Alfabetul limbii engleze

a[ei] b[bi:] c[si:] d[di:] e[i:] f[ef] g[dji:] h[eitch] i[ai] j[gei] k[kei] l[el] m[em] n[en] o[ou] p[pi:] q[kju:] r[a:] s[es] t[ti:] u[ju:] v[vi:] w['dablju:] x[eks] y[wai] z[zed]

Verbul

In limba engleza sunt doua categorii de verbe: -verbe regulate -verbe neregulate Verbele regulate: Cele mai multe verbe in limba engleza sunt regulate. Ele se conjuga astfel: Indicativ prezent : I call You call He calls She calls We call You call They call Forma interogativa: Do I call ? Do you call ? Does he call ? Does she call ? Do we call ? Do you call ? Do they call ? I do not call You do not call He does not call She does not call We do not call You do not call They do not ask Forma interogativ-negativa: Don't I call ? Don't you call ? Doesn't he call ? Doesn't she call ? Don't we call ? Don't you call ? Don't they call ?

- - - La indiativ prezent, numai prsoana a treia (III-a) singular, verbele primesc un "-s", celelalte ramanand neschimbate. - - - Pentru verbele terminate in "ch", "sh", "ss", "x" - la persoana III-a singular va fi "-es". - - - Verbele terminate in "y" precedate de o consoana, schimba pe "y" in "i" si primesc terminatia "-es". - - - Verbele terminate in "o" primesc terminatia "-es" Toate verbele din limba engleza (cu exceptia celor doua verbe auxiliare: HAVE = a avea si BE = a fi) se conjuga la formele simple interogative si negative cu ajutorul auxiliarului DO/DOES.

Past tense : La Imperfect si Perfect Simplu verbele neregulate primesc terminatia "-ed". I called You called He called she called We called You called They called Forma negativa: I did not call You did not call He did not call She did not call We did not call You did not call They did not call Forma interogativa: Did I call ? Did you call ? Did she call ? Did he call ? Did we call ? Did you call ? Did they call ? Future Tense: Viitorul in limba engleza se formeaza cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare SHALL/WILL urmate de infinitiv. - auxiliarul SHALL - pentru persoana I singular si plural - auxiliarul Will - pentru restul persoanelor I shall call You will call He will call She will call We shall call You will call They will call Forma negativa : I shall not (shan't) call You will not call He will not call Forma interogatv-negativa: Didn't I call ? Didn't you call ? Didn't she call ? Didn't he call ? Didn't we call ? Didn't you call ? Didn't they call ?

c.We shall not call You will not call They will not call Forma interogativa : Shall I call ? Will you call ? Will he call ? Will she call ? Shall we call ? will you call ? Will they call ? Mai-mult-ca-perfect(past perfect): M... a suna -> calling = strigand Participiu trecut : . to call = a striga. Conditionalul trecut : Se formeaza din conditionalul prezent al verbului HAVE + participiu trecut al verbului I should have called you would have called He would have called She would have called We should have called You would have called They would have called Participiu prezent: Se formeaza adaugand "-ing" la infinitivul verbului.m.p se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar HAVE la trecur (adica HAD) +participiu trecut al verbului. I should call You would call . I had called You had called He had called She had called We had called You had called They had called Conditionalul prezent : Se formeaza cu verbele auxiliarele SHOULD/WOULD + infinitivul verbului.

offe. inceputa inaintea altei actiuni trecute imperfect In limba engleza este foarte important sa stim conjugarea celor doua verbe auxiliare :HAVE si BE. 4.actiune termiata in moment trecut neprecizat (lately.p.actiune terminata in perioada de timp neterminata Have/has + S + V3 (today. Present Tense Continous S + To be + V-ing Prezent 3.c. S + V2 Actiunitrecute terminate in momentul precizat(ago.pentru actiuni planificate oficial 1. 7. in 1990) S + did + not + V1 Past tense continous Past perfect simple Past perfect continous actiune trecuta in progres: S + was/were + Vwhile + timp continuu ing when + timp simple S + had + V3 S + had + been + V-ing perfect compus imperfect 6. at present.repros. this week. at the moment) 2. trecute actiune trecutain progres.actiuni oficiale planificate neoficial Romana Prezent 2. Tense 1.actiune terminata care are legatura cu prezentul S + have/has + been + v-ing Have/has + been + S + V-ing actiune inceputa in trecut care se continua si in prezent sau al carui rezultat se vede acum in prezent For + perioada de timp Since + inceputul de timp Perfect compus 4.actiuni obisnuite repetabile 2.repros accentuat aproape de prezent.actiuni temporare(today. Present Perfect Simple 1. constatari 4.Se formeaza adaugand "-ed" la infinitivul verbului call -> called Nr. this mounth) 3. 8. just. this week) 3.actiuni care se petrec in momentul vorbirii(now. Present Tense Simple Form S + V1 Do/Does + S + V1 S + Do/does + not + V1 Used to express 1. never) S + have/has + V3 2.in loc de viitpr. exprima o actiune trecuta terminata inaintea altei actiuni m. always.m. Past tense simple Did + S + V1 yesterday. TO HAVE = a avea Indicativ prezent : I have you have He has She has We have You have They have Imperfectul si perfect simplu: I had you had He had . last. ever.adevaruri general valabile 3. Present Perfect Continous prezent 5.

p.m.She had We had You had They had M. I had had you had had He had had She had had We had had You had had They had had Viitorul: I shall have You will have He will have She will have We shall have You will have They will have Conditional prezent : I should have You would have He would have She would have We would have You would have They would have Conditional trecut : I should have had You would have had He would have had She would have had We would have had You would have had They would have had Participiu prezent: having Participiu trecut : had TO BE = a fi Indicativ prezent : I am .c.

Participiu prezent : being Participiu trecut : been Adverbul ..p.: I had been You had been He had been She had been We had been You had been They had been Viitor: I shall be You will be He will be She will be They shall be You will be Yhey will be Conditional prezent: I should be We would be ...c.You are He is She is We are You are They are Imperfectul: I was You were He was She was We were You were They were M.m.. Conditionalul trecut : I should have been He would have been .

pentru adjectivele care se termina in -le. precedat de o consoana. mai O modalitate usoara de a tine minte adverbele de timp si care ne arata cat de des cineva face ceva : . chiar. ca sa formam adverb shimbam pe y in i si apoi adauga terminatia -ly easy .hardly . Pozitiv badly far late little well Comparativ worse farther further later less better Superlativ the worst the farthest the furthest the latest the last = ultimul the least the best Adverbele sunt de mai multe feluri : .badly hard . Majoritatea adverbelor se formeaza din adjective.de mod . pana acum always = intotdeauna ever = totdeauna.easily happy . si mai.pentru majoritatea adverbele .happily Exceptii : well = bine.probably -pentru adjectivele care se termina in y. Ele seformeaza astfel: .de loc .neprecizat : already = deja. vreodata just = tocmai often = adesea never = niciodata sometimes = uneori.de timp . deloc always = totdeauna often = adesea still = înca. care intareste verbul. ca sa formam adverb.la adjectiv se adauga teminatia -ly : bad .precizat .Adverbul este cel care ne spune mai mult despre verb. totusi Gradele de comparatie ale adverbelor sunt aceleasi ca si la adjective si se formeaza in acelasi moduri. se shimba terminatia -le in -ly simple . cum trebuie fast = repede. cateodata seldom = rareori still = inca.simply probable . strâns very = foarte. prea never = niciodata.

alike. Ex: The examination did not seem difficult. thiny. to feel. age/temperature . to look. to become. red. awake. to be. to taste). "Fact" este ceea ce este adevarat despre subiectul propozitiei/fraziei. Unele din adjectivele care pot sta numai dupa verbele auxiliare: asleep. alone. afraid. Desi stau dupa verbe. blue Material : plastic. avem adjective care stau inaintea substantive: Ex : I like big black dogs. wooden Chinese table Size : small.). nice. to taste. hot. to get.100% always usually frequently often 50% sometimes occasionally rarely seldom hardly ever 0% never Adjectivul Adjectivele. origin: Ex : a big.to smell. square Color : yellow. Your friend looks nice. annoyed. well (She is alone. in limba engleza . sunt invariabile ( nu se acorda cu substantivele in gen. silver Origin : Chinese. ill. sorry.to sound. material. She was wearing a beautiful long red dress. cold Shape : round. big Age/Temperature : old. ele nu descriu verbul si subiectul propozitiei (in majoritatea cazurilor substantive sau pronume). to turn. to make. shape.numar si caz ). new. little. alive. Asa cum am mai spus.to seem. upset. to keep. difficult. old. fact Ex : a nice French car (not a French nice car) "Opinion" este ceea ce crezi despre subiectul propozitiei/frazei . Franch . black. square. colour. Care este ordinea corecta pentru adjective ? 1) Ordinea generala: opinion. Adjectivele stau inaintea substantivelor (I like Chinese food) sau dupa anumite verbe auxiliare (to appear. Romanian. 2) Ordinea normala a adjectivelor este : size.

any. many. Gradele de comparative ale adjectivelor : gradul pozitiv : arata prezenta normala a unei calitati a obiectelor (fara comparatii) Ex : She is beautiful. the better.. tot atat de inalt ca Pentru sens negative : incadram adjectivul in : “not as/ so…as” Ex : not as/so tall as = nu atat/ asa de inalt cat/ca Comparativul de inferioritate se formeaza incadrand adjectivul in expresia : “not so(as)…as “ sau “less…then” Ex : not as tall as/ not so tall as = nu atat de inalt ca Less tall then = mai putin inalt ca Atentie la aceste 4 expresii: So much the better = Cu atat mai bine So much the worse = Cu atat mai rau So much the more = Cu atat mai mult So much the less = Cu atat mai putin Expresia “cu cat. your. . two. three) Here is an example with opinion and fact adjectives: adjectives determiner opinion fact age two nice old shape round colour red candles noun Cand vrem sa folosim doua adjective care se refera la o culoare folosim “and”....· · · · · 3) Determiners usually come first.) demonstratives (this.) numbers (one. (Cu cat) mai curand. gradul comparativ : compara doua sau mai multe obiecte o in masura egala : comarativul de egalitate : he is as tall as his brother o in masura inegala :.comparativul de superioritate : he is taller then she.) quantifiers (some. that. Ex: Newspapers are usually black and white.compartivul de inferioritate : not as tall as … gradul superlativ: este de doua feluri : relative(in comparative cu alte elemente) Ex : The biggeste : Cel mai mare The smallest = Cel mai mic The most important = Cel mai important absolute (fata de el insusi) Ex : Very gig = Foarte mare Very small = Foarte mic Very/Highly important = Foarte important Comparativul de egalitate se formeaza prin incadrarea adjectivului : “ as…as “ Ex : as tall as = la fel de inalt ca. the) possessives (my. (cu atat) mai bine = The sooner..cu atat” nu are echivalent in limba engleza. few. .. even though they are fact adjectives: articles (a..

. dansilor. astia. noastre Your = vostru. sale Our = nostril. asta Those = acestia. sau. asta. tai. alea . -est . Adjectivele monosilabice terminate in consoana. dumneaei Its (pers III neutru) = lui. acel. sai. sale. acesti. acestea. sale. ei . astea. Adjectivele terminate in –e mut suprima aceasta vocala inaintea terminatiilor -er . sai. aia Those = acei. o dubleaza la comparative si la superlative : Ex: big – bigger – the biggest Unele adjective au forme diferite la comparativ si superlativ: Good – better – the best = bun(a) Well – better – the best = bine Bad – worse – the worst = rau Ill. tale His = lui. sau. ta. aia. aceia. dumnealor Adjectivele demonstrative: Pentru apropere: This = acest. aceste. schimba pe y in i inaintea lui – er si – est . dansului. danselor. sa. d-voastra Their = lor. aceasta. noastra. acelea. vostri.the finest Adjectivele terminate in – y precedat de o consoana. asti. mele Your = tau. Ex : heavy – heavier – the heaviest Adjectivele terminate in – y precedat de o vocala raman neschimbate : Ex : gay – gayer – the gayest (vesel) Acest adjective este foarte rar folosit in sensului lui propriu. sau. Ex : large – larger – the largest fine – finer . aceea. intrand in raza vulgar a vocabularului. sai .(Cu cat este)casa mai veche. sa. ala. acesta. mea. sa. domniei sale Her = ei. acea. nostru. dansei. mei . aste Pentru departare: That = acela.worst – the worst = bolnav Much – more – the most = mult(a) Many – more – the most = multi(e) Little – less – the least = putin Adjectivele posesive: Se pun intotdeauna inaintea substantivelor: My = meu. (cu atat este) pretul mai mic. ast. the smaller the price. voastre. voastra. = The older the house. dumnealui. ai.

la toate genurile. Ca si la articolul nehotarat. un sindicat a university = o universitate Articolul horatat: Articolul hotarat in limba engleza este THE . Exista unele exceptii : a ewe = o oaie/mioara a Europian = un european a union = o uniune. Conjunctia Conjunctia este partea de vorbire care leaga cuvinte sau propozitii. atat la singular cat si la plural.Articolul Articolul nehotarat (care se traduce in romana : un . LA plural nu exista articol nehotarat(atunci cand este cazul se folosestie some = niste. articolul hotart nu se accentueaza si nici nu se face pauza dupa el. . o ): a = inaintea unei consoane (a car) an = inaintea unei vocale (an inkpot) Articolul nehotarat este acelasi pentru toate genurile. unele). Trebuie tinut cont atunci cand vorbim ca articolul nehoratat nu se accentueaza si nici nu se face pauza dupa el. in vorbire.

Conjunctiile coordonatoare Conjunctiile coordonatoare arata ca elementele pe care ele le unesc sunt identice(similare) in importanta si structura. [Ram likes tea]. . but [Anthony likes coffee].Conjunctiile pot sa fie: .subordonatoare = atunci cand leaga o propozitie principala cu una secundara. Ele sunt cuvinte simple. • • I like [tea] and [coffee]. + Intotdeauna conjunctiile coordonatoare se gasesc intre cuvintele sau propozitiile pe care le leaga. Ram went swimming although it was raining. Intotdeauna conjunctia subordonata se gaseste in fata propozitiei secundare. Ram went swimming although it was raining. . Iara un mod usor si distractiv de a tine minte conjunctiile coordonatoare : F Fo r A And N Nor B But O Or Y Yet S So Conjunctiile subordonatoare Cele mai comune conjunctii subordonatoare sunt : after although as because before how if once since than that though till until when where whether while Conjunctiile subordonatoare leaga o propozitie secundara de una principala. formate din doua sau trei litere. Conjunctiile coordonatoare sunt sapte (7) la numar.coordonatoare = atunci cand leaga doua propozitii de acelasi fel.

...000 Astfel ceea ce scriem in romana 1..... In limba engleza se foloseste virgula in locul punctului din romana.000...sau .... Numeralul ordinal : first = prim....nu numai ...nici .nor only . Ram went swimming. hundred = suta = 100 thousand = mie = 1...7 = one point seven.........in engleza vom scrie 1..nici . Atentie la urmatoarele constructii : .000 million = milion = 1.7 . numealul ordinal se formeaza din numeralul cardinal + th (dar .ci(dar)si . a treia De la patru in sus ...both .cat si Numeralul Numeralul cardinal : zero = zero = 0 one = unu = 1 two = doi = 2 three = trei = 3 four = patru = 4 five = cinci = 5 six = sase = 6 seven = sapte = 7 eight = opt = 8 nine = noua = 9 ten = zece = 10 Atentie la o deosebire de limba romana.or = .. second = al doilea third = al treilea.either .Although it was raining.but also = .sau .nor = .neither .and = ..ata .

Prepozitii de loc: In general se tine cont de urmatoarele reguli: .Lista cu cele mai uzuale prepozitii le gasiti la Cuvinte necesare/Prepozitii. De la trei in sus . numeralele multiplicative se formeaza din cel cardinal + times three times = de trei ori four times = de patru ori Numeralele fractionale : one whole = un intreg (o unitate) one haf = o jumatate = 1/2 one third = o treime = 1/3 one quarter = un sfert. o patrime = 1/4 one tenth = o zecime = 1/10 Prepozitia Prepozitiile sunt cuvintele care fac legatura intre partile de vorbire.ieth ). twice = de doua ori. Sunt peste 150 de prepozitii in limba engleza. fourth = al patrulea fifth = al cincilea sixth = al saselea seventh = al saptelea eighth = al optulea ninth = al noualea tenth = al zecelea eleventh = al unsprezecelea twelfth = al doisprezecelea thierteenth = al treisprezecelea twentieth = al douazecilea thirtieth = al treizecilea fiftieth = al cincecilea Datele se exprima in limba engleza cu numeralul ordinal : The first of May sau May the first Numeralul multiplicativ : once = o data.atentie ca -y se inlocuieste ci .

un reper in = pentru o anumita zona on = pentru o suprafata Iata aici cateva exemple : at punct. ani. on a motorbike on a horse.Iata-le : at at home at work at school at university at college at the top at the bottom at the side at reception in in a car in a taxi in a helicopter in a boat in a lift (elevator) in the newspaper in the sky in a row in Oxford Street on on a bus on a train on a plane on a ship on a bicycle. secole si perioade lungi on = pentru zile si date Iata cateva exemple: at in on . on television on the left. un reper at the corner at the bus stop at the door at the top of the page at the end of the road at the entrance at the crossroads at the entrance in zona in the garden in London in France in a box in my pocket in my wallet in a building in a car on suprafata on the wall on the ceiling on the door on the cover on the floor on the carpet on the menu on a page Exista expresii standar cu prepozitiile de loc. on an elephant on the radio. on the right on the way Prepozitiile de timp : at = atunci cand timpul este precizat in = pentru luni.at = pentru un punct.

dumitale. 2010 on Christmas Day on Independence Day on my birthday on New Year's Eve Atunci cand folosim last. dumneavoastra he = el. dumneavoastra him = i-.timp precizat at 3 o'clock at 10. l-. in. (not in this evening) Pronumele Pronumele personale : Nominativ : I = eu you = tu. Exemple: I went to London last June. iti. every. (not in last June) He's coming back next Tuesday.(lui) .nu folosim si at. next. this . dumneata.30am at noon at dinnertime at bedtime at sunrise at sunset at the moment luni. on. dumnealor Acuzativ-dativ : me = mi-.ele. (not on next Tuesday) I go home every Easter. secole si perioade lungi in May in summer in the summer in 1990 in the 1990s in the next century in the Ice Age in the past/future zile si date on Sunday on Tuesdays on 6 March on 25 Dec. pe tine. dumneaei we = noi you = voi they = ei. ii. ani. dansii. te. pe mine. dansul. ma. dumnealui she = ea. (not at every Easter) We'll call you this evening. imi you = ti. pe el. dansele.

pe voi them = i-. a ta. ale lui. pe ea. friend. le-. a mea.se foloseste cuvinte diferite pentru feminin si masculin : Feminin aunt = matusa Masculin uncle = unchi . ale ei. pe ele Pronumele reflexive : myself = eu insumi/insami. wife. ale voastre theirs = al lor. Substantivul Substantivul. king) . ai tai his = al lui. a lui. acestea inlocuiesc substantivele). a voastra. pe ei.genul feminin = substantive care denumesc persoane de gen feminin (woman. ale tale. doctor. pe mine insumi/insami yourself = tu insusi/insati. a lui. ai lor. pe voi insiva oneself = pe sine insusi (insasi) Pronumele posesiv : mine = al meu. noua. are patru genuri: . window. brother. ai vostri. loe. girl. cat) . ii us = ne-. ale mele. ai ei ours = a noastra. in limba engleza. purse. ale lor Pronumele demonstrative sunt identice ca forma cu adjectivele demonstrative(numai ca in cazul pronumelor. pe noi you = v-. voua. ale noastre. ai mei yours = al tau. man. .her = i-. -o. son . ai nostri yours = al vostru.genul comun = substantivele care au aceeasi forma atat la masculin cat si la feminin (teacher. mother. pe noi insine yourselves = voi insiva. al ei. sister) . author) Deosebirea dintre substantivele feminine si masculine se face astfel: . ai lui hers = a ei.genul masculin = substantive care denumesc persoane de gen masculin (boy.gen neutru = substantivele care denumesc obiecte si animale (dog. pe tine insuti/insati himself = el insusi/pe el insusi herself = ea insasi/pe ea insasi ourselves = noi insine. al nostru.

pluralul substantivelor se formeaza adaugand "-s".y + "s" = babies 4).princess actor .daughter = fiica girl = fata hen = gaina nice = nepoata sister = sora mother = mama wife = sotie woman = femeie son = fiu bou = baiat cock = cocos nephew = nepot brother = frate father = tata husband = sot man = barbat .an Englishwoman a Romanianmam . e. bus + "es" = buses box + "es" = boxes dish + "es" = dishes church + "es" = churches mirage + "s" = mirages prize + "s" = prizes bridge + "s" = bridges 3).In general se realizeaza adaugand "-s" la substantivul la singular: cat + "s" = cats dog + "s" = dogs 2). "z" sau "j" pluralul se formeaza adugand "-es" sau "-s". terminate in sh si ch. an Englishman .pentru substantivele terminate in "y". daca "o" este precedat de o vocala (a. u).pentru substantivele terminate in "o". boy + "s" = boys .se adauga un sufix: prince . radio + "s" = radios . daca "y" final este precedat de o vocala(a.a) . i. "ch". "sh". unde "y" final este precedat de o consoana. "x". genul persoanei se indica folosind cuvintele: man si woman. i.actress waiter ."zh". o. daca substantivul se termina in "e" mut.waitress . u).pentru substantivele terminate in "o".pentru substantive terminate in "y" pluralul substantivelor se formeaza adaugand "-s". tomato + "es" = tomatoes . unde "o" este precedat de o consoana. pluralul substantivelor se formeaza adaugand "-es".pentru locuitorii unei tari.b) . pluralul substantivelor se formeaza astfe: se transforma "y" in "i" si apoi se adauga "-es" baby . o. e.b) .pentru substantivele terminate in "s".a Romanianwoman Pluralul substantivelor : 1).a) .

pot forma pluralul adaugand "-s".staves = portativ scarf .shelves = raft/rafturi thief . Iara aceste exceptii : calf .loaves = franzela.wolves = lup/lupi wife .leaves = frunza/frunze loaf . busses cacti.dar si scarfs self .selves = ins.elves = spiridusi/i half . buffalo buses. fishes geese halves .penknife = briceag/bricege sheaf .scarves = esarfa.thieves = hot/hoti wolf .calves = vitel/ vitei elf. dwarves feet fish.knives = cutit/cutite leaf . fiinta shelf .wives = sotie/sotii 6).paine/franzele life .halves = jumatate/jumatati knife .lives = viata/vieti penknife .urmatoarele substantive nu respecta nici o regula in formarea pluralelor : Singular alga alumna alumnus antenna (on a bug's head) antenna (on a television) appendix bacterium bison buffalo bus cactus child corps criterion crisis datum deer die dwarf foot fish goose half Plural algae alumnae alumni antennae antennas appendixes. cactuses children corps criteria crises data deer dice dwarfs.sheaves = snop/snopi staff . appendices bacteria bison buffalos. buffaloes.fulare . fular/esarfe.pentru substantivele legate (referitoare) de muzica . pluralul substantivelor se face adaugand "-s". roof + "s" = roofs giraffe + "s" = giraffes .Atentie : .Unele substantive terminate in "f" sau "fe" fac pluralul schimband pe "f" in "-ves". chiar daca "o" este precedat de o consoana piano + "s" = pianos 5)-pentru substantivele terminate in "f" sau "fe".Exista exceptii la aceasta regula.

Forma afirmativa: I will come You will come He will come We will come .hippopotamus hoof louse man medium memorandum moose mouse octopus ox scarf series sheep staff (stick or line for charting music) staff (group of workers) stegosaurus swine talisman tooth wharf woman hippopotami. scarfs series sheep staves staffs stegosauri swine talismans teeth wharfs. FORMARE Viitorul Simplu se formeaza cu auxiliarul will urmat de infinitivul verbului de conjugat. A. wharves women Viitorul Simplu ( Simple Future ) In lectia aceasta vom vedea cum se formeaza si cand se intrebuinteaza Viitorul Simplu al unui verb. 1. hooves lice men media memoranda moose mice octopi. octopodes oxen scarves. octopuses. hippopotamuses hoofs.

Fiul meu va implini zece ani luna viitoare. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste pentru a descrie actiuni obisnuite ce vor avea loc in viitor. as usual. Forma interogativ-negativa Will I not come ? Will you not come ? Will he not come ? Will we not come ? Will you not come ? Will they not come ? B. opinii sau presupuneri care se vor desfasura in viitor. si batranii se vor stinge. predictii. Soferii intotdeauna vor trebui sa-si achite amenzile pentru depasirea vitezei. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Viitorului in vorbire) 1. Viitorul Simplu il folosim in legatura cu asteptari. She'll come back. Babies will be born and old people will die. My son will be ten next month. Don't worry. Forma negativa : I will not come You will not come He will not come We will not come You will not come They will not come 4. ca de obicei.You will come They will come 2. Nu te ingrijora. 2. . Drivers will always have to pay their speed tickets. Se va intoarce. Forma interogativa : Will I come ? Will you come ? Will he come ? Will we come ? Will you come ? Will they come ? 3. Copii tot se vor naste.

O voi cumpara. I will have some Pepsi. I will buy it. please. We will punish him if he does it again. A. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste in cadrul propozitiilor conditionale de tip 1. la verbele neregulate. ( Nu uitati: la un verb regulat. FORMARE Perfectul Prezent se formeaza cu auxiliarul to have( have. El va veni acasa dupa ce isi va termina treaba. He will come home when he finishes his work. participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed. As dori un Pepsi. 4. Imi place aceasta masina. va rog. Perfectul Prezent Simplu ( Present Perfect ) In lectia aceasta vom vedea cum se formeaza si cand se intrebuinteaza Perfectul Prezent al unui verb. Viitorul Simplu se foloseste pentru a descrie actiuni ce exprima intentia (mai ales cele luate in momentul deciziei).3. I like this car. el reprezinta a treia forma de baza. Forma negativa : . Il vom pedepsi daca va mai face acel lucru din nou. has ) urmat de participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat. Forma afirmativa: I have arrived You have arrived He has arrived We have arrived You have arrived They have arrived 2. Forma interogativa : Have I arrived ? Have you arrived ? Has he arrived ? Has she arrived ? Have we arrived ? Have you arrived ? Have they arrived ? 3.) 1. precum si in propozitii temporale.

yet. dar niciodata cu indicatori temporali definiti.I have not arrived You have not arrived He has not arrived She has not arrived We have not arrived You have not arrived They have not arrived 4. a month ago. cum ar fi: ever. aceeasi zi. never.Perfectul Prezent descrie o actiune trecuta. before. She has never seen such a car. ale carei efecte se fac inca simtite in prezent I have sold my car. last week. precum yesterday. Eu mi-am mandut masina(efect=trebuie sa merg la slujba cu autobuzul) He has read that book. Perfectul Prezent se foloseste pentru a descrie o actiune care a inceput in trecut si se continua si in momentul vorbirii(aceeasi parte a zilei. El a citit acea carte (efect=ii cunoaste continutul) 2. Azi inca nu am mancat. We haven't eaten today yet. Ex: I have eaten = Am mancat (deci nu mai imi este foame). etc). INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Prezentului in vorbire) 1. Eu deja am rezolvat acea problema. already. . 3. Somebody has stolen my pen = Cineva mi-a furat stiloul (asadar nu mai am cu ce scrie) B. Ea niciodata nu a vazut o asemenea masina. I have already solved that problem. Forma interogativ-negativa Have I not arrived ? Have you not arrived ? Has he not arrived ? Has she not arrived ? Have we not arrived ? Have you not arrived ? Have they not arrived ? IMPORTANT !!! Perfectul Prezent se foloseste cel mai adesea atunci cand dorim sa scoatem in evidenta un efect pe care il are in prezent o actiune desfasurata in trecut. Perfectul Prezent se foloseste impreuna cu indicatori temporali nedefiniti. acelasi an.

They have just got married. Ea se afla aici de trei zile. been cleaning. (participiul trecut simplu: worked. has ) urmat de aspectul continuu al participiului trecut al verbului de conjugat. Folosit impreuna cu just acest timp descrie ceea ce s-a intamplat de curand. We have just arrived. 5. It's a long time since you have visited me. se traduce cu prezentul: How long have they been here? De cand sunt ei aici? She has been here for three days. De mult nu ai mai fost in vizita la mine In lectia aceasta vom vedea cum se formeaza si cand se intrebuinteaza Perfectul Prezent Continuu al unui verb. In romana acest lucru se exprima cu perfectul compus si adverbul tocmai.. Ei tocmai s-au casatorit.4.. FORMARE Perfectul Prezent Continuu se formeaza cu auxiliarul to have( have. 6. This is the first time I have been in a cave.) 1. Perfectul Prezent descrie o actiune inceputa in trecut si care se prelungeste in prezent. si It's (a long time) since. Perfectul Prezent simplu se foloseste cu expresiile: This is the first time. E prima data cand ma aflu intr-o pestera. Noi tocmai ce am sosit. cleaned. A.. participiul trecut continuu: been working. Forma interogativa : Have I been walking ? Have you been walking ? Has he been walking ? Has she been walking ? . Forma afirmativa: I have been walking You have been walking He has been walking We have been walking You have been walking They have been walking 2.. In acest caz.

1. Citeste cartea aceea de trei ore. Forma negativa : I have not been walking You have not been walking He has not been walking She has not been walking We have not been walking You have not been walking They have not been walking 4. accentueaza ideea de continuare in prezent a actiunii descrise: He has read that book. Totusi. La forma afirmativa auxiliarul apare de cele mai multe ori in forma sa contrasa: I'm running You're runnning He's running We're running They're running . INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Prezentului in vorbire) Perfectul Prezent continuu se foloseste aproximativ in aceleasi situatii ca si Prezentul Perfect simplu. ( Deja cunoaste continutul) He has been reading that book for three hours. (si inca n-a terminat-o) Prezentul Continuu ( Present Continuous) In lectia aceasta vom vedea cum se formeaza si cand se intrebuinteaza Prezentul Continuu al unui verb.Have we been walking ? Have you been walking ? Have they been walking ? 3. A citit acea carte. Forma interogativ-negativa Have I not been walking ? Have you not been walking ? Has he not been walking ? Has she not been walking ? Have we not been walking ? Have you not been walking ? Have they not been walking ? B.

La forma interogativa se inverseaza ordinea dintre subiect si auxiliar: Am I running? Are you running? Is he running? Is she running? Are we running? Are you running? Are they running? 3.2. cum ar fi now. Pentru a descrie o actiune in curs de desfasurare in momentul vorbirii. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Prezentului in vorbire) 1. What are you doing there? Ce faci acolo? 2. Pentru a descrie pozitiile corpului: She's standing. Cand e vorba de o actiune viitoare. este insotit adesea de o indicatie temporala. Ea sta in picioare He's leaning against a wall. In acest caz. La forma negativa cuvantul not precedat de auxiliar apare de cele mai multe ori in forma sa contrasa (dar niciodata dupa am) : I' m not running You aren't running He isn't running She isn't running We aren't running You aren't running They aren't running 4. Priveste! El isi spala masina. 3. prevazuta sau programata: . Forma interogativ-negativa Am I not running ? Aren't you running ? Isn't herunning ? Isn't she running ? Aren't we running ? Aren't you running ? Aren't they running ? B. at the moment Look! He's wasing his car. El sta sprijinit de un perete.

vom incepe cu Prezentul. FORMARE 1. Numai ca in limba engleza Prezentul are doua forme: una simpla si una continua. 5.La forma interogativa se foloseste auxiliarul do sau does (la persoana a III-a singular) urmat de verb: Do I run? Do you run? Does he run? Does she run? Do we run? Do you run? Do they run? . La forma afirmativa se foloseste infinitivul fara particula "to" al verbului: to run / run I run You run We run They run La persoana a III-a singular se adauga terminatia -s: He runs She runs 2. Prezentul Simplu In lectiile trecute am invatat despre anumite parti de vorbire care nu cereau enorm de mult efort pentru a fi retinute. What are you doing next Monday? Ce faci lunea viitoare? 4. Impreuna cu always. In lectia aceasta vom vedea cum se formeaza si cand se intrebuinteaza forma simpla a Prezentului unui verb. pentru a exprima iritarea sau dezaprobarea: She's always coming in when we talk something important. Si asa cum va asteptati probabil. Cand e vorba de ceva care s-ar putea produce in orice moment: He looks funny when he's playing his trumpet. A. Ei isi cumpara o casa noua in luna mai. insa incepand cu lectia de acum vom invata din tainele Verbului. Arata comic atunci cand canta la trompeta. Intotdeauna trebuie sa intre in camera fix cand vorbim noi lucruri importante.They're buying a new house in May.

Pentru a exprima un obicei: He reads a lot. Pentru a exprima un adevar general. Ea nu fumeaza 3. El citeste mult She doesn't smoke. Forma contrasa e cel mai des folosita: Don't I run ? Don't you run ? Doesn't he run ? Doesn't she run ? Don't we run ? Don't you run ? Don't they run ? B.La forma interogativ-negativa se foloseste don't / doesn't.Observati ca numai auxiliarul se conjuga! 3. . The Earth spins around the Sun. Apa ingheata la 0 grade. INTREBUINTARE (cand folosim acest aspect al Prezentului in vorbire) 1. Pentru a descrie o actiune care se repeta in mod regulat: I go to school every day. inversandu-se ordinea dintre subiect si auxiliar. Merg la scoala in fiecare zi. comes in and takes off his shoes near the door. Pamantul se invarte in jurul soarelui. Do you brush your teeth every day? Te speli pe dinti zilnic? 2. El descuie usa. Pentru a reda o succesiune de evenimente scurte: He unlocks the door.La forma negativa se foloseste do not(cu forma sa contrasa don't) sau does not(cu forma sa contrasa doesn't) pentru persoana a III-a singular: I do not (don't) run You do not (don't) run He does not (doesn't) run She does not (doesn't) run We do not (don't) run You do not (don't) run They do not (don't) run 4. de exemplu o lege a fizicii: Water freezes at 0 degrees. 4. intra si se descalta langa usa.

cu verbele care nu presupun notiunea de durata ( seem. ask. 6. Voi veni daca vor veni si ei. answer) I like movies.si cu verbele care redau cuvintele cuiva ( say.... hate. Imi plac filmele. Intr-o propozitie subordonata introdusa prin if sau unless. as soon as. 8. What does he mean? Ce vrea sa spuna? Numeralul Ordinal the 1st / first = primul the 2nd / second = al doilea the 3rd / third = al treilea the 4th / fourth = al patrulea the 5th / fifth = al cincilea the 6th sixth = al saselea the 7th / seventh = al saptelea the 8th / eighth = al optulea the 9th / nineth = al noualea the 10th / tenth = al zecelea the 11th / eleventh = al unsprezecelea the 12th / twelfth = al doisprezecelea the 13th / thirteenth = al treisprezecelea the 14th / fourteenth = al patrusprezecelea the 15th / fifteenth = al cincisprezecelea the 16th / sixteenth = al saisprezecelea the 17th / seventeenth = al saptesprezecelea the 18th / eighteenth = al optusprezecelea . You seem tired. before. belong. Ne intalnim cu el diseara. prefer. want. Pari obosit.5. Dupa when. We meet him tonight. know. Pentru a exprima o actiune programata in viitor. in special atunci cand se specifica momentul producerii ei: Your train leaves at two o'clock. Iti vom spune cand ne vom intalni din nou. 7. mean. after .) . wish) . atunci cand verbul din principala este la viitor: I'll come if they come.Cu verbele care exprima un sentiment (love. Trenul tau pleaca la ora doua. tell. dislike. like. intr-o fraza in care verbul din principala este la viitor: We'll tell you when we meet again.

lucruri neinsufletite) We = Noi You = Voi They = Ei Genitiv Mine = Al meu Yours = Al tau His = Al lui Hers= Al ei Ours = Al nostru Yours = Al vostru Theirs = Al lor Dativ (to) me = mie (to) you = tie (to) him = lui (to) her = ei (to) it = Lui.the 19th / nineteenth = al nouasprezecelea the 20th / twentieth = al douazecilea the 21st / twenty-first = al douazecilea the 22nd / twenty-second = al douazecisiunulea the 23rd / twenty-third = al douazecisidoilea the 24th / twenty-fourth = al douazecisipatrulea the 30th / thirtieth = al treizecilea the 50th / fiftieth = al cincizecilea the 100th / hundredth = al o sutalea Pronumele personal Nominativ I = Eu You = Tu He = El She = Ea It = El. ei (pentru obiecte. Ea (pentru obiecte. lucruri neinsufletite) (to) us = noua .

lucruri neinsufletite) us = pe noi you = pe voi them = pe ei Numeralul Cardinal 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty 21 twenty-one 22 twenty-two 23 twenty-three 24 twenty-four 25 twenty-five . pe ea (pentru obiecte.(to) you = voua (to) them = lor Acuzativ me = pe mine you = pe tine him = pe el her = pe ea it = pe el.

rezultand in scris 1.000.000 one billion Un lucru care trebuie evidentiat e faptul ca in limba engleza se foloseste virgula pentru a separa miile. insa e bine de stiut:-) Verbul To Be Afirmativ I Am = Eu sunt You Are = Tu esti He Is = El este She Is = Ea este It Is = El/Ea Este We Are = Noi suntem You Are = Voi sunteti They are = Ei sunt Interogativ Am I ? Are You ? Is He ? .000 one million 2.000 two million 1. Desigur.000. nimeni nu va va pedepsi daca nu folositi acest sistem.000 two thousand 2.574 two thousand five hundred and seventy-four 1.000 one thousand 2.000.30 thirty 40 fourty 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety 100 one hundred 200 two hundred 250 two hundred and fifty 1.000. Ati observat probabil faptul ca dupa numarul 1 din 1000 se adauga virgula.000.

Is She ? Is It ? Are We ? Are You ? Are They ? Negativ I Am not You Are not He Is not She Is not It Is not We Are not You Are not They are not Verbul To Have Afirmativ I Have = Eu am You Have = Tu ai He Has = El are She Has = Ea are It Has = El/Ea are We Have = Noi avem You Have = Voi aveti They Have = Ei au Interogativ Do I Have? Do You Have? Does He Have? Does She Have? Does It Have? Do We Have? Do You Have? Do They Have? Negativ .

I do not Have You do not Have He does not Have She does not Have It does not Have We do not Have You do not Have They do not Have .

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