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Constituent Analysis

(Rated lingg121: Professor’s guidance is advised)

In the following constituent analysis of
the major sentence patterns of the
twenty-six Philippine languages, we
have excluded the negative,
causative and imperative sentences.
We have not used in the illustrative
sentences pronouns, proper nouns
and the proper article, and the plural
forms of nuns, verbs, adjectives and
articles, except in some cases where
there use is obligatory or clarificatory.
Definition of Terms
A word is any segment of a sentence
bounded by successive points at which
pausing is possible.
A noun is a word which consists of a root
or of a stem or a noun affix.
A verb is a word which consists of a root
or of a stem or a verbal affix. Note that the
verbal affix has three components: voice,
mode and tense or aspect.
An adjective is a word which consists of
a root or of a stem or an adjective suffix.
An adverb is a word which consists of a
root or of a stem and an adverbial affix.
Sentence Classification
Simple sentences
- it is either a predicative construction consisting
of a simple clause, or a non-predicative construction
Definite sentences
-IC1 is the subject and IC2 the predicate. The
subject is a noun phrase, or a noun preceded by a noun
marker which is either an article or a demonstrative. The
article is either common or proper.
In some languages a ligative particle (LP) occurs
between the demonstrative and the noun
/qito.ŋ ba’ta qaŋ tumakbo./
(this-LP child the ran-away)

It was this child who an away.

In Sml the demonstrative occurs after the noun and no particle
occurs between them.
Sml: /qanakqa.nak qi.ti qiyi bay para.gan./
(child this the past run-away)
‘It was this child who ran away.’
* In Isn. and Sml the common article is zero.
** In Isn and Tng if the noun marker is the common article, a definite
suffix (DS) nust occur after the following noun.
Isn: /quŋa-d si nanagtag./
(child-DS the ran-away)
‘It was the child who ran away’
Tng: /di qana.k-ĕ ta nagtalay./
(the child-DS the ran-away)
*** In Smb, if the noun marker is the common
article, the definite suffix /-in/ may r may not
occur after the following noun.
Smb: (a) /ya dakana.k-in qiya bay para.gan./
(the child-DS the past run-away)
(b) /ya daka.nak qiya bay para.gan./
(the child the past run-away)
The predicate of a definitive sentence
consists of a verb or verb phrase, an adjective,
a common noun, or a particulate phrase,
preceded by a predicate marker. Thus,
according to the head of the predicate,
definite sentences are classified as (a) verbal,
(b) adjectival, (c) nominal, and (d) particulate.
Verbal Sentences
A verbal sentence is a definite sentence in which the
head of the predicate is a verb or verb phrase. A verb phrase
consists of a verb and one or more complements. The verb is
either active or passive. Thus, according to their predicate
verb, verbal sentences are either active or passive.
Active Sentences
in an active sentence the predicate verb is an active
verb. Each of the twenty-six Philippine languages except Ter
has several active affixes.
Bol: /si qanak qa nalayu./
(the child the ran-away)
Kap: /qiŋ qanak qiŋ milayi./
InIsn there are two predicate markers: {si-}; /-t/ after a
vowel and /si/ after a consonant {di}: /ri/ after a vowel and /di/
after a consonant. If {di} is, the DS {-ad} must occur after the
predicate verb.
Isn: /quŋa-d di
(child-DS the ran-away-DS)
One or more complements may occur with the
active verb. A complement consists of a complement
marker and a complement head. Seven different kinds
of complement markers: the indefinite goal marker
(IGM), the definite goal marker (DGM), the locative
marker (LM), the benefactive marker (BM), the
instrumental marker (IM), the reciprocal actor marker
(RAM), and the agentive marker (AM).

Active verb subclasses

-are divided into six subclasses according to the
complements which occur with them either
obligatorily or optionally.
-the active definite sentences are kernel
sentences. From them are derived the passive
sentences by means of transformational rules.
Passive sentences
-a verbal (definite) sentence in which the predicate verb is a
passive verb (co-occurs with a non-actor subject and has a
passive actor complement)
-the passive actor complement occurs immediately after the
passive verb and is preceded by the passive actor marker
(PAM). Each of the twenty-six Philippine languages has
several passive affixes.
(d)Goal passive
/qaŋ maŋga qaŋ kina.qin naŋ ba.taq/
(the mango the eaten PAM-the child)
“It was the mango which was eaten by the child.”
(b) Locative passive
/qaŋba.ta qaŋ binil;han naŋ bina.ta naŋ bulaklak./
(the child the bought PAM-bachelor IGM flower)
“The child was the one from whom the bachelor bought
some flowers.”
(c) The benefactive passive
/qaŋ qaŋ qibinili naŋ bina.ta naŋ bulaklak
(the maiden the bought PAM-the bachelor IGM flower)
“It was the maiden who was bought some flowers by the bachelor.”
(d) The instrumental passive
/qaŋ qitak qaŋ qipinamu.tol naŋ bina’ta naŋ ka.hoy./
(the bolo the cut PAM-the bachelor IGM wood)
“It was the bolo which the bachelor used in cutting wood.”
(e) The reciprocal actor passive
/qaŋ qaŋ naŋ bina.taq./
(the maiden the talked PAM-the bachelor
“The maiden was the one with whom the bachelor talked.”
(f) The agentive passive
/qaŋ malàrya qaŋ qikinamatay naŋ ha.riq./
(the malaria the died PAM-the king)
Non-verbal sentences
-are definite sentences in which the head of the predicate is
not a vrb or a verb phrase.
(d)The adjectival
/qaŋ qaŋ maganda./
(the maiden the pretty)
“It is the maiden who is pretty.”
(b) The nominal
/qaŋ bina.ta qaŋ
(the bachelor the lawyer)
“It is the bachelor who is the lawyer.”
Particulate Sentences
-the head of the predicate is a particulate phrase, i.e., a
particle followed by a locative complement or a noun. The
three types of particulate sentences are the prepositional,
the locational, and the possessive.