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Digital Modulation – Lecture 02

Digital Modulation Techniques

© Richard Harris

Objectives
• To be able to compute the bit rate and symbol rate for a given system. • To be able to determine the bandwidth requirements • To be able to describe the various popular forms of digital modulation and implement them on simple data inputs

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 2

References
• Digital and Analog Communication Systems – 6th Edition, Leon W. Couch II (Prentice Hall) • Digital Modulation in Communication Systems – An Introduction (Hewlett Packard Application Note 1298) • Principles of Digital Modulation, by Dr Mike Fitton, mike.fitton@toshiba-trel.com Telecommunications Research Lab Toshiba Research Europe Limited

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 3

MSK DPSK Communication Systems 143.Presentation Outline • • • • • Bit and Symbol Rates Bandwidth requirements Symbol clock Overview of Binary Keying Description of the popular forms of digital modulation – – – – BASK (OOK) BPSK. QPSK FSK.Digital Modulation Slide 4 .332 .

Digital Modulation Slide 5 . for example. the basic bit stream rate in the radio. not on the bit rate. a radio with an 8 bit sampler. then Nyquist has shown that r ≤ 2W.332 . or 80 Kbits per second. BT = 2W so that r ≤ BT. – Communication Systems 143. would be eight bits multiplied by 10K samples per second. (Ignore sync and error…) Bit Rate Symbol rate = Number of bits transmitted per symbol • Bit Rate – Bit rate is the frequency of a system bit stream. it is important to first understand the difference between bit rate and symbol rate. – The bit rate. – Take. The signal bandwidth for the communications channel needed depends on the symbol rate. For a double-sideband modulated wave whose transmission bandwidth is BT Hz. • Symbol Rate: – If symbols are generated at a rate of r per second to create a baseband signal with a bandwidth of W Hz.Bit Rate and Symbol Rate .1 To understand and compare different modulation format efficiencies. sampling at 10 kHz for voice.

then in the previous example the symbol and bit rates would be identical at 80Kbits per second. then the same amount of data can be sent in a narrower spectrum. Notice that for each constellation point two bits are transmitted.2 01 00 • • • 11 10 QPSK State Diagram • • • • The state diagram opposite represents QPSK (more details later). (These terms are often confused.Digital Modulation . If only one bit was being transmitted per symbol. the symbol rate will be 40Kbits per second. Slide 6 Communication Systems 143.) If more bits can be sent with each symbol. Note that the baud rate is not the same as bit rate. Symbol rate is sometimes called the baud rate. This is why modulation formats that are more complex and use a higher number of states can send the same information over a narrower piece of the RF spectrum. For the QPSK example.Bit Rate and Symbol Rate .332 .

332 . Since 23 = 8.Digital Modulation Slide 7 .Bandwidth Requirements • Consider the two modulation schemes depicted in the figures below: BPSK One bit per symbol Bit rate = Symbol rate 8PSK 3 bits per symbol Symbol rate = 1/3 Bit rate • An example of how symbol rate influences spectrum requirements can be seen in eight-state Phase Shift Keying (8PSK) as shown on the right. there are three bits per symbol. • The phase of the signal can take any of eight values at any symbol time. There are eight possible states that the signal can transition to at any time. It is a variation of PSK. This means the symbol rate is one third of the bit rate. Communication Systems 143.

where M = 2n. • The baud (or signalling) rate defines the number of symbols per second.Digital Modulation Slide 8 . • Each symbol represents n bits. – This is called M-ary signalling. • The maximum rate of information transfer through a baseband channel is given by: – Capacity fb = 2 W log2M bits per second • where W = bandwidth of modulating baseband signal Communication Systems 143. and has M signal states.332 .Digital Modulation Basics • The bit rate defines the rate at which information is passed.

The Symbol Clock • The symbol clock represents the frequency and exact timing of the transmission of the individual symbols. • At the symbol clock transitions. Communication Systems 143.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 9 . the transmitted carrier is at the correct I/Q (or magnitude/phase) value to represent a specific symbol (a specific point in the constellation).

Digital Modulation Slide 10 . Unipolar and bipolar modulation are shown for reference. OOK – On-off keying or Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) • • • • PSK and BPSK – Binary Phase Shift Keying DSB-SC – Double Side Band – Suppressed carrier Communication Systems 143.Additional Binary Bandpass Signalling Examples • The diagram to the right shows a number of additional Binary Bandpass signalling examples that will be considered further in the coming lectures.332 .

• Basic actions can be classified as: – ASK – Amplitude Shift Keying – PSK – Phase Shift Keying – FSK – Frequency Shift Keying Communication Systems 143. phase or frequency of the carrier signal change in sympathy with the values of the bits in the binary signal stream. This process is called binary keying.Digital Modulation Slide 11 . – Binary keying is a process that makes the values of amplitude. frequency and phase) from one state to another.332 .Binary Keying • Binary Keying definition: – The bits in a message stream switch the modulation parameters (amplitude.

Digital Modulation Slide 12 .Binary Amplitude Shift Keying • As shown in the diagram in the following slides. When signal ‘0’ is present we have p0 (t ) = 0 Communication Systems 143. The modulated pulse can be described mathematically when signal ‘1’ is present as: • ⎧ A cos 2π f c t . when 0 < t ≤ Tb p1 (t ) = ⎨ ⎩0 otherwise • where Tb is the bit duration (in sec).332 . the transmitted signal for BASK is a sinusoid whose amplitude is changed by onoff keying (OOK) so that a 1 is represented by the presence of a signal and a 0 is represented by the absence of a signal.

Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC) signal is essentially an AM signal that has a suppressed discrete carrier.Double Side Band .Digital Modulation Slide 13 .332 . • This signal is given by the following equation: s (t ) = Ac m(t )cos ωct • where m(t) is assumed to have a zero dc level for the suppressed carrier case. • The complex envelope for this is given by: g (t ) = Ac m(t ) Communication Systems 143.Suppressed Carrier • The Double Side Band .

5 -1 -1.5 0 -0.5 1 0.On-off Keying .OOK p1(t) 2.5 2 1.332 .5 -2 -2.Digital Modulation Slide 14 .5 • OOK – On-off keying is also known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) – The above graph shows a time domain representation of Binary Amplitude Shift Keying Communication Systems 143.

• • • • BPSK One bit per symbol Bit rate = Symbol rate Slide 15 Communication Systems 143. the I state has two different values.332 . On an I and Q diagram. One application where this is used is for deep space telemetry. There are two possible locations in the state diagram.Binary or Bi-Phase Shift Keying • One of the simplest forms of digital modulation is Binary or Bi-Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). The phase of a constant amplitude carrier signal moves between zero and 180 degrees. so a binary one or zero can be sent.Digital Modulation .

332 .5 0 p1(t) -0. Notice the 180o phase shifts indicated by the arrow.Binary Phase-Shift Keying – 2 p1(t) 1 1 0 1 0.5 -1 • This is illustrated in the chart above.Digital Modulation Slide 16 . ⎧ A cos 2πf c t when 0 < t ≤ Tb p1 (t ) = ⎨ ⎩0 otherwise ⎧− A cos 2πf c t when 0 < t ≤ Tb p0 (t ) = ⎨ ⎩0 otherwise Communication Systems 143.

Binary Phase-Shift Keying – 3 • The above equations describe the waveforms for BPSK.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 17 . • Let s (t ) = Ac cos[ωc t + D p m(t )] • Where m(t) is given in the figure below: Communication Systems 143. Note that it can also be referred to as phasereversal keying or PRK.

332 . m(t) has peak values of ±1 and Dp = π/2 radians. • The complex envelope is given by g (t ) = jAc m(t ) Communication Systems 143.4 • Typically.Binary Phase-Shift Keying . thus s (t ) = − Ac m(t ) sin ωc t • BPSK is equivalent to DSB-SC with polar data waveform.Digital Modulation Slide 18 .

1 • • A more common type of phase modulation is Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). and therefore exhibits the same performance but twice the bandwidth efficiency. – Iridium (a voice/data satellite system) and – DVB-S (Digital Video Broadcasting .Quadrature Phase Shift Keying – QPSK .Satellite). 01 00 11 10 QPSK State Diagram • QPSK is effectively two independent BPSK systems (I and Q). QPSK is used extensively in applications including: – CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) cellular service. Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 19 .332 . – Wireless local loop.

2 • Quadrature Phase Shift Keying can be filtered using raised cosine filters (see later for details) to achieve excellent out of band suppression.Quadrature Phase Shift Keying – QPSK . Communication Systems 143. • Large envelope variations occur during phase transitions.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 20 . thus requiring linear amplification.

• It is important to limit the spectral occupancy of a signal. – More discussion on the details of these filters later. to improve bandwidth efficiency and remove adjacent channel interference.332 . Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 21 . • Root raised cosine filters allow an approximation to this minimum bandwidth.Nyquist & Root-Raised Cosine Filters • The Nyquist bandwidth is the minimum bandwidth that can be used to represent a signal.

-1) (1.1) (-1. This scheme produces the lowest envelope variations. Phase transitions are therefore limited to 90o.1) (1. In π/4-QPSK the set of constellation points are toggled for each symbol.-1) I (-1.-1) (-1. In Offset QPSK.1) (-1. 180o phase transitions).1) I (1.-1) Conventional QPSK Offset QPSK π/4 QPSK • • • • Conventional QPSK has transitions through zero (ie. so transitions through zero cannot occur.-1) I (1.Types of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (-1.1) Q (1. All QPSK schemes require linear power amplifiers.1) Q Q (1.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 22 . A highly linear amplifier is required. Communication Systems 143.-1) (-1. the transitions on the I and Q channels are staggered.

332 .QPSK – Summary comments • Quadrature means that the signal shifts between phase states that are separated by 90 degrees (π/2 radians). • There are four states because 22 = 4. –45. • Only two I values and two Q values are needed and this gives two bits per symbol. Communication Systems 143. It is therefore a more bandwidth-efficient type of modulation than BPSK .Digital Modulation Slide 23 .potentially twice as efficient. • These points are chosen as they can be easily implemented using an I/Q modulator. The signal shifts in increments of 90 degrees from 45 to 135. or –135 degrees.

Digital Modulation Slide 24 . Communication Systems 143.332 . relative to the phase of the unshifted signal. • A static frequency shift of +1 Hz means that the phase is constantly advancing at the rate of 360 degrees per second (2π rad/sec).Frequency Shift Keying • Frequency Modulation and Phase Modulation are closely related.

Frequency Shift Keying – 1 • Frequency Shift Keying – Discontinuous phase FSK – Where f1 = mark frequency. f2 = space frequency ⎧ Ac cos(ω1t + θ1 ) for sending a 1 s (t ) = ⎨ ⎩ Ac cos(ω2t + θ 2 ) for sending a 0 Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 25 .332 .

332 .Digital Modulation .Frequency Shift Keying – 2 Electronic Switch Oscillator Freq = f1 Oscillator Freq = f2 Binary data input m(t) Control line Slide 26 Communication Systems 143.

Digital Modulation Slide 27 .332 .Frequency Shift Keying – 3 • Continuous phase FSK Binary data input m(t) Frequency Modulator (Carrier freq = fc) FSK Output ⎡ω t + D t m(λ )d λ ⎤ s (t ) = Ac cos c f ∫−∞ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = Re{g (t )e jωct } Where g (t ) = Ac e jθ ( t ) θ (t ) = D f ∫ m(λ )d λ −∞ t Communication Systems 143.

the frequency of the carrier is changed as a function of the modulating signal (data) being transmitted. A frequency spacing of 0.5 times the symbol period is typically used. Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 28 .Frequency Shift Keying . In Binary FSK (BFSK or 2FSK). employing multiple frequencies as different states. a “1” is represented by one frequency and a “0” is represented by another frequency.332 .4 • • In FSK. The amplitude is unchanged. • • The bandwidth occupancy of FSK depends on the spacing of the two symbols. FSK can be expanded to a M-ary scheme.

Away from the home base station.332 .Applications for FSK • FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) is used in many applications including cordless and paging systems.Digital Modulation DECT Phone Slide 29 . Some of the cordless systems include – DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone) • and – CT-2: Cordless Telephone 2 • CT-2 is a second generation cordless telephone system that allows users to roam away from their home base stations and receive service in public places. the service is one way outbound from the phone to a telepoint that is within range. Communication Systems 143.

the pulse can be described as: • ⎧ A cos 2π f mt .332 .1 • Here the modulated wave is a sinusoid of constant amplitude whose presence at one frequency means a 1 is present and if another frequency is present then this means a 0 is present. When signal 1 is present. otherwise Communication Systems 143. the pulse can be described as: ⎧ A cos 2π f nt .Binary Frequency-Shift Keying . when 0 < t ≤ Tb p1 (t ) = ⎨ ⎩0. otherwise • When signal 0 is present. when 0 < t ≤ Tb p0 (t ) = ⎨ ⎩0.Digital Modulation Slide 30 .

5 -1 Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 31 .Binary Frequency-Shift Keying .5 0 p1(t) -0.332 .2 p1(t) 1 0.

Minimum Shift Keying .332 .1 • Since a frequency shift produces an advancing or retarding phase. Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 32 . – At even numbered symbols. the polarity of the I channel conveys the transmitted data. • Phase shifts of (2N + 1) π/2 radians are easily detected with an I/Q demodulator. • This orthogonality between I and Q simplifies detection algorithms and hence reduces power consumption in a mobile receiver. frequency shifts can be detected by sampling the phase at each symbol period. – At odd numbered symbols the polarity of the Q channel conveys the data.

Digital Modulation Slide 33 • • • • .Minimum Shift Keying . A phase shift of +90 degrees represents a data bit equal to “1”. FSK with this deviation is called MSK (Minimum Shift Keying).332 . while –90 degrees represents a “0”. Communication Systems 143. The peak-to-peak frequency shift of an MSK signal is equal to half of the bit rate. The deviation must be accurate in order to generate repeatable 90 degree phase shifts.2 • The minimum frequency shift which yields orthogonality of I and Q is that which results in a phase shift of ± π/2 radians per symbol (90 degrees per symbol). MSK is used in the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) cellular standard.

which have no amplitude variations. – This is a desirable characteristic for improving the power efficiency of transmitters. – Therefore. more efficient amplifiers (which tend to be less linear) can be used with constant-envelope signals.Comments on FSK and MSK .1 • FSK and MSK produce constant envelope carrier signals.Digital Modulation Slide 34 . generating spectral re-growth.332 . • Amplitude variations can exercise nonlinearities in an amplifier’s amplitude-transfer function. a component of adjacent channel power. Communication Systems 143. reducing power consumption.

• MSK with a Gaussian filter is termed GMSK (Gaussian MSK). The width of the spectrum is also influenced by the waveforms causing the frequency shift. Communication Systems 143. which would broaden the spectrum by increasing the peak deviation.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 35 . – In addition. – If those waveforms have fast transitions or a high slew rate.Comments on FSK and MSK .2 • • MSK has a narrower spectrum than wider deviation forms of FSK. • In practice. the waveforms are filtered with a Gaussian filter. resulting in a narrow spectrum. then the spectrum of the transmitter will be broad. the Gaussian filter has no time-domain overshoot.

• Differential PSK eliminates the need for the synchronous carrier in the demodulation process and this has the effect of simplifying the receiver. we process the data stream to give a modulated wave where the phase changes by π radians whenever a 1 appears in the stream.Digital Modulation Slide 36 . • It remains constant whenever a 0 appears in the stream.DPSK – 1 • Recovery of the data stream from a PSK modulated wave requires synchronous demodulation – The receiver must reconstruct the carrier exactly so that it can detect changes in the phase of the received signal.332 . Communication Systems 143. • At the transmitter.

2 • Differential Phase-Shift Keying – Binary data are first differentially encoded and then passed to the BPSK modulator.332 . en = en−1 Communication Systems 143.DPSK . en ≠ en−1 if d n = 0. • Example 1: Note: if d n = 1.Digital Modulation Slide 37 .

It does not need to search for specific phase values.DPSK .332 .5 0 p1(t) -0.3 • Thus we see that the receiver only needs to detect phase changes.Digital Modulation Slide 38 . 180° phase shifts p1(t) 1 1 0 1 0.5 -1 Communication Systems 143.

DPSK .Digital Modulation Slide 39 . Communication Systems 143.332 .4 Original datastream 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 Relative Phase Angle 0 +π +π +π +2π +3π +3π +3π +3π +4π +5π +6π +6π Processed datastream 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 Demodulated Datastream 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 +6π +6π 0 0 0 0 • A further example showing how the phase changes and is processed and finally demodulated.

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