The deviations of the respective observations from the mean x .D. –2. 4. 1.STATISTICS 351 Note In this Chapter. 3. 19. 15. 5 . 8 – 9. 1. 17. 7. 17. –1. 1. 9. 10. 12.. 1. or –3. 4. 4. 17. 11. 7. 3. 1. 3 Step 4 The required mean deviation about the mean is M. Example 1 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the following data: 6. 2. 5. 7. 6. 3 Step 3 The absolute values of the deviations. 10. we shall use the symbol M to denote median unless stated otherwise. i. i.75 8 8 Note Instead of carrying out the steps every time. we can carry on calculation. 9. xi − x are 3. 7. 8. –5. ( x ) = = ∑ xi − x i =1 8 8 3 + 2 + 1 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 1 + 3 22 = = 2. 0. 2. 16. 3.e. 8. 3. 20.e. 8. xi − x are 2. 4.. 3. 12 – 9. 7 – 9. 5 Solution We have to first find the mean ( x ) of the given data x = 1 20 200 ∑ xi = 20 = 10 20 i =1 The respective absolute values of the deviations from mean. xi– x are 6 – 9. 7. 7. 7. Example 2 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the following data : 12. 4 – 9. 12 – 9. 13 – 9. step-wise without referring to steps. i. 9. 10.Let us now illustrate the steps of the above method in following examples..

i... 1. 4. (a) Discrete frequency distribution Let the given data consist of n distinct values x1. 7. 10. .D... 3. 5. . 4. 19. 21 Now ⎛ 11 + 1 ⎞ Median = ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ th or 6th observation = 9 The absolute values of the respective deviations from the median. 12 Therefore and ∑ xi − M = 58 i =1 11 M..2 20 Example 3 Find the mean deviation about the median for the following data: 3.e. This data can be represented in the tabular form as given below.D. 0. and is called discrete frequency distribution: x : x1 x2 x3 ..4. 18. 9. 5. 3.27 11 i =1 15. Arranging the data into ascending order.. 12. ( x ) = 124 = 6. 3. fn respectively.. xn f : f1 f2 f3 .2 Mean deviation for grouped data We know that data can be grouped into two ways : (a) Discrete frequency distribution. Let us discuss the method of finding mean deviation for both types of the data. 2. 18. f2 . 21. x2. xi − M are 6.. 10. (b) Continuous frequency distribution. 5. 9. xn occurring with frequencies f1. we have 3.. 7. 4. fn (i) Mean deviation about mean First of all we find the mean x of the given data by using the formula . Solution Here the number of observations is 11 which is odd. 10.352 MATHEMATICS Therefore and ∑ xi − x i =1 20 = 124 M. 19. 9. 12.. 6. ( M ) = 1 11 1 ∑ xi − M = 11 × 58 = 5.

..D. For this the observations are arranged in ascending order. Then. . i =1 n where ∑x f i =1 i n i denotes the sum of the products of observations xi with their respective frequencies fi and N = ∑f i =1 n i is the sum of the frequencies. N M.(M) = 1 N ∑f i =1 n i xi − M Example 4 Find mean deviation about the mean for the following data : xi 2 5 6 8 10 12 2 8 10 7 8 5 fi Solution Let us make a Table 15. Then. After this.Thus. After finding median.1 of the given data and append other columns after calculations. we obtain the mean of the absolute values of the deviations from median. Thus M. we identify the observation whose cumulative frequency is equal to or just greater than . xi − x for all i =1. n. This value of the observation lies in the middle of the data. therefore. find the mean of the absolute values of the deviations. which is the required mean deviation about the mean..STATISTICS 353 x= ∑ xi fi i =1 n n ∑ fi i =1 = 1 N ∑ xi fi . we find the deviations of observations xi from the mean x and take their absolute values. ( x ) = ∑f i =1 n i xi − x ∑f i =1 n = i 1 n ∑ f i xi − x N i =1 (ii) Mean deviation about median To find mean deviation about median. 2.e. After this the cumulative frequencies are obtained. we find the median of the given discrete frequency distribution.D. i.. it is the required median. where 2 N is the sum of frequencies..

f.2 xi fi c.5 20 22.3 40 Example 5 Find the mean deviation about the median for the following data: xi fi 3 3 6 4 9 5 12 2 13 4 15 5 21 4 22 3 Solution The given observations are already in ascending order. we get (Table 15. i =1 6 ∑ i =1 6 f i xi = 300 .354 MATHEMATICS Table 15. ∑f i =1 6 i xi − x = 92 Therefore and x= 1 N ∑ i =1 6 fi xi = 1 N 1 × 300 = 7. .2).5 40 M. D. ( x ) = ∑ fi i =1 6 xi − x = 1 × 92 = 2.5 f i xi − x 11 20 15 3.5 2. N=30 which is even. 3 3 3 6 4 7 9 5 12 12 2 14 13 4 18 15 5 23 21 4 27 22 3 30 Now.5 0.5 1.1 xi 2 5 6 8 10 12 fi 2 8 10 7 8 5 40 fixi 4 40 60 56 80 60 300 xi − x 5.5 92 N = ∑ f i = 40 . Adding a row corresponding to cumulative frequencies to the given data. Table 15.5 2.5 4.

Median M = 15th observation + 16th observation 2 = 13 + 13 2 = 13 Now. we write the mid-point of each given class and proceed further as for a discrete frequency distribution to find the mean deviation. marks obtained by 100 students are presented in a continuous frequency distribution as follows : Marks obtained 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 Number of Students 12 18 27 20 40-50 17 50-60 6 (i) Mean deviation about mean While calculating the mean of a continuous frequency distribution. (M) = ∑ fi i =1 8 xi − M = 1 × 149 = 4. Therefore. Table 15.3 xi − M 10 3 30 8 7 4 28 8 4 5 20 1 2 2 0 4 0 2 5 10 8 4 32 9 3 27 fi f i xi − M ∑ i =1 fi = 30 and 1 N ∑f i =1 i xi − M = 149 Therefore M. we had made the assumption that the frequency in each class is centred at its mid-point.e. Let us take the following example. absolute values of the deviations from median. for which the corresponding observation is 13. Here also. For example.97. i. D.STATISTICS 355 Median is the mean of the 15th and 16th observations.3. Both of these observations lie in the cummulative freqeuncy 18. . xi − M are shown in Table 15.. 30 (b) Continuous frequency distribution A continuous frequency distribution is a series in which the data are classified into different class-intervals without gaps alongwith their respective frequencies.

Then deviations of the observations (or mid-points of classes) are taken from the . Recall that in this method.D. ∑ fi xi = 1800.356 MATHEMATICS Example 6 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the following data. we take an assumed mean which is in the middle or just close to it in the data.4 from the given data : Table 15. i =1 7 ∑ fi i =1 7 xi − x = 400 Therefore x= 1 7 1800 ∑ fi xi = 40 = 45 N i =1 and M.4 Marks obtained Number of students fi Mid-points xi f ix i xi − x fi xi − x 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 2 3 8 14 8 3 2 40 N = 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 30 75 280 630 440 195 150 1800 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 60 60 80 0 80 60 60 400 Here ∑ fi i =1 7 = 40. ( x ) = 1 7 1 ∑ fi xi − x = 40 × 400 = 10 N i =1 Shortcut method for calculating mean deviation about mean We can avoid the tedious calculations of computing x by following step-deviation method. Marks obtained Number of students 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 2 3 8 14 8 3 2 Solution We make the following Table 15.

4 The deviations and step-deviations reduce the size of the observations. become simpler.3 Fig 15.. so that the computations viz.3 If there is a common factor of all the deviations. multiplication. where ‘a’ is the assumed mean and h is the common factor. as shown in Fig 15.STATISTICS 357 assumed mean. The process of taking step-deviations is the change of scale on the number line as shown in Fig 15. Let. etc. we divide them by this common factor to further simplify the deviations. . This is nothing but the shifting of origin from zero to the assumed mean on the number line. Then. These are known as step-deviations.4 Fig 15. the h n mean x by step-deviation method is given by ∑ f i di x = a + i =1 ×h N Let us take the data of Example 6 and find the mean deviation by using stepdeviation method. the new variable be denoted by d i = xi − a .

5 Marks obtained 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 Number of Mid-points di = students fi 2 3 8 14 8 3 2 40 xi 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 xi − 45 10 fi d i xi − x f i xi − x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 –6 –6 –8 0 8 6 6 0 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 60 60 80 0 80 60 60 400 Therefore 7 ∑ fi d i x = a + i=1 ×h N = 45 + 0 × 10 = 45 40 and M . The only difference lies in the replacement of the mean by median while taking deviations. (x ) = 1 N ∑ fi i =1 7 xi − x = 400 = 10 40 Note The step deviation method is applied to compute x . Let us recall the process of finding median for a continuous frequency distribution. Table 15. Rest of the procedure is same. the median of continuous frequency distribution is obtained by first identifying the class in which median lies (median class) and then applying the formula . (ii) Mean deviation about median The process of finding the mean deviation about median for a continuous frequency distribution is similar as we did for mean deviation about the mean.5. Then. and form the following Table 15.358 MATHEMATICS Take the assumed mean a = 45 and h = 10. The data is first arranged in ascending order.D.

e.6 Class Frequency fi Cummulative frequency (c. Then n ∑ fi xi − M N i =1 The process is illustrated in the following example: M. (M) = 1 Example 7 Calculate the mean deviation about median for the following data : Class Frequency 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 6 7 15 16 4 2 Solution Form the following Table 15. After finding the median. 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 6 7 15 16 4 2 50 23 13 3 7 17 27 138 91 45 112 68 54 508 . h and C are. f.STATISTICS 359 N −C Median = l + 2 ×h f where median class is the class interval whose cumulative frequency is just greater N . l.) 6 13 28 44 48 50 Mid-points xi 5 15 25 35 45 55 xi − Med.. the absolute values than or equal to of the deviations of mid-point xi of each class from the median i. the frequency.f.D. N is the sum of frequencies. respectively the lower 2 limit . the width of the median class and C the cumulative frequency of the class just preceding the median class. xi − M are obtained. f i xi − Med.6 from the given data : Table 15.

We know that N or 25th item is 20-30. Mean deviation about median is given by Therefore. 55. 48. 11. 3. 72. 42.16 N i =1 EXERCISE 15. 51. (M) = 1 1 6 ∑ fi xi − M = 50 × 508 = 10. 12. 17 2. C = 13.D. 49 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data in Exercises 5 and 6. 46. 8. 13. 36. 9. x i fi 7 10 4 4 30 24 6 50 28 3 70 16 5 90 8 Find the mean deviation about the median for the data in Exercises 7 and 8.360 MATHEMATICS The class interval containing class. 1. 13. 5 10 15 20 25 5. 13. 14. 53. 46. 17 4. 63. x i fi 6. 38. 45. 44 Find the mean deviation about the median for the data in Exercises 3 and 4. f = 15. Therefore. 20–30 is the median 2 th N −C ×h l+ 2 Median = f Here l = 20. x i fi 7. 70. 60. 5 8 15 3 7 6 21 5 9 2 27 6 10 2 30 7 12 2 35 8 15 6 . 10. 12. x i fi 8. 40. 17. 46. 16. 16. 7. Median = 20 + M. 10. 54. 11. h = 10 and N = 50 25 − 13 × 10 = 20 + 8 = 28 15 Thus.1 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data in Exercises 1 and 2. 18. 4. 42.

cannot be subjected to further algebraic treatment. Also mean deviation is calculated on the basis of absolute values of the deviations and therefore.Thus. the median is not a representative central tendency. Find the mean deviation about median for the following data : 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Marks 0-10 Number of 6 8 14 16 4 2 Girls 12. the mean deviation about the mean is not very scientific.3 Limitations of mean deviation In a series.STATISTICS 361 Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data in Exercises 9 and 10. otherwise the deviations may cancel among themselves. Income 0-100 100-200 200-300 300-400 400-500 500-600 600-700 700-800 per day 8 9 10 7 5 4 3 Number 4 of persons 10. Thus.5 Variance and Standard Deviation Recall that while calculating mean deviation about mean or median. Calculate the mean deviation about median age for the age distribution of 100 persons given below: 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 Age Number 5 6 12 14 26 12 16 9 [Hint Convert the given data into continuous frequency distribution by subtracting 0. mean deviation may give unsatisfactory results.5 to the upper limit of each class interval] 15. Obviously all these squares of deviations are . is to take squares of all the deviations. the absolute values of the deviations were taken. This implies that we must have some other measure of dispersion.5 from the lower limit and adding 0. Another way to overcome this difficulty which arose due to the signs of deviations. where the degree of variability is very high.4. 15. 9. Standard deviation is such a measure of dispersion. Therefore. The sum of the deviations from the mean (minus signs ignored) is more than the sum of the deviations from median. Height 95-105 105-115 115-125 125-135 135-145 145-155 in cms Number of 9 13 26 30 12 10 boys 11. the mean deviation about median calculated for such series can not be fully relied. The absolute values were taken to give meaning to the mean deviation. in many cases.

. .+ (44–30)2 +(45–30)2 = (–15)2 +(–14)2 + . 28. Now. The mean of the observations is x = 30. 35. Here n = 15) 6 (Because sum of squares of first n natural numbers = .. 23. Then (x1 − x)2 + (x2 −x)2 + . x2... 43. if this sum is large.xn are close to the mean x and therefore. The sum of squares of deviations from x for this set is ∑ (x − x) i =1 i 6 2 = (5–30)2 + (15–30)2 + (25–30)2 + (35–30)2 + (45–30)2 +(55–30)2 = 625 + 225 + 25 + 25 + 225 + 625 = 1750 Let us now take another set B of 31 observations 15. 38.. this indicates that the observations x1. then each ( xi − x ) has to be zero. 37... 25.. Can we thus say that the sum ∑ (x − x) i i =1 n 2 is a reasonable indicator of the degree of dispersion or scatter? Let us take the set A of six observations 5. The mean of these observations is y = 30 Note that both the sets A and B of observations have a mean of 30. 33. x3. 30..362 MATHEMATICS non-negative. x2. 35.+ 142 + 152 = 2 [152 + 142 + . 24. the sum of squares of deviations of observations for set B from the mean y is given by ∑(y i =1 31 i − y ) 2 = (15–30)2 +(16–30)2 + (17–30)2 + . 26. 29. there is a higher degree of dispersion of the observations from the mean x . 55. 41. This implies that there is no dispersion at all as all observations are equal to the mean x ... 31.. xn be n observations and x be their mean. 15. 20.. 25.. 36. + 12] = 2× 15 × (15 + 1) (30 + 1) = 5 × 16 × 31 = 2480 6 n (n + 1) (2n + 1) .+ (xn − x )2 = ∑(x − x) i =1 i n 2 . 18. Let x1. x3. 45.. 27. 16.+ (–1)2 + 02 + 12 + 22 + 32 + .. 19.. 40. there is a lower degree of dispersion. 34.. If ∑ (x − x) i i =1 n 2 is small . 44. 42. 45.. 21. 39.. 22. On the contrary.. If this sum is zero. 17. 32.

we take ∑ ( xi − x ) 2 . This number..STATISTICS 363 If ∑ (x − x) i i =1 n 2 is simply our measure of dispersion or scatter about mean.e. Mean = Thus.6 Thus. we have Fig 15. 6 31 This indicates that the scatter or dispersion is more in set A than the scatter or dispersion in set B..67 and in case of the set B. we have n i =1 1 1 × 1750 = 291. To overcome this difficulty we take the mean of the squares of 1 n the deviations. we can say that the sum of squares of deviations from the mean is not a proper measure of dispersion.5 For the set B. This is also clear from the following diagrams. even though the observations in set A are more scattered from the mean (the range of deviations being from –25 to 25) than in the set B (where the range of deviations is from –15 to 15).e. xn is given by .. i. which confirms with the geometrical representation of the two sets. x2. the variance of n observations x1. we will tend to say that the set A of six observations has a lesser dispersion about the mean than the set B of 31 observations.. For the set A. mean of the squares of the deviations from mean is called the variance and is denoted by σ 2 (read as sigma square). we have Fig 15.. Therefore. it is × 2480 = 80.. In case of the set A. i. we can take 1 ∑ ( xi − x ) 2 as a quantity which leads to a proper measure n of dispersion.

. 20. since variance involves the sum of squares of (xi– x ). is given by σ= 1 n ∑ ( xi − x ) 2 n i =1 .. 16. Example 8 Find the Variance of the following data: 6. the proper measure of dispersion about the mean of a set of observations is expressed as positive square-root of the variance and is called standard deviation. standard deviation of ungrouped data. (1) Let us take the following example to illustrate the calculation of variance and hence. The number of observations is n = 10 Table 15.1 Standard Deviation In the calculation of variance. the standard deviation. 24 Solution From the given data we can form the following Table 15. usually denoted by σ . 10. The mean is calculated by step-deviation method taking 14 as assumed mean.7 xi 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 di = xi − 14 2 Deviations from mean (x i– x ) –9 –7 –5 –3 –1 1 3 5 7 9 (x i– x ) 81 49 25 9 1 1 9 25 49 81 330 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 .7.5. we find that the units of individual observations xi and the unit of their mean x are different from that of variance. Therefore. 12. 14. 8. 18. 22. For this reason.364 MATHEMATICS 1 n σ = ∑ ( xi − x ) 2 n i =1 2 15.

...74 15.8). we get Table 15. Example 9 Find the variance and standard deviation for the following data: xi fi 4 3 8 5 11 9 17 5 20 4 24 3 32 1 Solution Presenting the data in tabular form (Table 15. i =1 n . . .. x3 . . .5. .8 xi 4 8 11 17 20 24 32 fi 3 5 9 5 4 3 1 30 fi x i 12 40 99 85 80 72 32 420 xi – x –10 –6 –3 3 6 10 18 ( xi − x ) 2 100 36 9 9 36 100 324 f i ( xi − x ) 2 300 180 81 45 144 300 324 1374 . x2. f3 . f2.2 Standard deviation of a discrete frequency distribution Let the given discrete frequency distribution be x: x1. (2) Let us take up following example. fn 1 n ∑ fi (xi − x )2 N i =1 In this case standard deviation (σ ) = where N = ∑ fi . xn f: f1.STATISTICS 365 ∑d Therefore Mean x = assumed mean + Variance ( σ 2 ) = 1 n 10 i =1 n i n × h = 14 + 5 × 2 = 15 10 and 1 ∑ ( xi − x )2 = 10 × 330 = 33 i =1 Thus Standard deviation ( σ ) = 33 = 5..

366 MATHEMATICS N = 30. the standard deviation is calculated by the technique adopted in the case of a discrete frequency distribution.8 30 and Standard deviation (σ ) = 45 . n where x is the mean of the distribution and N = ∑ fi .5.3 Standard deviation of a continuous frequency distribution The given continuous frequency distribution can be represented as a discrete frequency distribution by replacing each class by its mid-point. ∑ fi ( xi − x ) i =1 i =1 7 7 2 = 1374 Therefore x= ∑ fi xi i =1 N 2 = 1 × 420 = 14 30 Hence 1 variance (σ ) = N = ∑ fi (xi − i =1 7 x )2 1 × 1374 = 45. 7 ∑ fi xi = 420. If there is a frequency distribution of n classes each class defined by its mid-point xi with frequency fi. the standard deviation will be obtained by the formula σ = 1 N ∑ fi ( xi − i =1 n x)2 . i =1 Another formula for standard deviation We know that 1 Variance (σ ) = N 2 ∑ i =1 n fi ( xi − x ) 2 = n n 1 N ∑ fi ( xi 2 + i =1 n x 2 − 2 x xi ) 1 ⎡ = N ⎢ ⎣ 1 ⎡ = N ⎢ ⎣ ∑ fi xi 2 + ∑ x 2 fi − ∑ 2 x i =1 n i =1 i =1 n ⎤ fi xi ⎥ ⎦ n n ⎤ fi xi 2 + x 2 ∑ fi − 2 x ∑ xi fi ⎥ ∑ i =1 i =1 i =1 ⎦ . Then.77 15.8 = 6.

we construct the following Table 15.STATISTICS 367 n ⎤ 1 n ⎤ ⎡ 1⎡ n fi xi + x 2 N − 2 x .9 Class 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 Frequency Mid-point (f i ) (x i) 3 7 12 15 8 3 2 50 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 f ix i 105 315 660 975 600 255 190 3100 (x i– x ) 2 729 289 49 9 169 529 1089 f i (x i – x ) 2 2187 2023 588 135 1352 1587 2178 10050 . (3) Example 10 Calculate the mean. Table 15. variance and standard deviation for the following distribution : Class Frequency 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 3 7 12 15 8 3 2 Solution From the given data.9.. standard deviation (σ ) = N ∑fx i i =1 n 2 i −⎜ ⎛ n ⎞ ∑ f i xi ⎟ ⎝ i =1 ⎠ 2 .. N x ⎥ ⎢ Here ∑ xi fi = x or ∑ xi fi = Nx ⎥ = ⎢∑ N i =1 N ⎣ i =1 i =1 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ = 1 N ∑ fi xi 2 + x 2 i =1 n − 2x 2 = 1 N ∑ fi xi 2 − i =1 n x 2 or ⎛ n ⎜ ∑ fi xi 1 n 2 ⎜ 2 = ∑ fi xi − ⎜ i =1N σ N i −1 ⎜ ⎝ 1 N ⎞ 2 ⎟ ⎡ n ⎛ n ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ = 1 ⎢ N ∑ fi xi 2 − ⎜ ∑ fi xi ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ N 2 ⎢ i =1 ⎝ i =1 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎟ ⎠ 2 Thus.

10 xi 3 8 13 18 23 48 Now. by formula (3).18 Example 11 Find the standard deviation for the following data : xi fi 3 7 8 10 13 15 18 10 23 6 Solution Let us form the following Table 15.368 MATHEMATICS Thus Mean x = 1 N ∑fx i =1 7 i i = 3100 = 62 50 Variance σ ( ) 2 1 = N ∑ f i (xi − x )2 i =1 7 = and 1 × 10050 = 201 50 Standard deviation (σ ) = 201 = 14. we have fi 7 10 15 10 6 614 f ix i 21 80 195 180 138 x i2 9 64 169 324 529 f ix i2 63 640 2535 3240 3174 9652 σ = = = 1 N 1 48 N∑ fi xi − ( ∑ fi xi ) 2 2 48 × 9652 − (614) 2 1 463296 − 376996 48 .10: Table 15.

σ x = N . i.. we get = ∑ f ( A + hy ) i i i =1 n x N n n ⎛ n ⎞ 1 ⎛ n ⎞ ∑ f i A + ∑ h f i yi ⎟ = N ⎜ A ∑ f i + h ∑ f i yi ⎟ = ⎜ N ⎝ i =1 ⎠ ⎝ i =1 ⎠ i =1 i =1 1 = A.. it is possible to simplify the procedure..STATISTICS 369 1 × 293.12 48 Therefore.77 = 6.4...N +h N Thus Now ∑ fi yi i =1 n N n ⎛ ⎞ because ∑ fi = N ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ i =1 x=A+h y 2 Variance of the variable x. Let the assumed mean be ‘A’ and the scale be reduced to 1 times (h being the h width of class-intervals). Shortcut method to find variance and standard deviation Sometimes the values of xi in a discrete distribution or the mid points xi of different classes in a continuous distribution are large and so the calculation of mean and variance becomes tedious and time consuming.e. (3) 1 ∑ fi ( xi − x )2 i =1 n = 1 N ∑ fi (A + hyi − A − h y )2 i =1 n (Using (1) and (3)) . Standard deviation ( σ ) = 6. yi = xi − A h or xi = A + hyi . Let the step-deviations or the new values be yi..12 = 15. By using step-deviation method. (2) Replacing xi from (1) in (2).5. (1) ∑fx i n i We know that x = i =1 N .

e. or 2 2 σ x2 = h σ y σ x = hσ y From (3) and (4).11 from the given data : Table 15.370 MATHEMATICS 1 = N h2 = N ∑ fi h2 (yi − y )2 i =1 n n ∑ fi (yi − y )2 = h × variance of the variable y 2 i =1 i i.11 Class Frequency fi Mid-point yi= xi 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 xi − 65 10 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 y i2 fi yi f i y i2 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 9 0-100 3 7 12 15 8 3 2 N=50 9 4 1 0 1 4 9 –9 – 14 – 12 0 8 6 6 – 15 27 28 12 0 8 12 18 105 . we have n ⎛ n ⎞ h N ∑ fi yi 2 − ⎜ ∑ fi yi ⎟ σx = N i =1 ⎝ i =1 ⎠ 2 .. (4) .... (5) Let us solve Example 11 by the short-cut method and using formula (5) Examples 12 Calculate mean. Variance and Standard Deviation for the following distribution. Here h = 10 We obtain the following Table 15. Classes Frequency 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 3 7 12 15 8 3 2 Solution Let the assumed mean A = 65.

12. 6. 4. 13. Classes Frequencies 0-30 30-60 60-90 90-120 120-150 150-180 180-210 2 3 5 10 3 5 2 . xi fi 6 2 92 3 10 4 93 2 14 7 97 3 18 12 98 2 24 8 102 6 28 4 104 3 30 3 109 3 6. 7.18 EXERCISE 15. 8. xi fi 60 2 61 1 62 12 63 29 64 25 65 12 66 10 67 4 68 5 Find the mean and variance for the following frequency distributions in Exercises 7 and 8. 10. xi fi 5.STATISTICS 371 Therefore x= A+ ∑ fi yi × h = 65 − 15 × 10 = 62 50 50 Variance σ2 = h2 N2 ⎡ 2 ⎢ N ∑ fi yi − ( ∑ fi yi ⎣ 2 ) 2⎤ ⎥ ⎦ = (10 ) ⎡50 × 105 − (–15)2 ⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎦ (50) ⎣ = 1 [5250 − 225] = 201 25 and standard deviation (σ ) = 201 = 14. First n natural numbers 3. Find the mean and standard deviation using short-cut method. 7. First 10 multiples of 3 4. 1.2 Find the mean and variance for each of the data in Exercies 1 to 5. 12 2.

is said to be more consistent than the other.) The coefficient of variation is defined as C. The measure of variability which is independent of units is called coefficient of variation (denoted as C. of circles 33-36 15 37-40 17 41-44 21 45-48 22 49-52 25 Calculate the standard deviation and mean diameter of the circles.6 Analysis of Frequency Distributions In earlier sections.5. of children 70-75 75-80 80-85 85-90 90-95 95-100 100-105 105-110 110-115 3 4 7 7 15 9 6 6 3 10. x ≠ 0 . .52.5-36.5. Classes Frequencies 0-10 5 10-20 8 20-30 15 30-40 16 40-50 6 9.V. [ Hint First make the data continuous by making the classes as 32. Find the mean. where σ and x are the standard deviation and mean of the data. For comparing the variability or dispersion of two series. 48.372 MATHEMATICS 8. The series having greater C.5.5 . The series having lesser C.5 and then proceed. we calculate the coefficient of variance for each series. variance and standard deviation using short-cut method Height in cms No.V.V.V. is said to be more variable than the other. which are measured in different units. The mean deviation and the standard deviation have the same units in which the data are given.5. Whenever we want to compare the variability of two series with same mean. = σ x × 100 . 44.5 . we do not merely calculate the measures of dispersion but we require such measures which are independent of the units. The diameters of circles (in mm) drawn in a design are given below: Diameters No.] 15. we have studied about some types of measures of dispersion. 40.5-44. 36.5-40.48.

Let us now take following examples: Example 13 Two plants A and B of a factory show following results about the number of workers and the wages paid to them. Thus. A B No. Then 1 C. Also.6. we say that for two series with equal means.Vs. (2nd distribution) = σ1 x × 100 . (1) × 100 . the series with greater standard deviation (or variance) is called more variable or dispersed than the other. of workers Average monthly wages Variance of distribution of wages 5000 Rs 2500 81 6000 Rs 2500 100 σ2 In which plant.. and x2 and σ2 be the mean and standard deviation of the second distribution. standard deviation of the distribution of wages in plant A ( σ 1 ) = 9 .V. (2) x It is clear from (1) and (2) that the two C. can be compared on the basis of values of σ 1 and σ 2 only. the series with lesser value of standard deviation (or variance) is said to be more consistent than the other. (1st distribution) = C.V.V..1 Comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean Let x1 and σ1 be the mean and standard deviation of the first distribution. (1st distribution) = x × 100 1 σ and C.. (2nd distribution) = σ2 x2 × 100 Given x1 = x2 = x (say) Therefore and C.STATISTICS 373 15.. A or B is there greater variability in individual wages? Solution The variance of the distribution of wages in plant A ( σ 12 ) = 81 Therefore.V.

C. and their standard deviations are 21 and 16. therefore. the variance of the distribution of wages in plant B ( σ 2 2 ) = 100 Therefore. What are their arithmetic means.3 cm . we have to calculate their coefficients of variation. σ 1 = 21 C. (1st distribution) = Therefore 60 = σ1 x1 × 100 21 21 ×100 or x1 = × 100 = 35 x1 60 and i.36 kg 23. (1st distribution) = 60.1361 kg2 Can we say that the weights show greater variation than the heights? Solution To compare the variability.e.V.6 cm 127.e.374 MATHEMATICS Also.69cm = 11. Given Therefore Also Variance of height = 127. the plant with greater standard deviation will have more variability. σ 2 = 16 Let x1 and x2 be the means of 1st and 2nd distribution.V. (2nd distribution) = 70.69cm2 Standard deviation of height = Variance of weight = 23. standard deviation of the distribution of wages in plant B ( σ2 ) = 10 Since the average monthly wages in both the plants is same. respectively. Example 14 Coefficient of variation of two distributions are 60 and 70.85 x2 70 Example 15 The following values are calculated in respect of heights and weights of the students of a section of Class XI : Height Weight Mean Variance 162.. the plant B has greater variability in the individual wages. i.2500.69 cm2 52. Thus. Rs. (2nd distribution) = 70 = σ2 x2 ×100 16 16 × 100 or x2 = × 100 = 22. respectively.1361 kg 2 127.V. Then C. Solution Given C.V.

From the data given below state which group is more variable.) are given by (C.V.95 × 100 = 9. belonging to the same industry. 10-20 20-30 30-40 9 10 17 20 32 30 40-50 50-60 60-70 33 25 40 43 10 15 70-80 9 7 From the prices of shares X and Y below.V.6 4.36 × 100 = 6.3 162. shows greater variability in individual wages? 586 Rs 5253 100 Firm B 648 Rs 5253 121 . A or B? Marks Group A Group B 2.81 52. An analysis of monthly wages paid to workers in two firms A and B.3 1. in weights is greater than the C. of wage earners Mean of monthly wages Variance of the distribution of wages (i) Which firm A or B pays larger amount as monthly wages? (ii) Which firm. the coefficient of variations (C. gives the following results: Firm A No.V.81 kg Now. in heights Therefore.) in heights = Standard Deviation Mean × 100 = and (C. EXERCISE 15.1361 kg = 4.) in weights = 11.STATISTICS 375 Therefore Standard deviation of weight = 23. we can say that weights show more variability than heights. A or B.V.18 Clearly C. find out which is more stable in value: X 35 54 107 52 105 53 105 56 106 58 107 52 104 50 103 51 104 49 101 Y 108 3.V.

Given that variance = 5 and n = 20.. find the new variance of the resulting observations. Find which team may be considered more consistent? The sum and sum of squares corresponding to length x (in cm) and weight y (in gm) of 50 plant products are given below: ∑ xi = 212 . i =1 50 ∑ yi = 261 . Solution Let the observations be x1. (1) or ∑ (xi − x )2 = 100 i =1 If each observation is multiplied by 2. we get . the length or weight? Miscellaneous Examples Example 16 The variance of 20 observations is 5. 20 ∑ xi n i =1 i =1 i =1 i.. x2. We know that Variance σ 2 = 20 ( ) 1 n ∑ (xi − x )2 . of matches 0 1 1 9 2 7 3 5 4 3 5. y=2x or x= 1 y 2 Substituting the values of xi and x in (1). If each observation is multiplied by 2... of goals scored No. then yi = 2xi i. xi = y= 1 yi 2 Therefore 1 20 1 20 1 20 ∑ yi = 20 ∑ 2 xi = 2 . i..376 MATHEMATICS 4.8 .. i =1 50 ∑ yi2 = 1457. and the new resulting observations are yi ..e.e. .e.6 i =1 50 Which is more varying.25 goals. The following is the record of goals scored by team A in a football session: No. i =1 50 ∑ xi2 = 902. For the team B. mean number of goals scored per match was 2 with a standard deviation 1. 5 = i =1 20 1 20 ∑ (xi − x )2 20 i =1 . x20 and x be their mean.

from (1) and (5).4 and their variance is 8.. (5) or x–y= ±5 So.4 ) ⎤ ⎣( ) ( ) ( ) ⎦ 5 or 41. the variance of the resulting observations becomes k2 times the original variance. x. Example 18 If each of the observation x1. i.20 = 11. (1) 1 5 2 variance = 8. x2.8 × 13 + 38. 6.. (3) x2 + y2 + 2xy = 169 From (2) and (3)..56 + 5.. we have 2xy = 72 ... y = 9 when x – y = – 5 Thus.e.xn is increased by ‘a’. y = 4 when x – y = 5 or x = 4. ... Solution Let the other two observations be x and y. y. Now or Therefore Also i. find the other two observations. ⎠ i =1 ⎝ 20 2 ∑(y i =1 20 i − y ) 2 = 400 Thus the variance of new observations = 1 × 400 = 20 = 22 × 5 20 Note The reader may note that if each observation is multiplied by a constant k.. we get x = 9.4 = 1+ 2 + 6 + x + y 5 22 = 9 + x + y x + y = 13 .24 = Mean x = 4. we get x2 + y2 – 2xy = 97 – 72 i. the remaining observations are 4 and 9..72 .e. where a is a negative or positive number.STATISTICS 377 1 ⎞ ⎛1 ∑ ⎜ 2 yi − 2 y ⎟ = 100 .e. Therefore.24.76 + 2. (x – y)2 = 25 . If three of the observations are 1.4 + 1.6 + x 2 + y 2 − 2 × 4. 2 and 6. we have . 2.4 (x + y ) + 2 × ( 4.56 + x2 + y2 –8..24 = ∑ ( xi −x ) n i =1 1⎡ 2 2 2 2 3. show that the variance remains unchanged.. .4 + 2. (2) Therefore x2 + y2 = 97 But from (1). (4) Subtracting (4) from (2). the series is 1.. 8.. Example17 The mean of 5 observations is 4.

.1 We know that x= 1 n ∑ xi n i =1 1 100 ∑ xi or 100 i =1 i. Example 19 The mean and standard deviation of 100 observations were calculated as 40 and 5.1. .. y = x+a Thus. (1) 1 n ∑ yi = n ∑ (xi + a) i =1 i =1 n 1 n n ⎤ 1⎡n 1 xi + ∑ a ⎥ = = n ⎢∑ n i =1 ⎦ ⎣ i =1 ∑x + i i =1 n na =x+a n .e. the variance of the new observations is same as that of the original observations.378 MATHEMATICS Solution Let x be the mean of x1. respectively by a student who took by mistake 50 instead of 40 for one observation. Incorrect standard deviation (σ) = 5.xn . Then the variance is given by σ 12 = 1 n ∑ (xi − x ) i =1 n 2 If ‘a is added to each observation.. Then y= . Note We may note that adding (or subtracting) a positive number to (or from) each observation of a group does not affect the variance. the variance of the new observations σ2 2 1 = n 1 = n ∑ (yi − y ) 2 = i =1 n i =1 n 1 n ∑ ( xi + a − x − a) 2 n i =1 [Using (1) and (2)] ∑ (xi − x )2 = σ 12 Thus.. What are the correct mean and standard deviation? Solution Given that number of observations (n) = 100 Incorrect mean ( x ) = 40.e. (2) i.. the new observations will be yi = xi + a Let the mean of the new observations be y .. x2.. 40 = ∑ xi = 4000 i =1 100 .

e. 5.e. Thus Incorrect sum of observations = 4000 the correct sum of observations = Incorrect sum – 50 + 40 = 4000 – 50 + 40 = 3990 Hence Correct mean = correct sum 3990 = = 39.01 = × Incorrect 100 n 2 ∑x i =1 n 2 i – 1600 Incorrect ∑ xi = 100 (26.01 − 1592.9 100 100 1 n Also Standard deviation σ = ∑ xi i =1 n n 2 1⎛ n ⎞ − 2 ⎜ ∑ xi ⎟ n ⎝ i =1 ⎠ 2 2 2 = 1 100 1 n 1 n 2 ∑ x − (x ) i =1 i i.1 = × Incorrect ∑ xi − (40) 2 i =1 or Therefore 26.STATISTICS 379 i.01 = 25 =5 .9) 2 1617.01 + 1600) = 162601 i =1 n Now Correct ∑ xi 2 = Incorrect ∑ xi 2 – (50) i =1 i =1 n 2 + (40)2 = 162601 – 2500 + 1600 = 161701 Therefore Correct standard deviation Correct n = ∑x 2 i − (Correct mean) 2 = = 161701 100 − (39.

respectively. The mean and variance of eight observations are 9 and 9. The mean and standard deviation of 20 observations are found to be 10 and 2. 14. 4. variance. Physics and Chemistry are given below: Subject Mean Standard deviation Mathematics 42 12 Physics 32 15 Chemistry 40. The mean and standard deviation of six observations are 8 and 4. standard deviation are measures of dispersion. If five of the observations are 2. Calculate the correct mean and standard deviation in each of the following cases: (i) If wrong item is omitted. Prove that the mean and variance of the observations ax1. respectively.. 12. which of the three subjects shows the highest variability in marks and which shows the lowest? The mean and standard deviation of a group of 100 observations were found to be 20 and 3. Given that x is the mean and σ2 is the variance of n observations x1.D... Summary Measures of dispersion Range. Mathematics. 12 and 13. 12. Quartile deviation. respectively. n M. 5. mean deviation.25. x2. respectively.D. If six of the observations are 6. it was found that an observation 8 was incorrect. . Range = Maximum Value – Minimum Value Mean deviation for ungrouped data M. 6. The mean and variance of 7 observations are 8 and 16. 7. 10. ax3. 10. respectively.. 21 and 18. (x ) = ∑ ( xi – x ) .xn. If each observation is multiplied by 3. (ii) If it is replaced by 12. Later on it was found that three observations were incorrect. . On rechecking. Find the mean and standard deviation if the incorrect observations are omitted.9 20 4. ax2. find the remaining two observations. axn are a x and a2 σ2. respectively. which were recorded as 21.. 3. (M) = ∑ ( xi – M ) n . find the new mean and new standard deviation of the resulting observations. 2.380 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Exercise On Chapter 15 1. (a ≠ 0)... 7. The mean and standard deviation of marks obtained by 50 students of a class in three subjects. Find the remaining two observations.

D. M.C.V. x For series with equal means. particularly. ∑ ( xi – x ) n n Variance and standard deviation of a discrete frequency distribution σ2 = 1 1 2 2 ∑ fi ( xi − x ) . The system of collecting data related to births and deaths is mentioned in Kautilya’s Arthshastra (around 300 B.C. the series with lesser standard deviation is more consistent or less scattered.. we had an efficient system of collecting administrative statistics. In India also.STATISTICS 381 Mean deviation for grouped data N N Variance and standard deviation for ungrouped data M. where N = ∑ f i 1 1 2 σ= ∑ (xi – x )2 . σ = N N∑ fi xi2 − ( ∑ fi xi ) N Shortcut method to find variance and standard deviation. x ≠ 0. σ = N ∑ fi ( xi − x ) N Variance and standard deviation of a continuous frequency distribution σ2 = 2 1 1 2 ∑ fi ( xi − x ) .) A detailed account of administrative surveys conducted during Akbar’s regime is given in Ain-I-Akbari written by Abul Fazl.C. 2 where yi = xi − A h × 100. σ2 = σ2 = 2 h2 ⎡ N f y 2 − ( ∑ fi yi ) ⎤ . This suggests that statistics is as old as human civilisation.). . (M) = ∑ fi ( xi – M ) .) = σ Historical Note ‘Statistics’ is derived from the Latin word ‘status’ which means a political state. about 2000 years ago. In the year 3050 B. Coefficient of variation (C. during the regime of Chandra Gupta Maurya (324-300 B.D. ( x ) = ∑ fi ( xi – x ) . σ 2 ⎢ ∑ i i ⎥ ⎦ N ⎣ = h N N ∑ fi yi2 − ( ∑ fi yi ) . perhaps the first census was held in Egypt.

Biometry. — — . published in 1713. Agriculture. pioneered the use of statistical methods. Karl Pearson (1857-1936) contributed a lot to the development of statistical studies with his discovery of Chi square test and foundation of statistical laboratory in England (1911). Fisher (1890-1962). applied it to various diversified fields such as Genetics.. in the field of Biometry. The theoretical development of statistics came during the mid seventeenth century and continued after that with the introduction of theory of games and chance (i. Education. Francis Galton (1822-1921). etc.e. probability). an Englishman.382 MATHEMATICS Captain John Graunt of London (1620-1674) is known as father of vital statistics due to his studies on statistics of births and deaths. known as the Father of modern statistics. Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) stated the Law of Large numbers in his book “Ars Conjectandi’. Sir Ronald A.

5 and 6 (six in number). to define probability. we used equally likely or equally probable outcomes.4. In classical theory we assume all the outcomes to be equally likely. This is called statistical approach of probability. Thus. we learnt to find the probability on the basis of observations and collected data.2. we find the ratio of the number of outcomes favourable to the event. In other words. in 1933. to the total Kolmogorove number of equally likely outcomes. these theories can not be applied to the activities/experiments which have infinite number of outcomes.4.Chapter 16 PROBABILITY Where a mathematical reasoning can be had. This theory of probability (1903-1987) is known as classical theory of probability. Both the theories have some serious difficulties. we assume that all outcomes have equal chance (probability) to occur. it is as great a folly to make use of any other. another theory of probability was developed by A. – JOHN ARBUTHNOT 16. He .e. This is logically not a correct definition. to obtain the probability of an event.. Thus. as to grope for a thing in the dark. when you have a candle in your hand. a Russian mathematician. Kolmogorov. .6 (i.3. For instance. three in number). Here the 6 2 total possible outcomes are 1. In Class IX..e. The outcomes in favour of the event of ‘getting an even number’ are 2. Recall that the outcomes are called equally likely when we have no reason to believe that one is more likely to occur than the other.1 Introduction In earlier classes. We have obtained the probability of getting an even number in throwing a die as 3 1 i. In general.N. we studied about the concept of probability as a measure of uncertainty of various phenomenon.

Thus. 2. Find a sample space. To understand this approach we must know about few basic terms viz. Check whether the experiment of tossing a die is random or not? In this chapter. 4. without knowing the three angles. but we are not sure which one of these results will actually be obtained. Let us now consider some examples. in what follows next. 6} is called the sample space of the experiment.384 MATHEMATICS laid down some axioms to interpret probability. we perform many activities which have a fixed result no matter any number of times they are repeated. we will study about this approach called axiomatic approach of probability. the possible outcomes may be . we can definitely say that the sum of measure of angles is 180°. where the result may not be same. 5. For example given any triangle. Solution Clearly the coins are distinguishable in the sense that we can speak of the first coin and the second coin. in his book ‘Foundation of Probability’ published in 1933. Let us learn about these all. 4. In this Chapter. 16. we shall refer the random experiment by experiment only unless stated otherwise. the set of all possible outcomes of a random experiment is called the sample space associated with the experiment. 16.2. An experiment is called random experiment if it satisfies the following two conditions: (i) It has more than one possible outcome. In other words.2 Random Experiments In our day to day life. each outcome of the random experiment is also called sample point. Example 1 Two coins (a one rupee coin and a two rupee coin) are tossed once. 3. Consider the experiment of rolling a die. sample space. Sample space is denoted by the symbol S. Such experiments are called random experiments. The outcomes of this experiment are 1. when a coin is tossed it may turn up a head or a tail. For example. 5. 2. random experiment. etc. or 6. (ii) It is not possible to predict the outcome in advance. 3.1 Outcomes and sample space A possible result of a random experiment is called its outcome. events. when they are repeated under identical conditions. We also perform many experimental activities. Since either coin can turn up Head (H) or Tail(T). Each element of the sample space is called a sample point. if we are interested in the number of dots on the upper face of the die. The set of outcomes {1.

4).5).5). the outcomes may be RH or RQ. find the number of elements of this sample space. The first coin he takes out of his pocket may be any one of the three coins Q. H or R.5).2). (6. Solution (i) Let Q denote a 1 rupee coin. .1).2). Example 2 Find the sample space associated with the experiment of rolling a pair of dice (one is blue and the other red) once. (5.PROBABILITY 385 Heads on both coins = (H. Corresponding to Q.5).3). (1. (3. (4.1). (2.6).6) (3.H) = TH Tail on both coins = (T. Therefore. (2. (6. (4. TT} Note The outcomes of this experiment are ordered pairs of H and T. Lastly. the second draw may be H or R.3).3). (5. y).1). the second draw may be H or Q.4). HT. We denote this outcome by an ordered pair (1. (2. In general each outcome can be denoted by the ordered pair (x.4).4). (1.2). (1.T) = TT Thus. where x is the number appeared on the blue die and y is the number appeared on the red die. For the sake of simplicity the commas are omitted from the ordered pairs. He takes out two coins out of his pocket.H) = HH Head on first coin and Tail on the other = (H. Simlarly. H denotes a 2 rupee coin and R denotes a 5 rupee coin. The number of elements of this sample space is 6 × 6 = 36 and the sample space is given below: {(1. y): x is the number on the blue die and y is the number on the red die}.5). (3. (1. this sample space is given by S = {(x. A person is noting down the number of accidents along a busy highway during a year. Similarly.1).3).1). (5. (6. So. (6. corresponding to R.5).6) (5. Solution Suppose 1 appears on blue die and 2 on the red die.6).2). (5.6). (6. the second draw may be Q or R.6)} Example 3 In each of the following experiments specify appropriate sample space (i) (ii) A boy has a 1 rupee coin. the sample space is S = {HH. (2. (6. the outcomes may be HQ or HR.3). (3.1). (4. (4. a 2 rupee coin and a 5 rupee coin in his pocket. Therefore. (1. (2. TH. one after the other.4). (4.2). corresponding to H.3). (3.2). (4.2).T) = HT Tail on first coin and Head on the other = (T.4). the outcome is denoted by the ordered pair (3. (3.5). So the result of two draws may be QH or QR. (5. if ‘3’ appears on blue die and ‘5’ on red. (2. Also.

or some other positive integer. HW4.. A die is thrown two times. T2. 7.1 In each of the following Exercises 1 to 7. A coin is tossed three times. Specify the sample space for the experiment in which a room is selected and then a person. TTH. Describe the sample space. a sample space associated with this experiment is S= {0. if it shows tail we throw a die. TTTTH. the sample space is S={QH. Then a sample space of the experiment is S = { HB1. TTTH. HQ. A coin is tossed and then a die is rolled only in case a head is shown on the coin. Describe the sample space of this experiment.} Example 4 A coin is tossed. Hence. T4. Thus. B3 and the white balls by W1. HR. RQ} (ii) The number of accidents along a busy highway during the year of observation can be either 0 (for no accident ) or 1 or 2. W4. If it shows head. 8. Solution In the experiment head may come up on the first toss.386 MATHEMATICS Thus. W2. RH. describe the sample space for the indicated experiment. Example 5 Consider the experiment in which a coin is tossed repeatedly until a head comes up. and 1 boy and 3 girls in Room Y. Similarly.. A coin is tossed four times. T3. W3. 2 boys and 2 girls are in Room X. T6}.. its colour and the number on its uppermost face is noted. Describe the sample space. we draw a ball from a bag consisting of 3 blue and 4 white balls. 3. HB3. A coin is tossed and a die is thrown. Here HBi means head on the coin and ball Bi is drawn. T5. HB2. or the 2nd toss. 1. QR. An experiment consists of recording boy–girl composition of families with 2 children. One die is selected at random and rolled. B2. HWi means head on the coin and ball Wi is drawn. Ti means tail on the coin and the number i on the die. T1.. Solution Let us denote blue balls by B1. one of white colour and one of blue colour are placed in a bag. 4.. HW1.1. 2. HW3. One die of red colour. or the 3rd toss and so on till head is obtained..2. 5. (i) What is the sample space if we are interested in knowing whether it is a boy or girl in the order of their births? . TH.} EXERCISE 16. the desired sample space is S= {H. 6. HW2.

13. 15. An associated sample space is S = {HH. HT. Find the sample space. We find that HT and TH are the only elements of S corresponding to the occurrence of this happening (event).3 Event We have studied about random experiment and sample space associated with an experiment. we draw a ball from a box which contains 2 red and 3 black balls. a die is thrown. Write the sample space of this experiment. then a die is rolled once. If the out come is a head. Each bulb is tested and classified as defective (D) or non – defective(N). 2. Find the sample space for this experiment. A die is thrown repeatedly untill a six comes up. If it shows head. 16. The slips are put in a box and mixed thoroughly. without replacement. What is the sample space if we are interested in the number of girls in the family? A box contains 1 red and 3 identical white balls. An experiment consists of rolling a die and then tossing a coin once if the number on the die is even. Suppose 3 bulbs are selected at random from a lot. Consider the experiment of tossing a coin two times.PROBABILITY 387 (ii) 9. 3 and 4 are written separatly on four slips of paper. 11. TH} We know that the set E is a subset of the sample space S . Similarly. Two balls are drawn at random in succession without replacement. The sample space serves as an universal set for all questions concerned with the experiment. Describe the sample space for the experiment. Now suppose that we are interested in those outcomes which correspond to the occurrence of exactly one head. A coin is tossed. the die is thrown again. A person draws two slips from the box. What is the sample space for this experiment? 16. we find the following correspondence between events and subsets of S. Write the sample space for this experiment. If it shows a tail. 10. the coin is tossed twice. If the die shows up an even number. TT}. we throw a die. If a tail occurs on the first toss. . An experiment consists of tossing a coin and then throwing it second time if a head occurs. one after the other. A coin is tossed. These two elements form the set E = { HT. 12. If the number on the die is odd. Write the sample space for this experiment. 14. TH. What is the sample space for the experiment? The numbers 1.

16. In the light of this we define an event as follows. Clearly . we say that the empty set only correspond to the event E. In other words we can say that it is impossible to have a multiple of 7 on the upper face of the die. Impossible and Sure Events The empty set φ and the sample space S describe events. TH. Can you write the subset asociated with the event E? Clearly no outcome satisfies the condition given in the event. 2. i. we say that event E has occurred Thus. TT} D = { HT.388 MATHEMATICS Description of events Number of tails is exactly 2 Number of tails is atleast one Number of heads is atmost one Second toss is not head Number of tails is atmost two Number of tails is more than two Corresponding subset of ‘S’ A = {TT} B = {HT.. 5.. the whole sample space is called the sure event. If actually ‘1’ had appeared on the die then we say that event E has occurred. TH. As a matter of fact if outcomes are 2 or 3. we say that the event E has not occurred.e. In fact φ is called an impossible event and S. If the outcome ω is such that ω ∉ E. HT.1 Occurrence of an event Consider the experiment of throwing a die. the event E = φ is an impossible event.e. 3. TT} φ The above discussion suggests that a subset of sample space is associated with an event and an event is associated with a subset of sample space. i. To understand these let us consider the experiment of rolling a die.3.3. TT} S = {HH. 16. the event E of a sample space S is said to have occurred if the outcome ω of the experiment is such that ω ∈ E. Let E denotes the event “ a number less than 4 appears”. 4. Thus. TT} C = {HT. TH. Now let us take up another event F “the number turns up is odd or even”. 1. 6} Let E be the event “ the number appears on the die is a multiple of 7”. Definition Any subset E of a sample space S is called an event.2 Types of events Events can be classified into various types on the basis of the elements they have. Thus. The associated sample space is S = {1. no element of the sample space ensures the occurrence of the event E.

TTH. Let A. HTH. Compound Event If an event has more than one sample point. It is also called the event ‘not A’. These are E1= {HH}. HTT.PROBABILITY 389 F = {1. For example. HTH. hence they are all compound events.THT. An associated sample space is S = {HHH. THH. it is called a simple (or elementary) event. Simple Event If an event E has only one sample point of a sample space. TTH} Each of the above subsets contain more than one sample point. we have studied about different ways of combining two or more sets. TTT} Let A={HTH. THT. HHT. HTT. THH.3 Algebra of events In the Chapter on Sets. HHH} G= {TTT. take the experiment ‘of tossing three coins’. But we may say that the event ‘not A’ has occurred. THT. the event A has not occurred. 6. Thus. it is called a Compound event. we say that ‘not A’ occurs. the event F = S is a sure event. 1. HHT. E2={HT}. 16. all outcomes of the experiment ensure the occurrence of the event F. THH} be the event ‘only one tail appears’ Clearly for the outcome HTT. 5. Like-wise we can combine two or more events by using the analogous set notations. Thus. For example.. The subsets of S associated with these events are E={HTT. 4. B.} = S. 2. 3. difference. HT. . TH. intersection. HHT. there corresponds another event A ′ called the complementary event to A.TTH} F={HTT. are all compound events. E3= { TH} and E4={TT}. 2. a sample space is S={HH. Complementary Event For every event A.e. In a sample space containing n distinct elements.3. C be events associated with an experiment whose sample space is S. 3. viz.THT. with every outcome which is not in A. TTH. there are exactly n simple events. union. complement of a set etc. For example in the experiment of tossing two coins. i. in the experiment of “tossing a coin thrice” the events E: ‘Exactly one head appeared’ F: ‘Atleast one head appeared’ G: ‘Atmost one head appeared’ etc. TT} There are four simple events corresponding to this sample space.

5.2}. (6.5} (iii) ‘A but not B’ = A – B = {2} (iv) ‘not A’ = A′ = {1. If A and B are two events. TTT} or A′ = {ω : ω ∈ S and ω ∉A} = S – A. 3. 3. 4. 2. THT. Therefore. 5} (ii) ‘A and B’ = A ∩ B = {3. 5} and B = {1. A ∩ B = {ω : ω ∈ A and ω ∈ B} Thus. (6. 3.5).6). The Event ‘A or B’ Recall that union of two sets A and B denoted by A ∪ B contains all those elements which are either in A or in B or in both.5). in the experiment of ‘throwing a die twice’ Let A be the event ‘score on the first throw is six’ and B is the event ‘sum of two scores is atleast 11’ then A = {(6. (6. Write the sets representing the events (i) Aor B (ii) A and B (iii) A but not B (iv) ‘not A’.5). 5} Obviously (i) ‘A or B’ = A ∪ B = {1. 3. (6. (6.6)} so A ∩ B = {(6. then the set A ∩ B denotes the event ‘A and B’. A = {2. (6. 6}..6)} Note that the set A ∩ B = {(6. Event ‘A or B’ = A ∪ B = {ω : ω ∈ A or ω ∈ B} 3. The Event ‘A but not B’ We know that A–B is the set of all those elements which are in A but not in B. TTH. i. (6.We know that A – B = A ∩ B´ Example 6 Consider the experiment of rolling a die. This event ‘A ∪ B’ is also called ‘A or B’. (6.4.4). the set A–B may denote the event ‘A but not B’. 2.390 MATHEMATICS Thus the complementary event ‘not A’ to the event A is A′ = {HHH.1). (6.e. Therefore 4. Solution Here S = {1. then ‘A ∪ B’ is the event ‘either A or B or both’. B be the event ‘getting an odd number’.6)}.5). When the sets A and B are two events associated with a sample space.6)} may represent the event ‘the score on the first throw is six and the sum of the scores is atleast 11’. HTT.3). For example. and B = {(5. which belong to both ‘A and B’. Let A be the event ‘getting a prime number’. The Event ‘A and B’ We know that intersection of two sets A ∩ B is the set of those elements which are common to both A and B. 2.6} .

.3. We have S = {1. then events E1.4 Mutually exclusive events In the experiment of rolling a die. events E1. En are n events of a sample space S and if E1 ∪ E 2 ∪ E 3 ∪ . ∪ E n = ∪ E i = S i =1 n then E1. Such events A. In other words. there is no outcome which ensures the occurrence of events A and B simultaneously. 2. E2. 6} Clearly A ∩ B = φ. En are called exhaustive events. Consider events. Again in the experiment of rolling a die. 2.. 2. 3.. A and B are not mutually exclusive events. 5} and B = {2. 3. We observe that A ∪ B ∪ C = {1. 6} = S.. events Ei and Ej are pairwise disjoint and i =1 ∪ E i = S . a sample space is S = {1. In this case the sets A and B are disjoint.. Remark Simple events of a sample space are always mutually exclusive. E2.. 3} Now 3 ∈ A as well as 3 ∈ B Therefore. 16. E2. In general.5 Exhaustive events Consider the experiment of throwing a die.In other words.. .... 5..3. In general. B: ‘a number greater than 2 but less than 5 appears’ and C: ‘a number greater than 4 appears’. 6}. . 4. 3}. 2.e... i. Here A = {1. 6}.4} and C = {5.e. if E1. if Ei ∩ Ej = φ for i ≠ j i. 4. 3.. 5} and B = {1. A and B are disjoint sets. consider the events A ‘an odd number appears’ and event B ‘a number less than 4 appears’ Obviously A = {1. Then A = {1. 2. . A ‘an odd number appears’ and B ‘an even number appears’ Clearly the event A excludes the event B and vice versa.. Let us define the following events A: ‘a number less than 4 appears’. E2. 6}. 3} ∪ {3. 3.. .e.. B and C are called exhaustive events. . Further.PROBABILITY 391 16. i. two events A and B are called mutually exclusive events if the occurrence of any one of them excludes the occurrence of the other event. if they can not occur simultaneously.. En are called mutually exclusive and exhaustive n events. 4. En are said to be exhaustive if atleast one of them necessarily occurs whenever the experiment is performed. B = {3. 4} ∪ {5. 5.

2). D: ‘the sum is greater than 11’.. (4. 4). Similarly A ∩ C ≠ φ. (5. THT. 1). HTH.392 MATHEMATICS We now consider some examples. (B. Let us consider the following events associated with this experiment A: ‘the sum is even’. y = 1. 4. HTT.e. 4). 6)} C = {(1. 2). C = {HHT. (1. TTH. (2. TTH}. 6)} ≠ φ Therefore. 6). 2). Example 7 Two dice are thrown and the sum of the numbers which come up on the dice is noted. C). (5. 1). A. (2. 2). 1). Then A = {(1. (4. (4. 6). 6). (6. HHH} = S Therefore. 1). Also. D) are not mutually exclusive events. (2. TTH. C). B ∩ C ≠ φ and B ∩ D ≠ φ. (2. (3. (4. 3). (A. (A. 4). (5. (5. (2. (1. 6)} We find that A ∩ B = {(1. 4). A ∩ D ≠ φ. (3. 3). 1). (B. (3. (3. Also C ∩ D = φ and so C and D are mutually exclusive events. 5). 3). 3. THH. THT. they are mutually exclusive. Hence. the pairs. 3). (2. 2). A ∩ C = φ and B ∩ C = φ Therefore. 2. HHH} Now A ∪ B ∪ C = {TTT. Thus. 3). (2. 5). (1. 1). A and B are not mutually exclusive events. (5. 3). y): x. TTT} and A = {TTT}. Which pairs of these events are mutually exclusive? Solution There are 36 elements in the sample space S = {(x. 5). B: ‘the sum is a multiple of 3’. Do they form a set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive events? Solution The sample space of the experiment is S = {HHH. HHT. HTH. 5. . D). B = {HTT. HTT. B: ‘Exactly one head appears’ and C: ‘Atleast two heads appear’. i. HHT. 4). 1). C: ‘the sum is less than 4’. (6. (3. HTH. A: ‘No head appears’. B and C form a set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. 6}. 2). consider the following events. (4. 2)} and D = {(6. 1). Example 8 A coin is tossed three times. (5. 6)} B = {(1. 5). THH. A ∩ B = φ. A. THT. B and C are exhaustive events. (4. (6. 5). (3. THH. (6. (6. 4). 5). (6. the events are pair-wise disjoint. (1.

2 1. Describe (i) Two events which are mutually exclusive. Two dice are thrown. A ∩ B. C denote the event” three tails show and D denote the event ‘a head shows on the first coin”. B denote the event “two heads and one tail show”. F′.PROBABILITY 393 EXERCISE 16. A die is rolled. Are E and F mutually exclusive? 2. E ∩ F′. C: getting the sum of the numbers on the dice ≤ 5. B and C are as follows: A: getting an even number on the first die. B: 2 occurs on either die C: the sum is at least 7 and a multiple of 3. Refer to question 6 above. Let A denote the event ‘three heads show”. Let E be the event “die shows 4” and F be the event “die shows even number”. (iii) Two events. state true or false: (give reason for your answer) (i) A and B are mutually exclusive (ii) A and B are mutually exclusive and exhaustive (iii) A = B′ . D ∩ E. (iv) Two events which are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Describe the following events: (i) A: a number less than 7 (iii) C: a multiple of 3 (v) E: an even number greater than 4 (ii) (iv) (vi) B: a number greater than 7 D: a number less than 4 F: a number not less than 3 Also find A ∪ B. (v) Three events which are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. A – C. Which pairs of these events are mutually exclusive? 4. Describe the events (ii) not B (iii) A or B (i) A ′ (iv) A and B (v) A but not C (vi) B or C (vii) B and C (viii) A ∩ B′ ∩ C′ 7. E ∪ F. A die is thrown. (ii) Three events which are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Three coins are tossed. 6. Three coins are tossed once. An experiment involves rolling a pair of dice and recording the numbers that come up. Which events are (ii) simple? (iii) Compound? (i) mutually exclusive? 5. D – E. which are not mutually exclusive. B: getting an odd number on the first die. 3. Describe the following events: A: the sum is greater than 8. The events A.

For example.4 Axiomatic Approach to Probability In earlier sections. ω2. i. In earlier classes.. in ‘a coin tossing’ experiment we can assign the number of the outcomes H and T. we have studied some methods of assigning probability to an event associated with an experiment having known the number of total outcomes. + P (ωn) = 1 (iii) For any event A. P(A) = ∑ P(ωi ). ω2 . To prove this. In this approach some axioms or rules are depicted to assign probabilities. ωn} It follows from the axiomatic definition of probability that (i) 0 ≤ P (ωi) ≤ 1 for each ωi ∈ S (ii) P (ω1) + P (ω2) + . we have considered random experiments. P (φ) = 0. ωi ∈ A.. we get P (E ∪ φ) = P (E) + P (φ) or P(E) = P(E) + P (φ) i.. sample space and events associated with these experiments. 16. then P(E ∪ F) = P(E) + P(F). ωn . It follows from (iii) that P(φ) = 0.e.. i.1] satisfying the following axioms (ii) P (S) = 1 (i) For any event E. Therefore. we write P(ωi ) for P({ωi }). Let S be the sample space of a random experiment. Probability theory attempts to quantify these chances of occurrence or non occurrence of events. Axiomatic approach is another way of describing probability of an event... P(H) = and P(T) = (1) to each Clearly this assignment satisfies both the conditions i.e. from axiom (iii).. Let S be a sample space containing outcomes ω1 . B′. The probability P is a real valued function whose domain is the power set of S and range is the interval [0.394 MATHEMATICS (iv) A and C are mutually exclusive (v) A and B′ are mutually exclusive. In our day to day life we use many words about the chances of occurrence of events... P (E) ≥ 0 (iii) If E and F are mutually exclusive events. S = {ω1. each number is neither less than zero nor greater than 1 and . Note It may be noted that the singleton {ωi} is called elementary event and for notational convenience.. .e. we take F = φ and note that E and φ are disjoint events.e.. C are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. (vi) A′.

probability of H = and probability of T = 3 . In fact. in this case. too.. 4 We find that both the assignments (1) and (2) are valid for probability of H and T.5 3 2 0. satisfies both conditions of the axiomatic approach of probability. Condition (ii): Sum of probabilities = 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + + =1 6 6 6 6 6 6 . Hence.3 1 6 0. we can say that there are many ways (rather infinite) to assign probabilities to outcomes of an experiment.. We now consider some examples. ω6}. Example 9 Let a sample space be S = {ω1.. (2) 4 4 Does this assignment satisfy the conditions of axiomatic approach? Yes. we can assign the numbers p and (1 – p) to both the outcomes such that 0 ≤ p ≤ 1 and P(H) + P(T) = p + (1 – p) = 1 This assignment. ω2..6 0.1 Solution (a) Condition (i): Each of the number p(ωi) is positive and less than one..PROBABILITY 395 P(H) + P(T) = 1 1 + =1 2 2 1 1 . and probability of T = 2 2 Therefore. in this case we can say that probability of H = If we take P(H) = 1 3 and P(T) = .4 1 6 0.Which of the following assignments of probabilities to each outcome are valid? Outcomes ω 1 ω2 ω3 ω4 ω5 ω6 (a) (b) (c) 1 6 1 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 6 0 1 8 1 12 2 3 1 3 1 3 − 1 4 − 1 3 (d) (e) 1 12 0.2 1 6 0..

A sample space associated with this experiment is S = {BBB. GGB. GBB.5 + 0.1. sum of probabilities = 0. GBG. Condition (ii) Sum of the probabilities = 1 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 1 Therefore. GGG}. where B stands for a defective or bad pen and G for a non – defective or good pen. GGB} and B = {BBG.2 + 0. GBB.4. We may get 0. the assignment is valid (c) Condition (i) Two of the probabilities p(ω5) and p(ω6) are negative. BGG.396 MATHEMATICS Therefore. HT.4 + 0.∀ ωi ∈ B 1 1 1 3 + + = 8 8 8 8 1 1 1 1 4 1 + + + = = 8 8 8 8 8 2 Let us consider another experiment of ‘tossing a coin “twice” = P(BBG) + P(BGB) + P(GBB) + P(BBB) = The sample space of this experiment is S = {HH.1 Probability of an event Let S be a sample space associated with the experiment ‘examining three consecutive pens produced by a machine and classified as Good (non-defective) and bad (defective)’. 2 or 3 defective pens as result of this examination. BGB. Hence Now A = {BGG. the assignment is not valid 2 Since. BBG. BGB.1 + 0.3 + 0. TT} Let the following probabilities be assigned to the outcomes . TH. Since p(ω6) = 16. the assignment is not valid (d) (e) 3 > 1. BBB} P(A) = ∑ P(ωi ). Let the probabilities assigned to the outcomes be as follows Sample point: Probability: BBB BBG BGB GBB BGG GBG GGB GGG 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 Let event A: there is exactly one defective pen and event B: there are atleast two defective pens. the assignment is valid (b) Condition (i): Each of the number p(ωi) is either 0 or 1. the assignment is not valid.6 = 2. 1.∀ωi ∈ A = P(BGG) + P(GBG) + P(GGB) = and P(B) = ∑ P(ωi ). GBG.

HHH} Now P (A ∪ B) = P(HHT) + P(HTH) + P(THH) + P(HHH) . Now. HHH} be two events associated with ‘tossing of a coin thrice’ Clearly A ∪ B = {HHT. P(TT) = 4 7 7 28 Clearly this assignment satisfies the conditions of axiomatic approach. P (A ∪ B) Let A = {HHT.. p + p + .4. we have F = {HH} = P(HH) + P(TT) = and P(F) = P(HH) = 16. i. then it follows that P(E) = m n = Number of outcomes favourable to E Total possible outcomes 16. Let all the outcomes are equally likely to occur..e. p = 1 n Let S be a sample space and E be an event. TT} Now P(E) = Σ P(wi).4. for all ωi ∈ S where 0 ≤ p ≤ 1 Since ∑ P(ωi ) =1 i.e.e. P(HT) = .. the chance of occurrence of each simple event must be same..PROBABILITY 397 P(HH) = 1 1 2 9 .. + p (n times) = 1 i=1 n or np = 1 i. THH. P(ωi) = p. THH} and B = {HTH..3 Probability of the event ‘A or B’ Let us now find the probability of event ‘A or B’.e. such that n(S) = n and n(E) = m. Here E = {HH. HTH. HTH. let us find the probability of the event E: ‘Both the tosses yield the same result’. for all wi ∈ E 1 9 4 + = 4 28 7 For the event F: ‘exactly two heads’.. i...e.2 Probabilities of equally likely outcomes Let a sample space of an experiment be S = {ω1. If each out come is equally likely. THH. i. ω2. P(TH) = .. ωn}.

then by the definition of probability of an event... if A and B are any two events associated with a random experiment. A ∪ B = (A–B) ∪ (A ∩ B) ∪ (B–A) . P( A ∪ B) = P( A) + P( B) − P (A ∩ B) In general. ∀ωi ∈ A ∪ B . Thus to get the probability P(A ∪ B) we have to subtract the probabilities of the sample points in A ∩ B from P(A) + P(B) i. P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) − ∑ P(ωi ) . [using (1)] . the elements of A ∩B are included twice.. A ∩ B and B – A are mutually exclusive) Also P(A) + P(B) = [ ∑ p(ωi ) ∀ ωi ∈ A ] + [ ∑ p(ωi ) ∀ ωi ∈ B] = [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (A–B) ∪ (A ∩ B) ] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (B – A) ∪ (A ∩ B) ] = [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (A – B) ] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (A ∩ B) ] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (B–A) ] + . then 1 1 1 1 4 1 P ( A ∪ B) = + + + = = 8 8 8 8 8 2 Also and Therefore P(A) = P(HHT) + P(HTH) + P(THH) = P(B) = P(HTH) + P(THH) + P(HHH) = P(A) + P(B) = 3 3 6 + = 8 8 8 3 8 3 8 It is clear that P(A ∪ B) ≠ P(A) + P(B) The points HTH and THH are common to both A and B . ∀ωi ∈ A ∩ B = P( A) + P( B) − P (A ∩ B) Thus we observe that.e. we have P ( A ∪ B ) = ∑ p ( ωi ) .398 MATHEMATICS If all the outcomes are equally likely. i. In the computation of P(A) + P(B) the probabilities of points HTH and THH.e. (1) [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ωi ∈ (A ∩ B)] = P(A ∪ B) + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ ωi ∈ A ∩ B] = P(A ∪ B) + P(A ∩ B) . Since we have P(A ∪ B) = [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ ωi ∈ (A–B) ] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ ωi ∈ A ∩ B] + [ ∑ P(ωi )∀ ωi ∈ B – A ] (because A–B.

10 are considered to be equally likely.. where A ∩ B and B – A are mutually exclsuive..e.. 16. we get P (A ∪B) = P (A) + P (B – A) .... Using Axiom (iii) of probability. for mutually exclusive events A and B. 3. (2) and P(B) = P ( A ∩ B) + P (B – A) . 4. where A and B – A are mutually exclusive.. it can also be proved as follows: A ∪ B = A ∪ (B – A)..PROBABILITY 399 Hence P(A ∪ B) = P (A) +P(B) – P(A ∩ B) . then the probability of each outcome is 1 10 .4.1) Fig 16..10} If all the outcomes 1. 2. 8} associated with the experiment of drawing a card from a deck of ten cards numbered from 1 to 10. . which is Axiom (iii) of probability. i. (3) Subtracting (3) from (2) gives P (A ∪ B) – P(B) = P(A) – P (A ∩ B) or P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P (B) – P (A ∩ B) The above result can further be verified by observing the Venn Diagram (Fig 16. Alternatively. Clearly the sample space is S = {1.. then A ∩ B = φ Therefore P(A ∩ B) = P (φ) = 0 Thus. . they are mutually exclusive events.1 If A and B are disjoint sets. and B = (A ∩ B) ∪ (B – A).4 Probability of event ‘not A’ Consider the event A = {2. 2. 6. we have P( A ∪ B) = P ( A) + P (B) ..

Example 10 One card is drawn from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards. If each outcome is equally likely. 5. P(A) = 13 1 = 52 4 i. (i) Let A be the event 'the card drawn is a diamond' Clearly the number of elements in set A is 13..e. 3.e. or P( A ′ ) = P(not A) = 1 – P(A) We now consider some examples and exercises having equally likely outcomes unless stated otherwise. a spade) (iv) not a diamond (v) not a black card. Therefore.. P(A′) = 6 3 = 10 5 3 2 = 1 − = 1 − P ( A) 5 5 Also. the number of possible outcomes is 52. we know that A′ and A are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events i. Solution When a card is drawn from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards. We know that P(B′) = 1 – P(B) = 1 − 4 1 12 =1 − = 52 13 13 .e. a club or. A ∩ A′ = φ and A ∪ A′ = S or P(A ∪ A′) = P(S) Now P(A) + P(A′) = 1. 9. 7. by using axioms (ii) and (iii). 10} Now P(A′) = P(1) + P(3) + P(5) + P(7) + P(9) + P(10) = Thus. calculate the probability that the card will be (i) a diamond (ii) not an ace (iii) a black card (i. Probability of a diamond card = (ii) We assume that the event ‘Card drawn is an ace’ is B Therefore ‘Card drawn is not an ace’ should be B′.400 MATHEMATICS Now P(A) = P(2) + P(4) + P(6) + P(8) = 1 1 1 1 4 2 + + + = = 10 10 10 10 10 5 Also event ‘not A’ = A ′ = {1.

Calculate the probability that it will be (i) red. (iv) not blue.e.e. Probability of not a black card = Example 11 A bag contains 9 discs of which 4 are red. i. (v) either red or yellow. A disc is drawn at random from the bag. i. 2 Thus. so the event ‘card drawn is not a diamond’ may be denoted as A' or ‘not A’ Now P(not A) = 1 – P(A) = 1 − (v) 1 3 = 4 4 The event ‘card drawn is not a black card’ may be denoted as C′ or ‘not C’. n(C) = 3 Therefore. P(B) = . B. Probability of a black card = (iv) We assumed in (i) above that A is the event ‘card drawn is a diamond’.e. n (A) = 4 Hence 4 9 (ii) The number of yelow discs = 2.PROBABILITY 401 (iii) Let C denote the event ‘card drawn is black card’ Therefore. We know that P(not C) = 1 – P(C) = 1 − 1 1 = 2 2 1 2 Therefore. i. The discs are similar in shape and size. C be defined as A: ‘the disc drawn is red’ B: ‘the disc drawn is yellow’ C: ‘the disc drawn is blue’. n (B) = 2 P(A) = 2 9 (iii) The number of blue discs = 3. Let the events A. 3 are blue and 2 are yellow. (i) The number of red discs = 4. number of elements in the set C = 26 i. P(C) = 26 1 = 52 2 1 . (ii) yellow.e.. (iii) blue.. Solution There are 9 discs in all so the total number of possible outcomes is 9..

13 = 0. The probability that both will qualify the examination is 0. Anil will not qualify the examination and F´ is ‘not F’. Then (a) The event ‘both Anil and Ashima will not qualify the examination’ may be expressed as E´ ∩ F´.05 + 0.e. A and C are mutually exclusive events.02 = 0. P(C) = 1 2 = 3 3 (v) The event ‘either red or yellow’ may be described by the set ‘A or C’ Since. Solution Let E and F denote the events that Anil and Ashima will qualify the examination. The probability that Anil will qualify the examination is 0. We know that P(not C) = 1 – P(C) Therefore. (b) (c) Atleast one of them will not qualify the examination and Only one of them will qualify the examination.98 .10 and P(E ∩ F) = 0. we have Therefore P(not C) = 1 − P(A or C) = P (A ∪ C) = P(A) + P(C) = 4 1 7 + = 9 3 9 Example 12 Two students Anil and Ashima appeared in an examination.87 (b) P (atleast one of them will not qualify) = 1 – P(both of them will qualify) = 1 – 0.05 and that Ashima will qualify the examination is 0. Since.02.e. Given that P(E) = 0.402 MATHEMATICS 3 1 = 9 3 (iv) Clearly the event ‘not blue’ is ‘not C’..05.02. P(F) = 0. E´ is ‘not E’.02 = 0. i.. Ashima will not qualify the examination.10.13 Therefore P(E´ ∩ F´) = P(E ∪ F)´ = 1 – P(E ∪ F) = 1 – 0. i. respectively.10 – 0. Find the probability that (a) Both Anil and Ashima will not qualify the examination. Also Now or E´ ∩ F´ = (E ∪ F)´ (by Demorgan's Law) P(E ∪ F) = P(E) + P(F) – P(E ∩ F) P(E ∪ F) = 0.

P ( Two men ) = 2 4 Hence C2 1 1 = 4 = C2 C2 6 EXERCISE 16. ω5 . Therefore. E ∩ F´ or E´ ∩ F. P(only one of them will qualify) = P(E ∩ F´ or E´ ∩ F) = P(E ∩ F´) + P(E´ ∩ F) = P (E) – P(E ∩ F) + P(F) – P (E ∩ F) = 0. ω2 . where E ∩ F´ and E´ ∩ F are mutually exclusive. ω3 .. two can be selected in 2 C 2 = 1 way. ω6 .11 Example 13 A committee of two persons is selected from two men and two women. (a) No men in the committee of two means there will be two women in the committee. One man out of 2 can be selected in 2 C1 ways and one woman out of 2 can be selected in 2 C1 ways. What is the probability that the committee will have (a) no man? (b) one man? (c) two men? Solution The total number of persons = 2 + 2 = 4. two can be selected in 4 C 2 ways.e.02 = 0. Out of two women.10 – 0. ω7 } .02 + 0. Therefore (c) P ( One man ) = 2 C1 × 2 C1 2 × 2 2 = = 4 2×3 3 C2 Two men can be selected in 2 C 2 way. and Ashima will not qualify) or (Anil will not qualify and Ashima will qualify) i.05 – 0. ω4 .PROBABILITY 403 (c) The event only one of them will qualify the examination is same as the event either (Anil will qualify.3 1. Which of the following can not be valid assignment of probabilities for outcomes of sample Space S = {ω1 . Together they can be selected in 2 C1 × 2 C1 ways. Out of these four person. Therefore (b) P ( no man ) = 2 4 C 2 1× 2 × 1 1 = = 4×3 6 C2 One man in the committee means that there is one woman.

4. If .3 0.3 1 7 0.7 0. Find the probability of getting (ii) 2 heads (iii) atleast 2 heads (i) 3 heads (iv) atmost 2 heads (v) no head (vi) 3 tails (vii) exactly two tails (viii) no tail (ix) atmost two tails 2 is the probability of an event. A letter is chosen at random from the word ‘ASSASSINATION’. 8. how likely is it that it is a woman? 7.2 0.01 0. (a) How many points are there in the sample space? (b) Calculate the probability that the card is an ace of spades. (v) A number less than 6 will appear. If one council member is selected for a committee at random. A die is thrown. From the sample space calculate how many different amounts of money you can have after four tosses and the probability of having each of these amounts.4 0. 5. A fair coin with 1 marked on one face and 6 on the other and a fair die are both tossed. (iii) A number less than or equal to one will appear. what is the probability that atleast one tail occurs? 3.5 – 0.2 1 7 0. find the probability of following events: (i) A prime number will appear. 11 10. Find the probability that letter is (i) a vowel (ii) a consonant 9.03 0. A card is selected from a pack of 52 cards.01 0. A fair coin is tossed four times.4 1 7 0. (ii) A number greater than or equal to 3 will appear. There are four men and six women on the city council.6 1 7 0. (iv) A number more than 6 will appear. what is the probability of the event ‘not A’. and a person win Re 1 for each head and lose Rs 1. (c) Calculate the probability that the card is (i) an ace (ii) black card.2 0.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 2.2 1 7 0.1 1 7 0.6 0.1 – 0.05 0.1 0.50 for each tail that turns up.404 MATHEMATICS Assignment (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ω 1 ω 2 ω 3 ω 4 ω 5 ω 6 ω 7 0. find the probability that the sum of numbers that turn up is (i) 3 (ii) 12 6.1 1 7 0. Three coins are tossed once. A coin is tossed twice.

P(A ∩ B) = 0. Find P(A or B). 14. 20. P(F) = and P(E and F) = . 3 1 and P(B) = .35 0. State whether E and F are mutually exclusive. The probability of passing atleast one of them is 0. P(B) = 0. 19.4. Fill in the blanks in following table: P(A ∪ B) P(A ∩ B) P(A) P(B) (i) (ii) (iii) 1 3 1 5 1 15 .. and if these six numbers match with the six numbers already fixed by the lottery committee.8 and the probability of passing the second examination is 0.. (i) P(E or F).1. Events E and F are such that P(not E or not F) = 0. the probability of a randomly chosen student passing the first examination is 0.42.. In a lottery.75. (ii) P(not E and not F). find the probability that he will be studying Mathematics or Biology.5 . Given P(A) = events. what is the probability of passing the Hindi examination? . if A and B are mutually exclusive 5 5 1 1 1 .8 13.5. If E and F are events such that P(E) = 16.16.PROBABILITY 405 11.. What is the probability of passing both? The probability that a student will pass the final examination in both English and Hindi is 0. find 4 2 8 15. Determine (i) P(not A). 0.. he wins the prize. P(B) = 0.7. P(A ∪ B) = 0. If the probability of passing the English examination is 0. 0.] 12..6 (ii) P(A) = 0. What is the probability of Winning the prize in the game. 17. a person choses six different natural numbers at random from 1 to 20. A and B are events such that P(A) = 0. (ii) P(not B) and (iii) P(A or B) In Class XI of a school 40% of the students study Mathematics and 30% study Biology.25 .6 0. 18. 10% of the class study both Mathematics and Biology.7 0.35 0.95.7. [Hint order of the numbers is not important.48 and P(A and B) = 0.5. P(B) = 0. If a student is selected at random from the class. Check whether the following probabilities P(A) and P(B) are consistently defined (i) P(A) = 0. In an entrance test that is graded on the basis of two examinations.5 and the probability of passing neither is 0.25.

DCBA} (i) Let the event ‘she visits A before B’ be denoted by E Therefore. Here F = {ABCD. 24. ACDB. What is the probability that she visits (i) (iii) (v) A before B? A first and B last? A just before B? (ii) (iv) A before B and B before C? A either first or second? Solution The number of arrangements (orders) in which Veena can visit four cities A. BADC. DBCA. P ( F) = n S = 24 = 6 ( ) Students are advised to find the probability in case of (iii). CDAB.. A sample space for the experiment is S = {ABCD. Since the number of elements in the sample space of the experiment is 24 all of these outcomes are considered to be equally likely. DACB ACBD.e. CDAB. or D is 4! i. CABD. n (S) = 24. BCAD. ADBC} n ( F) 4 1 Therefore. ADBC. The student has opted neither NCC nor NSS. ABDC. The student has opted NSS but not NCC. CBDA. ADCB BACD. BCDA CABD. BDAC. DCAB. DCAB. Miscellaneous Examples Example 14 On her vacations Veena visits four cities (A. B. find the probability that (i) (ii) (iii) The student opted for NCC or NSS. If one of these students is selected at random. DBAC. CBAD. CDBA DABC. DABC. C. ADBC.406 MATHEMATICS 21. BDCA. 32 opted for NSS and 24 opted for both NCC and NSS. CADB. (iv) and (v). ADCB} Thus (ii) P(E) = n(E) n ( S) = 12 1 = 24 2 Let the event ‘Veena visits A before B and B before C’ be denoted by F. ACBD. ABDC. B. ABDC. 30 opted for NCC. C and D) in a random order. DABC.Therefore. CADB. ACDB. In a class of 60 students. E = {ABCD. DACB. .

prove that P ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) = P ( A ) + P ( B ) +P ( C ) − P ( A ∩ B ) − P ( A ∩ C ) – P ( B ∩ C) + P ( A ∩ B ∩ C) Solution Consider E = B ∪ C so that P (A ∪ B ∪ C ) = P (A ∪ E ) = P ( A) + P ( E) − P ( A ∩ E ) Now P ( E ) = P ( B ∪ C) = P ( B) + P ( C ) − P ( B ∩ C ) .... Solution Total number of possible hands = 52 C7 48 (i) Number of hands with 4 Kings = 4 C 4 × from the rest 48 cards) C3 (other 3 cards must be chosen 4 Hence P (a hand will have 4 Kings) = C 4 × 48 C3 1 = 52 7735 C7 (ii) Number of hands with 3 Kings and 4 non-King cards = 4 C3 × 48 C 4 4 Therefore P (3 Kings) = C3 × 48 C 4 9 = 52 1547 C7 (iii) P(atleast 3 King) = P(3 Kings or 4 Kings) = P(3 Kings) + P(4 Kings) = 9 1 46 + = 1547 7735 7735 Example 16 If A.. B. it contains (i) all Kings (ii) 3 Kings (iii) atleast 3 Kings. (2) Also A ∩ E = A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C ) [using distribution property of intersection of sets over the union]. (1) .PROBABILITY 407 Example 15 Find the probability that when a hand of 7 cards is drawn from a well shuffled deck of 52 cards. C are three events associated with a random experiment. Thus P ( A ∩ E ) = P ( A ∩ B ) + P ( A ∩ C ) – P ⎡ ( A ∩ B) ∩ ( A ∩ C ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ .

C. B and C are the first three finishers. What is the probability of obtaining 3 diamonds and one spade? . (3) – P ( A ∩ B) − P ( A ∩ C ) + P ( A ∩ B ∩ C ) Example 17 In a relay race there are five teams A. B and C finish first.408 MATHEMATICS = P ( A ∩ B) + P ( A ∩ C ) – P [ A ∩ B ∩ C] Using (2) and (3) in (1). B and C finish first. B. what is the probability that (i) all will be blue? (ii) atleast one will be green? 2.e. 1 . second and third. What is the probability that A. 20 blue marbles and 30 green marbles. D and E.e. 60 A. B and C finish first. There will be 3! arrangements for A. i. i. each with ( 5 − 3 )! a probability of (a) 1 . 5 marbles are drawn from the box. the sample points corresponding to this event will be 3! in number.. second and third respectively) = (b) So P (A. 60 A. we will have 5 P3 . respectively. B and C are first three to finish (in any order) (Assume that all finishing orders are equally likely) Solution If we consider the sample space consisting of all finishing orders in the first three places. (a) (b) What is the probability that A.. second and third. ABC. respectively. Therefore. 4 cards are drawn from a well – shuffled deck of 52 cards.. B and C are first three to finish) = Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 16 1. we get P [ A ∪ B ∪ C] = P ( A ) + P ( B) + P ( C ) − P ( B ∩ C ) . B and C. 5! = 5 × 4 × 3 = 60 sample points. A box contains 10 red marbles.. There is only one finishing order for this. 3! 6 1 = = 60 60 10 Thus P(A.

2. What is the probability that the spokesperson will be either male or over 35 years? 9. If 4-digit numbers greater than 5.000 are randomly formed from the digits 0. In a certain lottery 10. 5. A die has two faces each with number ‘1’. From the employees of a company. If die is rolled once.000 tickets are sold and ten equal prizes are awarded. what is the probability of forming a number divisible by 5 when. The number lock of a suitcase has 4 wheels. The lock opens with a sequence of four digits with no repeats. No. Particulars of five persons are as follows: S. 1. A and B are two events such that P(A) = 0. each labelled with ten digits i. 5 persons are selected to represent them in the managing committee of the company.PROBABILITY 409 3. what is the probability that (a) you both enter the same section? (b) you both enter the different sections? 6. determine (i) P(2) (ii) P(1 or 3) (iii) P(not 3) 4. 1. two sections of 40 and 60 are formed. 3. 5. and 7. 3. the letters are inserted into the envelopes at random so that each envelope contains exactly one letter. 7. Out of 100 students. (i) the digits are repeated? (ii) the repetition of digits is not allowed? 10. What is the probability of a person getting the right sequence to open the suitcase? . If you and your friend are among the 100 students.35. 4.. 5. Find (i) P(A ∪ B) (ii) P(A´ ∩ B´) (iii) P(A ∩ B´) (iv) P(B ∩ A´) 8. What is the probability of not getting a prize if you buy (a) one ticket (b) two tickets (c) 10 tickets. P(B) = 0. Find the probability that at least one letter is in its proper envelope. Name Harish Rohan Sheetal Alis Salim Sex M M F F M Age in years 30 33 46 28 41 A person is selected at random from this group to act as a spokesperson.69 and P(A ∩ B) = 0. Three letters are dictated to three persons and an evelope is addressed to each of them. three faces each with number ‘2’ and one face with number ‘3’.e.54. from 0 to 9.

If A and B are any two events... P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B) If A and B are mutually exclusive. n(S) = number of elements in the set S. then P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) If A is any event. then P(not A) = 1 – P(A) . Equally likely outcomes: All outcomes with equal probability Probability of an event: For a finite sample space with equally likely outcomes Probability of an event P(A) = n(A) . En are mutually exclusive and exhaustive if E1 ∪ E2 ∪ .. The main features of this Chapter are as follows: Sample space: The set of all possible outcomes Sample points: Elements of sample space Event: A subset of the sample space Impossible event : The empty set Sure event: The whole sample space Complementary event or ‘not event’ : The set A′ or S – A Event A or B: The set A ∪ B Event A and B: The set A ∩ B Event A and not B: The set A – B Mutually exclusive event: A and B are mutually exclusive if A ∩ B = φ Exhaustive and mutually exclusive events: Events E1.410 MATHEMATICS Summary In this Chapter. where n(A) = number of elements in n(S) the set A. we studied about the axiomatic approach of probability... The number P (ω ) is called probability of the outcome ωi.∪ En = S and Ei ∩ Ej = φ V i ≠ j Probability: Number P (ωi) associated with sample point ω i such that (i) 0 ≤ P (ωi) ≤ 1 (iii) P(A) = i i (ii) ∑ P ( ω ) for all ω ∈ S = 1 i i i ∑ P ( ω ) for all ω ∈ A.. then P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B) equivalently. E2.

Both Pascal and Fermat solved the problem independently. A Frenchman and the Russian P. It was published in 1663 after his death. N Kolmogorove (1903–1987).L Chebyshev (1821–1897). A Markov (1856–1922) and A. In 1654. evolved out of practical consideration. It had its origin in the 16th century when an Italian physician and mathematician Jerome Cardan (1501–1576) wrote the first book on the subject “Book on Games of Chance” (Biber de Ludo Aleae). Besides. introduces probability as a set function and is considered a classic. A. a Frenchman Pierre Laplace (1749–1827). His book ‘Foundations of Probability’ published in 1933. Pascal and Fermat. a Dutchman. Kolmogorove is credited with the axiomatic theory of probability. outstanding contributions to probability theory were also made by Christian Huygenes (1629–1665). — — . Pascal became interested in these problems and discussed with famous French Mathematician Pierre de Fermat (1601–1665). a gambler Chevalier de Metre approached the well known French Philosoher and Mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) for certain dice problem. De Moivre (1667–1754).PROBABILITY 411 Historical Note Probability theory like many other branches of mathematics. Bernoulli (1654–1705). J.

. a2. A.. . having infinite number of terms is called infinite sequence and its indicated sum. . we shall study about some special types of series which may be required in different problem situations.. a sequence a1. .Appendix 1 INFINITE SERIES A. + an + . .. Observe that if we replace index n by negative integer or a fraction.2 Binomial Theorem for any Index In Chapter 8. then the combinations n C r do not make any sense. giving an infinite series in which the index is negative or a fraction and not a whole number.2.1. by examples. n is non-negative integer. We now state (without proof). 1.. It gives us a particular type of infinite series. . . we state a more general form of the theorem in which the index is not necessarily a whole number.1. + n Cn xn Here.e. . . called Binomial Series.. We illustrate few applications.. a1 + a2 + a3 + . we discussed the Binomial Theorem in which the index was a positive integer. + an + . a 1 + a2 + a 3 + . This series can also be expressed in abbreviated form using the sigma notation. an. We know the formula (1 + x)n = n C0 + n C1 x + . i.3 (1 + x ) m = 1 + mx + holds whenever x < 1 . is called an infinte series associated with infinite sequence. ..e. Theorem The formula m ( m − 1) 2 m ( m − 1)( m − 2 ) 3 x + x + . = ∑a k =1 ∞ k In this Chapter. i. the Binomial Theorem.1 Introduction As discussed in the Chapter 9 on Sequences and Series.2 1.. In this Section.....

. ⎛ x⎞ Example 1 Expand ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ − 1 2 .. . . This is not possible ( −2 )( −3) 1. when m is a negative integer or a fraction Consider ( a + b) m ⎡ ⎛ b ⎞⎤ b⎞ m⎛ = ⎢ a ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎥ = a ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ a⎠ ⎣ ⎝ a ⎠⎦ m m 2 ⎡ ⎤ b m ( m − 1) ⎛ b ⎞ a m ⎢1 + m + ⎜ ⎟ + .e. – 1< x < 1 is necessary when m is negative integer or a fraction. ..2 a m − 2b 2 + ... . (1 – x) – 1 = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + . when | x | < 2.⎥ = a 1. . (1 – x) – 2 = 1 +2x + 3x2 + 4x3 + . 3..2. (1 + x) – 2 = 1 –2 x + 3x2 – 4x3 + .2 ( −2 )2 + . ( m − r + 1) a m − r b r 1. when we assume x < 1 . a The general term in the expansion of (a + b)m is m ( m − 1)( m − 2 ) .2 ⎝a⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ m m −1 = a + ma b + m ( m − 1) 1. .. if we take x = – 2 and m = – 2. Note that there are infinite number of terms in the expansion of (1+ x)m. 2... . .. i. 4. 2. .. we obtain (1 − 2 )−2 = 1 + ( −2 )( −2 ) + or 1= 1 + 4 + 12 + . these are left to students as exercises: 1.r We give below certain particular cases of Binomial Theorem.INFINITE SERIES 413 Remark 1. Note carefully the condition | x | < 1. (1 + x) – 1 = 1 – x + x2 – x3 + .3. For example. . . This expansion is valid when b < 1 or equivalently when | b | < | a |.

1. and illustrate the same by examples..+ arn – 1 +. 2 4 .. 4 32 A. Section 9. . . . we have discussed the formula to find the sum of finite series a + ar + ar2 + . We have 3 n ⎛2⎞ 1− ⎜ ⎟ n ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 3 ⎡1 − ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎤ Sn = ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎝3⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1− 3 n . 2 ⎝ 2⎠ = 1+ x 3x 2 + + ..414 MATHEMATICS Solution We have ⎛ x⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ − 1 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ 2 ⎜ − ⎟ −x ⎜ − ⎟⎜ − ⎟ = 1 + ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ + ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ − x ⎞ + . a sequence a 1 . . the common ratio of G.P. . . In this section.. .P... r = 2 . if ak +1 ak = r (constant) for k = 1.. . Particularly. 3.P. 2. . where a is first term and r.1. ar. we state the formula to find the sum of infinite geometric series a + ar + ar2 + . Earlier. if we take a1 = a. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 1. .. ⎝ 3⎠ .3 Infinite Geometric Series From Chapter 9. a n is called G. Let us consider the G.. a 2.... 3 9 Here a = 1. ...P. n–1. arn–1 is taken as the standard form of G. then the resulting sequence a. . (1) ⎛ 2⎞ Let us study the behaviour of ⎜ ⎟ as n becomes larger and larger... ar2. ..3.. .. a 3. + arn – 1 which is given by Sn = a 1− rn 1− r ( ).

as n → ∞. ⎜ ⎟ becomes ⎝3⎠ ⎛2⎞ sufficiently small... . r n → 0 as n → ∞ since | r | <1 and then 1− r a as n → ∞ . we find that ⎝3⎠ n n the sum of infinitely many terms is given by S = 3.6667 5 0.00030072866 ⎛2⎞ We observe that as n becomes larger and larger. if numerical value of common ratio r is less than 1. Mathematically. ar2. In other words.. we say that as n becomes sufficiently large..1316872428 10 0. Sn → we have For example (i) 1+ 1 1 1 1 + 2 + 3 + . sum to infinity of infinite geometric series is denoted by S. ⎜ ⎟ → 0 . 1− r Symbolically.. = =2 1 2 2 2 1− 2 1 1 1 + 2 − 3 + .. ar.. = 2 2 2 1 1 2 = = 1 3 ⎛ 1⎞ 1− ⎜ − ⎟ 1+ 2 ⎝ 2⎠ S= a 1− r (ii) 1 − . Consequently.INFINITE SERIES 415 n ⎛2⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ n 1 0. ⎜ ⎟ becomes closer and closer to ⎝3⎠ ⎛2⎞ zero. for infinite geometric progression a. Therefore. Thus. In this case. then a 1− rn Sn = ( ) 1− r = a ar n − 1− r 1− r ar n → 0 . Thus.01734152992 n 20 0.

. 3! 4! 5! n! and Observe that 1 1 1 1 1 1 = and 2 = .416 MATHEMATICS Example 2 Find the sum to infinity of the G. .4 Exponential Series Leonhard Euler (1707 – 1783).. + n−1 + . 4 16 64 Solution Here a = −5 1 and r = − . which gives < 2 4 3! 2 2 3! 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 < = and 3 = . (3) . The number e is useful in calculus as π in the study of the circle... + + . .P.1.. .. 16 5! 2 2 5! 120 1 1 1 1 + 3 + 4 + ... 2 2 2 2 2 . −5 5 −5 . (1) 1! 2! 3! 4! The sum of the series given in (1) is denoted by the number e Let us estimate the value of the number e. Consider the following infinite series of numbers 1 1 1 1 + + + + .. it is clear that its sum is also positive... 4 4 −5 −5 4 = 4 = −1 .. the great Swiss mathematician introduced the number e in his calculus text in 1748. Hence.... the sum to infinity is 1 5 1+ 4 4 A.. which gives < 4 .. .. Also | r | <1 .. which gives 8 4! 23 2 4! 24 1 1 1 1 1 1 = and 4 = . (2) ... Since every term of the series (1) is positive. Consider the two sums 1+ 1 1 1 1 + + + .

1! 2! 3! n! Example 3 Find the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of e2x+3 as a series in powers of x. + n−1 + . 1! 2! 3! replacing x by (2x + 3). we can say that 1 1 < n −1 ..⎟ 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎜1 + 1! + 2! ⎟ on both sides of (4). Remark The exponential series involving variable x can be expressed as ex = 1 + x x 2 x3 xn + + + . by analogy... ⎟ ⎬ 2 2 2 ⎠⎭ ⎩ ⎝ 2 2 = 1+ 1 1 1− 2 =1+ 2 = 3 Left hand side of (5) represents the series (1).. when n > 2 n! 2 We observe that each term in (2) is less than the corresponding term in (3)...⎟ n! ⎝ 1! 2! ⎠ ⎝ 3! 4! 5! ⎠ ⎧⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎞⎫ < ⎨⎜ 1 + + ⎟ + ⎜ 2 + 3 + 4 + ...... ⎝ ⎠ . (4) Adding 1 ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎛1 1 1 ⎞ ⎜1 + + ⎟ + ⎜ + + + .. + n! ⎟ < ⎜ 2 + 3 + 4 + . + n−1 + .... + + . ⎟ ⎬ 2 2 2 ⎠⎭ ⎩⎝ 1! 2! ⎠ ⎝ 2 . Therefore e < 3 and also e > 2 and hence 2 < e < 3. (5) ⎧ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 1 ⎞⎫ = ⎨1 + ⎜ 1 + + 2 + 3 + 4 + .... + n−1 + .... we get.. Solution In the exponential series e = 1+ x x x 2 x3 + + + ......INFINITE SERIES 417 Therefore.. we get . Therefore 1⎞ ⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎛1 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ 3! + 4! + 5! + . + + .

⎥ ⎣ 1! 2! 3! ⎦ = 2e3 ... 1! 2! 3! n! .. + ( 2 x ) ⎤ . + + . Therefore... Solution Using the formula of exponential series involving x.. This can be expanded by the n! 1⎡ n n 2 n 3 + C1 3n −1 ( 2 x ) + n C2 3n− 2 ( 2 x ) + .⎥ e3 ⎢1 + = ⎣ 1! 2! 3! ⎦ Thus. the coefficient of x in the expansion of e 2 2x+3 22 e 3 .418 MATHEMATICS e 2 x+ 3 = ( 2 x + 3) + ( 2 x + 3) 2 + .. the coefficient of x2 is series is C 2 3n − 2 2 2 . ⎦ n! ⎣ n Here. Alternatively e2x+3 = e3 . the general term is Binomial Theorem as ( 2 x + 3) n n! = (3+ 2 x) n ... = 2e 3 is 2! Example 4 Find the value of e2. Thus 2e3 is the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of e2x+3.. rounded off to one decimal place. e2x ⎡ 2 x (2 x ) 2 (2 x)3 ⎤ + + + .. 1+ 1! 2! Here. we have ex = 1 + x x 2 x3 xn + + + . the coefficient of x2 in the whole n! n− 2 ∑ ∞ n n =2 ∞ n ( n − 1) 3 C 2 3n − 2 22 2 = n! n! n= 2 ∑ ∑ ∞ = 2 3n –2 [using n! = n (n – 1) (n – 2)!] n = 2 ( n − 2 )! ⎡ 3 32 33 ⎤ = 2 ⎢1 + + + + ..

.. is 7. we get e2 = 1 + 2 2 2 23 2 4 25 2 6 + + + + + + .355 and 7. rounded off to one decimal place..1.. We state the following result without proof and illustrate its application with an example. ⎟ = 7 + ⎜ ⎟ 1⎟ 15 ⎜ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 15 ⎜ 1 − 5 ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ Thus. e2 lies between 7.. A.INFINITE SERIES 419 Putting x = 2.. 2 3 4 . = 7 + ⎜ 1 + + ⎜ ⎟ + . we get 1 1 1 log e 2 = 1 – + – + . Substituting x = 1 in the expansion of loge (1+x). Theorem If | x | < 1. we have ⎛ 2 2 2 23 2 4 ⎞ 2 5 ⎛ 2 2 2 2 3 ⎞ e2 < ⎜1 + + + + ⎟ + ⎜ 1 + + 2 + 3 + .4. log e (1 + x ) = x − Note The expansion of loge (1+x) is valid for x = 1. Therefore.5 Logarithmic Series Another very important series is logarithmic series which is also in the form of infinite series. 3 3 15 45 ≥ the sum of first seven terms ≥ 7.4 . On the other hand.355.. 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! = 1+ 2 + 2 + 4 2 4 4 + + + + . the value of e2.4... ⎟ 6 ⎝ 1! 2! 3! 4! ⎠ 5! ⎝ 6 6 ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ 2 ⎞ 4 ⎛ 1 ⎛1⎞ 4⎜ 1 ⎟ 2 ⎟ = 7 + = 7. then x 2 x3 + − .... 2 3 The series on the right hand side of the above is called the logarithmic series.

. — — . β are the roots of the equation x 2 − px + q = 0 .. Here. We have also assumed that both | α x | < 1 and | β x | < 1. prove that log e 1 + px + qx 2 = ( α − β ) x − ( ) α 2 + β 2 2 α 3 + β3 3 x + x − .. we have used the facts α + β = p and αβ = q . We know this from the given roots of the quadratic equation..420 MATHEMATICS Example 5 If α. 2 3 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ α 2 x 2 α 3 x3 β 2 x 2 β3 x 3 + − ...⎥ + ⎢βx − + − .⎥ Solution Right hand side = ⎢ αx − 2 3 2 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = log e (1 + α x ) + log (1 + β x ) 2 = log e 1 + ( α + β ) x + αβ x = log e ( (1 + px + qx ) 2 ) = Left hand side.

then he can calculate the height of the tower.2 Preliminaries Mathematical modelling is an essential tool for understanding the world.Appendix 2 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING A. Egyptians. the other option is to find out the factors that are useful to find the height.2. From his knowledge of trigonometry. The architects. So. then the problem can be solved as given in Example 1.2. artisans and craftsmen based many of their works of art on geometric prinicples. Management etc. he knows that if he has an angle of elevation and the distance of the foot of the tower to the point where he is standing. It is physically very difficult to measure the height using the measuring tape. The process of translation is called Mathematical Modelling. Finance. Here we shall familiaries you with the steps involved in this process through examples. Both of which are easily measurable. Thus. then we discuss the steps involved in the process of modelling. if he measures the angle of elevation as 40° and the distance as 450m. . his job is now simplified to find the angle of elevation to the top of the tower and the distance from the foot of the tower to the point where he is standing. In olden days the Chinese. Babylonians and Greeks indulged in understanding and predicting the natural phenomena through their knowledge of mathematics. The use of Mathematics in solving real-world problems has become widespread especially due to the increasing computational power of digital computers and computing methods. Suppose a surveyor wants to measure the height of a tower. We shall first talk about what a mathematical model is. both of which have facilitated the handling of lengthy and complicated problems. So. The process of translation of a real-life problem into a mathematical form can give a better representation and solution of certain problems. A.1 Introduction Much of our progress in the last few centuries has made it necessary to apply mathematical methods to real-life problems arising from different fields – be it Science. Indians.

We have θ = 40°. Solution We shall solve this in different steps. We also know that the angle of elevation. . is 40°.. This is obtained by expressing it geometrically in the following way (Fig 1). distance and angle of elevation. is 40°. OA gives the horizontal distance from the point O to foot of the tower. ∠AOB is the angle of elevation. Find the height of the tower. we used some geometry and found that the problem can be represented geometrically as given in Fig 1. It is given that the horizontal distance of the foot of the tower from a particular point O on the ground is 450 m. denoted by θ. which is 450 m away from the foot of the tower.. AB denotes the tower. distance and angle of elevation. h and d. Then we get h = tan 40° × 450 = 450 × 0. Step 2 The three quantities mentioned in the problem are height. Step 3 We use Equation (1) to solve h. In the problem a tower is given and its height is to be measured. That means we found an equation representing the real problem.839 = 377. we have studied the real problem and found that the problem involves three parameters height. That means in this step we have studied the real-life problem and identified the parameters. Let d denotes this distance.6m Step 4 Thus we got that the height of the tower approximately 378m. Then we used the trigonometric ratio for the “tangent” function and found the relation as h = d tan θ So. and d = 450m. Then d = 450m. Step 1 We first try to understand the real problem. In the Step 2. So we look for a relation connecting these three quantities. in this step we formulated the problem mathematically. Let us now look at the different steps used in solving the problem. In step 1. Let h denote the height.422 MATHEMATICS Example 1 The angle of elevation of the top of a tower from a point O on the ground. Then we have tan θ = h or h = d tan θ d . The real problem is to find the height h of the tower using the known distance d and the angle of elevation θ. (1) Fig 1 This is an equation connecting θ.

The problem is to find the relationship between blood flow and physiological characteristics of blood vessel. 2. we solved the mathematical problem and got that h = 377. 3. wind speed. etc. Mathematical equations are arrived at. humidity. barometers to measure airpressure. air pressure.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 423 In Step 3. we interpreted the solution of the problem and stated that the height of the tower is approximately 378m. Scientists identify areas of rice cultivation and find the average yield per acre by cutting and weighing crops from some representative fields. which are called the mathematical models. Some of the parameters which affect change in weather conditions are temperature. Based on some statistical techniques decisions are made on the average yield of rice.” Here are some of the examples where mathematics is used effectively to study various situations. for example. 1. That is we found Solution of the problem. This simulated model is used to take decision of LBW. anemometers to measure wind speed. Any constriction in the blood vessel or any change in the characteristics of blood vessels can change the flow and cause damages ranging from minor discomfort to sudden death. a physiologist in the first problem and work out a mathematical equivalent of the problem. This equivalent consists of one or more equations or inequalities etc.6m. We call this as Interpreting the mathematical solution to the real situation In fact these are the steps mathematicians and others use to study various reallife situations. based on the known paths of balls before it hits the batsman’s leg. In cricket a third umpire takes decision of a LBW by looking at the trajectory of a ball. How do mathematicians help in solving such problems? They sit with experts in the area. Department of Agriculture wants to estimate the yield of rice in India from the standing crops. assuming that the batsman is not there. hygrometers to measure humidity. We shall consider the question. Once data are received from many stations around the country and feed into computers for further analysis and interpretation. The instruments are used to measure these parameters which include thermometers to measure temperature. 4. In the last step. “why is it necessary to use mathematics to solve different situations. Meteorology department makes weather predictions based on mathematical models. simulated. Proper flow of blood is essential to transmit oxygen and other nutrients to various parts of the body in humanbeings as well as in all other animals. Then .

Example 2 (Bridge Problem) Konigsberg is a town on the Pregel River. On Euler’s network this meant tracing over each arc only once. a Swiss Fig 2 mathematician in the service of the Russian empire Catherine the Great. A mathematical model is a representation which comprehends a situation. Leonhard Euler. The seven lines (arcs) are the seven bridges. In 1736 Euler proved that the walk was not possible to do. Before we explain the process. Euler proved it could not be done because he worked out that. (Think about it). He proved this by inventing a kind of diagram called a network. An interesting geometric model is illustrated in the following example. but now is Russian. we shall discuss what a mathematical model is. it just not possible to do! . and 3 join to island D. D. He used four dots (vertices) for the two river banks and the two islands. A. People tried to walk around the town in a way that only crossed each bridge once. that is made up of vertices (dots where lines meet) and arcs (lines) (Fig3). but it proved to be difficult problem. visiting all the vertices. This means that all the vertices have an odd number of arcs. These have been marked A. B and C. Remember that the problem was to travel around town crossing each bridge only once. so Fig 3 they are called odd vertices (An even vertex would have to have an even number of arcs joining to it). which in the 18th century was a German town. and 3 join to riverbank B. there can only be two odd vertices if you are to trace over each arc only once. You can see that 3 bridges (arcs) join to riverbank. Within the town are two river islands that are connected to the banks with seven bridges as shown in (Fig 2). Since there can only be one beginning and one end. heard about the problem.424 MATHEMATICS solve the model and interpret the solution in terms of the original problem. 5 bridges (arcs) join to island C. Since the bridge problem has 4 odd vertices. to have an odd vertex you would have to begin or end the trip at that vertex.

Based on this. In 1875. joining the land areas A and D (Fig 4). Identifying the relevant factors In this. for example. 1. Let us now understand the different processes involved in Mathematical Modelling. using each bridge only once? Here the situation will be as in Fig 4. This pendulum is simply a mass (known as bob) attached to one end of a string whose other end is fixed at a point. Is it possible now for the Konigsbergians to go round the city. So. The invention of networks began a new theory called graph theory which is now used in many ways. All of us are familiar with the simple pendulum. both the vertices A and D have become even degree vertices. Fig 4 However. Formulation Consists of two main steps. Conversion of physical situation into mathematics with some suitable conditions is known as mathematical modelling. B and C still have odd degree. A. So. The period depends upon the length of the string and acceleration due to gravity. we find out what are the factors/ . an extra bridge was built in Konigsberg.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 425 After Euler proved his Theorem. Mathematical modelling is nothing but a technique and the pedagogy taken from fine arts and not from the basic sciences. We have studied that the motion of the simple pendulum is periodic. including planning and mapping railway networks (Fig 4). we give a precise statement of the problem as Statement How do we find the period of oscillation of the simple pendulum? The next step is formulation. Definition Mathematical modelling is an attempt to study some part (or form) of the real-life problem in mathematical terms. understanding the process involved in the motion of simple pendulum. we consider the modelling done to study the motion of a simple pendulum. we shall define what mathematical modelling is and illustrate the different processes involved in this through examples. it is possible for the Konigsbergians to go around the city using each bridge exactly once. After the addition of the new edge.3 What is Mathematical Modelling? Here. Understanding the problem This involves. As an illustrative example.2. what we need to find is the period of oscillation. Four steps are involved in this process. much water has flown under the bridges in Konigsberg.

For example. (2) Equation (2) gives the mathematical formulation of the problem. It implies that the relation between T and l could be expressed T2 = kl It was found that k = 4π 2 . We measure the period of oscillation. which is assumed to be constant at a place. In the case of simple pendulum. we consider the length of string as effective length of the pendulum and acceleration due to gravity (g). Usually we have to do some operation which involves solving an equation. Now.. This indicates that the mass m is not an essential parameter for finding period whereas the length l is an essential parameter. We take two metal balls of two different masses and conduct experiment with each of them attached to two strings of equal lengths. 2. Mathematical description This involves finding an equation. Finding the solution The mathematical formulation rarely gives the answer directly.. in the case of pendulum. we have identified four parameters for studying the problem. This process of searching the essential parameters is necessary before we go to the next step. Now.. These values were plotted on a graph which resulted in a curve that resembled a parabola. the factors are period of oscillation (T).. the mass of the bob (m). we perform the same experiment on equal mass of balls but take strings of different lengths and observe that there is clear dependence of the period on the length of the pendulum. We make the observation that there is no appreciable change of the period with mass. Here.426 MATHEMATICS parameters involved in the problem. So. In the case of simple pendulums the solution involves applying the formula given in Equation (2). effective length (l ) of the pendulum which is the distance between the point of suspension to the centre of mass of the bob. inequality or a geometric figure using the parameters already identified. our purpose is to find T. . For this we need to understand what are the parameters that affect the period which can be done by performing a simple experiment. (1) T = 2π l g . This gives the equation g . calculation or applying a theorem etc. experiments were conducted in which the values of period T were measured for different values of l.

Table 2 Periods obtained experimentally for four different pendulums Mass (gms) 385 230 Length (cms) 275 225 275 225 Time (secs) 3. improve it. we measure the effectiveness of the model by comparing the results obtained from the mathematical model. T = 3. we will reject it.04 sec 275cm 3. The process of describing the solution in the context of the real situation is called interpretation of the model. In the case of simple pendulum. Many times model equations are obtained by assuming the situation in an idealised context.04 sec and for l = 275 cm. we conduct some experiments on the pendulum and find out period of oscillation. This process is called validation of the model. then test it again. The model will be useful only if it explains all the facts that we would like it to explain.371 3. error = 3. or else.371 – 3. we can interpret the solution in the following way: (a) The period is directly proportional to the square root of the length of the pendulum. . we compare the measured values in Table 2 with the calculated values given in Table 1. we have to interpret the model. with the known facts about the real problem.056 3. For example.011 which is small and the model is accepted. and mass m = 385 gm.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 427 The period of oscillation calculated for two different pendulums having different lengths is given in Table 1 Table 1 l T 225 cm 3. Interpretation/Validation A mathematical model is an attempt to study.36 sec. Otherwise.352 3. T = 3. Once we accept the model. The difference in the observed values and calculated values gives the error. the essential characteristic of a real life problem. In this case.042 Now.36 = 0. In other words. for l = 275 cm. The results of the experiment are given in Table 2.36 sec The table shows that for l = 225 cm.

. x.02 . y are related by the equation z = 10x + 20y . The real world is far too complex to understand and describe completely. But we found that there is some error in the calculated result and measured result.06 Cost per Kg Rs 10 Rs 20 The dietary requirements of the special food stipulate atleast 30% protein and at most 5% fibre. Then try to obtain a simplified model which gives some information about the situation. We study the simple situation with this model expecting that we can obtain a better model of the situation. We just pick one or two main factors to be completely accurate that may influence the situation. This leads us to an important observation. The special food is a mixture of corn and soyabean with the following compositions Table 3 Material Corn Soyabean Nutrients present per Kg Protein . Now.60 Nutrients present per Kg Fibre .428 MATHEMATICS (b) It is inversely proportional to the square root of the acceleration due to gravity. we summarise the main process involved in the modelling as (a) Formulation (b) Solution (c) Interpretation/Validation The next example shows how modelling can be done using the techniques of finding graphical solution of inequality. Solution Step 1 Here the objective is to minimise the total daily cost of the food which is made up of corn and soyabean.. (1) The problem is to minimise z with the following constraints: . Example 3 A farm house uses atleast 800 kg of special food daily. Our validation and interpretation of this model shows that the mathematical model is in good agreement with the practical (or observed) values. Determine the daily minimum cost of the food mix.09 . So. in such situation we look for a better model and this process continues. This is because we have neglected the mass of the string and resistance of the medium. So the variables (factors) that are to be considered are x = the amount of corn y = the amount of soyabean z = the cost Step 2 The last column in Table 3 indicates that z.

01y ≥ 0 This gives the formulation of the model. (a) Fig 5 This gives the value of z as z = 10 × 470. Step 3 This can be solved graphically.e. (3) and (4) by grouping all the coefficients of x.. (3) (c) Similarly the food should have atmost 5% fibre in the proportion given in 2nd column of Table 3. The shaded region in Fig 5 gives the possible solution of the equations.6 and y = 329.. From the graph it is clear that the minimum value is got at the point (470.4) i... .06 y ≤ 0.6y ≥ 0.e.21x – . (2) (b) The food should have atleast 30% protein dietary requirement in the proportion as given in the first column of Table 3.MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 429 The farm used atleast 800 kg food consisting of corn and soyabean i. y. This gives 0.3 (x + y) . x + y ≥ 800 ...09x + 0.4. This gives 0.30y ≤ 0 0.05 (x + y) . x = 470.6 + 20 × 329.02x + 0. (4) We simplify the constraints given in (2).03x – . Then the problem can be restated in the following mathematical form. Statement Minimise z subject to x + y ≥ 800 0..6.329..4 = 11294 This is the mathematical solution.

2005. We want to find the population at a particular time. the death rate is the same for all intervals. Assumptions 1. t = 1 stands for the next year etc. protein and fibre is Rs 11294 and we obtain this minimum cost if we use 470. How will we do that. 2. .. For any time t. Then t takes values 0.e. We find the population by Jan. for all t ≥ 0. Suppose we want to find the population in a particular year. Example 4 Suppose a population control unit wants to find out “how many people will be there in a certain country after 10 years” Step 1 Formulation We first observe that the population changes with time and it increases with birth and decreases with deaths. B (t ) P (t ) is called the birth rate for the time interval t to t + 1.4 kg of soyabean. Let t denote the time in years.. Let B(t) denote the number of births in the one year between t and t + 1 and D(t) denote the number of deaths between t and t + 1. D (t) P (t) is called the death rate for the time interval t to t + 1. Add the number of births in that year and subtract the number of deaths in that year. Then we get the relation P (t + 1) = P (t) + B (t) – D (t) Now we make some assumptions and definitions 1..6 kg of corn and 329. 1st. say t0 = 2006. 1. for t ≥ 0. t = 0 stands for the present time.. called the birth rate. (1) 2. The birth rate is the same for all intervals.. This means that there is a constant b.430 MATHEMATICS Step 4 The solution can be interpreted as saying that. Likewise. . we shall discuss how modelling is used to study the population of a country at a particular time.” In the next example. the only source of population change is birth and death. There is no migration into or out of the population.. i. 2. and a constant d. b= B (t ) P (t ) and d= D (t ) P (t ) . let p (t) denote the population in that particular year. As a result of assumptions 1 and 2. called the death rate so that. “The minimum cost of the special food with corn and soyabean having the required portion of nutrient contents. we deduce that.

we are not getting the exact answer because of the assumptions that we have made in our mathematical model. (4) for t = 0. Equation (5) gives the mathematical formulation of the problem. Here.000. is an exponential function. Any function of the form cr t. the most important . in more high-flown language. 1.01. we do some approximation and conclude that the population is 276.155. (2) . t = 0.. P(10) = (1. The above examples show how modelling is done in variety of situations using different mathematical techniques. In terms of r. Obviously. (5) P(t) = P(0)r t P(t) is an example of an exponential function...104622125) (250.531.000.. 2.. we get P(t) = (1 + b – d)t P (0) . 1.. . has built-in assumptions and approximations.25 of a person. What will the population be in 10 years? Using the formula. Since a mathematical model is a simplified representation of a real problem. by its very nature. we calculate P(10).MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 431 P (t + 1) = P(t) + B(t) – D(t) = P(t) + bP(t) – dP(t) = (1 + b – d) P(t) Setting t = 0 in (2) gives P(1) = (1 + b – d)P (0) Setting t = 1 in Equation (2) gives P(2) = (1 + b – d) P (1) = (1 + b – d) (1 + b – d) P (0) = (1 + b – d)2 P(0) Continuing this way. where c and r are constants..000) = (1.531 (approximately).155.01)10 (250.02 and d = 0. in honor of Robert Malthus who first brought this model to popular attention. So.000 and the rates are b = 0...000) = 276.. the Malthusian parameter. . Equation (4) becomes .. 2..25 Step 3 Interpretation and Validation Naturally. Step 2 – Solution Suppose the current population is 250. since one can’t have 0. this result is absurd.000. . The constant 1 + b – d is often abbreviated by r and called the growth rate or. (3) (Using equation 3) .

new mathematical manipulation and hence a new evaluation. we try to identify the sources of the shortcomings.e.432 MATHEMATICS question is to decide whether our model is a good one or not i.. when the obtained results are interpreted physically whether or not the model gives reasonable answers. Thus mathematical modelling can be a cycle of the modelling process as shown in the flowchart given below: START ↓ < ASSUMPTIONS/AXIOMS ↓ FORMULATION ↓ SOLUTION ↓ INTERPRETATION < ↓ VALIDATION ↓ NO YES SATISFIED < < STOP — — . It may happen that we need a new formulation. If a model is not accurate enough.

(vi). . 3. (i) A = {–3. 6 } (ii) B = {1. (i). (i). Y} (vi) F = {B. (iv) Finite (ii) Infinite (ii) Yes (ii) No (ii) Infinite (iii) Finite (iv) Infinite Finite (iii) Infinite (iv) Finite No (iii) Yes (iv) No Yes 6. { 1. June. 26. { b } { a. T. 2. September. (v). A } (v) E = { February. 4. 5} (iii) C = {17. .1 1. 5} (v) E = {T. O. (i) ↔ (c) (ii) ↔ (a) (iii) ↔ (d) (iv) ↔ (b) EXERCISE 1. 71. { 2 }. 6] (ii) (– 12. M. (i) (i) (i) (i) (iii). November } (vi) F = {b. O. { 3 }. d. 5. 53. 2. April. R.3 1. g. (vii). 0. 2. –1. –10) (iii) [ 0. 80} (iv) D = {2. { 1. –1. (i) (vii) (i) (i). 5. . 44. (i) { x : x ∈ R. 2.2 1. 1. 2 } (iv) D = { L. 3. { a }. 62. 6 < x ≤ 12 } (iv) { x R : – 23 ≤ x < 5 } 9. 2 }.ANSWERS EXERCISE 1. 1. 2. (i) { x : x = 3n and 1 ≤ n ≤ 4 } n (iii) { x : x = 5 and 1 ≤ n ≤ 4 } (iv) { x : x is an even natural number} (v) { x : x = n2 and 1 ≤ n ≤ 10 } 5. E. 6. 2.} (ii) { x : x = 2n and 1 ≤ n ≤ 5 } 4. 3. 3. 3. (vii) and (viii) are sets. 35. 4 } (iii) C = { –2. (i) A = {1. 4. b } φ. (ix). R. 3. j } 6. c. 3 } (vi) ⊂ (vi) True (iv) φ (– 4. 3 } { 1. 3 }. { 1 }. (i) (iii) 1 (i) ⊂ (ii) ⊄ (iii) ⊂ (iv) ⊄ (v) ⊄ ⊂ False (ii) True (iii) False (iv) True (v) False (v). Y. (iii) . h. E. { 2. (viii). (iv). 2. N. } (ii) B = {0. –2. (i) ∈ (ii) ∉ (iii) ∉ (vi) ∈ (v) ∈ (vi) ∉ 3. 7 ) (iv) [ 3. E = G (v) Finite (v) Infinite EXERCISE 1. f. – 3 < x < 0 } (ii) { x : x ∈ R. (ii) φ. 3. 5. (xi) φ { a }. I. 1. 4. 4. B= D. 6 ≤ x ≤ 12 } (iii) { x : x ∈ R. 5. . 4 ] 7. G. 0.

3. Set of irrational numbers 12. 20 ) (vii) {20 ) (x) { 5. 4. 3. 8 } (iv) {3. 3. e. 2. 9. 7. 2. (i) X ∪ Y = {1. 2. 4. b. 3. 9. b. 11 } (vii) { 3. 5. e ) { x : x is an odd natural number } { x : x is an even natural number } { x : x ∈ N and x is not a multiple of 3 } { x : x is a positive composit number and x = 1 ] . 4. i. 2. 6. 9. 6. 11 } (v) φ (viii) { 7. 7. 3. 14. 8. h } { b. 6. 6. 4. 9. 2. 11 } 7. 9. e. c. 11 } (ix) {7. 3 } 2. 12. (i) { a. 6. 4. 9 } (iii) {7. 9. 10. 2. 7. 5. 15. 10. f. 2. 6 } (ii) {1. 9. 12. 5. 21} (v) { 2. h} (ii) { a. h } (iii) { b. 18. 15 } (iv) φ 8. 3. 16 } (vi) { 5. 16} (xii) {5. x ∈ N} (v) A ∪ B = {1. b. 4. 9 } { 5. 7. 16 } (ix) { 2. (i) (iv) 3. 6. 7. 8. 4. 10) (v) {1. 5.4 1. 2. f. 15. u } A ∪ B = {x : x = 1. 5 } (iii) (ii) A ∪ B = { a. 6. 3. 7. 4. 10. 20} (ii) F (iii) { b . 9. 7. 10 ) (iii) { 3 } (iii) φ (vii) φ (x) { 7. 8. 8. 14. 10. 8. 9. 21 } (i) {3. c } (ii) {f. 5. 4. (i) X ∩ Y = { 1. 9 } { d. 21} (iv) {4. g } 11. 5.434 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 1. 15. 8. 5 or a multiple of 3 } 3. (iii) (iv) { 11 } (ii) C (iii) D { 2 } {vi){ x : x is an odd prime number } (ii) {3. 8 } (vi) (1. 18. 4. (i) (iv) 2. o. 5. 6. 20 } (viii) { 4. (i) { 1. (i) B (v) (ii) { 11. 7. 18. d . 4. c. 7. 9. 6. 15 } (iii) {3. Yes. B (iv) A ∪ B = {x : 1 < x < 10. A B = { a. 9} (ii) {1. 8. 6. 8. g. 9. 6. 3 } (ii) A ∩ B = { a } (i) { 7. 12. 6. c } 4. 5. 10} 5. 4 } (vi) { 1. 13 } (vi) { 7.8 } (iii) {3. d } (iii) T (iv) T 10. 11. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) { 5. 16. 8. 9. (i) F EXERCISE 1. 5. 14} (xi) {2. 3. 9 ) (v) { 1. 7. 6. c. d.5 1.

y} 8. 7. y) such that x ∈ A and y ∈ B (iii) True 5. (i) False (ii) False (iii) True (iv) False (v) False (vi) True 7. (1. (–1. D ⊂ C 2. 1). (1. n) (m. (i) False P × Q = {(m. (1. 1. (1. – 1). (8. 1. 3). 7). A × A = {(– 1. 325 14. 7). A ⊂ C. 8)} 4. (2. G × H = {(7. 42 8. 30 2. 4)} A × B will have 24 = 16 subsets. b}. 1). (5. 2). (8. 1. 11 EXERCISE 2. 2)} H × G = {(5. (2. 60 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 1 1. m)} (ii) False A × B is a non empty set of ordered pairs (x. –1. 4). 4). (4. – 1). (–1. –1. 1). –1). n). A = {x.ANSWERS 435 (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) { x : x is a positive integer which is not divisible by 3 or not divisible by 5} { x : x ∈ N and x is not a perfect square } { x : x ∈ N and x is not a perfect cube } { x : x ∈ N and x = 3 } (ix) { x : x ∈ N and x = 2 } (xi) { x : x ∈ N and x > (iii) φ (iv) φ (x) { x : x ∈ N and x < 7 } 6. (2. 5). (1. (7. (– 1. 1)} 6. x = 2 and y = 1 2. 1. (1. 5). 52. 35 4. B = { 1. 3 } 13.6 1. (7. 3). The number of elements in A × B is 9. (n. 5 6. 9. (2. 1). 30 16. 3. 125 15. z} and B = {1. 3 }.1 1. 7). B = {x.2} . m) (n. (1. False 12. 2 }. y. 8). (–1. is the set of all equilateral triangles. 8). A × B = {(1. A ⊂ B. 25. (i) U (ii) A 9 } 2 EXERCISE 1. 4). D ⊂ A. –1). C = { 2 . –1). 50 7. B ⊂ C. 2 5. 19 3. (4. –1. We may take A = { 1. 1)} A × A × A = {(–1. (8. –1. –1). D ⊂ B. A = {a.

Range = (– ∞. 1}. (i) R = {(x. 343)} 9.} Range of R = {5. 0] (ii) Domain of Function = {x : –3 ≤ x ≤ 3} (iii) Range of Function = {x : 0 ≤ x ≤ 3} (i) f (0) = –5 (i) t (0) = 32 (ii) f (7) = 9 (ii) t (28) = (iii) f (–3) = –11 t (–10) = 14 (iii) Range = R (iv) 100 2. 4} Range of R = {3. of relations from A into B = 26 EXERCISE 2. (1. (1. 2) 412 (iii) 5 (ii) Range = [2. 8. 1). R = {(1. 7). (1. Range = {1} (ii) yes. 1) EXERCISE 2. 9). 7. 6). Domian of R = {0. (4. 5. remaining elements of A × A are (–1. 8). Domain = (2. (i) yes. R = {(2. –1). R = {(1. 12)} Domain of R = {1. (1. y) : y = x – 2 for x = 5. (0. 3. 3. 7}. 6. 4). 2. (3. 6). (3.4).. 5. (5. (6. –1). (2 4). Domain = {2. 2. R = {(1. 3. 5} (i) R = {(1. Range = {1. 4). (7. 6).2). 3). 0). (3. 4. (4. (1. (i) Range = (– ∞. 2. (2. 6. 4. (3. 2.2 1. 6} (iii) Range of R = {1. 6). 3. 1). 10} 8. No. (i) Domain = R. (2. 2. 6)} 4. 0). 125). 9. 6. 6)} (ii) Domain of R = {1. 4.436 MATHEMATICS 10. 4). 3). 6. 2. 12} Co domain of R = {1. 3. (7. 9). Range of R = {3. 8. Domain of R = Z Range of R = Z 6. (0. (3. ∞) . –1). 6} 7. 17}. . 8. 5. 11. 6). 14. 7. (2. 2). 10. 7} (ii) R = {(5. 4. (–1. 3} Range of R = {6. 14}. (1.. (6.5)}. (5. 7} (iii) No. (3. (2. 4. (1. (5. 8)} Domain of R = {1. Domain of R = {5. 4. 6).. 4. 4). 5. 0. 9. (1. 3). 5. 6. 4). (2. (3. 6. 14} 2. 3. 12.3). 27). 1. 8} 3. 2.3 1. 6). A = {–1.

2. a = 2. cos x = – . ∞) Domain = R. Range = [0. tan x = − . 11. sin x = − 12 13 5 12 5 . 4. cosec x = – . (i) No (ii) No (iii) No (f – g) x = – x + 4 ⎛ f ⎞ x +1 3 . (i) Yes. cosec x = – . 6. sec x = − . 5π 36 (i) 39° 22′ 30″ (i) 19π 72 (ii) –229° 5′ 29″ (ii) – 5. cot x = − 13 12 13 5 12 . 12π 7. 7. sec x = − . (i) 4. 5. No 12. cos x = − . cosec x = – . Range of f = {3. (ii) No 11.2 3 2 1 . 13 } EXERCISE 3. 2. Domain = [1. cos x = . tan x = 3 . b = – 1 9. sin x = − .1 3. 4π 3 (iii) 300° (iii) 26π 9 (iv) 210° (iv) 6. cosec x = . 5 : 4 3. 12° 36′ 20π 3 (iii) 2 15 (ii) 1 5 7 25 EXERCISE 3. Range = non-negative real numbers Range = Any positive real number x such that 0 ≤ x < 1 (f + g) x = 3x – 2 8. 5. Domain of function is set of real numbers except 6 and 2. tan x = 5 4 5 3 3 4. sin x = − 5 4 5 3 4 2.1 1. x≠ ⎜ ⎟x= 2x − 3 2 ⎝g⎠ 10. ∞). cot x = 2 3 3 1. sec x = −2.ANSWERS 437 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 2 2. tan x = − . cot x = − 3 5 4 4 3 4 5 3 5 4 3.

– 2 3 3 8 + 2 15 8 − 2 15 .2 5 5 6 3 .n∈Z 2 2 8 9. . 5. 2nπ ± .4 1. sec x = − . cosec x = . or + . 8. 6. . or 2nπ ± . n ∈ Z 6 2 2.n∈Z 6 6 6 x= nπ or x = nπ. n ∈ Z 4 3 x = nπ + ( − 1) n x= nπ nπ 3π . π 5π π . x= nπ π . nπ + . 9. . nπ ± . 2 8. cot x = − 13 5 13 12 5 7. 3 2 10. n ∈ Z 3 3 3 5π 11π 5π . 7. n ∈ Z 3 7π π or (2n + 1) . 3 9. 4. 4 + 15 4 4 8. nπ + (–1) n . .n∈Z 6 6 6 π π x = (2n + 1) . or n π ± . 3. . 10.3 5.– . n ∈ Z 3 3 3 7π 11π 7π . 1 EXERCISE 3. (i) 3 +1 2 2 (ii) 2 – 3 EXERCISE 3.438 MATHEMATICS 5. sin x = 6. cos x = − . π 4π π . . .n ∈ Z 3 3 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 3 5 2 5 . 1 2 5 13 12 13 12 .

–1 ± 7i –2 2 ± 34 i 2 3 5. –4 5 3 −i 14 14 − 19 21i − 5 10 7.2 1 . 6. . ± 3i −3 ± 11 i 2 2. −1 ± (4− 2 ) i 2 10. 2. − 242 − 26i 10. cos + i sin 6 6⎠ 2 2 ⎝ EXERCISE 5. 3. 13. −2π 3 2 . i 4. 0 6. 14 + 28 i 8. 5π 6 3. −3 ± 3 3 i 2 4. 17 5 =i 3 3 4 3 +i 25 25 9. 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 8 .3 1. 7. 3π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 5. −3π −3π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 6. 27 14. 12.1 1.ANSWERS 439 EXERCISE 5. 3 (cos π + i sin π) π π⎞ ⎛ π π 7 . –π –π ⎞ ⎛ + i sin 2 ⎜ cos ⎟ 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4. i EXERCISE 5. 2 – 7 i 2. 2. −1 ± 7 i 4 1± 7 i 2 3. 9. 3 5. −1 ± 7 i 2 2 −1 ± 7 i 2 2 8. −22 107 −i 3 27 –7 2 i 2 11.

440 MATHEMATICS Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 5 1. 1} (i) {–1. 4} (i) No Solution (i) {.. (–∞. 5 2 ± i 27 27 1 3π . Greater than or equal to 82 24.9) 25.. – 3. – 4. 0. 2 4 ± i 3 3 9.. 2 10. x = 3. (–∞. −2 . (–∞. (–∞. 19. 0. 3. 4 EXERCISE 6. 8. 2 – 2 i 3. –1. –6) 14. 6) 13.. 3. (5. 14 14 ± i 21 21 4 5 5 15. 7 21. (ii) 0 5 13.12) 26. x < – 2 .7). (6. (i) 17.10).} (ii) {. – 3} (ii) (–∞. More than or equal to 35 23. 1 2 i 2 3π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 8. (4. 2. Greater than or equal to 8 but less than or equal to 22 . (10. – 2. . –3] 11. x > – 1. – 1.2.. (–∞.4. –3) 10. 2) (ii) (–2. (i) 3π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ cos + i sin ⎟ . 9 cm 22. ∞) 17. 3. (– ∞. y = – 3 20. 4. 2] 15. 120] 16. (– ∞.. 18. – 2. 2. 1± 12.8). 0. x ≥ –1. 2] (ii) {. 20. (4. (i) {1. ∞) 7.1 1. (–∞. 0 14. 4] 12. x < 3. 1.3. (8. 307 + 599 i 442 5. (–2. (7. 2.} 6.. 1.. ∞) 9. 2] 5. (ii) 4 4 ⎠ ⎝ 7 . ∞) 18. 2 4 6. (– ∞.

4.ANSWERS 441 EXERCISE 6.2 1. 6. 2. 3. . 5.

8. .3 1. 10. EXERCISE 6.442 MATHEMATICS 7. 2. 9.

7. . 6. 5. 4.ANSWERS 443 3. 8.

11. 13. 10. 14. 12. .444 MATHEMATICS 9.

11] 2. 336 . (–5. 3] 4. (5. (ii) 60. (–1. 2) 7. (i) 125. Between 20°C and 25°C 12.ANSWERS 445 15. [2. [– 7. (0. 5. 13. 14.6 but more than 16. ⎜ ⎥ 3 ⎦ ⎝ 3 ⎡ 11 ⎤ ⎢1.8. 7) 9. 5040 4. EXERCISE 7.1 1. 8 2. 108 6. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 6 1. 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 11. 20 3. More than 562. 1] 3. ⎛ – 80 – 10 ⎤ . More than 320 litres but less than 1280 litres. 5) 8. Atleast 9. (– 23. [– 4. 5.5 litres but less than 900 litres. ∞) 10. 2] 6.

40 6 10.1)10000 > 1000 12. (ii) 4 (i) 360. (iii) 25401600 4. C 7+ C 10 11. 198 . 4536 3. (ii) 6 6. 3960 4. 2880 3. 8(a3b + ab3). 1440 5. 120 9. 9 7. 210 7. 30. 4. (1.1 1. (ii) 18 5. 9509900499 8. 11. 48 8. (i) 40320. 200 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 7 1. 104060401 11. 120. 420 22 22 10. 2000 9. 907200 8. 5. 35 2. 4 C 1× 48C 4 2. (iii) 1632 6.446 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 7. 33810 (i) 1814400. (i) 504. (iii) 240 10. 64 x –576 x + 2160 x – 4320 x3 + 4860 x2 – 2916 x + 729 2. (i) 30. (i) 3. 3600 4. 40 8. 1–10x + 40x2 – 80x3 + 80x4 – 32x5 32 40 20 5 x5 − 3+ − 5 x + x3 − x 8 32 x5 x 6 5 4 3. (ii) 720. 5. 151200 EXERCISE 8. 11040808032 6. 28 4.4 1. (i) 5. 64 EXERCISE 7. 40320 EXERCISE 7. 884736 9. No 3. 778320 3. 60 56 6. (ii) 15120 2. 504 2.2 1. 45 5. 9. (ii) 2419200. 2(x6 + 15x4 + 15x2 + 1). (ii) 588. 50400 7.3 1. x 5 5 x 2 10 10 5 1 + + + 3+ 5 x+ 243 81 27 9 x 3x x x 6 + 6 x 4 + 15 x 2 + 20 + 15 6 1 + 4+ 6 2 x x x 7.

16 and 32 4. r = 3 −105 9 35 12 x . 65. 14 3. 2a8 + 12a6 – 10a4 – 4a2 + 2 8.y r ( −1)r 12 Cr . 15. n = 7. and 6 6 2 6 6 3 9 21 75 . n = 10 16 8 32 16 x 2 x3 x 4 + 2 − 3 + 4 − 4x + + + −5 9. –125. 8. 10.x24−r . n = 7. 93 8. –3125. 15625 6. .. . −1. n = 6 5. 8. 27x6 – 54ax5 + 117a2x4 – 116a3x3 + 117a4x2 – 54a5x + 27a6 EXERCISE 9.. 35 2. . .x12−2 r . 12. 625. 1512 4. 2. 11. b = 5. 0. 49 128 9. 24.y r 5. 18564 10.ANSWERS 447 EXERCISE 8. 21 and 2 2 2 2 5. 25. x x 2 2 16 x x 10. 323. 2. 35. 3. −1 −1 −1 −1 ⎛ −1 ⎞ ⎛ −1 ⎞ ⎛ −1 ⎞ ⎛ −1 ⎞ . 2 6 24 120 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎝ 24 ⎠ ⎝ 120 ⎠ . 7. 2 3 4 5 6 3.. 61236 x5y5 6. . . 360 23 3 + 11 + 35 + 107 + 323 + . 1 1 1 5 7 − .. x 8 48 12. . 1 2 3 4 5 . .9510 2. – 101376 3. m = 4 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 8 1. 3.2 1. – 1+ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + .1 1. 396 6 7. 107. a = 3. 7. . . 4. a= 9 7 6. – 1760 x9y3 8.. ( −1) r 6 Cr . 729 11.

12. 5 5 . 20 and 23 17.. 14 7. 17. or . 0 15. 18.2. . 3 3 3 81 9 19. 9 EXERCISE 9. ± 1 7. 2q 4. 120. 64. Rs 245 18. and 2 3 5 EXERCISE 9. 3.2 1. 27 16. rR 21.1)10 EXERCISE 9. 5. (b) 12th.3 1. 9 and 27 ( ) 27. 98450 8. 2 20 2n 2. n ( n + 1) ( n + 2 ) ( n + 3) 4 .1) ⎤ ⎦ 6⎣ x 3 1 − x 2n 8. 3072 4. 2 5 5 2 2 5 16 16 n . 179 321 14.. x2 –16x + 25 = 0 n= 31. n ( n + 1) ( n + 2 ) 3 2. 4 10.1.or 4. 5 or 20 9. 2. 496 20. 2 −1 7 7 13. 4 16.448 MATHEMATICS 13.4 1. 0. 22 + 3 11 3 −1 2 ( ) ( 5 2 2 5 5 2 12. Terms are . –1. 2. . 2 + 2 + 1 + 0 + (–1) + . –1 30.1. 1 n ( 5n + 7 ) 2 13. 480. 1002001 2. ( ) 1− x 2 11. 30 (2n) 2 32. 2059 80 8 −4 −8 −16 10n − 1 − n . ) 15.. 7 2 ( ⎛ n ⎞ 3 + 1 ⎜ 3 2 − 1⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ) 9. r = or . (a) 13th . . − 8.. ⎡1 − ( − a )n ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 1+ a 10. (c) 9th 1⎡ 20 1 − ( 0.. Rs 500 (1. –24 26. –6. – 2187 6. 6. 2. 14. − 32. 14. 16. 11. 1. . 1.. 3 5 8 14.

ANSWERS 449 3. or – 1 and –2. 121 square unit. 2 2. Rs 16680 31. or − and – 1 2 2 14. – 3 ( ) ( 3a. 25 days 29. – a). or 1 1 and 1. n 2n2 + 9n + 13 24 ( ) 27. 8729 8. (0. – a) and − 3a. a). Rs 43690 30. 9. 8. 4 21. a).0 5. (i) y2 − y1 . n ( n + 1) ( n + 2 ) 12 8. 6 12. Rs 39100 32. 16. n n +1 5. 11 5. and 3. 104. 1680 23. n 2 n + 3n + 5 3 ( ) 25. 160. (ii) x2 − x1 7. 3050 9. 8. ( ) n ( n + 1) ( 2n + 1) + 2 2n − 1 6 ( ) 10. 3n (n + 1) (n + 3) n ( n + 1) 3n 2 + 23n + 34 12 7.5 Crores 2 . (0. 5. n ( n + 1) 3n 2 + 5n + 1 6 ( ) 4. 11 7. 0 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ 10.0 or (0. x = 1 11. 1 and 2. 1 . 1210 10. ) − 1 2 ⎛ 15 ⎞ 4. 32 50 n 5n 2n 2 10 − 1 − 1 − 10− n − . (0. ⎜ . 295000 EXERCISE 10. Rs 17000. Rs 5120 28. n ( 2n + 1) ( 2n − 1) 3 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 9 2. 4 11. 2840 2 6. ± 3 6.1 1. (ii) 81 9 3 27 ( ) ( ) 22. (i) 4. 135° 8.

3 3 3. 1340 litres. . x + y = 5 15. 3x – 4y + 8 = 0 3x + y = 10 11.2 1. 4. 2x + y + 6 = 0 7. 0. (ii) y = −2 x + . (i) 1 1 5 5 y = − x + 0. − . 16. 2. . (ii) 4 6 2 2. 6. 4. (i) 65 1 p+r units. 90°. 0 7 7 3 3 x y 3 + =1. 5x + 3y + 2 = 0 ( 3 +1 x − ) ( 3 −1 y = 4 ) ( 3 –1 ) x − 3y + 2 3 = 0 9. x + 2y – 6 = 0. 0) and (8. y = mx 5. 12. (– 2. y = 0 and x = 0 4. (iii) y = 0x + 0. 30° and 150° 22 9 ( 3 + 2 x + 2 3 – 1 y = 8 3 + 1 or ) ( ) ( 3 − 2 x + 1 + 2 3 y = –1 + 8 3 ) ( ) . −2.942 90 17. 0) 7. (i) (iii) 2 2 y = − . (1 + n)x + 3(1 + n)y = n +11 13. 2x – 9y + 85 = 0 19. − 2 . EXERCISE 10. (iii) x cos 315° + y sin 315° = 2 2 . L= . (i) x cos 120° + y sin 120° = 4. 3 x + y − 2 = 0 and 3 x + y + 2 = 0 10. 2kx + hy = 3kh.6. y + 7x = 21 9. 6. 2. x y 3 −2 2 + = 1. 2x + y – 6 = 0 14. 3x – 4y + 18 = 0 10. 120° (ii) x cos 90° + y sin 90° = 2. 2 2 . 17 2 l 8. (ii) units. intercept with y-axis = − and no intercept with x-axis. 5x – y + 20 = 0 12.3 1.450 MATHEMATICS EXERCISE 10. 5 units 5.192 ( C − 20 ) + 124. 0. 8. 315° 4. x – 2y + 10 = 0 3.

x2 + y2 + 2ax + 2by + 2b2 = 0 7.1 1. r = 6 65 8. 19. 36x + 36y – 36x – 18y + 11 = 0 4. Slope of the line is zero i. r = 4 4 10. 2 ⎛ 68 49 ⎞ 14. 18. – 5). y – x = 1. 18x + 12y + 11 = 0 ⎛ 13 ⎞ 22. − ⎟ ⎝ 25 25 ⎠ 15. c ( 1 1 . c(4. 7π . 2x + y = 5 17. y = 1. ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 6. k2 square units 12. x + 3y = 9 15. m= 1 5 . 119x + 102y = 205 EXERCISE 11. r = 6.ANSWERS 451 13. 5 14. – 4).axis 17. 3).e. line is parallel to x . x = 1. x2 + y2 – 7x + 5y – 14 = 0 12. 4). x2 + y2 – 4y = 0 2. x2 + y2 – 2x – 2y = 0 5. ⎜ . 0 ⎟ ⎝5 ⎠ 24. c(2. − 3x + 2 y = 6 sin (φ – θ) φ–θ 2 sin 2 8 ⎞ ⎛ 32 ⎞ ⎛ 4. ⎜ 0 . 3x – y = 7. 1± 5 2 7 21. x2 + y2 – 6x – 8y + 15 = 0 11. 13x + 13y = 6 9. 1 : 2 16. c(–5. 2 x − 3 y = 6 .1 6 3. 23 5 units 18 8. (a) 3. x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y –3 = 0 2 2 3. x2 + y2 + 4x – 21 = 0 & x2 + y2 – 12x + 11 = 0 . x=− 5 22 7. − ⎟ . r = 53 9. (b) ± 2.c = 2 2 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 10 1. 0) . 2x – 3y + 18 = 0 11. (–1. (c) 6 or 1 2. ⎜ 0. ⎜ . 5.

F (0. F (0. axis .axis. Major axis = 10.3 9. 0). x2 + y2 – ax – by = 0 14. 5 2.y . 0) axis . y2 = 24x 10. Inside the circle. F ( . V ( ± 4.axis. Minor axis = 8 . axis . Minor axis = 6 . length of the Latus rectum = 8 4. e = Latus rectum = 20 .y . length of the Latus rectum = 12 2. directrix y = – . F (0.x . length of the Latus rectum = 10 2 –9 9 ) . length of the Latus rectum = 9 4 4 7. F ( ± 7 . since the distance of the point to the centre of the circle is less than the radius of the circle.axis. length of the Latus rectum = 6 2 2 3.axis.axis.x . directrix x = 2. directrix y = 4. 6 16 3 21 . 4 3. 0).0). 3 3 ).y . F (± 20 . ± 5). directrix y = . F (–2. F (0.452 MATHEMATICS 13.x . x2 + y2 – 4x – 4y = 5 15. Minor axis = 4 . 0). V (0. axis . y2 = –8x 8. axis . directrix x = – 6. V (± 6. length of the Latus rectum = 16 5. 2x2 = 25y 1.axis. 2y2 = 9x EXERCISE 11. EXERCISE 11. Major axis = 12. F (3. Major axis = 8. ± 21 ). x2 = – 12y 11. e = Latus rectum = 8 5 7 .2 1. –4). 5 2 5 . e = Latus rectum = 9 2 . 0). 0). axis . directrix x = – 3. y2 = 12x 12.

e = Latus rectum = ( ) 1 2 5 . 0). Minor axis = 12 . 14. 3 9. e = Latus rectum = 3 .± 6).± 20). F (± 13 .0). e = Latus rectum = 10.0). V (0. 2 2 2 . x2 y 2 + =1 36 20 x2 y2 + =1 169 144 x2 y 2 + =1 25 9 . 4 F 0. F ( ± 5 . 16. 15. e = Latus rectum = 8. Minor axis = 10 . Major axis = 6 . 7 72 7 3 . 3 6.± 15 . V (0. 4 3 15 . F (0. ± 4 2 ). e = Latus rectum = 5 5. Major axis = 20. Minor axis = 20 . ± 75 ). e = Latus rectum = 10 7. 13. x2 y 2 + =1 25 9 x2 y 2 + =1 9 4 x2 y 2 + =1 64 100 8 3 11. 17.ANSWERS 453 4. V (± 7. Major axis = 8 .± 10). F (0. Major axis =12 . Minor axis = 4 . 0). V ( ± 3. V (0. Major axis =40 . x2 y2 + =1 144 169 x2 y 2 + =1 1 5 x2 y 2 + =1 16 7 12. 18. V (0. 2 13 . F (0. Minor axis = 2 . Major axis =14 . ± 10 3 ). Minor axis = 4 . ± 4).

± 4). Vertices (0. Vertices (± 4. x2 y2 + =1 81 9 4. x2 y 2 + =1 25 9 6. 12. Foci (0 ± 6). Foci (± 10. e = 7.56m (approx. 9. 2. 11. 0).± 6 14 4 5 ). 15. 18 sq units 8. Vertices (0. e = 3. e = 2 14 5 13 . x2 y2 − =1 4 5 x2 y2 − =1 16 9 x2 y2 − =1 4 12 49 65 . Latus rectum = 4 2 2. 1. y 2 x2 − =1 9 16 x2 y 2 − =1 25 20 x2 y2 − =1 5 5 8. 10. ± 13 ).) 7.4 9 5 . e = 4. Latus rectum = 18 1.) 5. 14. 0). Vertices (0. Foci (0. 2. Focus is at the mid-point of the given diameter. Latus rectum = 9 2 5 64 . y 2 x2 − =1 25 39 y 2 x2 − =1 25 144 x2 9 y2 − =1 49 343 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 11 1. Foci (0.± ). Foci (0.) 3. Latus rectum = 3 3 5. ± 2). x2 y 2 + =1 10 40 20. Foci (± 5. 13. Vertices (± 6. e = 2. 0). x + 4y = 52 or 2 2 x2 y 2 + =1 52 13 EXERCISE 11. Latus rectum = 5 3 3 6.23 m (approx. Vertices (0.11 m (approx.454 MATHEMATICS 19. e = . 8 3a . ± 65 ). Latus rectum = 2 4 9. ± 3). 0).

19 2 108 7 − 1 π − 1 2 6. 11. 12. ⎜ π − ⎟ 7 ⎠ ⎝ 3. 2) Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 12 1. ⎟ . VI. x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 x − 7 y + 2 z = k 2 – 109 2 2. (i) XY . (8. (ii) ( − 8. b 13. 2. 0) and (0. 8) 4. 0) 2. π 7. c=2 3 EXERCISE 13.3 ⎛ −4 1 27 ⎞ 1. 0) 5. 2 14. a = – 2. x – 2z = 05. y. VIII. 9x2 + 25y2 + 25z2 – 225 = 0 EXERCISE 12. (4. 16. 11 4 9.2 1. – 6.coordinate is zero (iii) Eight regions EXERCISE 12. 2 : 3 5.plane (ii) (x. 6) 6. II.17 . – 2. 7 3. V.ANSWERS 455 EXERCISE 12. I. 22 ⎞ ⎛ 2. 7 34 . (i) 2 5 (ii) 43 (iii) 2 26 (iv) 2 5 4. – 2.1 1. (i) ⎜ .1 1. 8. 6 5. 1 4 a b a b 1 π . VII 4. IV. y and z . y .3) 2. (0. 1 : 2 ⎝ 5 5 5 ⎠ 3. III. 5 10. – 4. – 2). 1 15. (6. – 10. 4.coordinate are zero 3. . (1. b = − 16 .

29. (i) 3x2 6. 0 23. x →a 31. 2 Limit does not exist at x = 1 Limit does not exist at x = 0 0 28. a = 0. 20 4. 2. we need m = n. 1 (iii) −2 x3 −2 (iv) ( x − 1)2 nx n −1 + a (n − 1)x n − 2 + a 2 (n − 2)x n−3 + . Limit does not exist at x = 0 lim f (x) = 0 and lim f (x) = (a – a ) (a – a ) . (a – a ) 1 2 x x →a lim f (x) exists for all a ≠ 0. nx n − anx n−1 − x n + a n ( x − a) 2 9 .456 MATHEMATICS 17. (i) (iii) (v) (vii) cos2 x 5sec x tan x – 4sin x – 3cosec2 x – 5 cosec x cot x 2sec2 x – 7sec x tan x 10. 24. – sin x (ii) sec x tan x (iv) – cosec x cot x (vi) 5cos x+ 6sin x . 4 21.. + a n−1 7. 2 32. lim f (x) exists for any integral value x→0 x→1 of m and n. (i) 2 (ii) 20x3 – 15x2 + 6x – 4 (iii) −3 ( 5 + 2x ) x4 (iv) 15x4 + 24 x5 –2 x (3x – 2) –12 36 – + 10 (vi) 2 (v) 5 ( x + 1) (3 x – 1)2 x x 11.. 30. 1 26.. 3. a +1 b 0 22. For lim f (x) to exists. 6 20. (i) 2x − a − b (ii) 4ax ax 2 + b ( ) a −b (iii) ( x − b )2 8.. 27. x → a1 19. 25. 99 (ii) 2x – 3 3. EXERCISE 13. b = 4 18.2 1.

1 3. ⎡ ( ax + b )n −1 ( cx + d )m−1 ⎣ mc ( ax + b ) + na ( cx + d )⎤ ⎦ 14. x3 ( 5 x cos x + 3 x sin x + 20 sin x − 12cos x ) − x 2 sin x − sin x + 2 x cos x −q sin x ax 2 + sin x + ( p + q cos x )( 2 a x + cos x ) ( ) − tan 2 x ( x + cos x ) + ( x − tan x )(1 − sin x ) 35 + 15 x cos x + 28 cos x + 28 x sin x − 15sin x ( 3x + 7 cos x )2 . 22. apx 2 + 2bpx + bq − ar ( ax + b ) na ( ax + b ) n−1 2 10.ANSWERS 457 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 13 1. 2c (ax+b) (cx + d) + a (cx + d)2 ad − bc 5. (i) – 1 (ii) − qr + ps x2 1 x2 π⎞ ⎛ (iii) cos (x + 1) (vi) −sin ⎜ x − ⎟ 8⎠ ⎝ 2. 16. n sin x cos x 20. −4a 2b + 3 − sin x x5 x 11. 4. 2sec x tan x ( sec x + 1) cos α cos2 x 2 19. bc cos x + ad sin x + bd ( c + d cos x ) 2 21. x ≠ 0. 24. 26. −2 6. 25. ( px 2 + 2x + r ) 2 9. 2 x 12. ( ax − ( 2ax + b ) 2 + bx + c ) 2 8.1 7. −1 1 + sin x n–1 −2 ( sin x − cos x ) 2 18. cos (x+a) 15. ( cx + d )2 − apx 2 − 2bpx + ar − bq ( x – 1)2 . 13. – cosec3 x – cosec x cot2 x 17. 23.

(ix) It is not clear from the context which day is referred and therefore. (ii) She is an engineering student. 30. it is a statement. (x) This is a true statement because all real numbers can be written in the form a + i × 0. For example. (iii) This sentence is always true because the sum is 12 and it is greater than 10. π ( 2 sin x − x cos x ) 4 sin 2 x 1 + tanx − x sec 2 x 28. (i) This sentence is always false because the maximum number of days in a month is 31. it is not a statement. (1 + tanx ) 2 ( x + sec x ) (1 − sec 2 x ) + ( x − tan x ) . 29. The three examples can be: (i) Everyone in this room is bold. it is a statement. . Therefore. it is not a statement. (vi) It is an order and therefore. This is not a statement because from the context it is not clear which room is reffered here and the term bold is not precisely defined. it is not a statement. (ii) This is not a statement because for some people mathematics can be easy and for some others it can be difficult. it is a statement. squares and rhombus have equal length whereas rectangles and trapezium have unequal length. (v) This sentence is sometimes true and sometimes false. we know what θ is. Therefore. This is also not a statement because who ‘she’ is. Unless. (1 + sec x tan x ) sin x − n x cos x sin n +1 x EXERCISE 14. we cannot say whether the sentence is true or not. Therefore. Therefore. (viii) This sentence is always true and therefore. it is a statement. (vii) This sentence is false as the product is (–8). For example the square of 2 is even number and the square of 3 is an odd number.458 MATHEMATICS x cos 27. 2. is not a statement. (iii) “cos2θ is always greater than 1/2”. (iv) This sentence is sometimes true and sometimes not true. Therefore.1 1.

Therefore. The component statements are: Square of an integer is positive. (iv) “And”. The number 2 is not greater than 7. the component statements are: The sand heats up quickily in the sun. The negation is There exists a real number x such that x is not less than x + 1. number 3 is odd (True). (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2. (i) (ii) 3. (iii) “There exists”. All integers are positive. (ii) “For every”. the given pairs are negations of each other. The negation of the first statement is “the number x is a rational number. The negation is There does not exist a number which is equal to its square. (ii) “Or”. (iii) “And”. Therefore. Square of an integer is negative. Every natural number is not an integer. the pairs are negations of each other. 1. Number 3 is prime. The sand does not cool down fast at night. The component statements are: All rational numbers are real.” which is the same as the second statement” This is because when a number is not irrational. .2 1. (i) Chennai is not the capital of Tamil Nadu.3 (i) “And”. The negation is There exists a state in India which does not have a capital. All triangles are equilateral tringles.ANSWERS 459 EXERCISES 14. The negation of the first statement is “x is an irrational number” which is the same as the second statement. all integers are negative (False). (i) “There exists”. it is a rational. 2 is a complex number. All real numbers are not complex. 100 is divisible by 3. The component statements are: 2 x = 2 is a root of the equation 3x – x – 10 = 0 2 x = 3 is a root of the equation 3x – x – 10 = 0 2. (i) (ii) (iii) EXERCISE 14.100 is divisible by 11 and 100 is divisible by 5 (False).

then it is cold The contrapositive is If you know how to reason deductively.460 MATHEMATICS No. then your credentials are good. (i) Exclusive (ii) Inclusive (iii) Exclusive 3. For a natural number to be odd it is necessary that its square is odd. then it is a prime number. The converse is If a number x in odd. If the banana tree stays warm for a month. EXERCISE 14. (i) (ii) . The contrapositive is If a number x is not odd. For the square of a natural number to be odd. it is sufficient that the number is odd If the square of a natural number is not odd. then you can comprehend geometry. The converse is If you do not know how to reason deductively. The contrapositive is If two lines intersect in the same plane. 4. then x is not a prime number. The negation of the statement in (i) is “There exists real number x and y for which x + y ≠ y + x”. The contrapositive is. instead of the statement given in (ii). If x is divisible by 4. then x is divisible by 4”. then they are not parallel The converse is If two lines do not interesect in the same plane. (i) A natural number is odd implies that its square is odd. then x is an even number. A natural number is odd only if its square is odd. then you can not comprehend geometry. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2. then it is not cold The converse is If something is at low temperature. The converse is. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 3. If x is not divisible by 4. then x is not an even number. then they are parallel The contrapositive is If something is not at low temperature. then the natural number is not odd. If you get a job.4 1. then it will bloom. This statement can be written as “If x is an even number.

The contrapositive is If you do not feel thirsty. then it is a circle (Direct Method) (iv) True. A chord which is not a dimaeter gives the counter example. There exists a cat which does not scratch. then it is a prime. then it is a parallelogram. then it has no divisors other than 1 and itself. By definition of the chord. (i) 1.ANSWERS 461 (iii) (iv) 4. Contrapositive Converse Contrapositive Converse EXERCISE 14. (ii) False.5 5. by the rule of inequality (v) False. then it is hot outside. There exists a real number x such that neither x > 1 nor x < 1. (ii) The given statement can be written as “If it is a sunny day. The contrapositive is If I do not go to a beach. The statement can be written as “If a positive integer is prime. then it is not a sunny day. it should intersect the circle in two points. The converse of the statement is If a positive integer has no divisors other than 1 and itself. then I go to a beach. There does not exist a number x such that 0 < x < 1. then it is a sunny day. In the equation of an ellipse if we put a = b. . This can be shown by giving a counter example. There exists a positive real number x such that x–1 is not positive. Since 11 is a prime number. then you do all the exercises in the book. (iii) True. (i) False. therefore 11 is irrational. (iii) The converse is If you feel thirsty. The converse of the statement is If I go to beach. If you get A+ in the class. The contrapositive of the statement is If positive integer has divisors other than 1 and itself then it is not prime. a (i) (ii) b (i) (ii) If diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other. Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 14 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2. then it is not hot outside.

6. 3 5. (i) B.4 6.09 6. (ii) You get an A grade if and only you do all the homework regularly.27 EXERCISE 15.1. 7 8. A 2.92 2. 12 5.5 4.28 3. 4.25 n + 1 n2 − 1 . 8 3. Y 5. 1. 10. The compound statement with “Or” is 25 is a multiple of 5 or 8 This is true statement.34 4. 11. Weight 3. 8.2. 132 5. 5.55.35 EXERCISE 15.25 7. 10. 1. 2.4 8.98 6.3 1. (iii) A quadrilateral is equiangular if and only if it is a rectangle.33 7. 93. 43. 27. 7. 105. (i) You watch television if and only if your mind in free.462 MATHEMATICS (i) If there is log on to the server. 24. (ii) B Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 15 1. 43. (i) 10. then you pay a subscription fee. 3. then you have a password.32 9. 9. 74. 157. 2276 10. 2. Same as Q1 in Exercise 14.5. 2 12 3.23 11. 16. 64. 9. (iii) If you can access the website. 20.1 12. 29. B 4. 8 2.69 9. The compound statement with “And” is 25 is a multiple of 5 and 8 This is a false statement. 5. 3.1 1. then there is traffic jam. 100.99 (ii) 10. 5. 1.036 . 16 10. 107. 4.2 1.52. 6. 7. Highest Chemistry and lowest Mathematics 7. EXERCISE 15. 19.4 3. (ii) If it rains.

H66} {(1. H3.2. 3HH. NNN} {T. HHTH..6). y = 1. 13. H1.1. (2.6). D – E = {1. 12. H2. (2. TTTT} {H1. XG1. 5. (i) {1. T3. . (4. H6} {6. 7.6). H65.2. TTT} {(x.. (5.6).3). W4. . B6} (i) {BB. B2. 2). (5. 2T. R5. (i) A and B. 5..2). 16. y) : x.2). E∩ F′ = φ. (2. 1). HHTT. (1. (4. YB3. NDD. 2H.2).4). TTTH.. 1TH. (3. DDN. 6. T6} {H1. H5. H21. . T5..1). 2). H3. C and D (ii) A and C (iii) B and D (i) “Getting at least two heads”. XG2. . (6. H25.. H44. (6. (3. 4. TTHH. H2. (2. A∩B = φ. 6T} {TR1.. HTHH. 6H.5). 5TH. 6}. 15. HT. H63. 4.. T2. HTTT. A = {(3. 1TT.6).6)} {HHHH. 2} {RW. 3.4).5}. 1HT. B1. TTH.3). 4. H42. 2} 3. (2.6} {(1. TR2.6). NDN.6).5). 3. (2... H41. W1.5). 5. 6} (ii) φ (iii) {3. 4T. T} {XB1. H24. T4. (4. 5TT. A and C.6). T3. . (6. (4. {HHH.1.3).2. W5.1). (4. H4. 5HT. (2. } EXERCISE 16. WR.1). . H43. H62. THHH. R6. (3. or 3. 3} (v) {6} (vi) {3.ANSWERS 463 EXERCISE 16. (4. .6)} B = {(1. T1. H26..6). HTT. YG4. THTT. H2.3). (3.3). T2.6).. 6}. 3HT. 2.1). F′ = {1. and “getting at least two tails” (ii) “Getting no heads”. B and C. DNN. E∩F = {6}. H45. T6} {DDD. (3.6). 6} (iv) {1. 14. 4). A – C = {1.. T4.6). 5. 4. H5. (5. (1.4). (5. THTH. 4H. 8.5).3. HHT.5.2). H61. R3. (6. W6. H3. 2.. THHT.. B∪C = {3. TB2. THT. (1. YG5} {R1. (6. HTH. DND. H22..1). D∩E = φ. (5.6).5. (1.2 1. XB2.2. BG. A∪B = {1. W3. (2.6)..6). “getting exactly one head” and “getting at least two heads” . H4. HHHT. H5.1.6)} C ={(3.5.6). No.3)} {1HH. 1. H1. H46. (4. (6. B4. B and C are mutually exclusive. (5. YG3... TB3. WW} [HH.. 11. (6. THH.6). 2.. (2. (1. (1. H6. (2.5). 4. (4.3). (2. TTHT. B3.4. B5. H5. 9. (6.4). T5. 3TH. GG} (ii) {0. (6.2). H23. (2. (2. 2. 3TT. (2. 4). 6}.3}. 2. H64. T1. H4. NND. (6. 5.1 1. TB1.2). (5.2)..6).1).. (2.6)} A and B.4).2. (1. 5HH. 2. HTHT.2).6). R2. H6. (1. (2. (1. 10. GB. R4.2).2). W2.4. . H3. HTTH. (5.

2).6).3). (5. (6. (5.3). (6.1). (3. (4.3). (3.6)} 7. (4. (4.4). (3. (2. (1. (1. (5. (3.1). (6.4).2).4).4).5).3).1).3). (1.3). (3. (3.1)} (i) A′ = {(1.1). (6. (6.3).3).3).5).1). (6. (6. (3. A = {(2.2). (1. (4. (2. (5.4). (3. 1). 1). (4. “getting exactly two tails”. (4. (4.2). (3. (3.1). (6.6). (3.3).3).4). (6. (3.5). (4.5). (1.6).2). (3.4). (3.1).4). (4. (6. (2. (6.6)} (vi) B ∪ C = {(1. (6. (2. (1. (6.2). 6.2). (1.4).2). (4.1).5).2).3).5). (5.1).4).5).1).5).2).3).3).6). (4.6). (1. (i) True (ii) True (iii) True (iv) False (v) False (vi) False EXERCISE 16. (4. (4.1).1). (6.3). (6.6)} = A (iii) A∪B = {(1. (4. (4. (4.6). (4. (5.4).2). (6.2). (5. (1.4).6). (6.5).4).5).6)} B = {(1. (4.6). (1. (2. (2.3).6). and “getting exactly two tails” (iv) “Getting exactly one head” and “getting exactly two heads” (v) “Getting exactly one tail”. (2. (i) (b) Yes (c) No (d) No (e) No 2.6).2). (1.4).5).1). (4.5).6).2). (6. (3.2). (4.6). (1.3). (4.5). (5. (5. (2. (2.2). (2. (5. (i) 5.5). (3.3).2). (3. (2.1).3). (3.464 MATHEMATICS (iii) “Getting at most two tails”. (3. (5.4). (1.5). (a) 52 (b) 3 5 . (2.3). and getting exactly three tails” Note There may be other events also as answer to the above question.5). (2. (5. (4.6)} C = {(1.6)} (vii) B ∩ C = {(1. (a) Yes 3.5). (1. 4.3). (1.1). (2.6)} = B (ii) B′ = {(2. (4. (3. (3. (5.1). (2. (1.2). (2. (1. (1. (1. (1. (6. (1.6).1).4).1). (6.1). (4.1).1). (2. (4. (6.6).2).6).1). (3. (5. (4.5).4).3). (5. (5. (6.2). (5.4).6).3). (6.6)} = S (iv) A ∩ B = φ (v) A – C = {(2. (6.2).1).5). (3.2).5). (2.2).3). (4.6). (2. (3.5).2).2).1).4). (6.2).3). (5.5). (2. 1).6). (3. (1. (4. (5.4).5). (6. (2. (4. (1.3).4). (5.5). (2. (6. (6.4).2). (1.6). (4.1).1).4).4). (2. (6.2)} (viii) A ∩ B′ ∩ C′ = {(2.1).2). (5.5). 3 4 1 1 1 (ii) (c) (i) 52 13 2 1 2 1 5 (ii) (iii) (iv) 0 (v) 2 3 6 6 1 1 (ii) 12 12 6.5).2).3 1. (1.3).3).4). (5. (6.4). (2. (3. (2. (5.3).5).4).2).4). (3. (3. (5. (1.

(a) 1 1 5 (ii) (iii) 2 2 6 17 33 (b) 16 33 4.50 gain.5 (iii) 0. 1 38760 12. (i) 4 5 2 5 (ii) 3 8 10. P(Winning Rs 1.15 (ii) 3 8 11 30 16. Rs 4.58 (ii) 0.00) = . Rs 1.88 (ii) 0. (i) 0. 4 16 1 3 1 7 1 1 3 1 7 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) 8 8 2 8 8 8 8 8 8 10.19 (iv) 0. (i) 18. (a) 6. (i) 60 C5 20 (ii) 1 − 30 C5 2. 1. 1 5040 . (i) No. (ii) Yes 13. 60 C5 13 C3 .00 loss.74 20.65 (ii) (iii) 2 15 Miscellaneous Exercise on Chapter 16 C5 1.6 21. 1 1 3 . because P(A∩B) must be less than or equal to P(A) and P(B). P (Losing Re. 0.ANSWERS 465 7. (i) 15. 7. 4 5 17.50) = 8. Re 1.00) = 16 4 8 1 1 . (c) 10000 C10 C10 2 3 8.50) = . (i) 0.55 14. (i) 5.52 (iii) 0.50 loss. (i) 7 15 5 8 19 30 (ii) 0.00 gain.00 loss. 0. Rs 3. No 19. 13 C1 52 C4 999 1000 (b) C2 10000 C2 9990 9990 3.00) = P (Losing Rs 3. P ( Winning Rs 4. (i) 9 11 6 13 (ii) 7 13 11. (i) 9.34 9.12 (iii) 0. P (Losing Rs 6. Rs 6. 0.

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