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Name:Ng Jas Min

Class: S7

A black hole is defined to be a region of space-time where escape to the
outside universe is impossible. The outer boundary of this region is called the
event horizon. Nothing can move from inside the event horizon to the outside,
even briefly, due to the extreme gravitational field existing within the region. For
the same reason, observers outside the event horizon cannot see any events
which may be happening within the event horizon; thus any energy being
radiated or events happening within the region are forever unable to be seen or
detected from outside. Within the black hole is a singularity, an anomalous place
where matter is compressed to the degree that the known laws of physics no
longer apply to it.

Black holes are difficult to observe on account of both their small size and
the fact that they emit no light. They can be “observed,” however, by the effects
of their enormous gravitational fields on nearby matter. For example, if a black
hole is a member of a binary star system, matter flowing into it from its
companion becomes intensely heated and then radiates X rays copiously before
entering the event horizon of the black hole and disappearing forever.

The existence of black holes in the universe is well supported by

astronomical observation, particularly from studying X-ray emission from X-ray
binaries and active galactic nuclei. It has also been hypothesized that black holes
radiate an undetectably small amount of energy due to quantum mechanical
effects. This is called Hawking radiation.