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MOTOR CIRCUITS,

AND CONTROLLERS
based on Phil. Electrical Code part 1
with reference to product standards

Prepared by : Gem Tan


Fuji-Haya Audit Inspection & Maintenance Corp.
•Why need Philippine Electrical Code ( PEC )?
•What is the purpose of PEC?

•The purpose of PEC is the practical safeguarding of


persons and property from hazards arising from the use of
electricity.
•The code contains provisions that are considered the
minimum requirements necessary for safety. Compliance
therewith and proper maintenance will result in an
installation that is essentially free from hazard but not
necessary efficient, convenient, or adequate for good
service or future expansion of electrical use.
Approach to Electrical
Safety
Installation
Code (PEC)
Provide the best technical information,
ensuring the practical safeguarding of
persons & property from the hazards.

Product Standards Inspection &


& Certification Enforcement
Design & test requirement Understand the
assure that it can be relied relationship between
on the function safely. the product standards
Safe Products & and installation codes.
Safe Installation
Motor Protection
Any device using electrical energy could malfunction due to :
an electrical problem:

- overvoltage, undervoltage, phase imbalance or single-phasing


( phase loss ),
- short-circuits which can surpass the breaking capacity of the
contactor.
a mechanical problem:
- stalled rotor, momentary or prolonged overload.
Basic Protection Schemes
Range 1.05 - 1.20 In
Circuit t Characteristic of
breaker thermal relay
Cable thermal-withstand
limit
contactor 1 to 10 s
Limit of thermal-
relay constraint
Thermal relay

20 to 30 ms
motor In Is I” short-ckt current
breaking capacity
What Current To Use ?
Sec. 4.30.1.6

For general motor applications (excluding applications of torque


motors and sealed hermetic-type refrigeration motor-compressors),
current rating shall be based on the following:

(1) Table Values. The values given in Table 4.30.14.1 to


4.30.14.4, including notes, shall be used to determine the
ampacity of conductors or ampere ratings of switches, branch-
circuit short circuit & ground-fault protection, instead of actual
current rating marked on the motor nameplate.
(2) Nameplate Values. Separate motor overload protection shall
be based on the motor nameplate current rating.

Sec 4.30.1.6 (a) p572


What Current To Use ?
Sec. 4.30.1.6(b)

Torque Motors. For torque motors, the rated current shall


be locked-rotor current, & this nameplate current shall be
used to determine the ampacity of the branch-circuit
conductors covered in Sec. 4.30.2.2 (Single Motor) &
4.30.2.4 (Several Motors or a Motor & other Load. The
ampere rating of motor overload protection, & the ampere
rating of motor branch-circuit short-circuit & ground-fault
protection in accordance with Sec. 4.30.4.2(b).

Sec 4.30.1.6(b) p573


What Current To Use ?
Sec. 4.40.1.6(a)

Hermetic Refrigerant Motor-Compressor. The rated-load


current marked on the nameplate of the equipment in which
the motor-compressor is employed shall be used in
determining the rating or ampacity of the disconnecting
means, the branch-circuit conductors, the controller, the
branch circuit short circuit & ground fault protection & the
separate motor overload protection. Where no rated-load
current shown on the equipment nameplate, the rated-load
current shown on the compressor nameplate shall be used.

Sec 4.40.1.6(a) p631


Motor Circuit Conductors
Sec. 4.30.2.2(a)

Single Motor. - General


Branch Circuit
Short Circuit & Branch-circuit
Ground Fault
Protection
conductors that supply a
single motor used in a
Motor Controller continuous duty
Branch
Overload Circuit application shall have an
Conductors
Protection ampacity of not less
than 125% of the
Motor motor’s full-load current
p582
rating .
Ampacity Table
FPN: Tables 3.10.1.16 through 3.10.1.19 are application tables
for use in determining conductor sizes on loads calculated in
accordance with Article 2.20. Allowable ampacities result from
consideration of one or more of the following:
1. Temperature compatibility with connected equipment,
especially at the connection points.
2. Coordination with circuit and system overcurrent protection.
3. Compliance with the requirements of product listings or
certifications.
4. Preservation of the safety benefits of established industry
practices and standardized procedures.
p295
Temperature Limitations
Sec. 1.10.1.14 (c)

The temperature rating associated with the


ampacity of a conductor shall be selected and
coordinated so as not to exceed the lowest
temperature rating of any connected termination,
conductor, or device. Conductors with temperature
ratings higher than specified for termination’s shall
be permitted to be used for ampacity adjustment,
correction, or both.

p39
Temperature Limitations
Sec. 1.10.1.14 (c)
(1) Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated 100
amperes or less, or marked for 2.0 mm2 (1.6 mm dia.) through 38
mm2 conductors, shall be used only for one of the following.
a. Conductors rated 60oC, or
b. Conductors with higher temperature ratings, provided the
ampacity of such conductors is determined based on the 60oC
ampacity of the conductor size used, or
c. Conductors with higher temperature ratings if the equipment
is listed and identified for use with such conductors, or
d. For motors marked with design letters B, C, D, or E,
conductors having an insulation rating of 75oC or higher shall be
permitted to be used provided the ampacity of such conductors
p39 does not exceed the 75oC ampacity.
NEMA Motor Design-Letters
Classification
❚ NEMA Classes A
❚ NEMA Classes B
❚ NEMA Classes C
❚ NEMA Classes D
❚ NEMA Classes F
Temperature Limitations
Sec. 1.10.1.14 (c)

(2) Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated over 100


amperes, or marked for conductors larger than 38 mm2, shall be
used only for

a. Conductors rated 75oC, or


b. Conductors with higher temperature ratings, provided the
ampacity of such conductors does not exceed the 75oC ampacity
of the conductor size used, or up to their ampacity if the
equipment is listed and identified for use with such conductors.

p39
Minimum Branch Circuit Conductor
Size Sec. 2.10.2.1(a)

The minimum branch circuit conductor size, before the


application of any adjustment or correction factors, shall have
an allowable ampacity equal to or greater than the non-
continuous load plus 125% of the continuous load.

Exception: Where the assembly, including the overcurrent


devices protecting the branch circuit, is listed for operation at
100% of its rating, the ampacity of the branch circuit
conductors shall be permitted to be not less than the sum of the
continuous load plus the noncontinuous load.

p66
MCCB Temperature Test
(Non 100% Rated)

The temperature rise on a wiring


terminal at point to which the insulation
of a wire is brought up as in actual
o
service shall not exceed 50 C.

The temperature rise on a circuit


breaker, or an extension member, where
a bus bar is to be connected shall not
exceed 50oC.

UL 489 p 29
MCCB Temperature Test
(Non 100% Rated)

If the temperature rise at the points where the connection are


made exceed 50oC but not more than 65oC with the circuit
breaker carrying 100% of rated current, the temperature test
may be repeated using an untested circuit breaker installed in an
enclosure that is representative of the smallest enclosure with
which the circuit breaker is likely to used. Under these
conditions, with the circuit breaker carrying 80% of its
maximum rated current, the temperature rise at the points where
the connection to the external wires or bus bars are made shall
not exceed 50oC.

UL 489 p 29
MCCB Temperature Test
(100% Rated)

The temperature rises (1) where connections are made to external


bus bars, when bus bar are used; or (2) on a wiring terminal at a
point to which the insulation of a wire is brought up as in actual
service when tested with insulated wire shall not exceed 60oC.

Exception: The marking required need not be provided if the


temperature rise measured on the insulated cable does not exceed
50oC.

UL 489 p 30
Marking

A circuit breaker that is intended to be operated


continuously at 100% of its rating and that has a
temperature rise on a wiring terminal exceeding
o
50 C, shall be marked,

o
A. For use with 90 C wire and the wire size. The
o
wire size shall be based on the ampacity of 75 C
rated conductor.

UL 489 p80A
Over-current Protection
For Conductors

Circuit Breaker should be tested and wired in accordance with the


Table given in the Circuit Breaker Standard.

Caution:- The use of conductors smaller than those shown in


Nema AB1 or ANSI/UL 489 Molded Case Circuit Breakers
standard Table can result in unsafe conditions such as
overheating and change in tripping characteristics; consult the
manufacturer.

Nema AB1, part2 p32


Temperature-rise Limits for
Terminals
Terminal material Temp.-rise limits1) (K)
Bare copper 60
Bare brass 65
Tin plated copper or brass 65
Silver plated or nickel plated copper or brass 70
Other metals 2)

1)
The use in service of connected conductors significantly smaller than those
listed in Table 9 & 10 could result in higher terminals & internal parts
temperature & such conductors should not be used w/o the manufacturer’s
consent since higher temp. could lead to equipment failure.
Temp-rise limits to be based on service experience or life tests but not to
2)

exceed 65K.
IEC 60947-1 p183
Motor Circuit Conductors
Sec. 4.30.2.2(b)

Other than Continuous Duty. Conductors for a


motor used in a short-time, intermittent, periodic, or
varying duty application shall have an ampacity of
not less than the percentage of the motor nameplate
current shown in Table 4.30.2.2(b), unless the
authority having jurisdiction grants special
permission for the conductors of lower ampacity.

Sec 4.30.2.2(b) p583


Duty-Cycle Service
Table 4.30.2.2(b)
Nameplate Current Rating Percentages
Classification of Service 5-min. 15-min. 30&60 min. Cont.rated
Short time duty operating 110 120 150 -
valves, raising or lowering
rolls, etc.
Intermittent duty freight & 85 85 90 140
passenger elevators, pumps,
etc.
Periodic duty rolls, ore & coal 85 90 95 140
handling machines, etc.
Varying duty 110 120 150 200
Note:Any motor application shall be considered as continuous duty
unless the nature of the apparatus it drives is such that the motor will not
operate continuously with load under any condition of use.
Table 4.30.2.2(b) p 583
4.30.2.2(b) 4.30.3.3
Wound-Rotor Secondary
Sec 4.30.2.3
Secondary conductor rated not
Primary conductors rated less than 125% of full load
not less than 125% of Motor
secondary current or Table
motor primary current 4.30.2.2(b)other than Cont. Duty

Line

The ampacity of the conductors between


controller and resistor shall not be less
than that shown in Table 4.30.2.3(c).
Wound-Rotor Secondary
Conductor Table 4.30.2.3(c)
Resistor Duty Classification Amp. of Conductor in % of Full load
Secondary Current

Light starting duty 35


Heavy starting duty 45
Extra heavy starting duty 55
Light intermittent duty 65
Medium intermittent duty 75
Heavy intermittent duty 85
Continuous duty 110
PEC 1,2000 p 584
Thermal Devices

Circuit Thermal relays and other devices not


breaker designed to open short circuits or
ground faults shall not be used for the
protection of conductors against
Motor Controller overcurrent due to short circuits or
ground faults, but the use of such shall
Overload
be permitted to protect motor branch
Protection
circuit conductors from overload if
protected in accordance with
motor Sec.4.30.3.10

NEC 2002, 240.9


Overload Relays
Sec.4.30.3.10

Overload relays and other devices for motor


overload protection that are not capable of opening
short circuits shall be protected by fuses or circuit
breakers with rating or settings in accordance with
Section 4.30.4.2.

NEC 2002, 240.9


Branch Circuit Overload Protection
Sec. 4.30.3.2(a)1
PEC 1 Table FLA Motor Nameplate FLA

GT Motor Ser.No. 123 Frame OPEN


PF 75% EFF. 70% S.F. 1.15
PHASE 1 VOLTS 115/230 FLA 18.5/9.27
o
CYCLE 60 RPM 1725 C RISE 40
DUTY CONT HP 1.5 CODE LETTER F

Table is used to size:


•conductors & disconnects Motor nameplate FLA is used to
•short circuit & ground fault size overload protection
protective devices
Branch Circuit Overload Protection
Sec. 4.30.3.2(a)1
Continuous-Duty Motors.

Each continuous duty motor shall be protected against overload


by a separate overload device that is responsive to motor current,
This device shall be selected to trip or shall be rated at no more
than the following percent of the motor nameplate full-load
current rating:
Motors with a marked service factor not less than 1.15 125%
Motors with a marked temperature rise not over 40oC 125%
All other motors 115%

p 588 4.30.3.5
Branch Circuit Overload Protection
Sec. 4.30.3.2(a)1
Continuous-Duty Motors.

Where a separate motor overload device is connected so that it


does not carry the total current designed on the motor nameplate,
such as for wye-delta starting, the proper percentage of the
nameplate current applying the selection or setting of the
overload device shall be clearly designated on the equipment, or
manufacturer’s selection table shall take this into account.
FPN: Where power factor correction capacitors are installed on
the load side of the motor overload device, see Sec 4.60.1.9

Sec 4.30.3.2(a)1 p 588


Branch Circuit Overload Protection
Sec. 4.30.3.2(a)1

Overload Relay?

Case 2
Case 1
Rating or Setting of Motor
Overload Device Sec. 4.60.1.9

Capacitors with Motors.

Rating or Setting of Motor Overload Device.


Where a motor installation includes a capacitor
connected on the lode side of the motor overload
device, the rating or setting of the motor overload
device shall be based on the improved power factor
of the motor circuit. The effect of the capacitor shall
be disregarded in determining the motor circuit
conductor rating in accordance with Sec. 4.30.2.2.

Sec 4.60.1.9 p665


Rating or Setting of Motor
Overload Device. Sec. 4.60.1.9
Capacitors with Motors.

Ex.: A motor with 70% pf has a full load current


rating of 143 A. Normally, the OL relay would be
set for say, 125% of 143 or 179 A. But , because a
PF capacitor is installed at the motor, the OL relay
no longer will have 143 A flowing through it at full
load. If the capacitor corrects to 100% PF, the effect
will be as follows:

p3.27
Rating or Setting of Motor
Overload Device. Sec. 4.60.1.9
Capacitors with Motors.
Total
*A Motor
Current B Working current from supply

Controller
Motor
C
Reactive or
magnetizing
Overload units should be set for
PF current from
125% of current produce by
Capacitor capacitor
improved power factor instead
of motor full-load current.

p3.27
*A (total motor current) = Vector sum of B and C
Rating or Setting of Motor
Overload Device. Sec. 4.60.1.9
Capacitors with Motors. Cos θ = 0.70
Ix = Magnetizing current
Ixc
L

Ixc = Capacitor current


Iw = Working current
Iw
θ E Working current = Total motor current x PF

= 143 x 0.70 = 100 Amps


That is the current that will be flowing
Ix through the OL relay at full-load. Therefor,
L
I = 143 A The OL relay must be set at
p3.27
125% x 100 Amps = 125 Amps
Motor Capacitor Circuit
Conductors Sec. 4.60.1.8(a)
Capacitors with Motors.

The ampacity of the capacitor circuit conductors


shall not be less than 135% of the rated current of
the capacitor. The ampacity of conductors that
connect a capacitor to the terminals of a motor or to
motor circuit conductors shall not be less than one-
third the ampacity of the motor circuit conductors &
in no case less than 135% of the rated current of the
capacitor.

Sec 4.60.1.8(a) p664


Branch Circuit Overload Protection
Sec. 4.30.3.3
Intermittent and Similar Duty.

A motor used for a condition of service that is inherently short-


time, intermittent, periodic, or varying duty, as illustrated by
Table 4.30.2.2(b), shall be permitted to be protected against
overload by the branch circuit short circuit & ground fault
protective device, provided the protective device rating or
setting does not exceed that specified in Table 4.30.14.6.
Any motor application shall be considered to be for continuous
duty unless the nature of the apparatus it drive is such that the
motor cannot operate continuously with load under any condition
of use.
p 590
Branch Circuit Overload Protection
Sec. 4.30.3.4
Selection of Overload Relay.

Where the overload relay selected in accordance with Sec.


4.30.3.2(a)(1) and ( c )(1) is not sufficient to start the motor or to
carry the load, the next higher size overload relay shall be
permitted to be used, provided the trip current of the overload
relay does not exceed the following percentage of motor nameplate
full load current rating:
Motors with a marked service factor not less than 1.15 140%
Motors with a marked temperature rise not over 40oC 140%
All other motors 130%

Sec 4.30.3.4 p 591


Special Feature of Overload Relay

Selection of Overload Relay.

An special feature of overload relay can ease the


relay current setting which can be varied to match
the requirements of the load. The changeover is
effected by simply turning a dial to the new value
required. The range of adjustment is approximately
100% - 125% - 150%.

Fe 01/98
Branch Circuit Overload Protection
Sec. 4.30.3.4
Selection of Overload Relay.

If not shunted during the starting period of the motor as provided


in Section 4.30.3.5, the overload device shall have sufficient time
delay to permit the motor to start & accelerate its load.

FPN: A Class 20 or 30 overload relay will provide a longer motor


acceleration time than a Class 10 or 20, respectively. Use of a
higher class overload relay may preclude the need for selection of
a higher trip current.

Sec 4.30.3.4 p 591


Thermal Overload Relays
Long time operating type
- In the case of loads having large inertia moments such as
blowers, winders or centrifuges the starting time will be
extended.

Quick operating type


- The windings of submersible pump and compressor motors
normally have a smaller overload capacity than those of
standard motors, since they are generally cooled by water and
other medium being pump. Therefore, it will be needing faster
response time from protective relays.
Basic Protection Schemes
Motor Damage
characteristic Range 1.05 - 1.20 In
Circuit t Characteristic of thermal
breaker relay (140% In)
Cable thermal-withstand
limit
30 s Class 30
contactor 20 s
1 to 10 s Class 20

Thermal relay Class 10

20 to 30 ms
motor In 6In I” short-ckt current
breaking capacity
Trip Class of Thermal, Time-delay Magnetic or
Solid State Overload Relays
Table I
Tripping time Tp in seconds under the conditions
Trip class specified in Table II, Column D
10 A 2 < Tp ≤ 10
10 4 < Tp ≤ 10
20 6 < Tp ≤ 20
30 9 < Tp ≤ 30

IEC 60947-4-1 p59


Overload Relay
Performance

Test current as % Maximum Trip Times


of Overload Relay
Rating Class 10 Class 15 Class 20 Class 30
100 % ----------- Ultimately* -------------------
200 % ----------- 8 Minutes -------------------
600 % 10 seconds 15 seconds 20 seconds 30 seconds

* Experience indicates that 2 to 4 hrs. is generally sufficient to


verify this value. Systems which have large masses may require
additional time.
NEMA ICS 2-2000 p4-12
Limits of Operation of Time-delay Overload
Relays When Energized on All Poles
Table II

Type of overload Multiple of current setting Ref. ambient


relay A B C D air temperature
Thermal type not
compensated for
ambient air temp. 1.0 1.2 1.5 7.2 +40oC
variations and
magnetic type
Thermal type
compensated for
ambient air temp. 1.05 1.2 1.5 7.2 +20oC
variations
IEC 60947-4-1 p 81
Limits of Operation of Time-delay Overload
Relays When Energized on All Poles

The relays shall comply with the requirements of Table II when


tested as follows:
a) with the overload relay or starter in its enclosure, if normally
fitted, & at A times the current setting from the cold state, at the
value of reference ambient air temperature stated in Table II.
However, when the overload relay terminals have reached thermal
equilibrium at the test current in less than 2 hr., the test duration
can be the time needed to reach such thermal equilibrium;
b) when the current is subsequently raised to B times the current
setting, tripping shall occur in less than 2 Hr;

IEC 60947-4-1 p 79
Limits of Operation of Time-delay Overload
Relays When Energized on All Poles

The relays shall comply with the requirements of Table II when


tested as follows:
c) for class 10A overload relays energized at C times the current
setting, tripping shall occur in less than 2 min. starting from
thermal equilibrium at the current setting;
d) for class 10, 20, & 30 overload relays energized at C times the
current setting, tripping shall occur in less than 4, 8, or 12 min.
respectively, starting from thermal equilibrium at the current
setting;
e) at D times the current setting, tripping shall occur within the
limits given in Table I for the appropriate trip class starting from
the cold state.
IEC 60947-4-1 p 79
Motor-Compressor & Branch Circuit
Overload Protection Sec. 4.40.6.2

Air-Conditioning/Refrigerating Equipment
(a) (1) Each motor-compressor shall be protected against overload
& failure to start by a separate overload relay that is
responsive to motor compressor current. This device shall be
selected to trip at not more than 140% of the motor-
compressor rated-load current.
(3) A fuse or inverse time circuit breaker responsive to motor
current, which shall also be permitted to serve as the branch-
circuit short circuit & ground fault protective device. This
device shall be rated at not more than 125% of motor
compressor rated load current.
p 639
Motor Controllers
Sec. 4.30.7.2

Controller Design.
Circuit
breaker (a) Starting and Stopping.
Each controller shall be
Motor
capable of starting and
Controller
Overload
stopping the motor it
Protection controls and shall be
capable of interrupting
the locked-rotor current
Motor
of the motor.
p605
Motor Controllers
Sec. 4.30.7.3

Ratings

The controller shall have a rating as specified


in (a) of this section, unless otherwise
permitted in (b) or (c), or as specified in (d) of
this section, under the conditions specified.

p605
Motor Controllers
Sec. 4.30.7.3
Ratings
(a) General.
(1) Controllers, other than inverse time circuit breakers and
molded case switches, shall have horsepower ratings at the
application voltage not lower than the horsepower rating of the
motor. A controller for use with a Design E motor rated more than
2 hp shall (1) be marked as rated for use with a Design E motor,
or (2) have a horsepower rating not less than 1.4 times the rating
of a motor rated 3 through 100 hp, or not less than 1.3 times the
rating of a motor rated over 100 hp.

p606
Motor Controllers
Sec. 4.30.7.3
Ratings
(b) Small Motors. Device as specified in Section 4.30.7.1(b) & (c)
shall be permitted as controller.
(c) Stationary Motors of 2 Horsepower or Less. For stationary
motors rated at 2 hp or less & 300 volts or less, the controller shall
be permitted to be either of the following:
(1) A general-use switch having an ampere rating not less than
twice the full-load current rating of the motor
(2) On ac circuits, a general-use snap switch suitable only for use
on ac (not general-use ac-dc snap switches) where the motor full-
load current rating is not more than 80% of the ampere rating of the
switch.
p606
Motor Controllers
Sec. 4.30.7.3

Ratings

(d) Torque Motors. For torque motors, the controller


shall have a continuous-duty, full-load current rating not
less than the nameplate current rating of the motor. For a
motor controller rated in horsepower but not marked with
the foregoing current rating, the equivalent current rating
shall be determined from the horsepower rating by using
Tables 4.30.14.1, 4.30.14.2, 4.30.14.3, or 4.30.14.4.

p606
Magnetic Starter
Specification
Rating N5 N6 N7 N8
AC- 3 200-240V 22 30 37 45
kW 3-Phase 380-440V 45 55 75 90
AC-4 200-240V 18.5 22 30 37
3-Phase 380-440V 37 45 55 75
AC- 3 200-240V 93 125 152 180
A 3-Phase 380-440V 90 110 150 180
AC-4 200-240V 80 93 125 150
3-Phase 380-440V 80 90 110 150
AC-1 200-440V 150 150 200 260
Utilization Categories of A.C.
Motor Starters
Utilization cat. Typical application
AC-1 Non-inductive or slightly inductive loads, resistive
furnaces.
AC-2 Slip-ring motors: starting, switching off
AC-3 Squirrel-cage motors: starting, switching off motors
during running1)
AC-4 Squirrel-cage motors: Starting, plugging, inching
1) AC-3 category may be used for occasional inching (jogging) or
plugging for limited time periods such as machine set-up; during such
limited periods the number of such operations should not exceed five
per min. or more than ten in a 10-min. period
IEC 60947-4-1 p55
Making & Breaking Capacities
According to Utilization Category
Utilization Make & break test conditions
category Ic/Ie Ur/Ue Cos θ On-time(s) Off-time No. of oper.
cycle
AC-1 1.5 1.05 0.80 0.05 6) 50
AC-2 4.0 1.05 0.65 0.05 6) 50
AC-39) 8.0 1.05 1) 0.05 6) 50
AC-49) 10.0 1.05 1) 0.05 6) 50
Making conditions 9)
AC-39) 10 1.05 1) 0.05 10 50
AC-49) 12 1.05 1) 0.05 10 50

1) Cos θ = 0.45 for Ie ≤ 100 A, 0.35 for Ie > 100 A.


6) These off-times shall be not greater than the values specified in TableVIIa.
IEC 60947-4-1 p91
Motor Branch Circuit Short Circuit &
Ground Fault Protection, Sec. 4.30.4.2
Branch Rating or Setting for Individual
Circuit Short Motor Circuit.
Circuit & (a) General.The motor branch
Ground Fault circuit short circuit & ground fault
Protection protective device shall comply with
Motor Controller (b) and either (c) or (d), as
applicable.
Overload Protection
(b) All Motors. The motor branch
circuit short circuit & ground fault
protective device shall be capable
Motor
of carrying the starting current of
the motor.
Sec. 4.30.4.2 p 595
4.30.3.3 4.30.4.2 4.30.4.2 4.30.3.10 4.30.4.3 4.30.5.3

Motor Branch Circuit Short Circuit &


Ground Fault Protection, Sec. 4.30.4.2
Rating or Setting for Individual Motor Circuit.
(c)(1) Rating or Setting. A protective device that has a rating or
setting not exceeding the value calculated according to the value
given in Table 4.30.14.6 shall be used.
% of Full-Load Current
Type of Motor Nontime Dual Element Instantaneous Inverse Time
Delay Fuse Time Delay Fuse Trip Breaker Breaker
single phase motor 300 175 800 250
AC polyphase motor
other than wound rotor
Squirrel cage
other than design E 300 175 800 250
Design E 300 175 1100 250
Synchronous 300 175 800 250
Wound rotor 150 150 800 150
DC (constant voltage) 150 150 250 150
Motor Branch Circuit Short Circuit &
Ground Fault Protection, Sec. 4.30.4.2
(c) Rating or Setting.
(1) A protective device that has a rating or setting not
exceeding the value calculated to the values given in Table
4.30.14.6 shall be used.
Exception No. 1: Where the values for branch circuit short
circuit & ground fault protective devices determined by Table
4.30.14.6 do not correspond to the standard sizes or rating of
fuses, nonadjustable circuit breakers, thermal protective
devices, or possible settings of adjustable circuit breakers, the
next higher standard size, rating, or possible setting shall be
permitted.

Sec. 4.30.4.2 p595


Motor Branch Circuit Short Circuit &
Ground Fault Protection, Sec. 4.30.4.2
(c)(1) Rating or Setting.
Exception No. 2: Where the rating specified in Table 4.30.14.6, as
modified by Exception No. 1, is not sufficient for the starting
current of the motor:
(a) The rating of a nontime-delay fuse not exceeding 600
amperes or a time-delay Class CC fuse shall be permitted to be
increased but shall in no case exceed 400% of the full-load
current.
(b) The rating of a time-delay (dual-element) fuse shall be
permitted to be increased but shall in no case exceed 225% of the
full-load current.

Sec. 4.30.4.2 p595


Motor Branch Circuit Short Circuit &
Ground Fault Protection, Sec. 4.30.4.2
(c)(1) Rating or Setting.
Exception No. 2: Where the rating specified in Table 4.30.14.6, as
modified by Exception No. 1, is not sufficient for the starting
current of the motor:
(c) The rating of an inverse time circuit breaker shall be
permitted to be increased but shall in no case exceed 400% for
full-load currents of 100 amperes or less or 300% for full-load
currents greater than 100 amperes.
(d) The rating of a fuse of 601-6000 ampere classification shall
be permitted to be increased but shall in no case exceed 300% of
the full-load current.

Sec. 4.30.4.2 p595


Nonreversing Combination
Magnetic Starters
NEMA size Volt Max. Hp Cont. Amp. Motor FL Amp. CB Rating %
0 3 18 9.6 20 208
1 7½ 27 22.0 50 227
2 15 45 42.0 100 238
3 230- 30 90 80.0 125 156
4 240 50 135 130 200 154
5 100 270 248 400 161
6 200 540 480 800 167

Ge p 1-27, 1999
Nonreversing Combination
Mag-Break Magnetic Starters
NEMA size Volt Max. Hp Cont. Amp. Motor FL Amp. CB Rating %
0 3 18 9.6 15 156
1 7½ 27 22.0 30 136
2 15 45 42.0 50 119
3 230- 30 90 80.0 100 125
4 240 50 135 130 150 115
5 100 270 248 400 161

Ge p 1-229, 1999
Protection for Motor Branch
Circuits, NEMA AB1

The circuit breaker which is selected shall have a


rated continuous current of at least 115% of the
full load current of the motor and shall have a
calibration setting sufficiently high to permit the
motor or motors to start under normal operating
conditions.

Nema ab1,part2 p32


Wye-Delta Motors
❚ Advantage is that no resistors or transformers are
present to produce heat.
❚ Disadvantage is that starting torque is low and there
are no torque/voltage adjustments.
FULL FULL
600
600 500
500
400
400
300 300

200 200
100 100
TIME
TIME

Close Transition
Open Transition
Setting of Instantaneous
Element
When motor data are not available, it is usually assumed
that the locked-rotor current is equal to six times the motor
full-load current, and that the motor acceleration time is 10
seconds.
Normally, it is recommended that the setting of the motor
feeder instantaneous element be at least twice the locked-
rotor current.
Example, if locked-rotor current is 450 A, the instantaneous
elements of the 125 A MCCB should be set at 900 A,
approximately 7.2 times the CB rating.

IEEE Std 241 p457


Assumed Max. Short Circuit Current
Rating of Unmarked Components
Component Short circuit current, kA
Circuit breaker (including GFCI type) 5
Motor controller, rated in horsepower(kW)
a. 0 - 50 (0 - 37.3) 5
b. 51 - 200 (38 - 149) 10
c. 201 - 400 (150 - 298) 18
d. 401 - 600 (299 - 447) 30
e. 601 - 900 (448 - 671) 42
f. 901 - 1500 (672 - 1193) 85
UL 508A, p SB3
Coordination with Short-Circuit
Protective Devices
Table XI
Value of the prospective test current according to the Ie
Rated operational current Prospective current “ r “
Ie (AC-3) (A) (kA)
0 < Ie ≤ 16 1
16 < Ie ≤ 63 3
63 < Ie ≤ 125 5
125 < Ie ≤ 315 10
315 < Ie ≤ 630 18
630 < Ie ≤ 1000 30
1000 < Ie ≤ 1600 42
IEC 60947-4-1 p 137
Motor Branch Circuit Short Circuit &
Ground Fault Protection, Sec. 4.30.4.2

(c) Rating or Setting.

(2) Where maximum branch-circuit short-circuit


and ground-fault protective device ratings are
shown in the manufacturer’s overload relay table
for use with a motor controller or are otherwise
marked on the equipment, they shall not be
exceeded even if higher values are allowed as
shown above.

Sec. 4.30.4.2 p595


Motor Branch Circuit Short Circuit &
Ground Fault Protection, Sec. 4.30.4.2

(c) Rating or Setting.

(3) An instantaneous trip circuit breaker shall be


used only if adjustable and if part of a listed
combination motor controller having coordinated
motor overload and short-circuit and ground-fault
protection in each conductor, and the setting is
adjusted to no more than the value specified in
Table 4.30.14.6

Sec. 4.30.4.2 p596


Motor Branch Circuit Short Circuit &
Ground Fault Protection, Sec. 4.30.4.2
(c)(3) Rating or Setting.
Exception No. 1: Where the setting specified in Table 4.30.14.6 is
not sufficient for the starting current of the motor, the setting of
an instantaneous trip circuit breaker shall be permitted to be
increased but shall in no case exceed 1300 % of the motor full-
load current for other than Design E motors or Design B energy
efficient motors and no more than 1700 % of full load motor
current for Design E motors or Design B energy Efficient motors.
Trip settings above 800 % for other than Design E motors or
Design B energy efficient motors shall be permitted where the
need has been demonstrated by engineering evaluation. In such
cases, it shall not be necessary to first apply an instantaneous-
trip circuit breaker at 800 % or 1100 %.
Sec. 4.30.4.2 p596
Example for Motor Branch Circuit Short
Circuit & Ground Fault Protection

A 30 hp, 230-V, 3 phase squirrel-cage motor is marked with the


code letter M, indicating that the motor has a locked-rotor current
of 10 to 11.19 kVA/hp. A full-voltage controller is also provided,
with running overload protection in the controller to protect the
motor within its heating-damage curve on overload. Select a circuit
breaker which will provide short-circuit protection & will qualify
as the motor-circuit disconnect means.
1. The motor has a full-load current of 80 A.

2. A CB suitable for use as the disconnect must have a current


rating of at least 115% of 80 A.

P 3.8
Example for Motor Branch Circuit Short
Circuit & Ground Fault Protection

3. Based on Table, it permits the use of an inverse-time CB rated


not more than 250% of the motor full-load current. 2.5 x 80 A =
200 A, a 225 AF with 200 AT setting could be selected.

4. The starting current of the motor will be [(30 hp x 11.19 kVA/hp) /


(230 V x 1.732)]= 843 A.

5. The instantaneous characteristic of a 200 AT inverse-time CB


will be about 200 A x 10 = 2000 A. Such a CB will provide
protection for ground and short circuit without interfering with
the motor running overload protection.

P 3.8
Branch-Circuit Short-circuit & Ground
Fault Protection Sec. 4.40.3.2
Air-Conditioning/Refrigerating Equipment

(a) Rating or Setting for Individual Motor-Compressor.


A protective device having a rating or setting not exceeding
175% of the motor-compressor rated load current or branch
circuit selection current, whichever is greater, shall be permitted,
provided that, where the protection specified is not sufficient for
starting current of the motor, the rating or setting shall be
permitted to be increased, but shall not exceed 225% of the motor
rated load current of branch circuit selection current, whichever
is greater.

p635
Air Condition & Refrigeration Equipment
Short Circuit & Ground Fault Protection

60 Hz 1 PH 197 Min.V
Comp 24.0 FLA 88.0 LRA 1 PH
40 Max. Fuse Size
30 Min Circuit Ampacity
230 Volts

40A Fuse
Air Condition & Refrigeration Equipment
Short Circuit & Ground Fault Protection
What size of conductor and protection is required for 24 A
motor compressor connected to 240 V circuit?
Step 1. Branch Circuit Conductor
24 x 1.25 = 30 A, rated 30A at 75oC
Step 2. Branch Circuit Protection
24 x 1.75 = 42 A, what is the rating of protective device?

Next size down = 40 A since Sec. 4.40.3.2(a) does not indicate


that the next higher standard rating may be used.
If the 40A protection device isn’t capable of carrying the starting
current, then the protection device can be sized up to 225% of the
equipment load current rating. 24 x 2.25 = 54 A.
Example Calculation for Sealed
Hermetic Motor Compressor
Size the protective devices & cable for the circuit components of a
sealed hermetic motor compressor with a nameplate current rating
of 10 A.

1. The full-load current used for all calculation for a sealed hermetic
motor compressor is the current marked on the unit’s nameplate.
2. For continuous operation, the branch circuit conductors must have
at least equal to 125% of 10 A or 13 A.
3. Conductors for branch circuit must, therefore, be not smaller than
2mm2 (Type TW or THW).

P 3.5
Example Calculation for Sealed
Hermetic Motor Compressor

4. Running overload protection from overload relays in the starter


must have a rating or setting not over 140% of full-load
(nameplate) current rating. This calls for an overload relay set to
trip at 1.4 x 10 A, or 14 A.
5. The max. fuse rating for short circuit protection for a hermetic
motor compressor is 175% of the motor nameplate full-load
current rating, which is 1.75 x 10 A or 17.5 A. That would indicate
the used of 20 A fuses.
Where Sec.4.40.3.2(a) does not indicate that the next higher standard sizes or ratings of
fuse may be used, but it does permit up to 225% of the motor current where needed for
starting of the motor.

P 3.6
Disconnecting Means
Section 4.30.10.2
(b)
Basic Rule Disconnecting means w/in sight
from motor & driven machinery
Disconnect This additional switch is not needed if
means Controller disconnect ahead of starter is lock-open
type.

Disconnect Driven
(a) means Motor Machinery
Individual disconnecting
means shall be located in
sight from each controller
location.

P 3.20
Disconnecting Means
Section 4.30.10.3
Disconnecting
Means
Operation.
Branch Circuit
Short Circuit &
The disconnecting means shall
Ground Fault open all ungrounded supply
Protection conductors & shall be designed
so that no pole can be operated
Motor Controller
independently. The
Overload disconnecting means shall be
Protection
permitted in the same enclosure
with the controller.
Motor
P 612
Disconnecting Means
Section 4.30.10.10
Ampere Rating & Interrupting Capacity.
(a) General. The disconnecting means for motor circuits rated
600 volts, nominal, or less, shall have an ampere rating of at
least 115% of the full-load current rating of the motor.
(b) Torque Motors. Disconnecting means for torque motor shall
have an ampere rating of at least 115% of the motor
nameplate current.
(c) For Combination Loads. Where two or more motors are
used together or where one or more motors are used in
combination with other loads, such as resistance heaters, &
where the combined load may be simultaneous on a single
disconnecting means, the ampere & horsepower ratings of the
combined load shall be determined as follows:
P 614
Disconnecting Means
Section 4.30.10.10
(c) For Combination Loads.
(1) The rating of the disconnecting means shall be determined from
the sum of all currents, including resistance loads, at the full
load condition & also at the locked-rotor condition.
The full load current equivalent to the hp rating of each motor
shall be selected from Tables 4.30.14.1, 4.30.14.2, 4.30.14.3, or
4.30.14.4.
The locked-rotor current equivalent to the hp rating of each
motor shall be selected from Table 4.30.14.5(a) or 4.30.14.5(b).
The locked-rotor currents shall be added to the rating in
amperes of other loads to obtain an equivalent locked-rotor
current for the combined loads.

P 615
Disconnecting Means
Section 4.30.10.10
(c) For Combination Loads.
(2) The ampere rating of the disconnecting means shall not be less
than 115 % of the sum of all currents at the full load condition
determined in accordance with Sec. 4.30.10.10(c)(1).
Exception: A listed nonfused motor circuit switch having a
horsepower rating equal to or greater than the equivalent
horsepower of the combined loads, determined in accordance
with Sec.4.30.10.10(c)(1), shall be permitted to have an ampere
rating less than 115% of the sum of all currents at the full load
condition.

PEC 1 2000, p615


Table 4.30.14.5(b) Conversion Table of Polyphase
Design BCD & E Max. Locked-Rotor Currents for Sel.
of Disconnecting Means & Controller as Det. fr. Hp

Rated Max. Motor Locked-Rotor Current in Amp. 3-Phase, Design B,C,D & E
Hp 115 Volts 208 Volts 230 Volts 460 Volts
B,C,D E B,C,D E B,C,D E B,C,D E
1/2 40 40 22.1 22.1 20 20 10 10
3/4 50 50 27.6 27.6 25 25 12.5 12.5
1 60 60 33 33 30 30 15 15
1-1/2 80 80 44 44 40 40 20 20
2 100 100 55 55 50 50 25 25
3 -- -- 71 81 64 73 32 36.5
5 -- -- 102 135 92 122 46 61
7-1/2 -- -- 140 202 127 183 63.5 91.5
p627
Example of Disconnect for
Combination Load
Assume a load consists of one 5hp, one 3hp, and two 1/2hp motors,
plus a 10 kw heater, all rated 240 V, 3 phase, 60 hz. All motors are
design B motors. Determine the size of disconnect.
Sol’n.: Calculation of equivalent Full Load Current Rating
Motor & other load Table Current (A)
5 hp 4.30.14.4 15.2
3 hp 4.30.14.4 9.6
1/2 hp 4.30.14.4 2.2
1/2 hp 4.30.14.4 2.2
10 kw (10 x 1000)/(240 x 1.732) 24.1
Total 53.3
Example of Disconnect for
Combination Load
Calculation of equivalent Locked Rotor Current Rating:
Motor & other load Table Current (A)
5 hp 4.30.14.5(b) 92
3 hp 4.30.14.5(b) 64
1/2 hp 4.30.14.5(b) 20
1/2 hp 4.30.14.5(b) 20
10 kw (10 x 1000)/(240 x 1.732) 24.1
Total 220.1
Example of Disconnect for
Combination Load
Minimum ampere rating of Disconnect = 1.15 x 53.3 = 61.3 A
Using Table 4.30.14.5(b) to obtain equivalent hp = 15 hp ( locked
rotor current 232 A which is more than 220.1 A, but Table 4.30.14.4
FLA = 42A is less than 53.3A.)
General purpose switch satisfies the minimum hp requirement but
fail to satisfy the minimum current requirement of 61.3 A (53.3).
Therefor, the next larger size disconnect switch must be used
which is 20hp. 54 A (over 53.3 A), locked rotor 290 A
Based on Sec.4.30.10.10(c)(2) Exception: A listed non-fused motor circuit switch
having a horsepower rating equal to or greater than the equivalent horsepower of the
combined loads, determined in accordance with Section 4.30.10.10(C)(1), shall be
permitted to have an ampere rating less than 115% of the sum of all currents at the full
load condition.
NEC2002,p548
Load Break Switch
Disconnector Specification
Thermal current Ith 100 A 125A 160A
Rated operational current Ie A/B A/B A/B
400 V AC AC 21A / AC 21B 100 / 100 125 / 125 160 / 160
AC 22A / AC 22B 100 / 100 125 / 125 160 / 160
AC 23A / AC 23B 63 / 63 63 / 63 160 / 160
WITHSTAND (AC 23A)
Mechanical (No. of operation) 20000 20000 10000
Electrical (No. of operation) 1500 / 300 1000 / 200 1000 /
200
Sirco vm, socomec
Utilization Categories
Nature of Utilization categories
current Category A Category B Typical applications
AC-20A* AC-20B* -Connecting & disconnecting
under no-load conditions
Alternating AC-21A AC-21B -Switching of resistive loads
including moderate overloads
Current AC-22A AC-22B -Switching of mixed resistive &
inductive loads, including
moderate overloads
AC-23A AC-23B -Switching of motor loads or
other highly inductive loads
IEC 60947-3 p27 * The use of these utilization categories is not permitted in the U.S.A.
Utilization Category

The designation of utilization categories is completed by suffix A


or B according to whether the intended applications require
frequent or infrequent operations.
Utilization categories with suffix B are appropriate for devices
which, due to design or application, are only intended for
infrequent operation. This could apply, for example, to
disconnectors normally only operated to provide isolation for
maintenance work or switching devices where fuse-link blade
forms the moving contact.

IEC 60947-3 p25


Verification of rated making &
breaking capacities
Conditions for making & breaking corresponding to various utilization categories

Utilization Rated oprn’l Making Breaking Number of


category current I/Ie U/Ue cos θ Ic/Ie Uf/Ue cos θ oprt’g cycle
AC-20A/B All Values
AC-21A/B All Values 1.5 1.05 0.95 1.5 1.05 0.95 5
AC-22A/B All Values 3 1.05 0.65 3 1.05 0.65 5
AC-23A/B 0< Ie ≤100 A 10 1.05 0.45 8 1.05 0.45 5
100 A < Ie 10 1.05 0.35 8 1.05 0.35 3

IEC 60947-3 p37


Feeder Tap Conductors
Sec. 4.30.2.8

Feeder Short
Circuit & Feeder tap
Ground Fault Feeder Conductor conductors shall have
Protection an ampacity not less
Feeder Tap than that required by
Conductor
Branch Circuit Part 4.30.2, shall
Short Circuit & terminate in a branch
Ground Fault
Protection circuit and, in
Motor Branch
addition, shall meet
Controller Circuit one of the following
Conductors requirements:
Motor
Feeder Tap Conductors
Sec. 4.30.2.8

(1) Be enclosed by either an enclosed controller or by a


raceway, be not more than 3000 mm in length, and, for
field installation, be protected by an overcurrent device
on line side of the tap conductor, the rating or setting of
which shall not exceed 1000% of tap conductor capacity
(2) Have an ampacity of at least one-third that of the
feeder conductors, be suitably protected from physical
damage or enclosed in a raceway, and be not more than
7600 mm in length
(3) Have the same ampacity as the feeders conductors

p586
Motor Circuit Conductors
Sec. 4.30.2.4
Feeder Short
Circuit &
Several Motors or a
Ground Fault Feeder Conductor
Protection Motor(s) & Other Load(s)
Feeder Tap Conductors supplying
Branch Conductor several motors, or a motor
Circuit short and other load, shall have
Circuit & an ampacity at least equal
Ground Fault to the sum of the full-load
Protection current rating of all the
Motor Branch motors, plus 25% of the
Controller Circuit highest rated motor in the
Conductors group, plus the ampere
Motor rating of other loads .
p584
Motor Feeder Short-Circuit & Ground-
Fault Protection, Sec. 4.30.5.2

Rating or Setting - Motor Load.


(a) Specific Load. A feeder supplying a specific fixed motor load(s)
& consisting of conductor sizes based on Sec. 4.30.2.4 shall be
provided with protective device having a rating or setting not greater
than the largest rating or setting of the branch-circuit short-circuit &
ground-fault protective device for any motor supplied by the feeder
[based on the maximum permitted value for the specific type of a
protective device shown in Table 4.30.14.6, or Sec. 4.40.3.2(a) for
hermitic refrigerant motor-compressors], plus the sum of the other
motors of the group.

p600 4.30.5.3
Example of Feeder
Protection
Feeder Short
Circuit &
Ground Fault Feeder Conductor What is the size of feeder
Protection
protection (inverse time
Feeder Tap CB with 75oC terminals) &
Branch Conductor conductor are required for
Circuit short
Circuit &
the following two motors?
Ground Fault Motor 1 - 20hp, 460V, 27A
Protection
Motor Branch Motor 2 - 10hp, 460V, 14A
Controller Circuit
Conductors
Motor
p473 20 hp 10 hp
Example of Feeder
Protection
Step 1. Feeder Conductor Size
( 27A x 1.25 ) + 14 A = 48 A
Use 8 mm2 rated 50A at 75oC
Step 2. Branch Circuit protective device
20hp Motor = 27A x 2.5 = 68A, use next size up = 70A
10hp Motor = 14A x 2.5 = 35A
Step 3. Size of Feeder Protection
70A + 14A = 84A
Next size down = 80A, The next size up protection rule for branch
circuit Exception 1 does not apply to feeder protection device sizing.
p473
Motor Feeder Short-Circuit & Ground-
Fault Protection, Sec. 4.30.5.2

Rating or Setting - Motor Load.

(b)Other Installations. Where feeder


conductors have an ampacity greater than
required by Section 4.30.2.4, the rating or
setting of the feeder overcurrent protective
device shall be permitted to be based on the
ampacity of the feeder conductors.

p600
Ex. On Motor Feeder Short-Circuit &
Ground-Fault Protection

Time Time Time


delay delay Nontime
delay fuse
fuse fuse delay fuse

5 Hp 10 Hp 25 Hp 25 Hp
18 A 32 A 78 A 78 A
3 phase, 200 V, 60 Hz., squirrel cage induction motors
P 5.5
Ex. On Motor Feeder Short-Circuit &
Ground-Fault Protection

1) The feeder conductors must have a carrying capacity that is


computed as follows:
(1.25 x 78) +78 + 32 +18 = 225.5 A , used 125 mm2 THW

2) Branch circuit protection


2-1) Nontime delay fuse= 300% x 78 = 234 A, used 250 A fuse
2-2) Time delay fuse = 175% x 78 = 136.5 A , used 150 A fuse
2-3) Time delay fuse = 175% x 32 = 56 A, used 60 A fuse
2-4) Time delay fuse = 175% x 18 = 31.5 A, used 35 A fuse
P 5.5
Ex. On Motor Feeder Short-Circuit &
Ground-Fault Protection

3) Feeder Protection
The maximum rating or setting for the overcurrent device
protection must not be greater than the largest rating or setting of
branch circuit protective device plus the sum of the full-load
currents of the other motors.
250 + 78 + 32 + 18 = 378 A

Used 350 A Fuse or Circuit Breaker

P 5.5
Motor Control Centers
Section 4.30.8.3

Overcurrent Protection.
Motor control centers shall be provided with
overcurrent protection in accordance with
Article 2.40 based on the rating of the common
power bus. This protection shall be provided by
(1) an overcurrent protective device located
ahead of the motor control center or (2) a main
overcurrent protective device located within the
motor control center.

p608
Series Ratings
Sec.2.40.7.7
Series Ratings. Where a circuit breaker is used on a circuit
having an available fault current higher than its marked
interrupting rating by being connected on the load side of an
acceptable overcurrent protective device having higher rating,
the following shall apply.
(b) Motor Contribution. Series ratings shall not be used where:
(1) Motors are connected on the load side of higher rated
overcurrent device and on the line side of the lower rated
overcurrent device, and
(2)The sum of the motor full load currents exceeds 1% of the
interrupting rating of the lower rated circuit breaker.
p153
Series Ratings
Sec.2.40.7.7

Series combination:
22 kA interrupting rating

10kA

Fault M

Motor Contribution
NEC 2002 p169
Thank You Very
Much for
Listening