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The Founding of the HUKBALAHAP

The socialist-communist orientation of the Central Luzon peasants led to a more militant peasant and labor movement. Jose de Leon, Sr., millionaire hacendero of Pampanga has been murder. December 8, 1941 war came to the Philippines. The retreat of the USAFFE to Bataan and the eventual collapse of FilipinoAmerican arms was followed by a short period of confusion on the municipal level. The realities of war imposed certain degree of discipline on the peasants, a necessity for a unified movement: (1) keep the morale the people at the highest level and (2) face the Japanese enemy. February 1942 meeting of peasant leaders held at the barrio of > F. Sampanga > Jose de Leon > Lino Dizon > Eusebio Aquino battlecry of the peasant Bakwit, Cabiao, Nueva Ecija was attended by: Luis Taruc Juan Feleo Casto Alejandrino Matelo del Castillo Mariano Franco Anti-Japanese Above All underground. Main Policy: To work for a free and democratic Philippines Peasant leaders adopted a three-point platform: (1) economic; (2) political; and (3) military. March 29, 1942 peasant leaders met at a clearing in the forest that joined the provinces of Tarlac, Pampanga and Nueva Ecija. For one week, they discussed common problems, when the name for the vast organization came up for discussion, and they agreed to call it Hukbo Ng Bayan Laban Sa Hapon or HUKBALAHAP.

A Military Committee was formed, with the following as members: Taruc- Chairman Casto Alejandrino Banal (Bernardo Poblete) Felipa Culala (Dayang-Dayang)

The Hukabalahap Sovereignty

The most powerful and disciplined in the country The execution of Dayang-Dayabg (Felipa Culala) by her own men when it appeared that she was endangering the movement by her deviation from the rules of the organization. The unity and the discipline of the men and women under the influence of the Hukbalahap made Central Luzon and a few other provinces outside the region a Huk territory. Huk squadrons hundreds of them. each of which being the equivalent of half a battalion, fought hit-and-run battles with the Japanese and killed

Liberation and Imprisonement

Mid-January of 1945, Huks liberated much of the Tarlac, and on the 20th they assaulted and captured the capital of the province. January 28, 1945 Casto Alejandrino was elected provisional governor of Pampanga. In Nueva Ecija, Juan Feleo was elected governor. February 5 Americans entered Manila in force they promptly disarmed the Huk squadrons that had entered the city ahead of them but the Huks refused to be disarmed and left for Pampanga. Indignity was heaped upon the Huks when Squadron 77, was waylaid by the men under Colonel Adonais Maclang of Malolos, Bulakan,

seized, thrown into jail, and shot to death. Maclang was later appointed mayor of Malolos. Americans, for no apparent reasons, arrested Huk leader Linda Bie (Silvestre Liwanag). His men were disarmed and he refused to surrender his weapon, but one of his men dit it for him. They were lodged in San Fernando jail. They escaped and immediately reported the matter to Taruc. The Philippine Civil Affairs Unit (PCAU) of the American Army proceeded to remove all municipal officials elected by Huks and replaced them with USAFFE guerillas. Gwen G. Atkinson saved by the Huks and treated kindly, remonstrated and went to MacArthur to defend his benefactors but he was ignored and the mass arrest of the Huks continued.

The Arrest of Taruc

February 22, 1945 the peak of the mass arrest of the Huks, when the CIC arrested the members of the Huk General Headquarters and jailed them in San Fernando, Pampanga. One of those arrested was Luis Taruc. March 8 April 8 Americans released Taruc and another leader, the rest Taruc and his companion, GY (Casto Alejandrino), were were taken to Muntinglupa. arrested and jailed. They were transferred to Calasiao two days later, then to Bilibid in Manila and finally to Puerto Princesa, Palawan. September 23, 1945 some 50,000 peasants and workers marched to Malakanyang and demanded the release of Taruc and his companions. Two days later, GY was released and Taruc was released on September 30.

Roxas and the Huks

Roxas, to assure himself of the presidency and knowing the voting potential of the Huks, promised Taruc almost everything if Traruc and Huks would side with him in the coming political struggle. Taruc refused to truckle to Roxas and that was the beginning of Roxas hostility to the Huks. When Roxas won the presidency, he instituted a campaign against the Huks. The Huks, however, succeeded in electing Taruc and other members to Congress. Wealthy landlords hired Pilipino MPs and civilian guards to protect them and to fight the Huks. The MPs shot and machine-gunned men and women suspected of being Huks. The Masico Affair in Laguna, in which of group of old and young men and women were machine gunned without any warning or investigation. Roxas act in masterminding the unseating of Taruc and other members to Congress. Taruc and his companions were charged with poll frauds in Pampanga and Nueva Ecija and they were unseated.

The Pacification Campaign

Taruc and other peasant leaders, cooperated with Pres. Roxas in the campaign of pacification. August 24, 1946 Juan Feleo, was kidnapped right under the noses of his MP guards and killed.