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# Lesson II (cont) How to Measure the QRS Axis

1. Introduction
2. QRS Axis Determination
3. Examples of QRS Axis

1. Introduction

The frontal plane QRS axis represents only the average direction of ventricular activation in the frontal plane. As
such this measure can inform the ECG reader of changes in the sequence of ventricular activation (e.g., left
anterior fascicular block), or it can be an indicator of myocardial damage (e.g., inferior myocardial infarction).

In the diagram below the normal range is identified (-30o to +90o). Left axis deviation (i.e., superior and leftward)
is defined from -30o to -90o, and right axis deviation (i.e., inferior and rightward) is defined from +90o to +150o.

See causes of abnormal axis (lesson 4).

2. QRS Axis Determination
First find the isoelectric lead if there is one; i.e., the lead with equal forces in the positive and negative direction.
Often this is the lead with the smallest QRS.

The QRS axis is perpendicular to that lead's orientation (see above diagram).

Since there are two perpendiculars to each isoelectric lead, chose the perpendicular that best fits the direction of the

If there is no isoelectric lead, there are usually two leads that are nearly isoelectric, and these are always 30o apart.
Find the perpendiculars for each lead and chose an approximate QRS axis within the 30o range.

Occasionally each of the 6 frontal plane leads is small and/or isoelectric. The axis cannot be determined and is called
indeterminate. This is a normal variant.

3. Examples of QRS Axis
Axis in the normal range: