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• the syntactic case-marking particles have retained the
two-way distinction between particles for:
– common nouns
– proper names
• there is also one set for the singular and another for the
plural number
• finally, there are three cases in the paradigm:
– nominative
– possessive
– locative/goal
• the central and some southern Phil. Languages signal the
plural number for the common nouns by the use of the
particle mangá
• for most part, languages distinguish between the specific
and non-specific by the use of articles
• a characteristic of Phil. languages is the relative
prominence given the actor, location, goal, or instrument of
an action in sentence constructions.

• in the use of the negative:
– deny statements or facts
– give negative commands or prohibit
– express their rejection of something
– assert the absence of something
– negate verbs or actions