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6 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the Mdgs in Indonesia 201011181327281 20110812135234 0

6 Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the Mdgs in Indonesia 201011181327281 20110812135234 0

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Published by: Fathurrahman Al Bugisy on Oct 17, 2011
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Current Status

The propor on of Indonesian households with access to improved drinking water and
sanita
on has con nuously increased. However, the number of households who have
sustainable access to improved water and sanita on has only reached 47.71 percent and
51.19 percent respec vely. Therefore, greater a en on is required to reach the MDG targets
for access to improved drinking water (68.87 percent) and sanita on (62.41 percent) in 2015.

DRINKING WATER

Improved drinking water is dened as water from a protected water source located more
than 10 meters from sewage and shielded from any other sources of contamina
on. Access
to improved sources of drinking water has been increased from 37.73 percent of households
in 1993 to 47.71 percent in 2009 (Figure 7.4). Access to improved sources of drinking water
tends to be higher for urban households as compared to those in rural areas.

The rela vely low levels of access to improved drinking water supply reects the slow rate of
development of drinking water infrastructure, par
cularly in urban areas where development
has not matched the growth rate of popula
on. In addi on, many water supply facili es are
not operated and maintained well. To achieve the MDG target by 2015, priority should be given
to ini a ves to expand access to improved water supplies, both in rural and urban areas.

Figure 7.4.

Propor ons of Rural, Urban
and all Households with
Access to Improved Drinking
Water Sources in Indonesia
(1993-2009)

Notes:
Data does not include Timor Timur.

Source:
BPS, Susenas, several years.

37.7

37.7

38.0

41.3

42.7

42.0

42.2

37.5

48.7

48.3

47.7

48.8

47.6

47.8

48.3

46.5

47.7

50.6

51.5

51.7

53.8

54.9

52.7

53.0

46.0

59.5

58.2

57.3

56.8

55.6

54.6

54.1

50.2

49.8

75.3 %

31.6

30.8

30.7

34.5

35.9

35.6

35.2

31.3

40.4

40.3

41.0

42.9

41.5

42.7

43.9

43.0

45.7

65.8 %

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Percentage

TOTAL

URBAN

RURAL

Urban+Rural:

68.9 %

T
A
R
G
E
T
M
D
G

123

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

Signicant dispari es among provinces remain in terms of access to improved drinking water.
As shown in Figure 7.5, the provinces with the highest propor on of households with access
to improved drinking water sources in 2009 were: DI Yogyakarta, Bali and Southeast Sulawesi.
Banten, Aceh, and Bengkulu were the three provinces with the propor on of households with
the lowest propor ons of households with access to improved drinking water sources.

SANITATION

Improved sanita on is dened as facili es that are safe, hygienic, and comfortable and that
can separate users and the surrounding environment from contact with human feces
. The
propor on of households in Indonesia with access to improved sanita on facili es more than
doubled, from 24.81 percent in 1993 to 51.19 percent in 2009 (Figure 7.6). However, progress
has s ll been slower than in other countries in the region with similar levels of economic
development.

Figure 7.5.

Percentages of Households
with Access to Improved
Drinking Water Sources by
Urban and Rural Popula ons
by Province (2009)

Source:
BPS, Susenas 2009.

27.47

30.60

33.02

34.81

35.44

36.84

36.89

37.74

40.29

40.51

40.96

42.92

43.75

44.36

44.49

44.85

44.96

45.45

46.62

47.71

48.08

48.53

50.13

51.04

51.19

51.97

54.02

55.50

55.70

55.71

58.30

59.12

59.99

60.38

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Banten

Aceh

Bengkulu

DKI Jakarta

Papua

Bangka Belitung

Kalimantan Tengah

Kepulauan Riau

Lampung

Jawa Barat

Riau

Sulawesi Barat

Maluku Utara

Sulawesi Tengah

Sulawesi Utara

Gorontalo

Nusa Tenggara Barat

Nusa Tenggara Timur

Sumatera Barat

INDONESIA

Papua Barat

Sumatera Selatan

Sulawesi Selatan

Sumatera Utara

Jambi

Kalimantan Selatan

Kalimantan Barat

Maluku

Jawa Timur

Kalimantan Timur

Jawa Tengah

Sulawesi Tenggara

Bali

DI Yogyakarta

Percentage

TOTAL

URBAN

RURAL

53.6

57.7

45.0

49.4

51.1

51.2

56.9

53.7

56.6

57.3

56.7

59.2

54.1

64.7

66.7

69.5

11.1

12.2

9.6

12.1

14.2

15.6

17.3

17.4

17.3

18.0

20.7

22.5

20.6

28.6

31.4

34.0

55.6

24.8

27.5

21.9

25.2

27.5

28.9

32.6

32.7

34.3

35.6

35.6

38.1

35.0

44.2

48.6

51.2

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

URBAN

RURAL

TOTAL

MDGs
TARGET

62.4

76.8

Figure 7.6.

The propor on of households
with access to adequate
sanita on in rural, urban and
total rural and urban,
1993-2009

Note:
Data does not include Timor Timur

Source:
BPS, Susenas 1993 – 2009.

124

Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

Popula on growth is the main challenge faced in increasing access to improved sanita on,
especially in urban areas where the popula
on growth rate is higher than the na onal
popula
on growth rate. Looking at the trend of increasing access to improved sanita on over
the years, Indonesia must give special a en on to expanding access to improved sanita on to
achieve the MDG target in 2015.

There is a wide gap between urban and rural areas in terms of access to improved sanita on,
and this gap varies among provinces
. Na onwide, 69.51 percent of urban popula ons have
access to improved sanita on facili es compared to only 33.96 percent in rural areas. In
terms of the gap in access to improved sanita on between rural and urban areas, there are
21 provinces with a larger gap than the na onal average, with the largest gap found in the
provinces of Kepulauan Riau, Maluku Utara and Kalimantan Barat.

Challenges

The major challenges in increasing access to improved drinking water and sanita on include
the following:
1. Incomplete and outdated regula ons that support the provision of drinking water and
sanita
on. A number of exis ng laws are not in accordance with current condi ons, for
example, Act No. 5 of 1962 regarding Regional Companies has not been revised, making it
diffi cult for Municipal Water Companies (PDAM) to encorporate.

2. The absence of a comprehensive policy across sectors in the provision of improved

Figure 7.7.

Propor ons of Households
with Access to Improved
Sanita on Facili es by Rural/
urban Areas by Province
(2009)

Source:
BPS, Susenas 2009.

14.98

21.65

28.78

32.63

34.66

38.43

38.69

39.21

39.83

40.12

40.93

41.16

41.48

42.02

42.03

43.18

43.84

45.35

45.78

45.91

51.07

51.19

51.92

52.17

52.75

54.06

57.58

58.48

58.82

60.66

63.59

75.35

75.95

80.37

-

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Nusa Tenggara Timur

Papua

Kalimantan Tengah

Papua Barat

Bengkulu

Lampung

Maluku

Sumatera Barat

Nusa Tenggara Barat

Kalimantan Barat

Jambi

Kalimantan Selatan

Sumatera Selatan

Sulawesi Tengah

Aceh

Maluku Utara

Gorontalo

Sulawesi Barat

Kepulauan Riau

Sulawesi Tenggara

Jawa Timur

INDONESIA

Sumatera Utara

Jawa Barat

Riau

Jawa Tengah

Sulawesi Selatan

Kalimantan Timur

Banten

Bangka Belitung

Sulawesi Utara

DI Yogyakarta

Bali

DKI Jakarta

Percentage

TOTAL

URBAN

RURAL

125

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

drinking water and sanita on. Many ins tu ons and agencies are responsible for
development of drinking water and sanita on, and there is a need for more intensive
coordina on, especially at the level of program implementa on.

3. Declining quality and quan ty of drinking water. There are s ll many households that rely
on non-piped drinking water sources of poor quality. At the same me there are many
on-site sanita on systems which have not been established with adequate investment
in infrastructure, storage, processing, and disposal of fecal waste, and this increases the
likelihood of contamina on of water sources.

4. Lack of balance between popula on growth, especially in urban areas with development
of infrastructure for improved drinking water and sanita
on. The level of investment
in the provision of piped water connec ons, especially in urban areas, is not in balance
with the rate of urban popula on growth. Similarly, investments in the provision of water
service connec ons, centralized municipal sewerage systems and communal scale systems
have been less than adequate.

5. Community awareness of hygienic and healthy prac ces (PHBS) remains low. Unsanitary
behavior is reflected in the high incidence of diarrhea, which reached 411 per 1,000
inhabitants (MOH, Diarrhea Morbidity Survey, 2010). Hand washing with soap is s ll not
common; some 47 percent of households s ll defecate in open areas, and although almost
all households boil water for drinking, some 48 percent of their water s ll contains E.coli
bacteria.

6. Limited number of providers to supply improved drinking water, including both Municipal
Water Companies (
PDAM) and non-PDAM (credible and professional), especially in
urban areas.
An audit completed in 2008 showed that only about 22 percent of publicly
owned water companies are func oning properly. Determina on and se ng of tariffs
does not meet the cost recovery principle (full-cost recovery), and about 55.51 percent of
the PDAM are s ll applying an average tariff below the cost of water produc on.

7. The capacity of local governments to manage the drinking water and sanita on sector
is limited, although the provision and management of improved drinking water and
sanita
on has become the responsibility of the local governments. Planning and
budge ng for the provision of improved drinking water and sanita on has not become a
priority of local governments, and this is reflected in the low budget alloca ons of regional
governments in support of the development of infrastructure to provide improved drinking
water and sanita on.

8. Investment in drinking water supply and sanita on systems is s ll inadequate, both
from the government and the private sector.
This results from a tendency to rely on
central government funding. The low financial performance of the municipal water

126

Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

supply companies also constrains op ons to seek alterna ve financing. Funding from the
private sector, either in the form of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) or Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) has not yet been u lized on a large scale.

Policies and Strategies

The direc on of policies and strategies to improve public access to improved drinking water
and sanita
on are as follows:
1. The Ministry of Public Works and municipal water u li es (PDAM) will work to increase
public access to improved drinking water through the development and improvement
of water systems, maintenance, development and improvement of transmission and
distribu
on networks, especially in urban areas. In rural areas, the development of
drinking water systems will be community-based with support jointly by the Ministry of
Public Works and the Ministry of Health. Alloca on of funding from Central Government
will give priority to the poor. The central government will also encourage and facilitate
the provision of drinking water for middle and higher income groups through improved
service performance by the PDAM with support provided through technical assistance
and financing. In addi on, the government has allocated a special alloca on fund (DAK)
for drinking water which is intended to op mize the exis ng infrastructure services of
drinking water and also for the construc on of new systems in small towns, remote,
coastal and rural areas.

2. To increase access of households to improved sanita on, the future policy of investment is
aimed at improving the management of centralized wastewater systems and the provision
of community-based sanita on with a focus on services for the poor. Investment will be
focused on the development of centralized wastewater treatment systems on a city-scale
basis (off-site), construc on of sewerage systems (on-site) and also the development and
improvement sewage processing facili es (IPLT). To increase the pace in the provision
of sanita on services, the government has launched the Program to Accelerate the
Development of Sanita on (PPSP) 2010-2014 which stresses that sanita on is a concern of
all par es, including the government, the private sector, donors, and the community. At the
same me, DAK funding will be used to increase coverage of sanita on services in densely
populated urban areas through the community-based sanita on approach (SANIMAS).
Efforts will be made to increase public awareness about the importance of improved
drinking water and sanita on, and the Ministry of Health will expand implementa on of
the Community Based Total Sanita on (STBM) during 2010-2014 to eliminate the prac ces
of defeca on in open space by the end of 2014.

3. Improving the regulatory framework at central level and regional levels to support
provision of improved drinking water and sanita
on, through the addi on, revision, and
deregula on of the laws.

127

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

4. Ensuring the availability of drinking water, through the control of ground water use
by domes c and industrial users; protec on of ground and surface water from sources
of domes c pollu on through increased coverage of sanita on services, as well as the
applica on of technology and development of alterna ve water sources including water
reclama on.

5. Increasing public awareness about the importance of healthy behavior, through
communica on, informa on and educa on as well as improvement of drinking water
and sanita on facili es in schools as part of efforts to improve the hygienic behavior of
students and communi es.

6. Improving the planning system for development of drinking water and sanita on
systems,
through the prepara on of master plans for drinking water systems (RIS-SPAM)
based on community based ini a ves; prepara on of City Sanita on Strategies (SSK),
aligned with the RIS-SPAM, as well as monitoring and evalua ng of implementa on.

7. Improving the management of drinking water and sanita on through: (a) prepara on of
business plans, implementa on of corpora za on, asset management and human resource
capacity building, both for ins tu ons and communi es; (b) increasing coopera on among
government agencies, between government and society, between government and the
private sector, and among government, the private sector and the public; (c) improving
the linkage between the management system applied by communi es with those of the
government, and (d) op mizing the u liza on of financial resources.

8. Increasing local investment spending to improve access to improved drinking water and
basic sanita
on that is focused on services for urban popula ons, especially the poor.

9. Improving the investment climate to s mulate ac ve par cipa on of the private
sector and the community
through Public Private Partnerships (PPP) and Corporate
Social Responsibility (CSR), and also for the development and marke ng of appropriate
technology for water supply systems and sanita on systems.

The accelera on of the achievement of the MDGs by 2015, especially regarding the provision
of improved drinking water and sanita
on has been dened in the Na onal Medium-Term
Development Plan, as presented in the following table:

128

Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

Table 7.3.

Annual Implementa on
Targets to Improve Access
to Improved Drinking Water
Sources and Basic Sanita on
2010-2014.

Source:
Na onal Medium Term
Development Plan ( RPJMN 2010-
2014) and Inpres no.3/2010

Priori es

Outputs

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Improving surveillance
and monitoring of
environmental quality

Percentage of
households with access
to improved drinking
water source

62

62.5

63

63.5

67

Percentage of drinking
water quality that
meets the
requirements

85

90

95

100

100

Percentage of
popula on that
have access to basic
sanita on

64

67

69

72

75

Number of villages
where Sanitasi Total
Berbasis Masyarakat
(STBM) will be
implemented

2,500

5,500

11,000

16,000

20,000

Improve the
development of
drinkig water supply
systems

Number of urban areas
facilitated to improve
water sources

218 area244 areas

260
areas

315
areas

360
areas

Number of rural areas
facilitated to improve
water sources

31 areas
and
1,472
villages

30 areas
and
1,165
villages

30 areas
and 500
villages

30 areas
and
1,000
villages

32 areas
and 700
villages

Improve the
development
of sanita
on
infrastructure

Number of areas
with improved
infrastructure
developed for syistem
off-site sewerage

9
districts/
ci es

11
districts/
ci es

11
districts/
ci es

11
districts/
ci es

11
districts/
ci es

Number of areas with
infrastructure
development and
waste water facili es
with on-site sewerage
systems

30
districts/
ci es

35
districts/
ci es

40
districts/
ci es

50
districts/
ci es

55
districts/
ci es

129

Summary of the Roadmap to Accelerate Achievement of the MDGs in Indonesia

Target 7D:

By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the

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