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USER/PRIVILEGED EXEC COMMANDS
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clear frame-relay-inarp configure terminal copy running-config startup-config copy startup-config running-config disable disconnect enable exit help ping <ip address> show cdp show cdp interface show cdp interface <all supported interfaces> show cdp neighbors show cdp neighbors <all supported interfaces> show configuration show controllers show frame-relay lmi show frame-relay map show frame-relay pvc show frame-relay route show history show interfaces show interfaces <all supported interfaces> (including bri0:1, bri0:2) show ip access-lists show ip interface show ip interface <all supported interfaces>
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show ip route show ipx route show ipx servers show isdn active show isdn history show isdn status show running-config show startup-config show version terminal editing terminal history terminal history size <size> terminal no editing terminal no history traceroute <ip address>
GLOBAL CONFIGURATION COMMANDS
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access-list <1-99> deny/permit access-list <1-99> deny/permit <wildcard mask> access-list <1-99> deny/permit <address> banner <banner text> banner exec <banner text> banner incoming <banner text> banner login <banner text> banner motd <banner text> cdp holdtime <time> cdp timer <time> cdp run dialer-list <1-10> protocol ip enable password <password> enable secret <password> end exit
<address> <address> host
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help hostname <name> interface bri <number> interface ethernet <number> (with subinterfaces) interface serial <number> (with subinterfaces) ip route <address> <mask> <interface> <next hop address> ip routing ipx routing isdn switch-type <type> line console 0 line vty <number> line vty <number> <number> router rip router igrp <AS number> router eigrp <AS number> router ospf <process id>
ETHERNET INTERFACE COMMANDS
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cdp enable description <LINE> exit help ip access-group <number> in/out ip address <address> <mask> ipx network <address> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> secondary shutdown
SERIAL INTERFACE COMMANDS
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • clock rate <number> description <LINE> encapsulation frame-relay encapsulation hdlc encapsulation ppp exit frame-relay interface-dlci <number> frame-relay inverse-arp frame-relay map ip <address> <dlci> help ip access-group <1-99> ip address <address> <mask> ipx network <address> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> ipx network <address> encapsulation <type> secondary shutdown BRI COMMANDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • description <LINE> dialer fast-idle dialer idle-timeout dialer map ip <address> <string> dialer string <string> dialer-group <number> exit help ip address <address> <mask> isdn spid1 <string> <string> isdn spid2 <string> <string> isdn switch-type <type> shutdown LINE/CONSOLE COMMANDS 4 .
• • • • exit help login password <password> ROUTER COMMANDS • network SWITCH USER/PRIVILEGED MODE COMMANDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • configure configure terminal disable enable exit help ping <ip address> show cdp show cdp interface show cdp interface <ethernet/fast ethernet ports> show cdp neighbors show cdp neighbors <ethernet/fast ethernet ports> show history show interfaces show interfaces <ethernet/fast ethernet ports> show ip show running-config show spanning-tree show spanning-tree <number> show version show vlan show vlan <number> show vlan-membership 5 .
.. switchport access vlan <number> vlan <number> vlan <number> name <name> vtp client/server/transparent SWITCH ETHERNET/FAST ETHERNET COMMANDS • • • • • • cdp enable description <WORD> exit help shutdown vlan-membership static <number> 6 .• show vtp SWITCH GLOBAL COMMANDS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • cdp holdtime <number> cdp timer <number> enable password level 15 <password> end exit help hostname <name> interface <ethernet/fastethernet port> ip address <address> <mask> ip default-gateway <address> spanning-tree <number> .
data errors and packet loss might occur. Connectionless protocols allow quick. CONNECTIONLESS • • • Connection-oriented protocols are reliable. efficient communication. not a model of actual physical layers. session establishment. A connection-oriented protocol is a good choice where reliable. Session initialization (connection establishment). Session maintenance (data transfer).CONNECTION-ORIENTED VS. The three phases of connection-oriented communication are: 1. and error correction. Session termination (connection release). and 3. Connectionless communications use no error checking. because it is the most widely used method for talking about network communications. 2. error-free communications are more important than speed. However. USES OF THE OSI MODEL You should be familiar with the OSI model. Using the OSI model to discuss networking concepts has the following advantages: • • • Provides a common language or reference point between network professionals Divides networking tasks into logical layers for easier comprehension Allows specialization of features at different levels 7 . error detection. However. You should also know the following facts about connectionless communication: • • • • Connectionless services assume an existing link between devices and allow transmission without extensive session establishment. Connectionless communications include no error checking or acknowledgement mechanisms. or acknowledgements. They identify and retransmit lost packets. They perform session initiation. remember that it is only a theoretical model that defines standards for programmers and network administrators.
• • • OSI layers are theoretical and do not actually perform real functions. Packets AVI ASCII. EBCDIC MIDI. maintain. PICT MPEG. translation. Industry implementations rarely have a layer-to-layer correspondence with the OSI layers. you must remember the following limitations of the OSI model.• • • Aids in troubleshooting Promotes standards interoperability between networks and devices Provides modularity in networking features (developers can change features without changing the entire approach) However. WMV. 8 . BMP. TIFF. and compression Data format and exchange Keeps data streams separate (session identification) Set up. Different protocols within the stack perform different functions that help send or receive the overall message. and tear down communication sessions Reliable (connection-oriented) and unreliable (connectionless) • • • SNMP JPEG. WAV SQL NFS ASP RPC X window TCP (connection- • • • • • • • • S • Packets T • Segments . OSI MODEL LAYERS L Description and keywords • Protocols • • • • • • Encapsul ation Messages and Packets User interface Communication partner identification A • HTTP Telnet FTP TFTP • P • Data format (file formats) Encryption.
35 (modem Bits signaling) Cat5 RJ45 • • • • • • • • • P • 9 . 802. 802. a. and UDP (connectionless) Packets IP IPX AppleTalk Packets and Datagram s • • • • • • • • • D • • DECNET LAN protocols: 802.a. bit synchronization) Physical topology (network layout) Datagram s. ISDN. Frame Relay. sequencing. pin positions Electrical signals (voltage. burned in address (BIA).• • • communications End-to-end flow control Port and socket numbers • oriented) • N • Segmentation. hardware address Logical network topology Media access Flow control o Acknowledgements o Buffering o Windowing Parity and CRC Move bits across media Cables. 802.5 (Token Ring). connectors. PPP.k.3 (Ethernet). ATM EIA/TIA 232 (serial signaling) V. and combination Logical addresses Path determination (identification and selection) Routing packets Convert bits into bytes and bytes into frames MAC address.2 (LLC).11 Frames (Wireless) WAN protocols: HDLC.
255.255.255 184.108.40.206.0.255.0 to 220.127.116.11 First Octet Range 1-126 (00000001--01111111 binary) 128-191 (10000000--10111111 binary) 192-223 (11000000--11011111 binary) 224-239 (11100000--11101111 binary) 240-255 (11110000--11111111 binary) Default Subnet Mask 255.255.0 to 18.104.22.168.0 to 255. Class Address Range A 22.214.171.124 to 223.255 240.255.255.0.0.0. The subnet mask is used to separate the network and host addresses.IP ADDRESS CLASSES A single IP address identifies both the network address and the host address.0.0 to 239. IP addresses have a default class.255. The address class identifies the range of IP addresses and a default subnet mask used for the range. The following table shows the default address class for each IP address range.0 D n/a E n/a 10 .255 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 B 255.0 C 255.
255--Broadcast to all hosts on Class A network 115. • • • 10.0. Examples: • • • IP Address 0.0.0 • 184.108.40.206--Broadcast to all hosts on Class B network 11 . Examples: to 1 • 115. Class C addresses give you 254 hosts per network.0.0.168.0 to 10.77.214 hosts per network.65. (Some older routers use this address as a broadcast address.220.127.116.11--Specific host on a Class A network 0.0.0 Class B network address: 154.31.52--Specific host on a Class B network 0.255 172.0 to 172.255 Use This network address is used by routers to specify the "default" route. you have the following number of available host addresses: • • • Class A addresses give you 16. SPECIAL ADDRESSES The following address ranges have been reserved for private use.168.255.When using the default subnet mask for an IP address.0.) An address with all bits of the network portion of an address set to 0 refers to a host on "this" network.255.0 All bits of the host An address with all bits of the host portion of an address set to 1 is a portion of an address set broadcast message for all hosts on the network.255.69--Specific host on a Class C network An address with all bits of the host portion of an address set to 0 refers to the network itself.18.104.22.168 192.0 All bits of the network portion of an address set to 0 0.255.16. Using a generic value reduces the number of routing table entries.244.0 to 192.255.65. Class B addresses give you 65.0 Class C network address: 221.255.777. Examples: All bits of the host portion of an address set to 0 • • • Class A network address: 22.214.171.124.534 hosts per network.0.
adding control and other information.) The address 127. adding sequencing and control information.255--Broadcast to all hosts on Class C network 221.0 This network address is reserved for the loopback address. This caused two problems: • Collisions occur when two devices transmit at the same time. The following short descriptions can help you remember the steps of the data encapsulation process: 126.96.36.199.AND FULL-DUPLEX With the original Ethernet standards. 5. The Transport layer breaks the data into pieces called segments.65. and transmitting the message through the transmission media.255. adding physical device addressing information.255. You need to know the following five-step data encapsulation process: 1. The Network layer converts the segments into packets. Upper layers--data Transport layer--segments Network layer--packets containing logical addresses Data Link layer--framing that adds physical addresses Physical layer--bits HALF. 4.0 222. all devices shared the same cable.255 SERVICE DATA UNITS AND ENCAPSULATION Encapsulation is the process of breaking a message into packets.0. • 127.90. 4.0. The Data Link layer converts the packets into frames. (Note: This address is not included in the range of Class A or Class B addresses. 5. Upper layers prepare the data to be sent through the network.0 255. 2. 3. This address is used to indicate a broadcast message intended for all hosts on this network.65. The Physical layer converts the frames into bits for transmission across the transmission media.244. 12 . adding logical network and device addresses.1 refers to the local host. Devices needed to be able to detect and recover from collisions.0.244. 2. 3.
multiple strands of wires are combined into a single cable. you can turn off collision detection. 13 . devices with collision detection turned off operate in full-duplex mode. and can begin transmitting data as soon as they have data to send. Bridges operate at the Data Link layer of the OSI model.) • Devices connected to a hub must use half-duplex communication • Collision detection is turned off • The device can send and receive at the same time Double the rated bandwidth (20 Mbps • Requires full-duplex capable NICs for 10BaseT. Bridges maintain a table of device addresses and their corresponding segments. These two problems were solved in the following ways: • • Using twisted pair cable. etc. Devices can transmit and receive data simultaneously. Devices can use different wires to send and receive data (allowing them to do both simultaneously). • • • • Bridges connect two media segments that use the same protocol.) • Requires switches with dedicated switch ports (a single device per port) Halfduplex Fullduplex BRIDGE FACTS You should understand the following concepts relating to the operation of bridges. Using switches. With these problems solved. Devices were not able to both send and receive at the same time (much like using a one-lane road for traffic in two different directions). 100 Mbps for 100BaseT. devices are given a dedicated communication path. With a single device connected to a switch port. Devices with collision detection turned on operate in half-duplex mode. collisions are eliminated. This meant that the device was either receiving data or listening for incoming data. Mode Description Bandwidth • Collision detection is turned on • The device can only send or receive at any given time Up to the rated bandwidth (10 Mbps for 10BaseT. etc.• Each device could either transmit or receive data at any given time. Bridges examine the source address to determine the media segment of network devices. 200 Mbps for 100BaseT.
follow the 80/20 rule. Switches connect multiple segments or devices and forward packets to only one specific port. or to prevent unwanted traffic from crossing over to other segments. • • • • Switches are associated with the Data Link layer of the OSI Model. Bridges cannot translate upper-layer protocols.• • Each segment connected by a bridge can have the same network address. 14 . Switches provide guaranteed bandwidth between devices (if dedicated ports are used). • • At least 80% of network traffic should stay within a segment. When designing the placement of bridges on the network. but typically on a larger scale and with higher performance. Bridges can link segments with dissimilar transmission media and media access methods. Bridges cannot forward packets to different networks based on the network address. Switches build a forwarding database in a manner similar to bridges. Use bridges to isolate traffic to a segment. No more than 20% of network traffic should pass through the bridge to another segment. Switches offer the following advantages over a non-switched network. Bridges do not filter broadcast packets. Bridges have the following limitations: • • • • Bridges cannot link multiple architectures because different frame types are used. Bridges increase the maximum network length. Bridges forward packets for multiple upper-layer protocols. SWITCH FACTS Switches provide functionality similar to bridges. Bridges offer the following advantages: • • • • Bridges prevent wasted bandwidth by eliminating unnecessary traffic between segments. Switches examine the source and destination Data Link (MAC) address in each packet to build the database and make forwarding decisions. You can connect a single device to a switch port or multiple devices to a switch port by using a hub. or to slow WAN links. • • Switches create separate collision domains. Messages within a media segment are prevented from crossing over to another segment.
if only one device is connected to each switch port).• • • • • • Switches can be used to provide collision-free networking (i. the packet is forwarded to the appropriate port if the port is different than the one on which it was received. Bridges and switches can automatically learn about devices to build the forwarding database. o If the destination address is in the database.and 100 Mbps-capable devices (if the switch is a 100 Mbps switch). o Broadcast packets are forwarded to all ports except the one on which they were received. If the source address is not in the forwarding database. The following table compares the different methods the switch uses to forward packets (Cisco switches support all three methods). The database is a list of Data Link (MAC) addresses and the port used to reach the device. The frame's integrity has been verified (a valid CRC). Method Store-andforward Characteristics Store-and-forward switches: • • Receive the entire frame. an entry for the address is made in the database. A network administrator can also program the device database manually. o If the destination address is not in the database. Switches enable full-duplex communication. Verify the frame's integrity (check the CRC). The frame is not addressed to the bridge. Transparent bridges forward packets only if the following conditions are met. Bridges and switches use the following process to dynamically build the forwarding database: • • The process begins by examining the source address of an incoming packet. Frames with errors are 15 . • • • The frame contains upper-layer data (data from the LLC sublayer on up). the packet is sent out all ports except for the one on which it was received. How switches forward packets depends on the switch type. The destination address is then examined.e. Ethernet switches can be implemented without re-cabling. The port it came in on is also recorded. Switches can simultaneously switch multiple messages. BRIDGE AND SWITCH FORWARDING FACTS Both bridges and switches build a forwarding database. Switches induce less latency than other segmentation solutions. Switches can mix 10 Mbps.
The exact format of these exchanges is based on the routing protocol. ROUTING FACTS Routers can forward packets through an internetwork by maintaining routing information in a database called a routing table.• • not forwarded. The routing protocol determines: • • • The information contained in the routing table How messages are routed from one network to another How topology changes (i. Introduce more latency (delay) than cut-through switches.e. Fragment-free switches: • • • • Fragment-free Read the first 64 bytes of a frame. Verify that the packet is not a fragment. The routing table typically contains the address of all known networks and routing information about that network such as: • • • • • Interface Routing Path Next Hop Route Metric (Cost) Route Timeout Routers build and maintain their routing database by periodically sharing information with other routers. Forward the packet without verifying frame integrity. Cut-through switches: Cut-through • • • Read the destination device address. Forward the frame to the destination device. but not as great as store-and-forward switching. They can automatically switch to store-and-forward if the number of errors on a port exceeds a configurable threshold. Introduce some latency. Newer switches can monitor each port and determine which method to use. Are faster than store-and-forward switches (less latency). updates to the routing table) are communicated between routers 16 . Forward non-fragmented frames.
• • • • • • • • • On an Ethernet network.Regardless of the method used. A router uses the logical network address specified at the Network layer to forward messages to the appropriate LAN segment. you can increase network performance. The Network destination addresses indicate the address of the final destination device. Both Data Link physical addresses and Network logical addresses are used. The term convergence is used to describe the condition when all routers have the same (or correct) routing information. Network addresses remain constant as the packet is delivered from hop to hop. or heavy network traffic. you will need to consider the collision and broadcast domains on the network. changes in routing information take some time to be propagated to all routers on the network. MESSAGE ROUTING FACTS Keep in mind the following points about how a packet is addressed as it travels through an internetwork. On an IP network. 17 . maximize bandwidth. IP (Network) addresses are contained in the IP header. By segmenting a LAN. and reduce congestion. Data Link addresses in the packet change as the packet is delivered from hop to hop. As you segment the network. MAC (Data Link) addresses are contained in the Ethernet frame header. The Data Link destination address indicates the physical address of the next hop on the route. the IP address is the Network layer address. broadcast traffic. The Network address contains both a logical network address and a logical device address. SEGMENTATION FACTS LAN segmentation is the process of dividing the network to overcome problems such as excessive collisions. the Data Link layer address is the MAC address. Both the source and destination Network and Data Link addresses are typically contained in the packet.
Note: A special condition called a broadcast storm happens when broadcast traffic is sent. it is important to identify the connectivity problems you need to resolve. the amount of broadcast traffic on a segment also increases. Device Characteristics Router Routers perform the following functions that are not performed by bridges or switches. Collisions naturally increase as the number of devices in a collision domain increase. Device Collision Domain All devices connected to the hub are in the Hub same collision domain All devices connected to a single port are in Bridge or the same collision domain (each port is its Switch own collision domain) Router All devices connected to a single interface are in the same collision domain Broadcast Domain All devices are in the same broadcast domain All devices connected to the bridge or the switch are in the same broadcast domain All devices accessible through an interface (network) are in the same broadcast domain In considering a network expansion solution. • • • Route packets between separate networks Modify packet size through fragmentation and combination Route packets based on service address Choose a router if you need to: • • • • • Connect your network to a WAN (such as the Internet) Filter broadcast traffic (prevent broadcast storms) Connect two separate networks that use the same protocol Improve performance in the event of a topology change (routers recover faster than bridges or switches) Reduce the number of devices within a domain (increase the number of broadcast domains) 18 . Membership within collision or broadcast domains differs depending on the connection device used. A broadcast domain is any network or subnetwork where computers can receive frame-level broadcasts from their neighbors. Segmentation may increase the number of both the collision and broadcast domains. the amount of broadcast traffic consumes network bandwidth and prevents normal communications. switches. As you add devices to a network segment. The main differences between routers. Faulty devices or improper configuration conditions can lead to a broadcast storm. and then identify the device that is best suited for that situation. and bridges is the range of services each performs and the OSI layer at which they operate.• • A collision domain is any network or subnetwork where devices share the same transmission medium and where packets can collide. In this condition. regenerated. and responded to.
follow these guidelines to make decisions about the appropriate connectivity device.g. STARTUP FACTS The following graphic details the process used to boot the router.• • • Enforce network security Dynamically select the best route through an internetwork Connect two networks of different architectures (e. create multiple collision domains) Implement full-duplex communication Connect two network segments or devices using the same protocol Provide improved performance over a current bridged network Switch traffic without the cost or administration involved with routers Choose a bridge if you need to: • • • • • Bridge Isolate data traffic to one network segment Route traffic from one segment to another (with the same network ID) Link unlike physical media (e. In general.e. Use a router to filter broadcast messages. 19 .g. twisted pair and coaxial Ethernet) of the same architecture type Link segments that use the same protocol Create segments without the expense and administration of routers In most cases where you might use a bridge. or connect between different networks. Ethernet to token ring) Choose a switch if you need to: • • Switch • • • • Provide guaranteed bandwidth between devices Reduce collisions by decreasing the number of devices in a collision domain (i. Use a switch to reduce collisions and offer guaranteed bandwidth between devices. choose a switch instead. • • • Use a bridge to segment the network (divide network traffic) and to provide fault tolerance. implement security.
or when you boot a new router. Use the setup command from privileged mode. it runs through the following boot process. The router checks the configuration register to identify where to load the IOS image from. The router loads the configuration file into RAM (which configures the router).When you turn the router on. This happens when you erase the current startup-config file. ROM (used if no other source is found) 3. Setup mode is a special. When the POST completes successfully. it immediately enters Setup mode. If the startupconfig file is missing or does not specify a location. SETUP MODE FACTS If the router is brand new. Therefore. it will check the following locations for the IOS image: 1. the router starts in setup mode. TFTP server 3. The Power-On Self Test (POST) checks the router's hardware. A setting of 0x2102 means that the router will use information in the startup-config file to locate the IOS image. 1. TFTP server 3. it has no startup-config file. If a configuration file is not found. NVRAM (startup-configuration file) 2. The router can load a configuration file from: 1. when it boots. There are two ways to enter setup mode: • • Boot the router without the startup-config file. the System OK LED indicator comes on. 2. guided routine that asks you a series of questions and uses your responses to make basic configuration entries. 20 . Flash (the default location) 2.
Note: By default. press Enter to execute the command Enter an IP address EDITING FEATURES FACTS This feature uses the same keystrokes as UNIX emacs editing... Supply. When you use Help to display the possible keywords for a command. The following lists summarize the router advanced editing features. You do not need to retype the command after you ask for help on it. new Cisco routers have no passwords set. Use. To.. Use this ..You can exit setup mode without answering all the questions by pressing <Ctrl> + C.C. 21 . The information you've entered to that point will not be saved.. so the information you see depends on what you are doing.... When you see. It is context sensitive. and repeats the last command you entered after the Help information displays.D Identifies a specific keyword that must be typed as shown Enter a number within the range in brackets Enter a hexadecimal number within the range in brackets The command is complete as typed. and all interfaces are in shutdown mode until they're enabled..... COMMAND HELP FACTS Help is available in all router modes.B. WORD (in caps) Type a one-word response LINE (in caps) Type a multiple-word response keyword <0-4567> <0-FFFFFF> <cr> A. you will see the following types of items. Show list of all commands available in the current ? mode Show commands that begin with specific letter(s) xx? (no space between the letter and ?) Show keywords for a command Get the full command from a partial command command ? (space between command and ?) partial command + <tab> (no space) Note: Typing ? acts as a return. Cisco bases this on the mode you are in and the words or partial words you type with the ?. To .
As you type. Memory Type Characteristics Preprogrammed. <Ctrl> + A Move cursor to beginning of line <Ctrl> + E Move cursor to the end of line <Ctrl> + Z Quit a configuration mode <Ctrl> + B Move cursor back one character <Esc> + B Move cursor back one word <Esc> + F Move the cursor ahead one word <Ctrl> + P or Up arrow Show the previous command <Ctrl> + N or Down arrow Show the next command terminal history Turn the command history on terminal no history Turn the command history off terminal history size <number> Set the size of the history buffer show history Show all the commands in the history buffer ROUTER MEMORY Be sure you understand the difference between the following types of router storage. . . non-writable memory containing the bootstrap startup ROM (read-only program. smaller-scale version of the operating system (IOS) memory) software. .<Ctrl> + A <Ctrl> + E <Ctrl> + B Left arrow <Ctrl> + F Right arrow <Esc> + B <Esc> + F terminal editing terminal no editing Move to the beginning of the line Move to the end of the line Go back one character Go forward one character Go back one word Move forward one word Turn advanced editing on Turn advanced editing off When you are in advanced editing mode. an older. COMMAND HISTORY COMMAND LIST By default. and the Power-on Self-Test (POST) program 22 . . The command history is specific to the configuration mode you are in. commands longer than the command line appear to scroll under the prompt. the IOS automatically saves the last 10 commands in the command history buffer. the $ indicator appears after the prompt. To . Use .
When using Router(config)#tftp-server this command. You can also use the erase command to delete the configuration files--but be very careful not to erase files you need! 23 . flash. To save your configuration changes permanently. . and to load different versions of the configuration files from various locations. . COPY COMMAND LIST The router can load a configuration file from: • • NVRAM (startup-configuration file by default value 0x2102) TFTP server Changes to the configuration are stored in RAM in the running-config file.Non-volatile but persistent memory that contains the backup copy of the volatile RAM) startup configuration (startup-config) file and virtual configuration register Flash The contents of non-volatile memory (such as ROM. and NVRAM) remain when the router is powered off (however. use the copy command in privileged EXEC mode. The contents of volatile memory (RAM) are lost when the router is powered down.Non-volatile but programmable memory containing the proprietary Cisco operating system (IOS) images RAM (random Volatile memory containing the running operating system and current access memory) (unsaved) configuration information NVRAM (non. . Save the contents of the running-config file to Router#copy run start NVRAM Router#copy start run Copy the startup-config file into RAM Save the contents of the running-config file to a TFTP Router#copy run tftp server Save the contents of the startup-config file to a TFTP Router#copy start tftp server Copy a configuration file from the TFTP server into Router#copy tftp start NVRAM Copy a configuration file from the TFTP server into Router#copy tftp run RAM Configure a Cisco router as a TFTP server. Use . you must modify the configuration registry and NVRAM during password recovery). . To . you must specific the location (flash or flash <filename> rom) of the IOS image file as well as the IOS image file name.
. . . Delete the contents of Flash memory (deletes the IOS image) Erase the contents of the startup-config file Delete the contents of NVRAM (which also erases startup-config) Restarts the router You can also use the following commands to manage system files: Use . Display information about hardware and firmware including the configuration register value Copy configuration information from another source (like NVRAM) Configure information into the RAM of a router IOS BOOT AND UPGRADE LOCATION COMMAND LIST The router can load an IOS image from the following locations: • • • Flash TFTP server ROM (limited version of the IOS software) Use the boot system command in global configuration mode to identify alternate locations for the IOS image. . Router#erase flash Router#erase start Router#erase nvram Router#reload To . or replace an IOS image. Restore the IOS image from backup on the TFTP server to Flash. . Identify an IOS image file in flash to use at boot. . . . 24 . Router(config)#boot system flash <IOSfilename> Router(config)#boot system tftp <IOSfilename> <tftp_address> To . Router(config)#boot system rom (IOS versions Specify to use the limited IOS 11.0 and above Router#copy flash tftp Router#copy tftp flash Back up (copy) the IOS image from Flash to the TFTP server.Use . bootflash: (IOS versions 12. Use the copy command to archive.2 and below) Router(config)#boot system flash version stored in ROM at boot. . . Identify an IOS image file on a TFTP server to use at boot. Use . . . show version configure memory or copy startup-config running-config configure terminal To . upgrade.
. you can configure a host name for your router. . . It tries each location in turn. You are directing the router where to look for the IOS image on boot-up. it returns to the default load sequence.. Unlike the router itself.. SHOW COMMAND LIST (BASIC) The following list summarizes common information you can display using common show commands.. and RAM and processor information show runningView the currently running configuration file config show startupconfig View the startup configuration file stored in NVRAM (the saved copy or of the configuration file) show config show flash* View the size of the configuration files and the available flash memory View information for all IOS image files stored on the router View the commands in the command history list show history show protocols or show interfaces View the IP addresses assigned to a specific interface or show ip interfaces show protocols or View the status of all interfaces show interfaces *The show flash command is not enabled in the simulations. . Use this command. To. . you are not making backup copies of the IOS image. ROM bootstrap show version version.Note: When you use the boot system command. However. until it finds a valid IOS image. the router interfaces do not have specific names that change the prompt. This is the name that appears in the EXEC prompt. you can add a description to the configuration file that helps you identify the interface. ROUTER AND INTERFACE IDENTIFICATION COMMAND LIST During initial setup. If one is not found. View hardware configuration. Router(config)#hostname <name> Change the host name of the router Router(config)#int serial 0 Go to interface configuration mode for the first 25 . To . nor are you replacing the default IOS search order. Use . running IOS version.
ROUTER PASSWORD FACTS The following table list three of the most common passwords that you can configure on your router: Password Type Console Line Description Controls the ability to log on to the router through a console connection Controls the ability to log on to the router using a virtual terminal (VTY) or Telnet connection Controls the ability to switch to configuration modes. The router always uses the enable secret password if it exists. use the following command: Router(config-if)#no description Notice that in many cases you can leave off additional parameters when using the no command. Set a description for a specific interface Examples The following set of commands sets the hostname of the router to ATL1: Router#config t Router(config)#hostname ATL1 ATL1(config)# The following set of commands adds a description of "ATL to NYC" for the first serial interface on the router: Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config-if)#description ATL to NYC Note: To undo any configuration change.Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config)#int ser0 Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#description <description text> serial interface. eth) keywords to switch to Ethernet interface mode. Use the Ethernet (e. The enable secret password is stored encrypted in the configuration file. 26 . to remove a description from an interface. There are two different passwords that might be used: • • EXEC mode The enable password is stored in clear text in the configuration file. use the same command preceded by the no keyword followed by the command. For example.
Require the password for line access. enable secret. no password = access is allowed without a password 27 . However. . Router(config)#enable Set the encrypted password used for privileged mode access. PASSWORD COMMAND LIST Use . You can set the enable. . . For security reasons. Note: If you do not use the login command in line mode. Router(config)#line con 0 Router(config)#line vty <0-197> <1-197> Router(configline)#password Router(configline)#login Router(config)#no enable secret Router(config)#no enable password Router(config-line)#no login Router(config-line)#no password Router(config)#service password-encryption Switch to the line configuration mode for the console. The secret <password> enable secret is always used if it exists. Set the line password (for either console or VTY access). even though one is set. Access to the router console through a telnet session is controlled by the login and the password entries. and line passwords in setup mode. To . The no login command disables password checking. Remove the password. . This password <password> password is used if the enable secret is not set. Switch to the line configuration mode for the virtual terminal. a password will not be required for access. there must be a login entry without a password set. you should not use the same password for both your enable and enable secret passwords. Router(config)#enable Set the unencrypted password for privileged mode access.Be aware of the following recommendations for configuring router passwords: • • • • Passwords are case-sensitive. Cisco routers support Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS) and Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) to centrally validate users attempting to gain access to the router. Specify one line number or a range of line numbers (line vty 0 4). To prevent VTY access. Encrypt all passwords. Access is allowed based on the following conditions: • no login. there are other passwords that you cannot set in setup mode.
Set the incoming banner. The incoming banner displays for a reverse telnet session. Removes the specified banner Note: The banner command without a keyword defaults to set the MOTD banner. no password = access is denied (the error message indicates that a password is required but none is set) no login. and helps the router identify the beginning and ending of the banner.• • • login. Example The following commands set the MOTD. The MOTD banner displays immediately after a connection is made. Set the Message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner. . and EXEC banners. login. using # as the delimiting character and inserting a hard return between each banner: Router(config)#banner motd # This is the Message-of-the-day banner! # Router(config)#banner login # This is the Login banner! # Router(config)#banner exec # This is the Exec banner! # 28 . password = access is allowed only with correct password BANNER COMMAND LIST Banners display messages that anyone logging into the router can see. The exec banner displays after a successful login. Set the EXEC banner. The login banner displays after the MOTD banner and before the login prompt. Router(config)#banner Router(config)#banner motd Router(config)#banner login Router(config)#banner exec Router(config)#banner incoming Router(config)#no banner <type> To . The following four types of banners display at various times during the login or startup sequence. . Use . The delimiter encloses the banner text. password = access is allowed without a password login. Set the login banner. . . This allows you to construct multiple-line banners. Follow the banner command with a delimiting character.
. administratively down. Assign an IP address to the interface. Router(config)#int ser 0 Router(config-if)#ip address 192.1. The interface status indicates whether Data Link layer communications are enabled. Enter configuration mode for an interface.255.168. line protocol is down up. The following table summarizes some possible conditions indicated by the interface status.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown INTERFACE STATUSES You can use the interface status to troubleshoot connectivity problems and quickly see whether the link between the router and the network is operational.. Router>sh ip int Router(config)#int eth0 Router(config)#int serial 0 Router(config)#ip address <address> <mask> Router(config)#no shutdown Router#ping <ip address> To . 29 . most networking tasks occur at higher layers (Network through Application layers). Test communication with a specific interface using its IP address. Note: You can include or omit the space between the interface keyword and the interface number..INTERFACE COMMAND LIST Use the following commands to configure interfaces and view interface information. However. A status of.255. line protocol is up. Use . The interface is shut down (with the shutdown command) Hardware or network connection problem (Physical layer) No carrier detect signal Connection or communication problem (Data Link layer) No keepalives The link is functional up.229 with a mask of 255. .255. . Example The following set of commands configures the IP address 192. line protocol is up Even though the interface status shows "up..0 for the first Serial interface on the router and activates the interface. . .1. Enable an interface (remove the shutdown command). line protocol is down down.255.229 255." you might need to perform additional tasks for router-to-router communication to take place (such as assigning an IP address). View the IP configuration of all interfaces. line protocol down Indicates.168.
Use . Frame Relay. . CDP works regardless of the Network layer and other protocols used. When you configure two routers in a back-to-back configuration through their serial ports. It can discover information on LANs. such as routers and switches. Router(config)#cdp holdtime <10-255> Router(config)#cdp timer <5-900> To . clocking is not provided. If the clock rate command is not issued. CDP is enabled on all interfaces. Connect the DCE end of the cable to the interface you want to be the DCE device. The router not providing clocking is known as the DTE (data terminal equipment). CDP works when there is a valid Data Link layer connection. one router interface must be configured to provide the clocking signals for the connection.BACK-TO-BACK CONFIGURATION FACTS When you configure a router to connect to a network through a serial interface. The DCE interface is configured to provide a clocking signal with the clock rate command. the router must be connected to a device (such as a CSU/DSU or another router) that provides clocking signals. Cisco devices. CDP only shares information with directly connected (neighboring) devices. can discover neighboring Cisco devices through CDP. and other network architectures. . Use the following commands to customize and view CDP information. . • • • • By default. CDP COMMAND LIST The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a protocol that Cisco devices use to learn and share information about each other. and the line between the two routers will not change to up. The DCE interface is identified in two ways: • • The cable connecting the two routers has both a DCE and a DTE end. • • The router providing clocking is known as the DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment). . Specify the amount of time that information in a packet is still valid (default = 180 seconds) Specify how often CDP packets are exchanged (default = 60 seconds) 30 .
Router(config)#int eth 0 Router(config-if)#no cdp enable SWITCH COMPONENTS 31 . Router(config)#cdp run Router(config)#cdp timer 90 The following commands turns off CDP on the router's first Ethernet interface.Enable CDP on the router Disable CDP on a router. to prevent the router from Router(config)#no cdp run exchanging CDP packets Router(config)#cdp run Router(config-if)#cdp enable Router(config-if)#no cdp enable Router#show cdp Turns CDP for an interface on Turns CDP for an interface off View CDP information Show information about neighbors accessed through an interface Router#show cdp interface Show CDP configuration information for the router including the holdtime. and CDP exchange interval Show information about all neighboring Cisco devices including: • • • • • • Router#show cdp neighbors Device ID Local interface Holdtime Capability Platform Port ID Shows all information for the show cdp neighbors command and adds: Router#show cdp neighbors detail • • • Network address Enabled protocols Software version Examples The following commands turns on CDP for the router and configures it to send CDP packets every 90 seconds. encapsulation.
Modern switches can also be used to create virtual LANs (VLANs) and perform some tasks previously performed only by routers (Layer 3 switches). Solid green = Full duplex Duplex Off = Half duplex Solid green = 100 Mbps Speed Off = 10 Mbps On a simple LAN. Port LEDs mean different things based on the mode selected with the Mode button.Switches connect multiple segments or devices and forward packets to only one specific port. all of which are part of the same network segment. you will probably be able to guess how to complete many switch configuration tasks. to move between configuration modes. The following table lists common switch configuration commands. to set the hostname. Task Command Move to privileged mode from user mode switch>enable Move to user mode from privileged mode switch#disable 32 . The color of the LEDs change to give you information about how the switch is working. If you are familiar with router configuration. Mode Meaning Solid green = Operational Stat Flashing green = Link activity Off = Non-functional All switch port lights act as a meter to indicate overall utilization. To customize the switch configuration. you will learn how to configure the Catalyst 2950 series switch. Use the same options to get help. The switch comes preconfigured to work out-of-the-box without configuration. you can connect the switch to the network. connect to the switch in one of the following ways: • • • Console connection Telnet session Web management software (connect through the LAN through a Web browser) Note: You must configure an IP address for the switch to manage it through a Telnet or Web session. Each switch port has a single LED. the higher the utilization. and it will automatically begin switching traffic to the correct ports. and to save and load configuration files. An important characteristic of a switch is multiple ports. connect devices. In this course. SWITCH CONFIGURATION COMMAND LIST Using the switch command line interface is similar to using the router command line interface. The more lights that Util are lit.
33 . or exit the system Exit all configuration modes Show the current switch configuration Show switch information such as software version and hardware components Show interface status and configuration information Save the current switch configuration Load a configuration file from another location Set the enable password (to cisco) Set the secret password (to cisco) Set the default gateway Set the switch hostname Set a description for a port Enable CDP on the switch Enable CDP on a port Set CDP parameters Set the port speed switch(config-if)#exit switch(config)#^Z switch#show running-config switch#show version switch#show interfaces switch#show interfaces fastethernet 0/14 Set the duplex mode switch#copy running-config startup-config switch#copy tftp://1.1.1 switch(config)#hostname ATL switch(config-if)#description IS_VLAN switch(config)#cdp run switch(config-if)#cdp enable switch(config)#cdp holdtime 181 switch(config)#cdp timer 66 switch(config-if)#speed 10 switch(config-if)#speed 100 switch(config-if)#speed auto switch(config-if)#duplex half switch(config-if)#duplex full switch(config-if)#duplex auto SWITCH IP ADDRESS FACTS One task that is different for switches than for routers is configuring the IP address.cfg switch(config)#enable password cisco switch(config)#enable secret cisco switch(config)#ip default-gateway 188.8.131.52/my_config. In fact. and therefore do not need an IP address to function. Keep in mind the following facts about IP addresses configured on switches: • Basic switches operate at Layer 2.1. a switch performs switching functions just fine without an IP address set.Move to global configuration mode switch#configure terminal switch(config)#interface switch(config)#interface 0/17 switch(config)#interface switch(config)#interface switch(config)#interface fastethernet0/14 gigabitethernet con 0 vty 0 4 vlan 1 Move to interface configuration mode Leave the current configuration mode.
Use 802.254 FRAME TAGGING FACTS Although you can create VLANs with only one switch. switches append a VLAN ID to each frame. you might need to stick with one switch vendor. For large networks. called frame tagging or frame coloring. The switch itself has only a single (active) IP address. Tags must be removed before a frame is forwarded to a non-VLAN-capable device. Tag formats and specifications can vary from vendor to vendor. However. One way to identify the VLAN is for the switch to use a filtering table that maps VLANs to MAC addresses. and removed by the last. When designing VLANs. this VLAN is VLAN 1 on the switch. • • • • • VLAN IDs identify the VLAN of the destination device.255. By default. identifies the VLAN of the destination device. VLAN FACTS 34 . Remember the following facts regarding switch frame tagging (or coloring).• • You only need to configure a switch IP address if you want to perform in-band management of the switch from a Telnet or Web session. The IP address identifies the switch as a host on the network but is not required for switching functions. Cisco's proprietary protocol is called the Inter-Switch Link (ISL) protocol. Each switch port does not have an IP address (unless the switch is performing Layer 3 switching. most networks involve connecting multiple switches. This is a logical interface defined on the switch to allow management functions.255. each switch must be able to identify the destination virtual LAN. The area between switches is called the switch fabric. a function which is not supported on 2950 switches). you will also need to configure the default gateway on the switch using the following command (notice that the default gateway is set in global configuration mode): switch(config)#ip default-gateway 1. you set the address on the management VLAN logical interface.1.0 switch(config-if)#no shutdown Note: To enable management from a remote network.1q-capable switches to ensure a consistent tagging protocol.1 255. This process. To configure the switch IP address. this solution does not scale well. As a frame moves from switch to switch within the switch fabric.1. Only VLAN-capable devices understand the frame tag.1. Use the following commands to configure the switch IP address: switch#config terminal switch(config)#interface vlan 1 switch(config-if)#ip address 1. Tags are appended by the first switch in the path.1.
protocol. switches come configured with several default VLANs: o VLAN 1 o VLAN 1002 o VLAN 1003 o VLAN 1004 o VLAN 1005 By default. each of which corresponds to one of the VLANs. Creating VLANs with switches offers the following administrative benefits. or other criteria rather than physical proximity Using VLANs lets you assign devices on different switch ports to different logical (or virtual) LANs. Although each switch can be connected to multiple VLANs.A virtual LAN (VLAN) can be defined as: • • Broadcast domains defined by switch port rather than network address A grouping of devices based on service need. even though they are connected to the same physical switch. FastEthernet ports 0/1 and 0/2 are members of VLAN 1. Defining VLANs creates additional broadcast domains. The above example has two broadcast domains. By default. each switch port can be assigned to only one VLAN at a time. The following graphic shows a single-switch VLAN configuration. workstations in VLAN 1 will not be able to communicate with workstations in VLAN 2. all ports are members of VLAN 1. In the graphic above. FastEthernet ports 0/3 and 0/4 are members of VLAN 2. 35 . Be aware of the following facts about VLANs: • • • • • In the graphic above.
The following table shows common VLAN configuration commands.) switch(config)#vlan 2 switch(config-vlan)#name name** switch(config-if)#switchport Assign ports to the VLAN access vlan number*** switch#show vlan Show a list of VLANs on the system switch#show vlan id number Show information for a specific VLAN 36 . protocol. or service) You can simplify device moves (devices are moved to new VLANs by modifying the port assignment) You can control broadcast traffic and create collision domains based on logical criteria You can control security (isolate traffic within a VLAN) You can load-balance network traffic (divide traffic logically rather than physically) Creating VLANs with switches offers the following benefits over using routers to create distinct networks.1q standards if you want to implement VLANs. be sure each switch supports the 802. first create the VLAN. • • • Switches are easier to administer than routers Switches are less expensive than routers Switches offer higher performance (introduce less latency) A disadvantage of using switches to create VLANs is that you might be tied to a specific vendor. and then assign ports to that VLAN. When using multiple vendors in a switched network.• • • • • You can create virtual LANs based on criteria other than physical location (such as workgroup. Despite advances in switch technology. Creating a VLAN might mean you must use only that vendor's switches throughout the network. Details of how VLANs are created and identified can vary from vendor to vendor. routers are still needed to: • • • Filter WAN traffic Route traffic between separate networks Route packets between VLANs VLAN COMMAND LIST To configure a simple VLAN. Task Command(s) switch#vlan database* switch(vlan)#vlan 2 name Define a VLAN (You can create VLANs in either name** vlan database mode or by using the vlan command switch(vlan)#exit OR apply in global configuration mode.
Example The following commands create VLAN 12 named IS_VLAN. Be aware of the following facts regarding trunking and VLANs: • • • • • In the above graphic. Typically. Trunking is important when you configure VLANs that span multiple switches as shown in the diagram. ***If you have not yet defined the VLAN. Workstations in VLAN 1 can only communicate with workstations in VLAN 1. it will be created automatically when you assign the port to the VLAN. Trunk ports are automatically members of all VLANs defined on the switch. This means that the two workstations connected to the same switch cannot communicate with each other. Trunk ports identify which ports are connected to other switches. One port on each switch has been assigned to each VLAN. **Giving the VLAN a name is optional. and assigns the port to VLAN 12. Gigabit Ethernet ports are used for trunk ports. 37 . Communications within the VLAN must pass through the trunk link to the other switch. each switch has two VLANs. identifies port 0/12 as having only workstations attached to it.*Notice that the vlan database command is issued in privileged EXEC mode. switch#config t switch(config)#vlan 12 switch(config-vlan)#name IS_VLAN switch(config-vlan)#interface fast 0/12 switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 12 TRUNKING Trunking is a term used to describe connecting two switches together.
If a switch is connected. Command Switch(configif)#switchport mode trunk Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation isl Function • Enables trunking on the interface. they will automatically recognize each other and select the trunking protocol to use. Frames from all other VLANs are tagged. when you connect two switches together. 802. For example. (ISL) ISL tags each frame with the VLAN ID. Catalyst 2950 switches do not support ISL. Inter-Switch Link ISL can only be used between Cisco devices.1Q With 802. frames from the default VLAN 1 are not tagged. Switches use the Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) to detect and configure trunk ports. it will attempt to use the desired trunking protocol (802. Enables dynamic trunking configuration. and to negotiate the trunking protocol used between devices.When trunking is used.1Q trunking. An IEEE standard for trunking and therefore supported by a wide range of devices.1Q for 2950 Switch(configif)#switchport mode dynamic auto Switch(configif)#switchport mode dynamic desirable • • • • 38 .1Q and therefore you will not use this command on 2950 switches Enables automatic trunking discovery and configuration. The switch uses DTP to configure trunking. Sets the trunking protocol to use 2950 switches only support 802. Cisco switches have the ability to automatically detect ports that are trunk ports. • • • The port will not use DTP on the interface. frames that are sent over a trunk port are tagged with the VLAN ID number so that the receiving switch knows to which VLAN the frame belongs. Cisco supports two trunking protocols that are used for tagging frames. Trunking Protocol Characteristics A Cisco-proprietary trunking protocol. TRUNKING COMMAND LIST The following table lists important commands for configuring and monitoring trunking on a switch.
the switch must be in either server or transparent mode. • • • If a switch is not connected. 39 . Keep in mind the following facts about VTP: • • • • • To make VLAN changes on a switch. you cannot modify the VLAN configuration from a switch in client mode. Mode Characteristics A switch in server mode is used to modify the VLAN configuration. Shows interface trunking information with the following: • • • • Switch#show interface trunk Switch#show interface fa0/1 trunk Mode Encapsulation Trunking status VLAN assignments VTP FACTS The VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) simplifies VLAN configuration on a multi-switch network by propagating configuration changes to other switches. A switch in client mode receives changes from a VTP server and passes VTP Client information to other switches. it will communicate as a normal port. With the VTP. switches are placed in one of the following three configuration modes. Switch(configif)#switchport mode access You must disable trunking before you can assign a port to a VLAN. You can modify VLAN configuration information from a switch in transparent mode. Disables trunking configuration on the port. Use the vtp mode command to configure the VTP mode of the switch. A switch in transparent mode does not receive VTP configuration information from other switches. It passes VTP information to other switches as it receives the Transparent information. However. Use the show vtp status command to view the current vtp mode of the switch. the switch is in client mode. switches are configured in server mode.switches). By default. If you cannot modify the VLAN configuration. but the changes apply only to the local switch (changes are not sent to other devices). Server Configuration information is then broadcast to other VTP devices.
or spanning tree protocol (STP). With this protocol. Redundant bridges (and switches) are assigned as backups. there is only one designated bridge per segment. All redundant devices are classified as backup bridges. the IEEE 802. These messages are used to select routes and reconfigure the roles of other bridges if necessary. and whether the device forwards traffic to other segments. However. Backup bridges listen to Backup network traffic and build the bridge database. The bridge role determines how the device functions in relation to other devices. providing redundant paths between segments causes packets to be passed between the redundant paths endlessly.1d committee defined a standard called the spanning tree algorithm (STA). many networks implement redundant paths between devices using multiple switches. and creates a single. Role Characteristics The root bridge is the master or controlling bridge. To prevent bridging loops. Only the designated bridge can forward packets.SPANNING TREE FACTS To provide for fault tolerance. When selecting the root bridge. The root bridge periodically broadcasts configuration messages. A backup bridge can take over if the root bridge or a designated bridge fails. It should be assigned by the network administrator. They are selected automatically by exchanging bridge Bridge configuration packets. There is only one root bridge Root Bridge per network. select the bridge that is closest to the physical center of the network. To prevent bridging loops. This condition is known as a bridging loop. 40 . However. A designated bridge is any other device that participates in forwarding packets Designated through the network. optimum path through a network by assigning one of the following roles to each bridge or switch. one bridge (or switch) for each route is assigned as the designated bridge. The spanning tree algorithm provides the following benefits: • • • • • Eliminates bridging loops Provides redundant paths between devices Enables dynamic role configuration Recovers automatically from a topology change or device failure Identifies the optimal path between any two network devices The spanning tree algorithm automatically discovers the network topology. they will not forward Bridge packets.
BPDUs sent and received from other bridges are used to determine the bridge roles. At startup. backup Blocking bridges are always in a blocking state. each of its ports is placed into one of five states. The port remains in listening state for a specific period of time. Switches use information in the BPDUs to elect a root bridge. and recover from network topology changes. A timer is also associated with this state. A port in the forwarding state can both learn and forward. 2. The listening state is a transitionary state between blocking and learning. and while it operates.Devices send special packets called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) out each port. verify that neighbor devices are still functioning. In addition. 41 . switches periodically send BPDUs to ensure connectivity and discover topology changes. As the switch participates in the configuration process. A bridge must be manually placed in the disabled state. When a device is first powered on. The port state determines whether the port receives and forwards normal network messages. 3. Note: When you use spanning tree on a switch with multiple VLANs. Devices participating in the spanning tree algorithm use the following process to configure themselves: 1. switches send BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) out each port. The port goes to the forwarding state after the timer expires. Port State Description A device in the disabled state is powered on but does not participate in listening to Disabled network messages or forwarding them. After configuration. The root bridge and designated bridges are in the forwarding state when they can Forwarding receive and forward packets. each VLAN runs a separate instance of the spanning tree protocol. During this time the bridges redefine their roles. it is in the blocking state. This time period allows Listening network traffic to settle down after a change has occurred. For example. but will not process any other packets. all other bridges go to the listening state for a period of time. The bridge receives packets and BPDUs sent to all bridges. A port in the learning state is receiving packets and building the bridge database Learning (associating MAC addresses with ports). if a bridge goes down. 4. Switches on redundant paths are configured as either designated (active) or backup (inactive) switches.
As you know. verify that the first line of the output is: VLAN1 is executing the IEEE compatible spanning tree protocol. Switch port configuration is automatic when the switch is connected to the network and powered on. Show spanning tree configuration information. Switch#show spanning-tree Example The following commands disable spanning tree for VLAN 12 and force the switch to be the root of the spanning tree for VLAN 1. having multiple paths means that the network is susceptible to data transmission (bridging) loops. Command Switch(config)#no spanning-tree vlan number Switch(config)#spanning-tree vlan number root primary Function Disables spanning tree on the selected VLAN. Like bridges. By default. switches can run the spanning tree algorithm to prevent such loops from forming. Use the following commands to customize the spanning tree protocol. Forces the switch to be the root of the spanning tree. Switch(config)#no spanning-tree vlan 12 Switch(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 root primary 42 . the spanning tree protocol is enabled on all Cisco switches. To determine if the VLAN is functioning properly.SPANNING TREE COMMAND LIST You can configure multiple paths with switches to provide fault-tolerance.
With EtherChannel: • • • • • You can combine 2-8 ports into a single link. 43 . the spanning tree algorithm will identify each link as a redundant path to the other bridge and will put one of the ports in blocking state. Use the channel-group command for a port to enable EtherChannel as follows: Switch(config)#interface fast 0/12 Switch(config-if)#channel-group 1 mode on Each channel group has its own number. Note: If you do not use the channel-group command. communication will still occur over the other links in the group. logical link between two switches. All ports assigned to the same channel group will be viewed as a single logical link. Use EtherChannel to establish automatic-redundant paths between switches. All links in the channel group are used for communication between the switches. If one link fails.ETHERCHANNEL FACTS EtherChannel combines multiple switch ports into a single. Use EtherChannel to increase the bandwidth between switches. Use EtherChannel to reduce spanning tree convergence times.
With switch port security.h is a hexadecimal number). there are no restrictions on the devices that can be attached to a switch port. The following commands list the switch port configuration commands: Command switch(configif)#switchport mode access switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity mac-address h. You identify the MAC address of allowed devices. Configures the maximum number of MAC addresses that switch(configcan be allowed for a port. Enables port security.h. Under normal operations. Identify the MAC addresses that can use the switch. When a device is connected to the switch port. Use this command to increase the number allowed.h Function Identifies the port as an access port. Enable switch port security. Under normal circumstances.PORT SECURITY FACTS The basic function of a switch is to pass packets from one host to another.h. 44 . take the following general actions on the port: • • • Explicitly configure the port as an access port (a port with attached hosts. the MAC address of the frame from the connected device is place in a forwarding table. you configure the switch to allow only specific devices to use a given port. the switch learns the MAC address of the device(s) connected to each of its ports. The default allows only a single if)#switchport portsecurity maximum number MAC address per port. not with an attached switch). Identifies the allowed MAC address (h. To configure port security. Any devices not explicitly identified will not be allowed to send frames through the switch.
02af to use Fast Ethernet port 0/12: switch(config)#interface fast 0/12 switch(config-if)#switchport mode access switch(config-if)#switchport port-security switch(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address 5ab9.0012. All ports will automatically detect the duplex mode.02af The following commands configures Fast Ethernet port 0/15 to accept the first MAC address it receives as the allowed MAC address for the port: switch(config)#interface fast 0/15 switch(config-if)#switchport mode access switch(config-if)#switchport port-security switch(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address sticky DEFAULT SWITCH CONFIGURATION By default. The address in the first frame received by the switch port is the allowed MAC address for the port. Note: The Catalyst switch can sticky learn a maximum of 132 MAC addresses. a Catalyst 2950 switch comes configured as follows: • • All ports are enabled (no shutdown). Action keywords are: • • switch(config-if)#switchport port-security violation action protect drops the frames from the unauthorized device restrict does the same as protect and also generates an SNMP trap shutdown disables the port • switch#show portsecurity interface interfacetype and number Examples Shows port security information for the specified port.switch(configif)#switchport portsecurity mac-address sticky Configures the switch to dynamically identify the allowed MAC address.0012. Identifies the action the switch will take when an unauthorized device attempts to use the port. 45 . The following commands configure switch port security to allow only host 5ab9.
• • • • • • • •
All ports will automatically detect the port speed. All ports will perform automatic trunking negotiation. The switch uses fragment-free switching. Spanning tree is enabled. VTP mode is set to transparent. All ports are members of VLAN 1. Default VLANs of 1, 1002, 1003, 1004, and 1005 exist. 802.1Q trunking is used (2950 switches only support 802.1Q trunking).
Inter-VLAN Routing In a typical configuration with multiple VLANs and a single or multiple switches, workstations in one VLAN will not be able to communicate with workstations in other VLANs. To enable inter-VLAN communication, you will need to use a router (or a Layer 3 switch) as shown in the following graphic.
Be aware of the following conditions with inter-VLAN routing:
The top example uses two physical interfaces on the router. The bottom example uses a single physical interface on the router. In this configuration, the physical interface is divided into two logical interfaces called subinterfaces. This configuration is also called a router on a stick. In each case, the router interfaces are connected to switch trunk ports. The router interfaces or subinterfaces must be running a trunking protocol (either ISL or 802.1Q). Each interface or subinterface requires an IP address.
Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) You can think of the Internet as one big network. As such, each device on the network needs its own unique IP address. In the early days of the Internet, every device would receive a registered IP address. As the Internet grew, however, it became apparent that the number of hosts would quickly exceed the number of possible IP addresses. One solution to the problem is Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR). Classfull addresses are IP addresses that use the default subnet mask. They are classfull because the default subnet mask is used to identify the network and host portions of the address. Classless addresses are those that use a custom mask value to separate network and host portions of the IP address. CIDR allows for variable length subnet masking (VLSM) and enables the following features:
Subnetting, dividing a network address into multiple smaller subnets. For example, this allows a single Class B or Class C addresses to be divided and used by multiple organizations. Supernetting, combining multiple network addresses into a single larger subnet. For example, this allows multiple Class C addresses to be combined into a single network. Route aggregation (also called route summarization), where multiple routes are combined in a routing table as a single route.
CIDR routers use the following information to identify networks.
The beginning network address in the range The number of bits used in the subnet mask
For example, the routing table represents the address as 184.108.40.206/21, where 21 is the number of bits in the custom subnet mask. In addition to CIDR, the following other solutions were put into place to make efficient use of available IP addresses:
IP version 6. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses instead of the 32-bit addresses used with IPv4. IPv6 is not yet used on the Internet. Private addressing with address translation. With private addressing, hosts are assigned an unregistered address in a predefined range. All hosts on the private network use a single registered IP address to connect to the Internet. A special router (called a network address translation or NAT router) translates the multiple private addresses into the single registered IP address.
Subnetting Operations Use the following chart to identify the solutions to common subnetting tasks. Scenario Solution 2^n-2 Begin by converting the subnet mask to a binary number. Then use the formula to find the number of subnets and hosts. To find the number of valid subnets, n = the number of additional bits borrowed from the default mask. To find the number of valid hosts, n = the number of unmasked bits by the custom mask. 2^n-2 Write out the default subnet mask in binary. Then borrow bits and use the formula to find the number that gives you enough subnets and hosts. Magic number The magic number is the decimal value of the last one bit in the subnet mask. The magic number identifies:
Given a network address and subnet mask, how many subnets can you have and how many hosts per subnet?
Given a network address and customer requirements, what subnet mask should you use?
Given a network address and a subnet mask, identify the valid subnet addresses.
The first valid subnet address
The increment value to find additional subnet addresses Trust the line Use the following process to find the information you need: Given an IP address and subnet mask, find the:
• • •
Subnet address Broadcast address Valid host address range
1. Identify the subnet and host portions of the mask, draw a line 2. To find the subnet address, set all host bits to 0 3. To find the broadcast address, set all host bits to 1 4. The valid host range is: o First address = Subnet address + 1
Last address = Broadcast address - 1
Method Dotted decimal Description Four octets with set incremental values between 0 and 255. Be sure to include an IP address for each router interface. Bit count The bit count is a number that follows the IP address and indicates the total number of masked bits. use the following command: terminal ip netmask-format <format keyword> Format keywords are bit-count. you will have to make various decisions about the addresses used on the network. and assign them to network segments.10. the host address range). Each network segment will require its own network (subnet) address. When setting up a network for IP. Example 255. Hexadecimal Eight hexadecimal numbers (each number ranges from 0 to F). The bit count is typically found in routing tables.0 secondary 49 . you have the following three choices for viewing the subnet mask.255.0 /24 (identifies 24 bits in the mask) 0xFFFFFF00 (the 0x indicates a hexadecimal number follows) You can modify how the router displays the subnet mask. Use the following process to identify and assign IP addresses throughout your network. 2.e. Calculate the subnet mask that will subdivide your network. 5. You will need one IP address for each device.0. This is the most common form used and recognized by network administrators. 3. or plan on using DHCP to dynamically assign IP addresses.10.Assigning IP Addresses With Cisco routers. use the secondary parameter with the ip address command as follows: ip address 10. In addition. Identify valid IP addresses on each subnet (i. or hexadecimal. Identify the number of network addresses. In privileged EXEC mode.2 255. To do this.0. 4.255. 1. Assign IP addresses to hosts. Identify the number of hosts for each subnet. each WAN connection must have its own network address (typically assigned by the WAN service provider). decimal. Identify the valid subnet addresses. You can also assign multiple IP addresses to a single interface.
DHCP is used to dynamically assign IP address and other TCP/IP configuration parameters. 50 .Managing Host Names Host names allow you to identify network devices using logical names instead of IP addresses. An improvement on BootP. however. Use the following commands to configure static host names or enable DNS on a router. More commonly. Protocol Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) Bootstrap Protocol (BootP) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Description Used by hosts to discover the MAC address of a computer from its IP address. A DHCP server can use a static list to assign a specific IP address to a specific host. creating static DNS entries Identifies the router default domain (for DNS) Sets the default DNS name server Enables the router to use DNS to identify IP addresses from host names Use the show hosts command to display a list of known IP hosts. Used by a host to discover the IP address of a computer from its MAC address. the DHCP server automatically assigns an IP address from a preset range of possible addresses. Address Resolution Protocols You should know the following protocols that perform address resolution. A BootP server has a static list of MAC addresses and their corresponding IP addresses. Used by a host (such as a diskless workstation) to query a bootstrap computer and receive an IP address assignment. Command ip host <name> <address> ip domain-name <name> ip name-server <address> ip domain-lookup Function Identifies hostnames.
The inside global address is the IP address of the host after it has been translated for use on the Internet. it's important to understand the following terminology. The inside local address is the IP address of the host on the inside network. your computer will use the global outside address to contact Outside Inside local address Inside global address Outside global 51 . For example.NAT Facts Network Address Translation (NAT) allows you to connect a private network to the Internet without obtaining registered addresses for every host. Private addresses are translated to the public address of the NAT router. The outside network is the public network (the Internet). The term global refers to the registered IP address that identifies the inside host on the Internet. NAT can be used to provide a measure of security for your private network. Term Inside Definition The inside network is the private network. The outside global address is an IP address of an Internet host. As you work with NAT. or to provide Internet connectivity with a limited number of registered IP addresses. A router interface that connects to the public network is also called the outside interface. A router interface that connects to the private network is also called the inside interface. when you visit a Web site.
Otherwise. be sure to use an IP address in the private IP address ranges for the inside local IP addresses.255.1 Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#interface serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside Static NAT 52 . you manually map an inside local address to an inside global address.0.168.55. but the configuration is difficult. In other words.168.0 to 192.255. Implementation Static NAT Characteristics With static NAT.255. A Cisco router can be configured to overcome this problem.31. Port numbers are used to identify specific inside local hosts. the NAT router translates an Internet host IP address into a private IP address. Private IP addresses do not need to be registered. Overloading is the process of assigning multiple inside local addresses to a single inside global address.address Outside local address the Web server. you have the following options on a Cisco router.44. The NAT router has a pool of inside global IP addresses that it uses to map to inside local addresses.255. In other words. The port number is appended to the inside global IP address.255 192. Dynamic NAT is just like static NAT.0 to 172.168. except that the address mappings are done automatically.1 203. each inside host IP address is manually associated with a registered IP address. Instead of using the Web server address.16.255 NAT Command List Method Configuration Process Configure static mappings (mapping inside local addresses to outside local addresses) Identify inside and outside interfaces Command Examples Router(config)#ip nat inside source static 192.0.0 to 10.1.0.0. hosts on your network might not be able to access outside hosts with the same IP address. Dynamic NAT Overload with Port Address Translation (PAT) Note: When you configure NAT. and fall within the following ranges: • • • 10. An outside local address is an outside global address that has been translated for inside (or private) use. the internal computer will use the translated address instead.255 172. When you configure NAT.
168. intermediate.255.Define an inside global address pool Identify allowed translated inside local addresses** Associate the allowed list with the pool Identify inside and outside interfaces Router(config)#ip nat pool mary 203. You will learn about access lists in Module 7. traceroute.254 netmask 255.1. the outside global address that is used is the IP address of the outside router interface. IP Troubleshooting Tools Three tools you can use to help troubleshoot are ping.44.255 Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool mary Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#interface serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside Router(config)#access-list 1 permit 220.127.116.11 203.0. Note: When you use the overloaded method.18.104.22.168 0. and destination devices Reports Success (destination responded) or failure (no response) Round trip time to destination IP address of each hop to destination Host name of each hop (if configured) Round trip time to destination and each 53 . Tool Description Tests Uses ICMP echo The physical path to the packets destination Operates at the Network Network layer ping layer configuration of source.250 Router(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.55. and Telnet.0. intermediary.255 Dynamic NAT Overloaded with PAT Identify allowed translated inside local addresses** Associate the allowed list Router(config)#ip nat inside with the inside interface and source list 1 interface ethernet0 identify the translation type overload as overloaded Router(config)#interface ethernet0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Identify inside and outside Router(config-if)#interface interfaces serial0 Router(config-if)#ip nat outside **These examples use access lists to identify a range of inside addresses that will be translated. and destination devices traceroute Uses ICMP echo The physical path to the packets and TTL destination Operates at the Network Network layer layer configuration of source.0.44.1 0.
The following table describes special conventions that you should be aware of when working with these utilities. Responses to each test within the traceroute command are as follows: o A time exceeded message indicates that a router has received the packet but the TTL has expired. and so on. you can test non-IP protocols (such as AppleTalk or Novell IPX). traceroute sends three ping tests for each TTL value. For example. With extended ping. if the TTL is set to 3. • An exclamation mark indicates a successful ping. By default. and the protocol. A period indicates a failure. Traceroute sends successive ICMP messages to a destination with increasing TTL values. then X. press Ctrl + Shift + 6. o A destination unreachable message indicates that the router in the path does not have a route to the destination network or device. you can test non-IP protocols. the ping command performs five tests to the destination. and destination devices Upper-layer configuration of source and destination devices intermediary device Success (destination responded) or failure (no response) No report generated. • Ping includes an extended mode (available only in privileged EXEC mode). To resume a Telnet session.telnet Uses upper-layer The physical path to the protocols destination Operates above the Network layer Network layer (relies on configuration of source. An open connection indicates a valid connection. debug information shows only on the console. the third router in the path responds with the time exceeded message. the second pings with a TTL of 2. and even the protocol tested. Utility Considerations • By default. lower-layer protocols) intermediate. It waits 2 seconds for a response from the target router. the timeout. not in the Telnet 54 • telnet • • • . the timeout. It waits three seconds for a response. the first test pings the destination using a TTL of 1. use the resume command. With extended traceroute. By default. • ping • • • traceroute Extended ping lets you modify the number of tests. For example. Traceroute includes an extended version that lets you modify the number of packets sent. To suspend a Telnet session. o An asterisk ( * ) indicates that the timer has expired without a response.
The router discovery message is a special broadcast message sent by hosts to Router discover the routers on a network. The source quench message is sent by a receiving device to indicate that the Source quench flow of packets is too fast. It might indicate the host is unavailable. it slows its rate of transmission. ICMP messages include the following types: Message Characteristics The ICMP echo message is used to discover hosts and networks. ICMP Messages The Internet Control Message Protocol is a special-purpose message mechanism added to the TCP/IP suite that lets computers and routers in an internetwork report errors or provide information about unexpected circumstances. Keep in mind the following as you troubleshoot IP: • All computers must be assigned a unique IP address. When a sending device receives a source quench message.session window. contains no procedures that help to monitor successful packet delivery or test connectivity. but simply announce their availability. The destination unreachable message is sent if a packet cannot reach its Destination destination for a variety of reasons. Routers respond to the message indicating discovery their presence. and default gateway settings of each host. or unreachable that there were problems detected in the packet header. 55 . Hosts use ICMP to send error messages to other hosts. The time exceeded message is sent when the packet's time-to-live (TTL) Time exceeded counter has expired. The ping utility is a popular utility that uses ICMP echo messages. and to verify Echo that they are reachable. They do not exchange routing information. IP Troubleshooting Tips One important step in troubleshooting network communications is to verify the IP address. Use the terminal monitor command to show debug information in a Telnet session. Remember that IP is a connectionless protocol and as such. or if the selected route is unavailable or congested. The redirect message is sent from a router to the sending device to indicate that a different route should be chosen for the packet. subnet mask. The redirect message Redirect can be sent if a better route is in the router's table.
Problem A single host cannot communicate with any other host. configure an IP address on the switch. Symptoms Ping to any other host fails. ping to hosts on other networks with all hosts on the same Verify the default gateway setting network. Listed below are several common symptoms and things to try to correct communication problems. To ping to and from a switch or to remotely manage the switch. 56 . or The routing table on the configure the gateway of last resort router does not show the (default route) on the router. Ping to hosts on the same A single host can communicate network succeed. The default gateway address must be on the same subnet as the host's IP address. Solution Because the problem exists with only one host. The routing table on the router shows only Verify the routing configuration of directly-connected the default gateway router. You do not need to configure an IP address on a switch for frames to be switched through the switch. troubleshoot the configuration of the host with the problem. All hosts cannot communicate Ping to the remote with hosts on a specific outside network fails. but can't communicate fails. traceroute network. ping to hosts on other networks If DHCP is used to assign IP information to hosts. times out with only a single entry. within the same network. Ping to hosts on the same network succeed. The routing table has a Troubleshoot other routers in the route to the destination path to the destination network. default gateway setting delivered All hosts can communicate Traceroute on the host by the DHCP server. but times out with only a cannot communicate with any single entry. with only a single entry. Configure the default gateway value to enable internetwork communication. host outside of the local network. with any host on any other Traceroute on the host network. networks. of the host with the problem. or the gateway of last resort is not set. destination network.• • • • • Hosts on the same physical network should have IP addresses in the same address range. verify the fails. The subnet mask value for all computers on the same physical network must be the same. Add a route to the routing table. Communication with on the host times out other networks is fine.
) Source hostname or host IP address 57 . Access lists exist globally on the router. but filter traffic only for the interfaces to which they have been applied.. You should know the following characteristics of an access list. either permitting a specific traffic type or permitting all traffic not specifically restricted. Access list entries describe the traffic characteristics. • • • • • • • • • • • Access lists describe the traffic type that will be controlled. There are two general types of access lists: basic and extended. or allow or restrict all traffic.e. one for incoming traffic and one for outgoing traffic. network (or the gateway of last resort is used). When created. etc. response from the host. UDP. Source hostname or host IP address Source IP protocol (i. it must have at least one permit statement. IP. it identifies whether the list restricts incoming or outgoing traffic. although this statement does not appear in the list itself.. When an access list is applied to an interface. Traceroute on responding router and begin the router times out. Access list entries can describe a specific traffic type. Traceroute to the All hosts cannot communicate remote host indicates no with a specific remote host. When you create an access list. TCP. For a list to allow any traffic. Ping to the remote host fails. Each access list can be applied to more than one interface. troubleshooting there. remote hosts in the same remote The routing table shows a route to the destination network is fine. Access list entries identify either permitted or denied traffic. each interface can only have one incoming and one outgoing list. an access list contains an implicit "deny all" entry at the end of the access list.. Use a standard list to filter on.. However. Use an extended list to filter on. Each router interface can have up to two access lists for each protocol. Each access list applies only to a specific protocol. Access List Facts Routers use access lists to control incoming or outgoing traffic. Access lists can be used to log traffic that matches the list statements.Use traceroute to identify the last network. it automatically contains a "deny any" statement. Troubleshoot the configuration of Communication with other the remote host.
0 to network 11.0. Use the following number ranges to define the access list: 1-99 = Standard IP access lists 100-199 = Extended IP access lists Apply the standard or extended IP access list to a specific interface.22.214.171.124. Apply the list to a specific interface with the ip access-group command Use .1 sent to host 15.1.0 Router(config)#access-list 101 permit ip any any Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 101 in The following commands create an extended IP access list that does not forward TCP packets from any host on network 10. Router(config)#access-list 1 deny 10.1 0.1.12.1.1. and applies the list to the second serial interface.0.0. the access list denies all traffic except traffic explicitly permitted by permit statements in the list. Router(config)#access-list <number> Router(config-if)#ip accessgroup <number> To . The following commands create an extended IP access list that rejects packets from host 10.0. Examples The following commands create a standard IP access list that permits all outgoing traffic except the traffic from network 10.0.16.1.12. and applies the list to the Ethernet0 interface.0.255. Router(config)#access-list 101 deny ip 10.1 0. and applies the list to the first serial interface. .0 126.96.36.199.0.255 Router(config)#access-list 1 permit any Router(config)#int e0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 1 out The following commands create a standard IP access list that rejects all traffic except traffic from host 10. Router(config)#access-list 2 permit 10. .Source or destination socket number Destination hostname or host IP address Precedence or TOS values IP Access List Command List Configuring access lists involves two general steps: 1.0. Create the list and list entries with the access-list command 2. Create an access list entry.0.255.1.16 Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 2 in Note: Remember that each access list contains an explicit deny any entry. .1. . When created. and applies the list to the Serial0 interface.12.0.0 0. 58 .
For example.16.7.7. 2.0 Wildcard mask 0.16. suppose you wanted to allow all traffic on network 10.0 Subnet mask 255.248 = 7 o Fourth octet: 255 .255.0/21.255. wildcard masks operate at the bit level.255 Like subnet masks.0.7. Suppose an access list were created with a statement as follows: access-list 12 deny 10. Address Type Decimal Values Binary Values 59 .0.0.Router(config)#access-list 111 deny tcp 10.255 = 0 o Second octet: 255 .11111000.00000000 11111111.255. The router uses the wildcard mask to compare the bits in the address to the bits in the subnet address.00000000. Subtract each octet in the subnet mask from 255.0 0.0.11111111 Notice how the bits in the wildcard mask are exactly opposite of the bits in the subnet mask.248.11111111.255.0 = 255 This gives you the mask of: 0.12.12.00000111.0 0.12.255 Suppose that a packet addressed to 10.15 was received. When used to identify network addresses in access list statements.248.0.16. The wildcard mask would be: o First octet: 255 .255 11. A mask that covers 21 bits converts to 255.12. Identify the decimal value of the subnet mask.00000000 00000000. For example.0.255 Router(config)#access-list 111 permit ip any any Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 111 in Calculating Wildcard Masks The wildcard mask is used with access list statements to identify a range of IP addresses (such as all addresses on a specific network).12. Address Type Decimal Values Binary Values Subnet address 10. To calculate the wildcard mask: 1. To find the wildcard mask: 1.16. A bit with a 1 value means that the bit does not have to match.255. wildcard masks are the exact opposite of a subnet mask.00001100.255 = 0 o Third octet: 255 .0 2.255 00001010. subnet mask. let's examine the subnet address. and wildcard mask in binary form for the preceding example.0 0.0. Any bit in the wildcard mask with a 0 value means that the bit must match to match the access list statement.00010000.
00001100. Keep in mind the following: • Each interface can only have one inbound and one outbound access list for each protocol. Address Type Subnet address Decimal Values 10.00001111 mmmmmmmm.00010000.00001100. This means that an interface can have either a standard inbound or an extended inbound IP access list.00010000.00000000.11111111 00001010. The router uses the wildcard mask to compare the bits in the address to the bits in the subnet address.mmmmmiii.7. Designing Access Lists After you have created an access list.16.Subnet address 10.00001100.00000111. In this example.12.7. you must apply it to an interface.0.0. with port.13.00010000. In many cases.17.255 Target address #1 10. In this case.0 Binary Values 00001010. Any bit identified with a 1 is ignored. and which direction to apply the access list to.15 How the router applies the mask to the address • • • m=match i=ignored x=doesn't match mmmmmmmm.iiiiiiii Notice that this address does not match the access list statement as identified with the wildcard mask.12.17.12. this means you will need to decide which router.16.00010001.12.15 was received. Now suppose that a packet addressed to 10.00000000.00000000 00000000.255 Target address #1 10.iiiiiiii In this example.00000000 00000000.00001111 Wildcard mask 0.mmmmmiii.mmmmmmmm. 60 . 10.16.0 Wildcard mask 0.mmmmmmmx.00000111.13. traffic would be permitted.16. but not both.15 matches the access list statement and the traffic is denied.11111111 00001010.00001101. all bits identified with a 0 in the wildcard mask must match between the address and the network address.15 How the router applies the mask to the address m=match i=ignored x=doesn't match 00001010.
Traffic is matched to access list statements in the order they appear in the list. Access lists applied to inbound traffic filter packets before the routing decision is made. as well as the direction that traffic will be traveling. Place the access list on the interface where a single list will block (or allow) all necessary traffic. This is because standard access lists can only filter on source address. apply extended access lists as close to the source router as possible. Placing the list too close to the source will prevent any traffic from the source from getting to any other parts of the network. This keeps the packets from being sent throughout the rest of the network. If traffic matches a statement high in the list. place the most restrictive statements at the top. you can have one outbound IP access list and one outbound IPX access list. apply standard access lists as close to the destination router as possible. Monitoring Access Lists The following list summarizes the commands to use for viewing specific access list information on the router. For example. Access lists applied to outbound traffic filter packets after the routing decision is made. As a general rule. As a general rule.. subsequent statements will not be applied to the traffic. When constructing access lists. When making placement decisions. Identify blocked and allowed traffic. If you want to view. Your access list must contain at least one allow statement... All access lists that exist on the show run show access-lists router All access lists applied to an interface Rejected traffic information IP access lists configured on the router A specific access list show ip int show run show log show run show ip access-lists show access-lists <number> 61 . or no traffic will be allowed. carefully read all access lists statements and requirements. Use. Each access list has an implicit deny any statement at the end of the access list..• • • • • • • You can have two access lists for the same direction applied to an interface if the lists restrict different networking protocols.
The following methods can be used to minimize the effects of a routing loop. Each autonomous system is identified by an AS number. they are used to connect multiple ASs together. they are susceptible to a condition known as a routing loop (also called a count-toinfinity condition). This number can be locally administered. or divide the network into subnets. a routing loop occurs when two routers share different information. Routing protocols can be classified based on whether they are routing traffic within or between autonomous systems. That organization is free to create one large network.Routing Protocol Facts Each organization that has been assigned a network address from an ISP is considered an autonomous system (AS). and make decisions about how to send packets through the internetwork. Routers are used within an AS to segment (subnet) the network. In addition. build routing tables. or registered if the AS is connected to the Internet. you will learn about the following Interior Gateway Protocols: • • • • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Distance Vector Routing Facts Keep in mind the following principles about the distance vector method. Routers use a routing protocol to dynamically discover routes. 62 . Like a bridging loop. • • • Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)--protocol that routes traffic within the AS Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)--protocol that routes traffic outside of or between ASs Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)--enhancement of EGP that routes traffic between ASs In this course. • • • • Routers send updates only to their neighbor routers Routers send their entire routing table Tables are sent at regular intervals (each router is configured to specify its own update interval) Routers modify their tables based on information received from their neighbors Because routers using the distance vector method send their entire routing table at specified intervals.
punctuated by special broadcasts if conditions have changed. the path timeout has been reached. it ignores the information. Convergence happens faster with poison reverse than with simple split horizon.Method Split horizon Split horizon with poison reverse Triggered updates Hold downs Characteristics Using the split horizon method (also called best information). With this method. The hold down timer is reset when the timer runs out or when a network change occurs. This method reduces the convergence time. routers keep track of where the information about a route came from. for a period of time. The time period typically reflects the time required to attain convergence on the network. but advertise the path as unreachable. If. Using the split horizon with poison reverse method (also called poison reverse or route poisoning). the route is immediately set to unreachable (16 hops for RIP). routers that receive updated (changed) information broadcast those changes immediately rather than waiting for the next reporting interval. it results in greater network traffic because the entire table is broadcast each time an update is sent. If the next hop router notices that the route is still reachable. however. Routers do not report route information to the routers on that path. With the hold down method. routers will. The distance vector method has the following advantages: • • • • Stable and proven method (distance vector was the original routing algorithm) Easy to implement and administer Bandwidth requirements negligible for a typical LAN environment Requires less hardware and processing power than other routing methods Distance vector has the following disadvantages: • • • • Relatively long time to reach convergence (updates sent at specified intervals) Routers must recalculate their routing tables before forwarding changes Susceptible to routing loops (count-to-infinity) Bandwidth requirements can be too great for WAN or complex LAN environments 63 . With the triggered update method (also known as a flash updates). routers continue to send information about routes back to the next hop router. In other words. routers broadcast their routing tables periodically. routers do not report information back to the router from which their information originated. "hold" an update that reinstates an expired link. However.
Link State Routing Facts Keep in mind the following information about the link state method. The link state method has the following advantages over the distance vector method. LSPs are sent at regular intervals and when any of the following conditions occur. It generates a high amount of traffic when LSPs are initially flooded through the network or when the topology changes. In particular. the link state method has the following problems: • • • The link state algorithm requires greater CPU and memory capability to calculate the network topology and select the route because the algorithm re-creates the exact topology of the network for route computation. Neighboring routers exchange LSAs (link-state advertisements) to construct a topological database. • • • • Less convergence time (because updates are forwarded immediately) Not susceptible to routing loops Less susceptible to erroneous information (because only firsthand information is broadcast) Bandwidth requirements negligible for a typical LAN environment Although more stable than the distance vector method. It is possible for LSPs to get delayed or lost. The SPF algorithm is applied to the topological database to create an SPF tree from which a table of routing paths and associated ports is built.e. Link-state protocols send hello packets to discover new neighbors. or if the bandwidth between links vary (i. resulting in an inconsistent view of the network. o There is a new neighbor. • Slowing the LSP update rate keeps information more consistent. Routers use LSPs to build their tables and calculate the best route. if parts of the network come on line at different times. Network administrators have greater flexibility in setting the metrics used to calculate routes. Routers send information about only their own links. the last problem is of greatest concern. 64 . o A neighbor has gone down. However. The following solutions are often implemented to overcome some of the effects of inconsistent LSP information. This is particularly a problem for larger networks. • • • • • • • • • Routers broadcast LSPs to all routers (this process is known as flooding). Routers select routes based on the shortest route using an algorithm known as Shortest Path First (SPF). the traffic from the link state method is smaller than that from the distance vector method. LSPs travel faster through parts of the network than through others). o The cost to a neighbor has changed. after the initial configuration occurs.
LSPs can be identified with a time stamp.1. . Routers share information within the area. Identify the interface used to forward packets to the specified destination network.1. Each area router receives updates from the designated router.255. Enables the router to match routes based on the number of bits in the mask and not the default subnet mask. When your router cannot find a packet's address in its routing table. . Static Route Command List Static routes lock a router into using the route you specify for all packets. To turn off all routing protocols and reduce traffic or improve security. Listed below are several situations when you might want to configure static routes.1.1. Router(config)#ip route <destination> <next_hop> Router(config)#ip route <destination> <interface> Router(config)#ip defaultnetwork <network> Router(config)#ip classless To . a collection of areas under common administration.35 and gives it a value of 25.• • • Routers can be grouped into areas.35 25 65 .0 192.0 255. and for small networks or networks that have only one possible path. Identify a default network on which all packets sent to unknown networks are forwarded. To configure routes that are lost due to route summarization. (Areas logically subdivide an Autonomous System (AS). Configuring static routes is useful for increasing security. and routers on area borders share information between areas.255. Static Route Facts Most networks will use one (or more) routing protocols to automatically share and learn routes. .0 through the router with the IP address 192. You can also configure a default router. Use . For small networks that do not change very often and that have only a few networks. • • • • To configure a default route or a route out of a stub network (a stub network is one that has a single route into and out of the network).168. . sequence or ID number. Identify a next hop router to receive packets sent to the specified destination network. it sends the packet to the default router. Router(config)#ip route 192. Examples The following command creates a static route to network 192. or aging timer to ensure proper synchronization.168.168.168.) One router in each area is designated as the authoritative source of routing information (called a designated router).
2.1. RIP will select this route as the optimal route.0 as the default network for the local router. use the following three steps: 1. Router(config)#ip default-network 10.0 0.0 10.0 through the router's second serial interface.1. Router(config)#ip route 192. 66 . It has the following characteristics when running on a Cisco router.188.8.131.52. but only if the cost is the same. RIP uses only classful routing.0 255. effective routing protocol for small.1.to medium-sized networks. RIP broadcasts updates to the entire network. RIP supports load balancing over same-cost paths. • • • • • • • • RIP uses hop and tick counts to calculate optimal routes. One route uses a 56 Kbps link with a single hop.2 RIP Facts The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a simple. RIP uses the split horizon with poison reverse method to prevent the count-to-infinity problem.1. and the flush timer default is 240. the invalid timer default is 180.0. For example. it might end up selecting a less than optimal route. The update interval default is 30.1. Router(config)#ip route 0. Because the first route has fewer hops.0.The following command creates a permanent static route to network 192. Note: Because RIP uses the hop count in determining the best route to a remote network.0.0.0 serial 1 30 permanent The following command designates network 10.168. RIP can maintain up to six multiple paths to each network. the holddown timer default is 180. RIP Command List To configure any routing protocol. RIP routing is limited to 15 hops to any location (16 hops indicates the network is unreachable). so it uses full address classes.1. Enable IP routing if it is not already enabled (use the ip routing command). while the other route uses a Gigabit link that has two hops. not subnets.168.255.0 The following command identifies a default route through an interface with address 10. suppose that two routes exist between two networks.255.
0. followed by the routing protocol you want to configure). Switch to router configuration mode (use the router command. follow these rules. . IP routing is enabled by default. Disable RIP and remove all RIP networks. 3. not a subnetted network address. Use . . This identifies the interfaces that will share and process received routing updates. and not interfaces. followed by the address of a network to which the router is directly connected). which Cisco recommends that you use instead of RIP.168. Identify the networks that will participate in dynamic routing (use the network command. Enable IP routing for the entire router. When you use the network command to identify the networks that will participate in RIP routing. Use this command only if it has been disabled.0. . Enter router RIP configuration mode (also referred to as "enabling RIP"). Use the classful network address.0 Router(config-router)#network 192. Identify networks that will participate in the router protocol.0 IGRP Facts Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a dynamic routing protocol that sends neighboring routers updates of its routing table. Notice that you identify networks. Prevent routing update messages from behind sent through a router interface. Example The following commands enable IP routing and identify two networks that will participate in the RIP routing protocol. • • Identify only networks to which the router is directly connected. Disable IP routing on the router.2. IGRP has the following characteristics: 67 . Router(config)#ip routing Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network <address> Router(config)#no ip routing Router(config)#no router rip Router(config-router)#no network <network> Router(config)#passiveinterface <interface> To . Remove a specific RIP network. . Router(config)#ip routing Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network 10. It is Cisco's proprietary routing protocol.10.
Use . When using the router command. Enable IP routing for the entire router.0. reliability. IGRP uses a composite metric (a 24-bit number assigned to each path that can include such factors as bandwidth. . Example The following commands identify two networks that will participate in the IGRP routing protocol for AS number 25 (assuming IP routing is already enabled). Enter router IGRP configuration mode for the specified Router(config)#router igrp Autonomous System. You can also configure the hop count limit.10. IGRP uses split horizon with poison reverse. Router(config)#router igrp 25 Router(config-router)#network 10. loading. delay. router)#network <address> When identifying networks. use the classful network address (the network specified with the default subnet mask).0. It can keep track of up to six different paths. Note: When configuring multiple <ASnumber> routers to share information with IGRP. Defaults are: o Update interval = 90 seconds o Invalid route = 270 seconds (3 times the update) o Holddown = 280 seconds (3 times the update + 10) o Flush = 630 seconds (7 times the update) IGRP Command List Configuring IGRP is very similar to configuring RIP. and not interfaces. To . It will keep track of same-cost and different-cost routes. and MTU). This AS number must be the same on each router that will share information. . Router(configNotice that you identify networks. Use this command only if it has been disabled.0 68 . IP routing is enabled Router(config)#ip routing by default. however.0 Router(config-router)#network 192. .168. . you must include the AS number. IGRP uses flash updates (sending changed information immediately) for faster convergence. IGRP uses an autonomous system (AS) number as part of the configuration. The default update interval is higher for IGRP than RIP because it uses flash updates. Identify networks that will participate in the router protocol. with a hop count limit of 255 (rather than 16). IGRP supports multiple-path connections.• • • • • • • • IGRP can handle much larger networks. the AS number must match on all routers.
Routers within an area share information about the area.0. Converges faster than a distance vector protocol. Because the loopback interface takes precedence over the physical interfaces in determining the router ID.) Under normal conditions. It contains networks not held within another area. You can think of the backbone as the "master" or "root" area. As part of the OSPF process. you can force a specific router ID by defining a loopback interface and assigning it an IP address. or poison reverse are not needed. The router ID is: • • The highest IP address assigned to a loopback (logical) interface. LSAs contain small bits of information about routes. 69 .0. Good design can minimize this impact. Uses hello packets to discover neighbor routers. each router is assigned a router ID (RID). split horizon. All OSPF networks must have a backbone area. The Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm (also called the Dijkstra SPF algorithm) is used to identify and select the optimal route. Uses areas to subdivide large networks. but they cannot be pinged because they won't appear in an OSPF routing table. If a loopback interface is not defined. Is scalable and does not have the 16 hop limitation of RIP. o The backbone is a specialized area connected to all other areas. Shares routing information through Link State Advertisements (LSAs). Mechanisms such as holddown timers. Is not susceptible to routing loops. It sends the subnet mask in the routing update and supports route summarization and VLSM.OSPF Facts The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol is a robust link state routing protocol well-suited for large networks. Its address is always 0. (Unadvertised links save on IP space. and distributes routing information between areas. the highest IP address of the router's physical interfaces. Instead. Is considered a classless routing protocol because it does not assume the default subnet masks are used. Routers on the edge of areas (called Area Border Routers (ABR)) share summarized information between areas. OSPF only sends out updated information rather than exchanging the entire routing table. OSPF uses built-in loop avoidance techniques. Maintains a logical topographical map of the network in addition to maintaining routes to various networks. Can require additional processing power (and therefore increased system requirements). You should remember the following characteristics of link state protocols that apply to OSPF: • • • • • • • • • • • • Is a public (non-proprietary) routing protocol. o A stub area is an area with a single path in to and out of the area. Uses link costs as a metric for determining best routes.0.
m.n. and then identifying the networks that will participate in OSPF routing.m area number Example The following graphic shows a sample network with two OSPF areas. the process ID number is not the same thing as the AS number used in IGRP/EIGRP routing. Process IDs do not need to match between routers (in other words.n.m. two routers configured with different process IDs might still share OSPF information).n m. with only a few variations from the RIP and IGRP configuration steps you have previously use. Configuration is as simple as defining the OSPF process using the router ospf command.n is the network address.n. classless network. The wildcard mask identifies the subnet address. Use the following commands to configure OSPF on each router: 70 . This can be a subnetted. Note: Although similar. Identifies networks that participate in OSPF routing.n.m. number is the area number in the OSPF topology.m is a wildcard mask (not the normal subnet mask). The following table lists the commands and details for configuring OSPF. Command Purpose Use to enter configuration mode for OSPF.OSPF Command List OSPF is fairly simple. n.m. Router(config)#router ospf process-id Router(config-router)#network n. The area number must match between routers. The process ID identifies a separate routing process on the router. m.
It supports route summarization and VLSM.0. You can use the subnet address with the appropriate wildcard mask (as in 10.2. Keeps multiple paths to a single network.0. not the process ID.0 area 1 SFO LAX router ospf 1 PHX network 10.0.255 area 1 Notice the following in the configuration: • • • The process ID on each router does not match. Uses hello packets to discover neighbor routers. EIGRP does not send periodic routing updates like RIP and IGRP. EIGRP: • • • • • • • • • • Sends the subnet mask in the routing update.0.0.1.16.32. When change occurs.1 0.1. Is not susceptible to routing loops.0.0 area 1 network 10. or poison reverse are not needed.1. and then partial routing updates thereafter.0. EIGRP uses built-in loop avoidance techniques.16.255.3. During normal operation EIGRP transmits only hello packets across the network.255). The network command identifies the subnet. Mechanisms such as holddown timers.0. and the OSPF area of the subnet.0 0.0 0.0 0.0. Minimizes network bandwidth usage for routing updates. split horizon.0.15. or you can use the IP address of the router interface with a mask of 0. Supports automatic classful route summarization at major network boundaries (this is the default in EIGRP).1.0.255 area 1 network 10.0. 71 .1 0.15. EIGRP Facts Enhanced IGRP is a Cisco-proprietary balanced hybrid routing protocol that combines the best features of distance vector and link state routing.0.15.1.0 0.255 area 0 network 10. manual route summarization can also be configured on arbitrary network boundaries to reduce the routing table size.15. wildcard mask. OSPF uses areas to identify sharing of routes.0 0.255 area 1 network 10. Instead.15. A subnet can only be in one area. Exchanges the full routing table at startup.255 area 1 router ospf 2 network 10.Rout Configuration er router ospf 1 network 10.0. Maintains partial network topology information in addition to routes.0 0. Is scalable and does not have the 16 hop limitation of RIP.1.16. Unlike IGRP and RIP.32. only routing table changes are propagated in EIGRP not the entire table.0.0. Uses bandwidth and delay for the route metric (similar to IGRP).
EIGRP can quickly adapt to alternate routes when changes occur. If no appropriate route or backup exists in the routing table. View the interfaces that are running EIGRP and the number of connected routers. Command Router(config)#router eigrp number Router(config-router)#network n. EIGRP Command List You configure EIGRP just the same as you would configure IGRP.0 Router(config-network)#network 192. Supports multiple protocols.168. AppleTalk and IPX/SPX networks. View neighboring routers from which EIGRP routes can be learned.• • • • Requires less processing and memory than link state protocols. convergence can be almost instantaneous because an EIGRP router stores backup routes for destinations.n.168. EIGRP will query neighbor routers to discover an alternate route. EIGRP can exchange routes for IP. Uses the DUAL link-state algorithm for calculating routes.n Function Defines an EIGRP process.0 Router(config-network)#network 192. Lists the IP address of the connected router.3.168. Router(config)#router eigrp 2 Router(config-network)#network 192.0 Use the following commands to manage and monitor EIGRP. 72 .1. Identifies a network that participates in the routing process. In some cases. In this manner.n. Converges more quickly than distance vector protocols. Example The following commands enable EIGRP on a router and defines three networks that participate in the routing process. Command show ip route show eigrp neighbors show eigrp interfaces Features View EIGRP-learned routes.2. The number must match between routers for information to be shared. The following table lists the applicable commands.
Routing Protocol Comparison The following table compares various features of the routing protocols you will need to know for this course. split horizon. split horizon. Characteristic Routing method Public standard Metric VLSM support Classless routing Route summarization Sends mask in updates Convergence time Discovers neighbors before sending routing information RIP Distance vector Yes Hop count IGRP Distance vector No OSPF Link state Yes EIGRP Balanced hybrid No Bandwidth and delay Yes Bandwidth and delay Link cost Version 2 only No Slow (faster than RIP) No Yes Slow No Fast Yes Fast Yes Sends full routing table at Yes each update Loop avoidance Yes. poison poison reverse reverse Low No No No Full network topology Can be high Yes Yes No Partial network topology Lower than OSPF No No Memory and CPU Low requirements Uses areas in network No design Uses wildcards to define No participating networks Routing Administrative Distances 73 . also sends triggered updates of changed routes Hold down timers. Hold down timers.
The following table shows the default administrative values for a Cisco router. Routers can learn about routes to other networks using multiple routing protocols. WAN Structure 74 . 2. If a router has learned of two routes through the same protocol (for example two routes through EIGRP). If a router has learned of two routes to a single network through different routing protocols (such as RIP and OSPF). the router uses the following criteria for choosing between multiple routes: 1.The administrative distance is a number assigned to a source of routing information (such as a static route or a specific routing protocol). it will choose the route with the lowest administrative distance (OSPF in this example). Route Source Administrative Distance Connected interface 0 Static route 1 EIGRP summary route 5 EIGRP internal route 90 IGRP 100 OSPF 110 RIP 120 EIGRP external route 170 Note: You can modify how routes are selected by modifying the administrative distance associated with a source. A smaller number indicates a more trusted route. The router uses these values to select the source of information to use when multiple routes to a destination exist. In addition. there might be multiple paths between any two points. the router will choose the route that has the best cost as defined by the routing metric (for EIGRP the link with the highest bandwidth and least delay will be used). When making routing decisions.
DTEs are any equipment at the customer's site. it is UTP. The equipment (CPE) wiring typically includes UTP cable with RJ-11 or RJ-45 connectors. A device on the network side of a WAN link that sends and receives data. The demarc can also be called the network interface or Demarcation point point of presence. or other media. The point where the telephone company's telephone wiring connects to the subscriber's wiring. Local loop Typically. modem. and marks the point of entry Data terminal between the LAN and the WAN. and other equipment. The demarc media is owned and maintained by the telephone company. Fiber optic cable to the demarc is rare. the DTE is the device that communicates with the DCE at the other end. both the devices premises the subscriber owns and the ones leased from the WAN provider. CPE is sometimes used synonymously with DTE. telephone. but computers equipment (DTE) and multiplexers can also act as DTEs. CPE includes the Consumer telephone wire. It provides WAN-cloud entry and exit 75 . Central office The switching facility closest to the subscriber. The phone company is responsible for all equipment on the other side of the demarc. The DTE resides on the subscriber's premises. and can include all computers. fiber optic. DTEs are usually routers.A typical WAN structure includes the following components. but it can also be one or a combination of UTP. Component Description Devices physically located on the subscriber's premises. the customer is responsible for all equipment on one side of the demarc. and the nearest point of (CO) presence for the WAN provider. In a narrow sense. Cable that extends from the demarc to the central telephone office. Broadly. (demarc) Typically.
travels through the line. Few people thoroughly understand where data goes as it is switched through the "cloud. A CO provides services such as switching incoming telephone signals to outgoing trunk lines. This term is both a generic name for Data Link protocols and the name of a specific protocol within a WAN protocol suite or service. and different networks with common connection points WAN cloud may overlap. 76 . It also provides reliable DC power to the local loop to establish an electric circuit. DCEs may be devices similar to DTEs (such as routers). or toll. Thus. Depending on the WAN service and connection method. The hierarchy of trunks. WAN Encapsulation Facts WAN Physical layer protocols specify the hardware and bit signaling methods. except that each device plays a different role. a DCE is any device that terminating supplies clocking signals to DTEs. COs use long-distance. LAPB for X. LAPD in combination with another protocol for the B channels in ISDN networks. point-to-point connections with other Cisco routers (Cisco HDLC does not communicate with other vendors' implementations of HDLC). This is the default encapsulation method for synchronous serial links on Cisco routers. Packet-switching A switch on a carrier's packet-switched network. DCEs are typically routers at the service provider that relay messages between the Data circuitcustomer and the WAN cloud. • • • Cisco HDLC for synchronous. PSEs are the intermediary exchange (PSE) points in the WAN cloud.25 networks. A device that communicates with both DTEs and the WAN cloud. WAN encapsulation methods are typically called HDLC (high-level data link control).points for incoming and outgoing calls. and acts as a switching point to forward data to other central offices." What is important is that data goes in. switches. a modem or CSU/DSU at the equipment (DCE) customer site is often classified as a DCE. carriers to provide connections to almost anywhere in the world. you will select one of the following encapsulation methods. and central offices that make up the network of telephone lines. It is represented as a cloud because the physical structure varies. Data Link layer protocols control some or all of the following functions: • • • • Error checking and correction Link establishment Frame-field composition Point-to-point flow control Data Link layer protocols also describe the encapsulation method or the frame format. LAPD is a Layer 2 ISDN protocol that manages flow and signaling. In a strict sense. and arrives at its destination. Long-distance carriers are usually owned and operated by companies such as AT&T or MCI.
PPP is non-proprietary. and ISDN. Note: Routers on each side of a WAN link must use the same encapsulation method to be able to communicate. LCP packets are exchanged periodically to do the following: • Link Control Protocol (LCP) • • During link establishment. Examples of control protocols include: 77 . and numerous others. Protocol Description The Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible for establishing. Cisco/IETF for Frame Relay networks. load-balancing traffic over multiple physical links. Each Network layer protocol has a corresponding control protocol packet. If a router receives a packet with its own magic number. PPP Facts The following list represents some of the key features of the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP): • • • • • • It can be used on a wide variety of physical interfaces including asynchronous serial. AppleTalk. Optional authentication is provided through PAP (2-way authentication) or CHAP (3way authentication). and compression settings. It supports multilink connections. PPP uses two main protocols to establish and maintain the link. so it works in implementations that use products from multiple vendors. circuit-switched WAN networks. maintaining. This is done through routers sending magic numbers in communications. IPX. and tearing down the PPP link. including IP. the link is looped. When the session is terminated. Network Control Protocol (NCP) A single Link Control Protocol runs for each physical connection. and ISDN networks. Throughout the session. packet size. LCPs are responsible for tearing down the link. LCPs also indicate whether authentication should be used. It includes Link Quality Monitoring (LQM) which can detect link errors and automatically terminate links with excessive errors. The Network Control Protocol (NCP) is used to agree upon and configure Network layer protocols to use (such as IP. LCPs are used to agree upon encapsulation. synchronous serial (dial up). It includes looped link detection that can identify when messages sent from a router are looped back to that router. LCPs are exchanged to detect and correct errors or to control the use of multiple links (multilink). IPX. It supports multiple Network layer protocols.• • PPP for dial-up LAN access. or AppleTalk).
During this phase. 3. routers might exchange IPCP and CDPCP packets to agree upon using IP and CDP for Network-layer communications. Use . . .• • • • IP Control Protocol (IPCP) CDP Control Protocol (CDPCP) IPX Control Protocol (IPXCP) AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP) A single PPP link can run multiple control protocols. NCP phase. you complete the following tasks: 1. Set PPP encapsulation on the interface. 3. You must set the encapsulation method to PPP before you can configure authentication or compression. PPP options are configured in interface mode for a specific interface. one for each Networklayer protocol supported on the link. . . LCPs are exchanged to open the link and agree upon link settings such as encapsulation. If authentication is used. 2. During this phase. authentication-specific packets are exchanged to configure authentication parameters and authenticate the devices. the first method will be pap tried first Router(config-if)#ppp compression Set compression options Router(config-if)#ppp chap|pap password Set the password used with CHAP <password> or PAP for an unknown host Router(config)#username <hostname> password <password> Set the username and password for the local router 78 . Authenticate phase (optional). and whether authentication will be used. For example. 2. Select CHAP and/or PAP as the authentication method (optional). 1. configure username/password combinations. LCP phase. packet size. PPP establishes communication in three phases. Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp To . To configure PPP on the router. LCPs might continue to be exchanged. NCPs are exchanged to agree on upper-layer protocols to use. PPP Command List PPP configuration is often done in connection with configuring other services. LCPs might also be exchanged during this phase to maintain the link. Set the encapsulation type to PPP Set the authentication method(s) Router(config-if)#ppp authentication <chap| When multiple methods are pap> Router(config-if)#ppp authentication chap specified.
Packets travel through the Frame Relay cloud without acknowledgments. Frame Relay switches begin dropping packets when congestion occurs. • • • • • • • • Routers connect to a Frame Relay switch either directly or through a CSU/DSU. When network traffic is low. you are guaranteed to have at least the amount of bandwidth specified by the CIR. 79 . you will likely be able to send data faster than the CIR.Router(config)#bandwidth <value> Set a bandwidth value for an interface View encapsulation and PPP information on an interface Router#show interface To hide the CHAP password from view in the configuration file. Can be used as a backbone connection to LANs. You should be familiar with the following concepts about how Frame Relay networks send data.54 Mbps. and the effective rate may drop. Corrupted packets are simply dropped without notification. In any case. SFO(config)#hostname LAX password cisco5 SFO(config)#int s0 SFO(config-if)#encap ppp SFO(config-if)#ppp auth pap Frame Relay Facts Frame relay is a standard for packet switching WAN communications over high-quality. Frame Relay switches perform error checking but not correction. Error correction is performed by sending and receiving devices. Example The following commands configure the SFO router to use PPP and enable it to connect to the LAX router using PAP authentication. Frame-relay networks: • • • • • • Provide error detection but not error recovery. Frame relay networks simulate an "always on" connection with PVCs. digital lines. Operate at the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. Sending routers send data immediately without establishing a session. Have a variable packet size (called a frame) . T-1. T-3). Can be implemented over a variety of connection lines (56K. The CIR is the maximum guaranteed data transmission rate you will receive on the Frame Relay network. you are assigned a level of service called a Committed Information Rate (CIR). As network traffic increases. priority is given to data coming from customers with a higher CIR. It is up to end devices to request a retransmission of lost packets. use the service password-encryption command from the global configuration mode. When you sign up for Frame Relay service. Can provide data transfer up to 1.
ANSI. The router connects to a CSU/DSU. which is connected to the Frame Relay network. The DLCI represents the connection between two frame relay devices. Enable dynamic DLCI assignment through multicasting support. Gather status information about other routers and connections on the network. Cisco routers support three LMI types: Cisco. but not for the entire WAN. The Frame Relay service provider assigns the DLCI when the virtual circuit is set up. and Q933a. Frame Relay switches send Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) messages to slow data transfer rates. Packets are discarded based on information in the Discard Eligible (DE) bit. When configuring a Frame Relay connection or circuit. Although DLCI numbers are only locally significant. the router interface has a direct line to the Frame Relay switch at the service provider. Frame Relay Protocols Most Frame Relay installations involve connecting to a Frame Relay network through a T-1 line. When you connect a router to the Frame Relay network. the same DLCI number can be used multiple times in the entire network to identify different devices. The Frame Relay network is made up of multiple switches for moving packets. LMI can: • • • • • Local Management Interface (LMI) Maintain the link between the router and the switch. the same number is used throughout the entire network to identify a specific link). Local Management Interface (LMI) is a set of management protocol extensions that automates many Frame Relay management tasks. In other words. Each DLCI is unique for the local network. Make DLCIs globally significant for the entire network. Although there is only one physical path between the router and the switch. you have the following options: 80 . through LMI these numbers can be globally significant (i. DLCIs identify each virtual circuit. You should be aware of the following Frame Relay protocols: Protocol Characteristics Like an Ethernet MAC address.e. LMI is responsible for managing the connection and reporting connection status.• • • Congestion is the most common cause of packet loss on a Frame Relay network. Frame Relay supports multiple virtual circuits. • • Data-Link Connection Identifiers (DLCIs) • The DLCI ranges between 16 and 1007.
81 . Cisco is the default frame relay encapsulation. Because Frame Relay supports multiple upper-layer protocols (such as IP. complete the following tasks: • • • • • Enable Frame Relay on the interface by setting the encapsulation type Assign a Network layer address to the interface (such as an IP address) Configure dynamic (inverse ARP) or static (mapped) addresses For a point-to-point subinterface. and DECnet). or a multipoint subinterface with dynamic addressing. Use . and associates each address with a DLCI. To configure Frame Relay on an interface. . The administrator identifies the address of each destination device. For multipoint connections. • • Dynamically associate DLCIs with inverse ARP. Manually map addresses to DLCIs. This is the default. the DLCI number acts like a Data Link or physical device address. Router(configif)#frame-relay Turn on inverse ARP (it is on by default) inverse-arp Router(configif)#frame-relay map Map protocol addresses to DLCIs Note: Add the broadcast parameter to the command to configure the router to forward broadcast traffic over the link. you have the following configuration options. With a point-to-point connection. Note: You must set the encapsulation method on the interface before you can issue any other Frame Relay commands. The same circuit is used for multiple conversations. A multipoint link configures each circuit to communicate with more than one destination device. . the circuit is configured to talk to only one other device. Network layer destination addresses with the DLCI number used to reach that address. Frame Relay Command List When configuring a router for Frame Relay. Cisco routers autosense the LMI type and configure themselves accordingly. . assign a DLCI to the subinterface Configure the LMI settings (optional). A point-to-point link simulates a direct connection with a destination device. IPX.• • Point-to-Point. To . you will need to associate logical. By default. results are less prone to errors than when using inverse ARP. Set the encapsulation method Router(config-if)#encap You can following this command by various keywords to frame-relay set a specific frame relay encapsulation protocol. You only need to set the LMI type if autosensing does not work or if you want to manually assign it. Although more work. Multipoint. The router uses the inverse ARP protocol to dynamically discover destination addresses associated with a specific DLCI. .
With subinterfaces. When configuring a Frame Relay connection or circuit. They make it possible to support multiple connections and/or networks through a single physical port. Although there is only one physical path between the router and the switch. Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#encap frame-relay ietf The following commands enable Frame Relay on serial interface 0 using Cisco as the encapsulation method. you have the following options: • • Point-to-Point. Using subinterfaces also lets you send routing updates out the same physical interface on which they were received.1. A multipoint link configures each circuit to communicate with more than one destination device. disable inverse ARP. Multipoint.55 25 Subinterfaces Facts Cisco uses the term interface to describe the physical component that connects the router to a network.Router#show frame map Router#clear framerelay-inarp Router#show frame pvc Router#frame lmi-type <LMI type> Display the contents of the frame-relay map cache (showing IP address to DLCI number mappings). Instead of adding physical interfaces.55 to DLCI 25. the circuit is configured to talk to only one other device. A point-to-point link simulates a direct connection with a destination device. 82 . Show DLCI statistics and information. Configure LMI on the Cisco router Examples The following commands enable Frame Relay on serial interface 1 using IETF as the encapsulation method and dynamic addressing. the router interface has a direct line to the Frame Relay switch at the service provider. Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#encap frame-relay Router(config-if)#no frame inverse Router(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 10.1. using subinterfaces lets you subdivide a single physical interface into several separate virtual channels. Frame Relay supports multiple virtual circuits.1. Clear the dynamic entries from the frame-relay map cache. you can expand your router's capability without adding modules containing physical interfaces. The same circuit is used for multiple conversations. and map IP address 10. When you connect a router to the Frame Relay network. With a point-to-point connection.1. Using subinterfaces in this manner overcomes the split horizon problem that can occur when sending updates out the same interface. A subinterface is a virtual interface that you configure on a Cisco router's physical interface.
assign the DLCI number to the subinterface For a multipoint connection using static assignments.12. Do not assign an IP address to the main interface.16. Use . Create the subinterface Assign the DLCI to the interface Map protocol addresses to DLCIs Examples The following commands create a point-to-point subinterface on the first serial interface and assign it to DLCI 44. Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#encap frame Router(config-if)#int s0. . 83 . .16. specifying either point-to-point or multipoint For a point-to-point connection or a multipoint connection using inverse ARP.155 to DLCI 111.X <type> Router(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci Router(config-subif)#frame-relay map To .103 mult Router(config-subif)#frame map ip 199. The subinterface is configured to use inverse ARP. All simulations use the same network layout as shown.12. you will need to assign a Network layer address to the subinterface. Router(config)#int s1 Router(config-if)#encap frame Router(config-if)#int s1.55 point Router(config-subif)#frame interface-dlci 44 The following commands create a multipoint subinterface on the second serial interface. . complete the following tasks: • • • • Enable Frame Relay on the interface and set the encapsulation method Create the subinterface. Router(config-if)#int sX. and configure it with a static IP mapping of device 199. . map DLCIs to protocol addresses In addition.155 111 Frame Relay Troubleshooting Introduction The next set of simulations gives you a chance to troubleshoot Frame Relay.Frame Relay Subinterface Command List To configure Frame Relay on a subinterface.
• • • • • • • • ping sh frame map sh frame pvc sh int/sh ip int sh run no ip sh frame-relay sh frame-relay traffic Frame Relay Troubleshooting Tips As you troubleshoot Frame Relay. Use static mappings to associate DLCI numbers with IP addresses manually. When using all Cisco routers.The scenario description for each exercise identifies whether the routers should be configured using inverse-arp or static mappings. Instead. When configuring subinterfaces. Each scenario has some misconfiguration that prevents communication. Frame Relay routers must know the DLCI number that is used to reach remote routers. use the ietf encapsulation type. or a multipoint subinterface with dynamic addressing. you can use the default Frame Relay encapsulation type (cisco). 84 . set IP addresses on each subinterface. The following commands may be useful in identifying the problem. For a point-to-point subinterface. do not set an IP address on the main interface. Use inverse arp to dynamically discover DLCI numbers. keep in mind the following tips: • • • • • All routers at all locations must be configured to use the same frame relay encapsulation method. you must manually assign a DLCI to the subinterface. When using routers of multiple vendors.
The physical cable of an ISDN connection is divided into logical channels. It allows fast. You only need to set the LMI type if autosensing does not work or if you want to manually assign it. and so on) over existing telephone lines. you have the choice between the following services. DLCI numbers Frame Relay encapsulation method LMI information and traffic statistics Interface configuration (DCE or DTE) Global traffic statistics Addresses and associated DLCIs Use . It supports the majority of upper-level protocols and encapsulation protocols. ISDN Facts Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of standards covering the Physical. Channels are classified as one of two types: • • B channels are used to carry data. . . digital transmission of both voice and data (including graphics. This information is not the DLCI number associated with the interface. . show run show frame pvc show int show run show frame lmi show int show frame pvc show int show frame traffic show frame map Note: Output for the show interfaces command shows an entry for DLCI followed by a number. video.• By default. Service Basic Rate B channels D channel Characteristics Two 64 Kbps One 16 Uses existing phone lines (but may not be available 85 . Cisco routers autosense the LMI type and configure themselves accordingly. . Data Link. and Network layers. ISDN uses T-carrier technology to quickly and efficiently send digital data streams. Monitoring Frame Relay If you want to view . When you order ISDN service. D channels are used to carry control and signaling information.
terminology. Use the following to help remember the classifications. you will probably not need to know these standards. such as network services Standards for switching and signaling. such as international addressing Standards for ISDN concepts. The total data transfer rate is 128 Kbps (data is sent only on the two B channels). Protocol Designation E I Q Standard Standards for ISDN on the existing phone network. and services. E for Existing networks I for Identifying concepts Q for Quality switching signals 86 . such as call setup. but you will need to memorize them for the certification exam. and error correction In practice. The protocol groupings and descriptions follow a lettering standard. • • • Faster data transfer rates (128 Kbps) than dial-up modems (56 Kbps maximum) Faster call establishment (dial-up) than modems Lower cost than other WAN solutions (users pay a monthly fee plus connection charges) ISDN Protocol Standards ISDN standards are grouped according to function.ISDN (BRI) Primary Rate ISDN (PRI) Kbps Twenty-three One 64 64 Kbps Kbps where existing copper wires don't support it) The connection is "demand-dial" (established only when data needs to be sent) Uses an entire T-1 line Sometimes called 23B+D The connection is "always on" Note: The total bandwidth of an ISDN BRI line is 144 Kbps (two B channels and one D channel). flow control. ISDN BRI is a relatively low-cost WAN service that is ideal for the following situations: • • Home office or telecommuters who need a relatively fast connection Businesses that need to periodically send data between sites (bursty traffic patterns) ISDN BRI offers the following benefits over dial-up modems and other WAN connection options.
Generically speaking. It identifies proper connections with the following interface designations. S Interface between the NT2 and an ISDN device (TE1 or TA). Reference Designation Interface Type R Interface between a TA and non-ISDN equipment (TE2). or ISDN telephone. Outside of North America. a TA (Terminal Adapter) is any device that generates traffic on an ISDN line. computer. It lets you NT2 connect multiple devices. the term is usually used to describes TA a device that converts non-ISDN signals to ISDN signals. A TE1 (Terminal Endpoint Device type 1) is an ISDN-compatible device such TE1 as a router. An NT2 (Network Switching Equipment) connects with an NT1. NT2s are optional. although it does not convert digital signals to analog signals. Rather. The TA is often called an ISDN modem.ISDN Components and Reference Points ISDN devices are classified based on whether they are ISDN-capable and the role they can play on the network. ISDN Device Function Designation An NT1 (Network Terminator) is the connection point between the local loop and ISDN network. 87 . it converts ISDN signals to non-ISDN signals. the customer is responsible for the NT1. T Interface between an NT2 and the NT1. A TE2 (Terminal Endpoint Device type 2) is a non-ISDN-compatible device TE2 such as a computer without an ISDN adapter. and/or split the signal into data and voice transmissions. In North NT1 America. More specifically. NT1 functionality is the responsibility of the service provider. A Cisco router might be classified as an NT1. The ISDN standard defines several reference points. where different protocols and devices connect with each other.
place the letters in order (R. TEIs are dynamically assigned to the router by the ISDN switch when the connection is made. Be sure to connect the correct device to the correct interface. to connect a router to an ISDN network. For example.e. Your router must be configured to communicate with the switch type used by your WAN service 88 . Your ISDN router will be connected to an ISDN switch at the WAN service provider. ISDN has its own Network and Data Link layer addressing. each device can have one or more SPIDs. Note: Because they are electrically the same. ISDN uses the following addresses: Address Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI) Characteristics Data Link layer address (similar to an Ethernet MAC address). Label the wire between each device with the corresponding letter. or U) of each device. then follow a packet from a non-ISDN device to the local loop. the S and T interfaces are often identified as an S/T interface. For this reason.U Interface between the NT1 and the local loop (ISDN wall connection). Connect a router with a U interface directly to the local loop. The following are common SPID assignments. To remember the reference points. S. pay attention to the interface type (R. U). Depending on the specific ISDN implementation. an R reference point) to a TA. Do not connect the U interface to an NT1 or an NT2. T. When connecting devices on an ISDN network. ISDN Addressing ISDN is a Network layer protocol that operates over a specific hardware interface configuration. The TA can then connect to the NT1 or NT2. Each ISDN device is assigned one TEI. S. Connect a router with a serial interface (i. Network layer address (similar to a telephone number that that allows each channel to make and receive calls). • • • Service Protocol Identifier (SPID) One SPID is assigned to the entire device Each B channel has its own SPID Each B channel can have more than one assigned SPID The WAN service provide assigns the SPIDs for you to configure on the router. you might have the following options (depending on the configuration of the router): • • • Connect a router with an S/T interface to either an NT1 or an NT2 (but not directly to the local loop). T.
2. The receiving device answers and the link is established. 1. In North America. 4. it operates on the D channel of an ISDN connection and is used for: • • • • Initializing Layer 2 and Layer 3 communications. After the transmission is over. the D channel is used to tear down the link. Maintaining the session. ISDN Command List To configure an ISDN connection. The B channel is used to transmit data. The exact commands you will use depend on the equipment used at the central office. It uses its preconfigured SPIDs (if required) to set up the B channels. Link Access Protocol for the D-Channel (LAPD) is the Data Link encapsulation protocol used on an ISDN network. 89 .provider. The sending device requests a connection through the D channel. The D channel is used for session maintenance. Terminating the link. As its name implies. Assigning TEIs. 1. the most common types are: • • • AT&T 5ESS Northern DMS-100 National ISDN-1 ISDN Communication Facts The following process is used to initialize an ISDN router. 3. you need to complete the following configuration processes: • • • Configure the ISDN switch type Assign SPIDs (if required) Configure encapsulation Use the following commands to configure an ISDN connection. When a router needs to communicate with another ISDN device. The router uses the D channel to perform Data Link (layer 2) initialization. The router uses the D channel to perform Network (layer 3) initialization. TEIs are dynamically assigned to identify the router. the following process is used. 2. Cisco routers support over 10 switch types.
Switch to ISDN interface configuration mode. Example The following commands set the switch type. For IOS 11. Show active ISDN phone calls. bri0:2 90 .Use . . . Set the encapsulation method for the interface (PPP is the most common). To use multiple channels at the same time. Enables multilink on the interface. View the status of the ISDN connection. enable multilink PPP (MLP). this is a global configuration command. use this command in interface mode or global configuration mode. Identify SPIDs for an interface. Use only if SPID numbers are not dynamically assigned. Identifies the utilization percentage that must exist for the additional channels to be used.2 and below. . and assigns two SPIDs for an ISDN interface: Router(config)#isdn switch-type basic-5ess Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#encap ppp Router(config-if)#isdn spid1 0835866201 8358662 Router(config-if)#isdn spid2 0835866401 8358664 About ISDN Simulations The following commands have been enabled in the simulations for configuring and testing an ISDN connection: • • • • • • • interface bri0 isdn switch-type isdn spid1.3 and above. An ISDN connection consists of multiple logical B channels on a single physical connection. Set the ISDN switch type to match that used by the service provider. encapsulation method. Show all past and current ISDN phone calls. . Router(config)#interface bri0 Router(config)#isdn switchtype <type> Router(config-if)#isdn spid<#> <number> <number> Router(config-if)#encap ppp Router#show isdn status Router#show isdn active Router#show isdn history Router(config-if)#ppp multilink Router(config)#dialer loadthreshold To . bri0:1. For IOS 11. isdn spid2 show isdn status show isdn active show isdn history show interface bri0.
you can set the switch type globally or on an interface basis. these statuses may not update. Verify that the configuration settings are correct before bringing the interface up. keep in mind the following: • • • • • Each BRI interface represents a single connection to an ISDN network. If you misconfigure the interface and connect to the ISDN switch. Setting it globally automatically adds it to the interface. This product simulates the IOS version 12. On a Cisco router. the switch at the service provider may report excessive errors and disable itself. On a live system. You will then need to contact your service provider to reset the switch. o For IOS versions 11. How the switch type is set. routes that correspond to an interface are not placed in the routing table until the interface status is up. Think of spoofing as "pretending" to be up.3 up to (but not including) 12. BRI1. DDR Facts 91 . Each physical BRI interface has three separate channels (1 D channel and 2 B channels). In addition. or take several minutes to change. the router can still make a connection if the switch type is defined globally. even if one is not defined for the interface. Spoofing allows the router to place entries in the routing table for dial-ondemand interfaces. differs depending on the IOS version: o For IOS versions 11. Normally. The status reported with the show isdn status command in the simulations updates automatically and immediately after making configuration changes. you should set the ISDN switch type and SPIDs with the interface shut down. BRI Interface Facts As you work with ISDN BRI interfaces. When you remove the shutdown for a BRI interface. The two B channels for the first BRI interface are identified as BRI0:1 and BRI0:2. the switch type must be defined for the interface. BRI interfaces are up only when a call is successfully placed to another router. the connection cannot be made.x method of setting the switch type.2 and below. you can only set the switch type globally.3 and above. but if it is removed from the interface. o For IOS versions 12. o For IOS versions 11. BRI interfaces are identified as BRI0. you may need to use the clear interface bri0 command or restart the router on a live system before some configuration changes take place.0.You should be aware of the following conditions regarding configuring ISDN connections on a live system: • • • As best practice.0 and above. Channels are up when a call is initiated that uses that specific channel. and what is required. the interface status changes to spoofing. It is possible to have one channel active and the other channel inactive. etc.
the connection is terminated. to identify a specific destination and the corresponding number to dial. only interesting traffic will bring it up. The link between two devices is established when one device calls another and the answering device answers the request. not which traffic can cross the link once it is established. will be sent over the link. When the link is idle.A dial-on-demand link is one that is non-persistent (not always on). This process is much like placing a telephone call. Use access lists to identify the type of traffic that will bring the link up (called interesting traffic). or identifies an access list Contains multiple entries. Keep in mind the following points about dial-on-demand routing (DDR): • • • • Access lists define interesting traffic (traffic that will bring the link up). Non-interesting traffic that needs to be sent will not keep the link up if the time limit has expired. The link is brought up (or dialed) when traffic needs to cross the link. a maximum of one per protocol Dialer Group Applies a dialer list to an interface Maximum of one group per interface Dialer interfaces (such as ISDN BRI) are non-persistent and might be used to connect to multiple devices. all traffic. The list of interesting traffic only defines which traffic brings the link up. 92 . to identify a single number to dial for all connections. dialer map. The DDR link will be brought down if no interesting traffic has crossed the link in a specified period of time. Identify the host called by the router using one of the following commands in interface mode: • • dialer string. Non-interesting traffic is ignored (never sent). both interesting and non-interesting. If a DDR link is up. If a DDR link is down. Interesting traffic is identified and applied to an interface using the following three items: Access List Contains multiple entries that define interesting traffic Each list applies only to one protocol in type Access lists are optional Dialer List Identifies all traffic of a specific protocol.
To . This allows Router(config)#ip route hosts on the local network to access hosts on the remote network(s). Use this command if the <number> router contacts only one other router. . Identify the number to dial to contact the Router(config-if)#dialer map ip destination router. apply it to an interface. The link will be brought up for HTTP or FTP traffic. Configure static routes to remote networks accessible through the ISDN link. Router(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10. such as: o Configuring the ISDN connection o Configuring IP addresses for applicable interfaces Define interesting traffic Apply the interesting traffic definition to the dial-on-demand interface Configure the numbers to call when interesting traffic is received Configure static routes to remote networks accessible through the ISDN link Configure the DDR timers (optional) Use .0. . .0.1 eq 21 Router(config)#dialer-list 9 protocol ip list 101 93 . Use this command if the <address> <number> router contacts multiple routers over the same physical interface.1 eq 80 Router(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10. and configures a static route to the remote device.DDR Command List Configuring dial-on-demand routing involves completing the following general steps: • • • • • • Configure the interface to connect to the network. Configure access list statements that define Router(config)#access-list interesting traffic Router(config)#dialer-list <#> Identify the traffic type or access list that protocol <type> permit/deny defines interesting traffic. Router(config)#dialer-list 7 protocol ip permit Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#dialer-group 7 Router(config-if)#dialer string 5551111 Router(config-if)#dialer string 5552222 The following commands create an access list and dialer list. <#> Router(config-if)#dialer string Identify the number to dial to contact the destination router. Router(config-if)#dialer-group Apply the dialer-list to an interface.0. defines a called device.0. Examples The following commands define all IP traffic as interesting traffic for BRI0 and identifies two numbers of a single destination router to dial when traffic must be sent. .
Router(config)#int bri0 Router(config-if)#dialer-group 9 Router(config-if)#dialer map ip 184.108.40.206 name LAX 5552345 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 bri0 220.127.116.11
Note: You can also configure serial or asynchronous interfaces to support dial-on-demand routing. To enable DDR on a serial interface, use the following command:
Dialer Profiles In a typical ISDN BRI connection, the router has a single BRI interface that is used to connect to all other sites. If your router has multiple BRI (or PRI) interfaces, or if you want to use different B channels to reach multiple sites, you have the following choices:
Use dialer lists to configure specific interfaces to connect with specific sites. For example, if you have two interfaces and four sites, one interface could connect to half of the sites, and the other interface could connect to the other half. Use dialer profiles to pool all physical interfaces into a single logical interface. In this way, traffic to any of the four sites could be sent out either of the two interfaces.
Configuring dialer profiles is beyond the scope of this course, but involves the following general process.
• • • • •
Create access list statements to define interesting traffic. Create a dialer-list statement pointing to the access list. Create a special dialer interface. This is a logical interface that groups multiple physical interfaces. Configure the dialer interface as you would a physical interface with dialergroup commands and dialer map statements. Associate a dialer pool number with the logical dialer interface. Assign each physical interface to the dialer pool.
DDR Timers DDR timers identify the amount of time that passes without interesting traffic before the link is brought down. You do this by setting one or both of the following timeouts: Timer Idletimeout Description The idle-timeout identifies when the DDR link will be brought down. If no interesting traffic has crossed the link during the specified time interval, the DDR
link is closed. The fast-idle timer is a special timer that allows the DDR link to be brought down before the idle-timeout timer has expired. It identifies an alternate timer that is used if: Fast-idle
• • • •
The physical interface connects to multiple sites (phone numbers) The interface has an existing link to one site Packets are ready to be sent to a different site There is no interesting traffic currently being sent
Use the following commands to configure the DDR timers: Use . . . To . . . Router(configSet the amount of time that elapses without interesting if)#dialer idle-timeout traffic before the DDR link is disconnected. Set the amount of time that must elapse before the DDR Router(configlink can be disconnected early if a call to another if)#dialer fast-idle destination is received.
ISDN Configuration Process When configuring ISDN DDR links, remember to complete the following processes: 1. Configure the interface for the link. o Configure the ISDN switch type (for the router or the interface. o Configure SPIDs if necessary. o Configure encapsulation. o Assign IP addresses and remove the shutdown from the link. 2. Identify devices to call (dial). 3. Define the interesting traffic (traffic that will bring the link up). 4. Set link timeouts to bring the link down.
DDR Show Commands You should be familiar with the information shown for each of the following commands as they relate to DDR routing.
Use... show isdn active To view... Details of active calls such as:
The number dialed 95
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The device called Time left until disconnect ISDN switch type ISDN status by layer (layers 1-3) Number of active calls Number of available ISDN channels Idle and fast idle timer settings for an interface Reason for the connection (source and destination addresses) Number and hostname dialed Time connected Time left until disconnect
show isdn status
show dialer int bri
• • •
ISDN Troubleshooting Tips As you work with ISDN connections, use the show isdn status command to check the status of the ISDN interfaces. Here you can examine the status of each of the three OSI model layers. The following table describes the possible meaning of each layer status. Status Information Actions to Take There is no physical connection to the ISDN network. Layer 1 Status = NOT Activated Check the physical connection or remove the shutdown from the interface. A physical connection exists, but communication to the ISDN network is not taking place. (TEI and Layer 1 Status = ACTIVE SPID messages will show if SPIDs are Layer 2 Status = NOT Activated configured.) TEI Not Assigned Verify the ISDN switch type configuration on the spid1 NOT sent router. Note: SPIDs will not be sent or validated until Layer 2 communications have been established. A single TEI is assigned and Layer 2 is active. The router is communicating with the ISDN network over the D channel. SPID statuses do not Layer 2 State = show. MULTIPLE_STATE_ESTABLISHED Either the router does not require SPIDs, or SPIDs are not yet assigned. Validate the SPID configuration. SPID status = spid1 configured, spid1 sent, An incorrect SPID number was configured. spid1 NOT valid Reverify the SPID configuration. Note: SPID2 will not be sent and cannot be
Your job is to diagnose and fix the problem.spid1 valid Endpoint ID Info shown Layer 3 shows 0 active calls validated until SPID1 has been configured correctly. verify that interesting traffic is properly defined to bring the link up. but devices on either network cannot communicate over the link. Check to make sure the dialer group command has been used for the interface to associate the list with the interface. but you cannot communicate through the ISDN link. one or more routers have been misconfigured. • show isdn status 97 . If Layer 1 and Layer 2 statuses are active. All simulations use the same network layout as shown. In each case. ISDN Troubleshooting Introduction The next set of simulations gives you a chance to troubleshoot ISDN configuration. Layer 3 will not show active until a call has been placed to open communication. For each scenario. SPIDs have been validated and EIDs assigned. The problem may be with either router. The following commands may be useful in identifying the problem. begin by verifying the problem. check to make sure that static routes have been defined on each router. Problems with the communication are limited to those configuration settings taught in this section. check the following: • • If the ISDN status shows active but a ping between the two routers fails. If you can successfully ping the remote ISDN router from the local ISDN router.
98 . you should be able to diagnose the problem using the output from the show isdn status command.• • • • • • ping show show show show show interface bri0 interface bri0:1 interface bri0:2 ip route run Tip: For most troubleshooting activities.
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