Justin Arnold AP Psych Chapter 5 Outline: Developing Through the Life Span As we journey through life, from womb

to tomb how do we develop? Walking – around age 1 Talking – around age 2 Developmental Psychology Definition: A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span Much of its research centers on three major issues: Nature vs. Nurture Continuity/Stages Stability/Change Prenatal Development and the Newborn 1: How does life develop before birth? Conception Process of reproducing starts when a woman’s ovary releases a mature egg Man begins producing sperm at puberty Women are born with all eggs they will ever have Men produce new sperm constantly Sperm has a “race to the egg” Prenatal Development Zygotes Definition: The fertilized eggs, they enter a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develop into embryos One cell becomes 2, then becomes 4, etc. About 10 days after conception, the zygote attaches to the mother’s uterine wall, beginning approximately 37 weeks of the closest human relationship Embryo Definition: The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month By 9 weeks after conception, the embryo looks unmistakably human Fetus Definition: The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth Microphone readings taken inside the uterus have revealed that the fetus is exposed to the sound of its mother’s muffled voice At each prenatal stage, genetic and environmental factors affect our development Placenta: Forms as the zygote’s outer cells attached to the uterine wall, transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus Teratogens Definition: Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm If the mother carries HIV, the baby may also Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Definition: Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions

the nervous system somehow remembers Cognitive Development 4: From the perspective of Piaget and of today’s researchers. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus. experience adjusts it Motor Development The developing brain enables physical coordination As an infant’s muscles and nervous system mature. knowing. and one resembles an upside down face. buzzing confusion” Scientists have discovered that babies can tell us a lot – if one knows how to ask What can my baby hear. Paul Quinn and colleagues used a novelty-preference procedure to ask 4-month olds how they recognize cats and dogs Infants. and how do researchers explore infants’ mental abilities? Having survived prenatal hazards. smell. like adults focus on the face. see and think? Habituation Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. after which a pruning process shuts down excess connections and strengthens others Maturation Definition: Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior. more complicated skills emerge Genes play a major role in development Maturation and Infant Memory Our earliest memories seldom predate our third birthday Although we consciously recall little from before age 4.The Competent Newborn 2: What are some newborn abilities. your developing brain formed nerve cells at the explosive rate of nearly onequarter million per minute The developing brain actually overproduces neurons.Cognition Definition: All the mental abilities associated with thinking. relatively uninfluenced by experience Decrees many of our commonalities Sets the basic course of development. our memory was processing information during those early years What the conscious mind does not know and cannot express in words. remembering and communicating Developmental psychologist Jean Piaget spent his life searching for the answers to such questions A half-century spent with children convinced Piaget that a child’s mind is not a miniature model of an . we as newborns came equipped with automatic responses ideally suited for our survival William James presumed that the newborn experiences a “blooming. how do the brain and motor skills develop? Brain Development In your mother’s womb. their interest wanes and they look away sooner Janine Spencer. not the body When shown two visual stimuli with the same elements. with the number peaking at 28 weeks and then subsiding to a stable 23 billion or so at birth Fiber pathways support language and agility proliferate into puberty. but one resembles a face. how does a child’s mind develop? . newborns spend twice as long looking at the face-like image Infancy and Childhood 3: During infancy and childhood.

each with distinctive characteristics that permit special kinds of thinking Sensorimotor Stage Sensorimotor Stage Definition: In Piaget’s theory. we now understand that children reason differently in “wildly illogical ways about problems whose solutions are self-evident to adults” Piaget’s studies led him to believe that a child’s mind develops through a series of stages.adult’s Thanks partly to his work. volume and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects Egocentrism Egocentrism Definition: In Piaget’s theory. . followed by greater stability as they move from one cognitive plateau to the next Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking Piaget proposed that children progress through four stages of cognitive development. the stage from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic Idea about moving different liquids into different containers. the stage from birth to about 2 years of age during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities Object Permanence Definition: The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Researchers believe that Piaget and his followers underestimated young children’s competence Preoperational Stage Preoperational Stage Definition: In Piaget’s theory. a toddler may call all four-legged animals cows Accommodation Definition: Adapting to our current understands (schemas) to incorporate new information The child soon learns that the original cow schema is too broad and accommodates by refining the category Piaget believed that as children construct their understandings while interacting with the world. in an upward march from the newborn’s simple reflexes to the adult’s abstract reasoning power Piaget’s core idea is that the driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences Schemas Definition: Concepts or frameworks that organize and interpret information By adulthood we have built countless schemas. is inconceivable to young children Conservation Definition: The principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass. perceptions. ranging from cats and dogs. but some adults are egocentric as well Theory of Mind Theory of Mind Definition: People’s ideas about their own and other’s mental states – about their feelings. they experience spurts of change. the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view Asking a two year old to show Mommy a picture. they may show it to themselves and believe that the mother can see through their own eyes Children are more susceptible. for example. to our concept of love Assimilation Definition: Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas Having a simple schema for cow. same amount.

and thoughts. the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events Formal Operational Stage By age 12. another is familiarity Critical Period Definition: An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development Imprinting Definition: The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life Attachment Differences 6: How have psychologists studied attachment differences. babies in all cultures are social creatures. and the behaviors these might predict Concrete Operational Stage By about 6 or 7 years of age said Piaget. but neither do most 7 year olds Reflecting On Piaget’s Theory What remains of Piaget’s ideas about the child’s mind? Piaget would not be surprised that today. beginning by about 8 months of age The brain. secure attachment . feed and pat Familiarity Contact is one key to attachment. mind and social-emotional behavior develop together Origins of Attachment Attachment Definition: An emotional tie with another person.Strange situation. as part of our own cognitive development. and what have they learned? . our reasoning expands from the purely concrete (involving actual experience) to encompass abstract thinking (involving imagined realities and symbols) Formal Operational Stage Definition: In Piaget’s theory. shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation Body Contact How important caregiver/protective item (blanket) is Human infants too become attached to parents who are soft and warm and who rock. children enter the concrete operational stage Concrete Operational Stage Definition: In Piaget’s theory.What accounts for children’s attachment differences? .From birth. the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning around age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts Formal operational thinkers have no trouble answering correctly. we are adapting his ideas to accommodate new findings Implications for Parents and Teachers Young children are incapable of adult logic It is nature’s strategy for keeping children close to protective adults and providing time for learning and socialization Social Development 5: How do parent-infant attachment bonds form? . Stranger Anxiety Definition: The fear of strangers that infants commonly display. developing an intense bond with their caregivers.

etc. said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers Deprivation of Attachment 7: Do parental neglect. a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy. Disruption of Attachment What happens to an infant when attachment is disrupted? . some reason There are three identifiable parenting styles according to researchers 1: Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience 2: Permissive parents submit to their children’s desires 3: Authoritative parents are both demanding and responsive Too hard. research shows Does Day Care Affect Attachment? .In the mid-twentieth century. children’s self-concepts gradually strengthen Children’s views of themselves affect their actions Children who form a positive self-concept are more confident and sociable How can parents encourage a positive yet realistic self-concept? Parenting Styles Some parents spank. or daycare affect children’s attachments? . sometimes the “unloved” become the “unloving” Extreme early trauma seems to leave footprints on the brain Such findings help explain why young children terrorized through physical abuse or wartime atrocities may suffer other lasting wounds-often nightmares. when Mom-at-home was the social norm. what happens when circumstances prevent a child from forming attachments? .If placed in a more positive and stable environment. too soft. researchers asked “Is day care bad for children?” .In humans.Infancy’s social achievement is attachment Self-Concept Definition: Our understanding and evaluation of who we are Beginning with simple self-recognition. most infants recover from the separation distress Adults also suffer when attachments bonds are severed. and just right are what these styles are nicknamed The association between certain parenting styles and certain childhood outcomes is correlational Parents suffering with conflicting device and the stresses of child-rearing should remember that all advice reflects the advice-giver’s values We reach backward into our parents and forward into children . family disruption.The answer is no One ongoing study in 10 American cities has followed 1100 American children since the age of one month Found that children who were in daycare had better skills at 4-6 years of age What all children need is a loving relationship with adults that they can trust Self-Concept 8: How do children’s self-concepts develop.Researchers have more often studied mother care than father care Infants who lack a caring mother are said to suffer maternal deprivation Who lack a father merely experience father absence Basic Trust Definition: According to Erik Erikson. anxiety. and how are children’s traits related to parenting styles? .If secure attachment nurtures social competence. depression.

Physical Development 9: What physical changes mark adolescence? .Adolescence Adolescence Definition: The transition period from childhood to adulthood. and later researchers describe adolescent cognitive and moral development? .As young teenagers become capable of thinking about their thinking. though. Kohlberg. and they become more capable of abstract reasoning The ability to reason hypothetically and deduce consequences also enables them to detect inconsistencies in other’s reasoning and to spot hypocrisy This can lead to heated debates with parents and silent vows to never lose sight of their own ideals . reasoning is often self-focused Gradually. extending from puberty to independence. such as female breasts and hips.The sequence of physical changes in puberty is far more predictable than their timing . and body hair . they begin imagining what other people are thinking about them Developing Reasoning Power During the early teen years.Puberty . some boys start as late as 16 . testes. during which a person becomes capable of reproducing .Menarche .Some girls start as early as 9. and of thinking about other people’s thinking. and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible . male voice quality.Secondary Sex Characteristics . most achieve the intellectual summit Piaget called formal operations.Definition: Non-reproductive sexual characteristics.Definition: The period of sexual maturation.Heredity and environment interact Cognitive Development 10: How do Piaget.Definition: The body structures (ovaries.Definition: The first menstrual period .Primary Sex Characteristics .