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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

− + =
( − )( − )=
=

= +
! " # "# "$# $

% "$# $
&
' (
µ( ) + µ (− )
)

* ) )

*
µ( ) − µ (− ) ( )
"" ) =

+
! , $ "" $
-.! $$
+ !/

-.! # µ( ) >

-.! # µ (− − ) >

< <

0 !

( )= + +

( "#
# = + +

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

+ + =


± −

$ ≥

+ ! ≥

1 ( " #2
3 ) 3
3 ) 3

4 ) −

4 )5 4

= =

=− =

=
− −
= =− =

6 (
!
!
( - $ " 7 # "
2
48 ) 9 : ;!
48 ) 9 : ;!
48 ) ' 9 : ' ;!

!
' &

0 (
1 (

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

6 < + ε & #
#$
( $ 2
) # =
∴ + (
&

( )= µ( )/ ( )= µ ( )

( )= '
µ( )/ ( )= '
µ( )

( )= ω
− ω
( )=
− −
' '

( )= '

&
π
8 ) 1$ π 5 >' π

)1 π >' π

1 '
9+ ) + ='

' !
(
& ? + @ -! + @ -

( )= + !

( ω) = + ω
= ∠− −
ω

= φ
+ ω) A) "φ )
ω) ε
ω $ A"$ ε $

B ω) = φ = −'

ω →∞ → φ = −6
+ &
0
1 !

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

6 ( 2+
ω =
π
= '
λ
× '
=
π
π
λ=
'
ν = λ=− × 0
C $
!



= / = =

= =

+ = + =

'
∞ − ∞

1 =

= = =
1




= =

, D 22 # $

= ×
π 1
=
( ) π
=
∴ π ( π )
=

! , 22 $# $ 82 D

) ( )=− − −

+ >
+ E

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

+ !
!
0 ( ε $ $
1
( F!?
?. ) 54 > ∠ ×
4
4 ) ∠ 5
∠ ∠

+ −
)
= ∠6

6 (
' ( F3? 4 Ω
)5 4 > E4
54
>

4 ) −
3
5
3 7) E4
3 7) 0

' !

4 ) =

4 4
4 ) ='0 C
- -
>
=− + 3
> 75
5
= −
- -

= '0 −

3 7 )5 1
' &

' ( ,2 $ ) -! ) * $
5 >
,) $GG * $
>
8 ! # $ " 3 @
3 )5 5

'' ( ! "$ $ $
µ
< ) 1
<( ) 1
=
µ

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

H) * $ $
σ µ
= =
σ µ ( )
σ
=
σ
' (

ε ε 0×1 1 ×
= = −
×
=
' ! 4

= / = ! = µ
π
ω = = C $
"× µ

'0
'1
'6 & $$ #(I
,
( !

π
β4(

&#
# 2 " "
82 2 " # "#
# $ 2 "
( !
>

> 4( β4(
π
-$ 3

5
5

−β #
= = =−
π
−#
=

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

! 22 2 " $
( !
!)
−β
=
($ ) - % + π > π β4(
-$ 3
− 3$
=
-% 5
# β GG π == - -
"$ $+ - ↑

=# %
4&
! 3& ) E ) '3 3)

3D ) E )
3D E 3 ) E )
3& G 3D E # 3 3D8
'G
" $

(
3
β) α = = 61 6 @
' @
3( ) 03
3
3 ' F 4( > 0>4 @
>
) ' F 4( > 0> 4( @
5
4
4( ) ' *
4! ) β4( ) * @

3 ) E @× *) 3

J " " 7 " 7 @" +


2 2 2 "$
(2 ) −
(2 ) = − !

− 1
= −
!
(2 ) = 0

! 3 $ 8
3( ) 0 3
0
∴ = = 0
!
4- ) 0 2

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

'
= ′ + ′
= ′ + ′ = ( + )( ′+ ′)
= + ′+ ′

& ( )= & ( )
" ( − ) = " ( − )
( − − ) = 6( − )
(' − ) = ( − ) (' − ) = −
1+ = =6
=

L
K M
4#I)
K > ) L
K M
)
K > ) L K ) M
0 , 5# + #, )
K
K
K
+

1 & "" #$ ε $
E 0 61 0E
∞5 E
E 6 1
E 6 1
E
1 6 $ $ N L "" E M
1 6 $ $ N L E M
"" E

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

8 $ E " "" $ 7 E
E 6 E O
+ &
"" $ 1 E 6 $ N ε $ N $ "
6
( − ) ↔ − ω × (ω )
− ω( − ) ( )
(ω ) = × (ω ) + − ω × (ω ) +
− ω +

= − ω × (ω ) + ( $ (ω ) )
(ω ) = − ω +$ ω = $(ω )
' (ω )

!
( ) E

( )= ω − ω
× ( ) ω

$(
( )= ω

)= ' ω − ω
= $ ( ) $( )
ω ω

( ) ω

$( ) = −ωω

$( ) = −ω + π !
ω

D /@ 7

( 4 #2 #
− π
( + )


) 7)

42
( , $ " 2 7 #

1F = F=
1
F= F= 51 5
-
5 5
π
FG FG

F= =F=
1
' !

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

3 )± 3/ 3 )± 3
B 3 ) 3

3 5
3 !
> += ×
+ !

! +=1
3 >
@

B 3 )5 3
3 5
5 3
>

!
@ −= × (− )
'!
−=−
3 5
@

%
3.

13
3
5 3

0
1 ! , - @ $ # $ $$

( ) $( ) = /
, 7 @+
− ( + ) − ( − )( + ) = &= 5
( + )
+ !
6 !
0 ! A
ω$ > β
$ L ω2 M

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

∆ 6
β = = = 1= $ ω + 1 ω

( )= ( )= $ ω + 1 ω

= + $ ( ω + ω )

= + $ ( ω + ω )

β = = ∆ = × = 1

( $ 7 "+" ) ∆ >#
2 ) 1 >
(ω) 0
0 ! ( ) = µ( )− µ( − )+µ( − ) # ( )

, 2 # 2 $ "# " " #


< +" 2 " 7 J
∴ ) P L ) M+ P $
) E' 5 > 5 E' 5 > 5'
% * P* ) - 2 # $

% ω
8× ω
5( (
% ω
98& # 8 × ω ) < BC
% % ω ) 5Qω "

8 ω $ (ω ) & × (ω ) = '( BC
%J

8 ω $ (ω ) & (ω ) = '( %J5( ≤ ω ≤ (


BC

< + ) (ω ) )= × '( = 1(

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

0
!
0' ! 2 93 )
'
' ' "
*( ) = = " =
'
' ' "
2 #3 ) *( ) =
'
2 )1

0 &
0 &

+ = + &
+
+& = = =0 6− '
+ +
+& = 0 6− '
00 (
01 , $$ #I ,
D &
>

23 "

5
8
D
>
>
A
23 F F
<
5
5
R
R

R ) A/ R ) @ 1@) !Ω

06 = && − = − =
* 1

4& ) 2
3& ) E @× )10 3
3& ) 1 0 3

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

1 (

− − × −
# = &&
− = −
* , −1 −1

# = 10 2 2

= # =− " # =− '
#
=− '
1 !
( !
1 D $ # $
#
− −
= =
( + ) ( + )

=$ ( ω) − ω/ −
=

= / =
ω ( + ω) −ω + ω
ω =
$ # $
ω 1
) 56 5 5
− ω
π
ω 1
)5 1 56 E 5
− ω )5 1
π
ω)
(
D 2

)D ) =
( + ) ω=

DA ) = −0 6'

ω 1
9 2 ) 1 > L56 E 5
− ω
π
ω)
9 2 ) 51 6;
1 ( # ) # ) #

× = × +
( − ) =
' 1 '

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 !" 
 #   $&%'() *$*$*,+ - #
 '( .+ 

( K J + 7 + E > ) ,( )

= =
'
− −

'
K J + )
1
1' (
32 ) '3
32 ) 3 32 ) + L
3 ) 3 $" 3 )3 # $ "M

32 ) −

3 ) 3 )

" = = =

+ − + −
" = = = + = Ω
+ + + +

( ! " = →" = = ( +- )

1 ) )
' ) )
+

( !

=


#2 # ( ) − ω

= −∞

( ) ω
+ + − ω
+ ω
+ − ω

( ) ω
$ ω+ $ ω+

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