Naushad Ahmad

3rd March 2008 –10th May 2008

Advisor: MR


The term paper is an important component of the 1st Mid Career Management Course in Public Sector Management. In order to furnish this assignment within the stipulated time, one requires adequate time and resources such as relevant material books, typing and photocopying facility and conducive environment. I wish to place on record my deep appreciation and gratitude to Air Commodore (Retd) Shaukat Haider Changezi, SI(M) SBt, Director General, Lt Col (Retd) Hamid Ghani Anjum TI(M) Course Coordinator, and Mr Faris Rehman Chief Instructor, and other officials at NIM for their assistance and creating the right setting which helped me to complete my assignment without much difficulty. I am indeed indebted to Mr Maqbool Ali Zafar Senior Instructor, a veteran and honest research scholar who guided me all through the stages of the assignment with his acumen, dexterity for which I can claim that I have learned a lot from him which will guide me all through my life. Finally, I would be failing in my obligation, if I do not acknowledge the unconditional and sheer support of Mr Tanveer Hussain Library Officer, and Syed Farzand Ali Acting Programme Officer without whose help it would have been a Herculean task to be completed.

Naushad Ahmad


1. 2. 3. Executive Summary Introduction Chapter- 1 - Population and Labour Force 4. Chapter – 2 - Women in Public Service 6. Chapter – 3 - Challenges 7. Chapter – 4 - Issues Chapter – 5 - Recommendations and Conclusion / Bibliography 37 34 29 23 15

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AIM OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study was to analyze the present status of women in Public Service in Pakistan the constraints being faced by the women folk while entering the public sector of the economy and women contribution in economic development of the country. The objectives of this Research Paper are to :(a) (b) (c) (d) Analyze the gradual increase in tendency of female entering into public service / education in the province. The factors helping in increasing this tendency. Observing the changing attitude of the tribal society towards female exposure to the male dominant segment of the sector. Critically examine the obstacles to the female entry in public service and education in Balochistan.

Methodology For the purpose of the study I relied on secondary data, which has bee collected from published government documents, Internet and from other reliable sources. A course of verbal discussion were carried out with Dr Rehmat Ibad Khan Director/Assistant Collector, Employees Old-age Benefit Institution, Under Labour Division Govt of Pakistan for his guidance and providing me relevant material and data on the subject. Besides, a friend of mine provided me some printed material from the library of the University of the Balochistan, Quetta. From the aforesaid details, I want to explain that I adopted the historical method of research in accomplishing the task.


crop production. b) To what extent and at what level did women participate in Public Service accruing in Economic Development efforts in Pakistan and c) How did this participation of women contribute to the relative success of economic development efforts in the country? In reality.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This paper titled "Women in Public Service-Issues and Recommendation" provides an in-depth and thought provoking information about the importance of role of women in economic development of Pakistan. family business.36%). women are an integral part of the economic process of the country within and outside their homes. Besides women's participation in Public Service is minimal. in domestic services. An estimated two million women are part of the informal urban labour force as home-based workers (piece-rate workers. they are almost negligible in contributing to the national economy.84 percent of female family workers is part-time. cottage industry. Female workers are more likely to be full-time workers in all farm sizes in NWFP (89. in the formal and informal sectors in urban and rural areas. food preparation and preservation and caring for children. Rural women are major contributors in four subsectors of the rural economy. fuel and fodder to and from the home. as construction workers. livestock production. The purpose of the research was to examine the role and status of women with in the strategies and instrumentality of development in Pakistan. A detailed review about discrimination and social prejudices based on sex has been presented and educational status and service opportunities for females in Pakistan have been discussed. The four central questions underlying this study are:. the elderly and the disabled women make up 76% of all part-time workers and only 25% of those are acknowledged as full-time workers.a) What is the present condition of women regarding education and employment. and as vendors).6%) and part-time workers. self-employed entrepreneurs) and these working outside the house (in manufacturing. while in Balochistan 82. 6 . Punjab shows an almost equal division between full-time workers (55. It contains information about the state of education and employment of women in Pakistan.54%) and Sindh (74. household and family maintenance activities. . such as transporting water.

concurrently.Women participation in economic productive activities in rural and urban areas. 7 . the major ones being isolation and mobility. However. which prevent women's access to information. both within and outside the house. As a result women's work continues to be arduous and tedious and their potential productivity remains unrealized. training skills. credit and opportunities. they face a variety of constraints. their quality of life is abysmally sub-standard. is now an established fact.

mostly at the hands of strangers. harassment and bullying becomes more intense and blatant when she steps out of her home for work or education. It is not a hidden fact that she is subjected to discrimination and harassment.Introduction The occupation of women in Public Service can be traced throughout the history of mankind. The term is associated with a social consensus (usually expressed through democratic elections) that certain services should be available to all. on the streets and on public transport. working environment for women had been gradually improving. 8 . reveal that working environment. However. From catcalls to verbal innuendo to physical harassment. within and without the so-called sanctuary of her home. at her place of work. The annals of history however. Even where public services are neither publicly provided nor publicly financed. this evolutionary process had not been uniform in different areas and had been changing its pace from one era to the other. regardless of income. With the advent of political awakening and the Industrial revolution in 17 th century. This harassment does not stop. What is Public Service? Public service is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens. particularly under the influence of liberate philosophers and proponents of social justice. The references in scriptures of different religions refer participation of women as worker and co-worker with men at work. Even there are evidences of coordinated work approach between Adam and Eve. either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. working women had been facing adverse and restricted environment with less then compensated monitory returns. she has to endure it all. In general. or rather become more palpable in many cases. However. The life of a Pakistani woman is not easy. nature of duties monitory returns and facilitations to women at work have been changing from time to time and had been different from area to area.

For example. variable but identified as a difficulty in both industrialized and developing nations. and consequently the poor socio-economic status of women have also restricted their entry into the workforce. inequities most identified with industrialized nations with nominal equal opportunity laws. combined with the inertia of longstanding religious and educational traditions. through the twentieth century. and women increasingly acquired the higher education that led to bettercompensated. Restrictions on women's access to participation in the workforce include the wage gap and the glass ceiling. legal and cultural restrictions on access to education and jobs. ambulance and fire services Participation of Women in Public Service Until modern industrialized times. public perceptions of paid work shifted as the workforce increasingly moved to office jobs that do not require heavy labor. Economic dependency upon men. legal and cultural practices. Particularly as occupations have become professionalized over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The division of labor by gender has been particularly studied in women's studies (especially women's history. However. longer-term careers rather than lower-skilled. inequities most identified with developing nations. and even then only after much opposition and acrimonious debate. women's meagre access to higher education has effectively excluded them from the practice of well-paid and high status occupations. shorter-term jobs. Public services is also a course that can be studied at college and/or university. and unequal access to capital. which has frequently examined the history and biography 9 . These courses can lead entry in to the: police. Such factors have largely limited women to low-paid and poor status occupations for most of the 19th and 20th centuries.for social and political reasons they are usually subject to regulation going beyond that applying to most economic sectors. Cambridge University only fully validated degrees for women late in 1947. have restricted women's entry and participation in the workforce. Entry of women into the higher professions like law and medicine was delayed in most countries due to women being denied entry to universities and qualification for degrees.

of women's participation in particular fields) and gender studies more broadly. Despite tall claims the status of women in Pakistan is not homogenous due to the interconnection of gender with other forms of exclusion in society. which helps women to known their rights and to become conscious of their capacity to have a direct hand in political life. ethnic and cultural diversity. The overwhelming majority in Pakistan is Muslim and the society consists of a. Occupational studies. The Fundamental Rights in the Constitution guarantee the equality of all citizens before the law and forbids discrimination on the basis of sex alone. the Federal Capital area and the Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA). region and the rural / urban divide. Political Parties and organizations. 10 . The public sector of government dept. and the roles of women in the history of particular fields. There remains a significant dichotomy however. Parliament. trade unions. However. in the status of women in Balochistan with that of the rest of the nation. feudal and capitalist social practices have led to diversity in the status of women across classes. Status of Women in Pakistan Pakistan consists of four provinces. it provides space for affirmative action by the state in the context of women particularly in providing them with the job opportunities especially in public sector. Women’s participation in the service arena and politics and in the exercise of political responsibilities should be encouraged and facilitated by action to promote awareness. such as the history of medicine or studies of professionalization. also examine questions of gender. Unseen socio-economic development and the impact of tribal. non-government organizations and the media can all contribute to this process. Both women and men have equal rights under the Constitution. linguistic. comprising civic and political education.

effective use of resources.77 million. While Pakistan has more mouths to feed. The large population also represents a large potential market for goods and services. and more people looking for gainful employment. the population is estimated to have reached 156.CHAPTER . The interest in relationship between population change and economic growth has reignited in Pakistan which is experiencing declining fertility and mortality rates and therefore declining growth in population. more children to educate. the high population also represents an abundance of labour. Pakistan is witnessing changes in age structure with proportion of working age population increasing and offering a life time window of opportunity to turn demographic transition into demographic dividend.6 percent per annum. wider coverage of reproductive health services. and effective steps to eradicate poverty are prerequisites for sustainable development in Pakistan as well. Furthermore. The population profile in Pakistan reveals that in order to achieve sustainable development and to control overpopulation. empowerment of women. which can be used for productive purposes. 32. education of women.1 POPULATION LABOUR FORCE AND EMPLOYMENT At the time of independence in 1947. Thus in roughly three generations. Consequently. and popularization of small family norm are imperative. more families to house.5 million people lived in Pakistan. Pakistan’s population has increased by 124. This large consumer base with increasing disposable income may attract even more foreign investment. 11 .27 million or has grown at an average rate of 2. slowdown in population growth rate. efficient family planning. The large population therefore represents a big opportunity for Pakistan to benefit from demographic dividend which can fuel Pakistan’s growth for the next fifty years. By 2006-07.

wars and internal strife on sectarian. Pakistan’s political history includes several constitutional crises. Population Growth and its implications. economic instability. This has affected the evolution of a political culture. as well as divisions of caste. cultural. and respect for human rights and the rule of law. with strong patriarchal trends which permeate attitudes and behavior even where the actual social structure has changed. 2. Islamabad. economic and historical factors have directly and indirectly affected the status and rights of women at every level and in all sectors. Govt of Pakistan 1998. The overwhelming majority in Pakistan is Muslim. language and provincial autonomy issues. Statistic Division. the development of democratic norms.Socio Economic Profile Pakistani society is characterized by tremendous linguistic. tribe.The Crisis of Governance 12 . National Institute of Population studies. It is dominated by a feudal and tribal value system. All these social. frequent periods of political turmoil. clan and class. martial laws. ethnic and cultural diversity. which are only used selectively or adapted in accordance with cultural traditions. ethnic. Provisional results of fifth population and housing census. that customary and traditional laws and practices usually override both statutory and Islamic laws. 3. but while Islam and related State policies have affected social patterns to some extent. Pakistani society is so entrenched in culture. Human Development Report 1999 . There are also considerable economic disparities between different sections of society. and have negatively impacted on their integration in development or their real participation in the processes of decision-making. Table 1: Basic data on Pakistan Population Female Male 48 : 52 Level of Urbanization (As percent of totalpopulation) 32.5 GNP per capita US $ 500 Source: 1.

casual or contract work outside the regular workforce. four fifths of whom were home-based workers with average monthly earning of less than one-third of the factory workers.4 26 percent (U/R) Rural: 26.74 percent of males and 11. Human Development Report 1999 . It has increased to 29. The labor force participation rates for women are grossly underreported by the official sources of data.4 percent of production workers. They constituted 9.61 percent in 2001-02 and finally to 30.5 million 8. Economic Survey 1900-2000 2.The Crisis of Governance The share of urban women in professional and related jobs was stated to be about 20 percent in 1992. respectively. while the crude activity rate3 was 9 percent and 47 percent.6 percent and 70 percent for men. It was estimated that 77 percent of the economically active women in urban areas in 1991-2 were employed in the informal sector. while most were relegated to temporary. labour force participation is estimated on the basis of the Crude Activity Rate (CAR) and the Refined Activity Rate (RAR). Labour Force Participation Rate In Pakistan. only one-sixth of whom were paid employees. largely in the traditional teaching and medical professions.3 Source: 1.9 16. CAR was 28. The CAR is the percentage of the labour force in the total population while RAR is the percentage of the labour force in the population of persons 10 years of age and above.16 percent of females).4 percent in 2003-04. male enumerators who get information Labour Force 13 . themselves the lowest level employees in the formal sector.7 percent in 1996-97 increased to 29.Table 2: Participation of Women in the Labour Force Percentage of Women in Share of Income of Labour Force Women Urban : 12.41 percent (48.4 percent in 1997-98 but later declined to 29 percent in 1999-00. This is due to problems in data collection such as an inappropriate definition of economic activity. According to the Labour Force Survey 2003-04 the overall labour force participation rate (CAR) is 30. The 1997 Labour Force Survey reported the refined activity rate2 for women as 13.

62 10. Similarly.05 0.06 31.94 Increase --1. and exclusion of the informal sector.regarding working women from the male members of the family.65 million in 2005.96 34. The distribution of the employed labour force in urban / rural areas from 1990-91 to 2003-05 is given in Table 1.34 24.69 million in 2004 to 15.44 Rural 20.51 10.77 0. Based on this definition.66 21.75 36.41 8.24 million in 2004. the total number of the employed labour force in 2005 is estimated at 43.98 million increase) has increased more than urban employment (0. Whereas total employment has also risen considerably from last year (0.24 25.98 million in 2004 to 29. Table 1.69 .68 8. The total number of employed persons in rural areas has increased from 28. and carrying out agricultural duties.48 8. urban employment increased from 14.13 2.14 30.87 0.37 8. preparing food. Pakistani girls and women spend long hours fetching water. In the cultural context of Pakistan.19 31.22 million compared to 42. women’s wage work is considered a threat to the male ego and identity and women’s engagement in multiple home-based economic activities leads to under remuneration for their work.2 : No.50 14 Urban 8.71 million increase). rural employment (1.79 1.89 million).82 22.38 23.2. In 2003-04.03 million in 2005.83 31. doing laundry. Not only are these tasks physically hard and demanding.42 23. Employment Situation The employed labour force is defined as all persons of ten years and above who worked at least one hour during the reference period and were either “paid employees or “selfemployed””. The above table also reflects a steady rise in the quantum of employment over the years for both rural and urban parts of Pakistan. they also rob girls of the opportunity to study. of Employed in comparative LFS (Million) Year 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1996-97 1997-98 Pakistan 29. questions seeking information on a single main activity.

When planning or attempting to get the things better.64 12. Classification of Working Women 15 . the 1980 agricultural census showed that women's participation rate in agriculture was 73% and that women accounted for 25% of all full-time and 75% of all part-time workers in agricultural households.08 10. Consequently.87 2001-02 38. For example.66 2003-04 41. people of Pakistan had been able to develop their own thoughts and thus amended the ongoing trends in all walks of life including trends for working women. official labour force statistics show a very minimal participation of women. During the last 6 decades of indolence.88 26. the 1991-92 Labour Force Survey revealed that only about 16% of women aged 10 years and over were in the labour force and in comparison. On the contrary.22 13.28 2.1999-00 36.75 28. In Pakistan's economy women play an active role.16 2. Muslim rule and Foreign Occupation.72 26. there emerges another complication. 1997). the 1990-1991 Pakistan Integrated Household Survey indicated that the female labour force participation rate was 45% in rural areas and 17% the urban areas.11 0. the trends and level of environmental setup very form province to province and from area to area within the same province.64 Source: Labour Force Survey 2003-04 Employed Women The present society of Pakistan inherited majority of trends form the Hindu Culture. Pakistan is one of the countries in which despite a lot of improvement. much jobs is still to be done. But their contribution has been grossly underreported in various censuses and surveys. Thus it is clear that if women's contribution to economic production is assessed accurately. a conservative estimate of women's labour force participation would be between 30% and 40% (ESCAP. Also. the men's participation rate was 84%.

the literacy rate for the population of 10 years and above is 26. Moreover. However. According to the 1981 census. The population growth rate remains as high as 2.3%) is more than twice Literacy residence by gender (%) rate in different women) 16 . in urban areas this sex ratio is 115. A 90% of the households are headed by men and most female-headed ratio by households belong to the poor strata of the society (ESCAP. comprised 47. The important religious minorities are Christians.6 men per 100 women (1981 census). 46. The population density is 106 persons per square km residence (males/100 (EIU. Such a difference could be attributed to a large male out-migration from rural to urban areas (ESCAP.3%.1% over 65 (EIU. as against 35% for men.1%.8% per annum. 1997 in Pakistan is such that there are 110. Education In Pakistan. Pakistan is an Islamic country and 97% of the population follows Islam. The total fertility rate was 5.4% in 1990-91.1% of the population is under 15 years of age and 4. whereas in rural areas it is 108. there are distinct gender and rural/urban differentials concealed in the literacy rate.3 men to 100 women. This phenomenon is attributable to male-favoured sex ratio at birth and higher female mortality. educational attainment shows poor results. Further.7 men to 100 women. Hindus and Parsis. 72% of the population lived in rural areas. 1997). Particularly the educational status of Pakistani women is among the lowest in the world. (ESCAP. whereas the literacy rate for the rural Source: ESCAP.Pakistan's population estimated at 131. Women have a literacy rate of 16%. The sex ratio Source: ESCAP. the literacy rate for the urban population only is 47. this rural/urban differential is more pronounced in the case of women than men.6 million in January 1996.2%. The literacy rate for urban men (55. Based on a 1993 survey.5% women and 52. 1997). 1997). Sex 1997). Similarly. 1997 population is 17.5% men. According to the 1981 census. 1997).

However. particularly the doctors are also respected among masses. however in terms of ‘interaction with public’ working ladies can broadly be divided into two main groups. lady doctor prefer to go in the field of gynecology.3%) is more than five times the rate for rural women (7. (ii) Women / ladies in medical profession. civil profession.8% in urban areas. Nevertheless lady doctors with other specialization are also working and holding good name.7% and 6. These groups include:(i) (ii) Women not in interaction with public. In this paper we have to discuss ladies in interaction with public.the rate for rural men (26.3%) (ESCAP. these are innumerable professions where ladies are performing different functions. (i) Women in profession of teaching are usually respected and found to be more effective and result oriented. However. The profession in which women / ladies come in interaction with the public mainly include professions of teaching. public opinion differ about them. Our present paper in not concerned with ladies of first identity.2%). Women with interaction in public. Women in the professional of nursing are generally good professional however. the literacy rate for urban women (37. Usually 17 . Not only the students. despite openings to all filed to specialization. As we have discussed in the previous paragraphs / pages. 1997).3% in urban areas) and the refined activity rate (% of labor force in population of persons having 10 years of age and above) is for women in rural areas is 16% and 8. but also family members of the students respect teachers. The crude activity rate (% of labor force in total population) for women in rural areas is 10. As all families have girls thus all families. Majorities of masses like and respect nursing profession but few sections of masses generally take nurses involved in immoral activities. one way or the other respect ladies in the profession of teaching.

otherwise ready to send their female person at public life. 18 . discourage their women to go in the field of nursing.families.

It is absolutely essential that the necessary material and human resources be earmarked for this purpose. Part of these resources should be devoted to promoting women’s to participation in civic life as an integral part of part of the process of strengthening democracy and the Ministry of Education should specially see to it that proper civic. vocational institutions and Skill Development centers. middle and high schools for girls. political and economic empowerment of women. with the objective of ‘the emancipation of women.CHAPTER . 19 . equalization of opportunities and socioeconomic conditions amongst women and men and elimination of all forms of discrimination against women’. political and legal education is dispensed form early childhood. Positive Aspects for working Women in Pakistan The betterment of environments for working women in Pakistan is die to different reasons. colleges of formal education. The Ministry for Women’s Development has taken on a more policy oriented and advocacy role. a shift away from being project focused. A National Policy for Development and Empowerment of Women has been in place since 2002. Government should thus take the necessary steps to ensure that the interests of women are explicitly dealt with. the Government of Pakistan has developed institutional arrangements at the federal and provincial levels: A National Commission on the Status of Women was set up in 2000. Women’s issues are important question that concern society as a whole. The important reasons include the following:(i) Innumerable openings for girls to go for formal and technical education. in a permanent and thorough manner and in all areas pertaining to government jurisdiction. This includes a large number of primary. which aims at gender equality and social.2 Women’s Representation in Public Service In order to increase women’s representation in public service.

tangible outcomes which will be good not only for women but also for the political system in general:  Equality between men and women will engender general social equality. Quota provisions have been introduced as special measures to address the gender inequality in public life at all the three levels of government – national. reserved only for women in national and provincial legislature. ladies were equally allowed to compete male candidates in national. (iii) Entrance and active participated of ladies in national polities. provincial and local. Effectiveness of Quotas It is often argued that increased representation of women through quotas will have direct. Pakistan has a parliamentary system of government and Constitution provides a power sharing formula. 20 .Punjab.  Because women are less corrupt their inclusion will lead to good governance. A large number of women have started participating in national polities through participation in political parties. The federal legislature comprises the National Assembly and Senate. North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Balochistan including Islamabad Capital. This has been a very positive and influential factor.(ii) Increasing number of position of jobs in Government. Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA) and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). Sindh. their increased representation will improve the work of legislative bodies. in addition. This includes jobs in the institutions precise for girls and women. jobs for lady doctors and nurses in hospitals and health centers and above all equal opportunities for girls in federal and provincial competitive examinations. referred to as the Lower and Upper Houses of Parliament respectively. Public and private sector specifically for ladies. Quota Provisions to Achieve Gender Equality in Public Offices Pakistan is a federation with four constituent provinces .  Because women are more hard working. provincial and local bodies elections along with special seats.

Before we examine the current quota policies and their impact. 21 . In this study I have examined whether these arguments are valid and hold up to scrutiny. their presence in public office will reduce adversarial politics in favour of a more inclusive approach. The question of form includes: a) the demand to be among the decision-makers and b) the demand for participation and a share in control over public affairs. economic and social landscape within which they unfold. both the form of politics and its content. In terms of content. This can only happen when strategies address both. other enabling measures also need to be taken in order to encourage women to access and participate in public life and to continue to work in it for the long term. Going ‘beyond numbers’ requires a more nuanced and context specific approach. Understanding quotas in context is thus to explore the political. That the barriers to their participation can be both formal (state law) and informal (social norms) – reinforcing each other in gendered hierarchies – and both have to be challenged. it includes being able to articulate the needs. quotas can only be focused on increasing numbers. issues of recognition of different status of women and men in Pakistani society and that of redistribution of material and cultural resources so that women are able to secure the foundations of their choice to enter public life. That is. Because women are more problem-solving in their approach to politics. a quota policy has been a long standing strategy to address gender inequality in Pakistan. While quotas are an important strategy for addressing the gender imbalance in public offices. Without the understanding of these contexts. we outline the evolution of this policy to indicate that although this policy has gained international prominence fairly recently. wishes and demands of various groups of women.

The capital cost was to be borne by the donors but the government had to do the recurrent costs. NCSW and WDDs.  A policy shift from social welfare to social development.    Amendment in government’s rules of business at all levels incorporating quota regimes. 22 . Gender Reform Action Plan is a part of Decentralization Support Programme (DSP) and targets to reverse gender gaps in policy and power at a structural level. its implementation depends on stakeholders taking ‘ownership’ of the Plan.Gender Reform Action Plan The only policy on gender equality in public office is the Gender Reform Action Plan (GRAP). Asian Development people gave the technical assistance but now it may run into implementation problems. and a National GRAP that oversees the working of the rest. Some of the issues raised in our interviews about GRAP are as follows: GRAP was a huge and ambitious project. but Additional Secretaries were ignorant on the issue. Strengthening of Ministry of women’s Development. Planning and budgetary processes that narrow the gender gap in public expenditure and service provision There are four independent GRAPs in each of the provinces. gender focal points in key ministries. It is a comprehensive and radical policy reform that seeks to remove distortions in public life. which was perceived as a project and still is. GRAP promotes four central policy reform areas in gender and governance:  Improved women's representation and participation in political and administrative structures. Restructuring of institutions and procedures dealing with gender and social development issues including the MOWD. and from women's development to gender equality. Policy And Fiscal Reforms While the aspirations of the Plan are laudable. In our fieldwork we noted that Local Government Secretaries had a vague knowledge of the plan. It is housed in the Women Development Department and was funded by the Asian Development Bank.

NWFP and Balochistan was increased. National Assembly of Pakistan and the Provincial Assemblies of Punjab. Currently the work is going on to change the rules of business. In addition. and changing nomenclatures etc. considerably improving the number of women in political institutions at the provincial and national levels. By examining women’s representation in public offices we can explore the following:  Strategies that women employ to access the public sphere in the context of a patriarchal socio-political system.  The impact of greater women’s presence in challenging and shifting gender hierarchies – whether an increase in numerical presence results in a substantive presence. There is a provision for Gender Resource Centre in the federal GRAP money. women parliamentarians did not have a clear idea of the Gender Reform Action Plan. Could other women learn from this cohort?  The role that the State can play in increasing women’s representation through both direct –quotas – and indirect – supporting shifts in public discourse – measures. which would lead to issues of ownership of the Plan. Under the Conduct of General Elections Order 2002. Sindh. (Chief Executive’s Order No.and there is a fear the financial resources may not be committed by the already financially stretched provincial governments. 23 . But there is concern whether these measures might not be cosmetic. These women have been successful in subverting the boundaries of gender. Quota Provisions As noted above. 7 of 2002) the number of seats in the Senate. and in operating in a very aggressive male dominated sphere. The elected representatives generally did not have a fair idea of what GRAP was. quotas have become a key strategy for increasing women’s participation in Public Service.

despite the outlining of the government’s commitment to address this issue in the National Plan of Action the percentage of female employees in Federal employment is extremely small. The perception was that women did not come up for interviews. these figures show little progress for women in this key area of employment. child care and washroom facilities for women. Source: The National Commission on the Status of Women. promotions and institutional support. etc. it is quite clear from the data of the Balochistan 24 . Our studies in this regard support the Reports findings. and holidays. Out of 2779 posts advertised.”. four times the number. including autonomous and semi-autonomous bodies. 8613 women had applied. that they did not show up and finally that they simply were not available for the jobs that were being advertised. As the table below shows. 2003 CHAPTER Balochistan Factor Senior bureaucrats in local government in Balochistan. in the planning and development divisions and even senior women bureaucrats argued that women were simply not available for the positions that were advertised. Given the security of jobs. the Commission suggested enhancing this further by: “10% in all sectors and grades 15% in BPS-19 and above 15% in key policy bodies. making the daily work environment a struggle for them. where the conditions were favorable for women in terms of postings. However. even in the province where women’s literacy in rural areas is as low as 11%. A key finding of our fieldwork towards writing this Report was the inadequacy of transport. the Balochistan Public Service Commission figures explode this myth with the figures of the women who appeared in various tests in the past six years. the possibility of monitoring employment conditions and the cultural predisposition of families towards government jobs. banking institutions etc. advisory boards. The other perception was that women prefer to be in health and education.Although under the National Plan of Action there was a quota of 5% within all occupational groups and grades of public services. The Commission’s conclusions highlighted extensive systemic discrimination faced by women in recruitment. transfers. However.

Civil service reform is therefore necessary for the full realization of both devolution and poverty reduction. Without a significant increase in the number of women in public services the effectiveness of quotas for women in legislative institutions suffers – women we interviewed often complained of government offices being hostile territory for them.7 4. So. Given the fact that political parties do not have a quota system and that gender imbalance there is significant. it seems that quotas remain a key strategy to achieve gender equality in public life. transparent and accountable public administration that is more responsive to the citizenry.Public Service Commission that most of the recruitment that is carried out with respect to women is only in education. There is still a long way to go before gender equality can be achieved in the bureaucracy and political parties. Despite several initiatives to improve the presence of women in public life. Only 3 position out of a total of 2779 positions advertised. the most successful measures have been at the level of local government with 33% quotas for women. results and performance oriented. demand driven.4 8. it is not that these positions are liked. as well as to achieve a more focused. but that they are available for women officers. with the parliamentary and provincial quotas following.9 TO ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY IN PUBLIC OFFICE Studying quotas in political institutions in context helps us recognize the importance of civil service reform. Ta Basic Pay Scale All scales (BPS 1-22) Officers’ Category (16-22) Other Category (1-15) %age of female employees 5. had openings for women outside these three ‘women’s departments’. 25 . health and population departments. The need for a quota for women in the bureaucracy at all levels and in all departments – especially in the top echelons of the service – is critical.

the Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University in Quetta. religious fundamentalism. and Bureau of Statistics P&D Govt of Balochistan. nurses 486 LHVs 556 and Midwives 1345. have attended school. The rise and empowerment of the women of Balochistan has undermined as well as challenged the denominator that usually characterizes the position of women in a society. 12920 are employed in various Govt Schools in various positions. illiterate and bound by traditional norms of a tribal society that remains to be patriarchal in nature. according to data collected from Directorate of Education.e. rugged geographical terrain. suppressive patriarchal society. total number of women engaged in major Public Service i. They remain to be extremely poor. education sector are 543 lecturers. Educational institutions remain to be principal agents of political socialization and awareness. Similarly the number of lady doctors is 383. remains to be a step forward for strengthening a portion of the Balochi tribal women community who has been deprived of the fruits of modernization and development. Though the quality and standard of education for women remains to be very poor in the province. the largest but least populated province of Pakistan. However. one immediately thinks of pro-Taliban and pro-Al Qaeda forces. but there has been an initiation of improvement in that aspect. but they still play an influential role in determining the future of the province.9 Women in Public service in Balochistan: The moment the provinces of North Western Frontier Province and Balochistan comes to the mind. the exact data could not be obtained.5. According to a World Bank Report. 26 . which in some ways reflects total anarchy. and the first women’s university. While a good number of women are engaged in various NGOs however. only 15 percent of women in Balochistan.

This inaccessibility affects their work. Lack of Access to and Transformation of Public Space Lack of access to public spaces is one of the key impediments faced by many women public servants. The research findings support our hypothesis that gaining political equality for women is critical for the effectiveness of measures that seek to achieve gender balance in public life. Only those women who had overcome their inhibitions and did enter public spaces were confident about their roles as problem solvers. political and cultural – if women are to take up leadership roles in Pakistani public life. in this section we set out the socio-economic and political challenges facing women who access public life with the support of quotas. she argues. This. In the constituency as well. there is a slight problem of access and women can not be as accessible as a man can be. even though the conditions have improved. In rural and semi-urban districts. But we are excluded from that. Men can do those at all levels. of course also reinforces the need for women’s presence in large numbers in public offices so that a transformation of public space can take place. such women remain a minority. Women politicians who step out into the male space feel there are clear problems of access to the male electorate. In the last chapter we outlined three areas within which quotas need to be contextualized – economic. and their ability to solve problems and to deliver services to their constituents. makes a problem at decision-making levels. 27 .CHAPTER . backslapping clubbing behavior. There is only a slight difference – a problem of interaction with colleagues. That. the effectiveness of quota based representative institutions and politics is not yet very high. Based on our research.3 Challenges for Women in Public Service It has been observed in chapter 5 that despite an increasing rhetorical acceptance of quotas for women in public life. public offices remain alien environments.

The findings of the study showed that 50% of the women councilors attended only one meeting where the election of chairman took place. Sexual harassment often took the form of male gossip against women in public life. an era especially attributed to General Zia’s Islamisation of society. The culture of 28 . as it inhibited their movements and their voice. Ghar main nahin rehti (He has left his young sister.Continued Gender Segregation and Subordination Gender segregation and subordination challenges women who are able to access public office. “When I was a boy. There was a liberal atmosphere. Afterwards. There are frequent complaints by women councilors that they do not receive invitation to the council meetings. “They say Jawan behan ko chor diya hai. they continue to confront the traditional mind-set where their male colleagues reject them as equal partners in politics. the society became conservative. like Farida Kakar. They are not consulted in development planning at the district and union council levels. As a result. she doesn’t stay at home). I am sensitive so I go down for a day. Women from the district councils are not given equal share of development fund as they are perceived to have no direct constituency. talked about how people talked behind her back. Councilors in Balochistan. if there was any matter in which their presence was required papers were sent to their houses for their signature or thumb impression. In the case of women councilors. there were coeducational schools. In Quetta there were hotels in which girls from good families used to come in the evening and take dinner. They are seen as representing only women and they are given the responsibility related to gender specific project and programs. Her being single also made it a big problem. Ideologies of Honour and Shame One out of the four women government officials interviewed reported sexual harassment. where from a liberal face.” The DCO Quetta spoke of historical reversal. The cultural ideology of ‘hiya’ or shame was raised by the male councilors as a factor that inhibited women’s participation in the public space. and then come out again. nearly all were persuaded by their male relatives or other influential men of the community to put their names forward for election. as it gives more room for gossip to people.

sanitary and childcare facilities. this can only happen if the FPSC is itself gender sensitized through a thoroughgoing gender mainstreaming training programme. The social infrastructure needs to be improved together with emphasis on recruiting women. As we have seen. monitored and implemented rigorously. Attention should be given to the gender balance of recruitment panels. Girls and boys are segregated. In both public service and political life.83” He forwarded a culture change argument saying that until and unless the culture of conservatism does not change. Now a reversal of trends has taken place and the conservatism of Zia rule has taken hold in the society. Co-ed institutions are finished. Due process must be adhered to when making appointments. Equal Opportunity Policies Recruitment and Promotion of women Increasing women’s employment must be the key element in the government’s approach to achieving gender equality in public life. They have to routinely work harder than men in order to gain the respect of their colleagues and make a case for their promotion. Work and Women’s Empowerment “The division of a family's joint benefits is likely to be less unfavorable to women if: 29 . Recruiting more women should be accompanied by gender sensitive career management programmes throughout government services. we have seen that women often do not get the support of senior officers in promotion. there is particular need to address the issue of women’s employment in public service over which the government has direct control. The flouting of equal opportunity policies should not be tolerated and measures to address this must be implemented. Equal opportunity policies for recruitment and promotion should be clearly set out. in particular by improving training. women’s presence in the public spaces and offices will not be a reality.Baloch and Pakhtoon is liberal. However. Reporting mechanisms to ensure that equal opportunity policies are being implemented should be strengthened. The Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC) should oversee these measures. as well as gender training of those serving on these.

⇒ they can earn an outside income. In addition. sex outside of marriage) and rape. treats women’s issues as add-ons and restricts the remit of gender mainstreaming. working outside the home for a wage. mostly studies of particular localities. This last category can be much influenced by education for women and by participatory political action. Considerable empirical evidence. December 20. Source: Amartya Sen. and ⇒ there is a clear-headed understanding of the ways in which women are deprived and a recognition of the possibilities of changing this situation.edu/contents. suggests that what is usually defined as "gainful" employment (i. or in such "productive" occupations as farming).ucsc. Pakistan's National Assembly and Senate approved in November 2006 amendments to a controversial rape law.e. ⇒ they own some economic resources and have some rights to fall back on. Volume 37. The new law makes a distinction between Zina (i. Women’s Protection Act After a long consultative process with all stakeholders. and implementation strategies.e. the new procedural changes require that anyone accusing a person of 30 . Parallel.. Number 20. disjointed work duplicates efforts. ‘More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing’ The New York Review of Books. 1990 Ensuring Joined Up Thinking On Gender Mainstreaming The various government departments need to work together in cross-cutting ways to ensure that gender mainstreaming takes place across issue fields. ucatlas. policy frameworks. ⇒ their work is recognized as productive (this is easier to achieve with work done outside the home). Rape is no longer covered under the Hudood Ordinance and is tried under the normal PPC law. as opposed to unpaid and unhonored housework—no matter how demanding—can substantially enhance the deal that women get”.

there is a functional foundation and history to build upon. However. which required testimony from four witnesses to the crime. Their demonstrated willingness to confront and challenge the government on behalf of those for whom they advocate makes them uniquely qualified to give voice to the needs of destitute women. from land reform to the rights of women to economic development. Furthermore. Many of these groups. a controversial clause has 496-B has been added in PPC under which consensual nonmarital sex (Zina) has been made punishable by five years in prison or a 10.000 rupees (US$165. and they should remain strong in this key role.committing Zina would also need to provide four witnesses. monitoring. without the victim needing to file a separate case. The fact that the local NGOs have in the past confronted and challenged the government is in keeping with their role as local organizations engaged in promoting change. Zina is now a bail able offence where bail can not be refused. False witnesses would be automatically tried for Qazf. Under the Hudood Ordinance. There is a strong tradition in Pakistan of local NGOs being engaged in social and economic issues. though small in resources and staff by international standards. Zina and rape would be treated similarly and rape victims could only raise a case under the Hudood Laws. Source : Women Protection Act. 2006 Role of NGOs It will be fruitless to think that the issue of overpopulation can be laid to rest without the help and support of the private sector. While the relationship with the Government of Pakistan and local NGOs has been strained at times. and training at the local level. katchi-abadis and labour colonies. nevertheless have significant experience and capacity in program implementation. 31 . Realizing this the government highly encourages and supports endeavors undertaken by various NGOs for undertaking innovative and cost-effective service delivery and awareness campaigns to cover specific urban and semi-urban areas like slums. euro129) fine. In this regard the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play an important role.

The initiative was started by the Aurat Foundation and later joined by Muthida Labor Federation. Khwendo Kor. The first stage will be to mobilize women to stand as candidates for the reserved seats at the union Council level and ensure that there is local support for them. The campaign is called the Citizens Campaign for Women’s Representation in Local Government.For the first time in Pakistan civil society organizations have initiated a collective campaign for women representation and training in local government. Sungi Development Foundation. Pakistan NGO Federation along with four provincial coalitions and lot of other organizations. This will need to be combined with some political orientation for the candidates for them to participate in the electoral process with some knowledge. SAVERA. HRMDC. PILER. At the same time there will be a need to build an environment in the constituency. 32 . SAP-PK. SBRC. which is not hostile but actually supportive for women to play their role as candidates and representatives of the people. This campaign has great potential to improve the representation of women in local government.

 General trend of low salaries as compared to male. Such public service announcements 33 .  Domestic responsibilities which leave no time for women to work. and ⇒ gaining a public voice both within and outside of the political process. rather than to fulfill career aspirations. which are as under:  Lack of sufficient safety measures for women coming to public life.  Lack of jobs opportunities in public and private sector establishment. still it is not odd to come across a public service announcement to press the message on the issue. ⇒ promoting change in the perception of women's roles and status. The matter of fact is that most women in Pakistan brave into men-dominated workplaces out of economic necessity.4 ISSUES In the light of above discussion it can be deduced that major associated with women in public service are associated with contrasting and antagonistic tendencies compounded with parochial thought of men and also of the women. ⇒ gaining access to employment opportunities at all levels in the economy.  General feelings of fear from the public behaviour.CHAPTER . . The major issues in connection with women in public services include parochial thought against women working in public service. North American and even South East Asia has become entrenched. The position of women in workplace in Europe.  Fear of transfer to outside places other than hometown. Four important challenges confronted women in Pakistan in the early 1990s: ⇒ increasing practical literacy.  Discouraging attitude of family members.  General gender sensitization.

There is no sanction anywhere for the deplorable condition in which our women have to live”.are even more necessary in a society like Pakistan where we lag behind even comparable countries in accepting the role of women at work. Restrictions on their 34 . many more women are working for wages than in the past. It is a crime against humanity that our women are shut up within the four walls of the houses as prisoners. These attempts generally have been related to two broader. There have been various attempts at social and legal reform aimed at improving Muslim women's lives in the subcontinent during the twentieth century. Another of the challenges faced by Pakistani women concerns their integration into the labor force. intertwined movements: the social reform movement in British India and the growing Muslim nationalist movement. The nationalist struggle helped fray the threads in that socially imposed curtain. we are victims of evil customs. it appeared that the state would give priority to empowering women. As independence neared. This debate concerns the extent to which civil rights common in most Western democracies are appropriate in an Islamic society and the way these rights should be reconciled with Islamic family law. the changing status of women in Pakistan largely has been linked with discourse about the role of Islam in a modern state. Because of economic pressures and the dissolution of extended families in urban areas. But by 1990 females officially made up only 13 percent of the labor force. Pakistan's founding father. Mohammad Ali Jinnah. women's roles were questioned. Since partition. In 1937 the Muslim Personal Law restored rights (such as inheritance of property) that had been lost by women under the Anglicization of certain civil laws. and their empowerment was linked to the larger issues of nationalism and independence. Simultaneously. said in a speech in 1944: “No nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you. Promoting the education of women was a first step in moving beyond the constraints imposed by purdah.

the government has been hesitant to adopt overt policies to increase women's employment options and to provide legal support for women's labor force participation. women do. and traditional notions of propriety lead families to conceal the extent of work performed by women. On the basis of the predominant fiction that most women do no work other than their domestic chores. she observed. poor urban women remain at home and sell manufactured goods to a middleman for compensation. women Foreign Service Officer needed to resign their commission in order to get married. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright became the first woman to lead the Department of State. Principal Officer at U. "American women have made great strides in many field over the past century.mobility limit their opportunities. only the poorest women engage in work--often as midwives. sweepers. Nancy Powell and Wendy Chamberlain have served as U.S Ambassador to Pakistan.S Consulate's celebration of Women's History Month and attended by around 100 students from various departments of the university. More and more urban women have engaged in such activities during the 1990s. or nannies--for compensation outside the home. including diplomacy".S Consulate Peshawar. American women had to resign from the Foreign Service in order to get married. "Just thirtyseven years ago. Women have served as U. Secretaries Albright and Rice have proven that women can serve effectively as America's top diplomats".S Foreign Service" delivered at Lincoln Corner in the Central Library of the Peshawar University. 35 . Such restrictions no longer apply and in 1997. The lecture was organized as part of the U. She further informed that America's first female diplomats joined the Diplomatic Service in the 1920s. stated Ms. Usually. More often. Hence. Today. Until 1970. although to avoid being shamed few families willingly admit that women contribute to the family economically. there is little information about the work. Lynne Tracy while encouraging female varsity students to go for public service has said that they have to actively pursue their professional dreams and to consider public service as a way to serve their communities and their respective country. she went on to say. Tracy. She expressed these views during a lecture on "A History of Women in the U.S ambassadors throughout the world and two.

as they do not enjoy the same opportunities as 36 . entire creation of the Creator. the lack of importance given to gender mainstreaming and to issues of governance as part of these strategies meant that the severe pressures of the economy on gendered inequality were not mediated by these plans.Speaking on the occasion Vice Chancellor University of Peshawar Professor Dr. he said was to provide skilled leadership to the society and the goal of this institution was to love and serve. Therefore they face many challenges. he further informed and concluded. The situation of rural women in Pakistan is worse than that of their urban counterparts”15. implementation and sectoral programming framework for improving women’s status continues to be a major national challenge. weak educational background. About the varsity education. The Constraints Encountered by Women In Pakistan. Haroon Rashid welcomed Ms. One of the main objectives of the varsity. As the MDG Report of Pakistan notes. as in many other developing countries. He added that Lincoln Corner at the University of Peshawar was a window to the whole world and it was a place where one can look at things from all sides and directions. “The objective of mainstreaming gender concerns into the overall planning. Women are more adversely affected by the incidence of poverty on account of their weak position. as outlined above. low participation in economic activity and inequitable access to productive resources. Lynne Tracy to the University and said that Pakistani women have also contributed a lot in various fields of life and proved their mettle by serving the nation in credible way. responded to the demands made by the Pakistani women’s movements and international commitments towards gender equality through the National Plan for Women and other measures. a wide-ranging programme of economic reform was initiated at the start of the new millennium. the Vice Chancellor was of the view that university does not mean walls and rooms but such institutions should inculcate inquisitive minds. women are handicapped in society. While the government had. Under pressure from international financial institutions as well as from political unrest in the country.

and results in income. limits their ability to secure gainful employment. Limited access to the essentials of life undermines their capabilities.men. The segregation of the sexes starts early and becomes a way of life. poverty and social exclusion. natural spirit of entrepreneurship is a powerful key to economic development. Therefore realizing the vast potential that women entrepreneurs posses and translating this potential into profits is imperative. Their ambitions and aspirations are suppressed. Supporting businesses with strong associations can strengthen the structural adjustment reforms that are part of the current international wave of decentralization. clean drinking water and proper sanitation. They are not only deprived of financial resources but also lack access to basic needs such as education. Nurturing an individual's. which is grounded in the belief that promoting private businesses is key to growth. health. 37 .

may not be considered unnecessary for the women. Women’s importance may not be 38 .  The government efforts should made in a way that the ladies feel a real sense of protection.  The government should make serious efforts for improvement and growth of cottage industry in the rural areas. Politics. following recommendations are suggested:  There should be coordinated efforts for improvement of literacy ratio among the masses.  Ladies should not only be given better protection measures.  The cottage industry and other small industry units should be designed on the basics of every specific area developed area to study so that local sources may be explored and utilized. The curriculum should not reinforce women’s domestic role only. The tendency of presenting women as a showpiece.  Special technical centers.  There should be a general. Physics. economics.5 RECOMMENDATIONS In the backdrop of the deliberations and ground realities and impediments which have been discussed in the previous pages that hinder women in coming forward to join the Public Service. just in order to get better clientage and business should be stopped. particularly in the rural areas. With respect to the male dominated society. trades and arts should be established in the urban and particularly in the rural areas so that ladies in the villages may really go to actual jobs. with multiple choice of skills. special attention should be made to get the dominant segment of the society to widen their vision and change their attitude so that they permit their ladies to go for work in the public sector. compressive and wide spread campaign to enlighten the people about benefits of working ladies. chemistry etc.CHAPTER . The ladies should be given real jobs instead of putting them on receptions or appointing them as telephone operators / attendants.

When we look at the different development process. it comes out from that women are given less preference in professional and technical trainings. ideas and aspirations which ultimately pave the road to development. When the employment is not going to available. Merit must be followed strictly in the selection of jobs against various vacancies reserved for women. performance and only performance must be the criteria for transfers and postings of female teachers and lectures. Office secretaries etc. teachers. However. In brief. Formal education not only enable a person to bring about economic changes in the society. Women comprise half of our population and are active participants in the public sector and the statistics indicate that.confined to the lower of employment e. LHVs. The gainful employment must be provided to women in the province once they have been educated. educational policy may not banned women to the restrictions of a wife or a mother only. their education trend is depressed. CONCLUSION The primary objective of this paper is to examine the overall position of women in decision-making roles. Education policies should not be taken to economic objectives but should also be taken into consideration of social development. but not the least. 39 . The aim is to provide an in depth analysis of the way society regards and values the contribution of women who choose to be parliamentarians. norms. Thus it is critical that men realize their moral obligation to open up the institutions of the state and encourage more women to become active participants in the development process. then she will also gain the support of her parents. when hopes of employment are high for the women.g. This aspect must be covered in the policy by providing technical education institutions especially for women in Balochistan. the barriers that women encounter were examined as well as ways to remove them suggested. attitudes. Most importantly. Last. but it also positively effects his / her values. women in the country are not seen as effective decision-makers.

without spousal support. Where it is appropriate. national defense and foreign affairs issues. not only in politics. but also in every day life. Also. These is a need to consider changes to the layout of Parliament to reduce confrontational politics and to facilitate a more detailed technical and non-adversarial legislation. That is. Women entering services should be assured that they will not have to encounter discrimination from society and from within their own society. it is important that women start to appear more frequently discussing issues such as the economy. Government must also consider institutional and legal reform to facilitate the more equal representation of women in public sector. women will not pursue their own individual interests and and time consuming. many women will sacrifice their own personal fulfillment for the good of the family. Although the importance of these issues must not be undermined.It is imperative that women be appointed to positions in government where they are noticed and appear in numbers beyond what may be regarded as tokenistic. Society must be sensitized to realize the barriers that women face. 40 . when only one or two women are appointed to Cabinet and who have the customary duty of taking on ‘women’s affairs’ such as education and welfare issues. Education material are an important factor here and we must ensure that such material promote an appropriate image of men / women. our current financial deficit. Our children must also made to realize that gender doe not determine a person’s capability to take on a specific job.

Bibliography Economic Survey of Pakistan 2006-07. Gender Reform Program (Asian Development Bank Technical Assistance # 3832-Pak) EIU. ESCAP. 1995. New York. Fourth World Conference on Women. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. Beijing. 1995. UNDP. 1995: Pakistan. London. 1997. Oxford University Press. 1996. Analytical Report . United Nations. National Policy for Development and Empowerment of Women March 2002. Statistical Survey of Pakistan 1996-97. New York ESCAP. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. ILO Report on Creating Enabling Environment for Women Employment in Pakistan – 1993. New York. Women in Pakistan: A country Profile.Balochistan July 2003. 41 . PARC. United Nations. Rural women in Pakistan Farming Systems Research. 1997. National Report. United Nations. 1988. Government of Pakistan. Bangkok. ESCAP. Pakistan Afghanistan: Country Profile. Proceedings of the Workshop on 'Role of Rural Women in Farming Systems Research'. Balochistan Public Service Commission. New York. September.1996. Gender Issues in Agricultural and Rural Development Policy in Asia and the Pacific. Human Development Report. Ministry of Women Development and Youth Affairs. The Economist Intelligence Unit. FAO. Women in Pakistan: A country profile. Rural Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific. Islamabad. GOP. 1997. Pakistan. Wikipedia-the free encyclopedia.

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