Applications of electromagnetic radiation 1- Describe the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is name that scientists give to a number of different radiations. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes. These radiations are used in our daily lives, radiations like visible light that comes from a lamp to our house or radio waves that come from a radio station are two types of electromagnetic radiation. Visible light Electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths which the human eye can see. We perceive this radiation as colors ranging from red (longer wavelengths; ~ 700 nanometers) to violet (shorter wavelengths; ~400 nanometers.)

Radio waves Electromagnetic radiation lowest frequency, the longest is produced by charged particles forth; the atmosphere of the transparent to radio waves with from a few millimeters to about which has the wavelength, and moving back and Earth is wavelengths twenty meters.

This schematic diagram shows three possible paths that radio waves might take when they encounter Earth's ionosphere. The ionosphere is a set of ionized layers in the upper portions of the atmosphere that span the altitude range between about 75 and several hundred kilometers above Earth's surface. Radio pulses travel more slowly within the ionosphere than in free space, and can be reflected

from certain layers, depending on the radio wave frequency, ionosphere height, and angle of incidence. Microwave Electromagnetic radiation which has a longer wavelength (between 1 mm and 30 cm) than visible light. Microwaves can be used to study the Universe, communicate with satellites in Earth orbit, and cook popcorn etc.

Infrared Electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths longer than the red end of visible light and shorter than microwaves (roughly between 1 and 100 microns). Almost none of the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum can reach the surface of the Earth, although some portions can be observed by high-altitude aircraft (such as the Kuiper Observatory) or telescopes on high mountaintops. Ultraviolet Electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths shorter than the violet end of visible light; the atmosphere of the Earth effectively blocks the transmission of most ultraviolet light. The amount of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface depends on the distance it travels through the atmosphere. During morning hours, UV radiation must travel through more of the earth's atmosphere because the sun is lower on the horizon. At noon the rays travel a shorter distance through the atmosphere because the sun is more directly overhead.

X-ray Electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength and very high-energy; X-rays have shorter wavelengths than ultraviolet light but longer wavelengths than gamma rays.

Gamma ray The highest energy, shortest wavelength electromagnetic radiations. Usually, they are thought of as any photons having energies greater than about 100 keV. (It's "gamma-ray" when used as an adjective.)

Identify which electromagnetic radiation is used and analyses in term of properties its suability Use


Crystallography Macromolecular Crystallography is a technique used to study biological molecules such as proteins, viruses and nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) to a resolution higher than ~5 ‫ .إ‬This high resolution helps elucidate the detailed mechanism by which these macromolecules carry out their functions in living cells and organisms. Radar Radar, like sonar and seismology, uses a man-made pulse of radio energy to map distance based on the length of time it takes the pulse to return from the source. Radar (short for "Radio Detection and Ranging"), which can be airborne or spaceborne, has greatly changed the way we see the land and ocean surfaces. Radar is based on the principle of sending very long wavelength radiation (called microwaves) from an antenna, and then detecting that energy after it bounces off a remote target. The wavelength of the microwave, its polarization (vertical or horizontal orientation) and strength can be controlled at the source and measured when it returns. Many common land-cover types and materials affect the polarity and strength of the radar return differently, which helps in their identification.

Fiber optic communication

Fiber optics technology is based on small transparent, usually glass, fibers that are wire thin and able to transfer data via beams of light. One of the great advancements of the modern era, fiber optics gain a great advantage in speed compared to traditional wiring when transferring complex data like images. There is an entire branch of engineering devoted to the study and development of fiber optics. Telecommunications and networking can rely on fiber optics, the advantages being low data loss over long distances, and a high capacity transmission. In addition to the aforementioned benefits, fiber optics cables have high electrical resistance, are not affected by electromagnetic fields, secure, and low weight. Even so, short distance communications normally rely on electrical copper wiring due to its much lower cost, ease of use, and ability to carry a current. Other uses of fiber optics include medical imaging and as sensory tools.

Preservation of food

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