Electric Power Quality

Ward Jewell
Professor, Electrical Engineering Director, Center for Energy Studies Wichita State University Consulting Electrical Engineer

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Hospital CT scanner failures
During a normal half-hour series of scans, a CT scanner records images on a microcomputer that also controls the scanner. As often as twice each day, this hospital's scanner would shut down before a series was complete. The recorded images were lost, and the patient was subjected to a repeat of the entire series. Utility personnel found one cause of the shutdowns to be momentary power outages caused by trees brushing against utility distribution lines. They corrected this by trimming trees. Another cause was then found to be voltage sags that occurred when the hospital's chiller started. An improper setting on the scanner's power control was corrected, and this problem disappeared.

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MEDIATE !!!
manufacturer

utility

hospital

me
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Momentary outage when tree limbs contact distribution line

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Recloser operates

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Time
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Voltage sags when chiller starts

110 - 112 V

Time
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“... voltage setting should be +10% of supply voltage ...”
- CT scanner installation manual

Nominal voltage 120 V: 108 - 132 V

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“... voltage setting should be +10% of supply voltage ...”
- CT scanner installation manual

Nominal voltage 120 V: 108 - 132 V

Measured voltage at installation 126 V: 113 - 139 V
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Solution:
§ Trim trees § Remove instantaneous recloser trip § Reset CT scanner low voltage dropout to 108 V.

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Power Line Conditioners
Electric Power CT scanner

Filter
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Power Line Conditioners
Electric Power Transient voltage surge suppressor Filter
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CT scanner

Power Line Conditioners
Electric Power Transient voltage surge suppressor Filter
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Voltage Regulator CT scanner

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Power Line Conditioners
Electric Power Transient voltage surge suppressor Voltage Regulator Uninterruptible Power Supply Filter
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CT scanner

Another option: Static transfer switch
§ Transfers load to another source § Electronic switch § Fast; user notices no change

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Our power systems were designed for:

Incandescent Lights

AC Motors
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Now the power system serves

High-efficiency lights

Adjustable-speed Motor Drives
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Computers

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Disturbing loads

Adjustable-speed Motor Drives
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High-efficiency lights

Sensitive Loads

Computers

Microprocessor-controlled equipment

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POWER QUALITY
IS

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A POWER QUALITY PROBLEM
IS

when something doesn't work because of the electric power supplied to it.

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Power quality problems

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Radio transmitter damage
A commercial FM radio station experienced repeated failure of its transmitter. Utility engineers determined that each failure coincided with switching of capacitors at the distribution substation. Capacitor switching transients were recorded at the radio station service entrance. An electrical snubber was designed to reduce the frequency and damp oscillations in the transmitter. The snubber was installed, and no further rectifier failures occurred.

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Voltage goes to zero when feeder capacitor is switched on

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Capacitor switching
Distribution feeder When switch is closed, feeder voltage is zero until capacitor charges. Initial capacitor voltage is zero

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Transmitter dc power supply
4H

480 Vac

20 uF

9000 Vdc

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Diode ratings

§ § § §

Reverse voltage Forward voltage drop Forward current Turn off time: ~0.3 ms

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Transmitter dc power supply
Reactance, stray capacitance 4H

480 Vac

20 uF

9000 Vdc

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Transformer high voltage when capacitor switched
20 kHz ringing

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Solution: call someone who knows what to do!!!
Transmitter design engineer recommended RC snubber 4H

480 Vac

20 uF

9000 Vdc

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No more failures!

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Metal fabrication plant equipment failures
An industrial plant where sheet metal is fabricated experienced various machinery failures. An initial survey revealed adjustable speed dc motor drives, a common disturbing load, in use in the plant. Power quality measurements confirmed that one of the drives was causing severe "notching," a transient voltage disturbance. This was corrected using series reactors. A grounding error on a transformer was also found and corrected.
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Voltage notching

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DC motor adjustable speed drive
Rectifier switches

DC motor

+ -

AC supply

Two switches closed causes momentary short circuit and “notch”
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Voltage notching
Main Service Panel Winder subpanel 480 V 420 V 380 V DC motor drive Numerically-controlled spring winder Drive subpanel

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Spring winder counting circuit
+5 Vdc 10 k
up/down disable

DC power supply AC 50/60 Hz

output 1

RESET Pushbutton reset
4-digit counter and processor
count modes output 2

Notch on ac resets counter

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Series Reactors
Main Service Panel Winder subpanel 48 V 42 V 38 V Numerically-controlled spring winder
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Drive subpanel

REACTOR
480 V DC motor drive

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Computer Business Equipment Manufacturers’ Association

The CBEMA curve

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Information Technology Industry Council

The ITIC Curve

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Distorted current waveform to PCs
20 Current

0

-20 0
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2

4 Radians

6

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Fourier series - spectrum of pc current waveform
1 0.8 Relative value 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1
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3

5

7

9 11 13 15 Harmonic

17 19

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Harmonic number fundamental
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 PS ERC

Ih I1
1 0.737 0.399 0.115 0.083 0.082 0.029 0.029 0.029 0.012

Ih 2 I1
1 0.543 0.159 0.013 6.889·10 -3 6.724·10 -3 8.41·10 -4 8.41·10 -4 8.41·10 -4 1.44·10 -4

19 h= 2 19 h= 2

Ih 2 = 0.732 I1

Ih 2 = 0.855 I1

THD = 85.5%

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What causes harmonics?
§ Saturated transformers § Arcs
§ Arc furnaces, fluorescent lights

§ Rectifiers
§ Microprocessors, motor drives,

any electronic load
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Three-phase full wave rectifier

+
Va Vb Vc Vdc

_

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AC current to 6-pulse battery charger

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AC current to 6-pulse battery charger

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Harmonics cause
§ Transformers to overheat § Transformer secondary voltage distortion § Increased power system losses § Telephone and wired communication systems

noise § Neutral overloads

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Other harmonic issues
§ Watt-hour meters
§ May read high or low

§ Protective relays
§ May not sense RMS values § Nuisance trip or fail to trip

§ Digital clocks
§ May run fast

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Solutions
§ Use full sized or oversized neutral conductors § Oversize or harmonic rate transformers § Detune system (move capacitors, install reactors) § Filter (install passive or active harmonic filters

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Power Quality Disturbances
§ Voltage transients
§

One time; impulse or oscillatory; shorter than half cycle One time; sag, swell or interruption; longer than half cycle Steady state Steady state; dc offset, harmonics, interharmonics, notching, noise Intermittent Shorter than ten seconds

§ Voltage variations
§

§ Voltage imbalance
§

§ Waveform distortion (voltage or current)
§

§ Voltage fluctuations
§

§ Frequency variations
§

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Power Quality References
IEEE Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Sensitive Electronic Equipment, IEEE Emerald Book (IEEE Std. 1100-1992), IEEE, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY, 10017-2394, 1992. Guideline on Electrical Power for ADP Installations, Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 94 (FIPS PUB 94), NTIS, US Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia, 22161. The IAEI Soares Book on Grounding, 4th Edition, International Association of Electrical Inspectors, 930 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, Illinois, 60068, 1991. Jerry C. Whitaker, AC Power Systems Handbook, CRC Press, 2000 Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida, 33431, 1991. Power Quality Assurance Magazine, Intertec International, 2472 Eastman Ave., Bldgs. 33 and 34, Ventura, California, 93003-5792. Roger R. Block, The "Grounds" for Lightning and EMP Protection, Second Edition, Polyphaser Corporation, 1993. Agricultural Wiring Handbook, National Food and Energy Council, 409 Vandiver West, Suite 202, Columbia, Missouri, 65202, 1990. Power Line Interference, A Practical Handbook, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, 1800 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC 98501, 1992. Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Capability When Supplying Nonsinusoidal Load Currents (ANSI/IEEE C57.110-1986), IEEE, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY, 10017-2394, 1988. IEEE Recommended Practice for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems (IEEE 519), IEEE, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY, 10017-2394, 1992. National Electrical Code 1993 (ANSI/NFPA 70), NFPA, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, Massachusetts, 02269, 1992. National Electrical Safety Code 1990 (ANSI C2-1990), IEEE, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY, 10017-2394, 1989. The Dranetz Field Handbook for Power Quality Analysis, Dranetz Technologies Inc., 1000 New Durham Road, Edison, New Jersey, 08818, 1991. Alexander McEachern, Handbook of Power Signatures, Basic Measuring Instruments, 335 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, California, 94404, 1989.

PSERC

www.psserc.wisc.edu

engr.wichita.edu/ces/

Site Surveys
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Power quality is suspected when:
Lights flicker or Someone else can’t figure out what’s wrong

?? ?

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Talk to everyone
Repair personnel Users Electrician

Workers

Plant Engineers Field Engineers

Technicians

Maintenance personnel

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Acknowledge frustration!!!!!
Failure to resolve problems after many attempts Wasted time Reduced productivity

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Determine exactly what is wrong
What’s not working?

What’s it doing?
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When does it happen?

Time of day? How often? When did it start?

Time of week, month, year?

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What changed before the problem started?
§ Changes to electric power system? § New equipment? § Equipment relocated?

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Have user keep a log
Date Time Equipment Problem Observations, notes

Compare with utility operation and service logs
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Walk through the facility
§ List disturbing loads § List susceptible loads § Talk with people as you go

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Inspect feeder
§ § § § § § Trim trees Check recorders for activity Transformers Capacitors Fuses Connections

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Get wiring diagrams
Rooftop HVAC Unit Elevators

Transformer 45 kVA Main Panel Transformer 75 kVA

Office Equipment

Office Equipment

Office Equipment

Exterior Lighting

Interior Lighting

Heating

Identify connections among disturbing and affected loads
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Inspect and repair facility wiring and grounding

§ National Electrical Code
§ Correct safety problems first

§ Powering and Grounding Sensitive Electronic Equipment (IEEE 1100, the Emerald Book)
§ Use Figure 6-1 forms
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Replace equipment with duplicate if possible

If replacement works, the problem isn’t power quality.
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Ask for help from equipment design engineer

Describe problem first by phone then fax or e-mail
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Most problems will be solved by now.
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Still no solution?
§ Measure power quality
§ Digital multimeter (true rms reading) § Wiring and grounding survey equipment § Oscilloscope § Power quality monitor § Field strength meter § Spectrum analyzer

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Power quality analysis technique
§ Begin at affected equipment § Move away from affected equipment to locate source § Measure at service entrance to determine if source is inside facility § Measure on transformer primary (distribution feeder) to determine if utility or another customer is source § Connect monitor to phone line for long-term remote operation if no disturbance is detected
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Simulate if necessary

Actual

Simulated

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Duplicate disturbance and effects to verify cause Safely test various solutions before implementing

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Specify solution
Do not allow a vendor to specify equipment (you may get something you don’t need) Instead: Specify the equipment needed, then request quotes from several vendors
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Summary
§ § § § § Mediate - people will be frustrated Talk to the people using the equipment Fix NEC problems - power quality will improve Call equipment designers for help Specify the needed solution

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