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a seq uel to the dial ect stu dy of

ka pamp an gan (1984 )


by Anicia Del Corro, PhD

• This research study is a sequel to the dialect study
of Kapampangan done in 1983-84.
• The highlights of the project are:
– Classification of Kapampangan dialects
– Description of the linguistic features that make
each dialect distinct
– The discovery of the Calaguiman and Mabatang
retained diphthongs
• Kapampangan regularly change the final diphthong of Tagalog
or Sebuano into a monophthong:
sukle suklay bale balay
sabo sabaw sige sigay
pane panay silo silaw
retained diphthongs
• In Calaguiman and Mabatang (CM-Kap) however, diphthongs
are consistently retained both in word-medial and word-final
• 1732 dictionary of Diego Bergano and other dictionaries:
1732 Bergano acay, albay
----- Tag-Engl dictionary bancay, altao, bante, abe
1874 Dimalanta albe
1875 Brabo aldo
retained diphthongs
• Modern Kapampangan (SF-Kap) has no word-final diphthong.
goals of the study
• To present a theory explaining the development of CM-Kap
• To present a grammatical analysis of either Calaguiman of
Mabatang Kapampangan
• To compare the grammatical and lexical differences
– Between Calaguiman and Mabatang Kapampangan
– Then with SF-Kap and CM-Kap
• To check whether CM-Kap or a similar dialect is spoken in
other towns neighboring Samal and Abucay
• To prove or disprove the hypothesis of borrowing of
diphthongs in CM-Kap
historical background
The Abucay Massacre
• At least 150 Pampango soldiers were tasked to defend the
Church against Dutch invasion in 1647.
• The Pampangos were defeated but upon the arrival of
reinforcements, the Dutch were repulsed.
historical background
The Samal Massacre
• Upon the surrender of the Katipuneros and voluntarios in the
fight over Samal, a Pampango voluntario killed a Katipunero
according to accounts. This incident started the butchering of
the prisoners.
• This attests to Spaniards hiring people from Kapampangan
speaking towns.
historical background
Abucay as center of commerce
• 1587, Abucay became center of missionary activities.
• The first printing press in the Philippines was in Abucay.
• The route of ships increased movement of Kapampangan
speakers to the area.
• CM-Kap speakers generally regard their dialect as samutan or
haluan, and SF-Kap as the ‘genuine’ or ‘real’ Kapampangan.

Linguistic Features
Phonol ogic al L eve l
phonological level
Pro-Tagalog Features
• Diphthongization
SF-Kap CM-Kap
salol pants salawal
marok bad marawak
balen town balayan
papaten killing papatayan
ken there kayan
manugse to throw magugsay
manos to wash manwas
phonological level
• Portmanteau Pronouns
ku + ya > kuya ‘my + it’
> kuay metathesis
> kue monophthongization
>ke vowel coalescence
• mu and na + ya undergo the same process.
phonological level
• Classification of CM-Kap pronouns under diphthongization
SF-Kap CM-Kap
ke ku ‘my’ + ya ‘she or it’ kwa
me mu ‘your’ + ya ‘she or it’ mwa
ne na ‘his’ + ya ‘she or it’ nya, naya
phonological level
• Glottal stop Insertion: transitional glide substitution
SF-Kap CM-Kap
mayalikabuk dusty maalikabuk
malulam, maulap cloudy maulap
manasan to fish magasan
batwin star bituin
maimpis thin maimpis
phonological level
• Glottal stop Insertion: voiceless consonant substitution
SF-Kap CM-Kap
busbus hole bubus
sipsipan to sip sisipan
kuskus wipe kukus
kinaskas rubbed kinakas
atlu three alu
atbu sugarcane abu
matbud not durable mabud
phonological level
• Vowel Lowering

SF-Kap CM-Kap
mu your mo
tatakut afraid tatakot
pusu heart puso
kabayu horse kabayo
sanduk laddle sandok
upu gourd upo
phonological level
• [ ] and [a]
SF-Kap CM-Kap
bituk intestines bituka
asaw spouse asawa
lup face lupa
byas smart byasa
ik you ika
phonological level
• Addition of /h/

SF-Kap CM-Kap
tawul, kaung kahul
tindaan tindahan
salawaan salawahan
phonological level
Retention of CV Syllable Pattern
• Insertion of full glide between vowels
SF-Kap CM-Kap
ta u man tawu
pa u turtle pawu
mayli smiling mayili
bina u smelled binawu
kayli left handed kayili
phonological level
• Vowel Coalescence
SF-Kap CM-Kap
ya+itang pron+demo yetang
ya+ining pron+demo yening
ya+ing/ining pron+demo yening
ya+ing pron+art yetang
ya+ing pron+art yetang/yeng
phonological level
• Loss of Initial Vowel /i/

SF-Kap CM-Kap
ibye me ini kaya ibyay me ni kaya
sipsipan me ini sisipan me ni
ayta itang gubat tayu tang gubat
Mor pho log ica l
Le vel
morphological level
• Usage of Tagalog affixes in CM-Kap

SF-Kap CM-Kap
a neng kalutu napakaluto
makaramdam maramdam

maputi puti
mabilug bilug

mangasyas kumasyas
Le xica l L ev el
lexical differences
• From the inventory of lexicon used in the questionnaire, CM-
Kap showed 39% difference from SF-Kap.
• From the 81 unique items to CM-Kap, 59% were similar for
Calaguiman and Mabatang. 38% of items shows difference
between Calaguiman and Mabatang.
co nc lu sion