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20) for steam at 250°C and 300 kPa. Solution: ( ( [ ( ) ) ] [ ) ( ( ( ) ) ) ]

from steam tables: ( ( ) ) ⁄ ⁄ ( ( ⁄ ) ) ⁄

2.) Using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, estimate the value of the enthalpy of vaporization of refrigerant-134a at 20°C. Solution: ( from refrigerant tables: ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ( ( ) ( ) ) ⁄ ) ⁄ ⁄ )

substituting these values to the equation for hfg: ( ) ( ⁄ )( ⁄ ⁄ )

The actual value of hfg is 181.09 kJ/kg.

3.) Estimate the saturation pressure of refrigerant-134a at-50°F, using the data available in the refrigerant tables. Solution: Using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation the saturation pressure can be extrapolated in the absence of a compete table. ( integrating the Clausius-Clapeyron equation: ( ) let T1 = -40°F and T2 = -50°F ( ) ( ⁄ ⁄ )( ) ( )( ) )( )

The actual value of the saturation pressure p2 at -50°F is 5.505 psia.

4.) Show that

for an ideal gas.

Solution: This relation is proved by showing that the right-hand side of (5.31) is equivalent to the gas constant R of the ideal gas: ( ) ( )

(

)

( subtituting: ( )

)

( )

(

)

( ) (

)

5.) Show that the Joule-Thompson coefficient of an ideal gas is zero. Solution: ( For an ideal gas ) * ( ) +

⁄ , and thus ( )

substituting: * ( ) + [ ] ( )

6.) Determine the enthalpy change and entropy change of oxygen per unit mole as it undergoes a change of state from 220°K and 5 MPa to 300°K and 10 MPa (a) by assuming ideal-gas behavior and (b) by accounting for the deviation from ideal-gas behavior. Solution: (a) The enthalpy values at the initial and the final temperatures can be determined from the ideal-gas table at the specified temperatures: ̅ ) ( ) ⁄ (̅ ̅ ) ⁄ (̅ The entropy depends on both temperature and pressure even for ideal gases. Under the ideal-gas assumption, the entropy change of oxygen is determined from ̅ ( ̅ ̅ ) ̅ ̅ where: ̅ ( ̅ ̅ ) ∫ ̅ ( ) ( ( ̅ ̅ ) ) ⁄ ⁄ ( ⁄ )

(b) The deviation from the ideal-gas behavior can be accounted for by determining the enthalpy and entropy from the generalized charts at each state: }

and }

Then,

̅ ⁄

̅ ̅ (

(̅ ̅

̅ ) ⁄

̅ )[ ⁄

( (

) )]

and ̅ ⁄ ̅ ̅ ( ̅ ̅ ( ̅ ) ⁄ ⁄ ̅( )( ) )

7.) Using p-v-T data for saturated water, calculate the (a) latent heat of vaporization at 100°C and (b) sg – sf. Solution: (a) ( ) ( ( from steam tables: ( )( ) ⁄ ⁄ This agrees very closely with the value read from the steam tables, hfg = 2257 kJ/kg. (b) ⁄ ⁄ * ( ( ) ) + ) )( )

8.) Determine the ug – uf of water at 100°C. Solution: ( )

since vaporization occurs at constant pressure: ( from steam tables: ⁄ ( ⁄ ) ⁄ )

9.) For liquid water at 1 atm and 20°C, estimate the percent error in cv that would result if it were assumed that cp = cv. Solution: ( ⁄ )( ⁄ ⁄ ( ⁄ )( ) ( ) ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ )( )

(

)(

)

10.) Using hfg, vfg and psat at 10°F from the refrigerant-134a tables, estimate the saturation pressure at 20°F. Solution: ( )

integrating the above equation yields:

⁄ ⁄ :

( (

) )

Reference: Y. A. Yunus and M. A. Boles. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 4th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. M. J. Moran and H. N. Shapiro. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, 5th Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004.

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