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**The Art of the Subnet Cheat Sheet And Other Subnetting Tips & Tricks
**

As I've grown older, I've grown less tolerant of memorizing useless information. After hearing people talk of memorizing a subnetting "cheat sheet," to help on Cisco exams, my thought was I would just memorize the formulas and do the math instead of memorizing yet more useless information. However, that mistake became painfully obvious as I failed the Cisco INTRO exam because I ran out of time before I was finished with the test. And because I scored over 700 points on what I did complete, I'm reasonably sure I would have passed if I had been able to complete all of the questions. When I first started doing subnetting, I was actually doing boolean AND operations, and to figure out the proper subnet mask, I was writing out the netmask in binary and converting it to decimal. While I'm sure it is good to know all of that, Cisco let a nugget of truth slip out in its CCNA Self-Study ICND Exam Certification Guide (emphasis added): Using the binary math required to find the subnet number and broadcast address really does help you understand subnetting to some degree. To get the correct answers faster on the exam, you might want to avoid all the conversion and binary math. The following subnet cheat sheet will not solve all of the subnetting questions on the exam. What it will do, however, is gain valuable time. Since you can't take anything into the exam, the trick is to write the following chart out on your dry-erase board before you start the exam: Hosts 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 4096 8192 16384 32768 65536 Netmask 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.248 255.255.255.240 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.192 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.252.0 255.255.248.0 255.255.240.0 255.255.224.0 255.255.192.0 255.255.128.0 255.255.0.0 Number of Subnets 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256

/30 /29 /28 /27 /26 /25 /24 /23 /22 /21 /20 /19 /18 /17 /16

And if you examine the chart very closely, you can actually reproduce it with very little memorization. Here is the way to do it. First, duplicate column one of the table, which is fairly easy, and then fill in the second column, which is nothing but multiples of two,

http://quest4.org/ccna/subnet_cheat_sheet.htm

6/23/2009

64.95. 256.255 directly above it.255. you can just refer to the chart and plug in the netmask 255. What you should come up with is this: 32 64 96 128 Since the address is 192. Note that after the /23 network. For the fourth column.255. it can be reproduced with very little memorization. instead of writing it out in binary and converting it to decimal. if a simulation question calls for a /27 netmask. because zero is the network and . And since the first address of the subnet is the network address and the last address of the subnet is the broadcast.1. The only odd netmask to memorize is the /23 netmask. That is also not hard to remember because it is just one off from the . So from /22 to /17.248. Now simply add by 32 until you get to a subnet higher than the .4 is the broadcast address). fill in the netmask for the /24 network and the /16 network. it must fall in the subnet between 64 and 128.1.255.org/ccna/subnet_cheat_sheet. If you take 252 and subtract 4 from it. to the /16 row.64 and the broadcast address is 192. 255. If you take 255. but if you forget any of the netmasks.255. just fill it in. 255. for example. once you understand the table. you get the netmask for the next row.The Art of the Subnet Cheat Sheet And Other Subnetting Tips Page 2 of 3 starting out at four.168. which is the netmask for the next row.255. If the exam question asks for the network and broadcast address of a host.68 /27. all of the network masks are identical to the /25 .248 and subtract its 8 hosts. the network address is 192.224. which should also be easy to remember (if you are about to take the exam and can't remember /24 and /16 netmasks.255. you can actually just write the numbers out to the side twice and add them together to get the number for the next row). As you can see. which is 255.255.1.0.255.68 host (be sure to add 32 each time and not get into using multiples of 2. when you get to the higher numbers.htm 6/23/2009 . 128. which is 32. just put a 1 in the /24 network and put in multiples of two up the chart from the /24 network. How to use the chart Now that you have the chart. 32. 192. If you get the numbers. If the exam asks to find a network that will allow for 4 subnets and at least 48 hosts per http://quest4.1.68.255.168. (if you aren't good with multiplication. This works all the way down to the /24 network. you might as well hang it up).255. just move them over one octet to the left.252 provides for four hosts (two useable. you get 255. For example.168. you doing it wrong and will miss questions on the exam). The netmask for the /30 network is also fairly easy to remember.168. simply look at the hosts provided by the /27 network mask./30 networks. which is easy to do here.254. Next.240.255. all that needs to be done is subtract the number of hosts directly to the left of it to get the next netmask. you already have the needed information. as well as down the chart.

http://quest4.1.145.192 Number of Subnets 4 /26 If a question involves two IP addresses. then you know both IP addresses are in the same network. you are just as Cisco certified as the math wizard who passed the exam with a score of 978.255. The Cisco exams are geared toward people who are sharp at math. If you aren't good with math.255. don't waste a large amount of time on it. just look at the table and pick the row that matches: Hosts 64 Netmask 255. you have to know your stuff.The Art of the Subnet Cheat Sheet And Other Subnetting Tips Page 3 of 3 subnet.95.1. Count by 16 until you pass the networks involved: 16 32 48 64 72 80 96 Since you know that the network address is 172.80 and the broadcast address is 172.1.92 /28 and the questions asks if they are in the same network.145. because a good portion of the INTRO and ICND exams deal with subnetting.org/ccna/subnet_cheat_sheet.htm 6/23/2009 .1. which is 16.85 /28 and 172. just look at the hosts provided by the /28 netmask. the subnetting cheat sheet will only help so much (and it won't help with converting binary or hex at all). for example 172. you can miss some subnetting questions and still pass the exam. If a subnetting question is especially confusing. It can't be said enough times. if you pass the exam by one point. If you know your stuff. Remember. then to run out of time on the exam because you spent too much time on a particularly confusing subnetting question. If you aren't sharp at math. as some of the questions are asked in a manner designed specifically to confuse a person as much as possible. you will be at a disadvantage to those who are.145. your goal should be to know your stuff well enough that you can miss some of the trickier subnetting questions on the exam and still pass comfortably. If you aren't a math wizard. It would be better to miss some subnetting questions and answer all of the questions on the exam.145.

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