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IN TEXAS A Dissertation Proposal Submitted to the Whitlowe R. Green College of Education Prairie View A&M University In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy _______________________ By Mary Ann Springs _______________________ September 2010 Prairie View A&M University _______________________
Table of Contents List of Tables.....................................................................................................................iv Data Collection Table 1 57...............................................................................................iv Chapter I.............................................................................................................................1 Barriers to African American Male Leadership at Predominantly White Institutions .............................................................................................................................................3 The History of African American Education.......................................................................5 The Significance of HBCU's and African American Male Leadership.......................6 Research Questions............................................................................................................8 Purpose of the Study.........................................................................................................9 Significance of the Study...................................................................................................9 Delimitations of the Study...............................................................................................20 Limitations........................................................................................................................20 Definition of Terms..........................................................................................................21 Organization of the Study...............................................................................................22 Chapter II.........................................................................................................................23 Review of Literature........................................................................................................23 History of Black Education in the South.......................................................................23 The Rise and Significance of the HBCU........................................................................24 Critical Moments in African American History...........................................................26 Black Leaders and Politics.................................................................................................26 The Jim Crow Laws and Segregation................................................................................27 The Black Power and Civil Rights Movements................................................................27 The Black Family and Community....................................................................................28 African American Leadership and National Leaders..................................................28 ii
Leadership Styles of African American Men................................................................29 Frederick Douglass ...........................................................................................................29 Henry Highland Garnet......................................................................................................30 Marcus Garvey...................................................................................................................31 Booker T. Washington.......................................................................................................32 Malcolm X.........................................................................................................................34 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr..................................................................................................35 Educational Leaders of African American HBCU's....................................................36 Black Faculty in Higher Education....................................................................................36 African American Male Administrators in Higher Education....................................38 Leadership Demands at HBCU's...................................................................................41 The Significance of Mentorship for African American Males....................................42 Critical Race Theory.......................................................................................................43 Resilience Theory.............................................................................................................44 Risk Factors that threaten African American Male Youth.........................................46 Chapter III.......................................................................................................................49 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................................49 Methodology ....................................................................................................................50 Research Design...............................................................................................................52 Actual Research Design...................................................................................................54 Subjects of the Study.......................................................................................................55 Table 1...............................................................................................................................57 Instruments......................................................................................................................57 Validity of the Data..........................................................................................................61 Procedures.....................................................................................................................62 iii
Data Analysis....................................................................................................................68 Summary .........................................................................................................................70 References.........................................................................................................................71 Appendices........................................................................................................................78 Appendix A: Demographic Instrument.........................................................................79 Appendix B: Interview Questions..................................................................................83 Appendix C: Interview Protocol.....................................................................................86 Appendix F: Consent Form............................................................................................93 Appendix G: Informed Consent to Audio Tape Interview..........................................97 Appendix H: Revised Interview Instrument.................................................................99
List of Tables Data Collection Table 1...................................................................................................57
Chapter I African American males for centuries have had a history of fighting for basic rights promised for all under the American Constitution: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Since the African American's arrival to the shores of North America, he was forced to deny the existence and practice of his culture in exchange for thinking, working, and living like a slave until his death. This life of servitude was inescapable and, inevitably passed down from generation to generation (Dubois, 2003). Life for African Americans, especially African American males, has continued to look dismal. According to DuBois (2003), the American society has stereotyped African Americans as lazy, insolent, aggressive, and unintelligent compared to the dominant race. While these views are often opinionated and over-rated, such speculation has caused a negative view of African American males to permeate throughout society. This negative aura has left African American males marginalized, criminalized, and dehumanized (DuBois). In the Children’s Aid Society (2006) summary report of statistics on the African American Initiative, showed more than 29% of African American youth 15 years and older were more likely to be incarcerated, compared to 4.4% White American boys. Black males represented 49% of inmate population, while only 4% attended college, and 3% actually graduated. Less than one-half of African American males were employed and 50% who attended metropolitan schools dropped-out. Homicide was the number one killer among African American youth. In lieu of the research on the societal, political, and educational displacement of African American males (Bashi, 1991; Dubois, 2003;
2 Smith, 2004; & Woodson, 2005), it is not surprising that the statistics following this group are alarming and assist in perpetuating the problem. In the area of education, the Child Society Aid (2006) report showed that African American males are over-represented in areas of suspension, discipline referrals, and special education programs. Due to the heavy publicity of failure in these areas, African American male representation in Gifted and Talented or Advanced Placement programs is void in the literature. The report further indicated that African American male's failure in these areas has served as a catalyst to other societal problems such as incarceration, homicide, drugs, gang violence, and persistent drop-out rates in education. In Tillman’s (2004) study of African American males enrolled in community colleges, many agreed that their educational experience was one in which they experienced isolation, little support, and resources, which included an underrepresentation of role-models and a lack of mentorship programs . College environments which are non-supportive and fail to meet the needs of African American males, may contribute to transferring or dropping- out of the program (Tillman, 2004). The low performance and underrepresentation of African American males has become a growing concern for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) as well. Factors that prevented African American males from attending college were the obligation of being the provider for the family, the negative influence of pop culture, and the lack of educated role models (Cuyjet, 2006). While these problems hold true for African American male youth, African American males at the collegiate and leadership levels in higher education face similar race-related barriers (Frazier, 2009). According to Jackson (2008), African American
3 males lag behind White American males economically when considering that White Americans earn more income than African American males and are more likely to receive promotions. This malady is related to hiring selections for executive positions where White American males are more likely to be selected over African American males in leadership position (Jackson, 2008). Barriers to African American Male Leadership at Predominantly White Institutions Smith, Turner, Kofi, and Richards (2004) assert that African American males in leadership at Predominantly White Institutions (PWI) experience similar challenges. Risk factors that impact these leaders include voicelessness, tokenism, isolation from one's culture, and stress when being forced to adopt mainstream ideals that are inconsistent with their values. In addition, African American faculty at Predominantly White Institutions (PWI) experience little opportunities for tenure, promotions, and scholarship. In some cases, exploration of studies regarding African American phenomenon is not considered scholarship worthy and is highly void in mainstream review of literature (Smith et al., 2004). These negative factors speak to the relevance of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in the development of African American male leadership (King & Watts, 2004). Relatively few studies purport the experiences of African American males who have become successful in spite of barriers such as racism, discrimination, and inequality (Daniel, 2006; Ellison, 2007; Frazier, 2009). A study was found on African American educational leadership at an HBCU, but all participants of the study were female (Green, 2009). Therefore, the purpose of this study will be to give voice to four African American male educational leaders, by conducting a phenomenological research study that will
4 examine the emergence of educational leadership as perceived, experienced, and exercised by African American male administrators of a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) in Southwest Texas. The conceptual frameworks for this study will be based on critical race (CRT) and resilience theories. Critical race theory (CRT) seeks to counter traditional theories and practices that marginalize people of color. Critical race theory attempts to give voice to the oppressed through stories concerning experiences related to racial discrimination and inequality that have served as contributing factors to their lack of life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness (Creswell, 2007). According to Delgado (1999) and Bell (1995), much of one's own reality is socially constructed and that reliving the experience can be medicinal to the wounds caused by oppression and racism. Through the understanding of how race and discrimination negatively impact marginalized groups, oppressors are challenged to reflect on their practices and behavior toward the oppressed. Resilience theory is the anti-thesis to critical race theory. While CRT exposes racial and discriminatory practices through lived experiences of the victim, Resilience theory seeks to identify factors that contributed to the rise and success of individuals experiencing oppression (Zimmerman, Ramirez-Valles, & Maton, 1999). These frameworks will seek to expose the participants fight against inequality and/or discrimination through the lens of critical race theory (CRT). Resilience may be a contributing factor to overcoming barriers which led to the success of four African American male educational leaders at a Southwestern Historical Black College and University in Texas (Daniel, 2006; Frazier, 2009).
5 Background of the Problem The History of African American Education African Americans, historically, have had a difficult journey navigating through the social, political, economical, and educational systems of America. While these systems were in place and controlled by the dominate culture during the Southern Antebellum, such systems were not privileged to people held as slaves. As it pertains to education, slaves were usually taught by the mistress or children of slave owners who went to school, though such acts were prohibited by law (Slavery and the Civil War, 2009). At the sunset of slavery and the dawn of public education in the South, newly freed slaves sought education as a means of access to these systems which they felt could alter their lives and the lives of their families. (DuBois, 2003; Woodson, 2005; Woolfolk, 1986). With the rise of institutions of higher education for Negroes, it was clear to the African American community that education played a critical part in the entrance into public education with their White counterparts. The dream was often challenged due to the lack of funding, which produced heavy reliance on Black colleges, White philanthropy, and missionaries who gained control of these state supported schools. It wasn't until the Morrill Land Grant Act that states in the South actually began funding public schools of Higher Education (Allen & Jewel, 2002; Woolfolk, 1986). With the birth of freedom, came the emergence of African American leaders such as W. E. B. DuBois and his contemporary, Booker T. Washington. These two pivotal leaders debated on which form of education program was best suited for the needs of its constituents. DuBois rallied in favor of the Liberal Arts, while
6 Washington sought education for skills in industrialism. The debate was so sharp among the two, that the African American community was split. One group supported the views of DuBois, who openly attacked racism and believed in a Liberal Arts curriculum, in contrast to Washington's group that took a more conservative approach to injustice (Allen et al., 2002; Woolfolk, 1986). For many decades, a remnant of African American male leaders began to surface as their right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness were challenged by the status quo. Although the efforts of DuBois and Washington were noble, equity of education between Blacks and Whites was not reached. The nation's leaders sought to equalize the playing field of education through the efforts of the Freedman's Bureau (1865), desegregation through the Supreme Court's ruling of Brown vs. the Board of Education (1954), and the rise of the Civil Rights Movement (19551968), yet the nation's schools were still segregated (Allen et al., 2002; DuBois, 2003). The Significance of HBCU's and African American Male Leadership The desire for autonomy in decision-making and the need to raise leaders to continue the mission of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) remains a critical issue. A growing body of research shows that African American males are missing in action at the public post-secondary levels of education (Green, 2001; Jackson, 2001; Wiley, 2001). According to Green (2001), the escalation of African American male drop-out rates has become a major concern for policy-makers and the educational community across the nation, yet the problem continues to persist. Factors for the decline in graduation rates have not been specifically identified, but some factors may include political, social, and cultural barriers. The implication is that if drop-out rates among
7 African American males continue to decline, the critical presence of future leadership among Black men in public and higher education will continue to remain marginal (DuBois, 2003; Eatman, 2000; Green, 2001). African American male leadership is crucial to the African American community with the rise of Black-on-Black crime, poor academic performance, the overrepresentation of Black males in special education, and disproportionate numbers of African American male incarceration in comparison to other races (Children’s Aid Society, 2006; Ladson-Billings (1999). Without proper guidance programs and the necessary mentors and coaches to help young African American males, this group may lack the resilience to work hard and become productive citizens that will carry the legacy of African American male leadership (Children’s Aid Society, 2006). The consistent decline of African American male participation and contribution to the African American community could lead to the absence of future leaders of HBCU's and public schools in general (Jackson, 2001; Wiley, 2001; Woodson, 2005). The researcher and a library research specialist used ProQuest, Sage Publications, and EBSCO Host search engines to locate studies on African American male leadership experiences at a Historically Black College and University in the Southwestern region of the United States. After this exhaustive search, no dissertation study was found in the research literature. Therefore, the researcher decided to conduct a phenomenological study devoted to examining the emergence of African American male educational leadership as perceived, experienced, and exercised by African American male administrators of a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) in Southwest Texas.
8 Research Questions The following research questions will guide the study. According to Marshall and Rossman, as cited in Creswell (2007), the central question of a phenomenological study should be explanatory in nature when little is known about a particular phenomenon and descriptive when describing patterns related to the phenomenon. Therefore, the researcher developed the following questions in order to capture these formats. 1. What critical moments in history have impacted the educational leadership style(s) of four African-American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University? 2. Describe how leadership style(s) have evolved over the past three decades of four African American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University. 3. Which leaders from the past have left an impression on four African-American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University? 4. In the face of social, political, and racial adversities, what influenced the decisions of four African American male educational leaders at a Southwestern Historically Black College and University? 5. How do these four leaders describe and demonstrate their leadership style when interacting with others? 6. How has the leadership of four senior African American male educational leaders influenced policy and practice over the years and what changes were needed for improvement?
9 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study will be to give voice to four African American male educational leaders, by conducting a phenomenological research study that will examine the emergence of educational leadership as perceived, experienced and exercised by African American male administrators of a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) in Southwest Texas. Significance of the Study The constant decline of African-American male drop-out rates in public and higher education, has posed a serious threat to the recruitment and retention of African American male leadership (Cuyjet, 2006). With the internal and external pressure from policy makers to diversify their student body, faculty, and staff, public institutions in higher education are gradually acknowledging the persistent socioeconomically disadvantage of African American males (Smith et al., 2004). Even in the attempt to adequately diversify campuses, diversity initiatives have been futile, therefore perpetuating marginalization of ethnic groups (Wiley, 2001). A study on factors that contribute to the disparate representation of African American men, confirms that African American male leaders lag behind their White counterparts in the academic workforce, proving that hiring practices are more favorable for White American males than African American males (Jackson, 2008). Absence of Black leadership and Black mentors will not only impact public and post-secondary schools, who educate African American males but will impact these young men by decreasing their influence and visibility at the social, political, economical, and educational levels (Stupak, 2008). Failure in these areas could ultimately affect the nation
10 as a whole when considering true and timely reformation. Designing a hermeneutical phenomenological study that will focus on the life experiences of four senior African American male educational leaders at a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) may serve as a tool to restore what "excellence in action" looked like in the form of phenomenology. Data collection will include interviews, documents, and artifacts designed to capture the essence of each participant. The desired outcome will be four-fold: (1) to foster the meaningful paternal relationships from senior educational leaders to succeeding generations; (2) to teach and share leadership characteristics with young male youth of all backgrounds; (3) to encourage African American males to complete graduation; and (4) to inspire and motivate African American males aspiring leadership positions in public and higher education. The study will provide four African American male educational leaders the opportunity to be heard with minimal interpretation from the researcher. This study will not reflect the thoughts and opinions of the entire African American male educational leadership population; neither will the narrative experiences of the participants be germane to all African American male educational leaders but will provide voice to the four participants of the study. In a broader sense, the study will add to the limited body of research on African American male educational leadership among Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in the Southwest region of the United States. Assumptions According to Moustakas, as cited by Creswell (2007), “the first step toward "phenomenological reduction" in the analysis of the data is for the researcher to set aside
11 all preconceived ideas or experiences in order to best understand the experiences of the participants” (p. 235). The researcher will therefore share her experiences with risk and protective factors that have framed her interpretation of leadership. While growing-up in Bellville, Texas, a small town with a population of less than ten thousand residents, in 1968, I learned to appreciate my father as the leader of our family. His outstanding work ethic served as a model that helped me cope with discrimination, inequality, and a negative self-concept that I would have to overcome in order to take my place in society and serve humanity. I am the second product of the union of a 13 year old Black female, Dorothy Gilmore and a 17 year old Black male, Howard Palmer. Considered adolescents themselves, as compared to the age of marriage of the present, little did the two realize that their decision to stay together would stabilize our family. My father's life set the stage for my quest for strong leadership as a guide in overcoming pre-existing barriers I would face and continue to face in the "game of life" in America. As the second oldest of seven children, I think I loved my father the most because he was my hero, the person I looked to for strength within the fragile world of my imagination. My father became my first point of reference as I began to frame my definition of leadership. He often shared stories and experiences of how hard life was for African Americans during his adolescent years. He told me about his job as a young sharecropper picking a hundred pounds of cotton a day to help provide money for food for the family. While he had an eighth grade education and my mother a third, the owners of the crop fields made it clear (to the principals of the colored school) that education was
12 secondary to the planting and picking of cotton. Black students spent half the school year in the cotton fields. Daddy's family prided themselves on strong work ethics. A few years later, when his father decided to desert his wife and eight children, my dad and his siblings became the bread winners for the family. Dad told me of many occasions in which a "good" family name caused White people to help them buy food when they only had bread to live by. The separation of my dad's mother and father hurt him as a child, so he vowed that if he ever had a family, he would not repeat the decision his father made. It was in the cotton patch where my dad met my mother. The two formed a union and started their family. My parents had no home of their own, so they resided with my mother's mother and step-father. My mother had her first child, Shirley, at age 13, and I was born a year and a half later. Due to my mother's step-father's attempt to sexually molest Shirley, my parents were kicked-out of the house and forced to find shelter in an old abandoned car until they could find a place to live. Although his education was limited, dad found odd jobs by utilizing his ability to work hard to support his young family. One day a rich White cattle owner by the name of Calvert Mewis (whom my dad worked for on a few occasions), saw my dad walking on the road and asked him where he was going. My dad told him that he and his family had no place to stay and were hungry. Mr. Mewis had empathy for his situation and made a deal that if my dad would faithfully serve him, he would provide land, a home, and food for the rest of his life. With the desire to show his appreciation, dad became the "John Henry" of cattle wrestling for Mr. C.A. Mewis' Livestock business. Dad spoke of how at the young age of 18, he would throw 200 to 300 pound
13 cows and bulls with his bare hands. While his strong inner-drive and undaunted work ethic won the favor of Mr. Mewis, it created animosity among the sons of Mr. Mewis and his other hired hands. Mr. Mewis often referred to my dad as his "Black" son. There wasn't a need that my dad had that Mr. Mewis did not meet. Because of his strong determination, unwavering courage, and moral code of ethics, my dad emerged as an outstanding African American male leader in my eyes. The lack of black-owned gas stations, convenience stores, and Blacks in public offices at the time, left me few examples of African American male leadership. As the years passed, my mom had five more children where she remained a stayat-home mom until our teenage years. It was during middle school at Bellville where I began to see the deadly blow of the lack of empowerment of African Americans at the social, political, and economical levels. There was an understood divide that existed between the Black and White residents of Bellville. This divide was apparent in the types of housing available to Blacks, which were mostly the "Projects." Other homes owned by Blacks looked like run-down shacks, compared to the nice brick houses that many of my non-Black peers resided. In lieu of embedded racism, the social structure of the town was fragmented with Whites and Blacks perpetuating the values of their respective race. Economically, I saw more Blacks working for Whites or White-owned businesses than working for themselves. Occasionally, my mother would clean houses for White women, which I detested. I attempted to show my disdain by referring to her type of work as "slavery." Observing my parents constant subjection and dependence on White people served as my motivation to pursue a singing career in Country/Western music.
14 Blacks and Whites were divided educationally. Black families that lacked the home structure and educational tools to help their children with academics were prone to teacher referrals that placed Black children in special education programs, services in which I received. None of the Palmer children (including myself) have attended Bellville schools without being retained. Almost 95% of my siblings' children that attend schools in Bellville have been retained, and 100% of boys in our family who attended these schools were retained and placed in special education. This stigmatism placed upon my family by Bellville I.S.D. still exists today. While I attended Bellville High, Advanced Placement courses were predominately White, with one or two Black students. The staff was predominately White with two African American female teachers, one who taught special education and the other taught Spanish. Absent was the presence of any Black male leaders at Bellville High School during my years as a student. These programs only reinforced the thought that gradually developed in my mind… that White people were better than Black people. I wanted the life that Whites had, so I began to talk like them, sing like them, and even attempted to date them. I became so obsessed in trying to date White guys that Black boys began to call me "White boy lover." Consequently, White guys were afraid to date Black girls because of the prejudice and racism that engulfed the town. Politically, as I recollect, no Blacks held a political position in Bellville. I didn't see Blacks gathering at voting booths or being solicited to vote for a particular political party. My parents never exercised their right to vote because voting wasn't an important factor for them at the time. Mom and dad didn't consider themselves intellects; they were laborers and didn't feel the need to voice their political views. We spent the majority of
15 our lives working for Mr. Mewis by hauling-hay, picking pecans, raking leaves, and manicuring their lawns. Because I lacked the awareness of the power of voting and the price that the Black community paid to acquire it, I didn't practice voting until I became a student at Prairie View A&M University. Needless to say, while my family learned the value of hard work, which was modeled by my father, I began to desire mentors and rolemodels who could lead me beyond the dismal life that I saw un-educated African Americans become victims. I was determined not to fall prey to the poverty and hopelessness that permeated throughout the African American community. The only solace I could find was my relationship with Christ. When I obeyed the Gospel at 17 years of age, the word of God became my hope of a better life for me and my family. As a means of escape from my family's present condition, I followed the advice of the African-American special education teacher who not only encouraged me to go to college but drove me there. My high school guidance counselor, on the other hand, pushed me toward a trade school rather than college. I admit that I harbored distrust and hatred toward Whites who mistreated Blacks while living in Bellville. It was at this point in my life that I knew that only a relationship with God could free me from this pessimistic attitude I had developed. Through prayer, attending church, and working-out my soul's salvation, my greatest leader, Jesus took control of my life. Although the painful memories were still there, I was able to forgive and move-on with my life. When I stepped on Prairie View's campus, I had never seen so many African Americans at one time. It was intimidating because I only remembered negative stories and images about African American people and how they were prone to violence,
16 especially among each other. Upon my enrollment in the Fall of 1987, I saw young people just like me striving for the only equalizer for the Black community - education. My high school G.P.A. was a 2.7. I had no intentions of going to college; therefore, I took my grade point average for granted. I had no knowledge of the SAT or ACT College entrance exams. In order to complete the admissions process, I had to take the THEA and based upon my scores in math, I had to take two remediation classes. I didn't care what amount of courses I needed to take; I was on my way to becoming a student at Prairie View A & M University and that's what mattered to me. The faculty at Prairie View took me under their wings and helped me navigate through the financial aid process. I was the first and only member of my immediate family who went to college and graduated with a BA and Masters degree. As I took the educational route, I was happy to be free from the influence of the dominant culture. At Prairie View, I saw African American males dressed in fine suits, neatly groomed hair, articulating eloquent speech, and taking charge as leaders. Seeing Black men in this light really excited me because I rarely saw such examples in my hometown, and definitely not in such abundance. In 1989, I entered and won the Miss Prairie View A & M University Scholarship Pageant. This event allowed me to represent Prairie View on national television at The Miss Texas Pageant in Fort Worth, Texas. My reign as Miss Prairie View A & M University afforded me the opportunity to demonstrate my ability to lead and serve the school community. My new role as one of the campus leaders meant that the critical eye of society would be upon me. This thought raised a level of self-awareness of the leader I was attempting to become.
17 As previously mentioned, my strategy for overcoming social and economical oppression was to become the first Black female "Charley Pride" in Country/Western music. This was going to be my ticket out of poverty and feelings of inferiority. So I began writing songs and recording in studios with Mr. Fredrick V. Roberts, who later became my manager. While pursuing my career and education, I served the university and various campus organizations with performances for the next three years and still today. Mr. Roberts and I experienced racism in the music industry whether in local country music and nationally-televised competitions. In 1990, my leadership opportunities were further advanced when I represented Prairie View A&M University as Miss Collegiate African American among twenty five Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU). Danny Glover introduced my Country & Western performance who later invited me to perform for a celebrity gala, where he offered me moral support. Danny Glover became a giant in my eyes on an occasion in which he stepped-in to handle some miscommunication with my hotel reservations. I was impressed at how expediently the situation was corrected; it was great witnessing Black leadership in action. That experience made me proud to see an African American man stand with boldness and power in the midst of a Predominately White society. This encounter served as the catalyst of my paradigm shift regarding African American male leadership. These two pivotal moments of my history with Prairie View A & M University took me out of a small town which practiced discrimination and racism, to a larger platform which instituted similar acts as well. I eventually became discouraged in pursuing the music industry and focused my attention toward educating young minds in
18 the public education system and temporarily suspended my dreams of stardom. During my educational pursuit at the Doctoral level at Prairie View, I often wondered what obstacles or racial barriers generations before me had to endure. If only I had a mentor who utilized certain strategies in overcoming discrimination, perhaps I would have stood my ground in the pursuit of my career goal. Providentially re-directed from my goal as a Country/Western star, I chose to enter the teaching profession. While working my way toward certification, I fell in love with the idea of cultivating young minds and making a difference in the lives of children. By this time, my husband and I started a network marketing business with about 100 business associates. Although we didn't earn much money, we invested thousands of dollars into leadership conferences, books, audio-tapes, and CD's on attitude, skills with people, and the art of leadership. As a teacher, I was able to take the success principles from great authors such as Napoleon Hill, Dale Carnegie, Les Giblin, Dennis Kimbro, Robert Schuller, Mason Weaver, John Maxwell, and Frederick K. Price and transform my students from having a "negative" self-concept to having a positive self-concept. We rubbed shoulders with multi-millionaires who practiced the dynamics of leadership within a network of thousands of people. The majority of the men who held the highest level of leadership were White males and only few were African Americans. In fact, the majority of African American representations at leadership conferences were members of the African American major leader's organizations. My up-line leaders were predominately African American; the experience of learning how to train and develop leaders was invaluable. As I observed these men, I sensed their sincere desire to pass the torch of leadership to our generation. They were
19 not afraid to talk about their challenges and triumphs that allowed them to accomplish their goals as leaders of mega organizations. Although our marketing business gradually dissolved, 10 years of leadership experience helped me to form a concept of what servant leadership was about. After my business ownership experience, I began to focus more on education. I have worked at three different school districts and have become quite disturbed in the lack of African American male teacher and leader representation. As I sat in data disaggregation meetings with the superintendent of schools, it was clear that the African American male population performed the lowest among all groups on state mandated tests. I felt like a failure as a teacher leader in 4th grade because they were the students who filled the inschool suspension room daily. I knew that our African American boys were in trouble. The Superintendent of Hempstead Independent School District became the first Black superintendent in 2007. He challenged the district to change the direction of this volatile population. I accepted this challenge by desiring to conduct a research study on men who have experienced the challenges of living as an African American male in the United States of America. I knew that I needed to find men who were experts in leadership, who had overcome even greater barriers than generations to follow could imagine. This quest led me back to my educational home, Prairie View A & M University, where I could now study the lives of men who understood what leadership was all about. My intention was to conduct a study that would reveal factors that made these men resilient and perhaps utilize this information to "restore" African American male leadership. I knew such models existed at Prairie View A&M because I had known and
20 watched great leaders give back to the University with years of service and contribution. The challenge of obtaining this information would be accessibility, so, I wanted to conduct a study that would chronicle the lives of these men and their contributions to African American male leadership. Delimitations of the Study For the purpose of this study, the researcher chose the following criterion for participant selection: This study will look at four African American male administrators, therefore eliminating the experiences and contributions of African American female administrators. The participants of the study have served as educational leaders at a Southwestern Historically Black College and University (HBCU). In addition, the participants of the study are currently serving as a professor or administrator at the university chosen for the study. The participants of the study have served the HBCU for 30 or more years in the College of Education. Based on the criterion, four African American male educational leaders emerged as participants for the study. Limitations The study may include the following limitations: First, the participant's narrative expressions may be limited to the researcher's ability to use strong and descriptive language in order to accurately report the experience. Second, since the study and experiences are specific to the participants in question, the reproduction of this study for a larger population with different demographic and racial make-up could change the outcome. Third, since participants will be sharing experiences from the past, their expressions may be limited to their capacity to recollect information. Fourth, the study
21 will depend upon the honest responses of the participants while sharing their experiences. Fifth, since the four participants are actively serving as leaders or as teachers, their availability may be limited when scheduling interviews. Sixth, overt observations of the participants may threaten their true leadership behavior when operating under a difficult situation. Definition of Terms Table 10.2, as displayed in Creswell (2008), distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative research. Quantitative research definition of key terms is listed as a critical component of the format, whereas with qualitative research, key terms derive as the study progresses. A general definition of key terms will be used until further terms develop throughout the study. For the purpose of the study, the following terms will be used: African American-An American of African and especially Black African descent (www.merriam-webster.com). Educational Leadership- the office or position of a leader (www.merriamwebster.com ). An operational definition (Creswell, 2008; Fraenkel & Wallen, 2006) would include the effective use of human and financial resources by an educational administrator, through a spirit of teamwork, toward the mission of the school. Historically Black College and University - any college or university that was established prior to 1964, whose principal mission was, and is, the education of Black Americans (Higher Education Act of 1965). Predominately White Institution (PWI) - any college or university that was established prior to 1964, whose school management and enrollment were majority
22 White. Organization of the Study Chapter one detailed the problem, need, and significance of the study; defined critical race and resilience theories; and provided a summary of the chapters. Chapter two will provide a review of related literature. Chapter three will describe the methodology and rationale of the study. The researcher will provide analysis of the data, the researcher's role, and a summary. Chapter four will present the analysis of the data. Chapter five will culminate with the summary, conclusions, and recommendations for further research.
23 Chapter II Review of Literature In order to understand the phenomenon of African American male leadership, it is important to understand their history as a people. The aftermath of slavery, racism, and inequality has left a negative impact on the plight of African American males at the educational, social, and political levels (Woodson, 2005). It is important to note that these risk factors have significantly decreased the pool of African American males as future leaders in society (Eatman, 2000; Green, 2001; Wiley, 2001). Racism and inequality has had a major impact on African Americans and continues to affect many aspects of their lives. The literature review will begin with the history of Black education in the South. The rise and significance of HBCU's will lead to the establishment of African American male leaders at the national level. Leadership styles of African American men will be discussed in addition to their barriers in higher education. This chapter will also discuss the significance of mentorship for future generations of African American males and discuss critical race and resilience theories. The literature will end with risk factors that potentially threaten African American males. History of Black Education in the South Unlike Predominately White Institutions (PWI) in the Northern region of America, Historically Black Colleges and Universities grew-out of the aftermath of the Civil War from 1860-1865 (Allen et al., 2002). The dawn of slavery gave rise to the birth of education for African Americans, who since their arrival to southern plantations were denied access to education. From the freedman's perspective, education held the keys to
24 political, economical, and social mobility. Violation of the laws to read and write resulted in negative and sometimes fatal consequences (Slavery and the Civil War, 2009). No matter how challenging the slave master made the acquisition of education, slaves found creative ways to possess the coveted ability to read and one day, write. Before, and certainly after the Civil War, slaves in the South demonstrated their bold desire for education by setting-up their own churches and informal schools. Many slaves were educated through the telling of stories, singing of songs, and gospel messages by religious leaders in the community (“Slavery and the Civil War”, 2009). The Rise and Significance of the HBCU According to Woolfolk (1986), the fall of slavery led to the establishment of schools for young newly freed slaves. In less than a decade, over 100 schools for people of color were established. The majority were day schools, while some serviced students at night. These schools were heavily underfunded and lacked adequate facilities for teaching, but nevertheless, African American male leaders (with the help of state government, philanthropists, and White religious groups) demonstrated resilience in managing to keep school doors open for business in the Black community (Allen et al., 2002). It was within the walls of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) that African Americans found a degree of solace. HBCU's focused on preparing young African Americans for education and a successful transition into society. In 1878, the first public Historically Black College and University was established in Southwest Texas. Alta Vista Normal College for Negroes became the first Black public school for freed slaves. The school was built upon the ruins of a slave plantation owned by Jared and Helen Kirby in Waller County in 1876. Many public schools of
25 Higher Education in the South became training grounds for teachers who served in the field teaching uneducated former slaves (Woolfolk, 1986). According to Bennett and Yu Xie (2003), Historically Black Colleges and Universities were an answer to the racial reprise that African Americans were inferior to Whites; therefore, Blacks were excluded from Public White Institutions. Although Black schools were considered inferior in terms of building and financial support, school leaders were diligent in keeping the doors open to the Black community (Jackson, 2007; Woolfolk, 1986). The Black community valued education and believed it served as a path to overcoming political, economical, and social inequality. HBCU's were responsible for the rise of national leaders such as W. E. B. Dubois, Booker T. Washington, and Dr. Martin Luther King. In Benett and Yu Xie's (2003) study on the role of HBCU's in education, collective data showed that HBCU's accounted for a significant number of college degrees awarded to African American students than other institutions. The research further asserts that African American students preferred HBCU's over PWI's because Black universities had a more nurturing environment, which made them to feel connected to the university. Students also felt the faculty and staff were more supportive at HBCU's by providing academic and financial assistance (Bennett & Yu Xie, 2003). Black Colleges and Universities have historically served as institutions that have recruited, nurtured, and retained African American students and leaders. Bennett and Xie (2003) argue that HBCU's have greater success in nurturing students through race pride, the value of African American history, and social interactions among the school community. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) have made
26 contributions to American Education by producing a large professional workforce and advocates for the cause of racial equity for minorities (Bennett & Xie, 2003). Critical Moments in African American History Black Leaders and Politics In the late 1800's, the poor economical plight of Blacks in the South did not victimize all. There were remnants of Blacks who rose to power and leadership in spite of laws that worked against them. According to DuBois (2003), leadership had to come from Blacks themselves because they felt their White counterparts did not have their best interest in mind. During the 50's, emerging Black leaders needed the power of the ballot in order to make political changes for their race. DuBois (2003) further purported that the Black vote became a threat to the North and South, therefore, the ignorant, as well as many of the established Blacks, were deterred from exercising their right to vote. In the final analysis, Blacks viewed politics as a vice for personal gain by those who participated. As a result of non-participation in politics, Blacks became victims of dehumanization with no protection under the law. From 1876 to 1965, the Jim Crow Laws were mandated as local and state laws across the United States. These laws were designed to create artificial separation between Blacks and Whites, especially in the South. Blacks were disadvantaged at the political, economical, educational, and social levels. Civil rights and civil liberties were also denied to Blacks. In the Brown vs. Board of Education in 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled segregation unconstitutional and the Jim Crow laws were dismantled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (DuBois, 2003; Harper, 2008; Woodson, 2005).
27 The Jim Crow Laws and Segregation The Jim Crow Laws were designed to reinforce political, economical, and social suppression among African Americans (Woodson, 2005). In the face of challenges and adversity experienced by African Americans, some have developed the mental fortitude to rise above temporary setbacks. DuBois (2003) and Woodson (2005) articulated that while segregation was prevalent throughout the South, soldiers of the United States Army (through World War 1) were segregated as well. African American males played supportive roles in the army, but most did not see combat. The Black Power and Civil Rights Movements The Black Power Movement of the 1960's and the Civil Rights Movement became two critical moments in African American history and leadership. In the fight for an end to racism and the quest for equality, the Black Power Movement took a militant approach to assuage the problem of African Americans living in America. Their political ideology involved race pride, political and cultural institutions, and Black interests. The movement sought to separate African Americans from the mainstream and build a selfsufficient race (Herton, 1996). The Civil Rights movement has had a long history in the United States. The movement, though mostly fought through non-violence, opened the door to social and legal acceptance for African Americans. It also exposed the existence and price of racism in American history. The Civil Rights Movement refers to the political struggles and the need for reformation for African Americans between 1945 and 1970. The movement's purpose was to end discrimination experienced by disadvantaged groups in America. The key players in the movement were the Black church and its focal leader, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Although the movement caused the death of Dr. King, it provided
28 marginalized groups access to civil rights (“Biographical Profiles”, 2010). The Black Family and Community During slavery, it was not uncommon for slaves to be separated from family members. As slavery ended, many longed to reunite and find displaced members of their families. According to DuBois (2003), the separation of male slaves from their households left single mothers the burden of leadership in a paternalistic society. African American family and community considered strong family bonds, great respect for elders, and the acceptance of others as a major part of their value system. The family structure gradually deteriorated due to poverty and the lack of education. Segregation became a social tool that brought the African American community together. The African American community has been pivotal in the development of the African American culture (Woodson, 2005). Although African American communities suffer with poor housing, inadequate schools, and less law enforcement protection, the Black church was its nucleus. DuBois (2003) confirmed that the religious growth of millions of male slaves contributed to the rise of the Baptist and Methodist faiths. It appears that the nature of the African American struggle has set Black churches as a cornerstone of spirituality for African Americans who experience racism and inequality. African American Leadership and National Leaders Strong and effective leadership is imperative to any organization that desires to remain competitive in a global society. Research cannot deny that disparities among racial groups exist. Berry (2001) asserts that organizational and societal factors such as income, education, and occupation, health, and environment impact the quality of life for an individual. The researcher further argues that leaders who are democratic, nurturing,
29 and culturally sensitive create a climate that is conducive for racial diversity in leadership (Berry, 2001). Strategies in helping people of color climb to leadership positions include professional development in cultural competence, flexible scheduling, and support groups that address diversity issues and structured mentoring programs (Preachlin, 2008). If these strategies previously mentioned were available during the plight of African Americans, perhaps their destiny would have been different. In spite of fierce opposition, there were those of the African American community who would rise from the ashes. Although the United States has had a history of racial discrimination and inequality, these barriers did not silence the voice of pivotal African American leaders. Through a militant and a persistent faith, Black leaders began to rise and define leadership styles that served as guides in how the African community would respond to social injustices in mainstream society (Dubois, 2003; Woodson, 2005). Leadership Styles of African American Men During the Antebellum, Civil War, Reconstruction, and Civil Rights Eras, African American male leaders took different approaches as to how they would respond to the harsh treatment of the American society. Some leaders chose the militant or non-violence approach, while others promoted nationalism. Frederick Douglass In Biographical Profiles (2010), Fredrick Douglass was an activist, who spokeout against racism and discrimination. Douglass was born around 1817 and was acclaimed as the first African American leader in United States History. Frederick Douglas was raised by a single mother around 1817; he never knew his father. Through his literary work, he characterized his life as a slave, as one filled with hard work, family
30 detachment, and incredulous inhumanity. Despite the push to withhold education from slaves, Frederick Douglass practically educated himself. His resilience not only spread through his quest for education, but through his longing for freedom as well (“Biographical Profiles”, 2010). Upon several attempts to escape, he disguised himself as an American sailor, and married a free African American woman from the South while in New York. Douglass finally purchased his freedom and traveled to England to expose the cruelty of slavery through speaking and writing. Douglass' political activism awarded him the title of the unofficial spokesperson for the African American community. During the Civil War, he was asked by President Lincoln to help recruit Black soldiers into the army. His courage to speak-out against racism and discrimination against Black soldiers influenced the decisions of Lincoln, who provided better treatment on their behalf. Douglass displayed a charismatic and servant leadership style in that he was a powerful orator who spoke for the rights of people of color, as well as women. Frederick Douglass continued to fight for the rights of his people until his death in 1895 (“Biographical Profiles”, 2010). Henry Highland Garnet In direct opposition to Frederick Douglass' leadership style, was his contemporary, Henry Highland Garnet. In Biographical Profiles (2010), Henry Garnet was born in 1815-1882 to the Garnet family. Garnet's parents were slaves but eventually escaped to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania where they were later separated. Garnet, considered an activist and great orator as well, advocated slave rebellion and emancipation through militant abolitionism. He urged Blacks to take action against social injustice through politics and claim their own destiny, even if it meant by force. Garnet's form of
31 leadership style caused tension between him and Douglass, which developed into political debates. Garnet also formed the idea of Black emigration out of America and into Mexico, Liberia, and the West Indies. Although Garnet gained some political influence in America, the movement lost momentum. He died and was buried in Liberia (“Biographical Profiles”, 2010). Marcus Garvey According to Marcus Garvey Biography (2010), Garvey was born in 1887 in St. Anna's Bay, Jamaica. His leadership style began as a result of the influence of African nationalism, which contested that African Americans should establish their own states and political power by leaving America in place of safer havens. Garvey's father had a tremendous influence on him. Upon leaving the printing business in Jamaica, Garvey came to America. The racial tension that Garvey experienced inspired him to join the fight by speaking openly against racism; his passion for equality ignited a spark in the African American community. In 1914, he formed two organizations and a newspaper that spread throughout the world regarding the injustices experienced by Blacks. Garvey advocated for the Black Nationalism and the return back to Africa. He encouraged African Americans to enterprise and build social and political clout (“Marcus Garvey Biography”, 2010). After a bad business deal, Garvey was imprisoned then shipped back to Jamaica. Garvey had a strong spiritual connection with God. He was married twice and fathered two sons. His legacy included various Black symbols, a forerunner of liberation and nationalism among African American youth (“Marcus Garvey Biography”, 2010). The two most influential African American male educational leaders of the late
32 19th and early 20th Centuries were Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. DuBois. According to the Biographical Profiles (2010), both men graduated from HBCU's and were highly respected among the African American community. Washington's influence afforded him the job as the principal of Tuskegee Institute while W. E. B. DuBois' scholarship on the lived experiences of African Americans in the United States gained national attention. Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington was raised by a single mother. His father was a slave owner of a nearby plantation. While growing-up, Washington desired education so much that he worked as a janitor for room and board. After receiving his degree, he began teaching at Hampton University (“Biographical Profiles”, 2010). DuBois (2003) described Washington's leadership style as the politics of accommodation, which suggested that African Americans should not rush to demand their rights fresh out of slavery, but should demonstrate their usefulness to White America through strong work ethics. While Washington publicly endorsed White supremacy, he secretly funded activities which spoke against it. Washington's charisma was so convincing that White Northerners and Southerners named him the official spokesperson for the Black community (“Biographical Profiles”, 2010). This title opened political opportunities and power for Washington among White political meetings. His subservient behavior, however, was ridiculed by W. E .B. DuBois. These two prolific leaders were polar opposites on how to address inequality and which curriculum would best serve the African American community.
33 According to Woolfolk (1986), DuBois favored a Liberal Arts curriculum for the freedman, while Washington advocated a curriculum which would train students for industrialism Woodson, 2005). In the Biographical Profiles (2010), Booker T. Washington advocated that African Americans could acquire constitutional rights by their own efforts through industry rather than politics. Washington refrained from creating friction and unrest among the African American community, which earned him the name "The Great Accommodator." According to DuBois (2003) and Kritsonis (2002), the hardships of lynching, segregation, and the Jim Crow Laws, compelled Washington to secretly help finance activists fight against equality. Washington's legacy includes educational programs for rural extension work and the development of the National Negro Business League. In 1901, Booker T. Washington received an Honorary Doctorate degree from Harvard University. William Edward Burghardt DuBois In Biographical Profiles (2010), William Edward Burghardt DuBois lived from 1868 to 1963 and was deemed the most important Black intellect of the 20th Century. DuBois earned his B.A. degree at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee and became the first Black to receive a Ph.D. at Harvard University. DuBois was very controversial in the injustices and unequal treatment of African Americans. He advocated for African Americans and spoke-out against racism and inequality through intellect and liberal education. His life was a mixture of scholarship, protest activity, and polemics. All of DuBois' efforts channeled toward gaining equal treatment for Blacks in mainstream America and presenting evidence to refute myths about racial inferiority. He shared in the
34 establishment of the National Advancement Association for Colored People (NAACP) in 1906 (“Biographical Profiles”, 2010; DuBois, 2003; Kritsonis, 2002; Woodson, 2005). According to Biographical Profiles (2010), DuBois demonstrated his agitation toward Whites through his harsh criticism of their practices against Blacks. Racial protests following World War 1 focused on anti-lynching legislation, spear-headed by DuBois and the NAACP. DuBois began moving toward a Nationalist approach, in which African Americans could position themselves to alter their political, schools, economical, and social outlook. DuBois became a member of the Socialist party from 1910-1912. His legacy includes several books that reflected his disappointment with the American system which seemed to work against people of color, while working toward the advantage of the majority race. Despite the inequality of the system, DuBois used his keen intellect and literary skill to rally the African American community to fight for rights (“Biographical Profiles”, 2010; DuBois, 2003; Kritsonis, 2002). Malcolm X In the Biographical Profiles (2010), Malcolm X was a civil rights leader and a major spokesman for Black Nationalism during his time. Malcolm was born in 1925. Malcolm's father followed the leadership style of Marcus Garvey. Because of the families desire to challenge racism and discrimination, Malcolm's father was murdered, therefore leaving Malcolm's mother to raise eight children. She later became mentally ill and the children were divided among family members. Most of Malcolm's adolescence was unstable. In the Biographical Profiles (2010), Malcolm eventually dropped-out of school by the age of 15 and moved into the workforce. Lacking a sense of direction and
35 mentoring, he turned to a life of crime, which confined him to ten years in prison. Malcolm demonstrated resilience through a relationship with God and educated himself through the American dictionary. His family supported him while in prison and exposed him to the works of the Nation of Islam and the prophet Elijah Mohammad, the leader of the Black Muslims. The Muslim doctrine taught hate and demonization of White Americans. After serving his prison sentence, Malcolm married and fathered six daughters. He eventually became a follower and new spokesman for the Nation of Islam. His leadership style was militant and called for equality through violence, if necessary. Due to unrest within the organization, Malcolm left the Nation of Islam and organized two organizations of his own. He later traveled to Mecca, Africa, and Europe, where he experienced a transformation. He returned to America and leaned more toward the view of Dr. Martin Luther King and worked with White and Black organizations that shared the same cause. Malcolm X continued to fight for civil rights and equality until his assassination in 1965 (“Biographical Profiles”, 2010). Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Dr. Martin Luther King's view of how to address racism and inequality was in contrast to Malcolm X. Although King resented racism and the mistreatment of Blacks, he chose to fight injustices through a non-violence strategy. Born in 1929, King was raised in a stable family environment, unlike Malcolm X. King attended public schools and earned a Doctorate degree in Theology from Boston University in 1955. King later became a minister and married Coretta Scott, who bore him five children. In 1954, King carried the legacy of W. E. B. DuBois, when he became an active member, and later national spokesman for the NAACP. Boycotts against segregation went before the U.S.
36 Supreme Court which ruled that segregated busing was unconstitutional. King became an overnight success and eminent leader of the Civil Rights Movement (“Biographical Profiles”, 2010). While his life was in constant danger, King's resilience, dependence on God, and unwavering courage provided him with the strength to endure. According to the Biographical Profiles (2010), Dr. King was assassinated in 1968. His legacy includes a Nobel Peace Prize and schools and streets across the nations that bear his name. His life and struggle are written in history books on how he became the greatest catalyst of change for African Americans. Educational Leaders of African American HBCU's Black Faculty in Higher Education According to a study by Allen (2000), in addition to the negative disposition of African American male youth in public education, African American faculty are underrepresented across the board among most U.S. colleges and universities. Allen’s data confirmed that African American faculty was systematically and significantly disadvantaged in measures such as opportunity structure, resources, appointed positions, and advancement opportunities. Wiley (2001) purports that African Americans are systematically and significantly disadvantaged, which could lead to potential meltdown in the recruitment and retention of African American faculty and future leaders. This presents a problem when considering the influx of African American males and females attending mainstream universities and community colleges (Allen, 2000; Jackson, 2001). Allen (2000) and King and Watts (2004) further purport that the underrepresentation of African American faculty at the Post Secondary level is a
37 persistent problem in the American education system. Allen's study showed that African Americans represented 4 % of the professorate and associate professorates in the system, while their White counterparts represented 87% of tenured professors. African Americans comprised a larger scale of instructors at 7% while White instructors represented 82% of the faculty pool. Allen, King, and Watts’ research on the underrepresentation of African American faculty and leadership positions point to contributing factors such as racism, inequality, and discrimination in higher education. Jackson (2008) confirms that previous studies have suggested that African American males lag behind their White peers in the academic workforce. The study found that human capital and merit-based performance were favorable for White males but unfavorable for African American males. The findings suggest the need for further investigation of hiring practices of public institutions in higher education. At the professorate level, African American faculty are sometimes treated with less respect than their White counterparts and are expected to perform with minimal support from the respective university (Hobson, 2004). With the increased pressure for mainstream colleges and universities to diversify its staff ethnically and racially, these institutions still fall behind in hiring faculty of color. In an article on hiring practices and conditions for hiring, Predominately White Institution's (PWI) hiring practices for faculty of color were based on job descriptions stating the need of a candidate of color, special hiring, and the utilization of racial groups to recruit and hire candidates of color. The argument further exposed White institutional leaders and department chairs' belief in the idea of the "narrow" pipeline. This notion implies the high demand and the lack of potential candidates justify the marginality of African Americans (Smith et al, 2004).
38 African American Male Administrators in Higher Education The representation of African American male educational leaders at HBCU's is critical to the development of future leadership because their numbers are few, especially at PWI's (Predominately White Institutions). The presence of African American male leadership can have a significant impact on young African American males who enter college without such examples (Jackson, 2001). A growing body of research shows that African American male leadership is severely underrepresented compared to the population of educational leadership across the nation (Guillory, 2001; Jackson, 2001; Wiley, 2001). Although African American males who attain their advanced degrees have ascended to leadership positions, they are still operating in a climate that subtly implies Blacks are inferior to Whites. Factors that contributed to African American males' dissatisfaction in working at Predominately White Institutions included tokenism, isolation, lack of support, and voicelessness (Jansen, 2005). A Brief History of Prairie View A & M Educational Leaders as Administrators Scholarly literature on African American males and the myriad of problems they face is evident, however, the inception of HBCU's have provided the opportunity to place African American males in positions of leadership. The Freedman's Bureau paved the road for public education for African American youth. It was the one singleness of effort by the government to ameliorate racial tension in the nation. With the help of White philanthropy, government support, and financial savings of the Black community, African Americans gained access to education. Their education began through the
39 Formation of state supported colleges which focused on educating young Black youth in preparation for the transition from slavery to freedom (DuBois, 2003). Prairie View A&M University, the oldest state supported HBCU in Texas, was established on August 14, 1876 under the state legislature in response to the neglect and deprivation of education for Black youth. Representative William H. Holland, considered the Father of Prairie View, helped establish the legislative body that would create Alta Vista College for Colored Youth. The school was placed under the control of the Texas A&M Board of Directors and the Texas A&M president from the school's inception to 1948. The school was managed by the first African American male leaders who were called "principals" at the time. Principals of the school were appointed by the Texas A&M president and Texas A&M School Board (Jackson, 2007; Woolfolk, 1986). The first cohort was comprised of eight students and after the following year of closing down, the school re-opened its doors to fifteen men and women. In the same year, the school's name was changed to Prairie View Normal College on October 6, 1879. The inclusion of females made Prairie View the first co-education school of higher education in Texas (Jackson, 2007; Woolfolk, 1986). The first principal of Alta Vista College for Colored Youth was Mr. L.W. Minor from Mississippi. His administration was followed by two brothers, E.H. Anderson and L.C. Anderson. L.C. Anderson demonstrated educational leadership by using his political influence and spirit of advocacy toward Black education. His affiliation with the State Colored Teachers Association of Texas helped establish the Prairie View National Alumni Association. Professor Edward L. Blackshear succeeded the Anderson's and was noted for introducing the college's first curriculum, the construction of new buildings for
40 the campus, and an interscholastic athletics program in 1901. Although Prairie View underwent many challenges such as lack of funding and inadequate facilities, the strong leadership of additional leaders such as Dr. Osborne and W.R. Banks (student and personal mentee of Dr. DuBois) kept the school open for service to the community. W.R. Banks was instrumental in the fight for educational equality and social justice for African Americans in Texas (Jackson, 2007; Woolfolk, 1986). Professor Banks instituted many of the ideals of Dr. DuBois and established educational conferences that were research-based, since Prairie View contributed to a large number of African American teachers in Texas. This new concept of incorporating research and teaching elevated these men and women of the faculty of Prairie as community leaders. Dr. E.B. Evans succeeded Professor Banks and became the last principal and first president of Prairie View. Dr. Jessie Drew became the universities second president, who was replaced by Dr. Alvin I. Thomas as the third president of Prairie View A&M University. In addition to overseeing an extensive building program and the first Naval Reserve Officer Training Program at an historical Black public institution, Dr. Thomas advocated for the Texas constitutional amendment in recognizing Prairie View A & M University as one of the three first class institutions (which included the University of Texas and Texas A&M). Dr. Thomas also coined the popular lexicon "Prairie View Produces Productive People" (Jackson, 2007). Succeeding Dr. A.I. Thomas was Prairie View's fourth president, Dr. Percy A. Pierre. Dr. Pierre brought new ideas such as decentralization of administration in contrast to the school's previous leader's centralized administrative style. Dr. Pierre established good public relations within and outside the university. His administration fell into
41 financial mismanagement placing Prairie View under possible conservatorship. President Pierre was succeed by General Julius Becton, a three-star general and the first Prairie View A&M graduate to serve as president of the university. Acting as the fifth president of Prairie View A&M, General Becton's leadership put the university back in good financial standing. The Becton's were actively involved in the school, local, and surrounding communities (Jackson, 2007). In 1994, Charles A. Hines became the sixth president of Prairie View A&M University. President Hines improved the university's facilities construction program, and was later replaced by Mr. Willie Tempton. Mr. Tempton served as interim president until the administration of Dr. George C. Wright, the seventh and current president of Prairie View A&M University (Jackson, 2007). Dr. Wright graduated with a Master of Arts degree at the University of Kentucky and a doctorate at Duke University. He has held many leadership positions such as VicePresident of Academics and Provost at the University of Texas Arlington. Dr. Wright has served as an educator and publisher of several books. He is an active leader in his community (“Promoting Scholarship from within the Black Diaspora”, 2010). Leadership Demands at HBCU's While African American male leaders experience their set of challenges at Predominately White Institutions, obstacles at HBCU's are somewhat different. HBCU's are confronted with the responsibility of recruiting African American students in order to increase and maintain enrollment. In Stupak (2008), competent leadership is critical in the recruitment and retaining of quality students who make a significant contribution to society. Educational leaders of HBCU's must be savvy in the recruitment of strong
42 African American leaders who are capacity builders for improved management that demonstrate the ability to strategically plan. Educational leaders must possess the ability to effectively address enrollment management and retention, funding, and be ethically sound in budget management. In addition, administrators must grapple with providing support for incoming students in the areas of financial aid and academic support when students are deficient in these areas. Stupak (2008) concludes that the biggest challenges in recruiting African American male leadership are putting-up with bureaucracy, raising private dollars, developing alumni support, and marketing the institution. The Significance of Mentorship for African American Males According to a study by Foster (2005), mentorship programs were strong predictors of success for African American males in Public and Higher education. The study featured the effect of mentoring programs on the success of African American males in Predominately White Institutions. Foster's study (2005) also revealed that African American male faculty experienced isolation and felt that the school's mentoring program was not fulfilling its purpose in developing a strong mentor/mentee relationship and extinguishing the issue of race. Based upon the findings, the need for further study on the practice and roles of universities mentorship programs is needed. Bashi (1991) asserts that mentoring first began as a tool used by corporate executives to successfully navigate the journey up the corporate ladder. The research of mentoring in business settings indicated that two-thirds of successful corporate executives had a mentor. These same executives with mentors were more likely to earn more and experience higher job satisfaction. The author further implies that mentoring expanded into the academic settings in K-12 schools and college programs. It was ignited
43 by the "I Have a Dream" (IHAD) program in 1981 where a multimillionaire, Eugene Lang, promised to pay for the college education of a group of sixth graders (in an innercity school) if they graduated from high school. This program mentored the students in addition to paying for their college tuition. According to Bashi (1991), mentoring is incorporated into every aspect of the academic journey: K-12 schools, colleges & universities, graduate and professional schools. Many programs are incorporated to work with diverse students: gifted, disadvantaged, at-risk, and underrepresented minorities. The effectiveness of mentoring programs is unclear in the educational arena for at-risk or disadvantaged students. Critical Race Theory Critical race theory (CRT) grew out of the need for people of color to expose discrimination and racism woven through the tapestry of the American society. Historically, people of color have been overlooked in their struggle against racism, prejudice, and discrimination for many centuries. Their cry for freedom and equality hardly aroused empathy from the dominant culture. Bell (1995), a catalyst for critical race theory (CRT), argued that racism has been a constant deeply embedded within the American culture, though subtle in recognition (Ladson-Billings, 1999). Critical race theory indicates that relatively few individuals of the dominant race have empathy for the marginal race, therefore, leaving African American males as targets for racism. Injustices within these systems have created racial tension in the past and present moments in time. (Ladson- Billings, 1999). Critical race theory (CRT) challenges the status quo by weighing discrimination and inequality by the dominant race against people of color who experienced such
44 dehumanization because of their race. Critical race theory attempts to give voice to people who have suffered injustices within the dominant culture and seeks to eradicate discrimination due to race. CRT aims to expose differences in sex, class, and equity that potentially inhibit the potential of these groups (Lynn, Yosso, Soloranzo, & Parker, 2002). Glenn (2003) argues that African American male leaders must help young African American youth resist the nation's negative view of "Blackness" through stereotypes, definitions, and social constructs. African American educational leaders can help young African American males to off-set negative imaging by replacing negative models with positive and purpose-driven initiatives (Glenn, 2003). Resilience Theory According to Van Breda (2001), Resilience theory grew out of the need to move away from deficit models of vulnerability and move toward more protective models of strength. Researchers identify the characteristics of resilience as having the ability to cope in the face of adversity. Resilience is compassionate, flexible, keeps one in touch with life, and provides the ability to bounce back under pressure. Resilience theory is rooted in studies of children who were resilient in spite of negative social environments (Van Breda, 2001). Resilience is the ability to remain competent in the face of adversity. Resilience is described as possessing the ability to bend without breaking and if broken, having the power to spring-back. Resilience involves the utilization of skills, abilities, knowledge, and insight that develops over a period of time, as people struggle to surmount adversity and meet challenges. It is an on-going kind of energy that is used upon current struggles
45 (Reivich & Shatte, 2002; Van Breda, 2001). Van Breda (2001) argues that protective factors such as personal, familial, social, and institutional safeguards serve as the elixir by which resilience is produced. Without such protection, people who have been victimized through discrimination and injustice become even more alienated from the reality of the situation they have constructed within their minds. In the mind of the victim, the essence of the experience and the certainty of the experiences potential harm are real. Therefore, possessing a strong sense of self, having a degree of social mobility and strong social networks that evolve around family, can help minimize uncertainty that would otherwise limit the capacity to overcome barriers. Resilience is activated by external factors that pose vulnerability upon the individual (Van Breda, 2001). Polk (1997) constructed a set of patterns that categorize individual resilience. The dispositional pattern involves an individual's positive ego of self, which includes a heightened confidence in one's ability to overcome obstacles. These individuals have developed the ability to rise above stress through a sense of self-reliance in decisionmaking. People who have a strong sense of self may possess good health and physical attraction, which may add to their resilience. Polk (1997) explains that relational pattern involves a person's relationships within and outside of the broader community. For individuals who are victimized by society, the development of relationships is critical to their degree of resilience. Trusting relationships allows the person to feel safe and free from fear and anxiety. They are able to find refuge among others who share or are sympathetic to their experiences. These relationships can be intimate, as in the case of a loving and supportive spouse, or a close
46 friend or relative who acts as a mentor to the victim of a particular situation. Polk (1997) further describes resilience as the ability to thrive, mature, and increase competence in the face of adversity by drawing upon external and internal factors. Contextually, resilience relies on such factors and causes the individual to become more apt to control their internal locus of control, rather than their environment. Resilience is multi-dimensional and draws its strength upon internal and external stimuli. In essence, resilience grows and develops through successful overcoming of insurmountable obstacles. Therefore, the more triumphant experiences the individual gains, the stronger the motivation to tap into the resilience state. Resilience theory aims to take in consideration the overcoming of racial and environmental barriers that scholarly literature tends to overlook. Lack of attention is also given to protective factors that are shared by the oppressed. Strong indicators of resilience among African Americans have been cultural identity and racial socialization (Van Breda, 2001). Risk Factors that threaten African American Male Youth As stated earlier, African American males have had a history of resisting oppression, and succeeding in-spite of the odds. Although some African American males have been resilient in overcoming barriers to success, many have not. According to Roderick’s (2003) study, the overrepresentation of African American males in the areas of Special Education, discipline referrals, low performance on standardized tests, and high drop-out rates have become a growing concern. The study revealed that African American males declined academically and were viewed more negatively by their teachers at the ninth grade than African American females.
47 The implication is that unless the nation's schools serve the African American male population with the intention of establishing trust and empathy, the fight to restore young African American male's as contributors to the educational system will look dismal. In addition to social and political factors that have served as barriers to success, Noguera (2003) argues that related forces such as culture and the environment pose serious problems for African American males as well. In reviewing the literature, a growing body of research (Ladson-Billings, 1999; Noguera, 2003; Roderick, 2003) has identified risk factors that negatively impact African American males. Studies on the lived experiences of successful African American male senior educational leaders at the oldest public HBCU in Southwest Texas were limited. Since African American female leaders are more under-represented than African American males, present literature focuses more on females in an attempt to increase their representation of executive positions in higher education (Jackson, 2001). The researcher seeks to add to the body of literature by providing voice to four African American senior male educational leaders who have developed leadership characteristics and qualities through adversities, yet they were successful in their professions. The ascertainment of this information may help the researcher to extrapolate strategies that could help young Black male youth overcome negative factors and choose better alternatives in the attainment of their goals. The study will be guided by the following theories. Critical race theory (CRT) will be the lens through which the researcher will examine race-related experiences described by the participants, to determine if the theory was consistent with the literature and their stories. Resilience theory will seek to describe what the participants had to
48 overcome and how they stayed the course in the attainment of their goals. Qualitative studies emerge over time as they unravel to capture the essence of a phenomenon. Qualitative researchers suggest a flexible, open format in contrast to an inflexible, structured quantitative approach to research (Creswell, 2008; Fraenkel & Wallen, 2007; Moustakas, 1994). Therefore, the review of literature for this study will be tentative until the perceptions and views of the participants have been reviewed.
49 Chapter III While social mobility has not been privy to African Americans without a struggle, the fight has been even more difficult for African American males. Risk factors such as social, political, and educational inequality continue to serve as barriers for African American males at the student, professorate, and administrative levels (Roderick, 2003; Smith et al., 2004; Tillman, 2004). These barriers have succeeded and continue to succeed in stifling some African American males desire to rise above these challenges and serve in a leadership capacity (Preachlin, 2008). However, history speaks of a remnant of African American males that pursued their advanced degrees and leadership positions in-spite of the odds that were against them. The ability to bounce-back and demonstrate resilience is a quality that defines the protective factors of African American men who pursued their career goals in the midst of adversity. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study will be to give voice to four African American male educational leaders by conducting a phenomenological research study that will examine the emergence of educational leadership as perceived, experienced and exercised by African American male administrators of a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) in Southwest Texas. The following research questions will guide the study: 1. What critical moments in history have impacted the educational leadership style(s) of four African-American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University?
50 2. How has leadership style(s) evolved over the past three decades for four African American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University? 3. Which leaders from the past have left an impression on four African-American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University? 4. In the face of social, political, or racial adversities, what influenced the decisions of four African American male educational leaders at a Southwestern Historically Black College and University to continue as educational leaders? 5. How do these four leaders describe and demonstrate their leadership style when interacting with others? 6. How has the leadership of four senior African American male educational leaders influenced policy and practice over the years and what changes were needed for improvement? Chapter three will describe the qualitative methodology used for the study and give the rationale for the methodological selection. The research design and the role of the researcher are detailed in this chapter as well. Methodology According to Creswell (2007), within the framework of a phenomenological study, the researcher brings his or her perspective and realities into the study in order to position themselves, while connecting and deepening their understanding of the problem from various participants (Creswell, pp. 11-21). The approach to the study will involve one of five qualitative approaches to
51 research which is called phenomenology. The design of the study begins with the history and validity of qualitative research and will conclude with the phenomenological research design. The researcher will choose hermeneutic phenomenology as the qualitative design for the study based upon the work of Fraenkel and Wallen (2006), which involves the researcher "investigating various reactions to, or perceptions of, a particular phenomenon The researcher hopes to gain some insight into the world of his or her participants to describe their perceptions and reactions" (p. 436). The researcher did not choose the narrative approach for this study because the researcher's purpose is not to develop a narrative about the stories of the participant's life but will be describing the "essence" of the participant's lived experiences (phenomenology) (Creswell, 2007). The grounded theory approach was not suitable for this study because the researcher will not be developing a theory grounded in data from the field (Creswell, 2007). Ethnography was not chosen because the researcher will not be describing how a culture-sharing group works. A case study was unsuitable for this study because the researcher will not be studying one or more cases of an event, program, or individual (pp. 78-79). Although qualitative research has served as an alternative to quantitative research, qualitative research was developed in the late 1800s and early 1900s (Creswell, 2008) the actual use of qualitative research in the field of education, however, began in the 1980s. "Historically, three themes have emerged: philosophical ideas, procedural developments, and participatory and advocacy practices" (p. 49). Fraenkel and Wallen (2006), describe methodology as a process that involves principles and procedures by which the researcher approaches problems and seeks
52 answers to the phenomenon in question. The components are as follows: 1. The natural setting is the direct source of data, and the researcher is the key instrument in qualitative research. 2. Qualitative data are collected in the form of words or pictures rather than numbers. 3. Qualitative researchers are concerned with process as well as product. 4. Qualitative researchers tend to analyze their data inductively and, 5. How people make sense out of their lives is a major concern to qualitative researchers. (p. 430-431) The researcher will initially plan to conduct the study within a six month timeframe. Two months will be set aside to gain participant consent, revise the interview instrument, and initiate the interview process. Another two months will be dedicated to transcribing the audio/visual tapes of each interview session. The remaining data will be analyzed to establish complexity and used for triangulation purposes. The final two months will involve organizing and analyzing the data collected. The researcher will complete the study by reporting the results of findings and making recommendations for further study. Research Design The research design for this study will be hermeneutic phenomenology. According to Creswell (2007), phenomenological study "describes the meaning for several individuals of their lived experiences of a concept or a phenomenon. Phenomenologist's focus on describing what all participants have in common as they experience a phenomenon" (pp. 57-58). Manen (1990) describes hermeneutic
53 phenomenology as "different from almost every other science in that it attempts to gain insightful descriptions of the way we experience the world pre-reflectively, without taxonomizing, classifying, or abstracting it" (p. 9). A qualitative model will be used for this study which will include demographic data, interviews, observations, artifacts, and participant vitas. Demographic information will be collected, examined, and triangulated to capture the essences of each participant's lived experience. Interviews will be organized into three stages. Seidman (2006) suggests a series of stages for qualitative phenomenological interviewing. Interview one focuses on the life history of the participant. Interview two describes the details of the experience, and interview three reflects on the meaning the participants divulged from the experience with the phenomenon. Approaches to qualitative research have evolved since the 1990's and currently involve five accepted designs. The object of a phenomenological qualitative research approach is to move from individual experiences with a certain phenomenon to a collective or global outlook regarding the phenomenon (Creswell, 2007). Phenomenological research design begins with a phenomenon or human experience to be studied. The researcher then collects data on the individuals who have experienced this phenomenon (while bracketing out his or her assumptions) and thus, develops a detailed description of the participant's experiences in the form of textural and structural descriptions (Creswell, 2007; Manen, 1990; Moustakas, 1994). These descriptions are then coded by emerging themes to capture the essence of the phenomenon. Units or emerging themes help capture the essences of the
54 phenomenon. The essence of the experience is then captured and transcribed into a narrative report which may include tables, charts, or dialogue (Creswell, 2007, Moustakas, 1994; & Manen, 1990). Actual Research Design A hermeneutic phenomenological qualitative research design will be chosen for this study because this form of study will best address the personal views of African American male educational leaders, their experiences in overcoming societal barriers, and their careers in education. The researcher will be using the principles of qualitative and phenomenological methodology specifically. The researcher will describe and explain the experiences of four African American male leaders of a Historically Black College and University (HBCU), who have overcome societal and personal adversities during the pursuit of their careers as educational leaders. Three major data-bases were searched in attempt to discover a study focusing on African American male leaders at an HBCU with 30 years of experience. The search revealed no such studies. This study is unique in that it will seek to add to the literature through its focus on four African American males who have served over three decades at Prairie View A & M University in the College of Education. The demonstration of effective leadership and resilience in overcoming barriers, has allowed these four men to become role models and pivotal leaders in their communities. Through the usage of hermeneutic phenomenology, this study will allow the voices of African American male leaders to share the history of their legacy. The retelling of their stories and personal experiences in educational leadership at the oldest state supported HBCU in the College of Education, will add to the body of literature that
55 is significantly void of successful experiences by African American male leaders in higher education. Subjects of the Study Four participants will be selected based upon criterion and purposive sampling. Criterion sampling strategies of qualitative inquiry typology by Miles and Hubbner, as cited in Creswell (2008), define criterion sampling as "all cases that meet some criterion; useful for quality assurance" (p. 127). Purposive sampling involves a non-random selection process in which the researcher utilizes personal judgment or knowledge about a population to determine if the sample is representative (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2007) The following criteria will determine the participants for the study: African American male, educational leaders or teachers who became leaders in the College of Education, served the University of the study for 30 or more years, and currently serves as an educational leader at the same Southwestern HBCU. Successful African American male leaders would include the attainment of a doctoral degree, stabilization of employment at the same institution, held or is holding an educational leadership position at the university used in the study. Table 1 includes the six research questions that will guide the study and the data collection instruments. The letters "IQ" represent each interview question as they align with each research question. An X represents data used for triangulation. The research questions will be answered in the following manner: Research question one will be answered by interview questions 1, 2, and 3 from the interview instrument. The observation field notes, artifacts, and vita will be used for triangulation only if they reveal information that
56 answers the research question. Research question two will be answered by interview questions 4, 5, and 6 from the interview instrument. Observations of pictures with significant individuals within the observation site (participant's office) that may answer research question two will be used for triangulation. Research question three will be answered by interview questions 7, 8, and 9. Research question four will be answered by interview questions 10 and 11 and artifacts. If information from the participant's vita or artifacts discussed at the observation site answers research question four, they will be used for triangulation. Research question five will be answered by interview questions 12 and 13. Research question six will be answered by interview questions 14, 15, & 16. If the information from the participants' vita and artifacts is relevant, they will be used to answer research question six and for triangulation purposes.
57 Table 1 Data Collection Question No. Research Question 1 Research Question 2 Research Question 3 Research Question 4 Research Question 5 Research Question 6 Interview Instrument Observations Artifacts IQ 1, 2, & 3 IQ 4, 5, & 6 IQ 7, 8, & 9 IQ 10 & 11 IQ 12 & 13 IQ 14, 15, & 16 X X Vita
Note. Research questions will be answered by the interview instrument (IQ). The X represents data that will be used for triangulation. Demographic information and a Vita will also be collected.
According to Moustakas (1994), qualitative research rests on ethical standards that involve establishing agreements, gaining informed consent, protecting confidentiality, and developing safeguard procedures on behalf of each participant. A number will be given and used throughout the entire study in order to maintain the participant's confidentiality. Participants will be advised of their right to discontinue the study if they feel the need to do so. Instruments This study will require three instruments: a demographic information instrument, interview questions, and an observational protocol. Instruments are defined as a device or an individual used to gather data that will help validate, make inferences, or draw conclusions about the characteristics of the individuals of the study (Creswell, 2008; Fraenkel & Wallen, 2006; Moustakas, 1994). In qualitative research methodology, the researcher acts as the primary
58 instrument in the data collection process (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2007). The four participants of the study will complete a demographic instrument that includes familial, educational, and occupational information [see Appendix A]. Each participant will be asked to complete a demographic instrument prior to scheduling interviews. The instrument includes 30 questions and will take approximately 30 minutes to complete. The researcher will schedule three face-to-face in-depth interview sessions with each participant [see Appendix B] comprised of open-ended and semi-structured interview questions. The same questions will be asked by each participant, and if necessary, a follow-up question for clarification to a previous response. According to Seidman (2006), in-depth phenomenological interviews combine life experience with focused in-depth probing designed to recreate the phenomenon the participants have experienced. In-depth phenomenological interviews are described as open-ended questioning that guides the building and exploring process of the participant's experiences. The objective is to help the participant reconstruct the phenomenon of the study. Open-ended questions are defined as interview questions that require verbal responses. Open-ended questions allow more freedom for responses and create follow-up opportunities for the researcher. In qualitative research, open-ended questions are designed to give voice to participants of a study without the bias of the researcher or literature review. The characteristics of open-ended questions include pre-determined wording and questions, participants are asked the same questions in the same order, and all questions are completely open-ended in structure (Creswell, 2008; Denzin & Lincoln, 2005; Fraenkel & Wallen, 2006).
59 According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2006), semi-structured interviews are "a series of questions designed to elicit explicit answers from respondents and often used to compare and contrast data” (p. 455). Fraenkel and Wallen (2006) describe experience or behavioral interview type as what the participant is now experiencing with the phenomenon or has experienced in the past. For the purpose of the study, interview questions will be experience or behavioral in nature. The researcher will interview African American male educational leaders who will be sharing their past, present experience, and behavior which led to their success. Each interview session will be audio/video-taped with the participant's consent. The researcher will use an interview protocol [see Appendix C] that will include the research questions and space to write notes or responses. The audio/video tapes will later be transcribed by the researcher. An observational protocol [see Appendix D] will be created by the researcher for the purpose of recording information on the behavior of the participants. The participants will be observed in their office environment. Observations will help the researcher establish the complexity of African American male leadership while assisting in data triangulation. Creswell (2008) defines observations as "the process of gathering openended, firsthand information by observing people and places at a research site" (p. 220). During the observation process, the researcher will participate in observation activities that involve artifacts within the office of the four participants. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2007), a researcher may act as an outsider or non-participant while conducting an observation. The researcher serves as an on-looker. Participants may have full, partial, or no knowledge of the observation and its purpose.
60 The duration of an observation may be a single observation for 30 minutes or multiple observations for a longer period of time. The focus of the observation may be narrow (focusing on one element) or broad (focusing on many elements) in scope. The participants will be observed one day, for a thirty- minute duration. The purpose of the observation is to capture dialogue from an artifact that may answer various research questions of the study. Hammersley and Atkinson, (as cited in Creswell 2008), define a gatekeeper as "an individual who has an official or unofficial role at the site, provides entrance to the site, helps researchers locate people, and assist in the identification of places to study" (p. 219). The researcher will gain access to the observation site by designating a gate-keeper, who may be serving as the participant's administrative assistant or secretary. These individuals may be helpful in communicating with the participants on times, locations, and activities in which the participants can be observed. Artifacts such as photos, letters of excellence in leadership from supervisors, peers, and former students, official memos, programs honoring the participants, conferences held in their honor, and public documents will be collected from the participants. The researcher will attempt to find as many of the artifacts mentioned from the Archives Department at the John Coleman Library at Prairie View A & M University. Artifacts which are not in the possession of the library will be provided with the approval of the participants and the availability of the artifacts. In addition, each participant will be asked to provide an updated vita that will include work history, publications, and honors. Before the six month study begins, the researcher will deliver the consent forms and the interview questions. Creswell (2007) and Guba and Lincoln (1985) discuss
61 advocacy/participatory worldview as a inquiry approach that includes social issues (i.e., racism, oppression, inequality) that help frame the research questions. According to Kemmis and Wilkinson (as cited in Creswell, 2007), advocacy/participatory studies are collaborative because the participants are engaged in helping the researcher uncover the phenomenon in question. According to Creswell (2007), researchers "may ask participants to help with designing the questions, collecting and analyzing the data, and shaping the final report of the research. In this way, the "voice" of the participants becomes heard throughout the research process (p. 20). The participation of the participants would bring a degree of expertise in the field of educational leadership. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2006), expert opinions derive from people who are experts in their field and have a wealth of knowledge about a certain topic, depending on their credentials, studies, or experiences. The researcher and the participants will set up a time to discuss the data once it has been retrieved. Validity of the Data Before conducting the actual study, the research will collaborate with the four participants of the study in reviewing the interview instrument to check for ambiguity, repetition, or relevancy of the questions. The researcher will then modify or adjust the instrument based upon relative feedback from the participants (Creswell, 2008). Once the interview questions have been revised, interview sessions will be scheduled with the participants for this study. Four African American male educational leaders that are gainfully employed at the Southwestern HBCU will complete three interview sessions.
62 Moustakas (1994) suggests that researchers can validate their study through examination, synthesis, or revision of statements obtained by the participants. The researcher will allow each participant to carefully review the synthesis of the themes that emerge based upon the description of their experience and make any additions or subtractions as necessary. The researcher will revise the participant's suggestions in order to expand the qualities and meaning of leadership from an African American male administrator's perspective. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2006), "qualitative researchers use a number of techniques, therefore, to check their perceptions to ensure that they are not being misinformed-that they are, in fact, seeing (and hearing) what they think they are" (p. 462). To add validity and reliability to a study, a researcher may collect a variety of instruments for checking and/or triangulation: ask one or more participants to review the accuracy of the research (member checking), consult an outsider of the study to read and assess the report, use audio/videotapes, and observe the setting or individuals over a period of time (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2006). Procedures The researcher will obtain permission to conduct the study through the approval of the proposal from the Universities Institutional Review Board (IRB) [see Appendix E]. After approval from the IRB, the researcher will meet briefly with the four participants to discuss the study and explain their role as outlined in the consent forms [see Appendix F and G] should they agree to participate. The researcher will leave the consent forms which will include permission to conduct the study and video/audio-tape the interview. Each participant will review and sign, if they consent. The interviews will be audio/video
63 recorded based-upon consent from the participants. Interviews are critical to qualitative research and may require participants to reveal substantial information about their lived experiences, which may cause participants to become vulnerable during the interview process. Therefore, Fraenkel and Wallen (2006) believe that "it is ethically desirable in this instance for interviewers to require participants to sign an informed consent form" (p. 462). In addition to the consent forms, the researcher will deliver a demographic instrument and the interview protocol to each of the four participants at their respective office within one week after IRB approval. The participants will also be asked to provide the researcher with artifacts (letters, pictures, etc.) and a vita at the next meeting. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2007), demographic questions are "routine sorts of questions about the background characteristics of the respondents, which includes questions about education, previous occupation, age, income, and the like" (p. 457). After one week, the researcher will collect the consent forms, demographic instrument, interview protocol, artifacts, and vita from each participant. If the participant prefers information to be mailed, the researcher will obtain their mailing address. Once each participant has received a copy of the interview schedule, the researcher will call the gate-keeper to set-up a brief meeting to discuss which interview days will work around the participant's schedule. After the interview schedule has been filled, the researcher will schedule three 60 to 90 minute interviews with the four participants of the study. Interviews will be scheduled between 8:30 a.m. and 5:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, for a three week time-frame. Experience or behavior questions penetrate on what a participant is doing or has
64 previously done. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2006), experience interviews are used to describe the participants experience with the phenomenon. Therefore, the researcher will use experience or behavior interview method. The study will be descriptive in nature, which will involve documentation of a behavior, event, or circumstance the participant experienced (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2006). The interview approach will include open-ended and semi-structured questions. Open-ended questions will allow the researcher to inquire about the experiences of the participant without directing or influencing the response. Interviewing will assist the researcher in helping the participants re-construct their experiences that are related to the problem of the study. During the interview process, responses to open-ended questions may lead the interviewer to ask for clarification or elaboration of a response, therefore, semi-structured interview questioning will be utilized by the researcher as well (Creswell, 2006). The interview site will be located in the College of Education and Research Center Conference rooms for participants that have an office located in those respective buildings. The researcher will request permission to secure the conference rooms based upon availability from the secretaries of the Dean of the College of Education and the Vice -President of Research and Development. The researcher chose to select the conference room for the interview site in order to provide a peaceful environment with minimal distractions while the interviews are being conducted (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2006). Refreshments such as water, sodas, and snacks will be provided by the researcher during each interview. The researcher will record all interview responses from the revised interview
65 instrument (see Appendix H) in a pre-designed interview protocol that will help the researcher organize and record information shared by the participant. The pre-designed protocol will include the interview questions and room for responses. A pre-interview protocol allows the researcher to organize thoughts on the interview process, concluding remarks, and appreciation of the participants time (Creswell, 2006). According to Seidman (2006), in-depth phenomenological interviews are developed by using the three-interview series. The first interview sets the historical context of the participant's experience. The second interview reconstructs the experiences, and the third interview calls for the participant to reflect and describe what the experience meant to them. During the initial interview, the researcher will seek to put the participants experience in context by allowing the participants to share as much as possible about the phenomenon and its impact on their past and present state. The participants will go as far back into their past lives to their present position at the study site within the 90 minute time-frame of the first interview. Since the participants are educational leaders, the researcher will ask the participants to re-construct experiences about their family, community, mentors, education, barriers, and contributions that helped frame their lives (Seidman, 2006). The second interview will concentrate on the social context of the participants experience as educational administrators by asking the participants to provide details about their journey to educational leadership. The researcher will set these experiences in social context by asking participants to describe relationships with family, mentors, and community that influenced their decisions to become educational leaders. Participants
66 will be asked to describe memorable experiences in their rise to leadership in order to elicit the details of the experiences (Seidman, 2006). The third interview will reflect on the meaning of the experiences for each participant and how those experiences form the type of leaders they were in the past, are at the present, and will be in the future. The combination of examining past events that guided the participant to the present status, followed by detailed descriptions of their present experiences, will set the context for the manner in which participants are leading today. The three interview stages will help participants in the decisions of selecting experiences meaningful to them, chronicling these experiences, and drawing meaning from their experiences (Seidman, 2006). The researcher will allow 90 minutes for each of the three interview sessions. According to Schuman (as cited in Seidman, 2006), interviews conducted within an hour may be too short or make the process time-focused which may diminish the quality of the interview. Two hour interviews may cause restlessness or inattention in the participant, therefore, ninety minute interviews will be conducted to allow participants to feel that the information they are sharing will be valuable to the study. After each interview session, the researcher will make a list of follow-up questions for the next interview, if necessary. Once all interview sessions are completed, the researcher will collect, organize, and codify each interview with the four participants. The tapes will be transcribed and the video-tape will be used to capture the essence of each participants lived experiences through technology. The interview sessions will be taped and codified according to themes from the interviews of each participant. The data from the interviews will be analyzed using
67 NVivo software and partial transcribing by the researcher. The demographic instrument will be analyzed and reported utilizing percentages. In qualitative research, researchers use in-depth interviews, analyze documents, and observe and record what people do in their natural environment (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2006). After all interview sessions have been completed, the researcher will schedule observation sessions. Creswell (2006) describes observations as a special skill requiring a set of steps in minimizing deception such as accessing the site, gaining permission to observe within the site, record certain events and activities, and observer etiquette while sitting in or leaving the observation sessions. Creswell articulates that researchers should design an observational protocol that that will keep record of the observation experience. Observational protocols are a form of information recording which includes descriptive and reflective notes. The four African American male educational leaders of the study will be observed by the researcher in and around their respective office environments. Each participant will be observed one day for a 30 minute period. The researcher will be observing the participants leadership behavior/influence through artifacts in the participants environment. The researcher will gain access to the observation site through the gatekeeper/secretary to set-up an observational time with the participant of the study. The researcher will assume the role of an outsider who will observe the participants and/or pictures and artifacts at the observation site (Creswell, 2006). In addition, the researcher will record attributes of the physical setting, portraits,
68 events, activities, and the researcher's own perceptions of the observation (Creswell, 2006). After the observations have been completed, the researcher will thank the participants for their time and the data collected. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2006), field notes are taken while in the field. Field notes include what the researcher sees, hear, and feel as they are collecting and reflecting on data during the interview or observation process. Descriptive field notes will include observations about the setting, participants, and the participant's responses to the interviews and observations. Reflective field notes will include what the researcher is thinking as observations and interviews are being conducted. Creswell (2006) suggests data collection may also include document research such as archival materials, biographies, or participant journals. Artifacts such as family and career photos, letters of recognition, copies of certificates/awards, and audio-visuals will be used to help capture the essence of the four participants lived experiences as educational leaders. Once the data has been collected, the researcher will categorize the interview and demographic responses, field notes, artifacts, and the participant's vita into themes for data analysis purposes. Data Analysis Creswell (2006) describes the qualitative data analysis process as a spiral which will include a multiple of analytical circles rather than a linear fixed approach. Creswell (2007) describes inductive data analysis as the following: The researcher working back and forth between themes and the database until they establish a comprehensive set of themes. It may also involve collaborating with the participants interactively, so that they have a chance to shape the themes
69 or abstractions that emerge from the process. (pp. 38-39) The data analysis process will begin with organizing the voluminous amount of data collected. The researcher will transcribe the participant's response from each interview session. NVivo, computer software, will be used to identify emerging themes. These two forms of organizing the data will assist the researcher in creating text units such as words, sentences, or a story. According to Seidman (2006), researchers reduce in-depth interview data inductively, "with an open attitude and seeking what emerges as important or of interest to the text" (p. 117). The next phase of data analysis will include the researcher scanning all interview responses, field notes, artifacts, vitas, and demographic instruments to capture key concepts for emerging themes. The researcher will begin the analysis by describing her personal experience relating to the phenomenon for the purpose of bracketing or suspending the researcher's personal bias. The researcher will read, memo, and horizontalize the transcribed interview responses and additional data by describing how the participants have experienced leadership, in order to develop a list of significant statements. From Polkinghorn’s view, (as cited in Creswell (2006), horizonalization includes highlighting "significant statements" sentences, or quotes that provide an understanding of how the participant experienced the phenomenon (p. 61). The researcher and the participants will then take the statements and develop emerging themes based-upon "textural" descriptions which will describe what each participant experienced as an educational leader. The researcher will then write a "structural" description of the context
70 and setting of how the phenomenon was experienced. To capture the essence of the experience, the researcher will combine the textural and structural descriptions into detailed paragraph which will describe to the reader what and how the participants experienced the phenomenon (Creswell, 2006; Moustakas, 1994). Triangulation will be employed to validate the findings. The researcher will use secondary data, such as observation field notes, demographic information, artifacts, and vitas to triangulate the data. Creswell (2008) suggests that secondary data observations, member-checking, and artifacts assist in the triangulation of data designed to validate the accuracy and credibility of the research report. Fraenkel and Wallen (2006) state that "triangulation involves checking what one hears and sees by comparing one's sources of information---do they agree?" (p. 521). Once the data has been analyzed, the results will be reported through a combination of narration and tables. Summary Chapter three described the methodology for this study by defining the research design, participant selection and description, data collection method, and analysis. In addition, chapter three provided the reader with a restatement of the purpose of the study, research questions, and the role of the researcher.
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79 Appendix A: Demographic Instrument
80 Demographic Instrument African American Male Senior Administrators: A study on Resilience Section A – Personal Information 1. How long have you served the university? 2. What is your current marital status? Please circle your response. Never Married Married Divorced Widowed
3. How many children do you have? Section B - Educational Information 4. What is the highest degree earned? Please circle. PhD Ed. D Masters Other
_____________________ 5. Name of university where you obtained your doctoral degree. What type of doctoral university did you attend? Please circle. Historically Black College University (Public) Historically Black College University (Private) Predominately White University (Public) Predominately White University (Private) 6. Why did you select this type of university to obtain your doctoral degree? 7. Name of University where you obtained your master’s degree. 8. What type of master’s university did you attend? Please circle. Historically Black College University (Public)
81 9. Historically Black College University (Private) Predominately White University (Public) Predominately White University (Private) 10. What was your major field of study? 11. What was your minor field of study? 12. Why did you select this type of university to obtain your master’s degree? 13. Name of University where you obtained your undergraduate degree. 14. What type of undergraduate university did you attend? Please circle. Historically Black College University (Public) Historically Black College University (Private) Predominately White University (Public) Predominately White University (Private) 15. What was your major field of study? 16. What was your minor field of study? 17. Why did you select this type of university to obtain your undergraduate degree? 18. Was a career in education your “calling?” YES or NO 19. If you responded “no” to question #18, then at what point did you make the decision to pursue a career in education? Section C – Employment Career 20. What was your first position in education? 21. What was your first leadership position in education? How many
years of higher education experience do you have?
82 22. During your career, how many institutions of higher education
have you worked at? 23. What is your official job title in your current position? How many years have you been in your current positions? 24. Describe the type of family support you received throughout your career? 25. What impact did community have in shaping your career path? Section D – Parent/Family History 26. As a youth (ages 0-18), what was your parents marital status? 27. Who did you live with as a youth? 28. As a youth, who and/or what most influenced you and why? 29. Highest level of education of female parental figure? Highest level of education of male parental figure? 30. In your opinion, what class was your family when you were a youth? Please circle. Upper class Upper Middle Class Middle Class Lower Class
What kind of community were you reared in? Please circle. Urban Rural Suburban
31. Describe the type of family support you received as a youth? Would you please attach a copy of your curriculum vita or resume and some artifacts (family photos, letters from important figures, programs in your honor, evidence of how you’ve changed policy, letters of outstanding leadership from superiors/peers/student, etc.) to this demographic instrument. Thank you for your time and I look forward to our interviews.
83 Appendix B: Interview Questions
84 Interview Questions Instrument Phase I- Historical Context 1. When and how did your journey toward leadership begin?
2. Describe the effects of racism, the Jim Crow Laws, segregation, and inequality on African American males who were aspiring to become educators and educational leaders. 3. How did the above risk factors alter or shift your leadership paradigm or philosophy? 4. Explain the influence of the Civil Rights Movement on African American male leadership in the community and at an HBCU? Phase II- Social Context 1. During your life as a young man, who were the leaders of the time that inspired you to pursue leadership? 2. What characteristics did your role models possess that influenced your leadership? 3. Describe the leadership style of the mentors which impacted your career path? 4. How do you think African American male educational leadership adds value to the mainstream of society? Describe policies, political office, or positions of power that assisted four educational leaders in becoming change agents of local, state, or national policy. 5. During your educational process, what leadership courses or theories/theorists of the time influenced your leadership style before your tenure?
85 Phase III- Reflective Context 1. Describe how your leadership style has changed from the beginning of your role as an educational leader to the present. 2. What social, educational, or political risk factors did you view as potential roadblocks in the pursuit of your career goals? 3. What do you contribute to most of your ability to overcome barriers through-out your career as an educational leader? 4. Describe leadership styles that were characteristic of you in your work environment and community. 5. Why were these styles used among African American males? 6. Describe what it means to be an African American male in leadership positions.
Appendix C: Interview Protocol
87 Interview Protocol Interview Protocol Project: African American Male Educational Leadership Interviewee: _________________________________________ Interviewer: __________________________________________ Interviewee position: ___________________________________ Date: ________________________________________________ Time: ________________________________________________ Observation Site: _______________________________________ Project Description: The study “Living Legacies” seeks to celebrate the life and accomplishments of four African American male educational leaders from an HBCU in the Southwest region of Texas. These men have served and continue to serve the university of the study for over 30 years. The study utilizes Critical Race theory to identify risk factors that serve as barriers against the success of African American males. Additionally, Resilience theory is utilized to identify protective factors that contributed to the participant’s career goals as educational leaders. Interview Questions 1. What critical moments in history have impacted the educational leadership style(s) of four African-American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College University? 2. Describe how leadership style(s) have evolved over the past three decades of four African American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University.
88 3. Which leaders from the past have left an impression on four African-American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University? 4. In the face of social, political, or racial adversities, what influenced the decisions of four African American male educational leaders at a Southwestern Historically Black College and University? 5. How do these four leaders describe and demonstrate their leadership style when interacting with others? 6. How has the leadership of four senior African American male educational leaders influenced policy and practice over the years and what changes were needed for improvement?
89 Appendix D: Observational Protocol
90 Observational Protocol
60 Minute Activity Reflective Notes
91 Appendix E: IRB Approval for Research Study
92 Research Study Institutional Review Board Approval Form Date: Department: Institutional Review Board/Research Doctoral Student: Mrs. Mary Ann Springs Cohort Number: 4 Upon reviewing your CITI results and Proposal Application, the Prairie View A&M University Institutional Review Board (IRB) has approved your Proposal on the study “Living Legacies”. In order to complete the research approval the attached forms should be completed and signed by August 31, 2010. Thanks for your cooperation, The Prairie View A&M University Review Board
Appendix F: Consent Form
94 Consent Form for “Living Legacies” Study Consent Form A Phenomenological Study of African American Male Educational Leaders You are invited to participate in a research study of selected African American Educational Leaders. You were selected as a possible participant due to your position as an African American male Administrator. Please read this form and ask any questions you may have before acting on this invitation to be in the study. The study will be conducted by Mary Ann Springs, a doctoral candidate at Prairie View A&M University. Mrs. Springs currently teaches Fourth Grade Math at Hempstead Elementary in Hempstead, Texas. Background Information: The purpose of this study will be to give voice to four African American male educational leaders by conducting a phenomenological research study that will examine the emergence of educational leadership as perceived, experienced, and exercised by African American male administrators of a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) in Southwest Texas. Procedures: If you agree to participate in the study, you will be asked to complete a short demographic survey and avail yourself to face-to face- interviews at your location for approximately an hour. Voluntary Nature of the Study: Your participation in this study is strictly voluntary. Your decision whether or not to participate will not affect your current or future relations with the university. If you
95 initially decide to participate, you are still free to withdraw at any time without affecting relationships. Risk and Benefits of Being in the Study: There are no risks associated with participating in this study and there are no short or long- term benefits to participating in this study. In the event you experience stress or anxiety during your participation in the study, you may terminate your participation at any time. You may refuse to answer any questions you consider invasive or stressful. Compensation: There will be no compensation for your participation in this study. Confidentiality: The records of this study will be kept private. In any report of this study that might be published, the researcher will not include any information that will make it possible to identify you unless you choose to be identified. Research records will be kept in a locked file, and only the researcher will have access to these files. Contacts and Questions: The researcher conducting this study will be Mary Ann Springs. The researcher’s faculty advisor is Dr. William Allan Kritsonis. You may ask any questions by calling the researcher at (713) 429-3880 or by email (firstname.lastname@example.org) or the Research Participant Advocate at Prairie View A&M University is Dr. Marcy Sheldon. She may be reached at (936) 826-3311, for any questions pertaining to the study. You will receive a copy of this form from the researcher.
96 ______ I have read the above information. I have asked questions and received answers. I consent to participate in the study. Printed Name of Participant ______________________________________________ Participant Signature ______________________________________________ Signature of Investigator ____________________________________________
97 Appendix G: Informed Consent to Audio Tape Interview
98 Informed Consent Permission to Audio/Video Tape Interview I, _________________________________________, hereby authorize Mary Ann Springs, a doctoral student at Prairie View A&M University, to audio/video tape the interview with me to conduct a study entitled: Living Legacies: A Phenomenological study on the rise to leadership of four African American male educational leaders at an HBCU in Southwest Texas. Signature: ___________________________________________ Date:_________________________________________________
99 Appendix H: Revised Interview Instrument
100 Revised Interview Instrument