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Management of Spent Catalysts in Petroleum Refineries

MANAGEMENT OF SPENT CATALYSTS IN PETROLEUM REFINERIES

David T. Liang
Deputy Director
Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering
Singapore

Abstract

Catalysts are indispensable in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industry for
routine production of gasoline, diesel fuels, jet fuels, heavy oil hydrocarbons,
petrochemicals and plastics. Hydrocarbons (HT and HDS) and residue hydro-
desulfurization (RDS) are the major processes for converting crude oil into these petroleum
products. During processing, catalysts will become contaminated with impurities in the
crude oil feed and become deactivated. When that happens, they are usually sent for
regeneration where contaminates are removed. Ultimately, they will be contaminated with
coke, sulfur, vanadium and nickel in a manner and at a level that makes regeneration
impractical. At this stage, catalysts are considered “spent” and they may pose significant
environmental problems, as landfill disposal is no longer accepted as best practice.

Hydro-desulfurization (HDS/RDS) of heavy oil produces spent catalysts that contain


molybdenum (Mo), vanadium (V), nickel (Ni) or cobalt (Co) at concentration levels that
has been found to be economical for recovery. Due to its complex nature, metal recovery
from HDS/RDS spent catalysts involves a combination of pyro- and hydro- metallurgical
processes. At present, only a handful of companies are capable to do so on a commercial
scale and in an environmentally acceptable manner. The energy savings and environment
benefits associated with these recycling activities are also quite significant. It has been
estimated that recycling of various metal scraps consumes approximately 33% less energy
and generates 60% less pollutants than the production of virgin material from ore.
However with increasing demand of ever more complex metallic composite and alloy
materials in modern manufacturing processes, it becomes imperative to develop
appropriate methods for the recovery of these valuable metals.

The present paper will provide a brief overview of the management practices and recovery
of metals from spent catalysts, with the focus on the technologies, issues and opportunities
associated with the recycling of valuable metals. Potential impacts of issues such as the
Basel Convention and environmental legislation are also highlighted.

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Management of Spent Catalysts in Petroleum Refineries

Introduction

On-going environmental concerns have had major impacts on the refinery industry in
general. First there was the response to phase out the lead in gasoline by most developed
countries, following the discovery of health hazard it poses on urban, young populations
through lead accumulation in their blood. Then there was the discussion in some countries
of a possible ban of an additive called MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) which was
found to contaminate groundwater through leaky underground storage tanks.

Current regulations on the emission of sulfur oxides (SOx) from vehicles have pushed fuel
sulfur contents to very low levels (~10 ppm in some jurisdictions). Refineries are now
facing the formidable challenge of lowering the sulfur content in their products at a time
when the good quality low-sulfur crude is becoming scarce. Technically, removing sulfur
from the products during the refining stage is possible, however, the economic impact
could be substantial in terms of major process modifications needed. Another major
impact on the refinery will be the expected increase in the need for catalyst replacement
and disposal of the spent catalysts. This is because proportionally, more sulfur will report
to the catalysts that will hasten their service life through sulfur deposition.

Safe disposal of these spent catalysts is a significant environmental problem as landfill


disposal is no longer generally accepted as the best practice. In many cases, the spent
catalysts have been classified as hazardous waste material and are subject to stringent
disposal guidelines. Most major refinery companies have set up special disposal practices
and only allow authorised waste collectors and processors to dispose the catalyst waste.

Metals in the Crude Oil and Catalysts

Crude oils are complex mixtures, ranging in consistency from water to tar-like solids, and
in color from clear to black. An "average" crude oil contains about 84% carbon, 14%
hydrogen, 1-3% sulfur, and less than 1% each of nitrogen, oxygen, metals, and salts. Crude
oils can generally be classified as paraffinic, naphthenic, or aromatic, based on the
predominant proportion of similar hydrocarbon molecules. Refinery crude base stocks may
consist of mixtures of two or more different crude oils.

Metals including nickel, iron, and vanadium are often found in crude oils in small
quantities and are removed during the refining process. Trace amounts of arsenic,
vanadium, and nickel can accumulate in the pore structure of catalysts and poison these
processing catalysts.

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and hydrotreating are the major processes for converting
crude oil into petroleum products in Singapore. FCC catalysts are ultimately contaminated
with coke, vanadium and nickel in a manner and at a level that makes regeneration
impossible.

Hydrotreating heavy oil also produces spent catalysts containing coke, nickel, and
vanadium. In this instance, regeneration may be possible by selective removal of nickel,
vanadium and iron, but irreversible deactivation ultimately occurs. Catalytic cracking

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breaks complex hydrocarbons into simpler molecules in order to increase the quality and
quantity of lighter, more desirable products and decrease the amount of residuals.

Catalytic cracking is similar to thermal cracking except that catalysts facilitate the
conversion of the heavier molecules into lighter products. Use of a catalyst in the cracking
reaction increases the yield of improved-quality products under much less severe operating
conditions than in thermal cracking. Typical temperatures are from 850-950 degrees F at
much lower pressures of 10-20 psi. The catalysts used in refinery cracking units are
typically solid materials (zeolite, aluminum hydrosilicate, treated bentonite clay, fuller's
earth, bauxite, and silica-alumina) that come in the form of powders, beads, pellets or
shaped materials called extrudites.

F luid Catalytic Cracking

The most common process is FCC, in which the oil is cracked in the presence of a finely
divided catalyst which is maintained in an aerated or fluidized state by the oil vapors. The
fluid cracker consists of a catalyst section and a fractionating section that operate together
as an integrated processing unit. The catalyst section contains the reactor and regenerator,
which with the standpipe and riser forms the catalyst circulation unit. The fluid catalyst is
continuously circulated between the reactor and the regenerator using air, oil vapors, and
steam as the conveying media.

A typical FCC process involves mixing a preheated hydrocarbon charge with hot,
regenerated catalyst as it enters the riser leading to the reactor. The charge is combined
with a recycle stream within the riser, vaporized, and raised to reactor temperature (900-
1,000 degrees F) by the hot catalyst. As the mixture travels up the riser, the charge is
cracked at 10-30 psi.

Spent catalyst is regenerated to get rid of coke that collects on the catalyst during the
process. Spent catalyst flows through the catalyst stripper to the regenerator, where most of
the coke deposits burn off at the bottom where preheated air and spent catalyst are mixed.
Fresh catalyst is added and worn-out catalyst removed to optimize the cracking process.

Treatment Processes

Throughout the history of refining, various treatment methods have been used to remove
non-hydrocarbons, impurities, and other constituents that adversely affect the properties of
finished products or reduce the efficiency of the conversion processes. Treating can
involve chemical reaction and/or physical separation. Typical examples of treating are
chemical sweetening, acid treating, clay contacting, caustic washing, hydrotreating, drying,
solvent extraction, and solvent dewaxing. Sweetening compounds and acids desulfurize
crude oil before processing and treat products during and after processing. Following the
Second World War, various reforming processes improved gasoline quality and yield and
produced higher-quality products. Most of these involved the use of catalysts and/or
hydrogen to change molecules and remove sulfur. A number of the more commonly used
treating and reforming processes are described in this chapter of the manual.

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Catalytic Hydrotreating

Catalytic hydrotreating is a hydrogenation process used to remove about 90% of


contaminants such as nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and metals from liquid petroleum fractions.
These contaminants, if not removed from the petroleum fractions as they travel through the
refinery processing units, can have detrimental effects on the equipment, the catalysts, and
the quality of the finished product. Typically, hydrotreating is done prior to processes such
as catalytic reforming so that the catalyst is not contaminated by untreated feedstock.
Hydrotreating is also used prior to catalytic cracking to reduce sulfur and improve product
yields, and to upgrade middle-distillate petroleum fractions into finished kerosene, diesel
fuel, and heating fuel oils. In addition, hydrotreating converts olefins and aromatics to
saturated compounds.

Catalytic Hydrodesulfurization Process

Hydrotreating for sulfur removal is called hydrodesulfurization. In a typical catalytic


hydro-desulfurization unit, the feedstock is deaerated and mixed with hydrogen, preheated
in a fired heater (600-800 degrees F) and then charged under pressure (up to 1,000 psi)
through a fixed-bed catalytic reactor. In the reactor, the sulfur and nitrogen compounds in
the feedstock are converted into H2S and NH3. The reaction products leave the reactor and
after cooling to a low temperature enter a liquid/gas separator. The hydrogen-rich gas from
the high-pressure separation is recycled to combine with the feedstock, and the low-
pressure gas stream rich in H2S is sent to a gas treating unit where H2S is removed. The
clean gas is then suitable as fuel for the refinery furnaces. The liquid stream is the product
from hydrotreating and is normally sent to a stripping column for removal of H2S and other
undesirable components. In cases where steam is used for stripping, the product is sent to a
vacuum drier for removal of water. Hydrodesulfurized products are blended or used as
catalyticreforming feedstock.

Other Hydrotreating Processes

Hydrotreating processes differ depending upon the feedstocks available and catalysts used,
it can be used to improve the burning characteristics of distillates such as kerosene.
Hydrotreatment of a kerosene fraction can convert aromatics into naphthenes, which are
cleaner-burning compounds. Hydrotreating also can be employed to improve the quality
of pyrolysis gasoline (pygas), a by-product from the manufacture of ethylene. Traditionally,
the outlet for pygas has been motor gasoline blending, a suitable route in view of its high
octane number. However, only small portions can be blended untreated owing to the
unacceptable odor, color, and gum-forming tendencies of this material.

F CC Catalysts

According to one estimate (Avidan 1992), that the capacity of the worldwide FCC catalyst
production in 1990 was about 1,100 ton/day or 400,00 ton/year. Assuming that 90% of
the production capacity is needed to replace spent catalyst from the FCC units, the total
amount of spent FCC generated in the world is then about 360,000 t/y. Rao (1993)
estimated that there were about 336 FCC units operating around the world, each processing
3,300 t/d of feed and requiring 2-3/t/d of fresh catalyst make up. This gives a worldwide

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total spent FCC catalyst between 250,000 to 368,000 t/y. Following table gives the
geographical distribution of FCC units worldwide and the approximate generation rate of
spent FCC catalysts :

Region No of units Est. Spent catalyst % of total


t/y 1

North America 176 161,000 52


Asia Pacific 48 43,800 15
Latin America 37 33,800 11
Europe 34 31,000 10
Middle East/Africa 17 15,500 5
Eastern Europe 13 12,000 4
Other 2 11 10,000 3

Total 336 306,600 100

Note:

1. The generation rate is estimated from the average fresh make up required (2.5 t/d) for
each unit and the number of units given in Rao (1993).

2. There 11 FCC units unaccounted by Rao (1993).

Hydrotreating Catalysts

The world generation of the spent metal-bearing, hydrotreating (HT) catalyst was
estimated (Dakota Catalyst, 1996) to be about 87,500 t/y and spent desulphurization
catalyst at 297,500 t/y from the petroleum refinery industry.

Metal Bearing North America Other Wor ldwide

Single Metal (Ni, Co) 25,000 62,500 87,500


Desulphurization 110,000 187,500 297,500

Total 135,000 250,000 385,000

Noting that the estimate for the FCC catalyst in the previous section is for the year 1990.
In order to get a more current estimate of FCC consumption, one can use the rule of thumb
which suggests that the ratio between the amount of FCC and HT catalyst consumption
should be about 5:1. This means that if we take the more current estimate of the HT
(single metal) catalysts, 87,500 ton shown above as being correct, then the worldwide FCC
consumption for 1996 should be 437,500 t. Given that there is elutriation loss associated
with the FCC system which is typically about 10%, the recoverable spent FCC catalysts
would then be about 393,000 t in 1996.

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Singapore and the Regional Market

The amount of spent FCC and hydrotreating catalysts produced by petroleum refineries in
the Southeast Asia is estimated to be around 20,000 tones and 5,000 tones per annum,
respectively, and the demand for petroleum refining catalysts is expected to have a steady
growth in foreseeable future. Thus, the existing and future environmental problems posed
by these materials is considerable. The current practice of Singapore petroleum refineries
to ship these catalysts overseas is both expensive, and likely to be made illegal as
international protocols such the Basel convention come into force. As the petroleum
industry is one of the largest export earners for Singapore a domestic solution to the
recycling and disposal of catalysts requires urgent investigation.

Although the total quantity of spent catalyst generated in Singapore and the region is small,
with changing legislative environment worldwide it is expected to have to deal with its
own waste. Thus, the existing and future environmental problems posed by these materials
is considerable. As the petroleum industry is one of the largest export earners for
Singapore a domestic solution to the recycling and disposal of catalysts requires urgent
investigation.

US EPARegulations

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to amend the regulations
for hazardous waste management under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA) by listing, as hazardous wastes, three residuals from petroleum refining processes
because certain disposal practices may present a risk to human health or the environment.
EPA is also proposing not to list as hazardous eleven process residuals. This action
proposes to add the toxic constituents found in the wastes to the list of constituents that
serves as the bases for classifying wastes as hazardous. This action is proposed pursuant to
RCRA section 3001(b) and section 3001(e)(2), which direct EPA to make a hazardous
waste listing determination for ``refining wastes.'' The effect of this proposed regulation
would be to subject these wastes to regulation as hazardous wastes under Subtitle C of
RCRA. Additionally, this action proposes to designate the wastes proposed for listing as
hazardous substances subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and to adjust the one-pound statutory
reportable quantities (RQs) for these substances. In support of the Agency's regulatory
reinvention efforts, this action also proposes changes to the RCRA regulations to promote
the environmentally sound recycling of oil-bearing residuals. Specifically, the Agency is
proposing to broaden the existing exemption for certain wastes from the definition of solid
waste. These include oil-bearing residuals from specified petroleum refining sources
inserted into the petroleum refining process, and spent caustic from liquid treating
operations when used as a feedstock. Today's proposal also would exempt from the
definition of hazardous waste mixtures of clarified slurry oil (CSO) storage tank sediment
and/or in-line filter/separation solids with tank wastewaters, provided that the waste is
discharged to the oil recovery sewer before primary oil/water/solids separation, and
ceramic support media separated from spent hydrotreating/hydrorefining catalysts. Finally,
EPA is proposing to apply universal treatment standards (UTS) under the Land Disposal
Restrictions program to the Petroleum Refining Wastes proposed for listing in this
rulemaking.

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The Basel Convention

In 1989, 105 countries and the European Union signed the Basel Convention on the Control
of Transbondary Movement of Hazardous Waste and Their Disposal. It was a response by
the international community to incidents of indiscriminate final disposal or dumping in
developing nations by others. The emphasis is now focused on regulating shipments for
recycling, which has raised numerous interpretations and questions whether it is a justifiable
interference in world trade (Alter, 1997). Earlier definitions on hazardous waste also put
many inert, harmless scrap such as stainless steel in question due to its content of nickel.

Clearly, the definition of waste under Basel Convention has a broad reach and is
complicated and controversial. Its implications on trade of metal scraps will have impact
of the amount of metals that is recycled worldwide. For this reason, its application and
enforcement has not yet been fully accepted. However, the underlying goals principles of
the Basel Convention, which is to assure sound environmental management has not been
lost. Incidents of indiscriminate dumping will no longer be acceptable internationally.
Each country will have to learn to deal with its own waste and manage it in the most
effective manner.

Competing Technologies for Processing Spent Catalyst

There are three main methods for the treatment of spent catalysts, they include: (1)
encapsulation and stabilization of heavy metals in spent FCC catalysts (2) metal recovery
and separation from spent hydrotreating catalyst, and (3) glassification and vitrification for
stabilization together with other industrial solid wastes which may contain heavy metals
such as As, Zn, Pb etc in a form suitable to use as aggregate for road paving and concrete
applications. Current paper only reviews the metal recovery technologies as they are
considered the most advanced state for metal recovery from waste materials and will
prevent the dispersion of toxic elements in the environment while completing the life cycle
of these valuable resources. Spent catalysts are truly a valuable source of metals as they
contain up to 10% molybdenum and/or vanadium, 3% nickel or cobalt and 50% alumina.

The F CC Catalysts Recycling

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and hydrotreating are the major processes for converting
crude oil into petroleum products. FCC catalysts are ultimately contaminated with coke,
vanadium and nickel in a manner and at a level that makes regeneration impossible.
Hydrotreating heavy oil also produces spent catalysts containing coke, nickel, and
vanadium. In this instance, regeneration may be possible by selective removal of nickel,
vanadium and iron, but irreversible deactivation ultimately occurs.

These spent catalysts poses a significant environmental problem as landfill disposal is no


longer generally accepted as the best practice. When the price of metals are high, it is
economical to recover these from hydrotreating catalyst. On the other hand, metal
concentrations on residual FCC catalysts are always to low to justify similar treatment.
One technology developed by Dakota Catalyst Products uses a three stage process to treat
alumina and mullite based catalysts in a manner that:

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1. separates alumina, mullite and base metals from hydrocarbons and sulphur using a
cement kiln,
2. releases the alumina from metals by selective reduction and gravity separation in an
arc furnace to yield a purified raw material, and
3. size the alumina and mullite for sale.

In principle, the approach is straightforward and does not involve any exotic processing or
engineering. There is a large market for the treatment of spent catalysts and the economics
grow steadily more favourable as landfill charges escalate. Potential limitations of the
process include an inability to cope with waste streams of variable composition,
incomplete volatilization of carbon and sulphur during calcination, and lack of disposal or
reuse scheme for waste gypsum.

Management of the Spent Catalysts

There are only a handful of companies that are capable of recycling the metals from spent
HDS and RDS catalysts. The catalysts processed originate mainly from various catalytic
operations in the petroleum industry like hydrodesulfurization, hydro-demetalization,
hydrotreating, hydrorefining, and hydrocracking. The catalyst consist of an alumina base
with molybdenum oxide and nickel or cobalt oxide as the active ingredient. During use in
the oil refineries, the catalyst becomes "spent" due to adsorption of sulfur, carbon,
vanadium, nickel, iron and other elements which inhibit the catalytic process. Spent
catalyst is received in bulk or packaged in flowbins and contains 5 to 25% oil. The most
frequently received materials are hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and residual desulfurizing
(RDS) catalysts.

In the United States, the Federal and state government environmental regulations must be
followed in transporting, receiving and in particular, storage of the spent catalyst and other
feed materials. A bar code system is applied to assure that the allowed storage time is not
exceeded. Representative pre-shipment samples are required for evaluation. The samples
are analyzed and evaluated to determine compliance with regulations and compatibility
with economical and technical requirements of the process. The customer is then notified
as to whether the tested material can be successfully recycled. Upon arrival of the feed
shipment, the material, is compared with the pre-shipment sample, before it can be
unloaded.

The Ni/V Recovery Technology Overview

They invariably involve a combination of hydro and pyrometallurgical operations in order


to fully recover the various metal values. Typically, all valuable components of the
catalysts are converted into four major marketable products: vanadium oxide, molybdenum
trioxide, alumina trihydrate and a nickel-cobalt concentrate. Other metals typically found
in these wastes may be present in lesser concentrations. The principal products recovered
from one of the process developed by CRIMET are a nickel-copper-cobalt concentrate,
alumina trihydrate, and chrome oxide. A complete list is shown below:

Alumina Trihydrate
Calcium Tungstate (Scheelite)

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Chrome Oxide
Molybdenum Trisulfide
Molybdic Oxide
Nickel-Cobalt Concentrate
Vanadium Hydroxide Wet Cake
Vanadium Oxide

Other flow sheet such as Kingtech’s involves different unit operations and recovers the
following salable products:

Alumina-silica aggregate
Ammonium Molybdate
Ammonium Vanadate
Ferro Molybdenum
Ferro Vanadium
Molybdic Oxide
Nickel-Cobalt Concentrate
Sodium Vanadate
Sodium Molybdate
Vanadium Pentoxide

It is clear that both processes are designed to recover nearly almost all the available metal
values from the spent catalyst and they are economically viable and can be regarded as an
integral part of the best practices in the management of spent catalysts.

Molybdenum and Vanadium Separation, Recovery and Products

The high purity sodium molybdate and vanadate solution is acidified with sulfuric acid and
treated with hydrogen sulfide and/or sodium sulfide in a vented reactor tank. Molybdenum
is selectively precipitated as molybdenum trisulfide:

Na2MoO4 + 3 H2S MoS3 + 2 NaOH + 2 H2O

The yield of this reaction exceeds 99.9%; typically less than 10 ppm Mo remains in
solution. Vanadium is reduced to the tetravalent state and remains in solution as vanadyl
sulfate. This is reflected by following equations.

2 NaVO3 + H2S + 3 H2SO4 2 VO3SO4 + S + Na2SO4 + 4 H2

Na4V4O12 + 2 H2S + 6 H2SO4 4 VO3SO4 + 2 S + 2 Na2SO4+ 8 H2O

From the environmental point of view this is the "best available technology", for vanadium
separation. The yield of vanadium exceeds 99.9%; only 10-20 ppm V remain in solution.
After separation of this element,according to conventional methods, applied by other
vanadium producers (SX, ammonium meta vanadate or "vanadium red") substantially
higher residual concentrations of over 100 ppm V are observed in tail liquors. The vanadyl
hydroxide solids are separated by centrifugation and subsequently dried and partly sintered
on a belt furnace operated under oxidizing conditions to obtain a granulated vanadium

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oxide product. The granulated vanadium oxide product is sold mainly to ferro vanadium
producers.

Wastewater Treatment

Water from the vanadium hydroxide countercurrent thickener washing operation and rain
water collected within the plant boundaries are directed to the water treatment plant. Traces
of heavy metals, if present, are removed as hydroxides. Sodium hydroxide and flocculants
are applied as reagents. The precipitated solids, removed in a clarifying operation followed
by filtration, are recycled to the first stage leach. The discharge water consistently meets
current EPA BAT "Best Available Technology" effluent standards. The wastewater
treatment facility has, in fact, operated now 10 years without a single metals related permit
excursion.

Spent Caustic

Make up caustic must be added to the sodium aluminate loop and spent caustic can in
many cases beneficially replace fresh caustic requirements. Some caustic solutions from oil
refining facilities contain sulfides and hydrosulfides. This caustic is also recyclable in this
process, but is only partially used because sulfides are oxidized to sulfates before being
utilized. Modifications to the process are considered to utilize sulfidic values of such
materials in the molybdenum precipitation step.

Spent Sulfuric Acid

Spent sulfuric acid, if of sufficient purity and strength (20%), is acceptable for
recycle/reuse and applied for acidification in the precipitation of molybdenum trisulfide
and consumed and for neutralization of caustic.

Some contaminants in sulfuric acid, such as Hg, cannot be tolerated and as in the case of
spent caustic, a thorough analysis and pre-evaluation procedure is required before
accepting spent acids at the facility to identify those which can be recycled.

Silica Based Catalysts

Silica based catalysts cannot be fed to the first leaching step due to mineral formation and
consequently caustic and alumina losses. Some silica based catalysts can, however, be co-
processed. Vanadium can be extracted in a separate atmospheric leaching step, using
sodium aluminate from the main loop as lixiviant. The leach solution is combined with the
first stage leach raffinate and directed to the molybdenum vanadium separation step. The
nickel containing leach residue is added to the solids from the second stage of the main
loop and sold as nickel-cobalt concentrate.

Spent Tungsten Catalyst

Tungsten catalyst containing usually about 10% W and/or up to 3% Ni or Co cannot be


directly coprocessed with the Ni-Mo or Co-Mo types of spent catalyst due to potential
contamination of the molybdenum and vanadium products with tungsten. A

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complementary, but separate, processing method has also been developed for this type of
catalyst. The nickel contained in the atalyst is recovered in the nickel-cobalt concentrate
within the present process.

Conclusions

Present paper describes a new process for the complete resource recovery that is simple,
effective, economical and environmentally benign. The metal leaching process for spent
catalysts, has a selectivity that is >95% for the metals. The undissolved residue contains
mainly Al2O3 and SiO2, can be used in the production of masonry bricks. The pH of the
rich liquor is then adjusted by adding dilute sulfuric acid to co-precipitate Mo and V, with
a recovery rate of >99%. The lean liquor contains mostly dissolved Ni or Co which can be
recovered through precipitation by caustic additions. The final liquor is then sent to an ion
exchange step for final recovery and cleanup of residual metals. The final effluent is then
discharged after a simple wastewater treatment process, which was found to meet all
environmental requirements. The entire process has been found to be simple, cost-
effective with minimal environmental impacts while achieving the goal of complete
resource recovery from spent catalysts commercially.

The technologies represent significant advancement in the recovery of metals from spent
catalysts and other solid wastes. This is the leading edge of an environmentally sound
technology and sets the standards for handling various metal bearing solid wastes in the
future.

References

1. T. LaRue, et al., "AMAX Port Nickel - A New Dimension in Reclaiming spent


Catalysts", Paper presented at the 1988 Spring AICHE National Meeting, March 6-10,
1988.

2. E. Wiewiorowski, "Selective Extraction of Molybdenum and Vanadium from Spent

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