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Basic Environmental Engineering (2009) - Malestrom

Basic Environmental Engineering (2009) - Malestrom

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Published by Melvin Soldia

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Published by: Melvin Soldia on Oct 17, 2011
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11/23/2012

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By the above described classification methods one can identify the waste easily.
Identification helps in further processes of transportation, treatment and disposal, for
example the hazardous waste is to be tackled in a different manner than the ordinary
MSW. The minimization of the waste production is the best strategy. For this, first of
all the process should be such that there is a least production of waste. For example
if in a footwear making industry if the cut on the rubber sheet is made in such a way
that alternate piece of the pair are placed one by the side of other; there shall be least
production of waste sheet. Then the next step is to reuse the remaining waste sheet
in the same process. But now there is a limit beyond which this cannot be used to
maintain the required quality. This further remaining portion of the sheet comes as real
waste to this process of footwear making. Now if a toy making machine is installed
in the same factory which can use this remaining rubber sheet as the raw material.
Then there shall be no waste production in the first factory and only the second unit
shall produce some waste. Thus, the waste has been minimized at the source. This
reduces the cost of transportation etc. everything.

The second example is the production of flyash as the waste in the thermal power
plants. A huge quantity of flyash is produced where coal is burnt for making electricity.

101

Solid Waste Management

This flyash requires a large valuable land for disposal. As this flyash can be used for
making of flyash bricks, making of cement and can be used with cement as binder etc;
if sold or supplied free of cost from the site itself ; shall reduce the burden of disposal.

The third example is the utilization of waste food products in a hostel or a hotel
for making bio- gas. By the anaerobic digestion of this organic matter (waste food) the
biogas can be produced easily. This gas can be used there itself for cooking or heating
purposes. This shall reduce the biodegradable waste at the source itself.

The fourth example is the utilization of kitchen waste in a household in making
the compost and utilizing it in the kitchen garden itself. If more advanced techniques
like Vermi-composting are adopted this can be done in a more beneficial way.

The above mentioned methods can be adopted on a large scale also, but for that
the waste is firstly collected, transported and than utilized. This incurs a large cost.
So it is always preferable that if the waste production is minimized or the waste is
reused, recycled at the source itself. Thus, the waste minimization is achieved through
careful planning, changing attitude, sometimes special investments (as the toy factory
in the above example), and most important is a real commitment. The self motivated
willing reduction of waste is generally not possible, so strict enforcement of the law
should be there. The waste reduction and reuse, recycling should be given incentives
from the government in the form of tax reduction and soft loans.

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