Nguyen Van Nghi Tran Viet Dzung Christine Recours Nguyen

huangdi neijing LINGSHU

Volume III Books VI - IX
N.V.N. Edition
Translated from the French by Edward S. Garbacz, MD With Additional Commentary by Sean Christiaan Marshall, D. Ac.
© Jung Tao School of Classical Chinese Medicine - 2002
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Preface

In this manner is Volume III of the Lingshu ended which finally completes the study of this monumental basic work of Classical Chinese Medicine! We experience at the same time a feeling of pride and relief because this was a work of extremely arduous translation, comprehension and analysis which had demanded of us more than 10 years of labor. This reference work delivers to us a little bit of truth, of very involved and complex facts, which made it necessary for us to continuously decipher, replace and transpose the information in order to make it accessible to every acupunturist. Like the two previous volumes, we have developed commentaries because, handed over in a crude state, this book is nearly incomprehensible. Thanks to the expert interpretive work by the most reputable commentators over the centuries, and more modestly by ourselves, one achieves clarification and restoration√: _ in order not to be totally mistaken in seeing only a primitive medicine that’s without interest _ in order to better comprehend CCM (Classical Chinese Medicine), to deeply delve into all its facts without arbitrarily neglecting some (as in our present time, for example, the luo vessels and curious channels) _ and in order to envision WM (Western Medicine) from another perspective, different, but complementary and enriching. Concerning this point of view, the Lingshu offers us the possibility of drawing from it numerous ideas of modernity. We can cite the most obvious examples: 1. There is a postulate that has become recently universal: “Energy creates matter”. Now that expresses differently the famous phrase: “Qi forms Xing” found in the Lingshu. It is in this manner that these two notions, the first arising from modern science, the second from CCM, as a result of geographic, chronologic and intellectual extremes, in the end express the same idea. For the Western world, this postulate came from observation of physical phenomena from the second part of the 20th century, but this notion concerns more particularly the physicochemical rather than medical field, and it remains still quite neglected in the field of WM, in accordance with Cartesian medical reasoning. For CCM, whose reasoning originates from a specific thought process of the Oriental mind and is applicable to every field, not just medical, this postulate has been known since the dawn of time. Therefore, we learn in the Lingshu that every change in matter always comes from a change in the state of the energy.

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2. Another very modern trend is the development of immunology in WM. A large part of the Lingshu is devoted to the Wei Energy. Wei, defensive energy, plays a similar role to known immunologic processes because, like innate, non-specific immunity, it permits struggle against pathogenic agent introduced within the organism. It is then possible to establish a correlation between Wei energy and immune defense. Immunodficiency, otherwise known as Emptiness of Wei, is, in WM and CCM, at the core of all diseases. It is said in the Lingshu: “Wei energy defends us and kills us.”
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3. In the Lingshu is also found a mode of reasoning that is only discovered these days in WM and which paradoxically considerably modernizes it. For example: _ the notion of “cycle”, a fundamental concept in CCM, which begins to be known in WM (Krebs cycle, cardiac cycle, menstrual cycle...), _ the notion of “chain” with stimulation, synthesis and inhibition (hormonal secretion, muscular movement, glycemia, blood volume...), _ the notion of environmental or behavioral factors (ethologic, psycho-social), _ the notion of “gate” or “door” (gate control in pain physiology, “gate” in the regulation of cellular membrane permeability to ions, for example). These ultra-modern ideas of cycle, chain, chronobiology, and still others, are therefore contained in the three thousand years old Lingshu, as well as clinical examples (like the formation of tumors) which can permit improving its practice as much as in CCM as in WM. To anyone going to the trouble of delving deeply into the information contained in this bible of Chinese medicine, they are furnished knowledge applicable to modern medicine. We achieve then a novel enlightenment about pathologic processes as observed in a fundamentally different manner from present scientists. On the one hand, one notices the change in matter without, however, managing to explain it, and, on the other hand, in the aid of scientific examinations, one better recognizes the envisioned pathologic state as soon as it appears and treats it at the level of the energy. If one can, therefore, apply certain knowledge from CCM to WM; inversely, it is just as easily understood possible to apply certain knowledge from WM to CCM. But to do so systematically, without mutual exchange, in accordance with the preponderance of WM, risking over-Westernizing acupuncture. Via too much desire to conform to scienticism, CCM will lose its identity and its natural essence. In this way, we observe that the present tendency, both in China and Vietnam, is especially to develop phytotherapy or points of acupuncture via some sort of “recipe”. This course is dedictated to failure because the extreme energetic variability of the individual is barely taken into account. One consequently only attaches importance to the simplistic basis of MTC, a phenomenon not only dictated by medical misjudgment, but especially by the profit motive of commerce and economic demands. As a result, fundamental investigations are neglected for profit of gain and immediate results. But true Acupuncture comes from the Lingshu and other magistral works, sources of

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pathophysiology and therapy in CCM. It is only by reading and analysis that one will attain the development of CCM and tend toward mastery of the disease process. We hope that the accomplishment of this stake in the form of the Lingshu will provide the practicing physician and scientist every benefit expected for themselves and the patient. We envision the time which will see the fusion of the modes of thought, of these two medicines, succeeding to bring forth one universal medicine. Then we will have not labored in vain.

Marseille, October 10, 1998 Dr. Nguyen Van Nghi

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Book VI
Book VI consists of 10 chapters:

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Chapter 49 : The Five Colors (Wu Zu) Chapter 50 : Discussion on Courage (Lun Zung) Chapter 51 : Shu of the Back (Bei Shu) Chapter 52 : Defensive Energy (Wei Qi) Chapter 53 : Discussion on Pain (Lun Tong) Chapter 54 : Celestial Age (Tian Nian) Chapter 55 : Contrary and Favorable (Xi Zuan) Chapter 56 : The Five Sapors (Wu Wei) Chapter 57 : Hydropsy (Shui Zhang) Chapter 58 : Pirate Wind (Zi Feng)
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CHAPTER XLIX
The Five Colors (Wu Za)

Chapter 49 of the Lingshu speaks on the reflection of the energetic state of the 5 organs and 6 bowels at the level of the face in the form of “5 Colors” of clearly defined localization. The areas or reflection of the 5 organs are gathered together at the forehead and nose, and those of the 6 bowels, at the two cheeks. According to changes of the color of the face, one can diagnose diseases of the organs and bowels, and according to the light or dark, diffuse or concentrated, shiny or dull, moist or dry coloration, one can judge the superficial or deep localization of the disease, its acute or chronic state and its good or poor prognosis. The objective of this chapter is the study of the 5 Colors (green, red, yellow, white and black) as a function of the 5 organs in order to establish a basis of diagnosis. This is why it is entitled: “The Five Colors” (Wu Za). This chapter consists of 16 paragraphs.

PARAGRAPH 1
Leigong questions Huangdi: “Are the five colors only determined at Mingtang? Huangdi: “ Mingtang designates the nose. Jue, the inter-eyeborw space Ding, the forehead and its two sides Fan, the two sides of the crest of the nose Ti, the front of the acoustic meatus. These different regions must be even and large, visible beyond I still do not understand.”

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10 paces, and man can live to 100 years.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi describes:

“The phrase “The 5 colors are all determined at Mingtang” is mentioned in Chapter 37 of this classic (“5 Approvals and 5 Emissaries”). Leigong brings it back up to question Huangdi.”
II - N.V.N.: Recall (1), the 5 facial areas (Wu Guan) can be diagrammed in the following fashion:

1. See Lingshu, Volume II, Chapter 37, p. 220, diagram 65.

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Figure 1 The five facial areas (Wu Guan)

PARAGRAPH 2
“How do you discern Wu Guan (5 facial areas)?”

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Leigong:

Huangdi: “The bone of Mingtang (nose) is prominent and raised, flat and straight. Its center represents the 5 organs, and its 2 sides, the 6 bowels.

Jue (inter-eyebrow space) and Ding (forehead) are at the top of the face, and the “royal palace” is found between the 2 eyes.
The 5 organs in the thorax and abdomen, at peace, reflect their true colors. M i n g t a n g , not presenting pathologic color, is pure, smooth and brilliant. How then could you not be able to discern Wu Guan ? ”

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reproduces the order of placement of the 5 organs located in the interior. but the areas of observation of the face. The localization of their reflected energy therefore follows the order of their established sites in the interior. Therefore. at the highest point. There is then often confusion in translation into Western language. The area located between Jue (inter-eyebrow space) and Ding (middle of the forehead) responds to the lung. Then why does one say that one cannot discern Wu Guan?” III . The kidney is the Water-Organ. under the nostrils. which is pure and smooth. 16. This is why their reflected energy is located outside the nose.V.Wu Guan (Five Barriers or areas of reflection of the energy of the 5 organs) (2) are the sites of manifestation of the Jing (quintessence) of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. responds to the liver. Jue/Ding belongs to the lung because the lung responds to Heaven. Further below. This notion gives evidence of the presence of the three units “Heaven-Earth-Man 2. in order to respond to the center where Spleen-Earth is found. well-raised and straight.N.EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . The bone of the prominent nose. at the 2 sides of the liver the stomach.When the 5 organs are at peace within the thorax and abdomen. Wu Guan do not designate the 5 sense organs. at the base of the nose between the two eyes.The energy of the 6 bowels becomes exteriorized at the two sides of the nose: the gallbladder. at the nose. at the tip of the nose. at the 2 sides and outside the naso-labial groove. Mingtang designates the nose.Tian Jue (“Celestial” inter-eyebrow space) is above and Wang Gong (royal palace) is down below.N. the spleen is located down below because the spleen responds to Earth (low). it follows the large intestine and lies near the edge (contour) of the face. 2 _ _ _ _ _ . Underneath Jue. outside the nasal ala. responds to the heart. on the cheek the small intestine. the middle of the face responds to Earth which is surrounded with water. 4 . According to the context.: The areas of reflection of the 5 organs and 6 bowels are recalled in the following figure: 9 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . responds to the spleen. of the face” (3). in the middle of the cheek the bladder and uterus.Zhang Shi explains: “1 . The middle of the crest of the nose. their true color manifests at the exterior. at the 2 sides of the spleen the large intestine. The 5 organs are Yin and govern the interior. The bowels are Yang and govern the exterior. As a result. 3 . at the 2 sides of the nose.

Volume II of the Lingshu. 3. the prognosis is not fatal. See Chapter 37 (“5 Approvals and 5 Emissaries”). the disease is hardly curable. Leigong: “Your young disciple would like to hear you on the case where the distinction of the colors of different areas of observation (Wu Guan) is sometimes difficult. despite the seriousness of the disease. If the color of this area originates from the phenomenon of succession (Sheng Shi) of the 5 Movements (Mother-Son).” Huangdi: “The 5 colors each have a reflected area.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 10 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . If this area is depressed to the bone. PARAGRAPH 3 17.Figure 2 Areas of reflection of the energy of the 5 organs/6 bowels.

despite the seriousness of the disease. Guan ? ” chills).V.” III . is always indicated. etc. ” I . In certain non-depressed areas. For this reason. designating the “Mother-Son” chains of the law of the 5 Movements. affected. physiologic color). Yellow and red respond to heat (fever). in diseases originating from other chains. In contrast. treatment by Acupuncture/Moxabustion is generally recommended. Such are the signs responding to the colors of Wu EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Guan .N. are: _ appearance of yellow color in the heart area _ appearance of red color in the liver area _ appearance of the green color in the kidney area _ appearance of the black color in the lung area.I . In this manner: _ green and black belong to Feng-Han (Wind-Cold).Ma Shi adds: “Huangdi describes that the colors of Wu Guan (5 areas of observation) are examinable.: 18.Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph concerns the colors of Wu Guan whose appearance at a specific area permits defining the origin of the disease. PARAGRAPH 4 Leigong: “What are the corresponding signs of the colors of Wu Huangdi: “Green and black respond to pain.N. causal factor of pain 11 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Here.” II . White indicates cold (sensitivity to cold. the prescription of Oriental or Western medicines. In practice.Zhang Shi explains: “The term “distinction of color” implies only the distinction of pathologic colors and not the distinction of the “source-colors” (true color. in a certain way. the corresponding organ is. the presence of the color coming from the phenomena of succession (Sheng Shi) is the indicator of a favorable prognosis. in diseases originating from the “mother-son” chains of the 5 Movements. the “phenomenon of succession” (Sheng Shi). associated with Acupuncture/Moxabustion. if one of these areas is depressed against the bone.

superficial small or large. In diseases of the organs. Renying and Qi Kou having the same natures. the ailment caused by digestive disorder. Therefore. the regression of the disease. the progressive worsening of the disease at the exterior. Renying full and resistant indicates the ailment caused by cold. the superficial (Fu) and changing (Da) pulse also indicates the disease is easy to treat.: The previous paragraph is devoted to the 5 pathologic colors of the 5 organs. and Renying deep and s l i p p e r y . small (Wei). the deep (Chen) and changing (Da) pulse indicates the disease is easy to treat. caused by cosmic perverse energy. PARAGRAPH 5 Leigong: “How do you diagnose the worsening or improvement of disease?” Huangdi: “Examination 19. hurried (Jin) and deep (Chen) indicates worsening of the disease localizing in the interior.Ma Shi explains: 12 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . indicates the disease is difficult to treat. causal factor in sensitivity to cold and chills.V. _ Mai Kou slippery (Hua). these colors are of endogenous origin.N. or deep. and Renying slippery.N. _ Mai Kou slippery and deep indicate the progressive worsening of the disease localizing in the interior. Such are the basic natures of the colors caused by perverse energy coming from the exterior. hurried (Jin) and superficial (Fu) . of the interior and exterior is indispensable. worsening of the disease localizing at the exterior. In diseases of the bowel. and Renying changing (Da).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . the small (Wei) pulse is unfavorable. full and superficial.” II ._ yellow and red belong to Earth-Fire (Humidity-Heat). This paragraph concerns the colors of exogenous origin. causal factor in fever _ white belongs to the “Cold” energy. _ Mai Kou superficial (Fu) and slippery (Hua) indicates the progression of the disease. In contrast. and Qi Kou full and resistant. that is to say.

“This paragraph discourses on the benignness and seriousness of disease localizing in the interior and at the exterior whose diagnosis must be made at the level of Mai Kou and Renying. the changing Renying followed by a hurried and superficial character is not sufficient to indicate the accentuation of the disease. it denotes the worsening of the disease localizing at the exterior. hurried and deep can otherwise indicate the phase of worsening of the disease.) is very explicit and rich. as if one were to say: “1 time.. if Renying and Mai Kou possess the same changing and small quality. the disease is easy to treat because: _ the deep quality designates the disease localizing in the interior _ and the changing quality denotes the potential force of the vital energy.What is the criterion for determination of disease of external origin at Renying? The full and resistant pulse.V. small. 3 times fullness. it indicates the non-cure of the disease of the organ. if the deep pulse is followed by a small quality. The slippery quality followed by a superficial (instead of deep) quality also indicates this phase. small.” 2 .N. the superficial and changing pulse is the indicator of rapid cure of the disease because: _ the superficial quality indicates the disease localizing at the exterior _ and the changing quality denotes the easy dispersion of the perverse energy.But in diseases of the 6 Yin channels belonging to the 5 organs. this is as if one said: “1 time. As a result. 20. it concerns a reply from Huangdi to Leigong regarding the determination of the worsening and improvement of the disease.” On the other hand. For this reason. _ the slippery nature followed by a deep quality indicates the worsening of the disease localizing in the interior. a . 1 . If it is deep and is followed by a slippery quality. it is the indicator of non-improvement of the external signs and internal signs. the slippery. It is a matter then of an ailment caused by “Cold” energy. of diseases belonging to the 6 Yin Channels of the 5 organs. during examination. 2 times. _ the hurried and superficial pulse followed by a slippery quality is the indicator of the worsening of the disease.The diseases of the 6 Yang channels are called “diseases of the 6 bowels”. It is a matter then of an ailment caused by a digestive disorder. Similarly.. In contrast.Renying governs the exterior. it indicates the improvement of the disease. and Mai Kou governs the interior. b . 3 .: The explanation of Zhang Jing Yue (1563-1640 A.If Renying is deep. If it is full and superficial. 2 times. In that case. But Mai Kou without being slippery. if the pulse is deep and changing. hurried and deep Mai Kou is the indicator of worsening of the disease localizing in the interior. 3 times fullness of the diseases belonging to the 6 Yang channels of the 6 bowels. We present below the complete translation of the commentary of this grand master: 13 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . followed by a slippery quality. Here.N. and the changing Renying following a hurried and superficial character indicates worsening of the disease localizing at the exterior. What is the criterion for determination of disease of internal origin at Cun Kou? The full and resistant pulse. it is the indicator of the improvement of the disease.D.” III .

are the indexes of the difficult-to-treat disease. In contrast. This is why the disease is easy to treat. it maintains the 5 organs. (4) PARAGRAPH 6 22. it concerns a technique of antiquity.The same qualities. indicates improvement in the disease.Here. large and small noted at the same time at Renying and Mai Kou -. Mai Kou and Renying have the same Yin and Yang natures as the channels.“1 . galloping and small pulse. When it is deep and slippery. As a result. 14 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Mai Kou responds to Yin. The changing. Yang flows out into Yin. it denotes the exhaustion of the Yin Root. it is the period of escape of the perverse energy. From the time of Wang Shu He (210-285 A. When it is superficial and slippery. _ “Diseases localizing in the bowels” indicates: they are found at the 6 Yang channels. _ “Diseases localizing within the organs” means: they are found at the 6 Yin channels and the Yin pulse must be deep. As for the deep. hence the difficulty in treating. the disease is found in the phase of improvement. one says that it governs the exterior. and displacement toward the bottom. Displacement of the color toward the top reveals the worsening of the disease. the seriousness of the disease. 4 . hurried and deep Mai Kou is due to the presence of perverse energy in complete fullness within the Yin area. Leigong: “How do you diagnose the seriousness and benignness of the disease according to the method of the colors?” Huangdi: “The bright color indicates the benignness of the disease. and the dark color. hurried and superficial Renying is due to the presence of perverse energy in complete fullness within the Yang area. small. it maintains the 6 bowels. As a result. and vice versa -. This is why they are divided into Biao (exterior) and Li (interior). the superficial and changing pulse is the indicator of the disease that is easy to cure. Their deep and slippery or superficial and slippery natures are the distinctive phenomena of worsening of the disease localizing within the interior or at the exterior. an unfavorable factor. If it is deep and changing. it is because it is supplied/provided with Shen (mental). superficial and deep. The slippery. This is why the disease improves. In these two cases. Renying is the pulse belonging to the Yangming. the Yang pulse is favorable. that is to say. To have Shen is to have Yin Qi (Yin energy) in a plethoric state. 3 . In the Yang diseases. they are not oriented toward Yang.) to our times.D.Mai Kou is the pulse belonging to the Taiyin.they are not oriented toward Yin. As a result. At the exterior. and the one at the right. radial gutter): the one at the left has the name Renying. the name Qi Kou (Mai Kou)”. calling to mind the dispersion of clouds. the superficial and small pulse is unfavorable. the disease is difficult to cure. This is why the disease worsens. 21. Renying responds to Yang. examination of the pulse is performed at the level of the 2 Cun Kou (mouth of 1 cun. In the interior. 2 . one says that it governs the center.

In diseases manifesting in the interior. This dissipation is comparable to the cure of the disease. Nanjing and Maijing (N. The organ is Yin. changing and long. the disease deteriorates. The energy of Earth ascends to form clouds.V. 4. called “external areas”. then Yang. Those belonging to the organs are at the center (of the face. treat first Yang. In diseases manifesting at the exterior. then Yin. The dark color. During the encounter with the energy of Heaven.The bowel is Yang. it governs the exterior. They carry out movements from the interior toward the exterior and from below upwards in order to manifest at the face. one must first treat Yang.The “organ-areas” are the facial zones where the energy of the organs and bowels are reflected. This is why one says: the disease worsens. The 5 colors originate from the 5 organs and 5 Movements. it is the sign revealing disease coming from the exterior. called “internal areas”. hence worsening of the disease.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on the diagnosis of seriousness and benignness of disease according to the method of examination of the colors. and those belonging to the bowels are at the exterior. the disease worsens. The opposite worsens the disease.” PARAGRAPH 7 Leigong: “If the pulse is slippery and large. This is why: _ in diseases of internal origin. the clouds dissipate.The light color responds to Yang. 3 . The colors progressing from the external area toward the internal area originate from disease of exogenous origin. nose). 23. treat first Yin.The 5 colors each have an organ-area. and those progressing from the internal area toward the external area originate from disease of endogenous origin. _ in diseases of external origin. 2 . The opposite worsens the disease. then Yin. Displacement of the color from the external area toward the internal area indicates the progression of the disease from the exterior toward the interior. then Yang. Editions). 15 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . if not. and displacement of the color from the internal area toward the external area indicates the progression of the disease from the interior toward the exterior. Yin and Yang are jointly visible. In this regard. it governs the interior. see our explanations in the different chapters of the Lingshu. 1 .N. Movements toward the top is the indicator of disease of Yang energy in a state of fullness. internal or external area. one must first treat Yin. to Yin. if not.

Thus. interior and exterior. Guan and Chi). it concerns Feng (Wind).” 16 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . algoparesthesia). symbol of Heat-Fire _ changing. These reactive phenomena are illustrated by the fllowing pulsologic qualities: _ slippery.In this case. when the energy (perverse) affluxes toward the blood. symbol of Wood-Wind. on diseases of the energy. If it is sparkling. This paragraph completes the prevous one and involves disease at the energetic layer contaminating the Xue-Mai (Blood and Vessels) system because. it concerns a case of gathering of Yang energy that one can modify to favor cure. The pulse of slippery and large. the pulsologic reactions manifest at Qi Kou (mouths of the energy) and the colors appear at Mingtang (nose). this is due to a gathering of Yang energy that one can modify to favor cure. that is to say. it concerns Bi (obstruction. the disease is Jue Ni (contrary afflux). Here. symbol of Water-Cold _ large. If the color appears at the “earth” (chin) region. If it is somber. In this manner. How do you distinguish them?” Huangdi: “One must examine the middle of Jue (inter-eyebrow space). if the eyes have the impression of seeing something and the Chi (will) appears to become that of hatred. changing and long nature reveals then disease coming from the exterior. reactive phenomena manifest at the level of the “Three Departments” (“inch”.” PARAGRAPH 8 Leigong: “Your young disciple has often heard you say that Feng (Wind) is the origin of the “100 Diseases” and that Jue Ni (contrary afflux) originates from cold and humidity. symbol of Earth-Humidity 24. The phrase “The Chi (will) appears to become that of hatred” implies the sense of disturbances of the Shen (mental) of the 5 organs. _ long. that it is necessary to first treat the exterior (to evacuate the perverse energy). that is to say. then the interior (in order to tonify the essential energy). “barrier” and “foot”: Cun.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Zhang Shi explains: “The previous paragraph discourses on Yin and Yang. The phrase “The eyes have the impression of seeing something” implies the sense of vision of colors (complexions). it suffices to base one’s judgment on the variation of the color and on its localization in order to determine the disease.

that is to say. one can also die suddenly. These colors are generally visible and easy to recognize. the color appears at the “earth” zone. at the pilocutaneous system. In contrast. in order to make the distinction between Feng (wind) and Bi (obstruction). How can one know it?” Huangdi: “Da Qi (preverse energy of great virulence) directly attacking the organs and bowels can cause sudden death. When black color appearing at Tian Ding (forehead) is large like the great 17 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Since the disease is down below. The bright and shimmering color is the indicator of attack of Feng (wind). The somber and dull color belongs to the Bi disease (obstruction = algoparesthesia).: Zhang Jing Yue makes the following clarifications: “Disease of Wind is located at Yang. at the musculo-skeletal system. at the lowest of the face (chin area). This is why the color is somber and deep.” PARAGRAPH 9 Leigong: “Death can unexpectedly arise suddenly in persons appearing to be in good health. This is why the color of this place is bright pale. Disease of Jue Ni starts at the 4 limbs. Bi (obstruction) and Jue Ni (contrary afflux) of the 5 organs.” II . Disease of Bi is located at Yin. How do you prevent it?” Huangdi: “When red color appearing at the two cheeks is large like the great toe.V.N. the appearance of the color at the region mentioned is the sign revealing Jue Ni (contrary afflux) disease. thanks to which one can diagnose diseases with precision. one must distinguish: _ the green color of the liver 25. death can arise suddenly despite a slight amelioration of the disease. The appearance of these colors follows the usual rule.N.EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . It manifests first at the channels of the foot. _ the red color of the heart _ the yellow color of the spleen _ the white color of the lung _ the black color of the kidney in order to differentiate the diseases of Feng (Wind). it is necessary to examine Jue Zhong (middle of the inter-eyebrow space).Ma Shi explains: “In a general fashion. then it affluxes toward the top. • As for the determination of the pathological zones of the 5 organs at the level of the face.” Leigong: “Despite improvement of the disease.

_ the appearance of red color at the two cheeks is the sign revealing the encroachment of the kidney on the non-ill heart.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . but susceptible to being attacked suddenly by perverse energy of great virulence (Da Qi). death can arise suddenly. The color the size of the great toe is extremely serious. to Water.N.Zhang Shi explains: 26. The “slight improvement of the disease” is due to a phenomenon of delay of Water on Fire.: 27. _ red color at the cheeks (responding to the shoulders which also govern the lung) reveals the encroachment of Fire on Metal. _ the appearance of black color at Tian Ding (forehead) comes from the encroachment of the kidney on the ill heart. To speak of “sudden death despite a slight improvement of the disease” is to speak of sudden death following a disease of internal origin resulting from a phenomenon of reciprocal encroachment of the organs and bowels.V. it is the energy of Heart-Fire which exteriorizes at the face in the form of red color. even in the presence of signs of 18 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .The violent and direct infiltration of perverse energy into the organs and bowels is the cause of sudden death. The words “Da Qi” designate perverse energy of great virulence. The vessel-channel of the kidney emits a branch which penetrates into the thorax and reaches the heart. Therefore. the color is limited and brief. The appearance of red color at the two cheeks and of black color at the forehead (Tian Ding) are reactive phenomena of the heart in a pathologic state favoring the phenomena of encroachment of the kidney on the heart because: _ red color responds to Fire _ and black color. “ This paragrah completes the previous one and speaks on diseases of exogenous and endogenous etiology. and “sudden death” originates from the phenomenon of excessive inhibition of Water on Fire.When the disease is found within the energetic layer. “. In this case. In this case. This Da Qi infiltrates into the organism only if the source energy of our bodies is in great insufficiency.toe. 2 .N. the energy of Kidney-Water replaces that of Heart-Fire to manifest at the face in the form of black color. 1 . and when it is found at the level of the vessels (channels).. The 5 colors of the face are therefore manifestations of the source energy of the 5 organs at the exterior. To speak of “persons apearing in good health” is to speak of individuals not presenting any pathologic signs. but black is the most worrisome. during movements of reciprocal encroahchment propelled by the 5 Movements. As a result. In that case. the color is diffuse. The two colors (red and black) mentioned are grave signs. death can also suddenly arise despite the absence of disease.” II .. Zhang Jing Yue clarifies in this regard: “The appearance of the color of Water (black) at the area belonging to Fire and the appearance of the color of Fire (red) in the area belonging to Metal are due to the consequence of a great insufficiency of essential energy (source energy). constituting the “Kidney-Heart” system. large like the great toe” implies a strong concentration of color.

Behind the shoulder is the arm. the knee. says: “That’s right! Do periods of determination of death exist?” Huandi: “By examination of the colors. bowing his head again. and that which is found on the other side of the leg. the inter-eyebrow space) responds to the laryngo- Jue Zhong (middle of the inter-eyebrow space) represents the lung. _ black color at Tian Ding (“celestial” part of the forehead: the uppermost part) originates from the exhaustion of the energgy of the kidney. the bladder and uterus.” Leigong: “That’s correct! Your young disciple would like you to explain this to him in detail. 28. Zhong Yan (middle of the cheek) represents the large intestine which sticks close to the kidney whose center represents the umbilicus. and at the center. one can determine the periods of death. Jue Shang (above pharyngeal system. Xia Gu (base of the nose) responds to the heart.” PARAGRAPH 10 Leigong. oriented toward the top. that is to say. between the top and bottom of the jaw. The area under the knee responds to the leg. and behind the arm is the forearm and hand. death can arise suddenly.” Huangdi: “ Ding (forehead) responds to the face and head. represents the back. Mian Wang (tip of the nose) responds to the spleen. gallbladder. In that case. Zhu Xia (crest of the nose) respresents The left of Zhu Xia corresponds to the the liver. 19 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Above the internal canthus of the eye represents the thorax and breasts. Quan (cheekbone: zygomatic bone) represents the shoulder. the foot. Above the two sides of Mian Wang represent the small intestine. and below it. Fang Shang (nasal ala) represents the stomach. without apparent disease. Below the maxilla is located the thigh. The area near the ear.improvement of the disease.

Ju (great curvature) . from Jue Zhong (middle of intereyebrow space) to Mian Wang (tip of the nose). The line which extends the length of the spine of the nose. One must use Yin to harmonize Yang.” Therefore. 6 bowels and joints of the limbs. the appearance of color at the area located below Mian Wang (tip of the nose) is the indicator of the presence of an ailment of the lower abdomen. large intestine (5). and Xi Xin (knee bone). thanks to which one can specify the localization of the disease of the Yin channel or Yang channel to therapeutic ends. knee. If one can still distinguish the movements oriented toward the left or toward the right. Because. _ and when the disease is localized at the Yin channel. and in girls. _ to delve deeply into the facial areas is to “practice 1000 and succeed at 1000”. One must use Yang to harmonize Yin.” 20 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . belongs to the facial areas responding to the 4 organs: lung. Such are the facial zones responding to the 5 organs. 2 . to the patella. the discernment of moist and shiny or withered and dried out color is the work of the good clinician. to the zygomatic bone. I . _ when the disease is found at the Yang channels.The line which extends from Jue (inter-eyebrow space) to Ding (forehead) belongs to the facial area responding to the laryngo-pharyngeal system. it is to understand the Da Dao (Great Principle) of Yin and Yang because the appearance of the color at the level of these areas is different in young boys and young girls. The determination of these areas facilitates the utilization of Yin to harmonize Yang and the utilization of Yang to harmonize Yin. On examination. liver and spleen. leg and foot. arm. Yang is “exterior”. The space separating the two lines which extend from the ocular canthii toward the point Chengqiang (CV 23) responds to the facial zones of the 6 bowels: gallbladder. Chapter 9 of this classic (“Beginning and Ending”) has cited some examples: “Disperse gallbladder and tonify liver. small intestine. heart.Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph completes the previous one and speaks on the facial areas responding to the 5 organs and 6 bowels and joints of the limbs (Figure 2). forearm and hand. the presence of an ailment of the bladder and uterus. dipserse liver and tonify gallblladder. The external area of the cheek (of the 2 maxilla) responds to the lower limb: thigh.Gua Ju Fen (labial commisure) responds to the internal surface of the thigh. bladder and uterus. that is to say. This is why one names them “routes of orientation of the Yin movement and Yang movement”. _ to know how to differentiate left and right is to know the “Great Dao” (Great Principle).The colors each have a very specific area of appearance. In this connection.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 29. _ and to know how to differentiate boy and girl is to be able to discriminate Yin and Yang whose example has been cited in the following paragraph: “In boys. To delve deeply into these different areas is to “practice 1000 and succeed at 1 0 0 0 ” . etc. Yin is “interior”. stomach. 1 . Below the malar bone responds to the facial areas belonging to the upper limb: shoulder.

responding to water. that is to say. It responds to pathology of the lung and also bears the name Yintang (PC 3). located to the side of Yingxiang (LI 20). 4 . XIth. Xu. the area responding to pathology of the kidney is found. Outside and below the large intestine area. death will take place on the day Ren-Gui (9th and 10th Celestial Trunks).Mian Wang (royal domain or tip of the nose) is called Xuan Du (main standard) by astrologers. The kidney is found at the level of the umbilicus. This area responds to pathology of the large intestine. According to the text. 7 . 31. It governs laryngo-pharyngeal pathology. Astrologers give it the name Shangan (PC 4). The heart is located under the lung. 2 . Xuan Du responds to Earth.Zhang Shi states: 30. at midnight. 5 . the area located outside Yingxiang (LI 20) and below the zygomatic bone. The spleen and stomach constitute one of the systems of external/internal relationship.Jue Shang (above the inter-eyebrow space) designates the area which extends from the middle of the inter-eyebrow space toward the top.Fang Shang (culminating area: nasal ala) is found at the two sides of Xuan Du. 21 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . that is to say. The appearance of black color at the forehead is mortal. Laterally. Mian Wang responds to pathology of the spleen. at the exterior. and the stomach. the words Zhong Yan (central area) designate the middle of the cheek. to the left of the liver. Chou and Wei (Vth.Here.Xia Gu (base of the nose) is the area located between the eyes. It governs pathology of the liver.V. plays the role of protection of the royal palace (area of the heart) located at the center (Zhang Jing Yue). at the side of the cheek. 8 . The fatal day will take place on the day Wu-Ji (5th and 6th Celestial Trunks) and at the hours Chen. “The appearance of red color at the two cheeks is fatal. 6 . For this reason.Jue Zhong (middle of the inter-eyebrow space) is the central area of the inter-eyebrow space. “the large intestine sticks close to the kidney” because the kidney. located exactly at the middle of the face. It is located at the uppermost part of the forehead. Astrologers give it the name Lan Dai Ding Wui (altar of orchids .Ding (forehead) is called Tian Ding (celestial forehead) by astrologers. Therefore. For this reason. The spleen is located at the center. which responds to pathology of the stomach. IIth and VIIIth Terrestrial Branches). Xia Gu governs pathology of the heart. is the area which responds to the gallbladder. II .Chu Xia (crest of the nose) is named Nian Zio (long life) by astrologers.residence of officials).” III .5.N. As a result. 3 . The appearance of the color-energy at this level is indication of pathology of the face and head. traveling up and down the circumference of the face. just below the area of the kidney is the area responding to umbilical pathology. Fang Shang are the areas responding to pathology of the stomach.N.: The different areas of appearance of “Color-Energy” at the level of the face are clearly described by Zhang Jing Yue: 1 .

and the energy spreads. The shiny color is the indicator of disease localizing at the 3 2 . 12 . knee. As a result. causes paresthesia.Ju Fen (great separation) designates the labial commissure.9 . at the level of the organs. . In contrast. _ their quality of emergence or immergence to study the evolutive state of the disease. The slippery and damp yellow color (as if saturated with fat) indicates suppuration.The area located below Mian Wang (Xuan Du: tip of the nose) and outside Renzhong (GV 26). is the indicator of male sterility. below Fang Shang (ala of the nose) responds to pathology of the bladder and uterus. The black green color indicates pain.Yi Ying Chi notes: “In boys. _ their shiny or faded luster to distinguish the prosperous or harmful signs of the disease. 22 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . and.. and in girls. toward the right.. It responds to the internal surface of the thigh. that is to say.” PARAGRAPH 11 “The dirty and dark gray color indicates disease localizing in the interior. forearm and hand. thus favorable. causes spasm. devoid of moustache. 14 . the opposite circulation is unfavorable and the energy stagnates.Ju Gua (great curvature) is the name given to the zygomatic bone. It therefore responds to the shoulder. • The 5 colors each have an area of appearance which is appropriate to them. arm. to the patella.The area located above Mian Wang (Xuan Du: tip of the nose) and inside the cheekbone responds to pathology of the small intestine. This is the normal circulation. it indicates female sterilty. if it is deep and long. that is to say. it is necessary to examine: _ their slight or strong saturation to determine the superficial or deep localization of the disease... leg and foot. and Xi Xin. 10 . 11 . The white color heralds cold. the energy ciruclates toward the left. hence phenomena of victory. In contrast. 15 . It is located above the central area of the cheek. The red yellow color belongs to diseases of wind.. in the serious state.The zygomatic arch is the “root” of the entire skeleton. exterior. it responds to the back. at the level of the bowels. _ their dissemination or concentration to differentiate the acute or chronic state of the disease. 13 . in a state of excessive cold. domination and extermination. that is to say. the area of the 2 maxilla responds to the thigh. Above. Below.The external area of the cheek bears the name “Zang” (comrade). This paragraph speaks on the “Color-Energy” of endogenous cause centered on the favorable and unfavorable phenomena of the “left-right” movements of Yin and Yang. The dark red color is the sign revealing the syndrome of blood stagnation which. The area of Renzhong (GV 26: nasolabial groove) flat and dried out.

_ The dissemination of the color is the indicator of the non-gathering of the disease..• In this manner. . As a result. mental) during examination of the pulses and colors as a function of the 5 Movements. it is the cause of paresthesia. even if it expresses pain.. 33.This paragraph discourses on the examination of colors origining from diseases of external origin. if the color without brilliance is not yet withered. the disease is serious. “8 Winds” and “6 Regions” (space of time??) without impeding or thwarting the rules of the natural world. and in the serious case. it manifests by a red yellow color. The smooth color (with brilliance) and withered (dried out) color allows recognition of the favorable and unfavorable signs of the disease. The diffuse (disseminated) color and concentrated (accumulated) color permit recognition of acute and chronic disease. _ In contrast.Zhang Shi explains: “1 . 4 Seasons. The color localizing at the top and the color localizing at the bottom permit diagnosing the localization of the disease. the physician must concentrate his Jing-Shen (mental) during the examination of the colors. this is why.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . and the superficial and brilliant color. The deep and impure color is the indicator of the disease localizing in the interior. the disease is serious. From antiquity. It concerns diseases of external etiology. 2 . _ Excessive cold injures the pilo-cutaneous system. In contrast. in the majority of cases. it is recommended to let them disseminate to the exterior and not to the interior. _ Pain is Yin Bi (algoparesthesia at the level of Yin).The superficial color and deep color permits diagnosing the benigness and seriousness of the disease. the indicator of the disease localizing at the exterior. _ White color is due to the presence of cold. in the tendon.Complexion and pulses are different important clinical components transmitted by our old masters. to examine the deep and superficial color is to diagnose disease localizing at the exterior or in the interior. _ Dark red color is the sign revealing blood stagnation. Therefore. It manifests by a black green color. _ Pain is located.Ma Shi comments: “This paragraph completes the previous one and speaks on the appearance of the colors at the level of the 23 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Once inside the organism. if the color without brilliance reveals an appearance neither too immergent nor too faded.” II . our Jing Shen must be concentrated on the past and present during the determination of acute disease and chronic disease. it manifests by spasm. 3 . _ Brilliant yellow color (like fat) is the indicator of the presence of suppuration. and in the serious case. the disease is still found in the benign state. _ Wind is perverse Yang. Shua Tai Qi concentrated his Jing Shen (mind. the disease is benign. Such are the 5 colors of external etiology each possessing an area of appearance which is appropriate to them. _ If the color without brilliance reveals an appearance of concentration and dryness. the disease does not declare at any spot. If the color without brilliance is pallid (pale grey).

” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph completes the previous one and speaks on the diffuse nature of the disease still localizing in the energetic layer.different areas of the face in the determination of the disease. _ White. _ Dark red. The colors must be studied with precision: _ if the dull color (without brilliance) is characterized by a pale gray (pallid) and dried out appearance.Ma Shi explains: 24 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . blood But the worsening of the pain can cause muscular spasm. _ Yellow associated with red indicates wind. _ If the color is superficial and brilliant. One must clearly observe: _ their appearance in order to determine the seriousness and benignness and the acute and chronic state of the disease _ and their location (top and bottom) in order to determine the upper or lower localization of the disease. the disease is located at the exterior (bowels). pain. 3 .” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . the disease is serious. _ Shiny yellow (like a greasy coating). the disease is not yet at its extreme phase. cold.” PARAGRAPH 13 “The kidney encroaches on the heart and reflects its color at the exterior because the heart is primarily affected.” PARAGRAPH 12 “The diffuse color is indicator of the disease in full evolutive phase indicated by a painful syndrome and not by a syndrome of gathering. paresthesia. and that of cold. the pallid color is from fear.The color is deep and of variable color: _ If the color is deep and impure. the origin of pain. This is then due to the disseminated nature of the complexion that one determines the non-gathering quality of the disease. All appearances of colors (of the 5 organs) conform to this correlation. _ if the color is slightly brilliant and withered.The five colors each have an area of appearance which is appropriate to them. 1 . 2 . suppuration. _ Green associated with black. the disease is located within the interior (organs). In summary. This is the reactive phenomenon of the kidney.One must concentrate the Jing Shen during the search for the past and present of the acute disease and chronic disease. 34.

where the point ShanganPC 5) is found) is the site of concentration of Jing (quintessence) of the heart responding to the color red. the inhibited site is certainly pathologic. This reactive phenomenon is also encountered at the level of the facial areas of the other organs: _ appearance of white color (lung) at the facial area of the liver _ appearance of red color (heart) at the facial area of the lung _ appearance of yellow color (spleen) at the facial area of the kidney _ appearance of greenish color (liver) at the facial area of the spleen. Xia Gu (base of the nose.” II . According to the previous paragraph. 35. As a result. conforming to the principle according to which everything that manifests at the exterior is the expression of that which occurs in the interior.N. between the eyes.V. according to the inhibitory chains of the law of the 5 Movements (Figure 3).“This paragraph completes the previous one. All diseases manifest in the first place by a color of encroachment (coming from the inhibitory organ). As a result. 25 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the appearance of black color at Xia Gu (base of the nose) originates from the phenomenon of encroachment of the kidney on the heart. It is the same for the 6 bowels.: This paragraph demonstrates the mechanism of appearance of the colors of the 5 organs at the level of the face.N.

_ the appearance of the color above and below Zian Wang (tip of the nose) indicates pains in the lower abdomen.. Generally. PARAGRAPH 14 36. ectopia.. it indicates the painful syndrome caused by an energetic stasis. _ the appearance of the color at the lower half of Renzhong indicates pains at the tip of the penis (glans). _ the appearance of the color underneath Zian Wang (tip of the nose) is the sign revealing the presence of illness of the bladder and uterus (genito-urinary illnesses). 26 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ the appearance of the color at the upper half of Renzhong heralds pains of the root of the penis (body of the penis).Figure 3: Manifestations of the colors of the inhibitory organs at the level of the facial areas belonging to the inhibited organs. hydrocoele. localized at the left or right. _ the appearacne of the color at Renzhong (nasolabial grooveGV 26) reveals pain of the penis.). _ the appearance of the color underneath Zian Wang heralds testicular pains. these pains originate from Hui Shan (inguinal hernia.. or else an evacuation of impure liquid substance (diarrhea) resulting from a digestive disorder ( 6 ) . “ • In man. _ if the color reaches the bottom (of Renzhong: nasolabial groove). _ if the color is concentrated. it denotes blood stasis with formation of Ji Ju (illness of accumulation/gathering: tumorous illness) of the rounded or square type..) or from Dui Shan (scrotal hernia. or else an excretion of thick substance (leukorrhea). it heralds disease of the coccygeal region. • In woman. _ if the color is disseminated.

the “summit” of the penis (glans).. disease can be found at the same time at anterior Yin (vagina) and at posterior Yin (anus).). They are endowed with the function of reception of Shui Gu (Water-Cereals) and the excretion of food residues. at the exterior. ectopia.. • In girls. This is why. and the color underneath Zian Wang. Concentrated color heralds not only a painful syndrome but also a Ji (Gathering) disease of round or 27 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it involves diarrhea caused by a digestive disorder.) or from Dui Shan (scrotal hernia. 38. Therefore. Each 6. bowel possesses its own area of appearance of color. Diffuse color indicates a painful syndrome.. • The 5 organs and 6 bowels are endowed with external areas and corresponding internal areas. in this case. In our case..” II . it is a matter of disease of the bowel in the form of Hui Shan (inguinal hernia.. the illness is to the right. • Generally. ectopia. This comes down to saying that the disease of the bowel is not a fatal syndrome. and at the interior. a direct and severe attack of the blood and energetic routes linked to the organs is the cause of sudden death. they are open to attack by ColdWind. and the lower part of Renzhong. The color of Zian Wang (tip of the nose) descending to the area of the coccyx is the sign revealing leukorrhea.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . The coccyx responds to the lower area of Renzhong (nasolabial groove). to digestive problems. the appearance of color at the two sides of Zian Wang indicates lower abdominal pains.Zhang Shi explains: “The area located outside and above Zian Wang (tip of the nose) responds to the small intestine. The color in relation to the perverse energy becomes concentrated or dispersed in non-specific fashion. the disease is at the left and vice versa... the color localizing to the right. In other words. disease localizing within the energetic part becomes indicated by a painful syndrome. To know these areas is to “treat 10. the appearance of color in the region under Zian Wang indicates disease of the bladder or uterus.) and Dui Shan (scrotal hernia) whose perverse energy accumulates and concentrates to become Ju (gathering) disease and not Ji (accumulation) disease.. and those localizing in the blood part. and that of below Zian Wang. • The bowels are Yang and govern the exterior. pains in these parts of the penis originate from Hui Shan (inguinal hernia. the upper part of Renzhong (nasolabial groove-GV 26) responds to the “root” of the penis. Also. the illness is to the left. Generally. to the bladder. by a syndrome of stagnation with formation of Ji Ju (accmulation/gathering: tumorous formation). • In boys and girls. As for the color appears at the left. If the color is glistening like grease. one must base one’s judgment on the colors (at the level of the face) in order to determine the disease.Ma Shi concludes: “In girls. hydrocoele.• The color localizing to the left. 37. pains of the penis. cure 10”. the appearance of color at Zian Wang (tip of the nose) and at Renzhong (nasolabial groove) is the sign revealing a genito-urinary ailment. Diseases of exogenous etiology progress from the exterior toward interior and the color from the top downward. • In boys.

.Shuigou (channel of outflowing). leukorrhea. mouth and ears) in the event of loss of consciousness (coma).” III .V.N. 2 . 39.: The nasolabial groove has two names: 1 . it indicates a diarrhea of digestive origin. It is named in this manner because it is the site of reunion/meeting of the Dumai (GV: Sea of Yang Channels = water) and the Hand Yangming (LI). It is named in this way because Renzhong (GV 26) is a point of reamination reestablishing the connection of the sense organs (eyes. it heralds a disease localizing at the bottom. 28 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Renzhong (or Shuigou: GV 26) is located on the junction point of the upper 1/3 upper and lower 2/3 of the nasolabial groove.Renzhong (center of being). 38.N. Energetically. nose. If the color of Zian Wangdescends toward the lower part of Renzhong.square form localized to the left or right whose reactive phenomenon manifests at the face by a color which joins the same form and the same location with that of the disease. If the color is brilliant and shiny like grease... the nasolabial groove is the reactive site of pathology of the genito-urinary system (site of appearance of pathologic color)...

the red color belongs to the heart. Therefore. it denotes the chronic..” II . manifests at Zian Wang (tip of the nose). the color is red. If this particular area is of red color. state of the disease of the small intestine. it indicates the chronicity of the disease.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . as large as a pit of elm. Each of these colors is endowed with a characteristic area of appearance.. Thus.Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on the distinct areas of the appearance of the 5 colors.Zhang Shi comments: “The fatal color of the 5 organs manifests at the area which does not belong to it. If the red color. 39. appears at Zian Wang (tip of the nose) . PARAGRAPH 15 “Green. white and yellow are called the “5 colors”. not acute. as large as an elm pit. red.Figure 4: Reactive site of genito-urinary pathology. Each color must appear in a clear-cut and precise fashion at the level of the distinct area which belongs to it. black. If the red color. but also to the small intestine. for example. 29 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

Therefore. red color at Zian Wang (tip of the nose) is an abnormal phenomenon. • During the use of the colors to determine the 5 organs: _ _ _ _ _ green belongs to the liver red. PARAGRAPH 16 “When the color has a pointed form at the top and rounded at the bottom. sudden death manifests by a color belonging to Zian Wang (tip of nose).V. Zhang Jing Yue concludes: 40. Normally. the color can appear in an inappropriate area.N.” The Li Family adds: “The red color belongs to the heart. the perverse energy profits from this emptiness to flow (afflux) toward the top. Outside of this normal manifestation. to the kidney white. it must manifest at Xia Gu (base of nose. to the spleen 30 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ when the heart is contaminated by disease coming from another organ (endogenous origin). At the time of their appearance. each of them must assume a consistent and complete appearance at the level of the area which corresponds to it. it indicates great emptiness of the energy of the cephalic region. to the heart black. The appearance of red color at Zian Wang (tip of the nose) originates from the route of production of the law of the 5 Movements: Heart-Fire creates Spleen-Earth”. The explanation of Ma Shi is most plausible.” III . For this reason. One recent Franco-German version is incomprehensible. to the lung yellow. between the eyes). It is the same for the color oriented toward the bottom. “There are 5 colors. toward the right or toward the left. sudden death is indicated by the appearance of red color at the level of Quan (cheekbone)._ when the heart receives perverse energy coming from the exterior.: This passage has been interpreted differently over the course of the centuries.N.

... _ _ _ _ _ the the the the the liver unites with the muscles heart. CHAPTER 31 L Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . and the 5 organs are their “union”..N.... diagnosis is immediately directed toward the muscles. Therefore..” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I ....Ma Shi explains: “The 5 colors belong to the 5 organs........... with the bones lung........: 41.” II ...... with the skin and hair spleen. in the case of green color belonging to the facial area of the liver.... with the flesh (dermis).. This paragraph shows: _ the reason for the progression of perverse energy as a function of the form of the color _ and the principles of utilization of the 5 Colors in the determination of the disease. It is the same for the other colors of the other organs... with the vessels kidney.........V. Such is the principle of determinism of the understanding of the colors........ no 42/43...N.

red. hence the title of this chapter. These states are intimately linked to the emptiness or fullness of the internal organs. “About which type of individual does His Majesty wish to be informed frist?” Huangdi: “Teach me about them all. This is why it is titled: “Discussion on Courage (Luan Dung)”.. 32 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . .. on the other hand. fresh or crumpled. supporting or not supporting pain. Liver and Gallbladder. radiant or dull) on the one hand. some are sick and others are not.” This chapter contains 4 paragraphs. in global fashion. white and black) and of the appearance of integument (supple or dried. What is the cause of this disparity?” Shao Shu answers: 44.” Shao Shu: “Spring is dominated by Sheng Feng (Pure Wind) or Feng Wen (Moderate Wind-Heat). PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi questions Shao Shu: “Take among us some individuals who move about or stay in place together. Ma Shi emphasizes: “The contents of this chapter discusses the topic of courage or weakness. the different degrees of attack of disease as a function of color (green. and. of the same age and wearing the same garments of the same thickness. The essential object of this chapter is to speak on the meaning of courage and cowardice in diagnosis and treatment. as a function of the courage and cowardice of the individual. yellow. or they are all affected or all unharmed. Upon encontering a severe wind or beating rain.Discussion on Courage (Luan Zung) Chapter 50 of the Lingshu describes. in particular of 3 organs: Heart.

Zhang Shi exlains: flesh. thin skin and soft flesh are indicators of insufficiency of the energy of the Lung. with thick skin and firm affected by the harmful wind of the 4 Seasons.” Huangdi: “Therefore. if his his flesh not firm with non-specific color. cannot endure the harmful wind of winter. The individual of whitish color. _ Liang Feng (Wind-Cool) of autumn.” Huangdi: “Correct!” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . like: _ Sheng Feng (pure wind. cannot endure the harmful wind of autumn. the individual of blackish color cannot be sick during the 4 Seasons! Is that true?” Shao Shu: “The individual of blackish color. the individual cannot tolerate Sheng Feng of spring because of the invasive action of Wood-Wind on Spleen-Earth. associated with Cold exterior just as easily as the interior. cannot endure the harmful wind of summer. _ Han Feng (Wind-Cold) of winter. with thin skin and soft flesh. reaches the “Shao Shu evokes the image of the presence of the harmful and perverse Wind of the 4 Seasons. with thin skin and soft flesh. he can be sick in the harmful wind of the end of summer. 45. by Liang Feng (Wind-Cool). moderate Heat-Wind) of spring. The individual of reddish color. These winds of the 4 Seasons are susceptible to provoke diseases with different symptomatologies.” Huangdi: “What is the process of triggering of the disease of Wind of the 4 Seasons?” Shao Shu: “The individual of yellowish color. with thin skin and soft flesh. Winter. He can also be sick when Wind (Feng). White color. In the 33 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The individual of greenish color. thin skin and soft flesh are the signs revealing insufficiency of the Spleen. 1 . Autumn. by Han Feng (Wind-Cold). with thin skin and soft flesh. _ Yang Feng (or Feng Re: Wind-Heat) of summer. cannot be skin is thin and presence of the (Han). cannot endure the harmful wind of spring. In contrast. also called Feng Wen or Wind-Warm. by Yang Feng (Yang Wind o r Wind-Heat).Yellow color.Summer. In the presence of these signs.

with thick skin and firm flesh.In contrast. the individual of black color. the individual cannot tolerate Yang Feng of summer due to the invasive action of HeartFire on Lung-Metal. the individual cannot tolerate Liang Feng of autumn due to the invasive action of Lung-Metal on Liver-Wood. Figure 1: 34 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The individual of black color. the individual of black color having thin skin and soft flesh is easily injured by the harmful wind of the end of summer. cannot be attacked by the harmful wind of the 4 Seasons. _ Yang Feng (Wind-Heat) of summer receives the “Fire” energy. he can only be affected if the interior is already affected by Cold (of internal origin). This wind of the 6th month (lunar) is of the same type as Yang Feng (Yang Wind or Wind-Heat). the triggering of the disease of Wind (external) proves to be difficult. then afterward by Wind (of the exterior. thin skin and soft flesh indicate insufficiency of the energy of the Liver. The illness then originates from the invasive phenomenon of Earth on Water. In the presence of these signs.V. 2 . then secondarily by Wind. _ Liang Feng (Wind-Cool) of autumn recieves the “Metal” energy. The winds of the 4 Seasons each have a plethoric phase and an inhibited phase (Figure 1). can become ill if he is first offended by Cold. the individual cannot tolerate Han Feng of winter due to the invasive action of KidneyWater on Heart-Fire. Therefore. thin skin and soft flesh are the signs are insufficiency of the energy of the heart. II .N. in him. In a general fashion. Such is the characteristic of the black color.N. with thick skin and firm flesh.: Zhang Jing Yue clarifies the subject of Feng as: _ Sheng Feng (or Wen Feng) of spring receives the “Wood” energy. Green color. In the presence of these signs.” 46. external origin). the diseases differ one from the other.presence of these signs. If not. _ Han Feng (Wind-Cold) of winter receives the “Water” energy. Red color. In other words.

he cannot triumph over the harmful wind of Metal-Autumn. hence illness. he cannot triumph over the harmful wind of the end of summer. hence illness. Therefore. The one who has thin skin and soft flesh with non-specific (changing) black color is affected by insufficiency of kidney energy. thin skin and soft flesh is affected by insufficiency of lung energy. Therefore. he can become ill if it follows attack by wind and cold. hence illness. The one who has green color. The weak man faced with pain sees only the danger and the pain. In such cases. hence illness.System of stimulation/inhibiton (a) and revolt/invasion (b) of the 5 Movements. Therefore. black color can trigger diseases of different causes. 47. The courageous man not tolerating pain fears neither danger nor pain. PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “The capacity to tolerate or not tolerate pain does not depend on the strength or weakness of the individual. thin skin and soft flesh is affected by insufficiency of liver energy. White color is the color of “Metal” energy. Therefore. In contrast. he cannot triumph over the harmful wind of Water-Winter. Still following this same commentator: Yellow color is the color of “Earth” energy. he cannot triumph over the harmful wind of Wood-Spring. thin skin and soft flesh is affected by insufficiency of spleen energy. he cannot triumph over the harmful wind of Fire-Summer. The one who has red color. Black color is the color of “Water” energy. cold of the interior (of endogenous origin) and wind of the exterior (of exogenous origin). he closes his eyes and moans like he is going to pass out. the one who has black color with thick skin and firm flesh cannot become ill during attack by harmful wind of the end of summer. thin skin and soft felsh is affected by insufficiency of heart energy. Therefore. according to the state of the skin and flesh. The one who has white color.” Shao Shu: “The capacity to tolerate pain or not tolerate it depends on the thickness of 35 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . I ignore the causes. The one who has a yellow color. In total. Red color is the color of “Fire” energy. hence illness. Tell me about this. But. Green color is the color of “Wood” energy.

” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Zhang Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on the distinction between Xing (form) and Qi (energy). “To tolerate or not tolerate the pain” depends on the thickness of the skin and firmness of the Xing (form). Huangdi: “I want you to tell me about the nature of courage and weakness. while this one analyzes in specific fashion form (Xing) and energy (Qi). Huangdi: 36 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . “Courage or cowardice” depends on the power or weakness of the Qi (energy).the skin and firmness of the flesh and not on the courage or weakness of the individual.” PARAGRAPH 3 48. the gaze is straight Sanjiao (SJ) are spread out in width over the heart is “loyal” and “sincere” liver is “generous” and “solid” gallbladder spreads widely toward the 4 limbs. The previous paragraph is based on courage in order to determine the energy. and steady. distended _ the energy of the liver revolts and that of the gallbladder is unleashed _ the eyes seem to leave the orbit _ the gaze is severe and eyelashes stand on end _ the facies becomes greenish. great and large. Such is the nature of the courageous man. _ the energy is in fullness. and the thorax.” Shao Shu: “In the courageous _ the eyes are deep and penetrating _ the vessels of the “flesh” system _ the energy of the _ the energy of the _ the energy of the man. During anger.

I . • The heart is the sovereign organ.: According to Zhang Jing Yue.N.This paragraph discourses on the courageous man and weak man endowed with a “large” or “small” heart. Such is the nature of the weak man. anger does not last long. uneven eyelid movements are encountered in the weak individual whose energy and blood are in disharmony. but deflates immediately. endowed with energy in a plethoric or insufficient state.N. The gallbladder is a “loyal” and “honest” bowel which respects the code of honor and integrity..In contrast. This is why. _ “Vessels of the Sanjiao (SJ) spread widely out” indicates the power of the energy of the Shaoyang with a gallbladder of large size. eyelid movements are uneven _ the color and energy.“And the weak man?” Shao Shu: “In the weak man. the energy barely succeeds in filling the thorax. .V. with a liver and gallbladder in a state of power or weakness. In the event of anger. _ “The energy of the heart is “loyal” and “sincere” and that of the liver “generous” and “solid” are the indicators of the power of the energy of the Heart-Liver system. the gallbladder is deprived of its ease and is left sagging _ the intestines and stomach lose their tonus and the hypochondrial area is in emptiness. This is why anger does not last long. It is the seat of the Shen-Ming (mental-clarity). The liver has the function of general. It is that which holds the power of decision. _ the energy does not fill the thorax _ the energy of the liver and gallbladder swells up. liver and gallbladder are in a state of weakness and emptiness. large eyes with not tight. 2 .. a liver of great size and a very full gallbladder. the distinction between the courageous and weak man basically resides in the energetic state of the Liver/Gallbladder system because: 37 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .. straight and penetrating gaze” indicates the power of the energy of the liver.” II . _ the eyes are large but not tightly closed.Zhang Shi explains: “1 . _ “Eyes deep and steady. The lung is the “master of the energy”.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 49. Such is the nature of the weak man. This is why a “straight” heart with a powerful energetic state. It is the strategist of the entire organism. are easily lead astray _ the vessels of the Sanjiao (SJ) spread out in width _ The xiphoid appendage is short and small _ the liver is lax.. During anger. Yin and Yang. are so many components belonging to the courageous man. in him.

In the courageous man.. in the direction of the tissue fibers. _ “In the event of anger. 2 . _ “The energy of the liver revolts. the bout of anger is the same as in the courageous man. the power of “decision”. PARAGRAPH 4 Huangdi: “In the weak man indulging in alcohol. _ “The eyes are large but not tightly closed” indicates the fragility of the Shen (mental). 50. _ “The “loyal” and “sincere” energy of the heart” indicates the energetic and firm state of the courageous man. in the case of fragility of the epidermo-dermal system. the weak man does not recognize fear. _ “The liver is lax and the gallbladder sagging... 1 . 51. In that case. that is to say. this state is the consequence of inebriation. _ “The xiphoid appendage is short and small” is the sign revealing the modest and subdued state of the energy of the heart.In the weak man. a substance fermented from cooked rice endowed with an agile and fierce energy. In contrast. in a state of weakness.. and the eyelashes stand on end” heralds the overflowing of the energy of the liver toward the exterior. _ “deep eyes” indicate the stability of the energy of the organs because the eyes are the sites of gathering of the Jing (quintessence) of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. despite the fact that. energetic circulation in the wrong direction toward the thorax.” 38 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ “The energy of the gallbladder spreads out widely toward the 4 limbs” implies the sense of abundance of the energy diffusing to the 4 sides more openly than in the normal individual. Once in the stomach. the thorax enlarges and the eyes seem to leave the orbit. like the brave man. But after the bout. The stomach and intestines lose their tone” are indicators of insuficiency of the energy of the Liver/Gallbladder system. _ “The color and energy. the weak man grows to be brave. the energy is found in a state of fullness. that is to say. rises up. only spreads out in length following the tissue fibers.. it circulates only in the direction of length. uprising of the energy of the liver and overflowing of the energy of the gallblader.” marks the solidity of the muscular system. This is why anger does not last a long time in the weak man. _ “The Sanjiao (SJ) does not spread out in width” indicates that its energy. the individual constantly wants to humble himself before others. it causes gastric swelling. he feels remorse.” denotes the plethoric state of the energy of the liver and gallbladder. _ “the Sanjiao (SJ) spreads out widely. Therefore. Yin and Yang easily go astray” means that the weak man is easily open to problems of blood and energy which is characterized by an impertinent and fearful glance._ the liver has the function of “general” _ and the gallbladder.. What is the organ responsible for this state?” Shao Shu: “Alcohol is a pure substance coming from Shui Gu (Water-Cereals). During the bout.

on that of a liver which is “generous” and “solid” and that of a gallbladder which is “abundant” and “very full”. originates from the energy (Qi) which produces the form (Xing). the one who knows how to maintain his energy. This energy (Qi) originates from Xing (form). causing an uprising of the liver and overflowing of the gallbladder. even more certain in the event of the harmful wind of the 4 Seasons. In general. Xing (form) and Qi (energy) are inseparable. excess of joy injures Yang and excess of anger injures Yin.” 39 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Such are the “natural rules” of the creation of form (Xing) and the determination of energy (Qi).” Yi Shi has said: “The power of the energy of an individual depends on that of a heart which is “loyal” and “sincere”. To know how to harmonize joy and anger is to allow Yin and Yang to agree with the “Natural Rules”. the energy grows weak and the individual has a feeling of regret and guilt. Its energy is rapid and powerful.EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Zhang Shi explains: “Alcohol is a substance distilled from Shui Gu (Cereals-Water). particularly that of the liver and gallbladder. This is why. It has the property of augmenting the energetic potential. the thorax in distention (presence of energy). The individual endowed with a robust and flourishing Xing (form) and Qi (energy) does not fear attack of great wind and strong rain a fortiori. eat with moderation and work moderately preserves Xing (form) and Qi (energy). rules created by nature which serve as a basis in the study of longevity and brevity of life. But once the bout of inebriation is over. In contrast.

and at the exterior. He. they are connected to the sites of Gathering-Reunion of the energy. like the points Dazhu (Bl 11). Li. Genshu (Bl 17). they have obvious specific effects. Therapeutically. Sp and Ki). CHAPTER LI Shu of the Back (Bei Shu) Chapter 51 of the Lingshu speaks on the localization of a group of specific acupuncture points located in the dorso-lumbar region.. these dorsal Shu points are connected to the 5 organs.no 52/53. and the dorsal Shu points of the 5 organs (Lu. deep needling of these 40 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In the interior. but in practice..

without reflection. in the 7th intercostal space. 41 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the concerned area is the point sought. in the 5th intercostal space. in the 1st intercostal space. Huangdi questions Qi Bo: “Please teach me about the Shu of the 5 organs which are all located on the back. Shu of the Liver) is found outside the spinal apophysis of the 9th dorsal vertebra. in the 3rd intercostal space. When the patient feels a sensation of relief in the interior. This chapter consists of only one paragraph. is strictly forbidden. Pishu (Bl 20. do not blow on the fire to put it out. the 2nd lumbar. Tonification and dispersion by moxabustion are also presented. and tonify in the event of emptiness. Shu of the Kidney) is found in outside the spinal apophysis of the 14th vertebra.points is strictly prohibited.” 54. • During the use of fire (moxa) to tonify. and acupuncture cannot be used without reflection. press firmly with the aid of the finger on the concerned area. Shu of the diaphragm) is found outside the spinal apophysis of the 7th dorsal vertebra. The method of examination of these particular points is well developed here. • Therapeutically. • In order to locate the Shu of the back. 1. Qi Bo replies: “ Dazhu (Bl 11. hence the title: “Shu of the Back” (Bei Shu). that is to say. Great Shuttle) is found outside the spinal apophysis of the 1st dorsal vertebra. This is why moxabustion is specifically advised. Feishu (Bl 13. Shu of the Lung) is found outside to the spinal apophysis of the 3rd dorsal vertebra. Shu of the Heart) is found outside the spinal apophysis of the 5th dorsal vertebra. Disperse in the event of fullness. Shu of the Spleen) is found in outside the spinal apophysis of the 11th dorsal vertebra. in the 11th intercostal space. Geshu (Bl 17. moxabustion is absolutely advised. and acupuncture. • The Shu points of the 5 organs are all found on the line parallel to the midline of the spine. Ganshu (Bl 18. in the 9th intercostal space. Shenshu (Bl 23. The essential object of this chapter is to determine the location of these points. Xinshu (Bl 15.5 cun apart from it.

to the side of the 7th vertebra”. regarding the Shu points of the 5 organs. In general.Pressure of the finger performed on the Taiyang channel provokes a reaction at the level of the Dumai (GV) because “Water-Cold” of the Taiyang (Bl) and that of the Dumai (GV) unify all the Yang channels of the body and because Yin and Yang. 55. every attack of the diaphragm causes a serious internal pathology whose cure is only apparent. death is immediate _ the energy of the spleen. (1) 4 .5 cun apart from the 11th vertebra _ Shenshu (Bl 23) is found 1.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . 3 .5 cun aside from the Dumai (GV).5 cun apart from the 7th vertebra” because the energy of the 5 organs is propelled by the diaphragmatic movements. death follows in 7 days _ the energy of the lung.5 cun apart from the 3rd vertebra _ Xinshu (Bl 15) is found 1. 5 . then on the field.The Shu points of the 5 organs and 6 bowels are all found in the dorso-lumbar region and Huangdi’s question concerns only the Shu points of the 5 organs because: _ the bowel and organ constitute the male/female system _ the study of the 5 Movements of the Earth is largely sufficient. from the posterior midline of the body (that is to say.5 cun apart from the 9th vertebra _ Pishu (Bl 20) is found 1. replace it with another fire (moxa) which must also rapidly go out. This is why. This is why there is a saying according to which “the small heart (Xiao Xin) lives in the interior.5 cun apart from the 5th vertebra _ Geshu (Bl 17) is found 1. Shu of the diaphragm) located 1. _ the energy of the kidney. 3 cun between the 2 bilateral points). All the dorsal Shu points are bilateral and are found 1. Water and Fire. communicate.5 cun apart from the 7th vertebra _ Ganshu (Bl 18) is found 1. blow on the fire to help it go out. one reaches first the point Dazhu (Bl 11) because it is found at the end of the great bone located at the nucha.The vertebral column is the site of passage of the Dumai (GV).but allow it to die out by itself.Zhang Shi explains: “1 .“Relief in the interior during pressure of the finger at the level of the intercostal space” denotes the existence of communication between the Taiyang (Bl) and Dumai (GV ).The Shu points of the 5 organs are all on the Foot Taiyang because the bladder is a Water-Bowel and the 5 Movements of Earth are produced by the Water of Heaven. 42 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . death follows in 9 days. death follows in 5 days 56. at the 1st vertebra belonging to the Dumai (GV). Acupuncture is advised against because it injures: _ the energy of the heart. that is to say. 2 . 7 .“One questions about the 5 organs and one reaches Geshu (Bl 17. • During use of fire (moxa) to disperse. 6 . Therefore: _ Dazhu (Bl 11) is found 1.Moxabustion is recommended because it has the property of activating the production of the energy of the Organ-Yin. death surely follows at the end of one year.5 cun apart from the 1st vertebra _ Feishu (Bl 13) is found 1.5 cun apart from the 14th (2nd lumbar) vertebra. that is to say.

Volume II: “It is necessary to needle the points.” It concerns advice given to novice physicians because deep needling the dorsal region can injure the lung and heart and cause serious accidents. Paragraph 1. From Chapter 20 of the Lingshu (“The Five Perverse”). hence the theory acccording to which “moxabustion tonifies emptiness. Volume I: “It is necessary to needle. This Water and this Fire are the 2 components....”.: This chapter involves the location of the points Dazhu (Bl 11) and Geshu (Bl 17) and the dorsal Shu points (Bei Shu) of the 5 organs located on the back.Here. . a .. 1. See below. In a word. 57.” From Chapter 22 of the Lingshu (“Yin Madnesses and Yang Madnesses”).Effects of moxabustion. 9 . Chu Shi has described: “_ I-Heaven creates Water _ II-Earth creates Fire. the point apart from the 3rd dorsal vertebra... To blow on the fire (moxa) is to wish to direct the energy toward the exterior.. the essential action of moxabustion is to make the Yang return and stop the escaping of the essential energy. of the First Principle (Tai-Yi) which comes from building up.” II . Water and Fire of Yin and Yang.“Moxabustion is indicated and acupuncture is advised against. moxabustion proves to be more effective and safer.N. Paragraph 18..N. This does not mean to say that acupuncture performed on the back is strictly forbidden as proportionately less of this classic (Lingshu) and the Suwen had developed in several chapters the methods of needling practiced in this region.V. Yin and Yang. This explanation is not very precise. it is a question of the energy located at the Shu points of the back of the organs and not of a deep effect of the organ by the needle stick.To use fire (moxa) to tonify is to apply the principle according to which one maintains Water by Fire.Regarding Water and Fire.” 43 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . b . particularly in the case of: _ chronic diarrhea of “Yin Cold” etiology _ “Humidity-Phlegm” _ afflux of cold _ evolutive polyarthritis (Wei Bi) _ “False Heat”.. at the spot where the cough responds to pressure of the hand and the Shu points of the back (Bei Shu) at the spot where the patient feels a relief upon pressure of the fingers. The Human Being receives these 2 energies. 8 . needling must approach the organs at the level of the Shu points of the back (Bei Shu). Volume II: “In the chronic affliction of the 5 organs.” From Chapter 55 of the Suwen (“Complementary Study on the Chapters of the Depth of Needling”). Needling this point is confirmed by a sensation of relief during pressure of the fingers. This is why the Shu points of the back of the 5 organs all have their “root” (Ben) at the Taiyang (Bl = Water) and respond to the Dumai (GV = Sea of Yang Channels = Water). which become transformed into the 5 Movements to construct the bodily form. Paragraph 1.. To use fire (moxa) to disperse is to obey the principle according to which one obtains Fire from Water to revive the Yin energy of the organ. In the case of non-cure of some illnesses treated by acupuncture.

moxas are applied to the point Yongquan (Ki 1).. As a result.. _ in grippe of “Wind-Cold” origin..Tonic action of moxabustion.c . _ in the disease “Yang-Liver” (hepatitis). the theory according to which “moxabustion is only used for tonification” does not consider the true domains of moxabustion. Therefore. Fengmen (Bl 12) Dazhui (GV 14). These illnesses make up part of the group of “fullness”.. “heat” (fever) group.. 57. moxas are applied to the points Fengchi (GB 20). _ in tonsillitis and epistaxis... the use of moxabustion must be adapted to the form the disease takes. moxas are applied to the point Shaoshang (Lu 11). As a result. but also that of the dispersant action of moxabustion. for example: 58. 44 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This chapter 51 of the Lingshu stresses not only the importance of the tonifying action.

in Chapter 52 of the Lingshu. it is necessary to base one’s judgment on the system of Jingluo (principal and secondary channels) and on the notions of Jiao (summit) and Ben (root). CHAPTER LII Defensive Energy (Wei Qi) Chapter 52 of the Lingshu speaks on Ying Qi (Rong: nutritive energy) and Wei Qi (defensive energy) and the internal activities of the organism. This chapter therefore places emphasis on the importance of the points of the channels equipped with the indispensible“Jiao/Ben” systems in the implemention of diagnostics and therapeutics. of emptiness and fullness. are solved the problem of Jiao/Ben of the 3 Yang of the foot and the problem of Qi Jie (path of entry and exit of the energy) of the 6 bowels. In this manner. To understand the notion of emptiness and fullness is to be capable of performing the techniques of tonification and dispersion. 59. This study is consequently fundamental to the resolution of the problem of the protection of 45 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In practice.Figure 1: Points Dazhu (Bl 11) and Geshu (Bl 17) and the back Shu points of the 5 organs.

The 6 bowels (Fu) are the receptors/metabolizers of Shui Gu (Water-Cereal: foods) . They are easily detectable. • _ _ _ • of the _ _ Discerning Yin and the Yang permits determination of: the site of origin of the illness the site of emptiness and of fullness and the superficial or deep localization of the illness. Qi (nutritive energy) . (quintessence). The Qi emerging at the exterior and not following the routes of the channels is Wei Qi (defensive energy) . Shen (mental) . The Qi (energy. But the distinction of Yin and of Yang comprises the notions of Jiao (summit) and Ben (root) . Therefore. The numerous branches and ramifications do not become entangled. This is why this chapter is entitled “Defensive Energy” (Wei Qi). of emptiness and f u l l n e s s . The Qi circulating within the channels is Ying Yin and Yang mutually follow one another. Interior (Li) and Exterior (Biao) communicate like a circle without end or beginning.” Chapter 52 contains 5 paragraphs. PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: “The 5 organs (Zang) are the receivers of Jing Hun (vegetative soul) and Po (sensitive soul). • Understanding the “hard” a n d “ s o f t ” of the emptiness and fullness allows the practice of tonification and dispersion. originating from foods) within the interior is linked to the 5 organs. The title is only used only to emphasize the importance of the defensive energy (Wei Qi). and at the exterior. 60.the organism against the aggression of perverse energy and the problem of harmonization the interior (Li) and exterior (Biao) of the body. Ma Shi emphasizes: “The contents of this chapter do not involve in specific fashion the Wei Qi. knowing the Jiao and Ben of the 6 channels (3 Yin and 3 Yang) 46 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . and of the sites of liason. Knowing 6 bowels the site and the the Qi Jie (sites of entering and exiting of the energy) permits the definition of: of going and returning of the energy site of its continuation. it is in relationship with the articulations.

Ying Qi (nutritive energy) becomes released at the level of the Zhongjiao (Middle Jiao = MJ) and Wei Qi (defensive energy) becomes manifest at the Xiajiao (Lower Jiao = LJ). is Yin. All these precise conditions are based on the knowledge of Jiao-Ben (Peak-Root) of the 6 channels (3 Yin and 3 Yang). Of volatile and powerful nature. Thi is why it is said: “ The energy which circulates exclusively within the channels is the Ying Qi. 61. In the interior. Tong Qi (a priori energy: ancestral energy) is conserved within the Shangjiao (Upper Jiao = UJ). By contrast. there must no longer exist any doubt about the treatment of illnesses. that is to say. the text makes clear: “The energy emerging at the exterior and not following the paths of the channels is the Wei Qi. This is why.permits assurance of no longer allowing uncertainty to remain about this world.Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on Jiao (summit) and Ben (root). the Yin energy and Yang energy follow each other. For this reason.” Ying Qi (nutritive energy). it follows the Tong Qi (a priori energy) in order to circulate within the channels.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . 2 . it spreads into the epidermo-dermal spaces. These perpetual movements are complex. If the channels are regrouped into Yin and Yang. In this manner. all the activities of the organism. in the zones of the 3 Yin. The 6 bowels represent the exterior (Yang). Ying energy circulates. Ying (Rong: nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy). Shen (mental). Of subtle and specific nature. discerning the channels of the foot and hand is to know: _ the site of manifestation of the illness _ the state of emptiness and fullness of the channels _ the superficial or deep localization of the illness _ the paths of going and returning (Qi Jie) of the energy of the 6 bowels _ the “doors” and “windows” and paths of liason of the energy _ the “soft” state of emptiness and the “hard” state of fullness in order to apply the appropriate methods of tonification and dispersion. elaborated at the level of the Xiajiao (LJ = Ki/Li). 1 . If the knowledge truly reached such a level. not any doubt can survive in the 47 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Wei energy circulates during the day in the zones of the 3 Yang. and at the exterior. Man is equipped with the Sanjiao (SJ). elaborated at the level of the Zhongjiao (MJ = Sp/St). Hun (vegetative soul) and Po (sensitive soul) have their site of conservation. the interior and the exterior communicate like a pearl necklace without beginning or end. The energy of the Xiajiao (LJ) goes back up to the Zhongjiao (MJ) and arrives at the Shangjiao (UJ) in order to elaborate. with the Tong Qi (a priori energy). within the 12 channels. from the lung. coherent and clear and their analysis merits being delved into deeply. it reaches the articulations.Man has 5 organs thanks to which Jing (quintessence). Zang (organs) and Fu (bowels) whose clinical examination is often difficult. their energy is linked to the 5 organs. responds to Yang. But once the examination has been well-performed. it is that they all have their Peak/Root and their Empty/Fullness.Wei Qi (defensive energy).” 3 . it emerges at the exterior. and at night. Man has 6 bowels thanks to which the Shui Gu (Cereal-Water: foods) are metabolized.

V. Hun (vegetative soul) and Po (sensitive soul). Qichong (St 30) also bears the name Qi Jie.” II . entering and exiting. Shaoyang. “1 . it goes to the level of the limbs and articulations to moisten the muscles and bones. However. this paragraph is devoted to the study of the Organs/Bowels and the 12 Yin and Yang channels circulating from the interior toward the exterior and from the exterior toward the interior. it is necessary to not be content with vague and general knowledge. of the energy of the 6 bowels (3 Yang: Taiyang. This is why our old masters give it the name Rong (Ying).This paragraph concerns the circulation of Ying Qi within the channels and that of Wei Qi outside the channels. The part of the blood which gives fullness to the skin and flesh and which warms the muscles and bones originates from: _ either the path of the Chongmai (“sea of blood vessels”) in order to spread to the pilo-cutaneous system. 1. 48 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The Ying energy (circulating in the channels) and Wei energy (circulating outside the channels) are invisible energetic substances. Also. In contrast. 2 .: Qi Jie designates the routes of passage. to be compelled to delve deeply into the totality of the chapters of the Lingshu and to be devoted to analysis of the slightest details. the word “Qi” designates Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) originating from the metabolism of Shui Ge (Cereals-Water).human being.N. going and returning. Shen (mental). the energy and blood situated in the epidermo-dermal and interchannel spaces enter and exit from exterior toward interior and from interior toward exterior.. Knowledge of Qi Jie permits more easy solution of problems of accumulation/gathering due to the blockage of the movements of leaving of the energy from the Yang channels toward the exterior (to maintain the skin. This part of the blood is also called Rong (Ying).Zhang Shi comments: 62. . of entering and exiting) of the energy of the 6 bowels in order to unite with the Wei energy and the sense of circulating during the day in the Yang parts and during the night in the Yin parts of the body. Yangming). pores. this Qi (energy) cools down the 5 organs and maintains the Jing (quintessence). originating from the transformation of the Shui-Ge (CerealWater) and circulating within the Mai (vessels) and Luo (capillaries) at the level of the epidermo-dermal system. All the ideas cited in this passage are dealt with in this classic. is a material and visible substance and also carries the name of Rong (substance which maintains life). PARAGRAPH Qi Bo: 2 63.. _ or the path of Da Luo (Great Luo) in order to extravasate outside the channels. Example: Wuli (LI 13) and Qichong (St 30) (1) are of the Qi Jie of Yangming.N. In the interior. Yin energy and Yang energy communicate and their movements are cyclic like in a circle without end. at the exterior. the name Rong (Ying) Qi. blood.” III .The term Wei Qi utilized in the title of this chapter implies the sense of extravasation of the Ying energy via the path of Qi Jie (path of going and returning. and to its energy.) and of the movements of entering from the exterior toward the channels. In conclusion. Here.

Ben (root) of the Foot Taiyin (Sp) is located 4 cun above the point Zhongfeng (Li 4). 64. _ Ben (root) of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) is located at the point Qiaoyin (GB 44). located 5 cun above the talus (or 3 cun above the external malleolus). and Jiao (summit). _ Ben (root) of the Foot Jueyin (Li) is located 5 cun from Xingjian (Li 2). 3. at the point Renying (St 9) in liason with Xing Zang (maxillary sinus). _ Ben (root) of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) is located 3 cun above the internal malleolus. that is to say. at the point Pishu (Bl 20). at Bei Shu (back Shu) and at the 2 sublingual vessels. and Jiao (summit). 4. in front of Zong Long .Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph concerns the Jiao-Ben (Roots-Summits) of the 6 channels of the foot. and Jiao (summit). and Jiao (peak) is found at Renying (St 9) which sends a vessel to Xing Zang (maxillary sinus). and Jiao (summit). at the point Sanyinjiao (Sp 6). located on the back. and Jiao (peak). that is to say. hence the designation 2 Luo (vessels). at the point Lianquan (CV 23). at the point Jiaoxin (Ki 8). at the point Tinghui (GB 2). at the level of the 2 Luo (vessels) of M i n g m e n . at Bei Shu and at the base of the tongue. Ben (root) of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) is located at the point Qiaoyin (GB 44).that is to say.” 49 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Ben (root) of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) is located 3 cun above the internal malleolus. Zong Long designate the ear. _ Ben (root) of the Foot Yangming (St) is located at Lidui (St 45). is the point Ganshu (Bl 18).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . Ben (root) of the Foot Jueyin (Li). 2. here Mingmen designates the eye. Ben (root) of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). at the point Jingmen (Bl 1) left and right. that is to say. here. that is to say. that is to say. at the 2 Luo of Mingmen (eye). and Jiao (summit). and Jiao (peak). is Fuyang (Bl 59). and Jiao (peak) is found in front of Zong Long (ear). 6. Ben (root) of the Foot Yangming (St) is located at the point Lidui (St 45). located 5 cun above the point Xianjian (Li 2). 1. at Bei Shu (back Shu) . and Jiao (summit). 5. _ Ben (root) of the Foot Taiyin (Sp) is located 4 cun above and in front of the point Zhongfeng (Li 4). is the point Zhongfeng (Li 4). and Jiao (peak) is found on the back.“Your presentation is vast and imposing! Your topic permits submission to His Majesty its knowledge according to the following order: _ Ben (root) of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) is located 5 cun above the talus bone. and Jiao (peak) occurs at Shenshu (Bl 23) and at the sublingual vessels.

Foot Shaoyin (Ki) 4 . NVN Edition. 50 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . b .Lianquan (CV 23) emits vessels towards the tongue and lips. the kidney.Foot Taiyang (Bl) 2 . this latter communicates with the eyes.N. According to Zhong Shi. Above.V. 2. Volume I. 2.N. In the event of disorder.Foot Shaoyang (GB) 3 . it causes a nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea. 65.Foot Jueyin (Li) 5 .: 1.Foot Yangming (St) “Ben” Zones (Roots) Fuyang (Bl 59) Qiaoyin (GB 44) Jiaoxin (Ki 8) Zhongfeng (Li 4) Lidui (St 45) “Jiao” Zones (Summits) Jingming (Bl 1) Tinghui (GB 2) Shenshu (Bl 23) Lianquan (CV 23) ---> base of tongue Ganshu (Bl 18) Renying (St 9) ---> maxillary sinus Pishu (Bl 20) Lianquan (CV 23) ---> lips and tongue 6 . “Jia Xia Xing Zang” (2) designates the maxillary sinus. Renying (St 9) possesses vessels which communicate with the maxillary sinus and frontal sinus.Renying (St 9) possesses vessels which reach the maxillary sinus (Figure 1).Foot Taiyin (Sp) Sanyinjiao (Sp 6) Notes: a . See also the explanation in Chapter 5 of the Lingshu (“Origin and Gathering”) . This is why the eyes are called Mingmen (door of life). “2 Luo of Mingmen”: “2 Luo” designates the 2 Jingmen (Bl 1) points and “Mingmen”.II . We present the following table of Ben/Jiao (Roots-Peaks) of the 6 channels of the foot: Channels 1 .

and Jiao (peak) is found above and behind the ear 51 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Figure 1 The point Renying (St 9) and its branches rising to the maxillary and frontal sinuses. PARAGRAPH 3 “ Ben (root) of the Hand Taiyang (SI) is located behind the styloid apophysis of the cuboid. Ben (root) of Hand Shaoyang (SJ) is located 2 cun in front of the angle formed by the 4th and 5th metacarpal. and Jiao (peak) is found 1 cun above Mingmen.

V. See N.: The designation of certain points.Ben (root) of the Hand Taiyin (Lu). located 2 cun in front of the angle formed by the 4th and 5th metacarpal. and Jiao (peak). of the 6 channels of the hand has arisen in the course of 52 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . is the point Tianchi (XB 1). located at the level where the artery beats.Ben (root) of the Hand Jueyin (XB). 3. Ben (root) of the Hand Shaoyin (He) is located at the tip of the styloid apophysis. located below the spinal apophysis of L1 (3). that is to say. at the point Tianding (LI 17) uniting with Jian Shang. 3 . is the point Quchi (LI 11) extending to Bie Yang (distinct Yang) (4). is the point Xuanshu (GV 5) belonging to the Dumai. and Jiao (peak). 2 . and Jiao (peak) is found at the level where the artery beats. located at the tip of the styloid apophysis. is the point Shenmen (He 7). See N.N.) below. explanation (3. 6 . located at Cun Kou (radial pulse). is the point Shenshu (Bl 15). “This paragraph broaches the problem of Jiao/Ben (peak/root) of the 6 channels of the hand. Jiao (peak). at the point Touwei (St 8). Ben (root) of the Hand Yangming (LI) located in the middle of the elbow bone extends to “Bie Yang” (distinct Yang).Ben (root) of Hand Shaoyang (SJ). is the point Yemen (SJ 2). it seems. 4 . that is to say. located on the back. and Jiao (root) is located at Ran Xia. located at the middle of the elbow bone.Ben (root) of the Hand Shaoyin (He). and Jiao (peak) is found at Bei Shu (back Shu). and Jiao (peak). and Jiao (peak) is found 3 cun below the axilla. located 1 cun above Mingmen. 1 .” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I .) below. and Jiao (peak). 5 .V. located 3 cun above the axilla and 1 cun outside the place of the breast.N. 4. Ben (root) of the Hand Jueyin (XB) is located 2 cun behind the wrist between the 2 tendons. located behind the styloid apophysis of the cuboid.N. Ben (root) of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) is located at the interior of Cun Kou (radial pulse). designates the point Tianfu (Lu 3). and Jiao (peak).N. located between the 2 tendons behind the wrist.Ben (root) of the Hand Taiyang (SI).and at the external tip of the eyebrow.Ben (root) of the Hand Yangming (LI). and Jiao (peak) is found at Ren Xia close to Gan Shang. is the point Sizhuikong (SJ 23).V.Ma Shi explains: 66. is Neiguan (XB 6). commentary (1. designates the point Yangliao (SI 6). located at the external edge of the eyebrow. designates the point Taoyuan (Lu 9). II .

the centuries from numerous discussions and controversies. But Ma Shi indicates only one because 67.Jiao (peak) of the Hand Taiyang (SI). reaches the point Binao (LI 14) called Bie Yang because Binao (LI 14) is the site of reunion-gathering of the Hand Yangming (LI) with the 3 channels: Hand and Foot Taiyang (SI + Bl) and Yangwei. This phrase implies that there are 2 Jiao (peak) points.D. the Hand Yangming (LI) begins behind the ungual angle of the radial side of the index finger. the distinct channel of Hand Yangming (LI) (Figure 2). 1 . Jingmen (Bl 1) is the site of reunion-gathering of the Foot and Hand Taiyang (SI + Bl). 53 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . located 1 cun above Mingmen. In our opinion. but instead the point located 1 cun above Jingmen (Bl 1) because. passes to the elbow.Jiao (peak) of the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) occurs above and behind the ear and at the external edge of the eyebrow. _ the point located above the auricular apex inside the scalp line is Jiaosun (SJ 20). But the Chinese Medical Dictionary (p. does not designate the point Xuanshu (GV 5).“Bie Yang” (Distinct Yang): According to Yang Shang Zian.). It merits clarification. _ and the point located at the external edge of the eyebrow is Sizhuikong (SJ 23). 3 . that is to say. 2 . 1187) speaks of the point Yangchi (SJ 4). Hand Yangming (LI) passes to the point Binao (LI 14) in order to reach the shoulder at the point Jianyu (LI 15) where it emits a distinct Yang vessel. according to Zhang Jing Yue (1563-1640 A.

Figure 2: “Bie Yang” (Distinct Yang) and the Hand Yangming (LI). during examination of the above-cited channels.Hand Taiyin (Lu) 5 . Hand Channels 1 . if the upper part is in fullness. 68. dizziness is noted. in contrast. if the lower part is in fullness. _ if there is emptiness of the lower part ( B e n / R o o t ). in contrast. it concerns the illness Afflux (Jue). it is the sign revealing the illness of Heat (Re). _ if there is emptiness of the upper part ( J i a o / P e a k ). it is the indicator of a painful syndrome with fever. 54 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Hand Shaoyang (GB) 3 .Hand Taiyang (SI) 2 . We present the following table of Jiao/Ben (peaks/roots) of the 3 Yang channels and 3 Yin channels of the hand.Hand Jueyin (XB) “Ben” Zones (Roots) Yangliao (SI 6) Yemen (SJ 2) Quchi (LI 11) Taiyuan (Lu 9) Shenmen (He 7) Neiguan (XB 6) “Jiao” Zones ( Peaks) 1 cun above Jingming (Bl 1) Jiaoxin (SJ 20) and Sizhuikong (SJ 23) Touwei (St 8) Tianfu (Lu 3) Shenshu (Bl 15) Tianchi (XB 1) PARAGRAPH 4 “In general.Hand Shaoyin (He) 6 .Hand Yangming (LI) 4 .

of gathering and concentration of the energy). In that case. _ the energy of the head gathers at the brain _ the energy of the thorax gathers at the anterior part of the thorax and at 55 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . examination of the lower part of the channels of the hand and foot concern the Root (Ben). limbs have their Qi Jie . it is a matter of vertigo and dizziness. _ when the Peak (Jiao) is in emptiness. it causes vertigo and dizziness. head has its Qi Jie . b .Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on the therapeutic methods of the Root-Peak (Jiao-Ben) of the 12 channels. The lower part of the channel is called Ben (root). it is due to the presence of heat which overheats them. In this case. For this reason. and in the event of emptiness. The upper part of the channel is called Jiao (peak). _ when the Root (Ben) is in fullness. in the event of fullness. When Ben (root) is in emptiness.This is why. in the event of fullness. and in the event of emptiness. Yuan Yang (Yang source) is weakened below. The The The The thorax has its Qi Jie . it causes an energetic afflux toward the top. As for the fullness of the upper or lower part of the channel. When Jiao (peak) is in emptiness. the pure Yang energy remains down below. a .N. it is a matter of Heat (Re).In general.Examination of the upper part of the channels of the foot and hand concern the Peak (Jiao).: Zhang Jing Yue provides the following points: “The Jiao-Ben (Peaks-Roots) parts of the 12 channels have their own distinctive pathologic manifestations. it is advised to disperse the perverse energy to obtain cure.” II .N. it is necessary to use the dispersion method to eliminate the perverse energy.V. This is why. the method of tonification to augment the source energy (Yuan Qi).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . it is a matter of a painful syndrome with fever. of entering and exiting. _ when the Root (Ben) is in emptiness. it is a matter of Afflux (Jue). abdomen has its Qi Jie . it is advised to tonify the essential energy to augment its potential. 69. _ when the Peak (Jiao) is in fullness.” PARAGRAPH 5 “Permit me to complete my dissertation on Qi Jie (site of passage.

the syndrome of accumulation (Ji) is taken as an example to explain the exit of Ying-Blood outside the Jingluo at the level of Qi Jie in order to unite with Wei Qi (defensive energy) to affect a circulation “without end or beginning”. 71. moistens the Xi Gu (valleys and little valleys: flesh spaces). via the path of the Chongmai. whose Yangming (St) is the head of the line. that is to say. it is necessary to press for a long time on the point and await the arrival of a reactive movement under the finger..other name Qi Jie). These points treat the following syndromes: headache. 4 . abdominal pains. manifests at the level of the Qi Jie of the leg. the 12 channels manifest at Qi Jie. and gather at the level of the arteries situated to the left and right of the umbilicus. with the Chongmai.At the head and thorax. 56 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .. at the left and right. The obstruction of Qi Jie of the abdomen hinders the spreading of blood and energy. According to Tian Dong Shu. Such are the phenomena know as Jue Ni (contrary afflux) of the energy of Shaoyin (Ki) and Yangming (St) whose treatment consists of utilizing the “Hao” (#7) type of needle.. that is to say.Qi Jie) at the level of the groin and at Chengshan (Bl 57) above the malleoli in the space separating the 2 muscles of the calf.. gastric fullness . vertigo. the point Qichong (St 30. other name Qichong). accumulation without pain is difficult to treat. emits a vessel which descends to Qi Jie (St 30.Shaoyin (Ki) and Yangming (St) are the sites of the start of the production of blood and energy. the Chongmai unites with Chengshan (Bl 57) located above the malleoli. sites formed by the paths of conduction of the energy and blood leaving from the lower part (of the channel) toward the Jiao (peaks) of the upper part (of the channels). This description concerns the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) which. _ the energy of the leg gathers at Qichong (St 30. gastric fullness.In this paragraph. reaches the internal part of the groin. the Chongmai. 2 . Along with the Yangming. hence headache and vertigo. 70. Accumulation (Ji) with movement of the pain is curable. The obstruction of Qi Jie of the leg prevents the circulation of blood and energy of the Shaoyin (Ki) toward the top. Therefore.Ben Shui (back Shu) _ the energy of the abdomen also gathers at Bei Shu (back Shu) and at the level of the arteries located 2 cun from the umbilicus. _ the Yin and Yang channels. 3 . Before needling. syncope. acute energetic accumulation. coming from the kidney organ. at the calf. marked intumescence. . . “sea” of channels. reach Qi Jie of the abdomen. it unties with the Sun Gan (energetic capillaries and muscular fibers). descends to the popliteal crease belonging to the Foot Taiyang (Bl). Using the “Hao” (#7) type needles to puncture the above-cited points. in contrast. _ blood and energy.Chongmai. are all under the dependence of the Daimai (belt vessel) attached to the Dumai (GV). Via this route.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I -Zhang Shi explains: “ 1. hence abdominal pain.

and the points located at the arteries of the 2 sides of the umbilicus.“Qi Jie”. stops at Bei Shu and at the anterior part of the body at the level of the Chongmai-Renmai (CV) and Foot Yangming (St) and at the level of the arteries located to the left and right of the umbilicus (that is to say.: 1 . III . also named Qichong (St 30). located at the internal side of the crural artery in the fold of the groin. vertigo. and the point Chengshan (Bl 57). belonging to the Foot Yangming (St). _ in order to curb the illnesses caused by the energy of the leg.The illnesses cited above all originate either from disturbance of the blood or disturbance of the energy. Huanshu (Ki 16) and Tianshu (St 25). stops at the hypochondria and Bei Shu (back Shu) _ the energy. as the points located above and outside the malleoli.V. directed toward the thorax. gastric fullness.Interesting points by Zhang Jing Yue in this connection include: “This paragraph concerns the areas of gathering of the energy (Qi Jie).N. are used. directed toward the head. acute accumulation“. the specific points located at the superior part of the ribcage (Mu points located on the thorax) and Bei Shu (back Shu) points located to the side of the spine between T7 and T2 are used. “Qie Ji” designates the path of gathering of the energy. while the preceding paragraphs speak on the Peak (Jiao) and Root (Ben) of the 12 channels. the specific point of the brain is used. are used. The marrows belong to the brain whose most elevated place has the name “Qi Jie of the cranium”. the path of exit of Ying (nutritive) energy outside the channels at the ends in order to unite with the Wei (defensive) energy and spread into all levels of the body. _ in order to curb the illnesses caused by the energy of the abdomen.Ma Shi comments: “This paragraph emphasizes the existence of Qi Jie. Each part of the body consists of its Qi Jie and therapy also understood from the appropriate methods for each case. belonging to the Foot Taiyang (Bl). located to the side of the spine between T2 and S2. Therefore. the Bei Shu (back Shu) points.” II .N. two essential ideas which must always be present in the mind of the physician. because _ the energy. At the time of needling these Si Jie (4 “Jie” zones noted above). stops at the brain _ the energy. that is to say. sites of stoppage of the energy which must be known to discern if one is to correctly practice acupuncture. Baihui (GV 20). merits being analyzed and delved into deeply according to contemporary thought. Here. and at the point Chengshan (Bl 57). the Qi Jie are formed at the Chongmai associated with the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) and at the 57 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .. At the abdomen. are the Qi Jie of the thorax and abdomen. Jie is a path of stoppage and departing. at the point Tianshu. fundamental notion of the practice of acupuncture. the 2 sides of the thorax designate the areas belonging to the Foot Yangming (St) and Foot Shaoyin (Ki). located in the trajectory of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). On the back. directed toward the abdomen. located at the calf. _ in order to curb the illnesses caused by the energy of the head. _ the energy circulating in the leg stops at Qi Jie. the energy circulating at the level of Bei Shu (back Shu) of the organs and bowels. it is advised to use the Hao type needle to treat headaches.St 25). 2 . the pointQichong (St 30). _ in order to curb the illnesses caused by the energy of the thorax. abdominal bloating.

for this reason.peri-umbilical arteries (Ex: Huangshu. 58 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . among which one distinguishes acute accumulation and chronic accumulation.Ki 16 and Tianshu. the chronic accumulation is indolent and always endowed with a form. The acute accumulation is without form and manifests by pains. 73. At the calf.St 25). In contrast. This state indicates the presence of the energy. the Qi Jie are formed at the level of the point Chengshan (Bl 57) and at the level of the point Qichong (also named Qi Jie. • The points cited above treat illnesses of the paths of gathering of the energy (Qi Jie). It is the indicator of the absence of energy.St 30). site of gathering of the Chongmai and Foot Yangming (St).We present below a diagram of the Qi Jie of the leg and another at the level of the peri-umbilical arteries. the illness is very difficult to treat.” 3 . the illness is easy to cure.

no 74/75. CHAPTER LIII Discussion on Pain (Lun Tong) 59 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Figure 4: Qi Jie at the level of the peri-umbilical arteries: Huangshu (Ki 16) and Tianshu (St 25).Figure 3: Qi Jie at the level of the lower limb: Qichong (St 30) and Chengshan (Bl 57).

hence the title: “Discussion on Pain” (Lun Tong). points of stone. what are their reactions to pain provokes by the needles (acupuncture). the points of stone (lithopuncture). and weak resistance in individuals having thin skin and firm musculature. fire (moxabustion) and heat (heated needles). Ma Shi emphasizes: “The contents of this chapter 53 of the Lingshu speaks on the ability or inability to endure the pain of the needles (acupuncture). by fire (moxa) and by heat (heated needles)? 76. the thickness and thinness of the skin. the firmness and flexibility of the flesh.” Shao Yu replies: “Individuals endowed with solid bones. the thickness and thinness of the skin. blackish color.” Huangdi: “How do you recognize those who can endure pain caused by fire (moxabustion) and by heat (heated needles)?” Shao Yu: “Individuals of black color and powerful bones can tolerate fire and heat. This chapter is composed of 2 paragraphs. soft. hence the title of the chapter”. large bones and solid and plump organs more easily resist toxic medicines than thin individuals with a weak stomach.Chapter 53 of the Lingshu contrasts two opposing abilities to resist pain and toxins. the watertightness and permeability of the pores are variable. Similarly. fire (moxabustion) and heat (heated needles). PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi questions Shao Yu: “The solidness and weakness of the tendons and bones. by the points of stone (lithopuncture). moist flesh and thick skin can endure the pain provoked by needles.” 60 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the firmness and weakness of the stomach and intestines are also variable. supple tendons. Individuals endowed with thick skin. It explains the marked resistance to pain provoked by acupuncture and moxabustion in individuals provided with a flexible musculature. The objective of this chapter then is to discourse on the endurance to iatrogenic pain. As a result. What are their reactions to toxic medicines? I would like you to explain this to me.

muscles. Shen and Sanjiao (Quintessence. the solidness and weakness of the tendons and bones.Skin. the existence of energy in the human body (3) via clinical facts. the thickness and thinness of the skin (epidermis). The Shaoyin (Ki) possesses the vital energy (Sheng Qi) of the natural world. poorly tolerate toxic substances. 2 . In contrast. Energy.Zhang Shi explains: “1 . flesh. we performed for the first time in the West the removal of a hand cyst and an inguinal hernia (1) by acupuncture analgesia which..Huangdi: “How do you recognize those who cannot tolerate pain provoked by the needles (acupuncture) and the points of stone (lithopuncture)?” Shao Yu: “Individuals of firm musculature and thin skin cannot endure the pain of needles and points of stone and. thin individuals. 1971. tolerate toxic products well. the pain of fire (moxabustion) and heat (heated needles). and the Yangming (St) transforms the Shui Gu (Water-Cereals) into food Jing. the density and dispersion of the sweat glands.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 61 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . As a result.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . was entered into the history of Western Medicine. II . Qi. whose gastric wall is thin. and. But flawless mastery of the points and channels is not sufficient to make acupuncture progress.” 77. The blossoming of the flesh results from the plethoric state of the blood and energy of Yangming (St). at the time. It is also necessary to deepen the notions of Jing.V. particularly the Jing Jin (tendinomuscular channels) of this classic.N. body fat. depend on the energetic state of these two channels.N. based on this chapter 53 and chapters concerning the Jingluo (principal and secondary channels). color black.Black color and good bones originate from the plethoric state of the blood and energy of Shaoyin (Ki).. the firmness or softness of the flesh (dermis). naturally.: In October. Our job in this era should consist of demonstrating the reality of Acupuncture (2) on the one hand. PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “How do you recognize those who cannot resist toxic substances?” Shao Yu: “Individuals whose stomach is thick. on the other hand. Mental and Three Jiao) to better comprehend the etio-patho-physiologic processes of Energetic Medicine. tendons and bones are dependent on the “production/ maintenance” of the Shaoyin (Ki) and Yangming (St).

I . 62 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This is why: _ the thick-walled stomach _ black color _ large bones _ generous body are signs of fullness of the energy of the Shaoyin (Ki) and Yangming (St) which permit resistance to toxic substances.N. Without premedication. We must then delve even more deeply into the notions “Jing.” 1. 3.N.N.V. In other words. Qi. II . located at the Earth-Center part. Shen and Sanjiao” if we do not want acupuncture in the West to become simple reflexotherapy.: Cartesian-minded acupuncture cannot understand or accept the explanation of Zhang Shi. “Energy-Matter” theory. The Yangming (St). Edition. 78. Denied by colleagues of the times. governs the reception of Shui Gu (Water-Cereals) thanks to the ascending energy of Shaoyin (Ki). 2.Zhang Shi explains: “This paragraph gives discourse on the association of the energy of Shaoyin (Ki) and that of Yangming (St). See “Theory and Practice of Analgesia By Acupuncture”.V. Wu (5th Celestial Trunk responding to StomachEarth) associates with Gui (10th Celestial Trunk responding to Kidney-Water) in order to metabolize the energy of Fire and Earth which allows the purification of the pure cereal substances. N.

CHAPTER LIV Celestial Age (Tian Nian) Chapter 54 of the Lingshu involves the longevity and brevity of the human being as a function of: _ the emptiness and fullness of blood and energy _ the insufficiency and excess of the 5 organs and 6 bowels _ and the weakness and strength of the bodily form of the individual.79. 63 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

This means to say that man is born thanks to the energy of the Shaoyin (Ki). this chapter speaks on life and death. That means to say that the energy of Yangming (St) is indispensible in the formation of the fetus.Zhang Shi explains: “According to Yi Chong Chi. it is due to the sufficiency of these 2 Jing that later creates Xing (form) and Shen (mental) and that man can live up to 100 years.” 64 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . What is the loss that causes man to die. • The union of the 2 Jing (sexual: ovum and sperm) originating from the parents form the Shen (mental). which depends entirely on the energy of the Shaoyin (Ki) (1) and that of Yangming (St) (2). are also addressed here. For the classics.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . according to the 60 year cycle. and what is the gain that prolongs his life?” Qi Bo: “Mother is the f o u n d a t i o n . • Yang designates father and Yin. mother. to hold the Shen is life. In other words. PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: “I would like you to inform me about fertilization. hence the title of this chapter. and father. the heavenly age is equivalent to 100 years.The physiologic and mental changes of the human being. from birth to death. that is to say.” This chapter is composed of 6 paragraphs. The key point of this chapter is to advance the conservation of the good health of Eugenism (Ye Sheng). What is the energy that constitutes the foundation (base) and what is the energy that serves as shield (protection)? 80. • Shield is a defensive armour. To lose the Shen (Mental) is death. Ma Shi emphasizes: “This chapter 54 discourses on centenarians. “Celestial Age” implies the sense of living according to the rhythym “Heaven-Earth”. the s h i e l d . longevity and brevity. thick plate carried in the left arm by warriors to protect against the enemy.

is characterized by the presence of consciousness and by the sense of responsibility for the energetic activity of 65 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . hence the role of reception. The kidney is source organ of Yin and Yang.N. that is to say. According to the principle of Kun .: 1. the Shen is awake.” II . and Jing-Shen. PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “What does Shen (mental) r e p r e s e n t ? ” Qi Bo: 81. All these components contribute to the formation of the human being. the heart then is essential to life. and when the heart is agitated. therefore to form (Xing). This is why to lose the Shen (mental energy) supplied by the parents means death and to conserve it means life. sperm). indispensible elements to create the human being.” 1. the Qi Xue (energy-blood) and Shen Chen (mental-will) of the 5 organs can be formed. Hun (vegetative soul) and Po (sensitive soul) are complete.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . Zhang Jing Yue writes: “The father is rich in Yang energy from the principle Qian . Because. This is why mother (Yin) is called “foundation” (base) and father. Shen (mental energy) resides in the heart. It is received within the heart. thanks to the Jing Qi of the parents.N. producer of sexual Jing (egg. 2.Ma Shi comments: “This paragraph studies the cause of life and death. the Shen is disturbed. the sourcesite of the mental force.Zhang Shu explains: “This paragraph speaks about the fact that at birth. The 5 organs being formed. at fertilization the mother serves as “foundation” destined to insure the stability of an elaboration. Ying (Rong: nutritive e n e r g y ) and Wei (defensive energy) freely circulate.V.V. “When Qi (energy) and Xue (blood) are balanced.” III . The term “Hun-Po” (vegetative soul-sensitive soul) designates the activities of the Jing-Shen (pure energy/mental) of the human being. Shen (mental) is the fundamental and original notion of Traditional Chinese Medicine.N. rich in Yin energy from the principle Kun . principle of creation of all things.: Regarding the formation of the fetus. and the mother. It represents the force of the vital activity of man. The stomach and spleen respond to Earth. the Yang energy to protect. when the heart is calm. “shield” (circle of protection). the phase of maturity of the Shen.II . and the father as “shield”.N. hence the role of distribution. Yang is designated by one line ( ). Yin has two lines ( ).

. 3. 2. the Shen (mental) energetic Jing.For the Heart: anatomic Jing maintains the blood and vessels sensorial Jing. 4.. 82.For the Liver: _ anatomic Jing maintains the tendons and muscles _ sensorial Jing. 82. b _ _ _ _ . 66 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .. Jing is always associated with Shen. the eyes (visual acuity) _ psychologic Jing. speech) psychologic Jing. the Jing-Shen of the 5 organs are defined in the following fashion: a .the organs.. In this manner. Imperial Fire (4)... Ministerial Fire (3). the tongue (voice. Fire which activates the energetic functions of the entire organism via the path of Sanjiao (SJ). Imperial Fire controls Ministerial Fire. the Hun (vegetative soul) _ energetic Jing.

d . the laryngo-pharyngeal apparatus (respiration and digestion). the Po (sensitive soul) _ energetic Jing. I would like you to speak to me of this problem. The choice of points and therapeutic results depend on this (See Figure 1). cold (Yin) and heat (Yang) of the body energetic Jing. PARAGRAPH 3 Huangdi: “Longevity or brevity of life varies from one individual to another. the lips (gustation) _ psychologic Jing. _ anatomic Jing maintains the flesh (dermis) _ sensorial Jing.For the Spleen. energy and organic liquids throughout the entire organism. e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . the Chi (will) sexual Jing. spermatogenesis and ovulation thermic Jing.” Qi Bo: “Longevity results: _ from the solidity and firmness of the 5 organs _ from the regularity of the circulation of blood and vessels _ from the suppleness of the flesh (dermis) 67 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the Yi (thought. reflection) _ energetic Jing. the distribution of blood. These notions are integral parts of the energetic physiology of Traditional Chinese Medicine.Figure 1: Jing (quintessence) of the 5 organs. the nose (olfaction) _ psychologic Jing. _ anatomic Jing maintains the skin and hairs (pilocutaneous system) _ sensorial Jing.For the kidney. 83. Some die prematurely. others live a long time and others experience disease. the ears (audition) psychologic Jing. c .For the Lung. anatomic Jing maintains the osteo-medullary system sensorial Jing. Ministerial Fire hereditary Jing (genetic).

N.V. To know the causes of longevity is to know those of premature death. _ the nostrils and nasolabial groove (Xu Dao) are deep and long. _ the chin and “facial rampart” (Go Zang) are thick and very square. 68 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . PARAGRAPH 4 Huangdi: “Some individuals live to 100 years.Ma Shi explains: 84. no life”.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . “This paragraph speaks of longevity and brevity.: Zhang Jing Yue gives the following analysis: “All the organic functions cited in this paragraph are conditioned by the Sanjiao (SJ)”. _ the bones are prominent and strong. This is why life can be prolonged._ from the watertightness of the skin _ from the harmonious circulation of Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) _ from the slow and light rhythm of respiration _ from the conformity of the circulation of Qi (energy) _ from the digestive function of the 6 bowels _ and from the perfect distribution of organic liquids throughout the entire organism. “The term “Xu Dao” designates the point Renzhong (GV 26) located in the nasolabial groove whose depth and length indicate: _ the thick appearance and very square chin and “rampart” (4 sides of the face) _ and the harmonious circulation of Ying and Wei. man can live to 100 years. How can they have such a long life?” Qi Bo: “In individuals who have a long life.” EXPLANATI0NS AND COMMENTARIES I .” II . life and death. Every function follows the normal rules. With such a form and structure.N. which varies from one individual to another. _ the “3 areas of Sanli” (San Bu San Li) are raised without being depressed.Ma Shi expands: 85. _ and the flesh is full. It is therefore necessary to delve deeply into the energy of the “Xin Bao/Sanjiao” (XB/SJ) system because “without Sanjiao. _ Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) circulate freely.

Such are the signs revealing longevity. Figure 2 “San Bu” (Three Palaces) Figure 3 Renzhong (GV 26) and the “7 orifices” 86. “San Bu” designates the “3 Palaces” (San Ding) of the body. the flourishing state of the Yangming (St).” II . and a very full flesh. the well-balanced energetic state of the Hand and Foot Yangming (LI and St). a large skeletal structure originates from the rhythmic ease of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki).N. “Xu Dao” designates the nasolabial groove. Chapter 2 of this classic (“Origin of the Shu”) gives it the name Jianshi Chi Dao (route of Jianshi-XB 5) because the Xin Bao Luo (XB) governs the blood and energetic vessels. the very full musculature. The high rampart denotes the plethoric state of blood and energy. middle and lower (see Figure 2). route of communication of the blood and energy. upper. “Go Zang” designates the chin and the rampart (4 sides of the face). and “San Li”.The term “San Bu San Li” designates the 3 facial areas (San Ding: upper palace.Zhang Shi comments: “Man can maintain a longevity of 100 years (heavenly age) thanks to: _ the sufficiency of innate and acquired Jing (quintessence) _ the steady and harmonious circulation of Ying and Wei _ large bone structure _ and the firmness of the flesh.: 69 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .N.” III . middle palace and lower palace) (see Figure 2) whose thickness denotes the weight of the bones and firmness of flesh. Such are the symbols of longevity.V. As a result. and the very square chin.

to become reduced and visual acutiy. • _ _ _ _ At 50 years of age. growth is in full maturity blood and energy begin to be flourishing the muscles are at their full phase of development This is why.In relation to Xu Dao. _ the 5 organs begin to strengthen _ blood and energy circulate freely _ the energy is in fullness at the lower part of the body This is why. the little child likes to run and jump. This is why the individual likes to sit. 2 eyes. to diminish. • At 40 years of age. _ the 5 organs/6 bowels and 12 Jingmai are in great fullness and are found in the state of arrested development _ the sweat gland system begins to be sparse _ the hair begins to fall and whiten _ maximal fullness is always followed by a sensation of sluggishness and heaviness. with the tongue _ the Jing of the kidney. with the mouth _ the Jing of the heart. 70 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ the Jing of the lung communicates with the nose _ the Jing of the liver. (Figure 3) PARAGRAPH 5 Huangdi: “Please explain to me the problem of fullness and emptiness of the blood and energy of the human being from childhood to death. In this way. the individual likes to walk steady with slow steps. _ the 5 organs are completely consolidated and stabilized _ the muscles are solid and firm _ blood and energy are in full richness This is why. This is the site of reunion/communication of Jing (quintessence) of the 5 organs. the energy of the liver begins to decline the “hepatic leaves” (liver organ) begin to thin the bile. 87. • At 30 years of age. with the ears. 2 nostrils. • _ _ _ At 20 years of age. and mouth). with the eyes _ the Jing of the spleen.” Qi Bo: “• At 10 years of age. Zhang Jing Yue supplies the following clarifications: “The term Xu Dao (nasolabial groove) implies the sense of the 7 orifices (2 ears.” The explanation of Zhang Jing Yue permits therefore understanding the reanimating action of the point Renzhong (GV 26). the individual likes to walk with rapid steps.

• At 60 years of age. _ the energy of the lung grows weaker _ the Hun (vegetative soul) and Po (sensitive soul) separate. man progressively develops 71 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In old age. _ the energy of the kidney runs dry _ the Jingmai of the other 4 organs are in insufficiency. The energy is born at the bottom and evolves toward the top. Spleen-Earth. _ the 5 organs are completely in insufficiency _ Shen Qi (mental energy) has disappeared. the child walks with rapid steps”.” Chi Shi states: “Man is born.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . • And at the age of 100 years. This is why it is said: “When the energy is still located at the lower part of the body. “The individual likes to sit and lie down” in order to conform with the energy of the kidney organ and Yangming (St). 88. that is to say.Ma Shi comments: “This paragraph speaks about the fact that: _ from 10 to 30 years. then Heart-Fire. the “5 Movements a posteriori”.Zhang Shi describes: “This paragraph speaks about the birth and growth of the human being. Wood. There remains only the bodily form which waits for death. This is why speech is often confused. then evolves from the Jing of the kidney organ. from the “5 Movements a priori”. Metal-Lung and WaterKidney. Metal and Earth are created from Water and Fire. This is why the individual likes to lie down. lung and kidney. • At 90 years of age. • At 80 years of age.” II . Bodily deficiency starts then by the liver. from Yang toward Yin. then the heart. _The energy of rage begins to diminish _ the skin withers and dries out. deficiency starts via Wood-Liver. In contrast. _ the energy of the heart begins to grow weak _ the individual is often preoccupied and sad _ blood and energy circulate nonchalantly. which responds to the energy of the birth of spring and the active energy of summer. at advanced age. the energy evolves from the top downward. The insufficiency of the energy of these two organs is the cause of “increased scarcity of the sweat gland system” and of the “hair falling and whitening. spleen. • At 70 years of age. that is to say.

the Chongmai is prosperous. the teeth begin to lose their brilliance. the muscles and bones become firm and solid. finally. •In boys. the face dries out. he begins to gradually decline. the Chongmai grows weaker. while this chapter of the Lingshu employs the number 10 to explain the duration of the different phases of decline in man from 50 years of age. the “channels of Earth” are obstructed. At the age “six seven” (6 X 7 = 42 years). the body is more robust. The Suwen uses the numbers 7 and 8 to explain the duration of the different evolutive phases of bodily transformation in the female and male. At the age “six eight” (6 X 8 = 48 years). the energy of the 5 organs becomes empty. the energy of the gallbladder declines _ at 60 years. At the age “two seven” (2 X 7 = 14 years). beginning by the liver. the boy can inseminate. the woman is no longer fertile. menses manifests following a determined cycle. At the age “seven eight” (7 X 8 = 56 years)._ from 50 to 100 years. the energy of the kidneys slowly grows weak. At the age “seven seven” (7 X 7 = 49 years). At the age “four seven” (4 X 7 = 28 years). the energy of the kidney becomes exhausted _ at 100 years. Yin is in harmony with Yang. the energy of the spleen subsides _ at 80 years. the energy of the kidney is plentiful. At the age “two eight” (2 X 8 = 16 years). At the age “five eight” (5 X 8 = 40 years). the decline takes effect every 10 years according to the law of the “5 Movements”. the wisdom teeth finish pushing out. recall the question and reply of Huangdi and Qi Bo: 89. the Renmai (CV) circulates abundantly. “Celestial Gui” (Tian Gui) enters into play.N. the energy of the liver is empty.: Chapter 54 of the Lingshu completes Chapter 1 of the Suwen (“9 Needles and 12 Yuan”). the energy of the kidneys is in fullness. the Renmai (CV) is empty. the milk teeth change. one cannot have children. At 7 years of age. spleen. the energy of the heart grows weaker _ at 70 years. the lung diminishes _ at 90 years. “Huangdi questions: _ In old age. man is robust. skin and flesh are in full bloom. vision to fade. Jing overflows.” III . At 8 years of age. the energy of the kidneys becomes asserted. the face fades. To speak of “the energy located at the lower part of the body” is to assure the plethoric state of the energy at the level of the 6 channels of the foot. That is why: _ at 50 years of age. At the age “three seven” (3 X 7 = 21 years). the young girl can create. the milk teeth change. the wisdom teeth finish pushing out. the energy of the kidneys is plentiful. lung and. At the age “three eight” (3 X 8 = 24 years). the hair falls. the muscles and bones become solid. is that due to the exhasution of the Jing or is it the fault of the “heavenly numbers” (Tian Xu)? Qi Bo replies: • In young girls. At the age “five seven” (5 X 7 = 35 years). the hair whitens. “Celestial Gui” appears. the hair to fall.V.N. the Yangming (St) energy begins to weaken.“ Celestial Gui” disappears. the temples gray. At the age “four eight” (4 X 8 = 32 years). This is why the body becomes exhausted. then the heart. the energy of the 3 Yang grows weaker at the top of the body. the energy of the kidneys is in fullness. the Yang energy wears out at the top of the body. In relation to old age. From 50 years of age. the hair lengthens. the hair lengthens. the kidney (50 : 5 = 10). the hair reaches its greatest length. the muscles and tendons 72 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

the Jing of the kidneys pours out. is Yang and Gui. According to Qi Bo. it can only be placed into motion.Gui is the 10th Celestial Stem and corresponds to Water (Kidney). .Woman is Yin or. the kidney organs function poorly. the walk becomes labored. it first spreads into the most essential regions of this age to assure growth and development: bone.It concerns the Jing (Quintessence) of the kidney. that is to say. At the age “eight eight” (8 X 8 = 64 years). a Yang. at the time when the vital energy is strong. The need is less great for it to supply growth factors as a matter of priority.D. 90. “Heavenly Gui” disappears.weaken. Jing (quintessence) energy of the kidney is then at the same time innate (ancestral energy: Ren and Gui) and acquired (dietary energy: sapor and Ying Qi). the hair and beard whiten. the muscles and bones become lax. in Oriental spirit. Celestial Gui becomes transformed into blood and reaches the Chongmai and Renmai (CV) which end up at the chin and lips. spicy toward the lung. Example: sour toward the liver.. following the chain of production of the law of the 5 Movements. the teeth and hair are falling out. by the Yang root. number. when Celestial Gui arrives.. the movement of Yin toward Yang (manifestation). A part of this energy is then allocated to the genital organs. In the event of excess Jing within the organs. • The kidneys correspond to Water. Jing diminishes.. In the child. in males. The relay is then progressively assured by the acquired energy of dietary origin. the movement of Yang going toward Yin (concentration). 7.” 1 . the body becomes heavy. In contrast. is chosen as the basis for the cyclic evolution of women. is Yin. odd. 10th. This is why. Jing conserved within the kidney reaches the heart via the intermediary of the liver. Therefore. Shaoyin. If they are weak.. hereditary energy sees its potential dwindle. is the determining factor. 73 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . therefore put into life. During puberty. blood (liver) following the chain of production of the 5 Movements. In this manner. the energy is always plethoric (innate and acquired). in young girls. At the time of andropause and menopause. Shaoyin is the little Yin. They receive and conserve the Jing of the five organs and 6 bowels. “Celestial Gui” disappears.). 4 . marrow. and Gui represents the manifestation of the energy. blood (kidney) and muscles. menses appears. more exactly. Because of this. when these organs and bowels are flourishing. Yang. where it becomes transformed into blood and then reaches the Chongmai and Renmai (CV) to maintain the flesh and act on the roots of the head hair and body hair. Ren. It is reinforced a posteriori by the digestive Jing represented by the sapors/flavors. In the present case. Ren represents the concentration of the energy. Celestial Gui is innate. The thesis of Wang Bing did not agree with the spirit of the Suwen: “Menses and sperm are manifestations of Celestial Gui. In summary. that is to say. 9th.The “Celestial Numbers” are numbers which determine the duration of the different evolutive phases of bodily transformation in the male and female. particularly into marrow and brain. 3 . The energetic potential being limited. to the curious channels on which they depend. Among the Celestial Stems. man man can no longer have children. the kidneys absorb it and conserve it in order to distribute it into the entire body. hence beard and moustache. the body is heavy and fatigued. 2 .” 91. The essential point is the maintenance of life. Celestial Gui designates at the same time Jing (quintessence) and blood and not only menses as was supported by the celebrated Wang Bing of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A. Gui designates at the same time: _ Celestial Stem _ its maintenance _ and its manifestations. These reach the spleen first. . then are directly conducted to the corresponding organs. at this stage. it is distributed into vital areas to the detriment of other areas (particularly genital). This is why.

In individuals whose blood is plethoric. 74 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Blood-Energy interactions and especially because of the productive chain of the 5 Movements: Water (Kidney) creates Wood (Liver). 8. is chosen as the basis in the cyclic evolution of man (5). Renmai (CV) and Chongmai. 9 . Foot Shaoyang (GB) and Foot Yangming (St). in women. the energy of these two channels spreads and reaches the flesh. They constitute the system of conservation of energy and blood. The notion of Blood/Energy is finally clarified: _ man has more blood than energy. particularly the liver (liver is the “son” of kidney). blood (Yin) weakens more quickly than energy (Yang). 8 .The energy of Yangming (LI and St) goes to the face. p. while in men. See explantion no. the face fades and the head hair falls out. Also. in particular the Longitudinal Luo and the Distinct Channel. when the energy of Yangming is in emptiness. This is the reason why. the face necessarily becomes wrinkled and the hair whitens and falls. Shaoyang and Yangming which are divided into: _ 3 Yang channels of the hand: Hand Taiyang (SI). • According to the Lingshu. As a consequence. number. hence moustache and beard _ woman has more energy than blood. renal insufficiency always causes a series of insufficiencies of the functions of the other organs. In individuals whose blood and energy are in equilibrium. it is the reverse. 5. 92. independent of the trajectory of the channels. then reaches the thorax via the secondary channels. This relationship explains that when the energy of Renmai (CV) and Chongmai is in emptiness. In gynecology. when their energy grows weak. the Renmai controls uterine functions and the Chongmai oversees the blood (menses).” • The explanation of the Neijing is extremely important.The energy of the liver and energy of the kidney each have very precise functions: _ the energy of the liver maintains the muscles and tendons and controls blood formation _ the kidney energy maintains the bones and marrow and controls energetic function. energy is Yang and blood is Yin _ in women (Yin).5 . It receives very numerous branches from these two channels at the level of the point Tianshu (St 25). They immerge from the abdomen and ascend to the throat to arrive at the chin to encircle the lips. goes around the skull and irrigates the roots of the hair via the route of the principle and secondary channels of the large intestine and stomach. particularly the internal vessel of the kidney and “Fuchong” (internal vessel of the Chongmai) (Figure 4). 10 .Males are Shaoyang. that is to say. “The Chongmai and Renmai (CV) begin at the level of the kidney and are the origin of all principal and secondary channels (Jingluo). Buccal branches from the Renmai (CV) Chongmai are imperfect. Generally. 7 . hence their name “Sea of Energy and Blood”. so she has neither moustache nor beard.Renmai (CV) and Chongmai make up part of the group of 8 Curious Channels. The Foot Yangming (St) has a very important relationship with the two Curious Channels. a Yin. 2 above. This little Yang can only be created and only exist thanks to the Yin Root. warming it up. and globally on the other hand. 6 . that of the Yangming (St) is also empty. hence absence of moustache and beard _ when one speaks of energy and blood. saturates the skin and gives rise to the body hair. The energy conducted via these Curious Channels is conveyed by the stomach. It is only from 14 years of age that these channels communicate. Water-Fire. the energy of these two channels reaches the flesh. Hand Shaoyang (SJ). The liver and kidney then have key relationships because of the Yin-Yang. Therefore.The 3 Yang designate Taiyang. The energy of these channels reaches the head via the route of the secondary channels on the one hand. 76. the energy is strong and blood weak (due to menses). even. Hand Yangming (LI) _ 3 Yang channels of the foot: Foot Taiyang (Bl).The “channels of Earth” (Ti Dao) designate the channels located at the lower abdomen.

Figure 4: Internal vessel of the Chongmai: Fuchong. But the energy and blood continue to circulate. It concerns channels which have the ability to retain Ying Qi (nutritive energy) for a longer time than normal. they often complain of bone pains (menopausal rheumatism) and muscular fatigue. Chongmai and Renmai (CV). at the age “seven-seven” (7 X 7 = 49 years). recall that the blood (Ying) belonging to the “satisfying” channels circulates within the channels. the body dry and thinned. the bones and muscles remain robust thanks to the good functioning of the energy of the spleen and stomach. In women.In men. Celestial Gui disappears at the age eight-eight” (8 X 8 = 64 years).11 . The blood (Ying) belonging to the Chongmai and Renmai (CV) spread outside the channels. in aged individuals. the face is yellow. 93. In some women whose age exceeds the point “seven-seven” (7 X 7 = 49 years). 75 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Finally. and in women. so. Why?” 94. 6. Such is the approximate duration of the Celestial Gui. menses takes a long time to disappear via the presence of blood and energy circulating in the “Satisfying Channels” (Jing Dua) (6) which flood the two Curious Channels. PARAGRAPH 6 Huangdi: “Some individuals do not know longevity and die.

etc.Qi Bo: “In _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ these individuals. Moreover. Similarly.V. original or vital energy).. Because Yuan Qi grows weaker. the a posteriori energy can help to strengthen it. If.N. the perverse energy progresses deeply toward the interior and provokes perturbations in the organism. the chin ( G e ) is shortened. innate information can be modified by acquired information thanks to the rules of Maintenance-Nutrition. 95.C o l d ) which: _ further weakens the blood and energy _ impedes the routes of the Jingmai _ causes a battle against the source energy ( Yuan Qi. Xu Dao (nasolabial groove) is short. they are easily open to attack of Feng-Han ( W i n d . the nasolabial groove is short. hence premature death. respiration is asthmatic and rapid. Yuan Qi = Jing) and perverse energy.” Those of Yi Shi are added to it: 76 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In this manner. provoking a confrontation between the essential energy (Source Energy. are due to poor observance of the rules of nutrition which permits the Empty-Perverse Energy and Pirate-Wind to penetrate deeply into the organism. facial shape (“rampart”. receiving in innate fashion a deficient a priori energy.: Interesting facts of Zhang Jing Yue includes: “Form and structure.Zhang Shi clarifies: “This paragraph explains the fact that in man. muscle weakness. but great will to improve is a posteriori (acquired). The phrases “The organs lack firmness. blood is lacking within the vessels the muscles are not firm.N. if the innate energy is weak and if he ignores the rules of nutrition with frequent attack by Feng-Han (Wind-Cold). moreover. etc. the acquired potential is found in our heart. the nostrils are dilated toward the exterior. In contrast. he takes care to avoid the Pirate-Wind and Empty-Perverse Energy. the blood shortage within the vessels. If the innate potential resides in the Blood/Energy of the parents. the individual will have a premature death without being able to attain old age.” gives all evidence of insufficiency of the a priori energy. II . blood and energy in individuals of middle and advanced age are of innate nature. Innate is a priori. Zang) is thinned down. thinness of the foundation of the “rampart” (facial contour). This is why the individual can only live to “middle age (Zhong Zo)” . he can hope to live a long time. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . the organs lose their firmness.

during the penetration of Shui-Gu (Water-Cereals) into the stomach. this innate component requires the help of the acquired component (food) to strengthen and consolidate itself. it receives the Jing of the other organs. As a result. The 5 organs receive then the dietary (alimentary) Jing. The kidney is the water-organ.“The innate element is the Jing (sexual) of the kidney. Because. After birth. 77 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . if one obeys the rules of Maintenance-Nutrition.” no 96/97. As for the food liquid. it follows its appropriate paths. the 5 flavors/sapors are released and each of them reach the corresponding organ. life will be prolonged. in the event of insufficiency of a priori energy.

Hence the title of the chapter. Ma Shi emphasizes: “The contents of Chapter 55 discourses on the contrary and favorable nature of the energy. the emptiness and fullness of the pulse. hence the title: “Contrary and Favorable (Yi Zuan)”. Huangdi questions Ba Gao: “I have heard: _ that Qi (energy) is endowed with contrary o r favorable n a t u r e _ that Mai (pulse) can be in e x c e s s or i n s u f f i c i e n c y _ and that acupuncture possesses its “ great rules”. the contrary and favorable circulation of the energy. The application of acupuncture is based on the three following situations: _ the disease cannot be treated by acupuncture _ the disease is not yet at the phase to be treated by acupuncture _ the disease is in the state to be treated by acupuncture. PARAGRAPH 1 98.” This chapter consists of 2 paragraphs.CHAPTER LV Contrary and Favorable (Yi Zuan) Chapter 55 of the Lingshu speaks: _ on the contrary and favorable of the circulation of the energy _ on the emptiness and fullness of the pulse _ and on the great rules of acupuncture. The essential object of Chapter 55 is to study the opportunity for the application of acupuncture as a function of the determination of the energetic state of the patient. Can you explain all this to me?” 78 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The quality of the knowledge of the mechanism of the evolution of the disease of the good and poor physician is also approached. The acupuncturist-physician must conform to the favorable therapeutic rules and avoid the contrary therapeutic rules.

The pulse is in excess or in insufficiency in order to determine the emptiness or fullness of the blood and energy. 26 (“Various Diseases”) and 67 (“Practice of Acupuncture”) of this classic: 79 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Zhang Shi explains: “The energetic diseases follow the movements of the blood and energy to carry out the movements of entering and exiting at the level of the pilocutaneous system and channel system. Acupuncture possesses its “ great rules” of determination of the indication and contra-indication during treatment of the disease. Zhang Jing Yue clarifies: 99.. “The pulse can be in insufficiency or in excess.Ba Gao replies: “The energy is endowed with contrary a n d favorable nature in order to respond to Yin and to Yang. to the sun and moon and to the movements of ascent/descent of Yin and Yang. as stated in Chapter 17 of this classic (“Measurement of the Vessels”) (1). When the movements of response are exact and harmonious. of the 4 Seasons and of the 5 Movements are intimately in accord. to Heaven and to Earth. Heaven and Earth and the 5 Movements.“Needling is possible” implies the presence of perverse energy at the level of the channels which one must disperse. “1 . “The energy is endowed with contrary or favorable natures” wishes to say that the energy located in the interior and at the exterior of the Jingmai circulate according to contrary and favorable movements in order to respond to the movements of ascent/descent of Yin and Yang.N. “The “great rules” of acupuncture” essentially consist of not needling when the disease has already passed.. they are contrary. 2 .“The pulse can be excessive or insufficient” wishes to say that the pulse appears without force or with force and allows determining the emptiness or fullness of blood and energy.” EXPLANATION AND COMMENTARIES I . and when they are incorrect. a . the phenomena of the natural world and the rules of modulation of Yin-Yang.” indicates that the blood and energy located in the interior and at the exterior of the Jingmai make excessive or insufficient movments of entering or exiting. it must be different.“Needling is not yet possible” means to say that in some circumstances. The “great rules” of needling consist of totally assimilating the pathologic process and comprehending the 3 types of disease for which: _ needling is indicated _ needling is temporarily contra-indicated _ needling is definitely contra-indictated.: The contrary and favorable circulations of human energy.N. The resistance and weakness of the pulse can reveal the state of emptiness and fullness of blood and energy. they are favorable. b . 3 . as is recommended in Chapters 9 (“Beginning and Ending”).V.Man responds to Heaven and Earth.“The great rules” of needling respect the following 3 principles: _ needling is possible _ needling is not yet possible _ needling is no longer possible. the excessive state of perverse energy and insufficient state of the essential (vital) energy.” II .

2. neglecting the emptiness in the interior. he needles at the instant when the perverse energy is in fullness at the exterior (of the patient’s body). needle individuals dripping with sweat. See Volume I of the Lingshu. he needles when the perverse energy is starting to decline. we must not disperse it for fear that the essential energy not be injured. He does not wait for the disease to carry out 80 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .” Huangdi: “And the it is stated in “Acupuntural Art”: needle individuals with heat in fullness.” It is also said: “The good worker only thinks about detection and treatment. Acupuncture is advised against. indications of needling?” Ba Gao: “The superior worker (good physician) needles when the disease is not yet declared. needle individuals whose pulse and disease are 100. N. nnedle individuals whose pulse is in upheaval. it is said: “When the perverse energy is in maximal fullness. he needles when the clinical signs are not yet in fullness. _ Do not hurry to join a battle judged serious. To practice in this manner is to obtain good results. but moxabustion is absolutely indicated.V. as is indicated in Chapter 8 of this classic (“Origin of the Mental”) (2). Edition. _ Do not _ Do not _ Do not _ Do not discordant. He treats the disease before it declares itself. The inferior worker (poor physician) needles at the time of attack of perverse energy (disease in phase of state). Similarly.N. he needles when the signs and pulse are in a discordant state.” PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “How can one determine the contra-indications of needling?” Ba Gao: “It is stated in “Military Art”: _ Do not go to meet an army starting to deploy its forces.“_ Do not needle individuals after sexual relations _ Do not needle individuals after fatigue _ Do not needle individuals after a meal _ Do not needle individuals when they are hungry _ Do not needle individuals after anger _ Do not needle individuals when they are afraid. it is advised against.” c .“Needling is not possible” indicates that in cases of significant weakness of blood and energy. We must only needle at the phase of decline of the perverse energy. 1. This is why.

one must not go to meet the enemy in full fire power to deliver battle.” All the aforementioned manifestations originate from the peverse energy in a state of fullness and the disease in a state of discordance with the pulse. “In the presence of the disordered pulse. Therefore.This paragraph completes the previous one and speaks about the contra-indications of needling and about the 2 categories of physicians.This Chapter 55 of the Lingshu and Chapter 35 of the Suwen (“Discourse on “Fever-Chills” Disease”) speak on the excessive fullness of the perverse energy. In this way.V. Clinicians must not ignore these ideas. sages treat before the disease declares itself and assure peace before problems manifest themselves. • Needling is advised against in the following conditions: _ the perverse energy in full rapid expansion _ the disease in full phase of fullness _ the discordance of pulse and signs. 2 . origin of very intense fever. one cannot determine the site of the disease.. In other words. to break it is death. It is advised not to hurry to needle due to the discordance between pulse and signs. In relation to “treating before the disease declares itself.N. The poor worker (bad physician) treats the disease starting to becoming weaker. _ “The pulse in upheaval” implies the disordered aspect of the pulse. For this reason. This is why needling is not indicated.: 102. the conclusion mentioned in Chapter 2 of the Suwen (“Harmonization of the Mental Energy by the Four Seasons”) is as follows: “To conform to the principle of Yin-Yang is life. _ “The serious battle” means the advantageous situation of the enemy. to emphasize the error. good and poor.detection and treatment.” Such is the meaning of the assertion above. to transgress it is to arouse problems. As a result. The inferior worker (poor physician) treats the disease once declared without signs of fullness. It is the same for phytotherapy. • The superior worker (good physician) treats the disease before it becomes manifest. Medicines must be prescribed and used before the attack of cold and heat because medicines used at the time of fullness of the perverse energy consolidate the cold if it concerns medicines aimed at refrigerating and consolidate the heat if it concerns medicines aimed at calorificating.N.”. although it is still in fullness. to follow it is to assure peace. it is necessary to wait for the moment of fatigue of the enemy to defeat him. to wait for the disease in order to apply medicines or to wait for problems in order to impose peace is like waiting for thirst in order to dig a well or like waiting for war in order to forge arms. Is it not already too late?” 81 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . To not obey it in opposing it is to provoke a separation between the individual and exterior phenomena.Ma Shi describes: “1 . physicians who apply acupuncture despite the contra-indications are very lame physicians. _ “Heat in fullness” implies an intense fever.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . _ “Dripping sweat” denotes hyperhydrosis.” II . According to Yang Shang Tian. hence the worsening of the disease. 101. despite contra-indications. _ “The energy rises up in dense scrolls” implies the fire power of the enemy. of continuing to needle..

To act in this manner is to look to render normal that which is abnormal. the energy of the liver is required to follow its normal evolution toward the heart (Liver-Wood creates Heart-Fire). One must immediately tonify the spleen for it has sufficient force to resist destruction due to the liver. is to subdue a rebellion to assure peace. CHAPTER LVI The Five Flavors (Wu Wei) 82 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This illness will spread to the spleen (LiverWood destroys Spleen-Earth).). 103. an ailment of the liver.One questioned Grand Master Zhang Zhong Jing (150-219 A. Under the title “Evolutive Diseases of the 3 Yin and 3 Yang” (N. how could one achieve curing them?” 3.N. As a result.D. If one waits until the five organs are disturbed.V. “Shang Han Lun (Evolutive Diseases of Cold)” (3) and “Jin Kui (Box of Gold)”: “What do you mean by “good physicians treat before the disease declares itself?” Here is the reply of the Master: “Take. author of two famous works. for example. Edition).

Ying (nutritive energy) and (defensive energy) begin to circulate. the heart sweet flavor. Based on the 5 Movements. the lung salty flavor.” This chapter consists of 5 paragraphs. Wei The cereal energy and food liquid being formed. PARAGRAPH 1 104. these food products play a primary pathophysiologic role in the life of the living being. hence the title. In this way. Ma Shi emphasizes: “The key object of Chapter 56 of the Lingshu is to show the correspondances of the “5 Flavors” and “5 Organs”.. first into the liver the heart the spleen the lung the kidney. site of reception of Shui Gu (Water-Cereals). first into toward their site of distribution. the The 5 organs and 6 bowels receive all cereal energy elaborated at the level of stomach. Therefore. Huangdi questions Ba Gao: “I would like to hear you on the problems of the cereal energies endowed with “5 flavors” saturating the 5 organs. How do you distinguish them?” Ba Gao replies: “The stomach is the “sea” of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. 83 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . “The 5 Flavors (Wu Wei)”. This chapter also addresses: _ _ _ _ the 5 types of cereals (grains) the 5 types of vegetables the 5 types of fruits the 5 types of meats. during the metabolism of Shui-Gu (WaterCereals: foods) at the level of the stomach: _ _ _ _ _ the the the the the sour flavor reaches the liver bitter flavor. the kidney.Chapter 56 of the Lingshu speaks on the elective affinities which unite the “Five Flavors (Wu Wei)” with the Five Organs (Wu Zang). first into _ the s p i c y flavor. the spleen spicy flavor. . first into _ the s a l t y flavor.. first into _ the s w e e t flavor. T h e “ 5 flavors” all flow out _ the s o u r flavor infiltrates _ the biiter flavor.

At the level of the intestines. that is to say. developed in different chapters of the Suwen and Lingshu (1).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . and on the other hand.. As for the wastes.The Zhongjiao (Middle Jiao-MJ)) governs the digestive system (Spleen-Stomach) and controls the production of cereal energy which. The Zhongjiao (MJ) emits numerous vessels traveling along the digestive tract. toward the kidney and bladder. This energy then is composed of: _ terrestrial energy (cereals: diet) _ celestial energy (air: respiration). . the flavors are divided into 5 types with characteristic affinities with an organ. the production of organic liquid and the maintenance of mental equilibrium (Shen) has been.very After food metabolism.” II . 2 . under the action of Tong Qi (a priori energy or ancestral energy) (2).Zhang Shi explains: “According to Ren Gu Yin. The liquid thus obtained is brought. this chapter speaks on the 5 organs/6 bowels.N. is forced to circulate only within the Jingluo (principal and secondary channels). 1.N. and during the circulation of the cereal energy and food liquid. nutritive energy). under the action of the Xiajiao (Lower Jiao).V. Editions. many a time. See N. 84 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .The Shangjiao (Upper Jiao-UJ) governs the cardiopulmonary system and controls the diurnal. the formation of blood and energy. Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) all originating from the energy of the stomach.N. Once in the stomach.: The role of the Sanjiao (SJ) in food metabolism. they purify the wastes coming from the stomach before expelling them via the anal route on the one hand. they are expelled toward the intestines where they undergo a new purification.. they decant the food liquid obtained during purification before conducting it to the kidney and liver. Recall that: 105. under the action of the Foot Taiyin (Sp).. the Xin-Ye (organic liquid). is brought to the lung (Shu Taiyin) to form the energy called Ying (Rong. originating from Shui Gu (Water-Cereals: foods). circadian circulation of Ying energy which. metabolized liquid becomes distributed according to its appropriate routes.V. wastes are evacuated toward the bottom following a specific order. Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) communicate.. 1 .. 106.

and on the other hand. It is the last relay of energetic transformation. It also emits numerous vessels traveling along the “organs-bowels” systems. 3 . 2. This is why the Suwen states: “The bladder is like a frontier post where food liquid gathers. the Xiajiao (LJ) controls the formation of bile.The Xiajiao (Lower Jiao-LJ) governs the hepato-renal system. In conclusion. Wei energy also possesses the power to give heat back to the entire organism. the Sanjiao (SJ) possesses its own channel controlling the external barrier which is the skin. This bile. These vessels follow the routes of the 5 Movements: Kidney--> Liver--> Heart--> Spleen--> Lung--> Kidney As a result. under the action of the Xiajiao (LJ). the purified water passes to the gallbladder and the impure water is rejected to the exterior via the urethral route in the form of urine. it is equipped with numerous vessels controlling not only all organic activities. spontaneously passes into the gaseous state equipped with a defensive power against all intrusions. Xue (blood) and Xin-Ye (organic liquid). a viscous substance composed of impure liquid of green color coming from the liver (after purification) and pure liquid coming from the bladder. The kidney is therefore the “source organ of the organs” (3). It is therefore formed from food liquid which. under the action of the Xiajiao (LJ). to activate the peristaltic movements of the intestines. Jing (quintessence). pours out into the doudenum by the route of the bile duct to aerate and moisten the intestinal air on the one hand. all activities of the 5 organs and 6 bowels are dependent. but also the formation of Qi (energy) (4). the Xiajiao (LJ) controls the production of Wei (defensive) energy. It circulates outside the channels following the cycle called “Day/Night”. Shen (mental). 85 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . after numerous phases of decantation. At the level of the bladder. Also called “active” energy or “thoracic” energy. _ at the exterior.” At the level of the gallbladder.Figure 1: The 5 flavors and their distribution at the level of the 5 organs. At the level of the liver. _ and in the interior.

3.T. no energetic systems.C. if not. therefore no life. the practice of medicine is found at a dead end.This is why our old masters stated: “Without Sanjiao (SJ). In medicine. the word “breaths” still used by some acupuncturists must be permanently erased from the medical vocabulary of M. the word Qi designates Ying energy and Wei energy.” (Figure 2). To delve deeply into the Sanjiao is to be able to treat diseases. As a result. 107. 4. The kidney does not have a sign of fullness. 86 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

As for Dai Qi (Great Energy: also called Tong Qi = innate or active energy). then secondly at the level of the other 2 Jiao: Shangjiao (Upper Jiao: UJ) and Xiajiao (Lower Jiao: LJ) to saturate the 5 organs. outside the channels. has for exit (at the end of expiration) the number 3 and for entry (at the end of inspiration) the number 1. This great energy leaves from the lung. the cereals release their Jing (quintessence). This is why the absence of entry of cereal energy (into the stomach) in a half day causes weakening of the energy (of the body). within the channels _ and the W e i path. runs along the laryngo-pharyngeal system and controls the respiratory movements: _ expiratory movements causing the exit of the energy _ and inspiratory movements causing the entry of the energy. quintessence) of Heaven and Earth obeying the customary rules (of the natural world). first at the level of the Zhongjiao (Middle Jiao: MJ).Figure 2: Activities of the Sanjiao (SJ). that is to say. “Once in the stomach. an insufficiency of the energy (of the body). it accumulates within the thorax without recurring at the place bearing the name Qihai (Sea of Energy) ( 5 ) . and in 1 day. that is to say.” 87 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This quintessence (Jing) circulates following 2 paths: _ t h e Ying path. PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “How do the Ying circulate?” (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) Ba Gao: 108. Jing Qi (pure energy.

As a result. after Ma Shi and Zhang Jing Yue: “During expiration. the celestial energy (air) interiorizes in 1 part”. This pure substance is conducted by the spleen to the lung which transforms it into Ying Qi (nutritive energy) to maintain the 5 organs/6 bowels. the cereal energy becomes exteriorized 3 times more than the celestiial energy (air) during inspiration. at the point Tanzhong (CV 17). is intended to control the respiratory movments: _ expiration exteriorizes the food/dietary energy (terrestrial) 109. and during inspiration. it designates the 3 phases of digestive transformation: _ into wastes which are expelled to the exterior _ into liquid substance based on the formation of Ying and Wei energies _ into energetic substances which maintain the Tong Qi (a priori energy) which has the ability to control the circulatory movements. Shui Gu is transformed into pure substance (Jing) by the Zhongjiao (Middle Jiao).V. In this way. Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) which maintain the Dai Qi (Great Energy or Tong Qi: a priori energy. 6.N. the alimentary/dietary Jing is found in a state of insufficiency. also called Shang Qi Hai (“Upper Sea of Energy”). at expiration. This is why Zui Tai states: “Without eating 2 times per day. Penetration of the 5 Sapors into the stomach is designated by the number 1.EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . in one half day. the cereal energy exteriorizes in 3 parts. that is to say. without absorption of nutrients. The stomach receives the Shui Gu (Water-Cereals). active. Here it concerns Tanzhong (CV 17) bearing the name Shang Qihai (upper Qi Hai). N. _ inspiration interiorizes the celestial energy (air). See Chapter 33(“Study of the 4 Seas”) of this classic. it gathers at the Shangjiao (UJ). • Numerous phases of decantation of dietary liquid take place at the level of the Xiajiao (Lower Jiao: pylorus and duodenum) and intestines. Volume II. and in one day without cereals. This energy. innate energy). _ and on the amount of energy of exit (cereal energy during expiration) and energy of reentry (“air” energy during inspiration) which the organism needs. defend the organism. As for the number 3. And according to Zhang Shi: “Man is maintained by the 5 energies of Heaven and by the 5 Sapors of Earth. the alimentary/dietary Jing grows weak. conducted by the lung toward the laryngo-pharyngeal and olfactory systems. The pure liquid is directed by the Xiajiao (LJ) toward the kidney and liver where it is transformed into into Wei Qi whose main action is to 5. • After calculation.Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks: _ on the transformation of the cereals into Dietary Jing (flavor/sapor) (6).V.” The explantion of Zhang Shi appears to us to be the clearest.N. number of entry of the cereals. 88 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Such is the meaning of this assertion. at the place called Qihai (“Sea of Energy”).N. As for the Dai Qi (Great Energy: a priori energy).” II . man has hunger”. This need of cereals is periodic. Edition.: Anaysis of the number 3 of exit (at the end of expiration) and the number 1 of entry (at the end of inspiration) varies slightly according to the commentators. Sapor/Flavor elaborated at the level of the stomach.

PARAGRAPH 3 Huangdi: “Would you explain the “5 Flavors” of the cereal to me?” Ba Gao: “Allow me to explain their details to you: 1. ( 7 ) of sweet flavor 110. 89 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . of spicy flavor 3. of salty flavor _ lamb. of bitter flavor _ peach. of sour flavor _ p i g . of sour flavor _ c h e s t n u t . of sweet flavor _ dog. of salty flavor _ w h e a t . of bitter flavor _ sticky rice. of spicy flavor 4. of sweet flavor _ p l u m . The 5 Fruits are: _ jujube. of spicy flavor 2. The 5 Grains are: _ ordinary rice. of salty flavor _ apricot. of bitter flavor _ chicken. of sour flavor _ black bean. The 5 Vegetables are _ baselle. of sweet flavor _ sesame. The 5 Animals a r e : _ beef.

90 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Climbing plant (“salsolacee” in French) used as a vegetable in tropical regions. 2 . spicy flavor is recommended 7.In disease of the l i v e r . 3 . it is advised to eat: _ ordinary rice _ beef _ jujube _ baselle which are all of sweet flavor. of sour flavor _ green bean._ chive leaf. “5 • The association of the 5 Colors and 5 Adaptations”. of bitter flavor _ o n i o n . 4 . particularly in China and Vietnam.In the disease of the spleen. it is advised to eat: _ sesame _ dog _ plum _ chive leaf which are all of sour flavor. of spicy flavor • _ _ _ _ _ Among the 5 Colors. salty flavor is recommended when the color is r e d . In this manner. s w e e t flavor is recommended when the color is g r e e n . Translator’s note: also called “Malabar spinach” whose mucilaginous leaves are very fleshy. when the color is y e l l o w . b i t t e r flavor is recommended when the color is white. it is advised to eat: _ wheat _ lamb _ apricot _ Chinese chive (shallot) which are all of bitter flavor. 111. it is advised to eat: _ soy bean sprouts (soy) _ pork _ chestnut _ bean leaves which are all of salty flavor. s o u r flavor is recommended when the color is black. of salty flavor _ Chinese chive (shallot).In disease of the k i d n e y .In disease of the h e a r t . Flavors/Sapors has the name 1.

in diseases of the kidney.Zhang Shi explains: “According to Yu Ba Ying: The 5 grains serve to maintain The 5 fruits serve to aid The 5 animals serve to tonify The 5 vegetables serve to consolidate. it is advised to use the bitter flavor. in diseases of the liver. in diseases of the heart. particularly about dietary products. and at the exterior. the spicy flavor directly reaches the lung. it is advised to use the sweet flavor. _ The lung responds to Metal. it is advised to use the sour flavor. it is advised to prescribe flavors (foods) which are suitable to them. _ The liver responds to Wood. As a result. the dietary liquid circulates following its own appropriate paths. the 5 flavors/sapors associated with the 5 colors each have their site of appropriate adaptation. _ The spleen responds to Earth. bean leaves _ Jia. the 5 organs associate with the 5 Movements. are not in agreement with the spirit of the text because. In the interior.Previous translations of this paragraph into Western language.V. it is advised to use the spicy flavor. the salty flavor directly reaches the kidney. As a result.: 1 . This paragraph has the same meaning as that of the “5 Renions” cited in Chapter 10 (“Production and 91 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . sticky rice _ Hua. that is to say. the bitter flavor directly reaches the heart. in diseases of the lung. the sweet flavor directly reaches the spleen. it is advised to eat: _ sticky rice _ chicken _ peach _ onion which are all of spicy flavor. chive leaf.Zhang Jing Yue furnishes other clarifications: “This paragraph speaks on the adaptations of the 5 Sapors/Flavors to the 5 organs. it is advise to use the salty flavor. As a result. the sour flavor directly reaches the liver. During this time. This is why. _ The kidney responds to Water.5 . When the 5 sapors/flavors are released at the level of the stomach.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . _ Ken Mei deignates ordinary rice _ Huang Shu.” II . As a result. _ The heart responds to Fire. As a result. each of them direcly reaches its site of affinity.N. in the event of disturbances of the organs. The energy and sapor therefore are utilized as nutritive substances intended to support and sustain the Jing and conserve Qi. in diseases of the spleen. 2 . The 5 sapors/flavors and dietary liquid maintain the 5 organs.In disease of the lung. they respond to the 5 colors. As a result.N. the corresponding organ.

the 5 Energies (9) and 5 Flavors each have an appropriate action of stimulation and inhibition.N. it is expressly prohibited to use flavors of inhibitory or dispersing action.N.N. N.V. Edition. 92 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .” 8.Zhang Shi explains: “According to Yu Shi.Transformation of the 5 Organs”) and the “5 Penetrations” cited in Chapter 23 (“Discourse on the Five Energies”) of the Suwen (8) because the 5 flavors/sapors are used to treat diseases of the corresponding organs. This is why.: We present below a diagram of the flavors/sapors of inhibitory and stimulating action. Volume II.” II . See Suwen. PARAGRAPH 4 “The “5 _ _ _ _ _ 113.V. of tonification and dispersion. EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . in diseases of the 5 organs. prohibitions” are: spicy flavor is prohibited in diseases of the liver s a l t y flavor is prohibited in diseases of the heart s o u r flavor is prohibited in diseases of the spleen sweet flavor is prohibited in diseases of the kidney bitter flavor is prohibited in diseases of the lung.

It is advised to eat: • ordinary rice • beef • jujube • baselle which are all of s w e e t flavor. In diseases of the kidney. _ salty responding to Water can inhibit Heart-Fire. 9. sweet foods are therefore prohibited.Figure 3: Inhibitory and stimulating action of the 5 flavors/sapors. 114. In diseases of the heart. Here. _ The heart responds to the color red. spicy foods are therefore prohibited. _ sweet responding to Earth can inhibit Kidney-Water. sour foods are therefore prohibited. It is advised to eat: • sesame • dog • plum • chive leaf which are all of sour f l a v o r . Therefore. In diseases of the liver. following the laws of the 5 Movements: _ spicy belonging to Metal can inhibit Liver-Wood. the “5 Energies” designate: _ energy of the heart _ energy of the lung _ energy of the liver _ energy of the spleen _ energy of the kidney The notion of the “5 Prohibitions” is also found in Chapter 23 of the Suwen (“Discourse on the Five Energies”). bitter foods are therefore prohibited. _ bitter corresponding to Fire can inhibit Lung-Metal. 93 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In diseases of the spleen. In diseases of the lung. salty foods are therefore prohibited. _ sour corresponding to Wood can inhibit Spleen-Earth. PARAGRAPH 5 “_ The liver responds to the color green.

jujube. one notices that they serve to aerate the system of the 5 organs. It is relaxed. It is advised to eat: • sticky rice • chicken • peach • onion which are all of spicy f l a v o r . It is advised to eat foods of sweet flavor: ordinary rice. One must hasten to eat foods of bitter flavor._ The spleen responds to the color yellow.. What does that mean? 2 .”. in relation to the spleen. One must hasten to release it and rebalance it by a diet of bitter flavor. • In the end. This is why one serves the salty flavor of supple and fine nature in order to “open the door”. contracted).. beef. in order to dry it.. One must hasten to moisten it by a diet of spicy flavor. baselle. One must eat foods of salty flavor.In Chapter 22 of the Suwen (“Energy of the Organs and the Laws of the 4 Seasons”) we read: _ The liver suffers from excess (too tense. It is advised to eat: • wheat • lamb • apricot • Chinese chive (shallot) which are all of b i t t e r flavor. _ The spleen suffers from humidity.” 116.”. the indicated foods differ in relation to those of the other organs. it is said: “The liver responds to the color green. It is advised to eat: • soy • pork • chestnut • bean leaves which are all of s a l t y flavor. It is also said: “The spleen detests humidity... “This paragraph speaks on the flavors indicated in the case of “suffering” of the 5 organs. The kidney is the “door” of the stomach and the stomach is connected to the spleen. One must hasten to tighten it by a diet of sour flavor. _ The kidney responds to the color black.”. This is why. ” EXPLANATION AND COMMENTARIES I . _ The lung suffers from the ascent of the energy (--> blockage). One must hasten to relax it by a diet of sweet flavor.Ma Shi explains: 115.Qie Xuan Shi clarifies: In analyzing the recommended foods. _ The heart suffers from a slowing down. the energy of the stomach frees itself which permits activation of food metabolism. 94 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ The lung responds to the color white. One must hasten to dry it by a diet of salty flavor. Then it is also said: “The spleen responds to the color yellow. _ The kidney suffers from dryness. Once the door opens. 1 ..

Chinese dietetics. is based on the formation of Dietary Jing (cereal quintessence) bearing the name “flavor/sapor”. diseases of the kidney and spleen diseases of the heart 95 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . diseases of the spleen and liver diseases of the kidney Spicy sticky rice peach chicken onion lung white color. We present below a table of penetration of the 5 Flavors/Sapors.: In conclusion.V. diseases of and heart and lung diseases of the lung Sweet common rice jujube beef baselle spleen yellow color.N. diseases of diseases of the liver and the spleen heart Bitter wheat apricot lamb Chinese chive heart red color.II . diseases of the lung and kidney diseases of the liver Salty black bean chestnut pork soy kidney black color. 5 Sapors 5 Grains 5 Fruits 5 Animals 5 Vegetables Site of Penetration Indications ContraIndications Sour sesame plum dog shallot liver green color. simple and clear. and this Dietary Jing is under the action of the Sanjiao (SJ) and the 5 Movements.N.

CHAPTER LVII Hydropsy (Shui Zhang) Chapter 57 of the Lingshu speaks on the etiology. 96 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .. among which Shui Zhang (hydropsy) is taken as the title of this chapter. symptomatology and different methods of diagnosing such illnesses as: _ _ _ _ _ Shui Zhang (hydropsy) Fu Zhang (anasarca) Gu Zhang (tympanism) Zhang Tan (polyps) Shu Jia (fibroma)..117.

Zhang Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on the liquid overflowing of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) toward the skin to trigger the syndrome Shui Zhang. This is why the stomach molds the upthrusting movement of the hand. arrives at the cranial vault and passes to the nucha where it carries out movements of descent.This chapter consists of 6 paragraphs. Such are the signs of manifestation of Shui Zhang (hydropsy). In other words. Qi Bo replies: “At the starting phase of the disease of Shui Zhang (hydropsy) the clinical signs are: _ slightly swollen lower eyelid as when waking up _ pulse of the neck (carotid) agitated _ sometimes. “Lower eyelids slightly swollen” denotes that the liquid substance follows the route of the channels 97 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Progressive swelling of the abdomen indicates the formation of Shui Zhang (hydropsy). without retaining the impression of the pressure as if it contained a water pocket. PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi questions Qi Bo: “How can one differentiate _ Shui Zhang ( h y d r o p s y ) _ Fu Zhang ( a n a s a r c a ) _ Gu Zhang ( t y m p a n i s m ) _ Zhang Tan ( p o l y p s ) _ Shi Jia ( f i b r o m a ) _ and Shi Shui ( h y d r o n e p h r o s i s ) ? ” 118. The Foot Taiyang (Bl) starts at the internal canthus of the eye. . cough _ cold at the inner thigh _ edematous feet and legs. this overflowing of water is due to the insufficiency of the energy of the Taiyang (Bl) not being able to retain the liquid component.. reaches the forehead. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I ..

” III .” In Chapter 36 of the Lingshu (“Distinction of the 5 Types of Liquid Retention”). we read..: According to Chapter 7 of the Suwen (“Special Study on Yin and Yang”): “The union of the 3 Yin is called Water”. and during cough the agitation is in the interior (abdomen) which causes Cold-Water toward the bottom. “Cold at the inner thigh and legs” is the consequence of an insufficiency of the energy of the Taiyang (Bl) which provokes an accumulation of Water-Cold toward the bottom.N. If the accumulation (at the bottom) is too abundant. Yin of the spleen and lung which are attacked by Cold.V. “Abdominal swelling” indicates the overflowing of water toward the top provoking respiratory problems. Xin Ye (organic liquid) coming from the Wu Gu (5 cereals) can be transformed into fatty substance (Gao) which. “Agitated pulse of the neck (carotid pulse)” results in a perturbation due to the reascent of water at the level of the vessel (artery).) furnishes the following clarifications: “Here. recalling the subject of the metabolism of organic liquid and hydropsy: “.Ma Shi states: “Shui Zhang originates from the insufficiency of the “Humidity” energy of Spleen-Earth not being able to inhibit water. Cold-Water accumulates within the stomach and intestines. During this time.N. from the exterior. II . “The skin does not retain the impression of the fingers” because the water rises up and follows the movement of the fingers. hence sensation of cold at the inner thigh and edema of the legs and feet.”. Ye and marrow becomes reduced and accumulate at the bottom. This is why the Renying (carotid) pulse is agitated..overflowing the upper part. Wang Bing (762 A. then it flows out toward the bottom into the internal part of the thigh. When Cold accumulates within these channels. The disequilibrium of Yin and Yang provokes the overflowing of Ye (viscous liquid) which flows out toward the Yin orifices. “Cough” is due to an attack of the lung by the “water” energy. Such are the manifestations of the syndrome Shui Zhang (hydropsy). PARAGRAPH 2 98 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . permeates the bony cavitites and maintains the marrow and brain. The absence of the impression of the hand after pressing is the sign revealing the presence of water within the belly (ascites).” 119. it produces phenomena of emptiness (at the level of the marrow) indicated by lumbo-dorsalgia and ostealgia of the lower limbs.D. 3 Yin designates 2 channels... _ the energetic routes of Yin and Yang are obstructed and the 4 “Seas” are blocked _ the Sanjiao (SJ) no longer insures the function of “release” (deobstruction) _ the Xin-Ye are no longer metabolised _ the cereal liquid accumulates within the stomach and intestines and food wastes do not arrive at the large intestine _ the liquid retained within the Xiajiao (LJ) no longer saturates the bladder and provokes a syndrome known as “Retention of Xiajiao (LJ)” and its overflowing causes the syndrome of retention of water (hydropsy). it transforms into Water.

N. while in this paragraph it concerns an energetic retention.D. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I .The “cold” energy lodged in the skin prevents the Yang energy from circulating. the previous one spoke on the absence of pitting in hydropsy (of liquid origin). The detailed study of these illnesses is clarified in the Jin Qiu (Box of Gold) of Zhang Zhong Jing of the Han Dynasty of the East (150-219 A. One must look for their origin (energetic or liquid) in order to study: _ the thickness of the skin 121.) confirms the importance of Chinese energetic medicine.N. b .” II . hence “the impression of the fingers” (sign of pitting).Ma Shi explains: “Cold is the energy of water. The explanation of Zhang Jing Yue (1563-1640 A. energy is immaterial. The disease is located within the energetic part. _ it is soft and emits a buzzing sound in the interior _ the belly is bloated _ the entire body is swollen _ the thickened skin retains the impression of the fingers _ the color of the skin is not changed.Huangdi: “How does Fu Zhang (anasarca) m a n i f e s t ? ” Qi Bo: 120. during percussion. It is an energy (immaterial substance) remaining within the cutaneous spaces causing the syndrome of swelling-emptiness. In the previous paragraph. hence production of a “buzzing sound” evoking the image of a drum roll. “ Fu Zhang (anasarca) is due to the fixation of “Cold” energy within the subcutaneous spaces. water (material substance) infiltrated into the skin which does not retain the impression of the fingers. “The skin is thickened” because the perverse energy is found restrained there. the impresion of the fingers is retained and the color of the skin of the abdomen is not changed. Therefore. Here the “cold” energy is fixed within the skin and Spleen-Earth is not damaged. It is a matter of an energetic retention. one perceives. With pressure of the fingers. 99 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ the presence or absence of the impression of the fingers _ the change or not of abdominal color. The energy travels up and down the entire body. This is why the belly is swollen and the entire body is edematous (anasarca). hence “abdominal swelling and anasarca with thickened skin”. As a result of the immaterial nature of the energy. To the touch. “it does not linger to the touch”.Anasarca and hydropsy are not diagnosed in the same way. Such are the manifestations of Fu Zhang (anasarca). The differential diagnosis of anasarca and hydropsy established by Zhang Jing Yue is the following: “a .V. the energy spreads out toward the sides.D. By its nature.)“.: This paragraph explains the presence of the sign of “pitting” in anasarca (of energetic origin). a buzzing sound without the quality of hardness.

Chinese medicine must be considered not as an “alternative medicine” or a parallel medicine in reference to medicine called scientific. Which is this disease? Qi Bo replies: This disease is called Gu Zhang (tympanism).: 1 .” II . the skin of the abdomen is tense like that of the drum.” 100 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 2 .In Chapter 40 of the same classic (“Study on Abdomen-Center”). but as a medicine based totally on the ultramodern notion: “matter and energy” (two inseparable notions). But the skin of the abdomen is greyish-yellow with the appearance of collateral circulation around the umbilicus. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I .” 3 .In the Dictionary of Oriental Medicine we read: “In the presence of Gu Zhang (tympanism). This means to say that it is due to a retention/accumulation of cold. the interior is empty and the impression of the fingers is absent to pressure. Qi Bo states: “Boborygmi and tympanism belongs to the heat whose potential is in a state of pronounced dimunition. PARAGRAPH 3 Huangdi: “How does Gu Qi Bo: Zhang (tympanism) manifest?” “The body and belly are swollen as in Fu Zhang (anasarca). The abundance of retention/accumulation of “cold” energy in the “Water” organ (Kidney) causes a pronounced dimunition of the potential of “Fire” (Heart) and “Earth” (Spleen) energy.V.Zhang Shi explains: “Gu Zhang is due to a massive infiltration of “cold” energy within the empty spaces of the organism.In Chapter 74 of the Suwen (“Great Study on the True Basic Notions”). “The entire body is swollen” because the spleen governs the “flesh” (dermis) system. Huangdi questions Qi Bo: “There exists a type of abdominal swelling which permits the individual to have lunch but not dinner.N.” 122. Such is the manifestation of Gu Zhang (tympanism) .N. “Grayish yellow color with collateral circulation at the level of the abdomen” denotes the defeat of Spleen (Earth) with invasion of “Wood” (Liver) energy.

Following this confrontation.. it is hard to palpation and displaces with pressure. At the start.Zhang Shi explains: Tan (polyps). Zhang Jing Yue gives us the definition of Zhang Tan and Xi Rou: “The word Tan implies the sense of opening widely and deeply.PARAGRAPH 4 Huangdi: “How does Zhang Qi Bo: Tan (polyp) manifest?” “The “Cold” energy retained at the exterior of the intestines goes into battle against the Wei (defensive) energy.V. In the long run. In the chronic state..: 123. This accidental union causes the production of toxic energy which adheres to the intestinal serosa creating Xi Rou (excresence/outgrowth of flesh).N. implanted by a pedicle: “polyp”) ( 1 ) . during the night. at the level of the serous membranes. The confrontation of perverse cold and Wei (defensive) energy within the abdominal cavity at the exterior of the intestinal serosa is indicated by an energetic mass which transforms rapidly into Xi Rou (fibrous or 101 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it does not affect menstruation. the rules are consistent. the Wei gathers and stagnates. When the perverse cold remains within the abdominal cavity.” II . Wei stops circulating and brings with it blood stasis. Because. Xi Rou is the size of an egg.. Such are the symptoms of Zhang EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . the Wei (defensive) energy passes to the serous membranes of the organs and bowels and accomplishes 25 turns in the areas of the Yin channels. hence the production of toxic energy and formation of Xi Rou (intestinal or mucous or fibrous uterine excresences or outgrowths. Because it does have any relationship with the organs or bowels. then it progressively develops as if the woman was pregnant. it clashes with the Wei energy. Zhang Tan detaches from the serosa of the bowel like a suspended fetus.N. at the level of the serous membranes/ serosa (intestinal). ” “This paragraph speaks on the formation of Zhang Tan (polyp) due to the presence of “cold” energy localizing at the exterior of the intestines.

N.N. Because the formation of Shi Jia is intra-uterine.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I .” 124. Zhang Tan simply originates from a fusion of toxic energy released during the confrontation of Wei (defensive) and cold perverse energies.Ma Shi describes: “Shi Jia (fibrous mass. As a result. hence obstruction of the uterus preventing its energy from communicating with the exterior.. Thick blood cannot be evacuated. the rules are inconsistent. . Fibrous or mucous polyp without disturbance of the cycle. This illness only takes place in women. One can use the method expulsion of blood to evacuate it. The term Xi Rou also indicates a mass of flesh permeated by thick and stagnant blood. hard as stone: “ fibroma”) Qi Bo: manifest?” “ Shi Jia manifests within the uterus.” 1.” PARAGRAPH 6 Huangdi: “Can one needle in the event of Fu (tympanism)? ” Zhang (anasarca) and Gu Zhang 102 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .. hard like stone: fibroma) forms in the interior of the uterus because of the fixation of “cold” energy at the door of the uterus (uterine neck). We can use medicines called “Conduction of Blood” to evacuate it toward the bottom. II . PARAGRAPH 5 Huangdi: “How does Shi Jia (fibrous mass.: Zhang Jing Yue emphasizes: “When the “fetal door” (uterine neck) is obstructed by perverse cold. The blood mass retained within the uterus progressively increases in volume like a pregnant woman. “Cold” perverse energy remains at “the door” of the uterus (uterine neck). hence the name Shi Jia.mucous excresence: polyp) which develops progressively to the chronic state. preventing the energy from communicating with the exterior. It is not then a matter a blood disease. it does not affect menstruation. The rules then are variable. thick blood cannot be evacuated and becomes a stone-hard mass. The viscous blood and uterine energy retained within the uterus transforms into a blood-energy mass which progressively develops like a fetus in a pregnant woman.V. the cold perverse is located at the exterior of the stomach and intestines and does not infiltrate into the uterus. Here. with disturbance of menstruation.

Zhang Shi explains: “Fu Zhang (anasarca) is caused by the presence of perverse cold at the external part of the body. the Xue Luo are hard. “This paragraph explains the method of examination of blood stases at the level of the Jingluo (principal and secondary channels) whose ideal therapeutic technique is dispersion which consists of inclining the needle to perform movements called “in opposition”. sometimes they are as large as chopsticks. This is why: _ first. Huangdi also questioned Qi Bo about the formation of Shi Shui (hydronephrosis) (3).. polyp and fibroma) cited in the text of this chapter. To do the opposite is to provoke the above-noted signs. however. make the Xue Luo bleed to evacuate the viscous blood. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . Note. spurting out of the blood. are the precursor signs of numerous illnesses. a . swelling.V. sometimes they are as fine as needles. The key point is to evacuate the thick blood at the level of the Xue Luo. This technique is in agreement with the “numbered” technique cited in the text. • We present below a summary table of etiology.In Chapter 7 of the Suwen. In contrast. tympanism.N. red in color and arranged by length and width.” II . His reply is found in Chapter 7 of the Suwen (“Special Study on Yin and Yang”) and in Chapter 4 of the Lingshu (“Pathologic Forms of Attack of the Organs and Bowels by Perverse Energy”). while Gu Zhang (tympanism) is caused by perverse cold within the internal psrt of the body.N. according to the technique known as “in opposition”: 125.Qi Bo: “Utilize needles first to disperse the places where the Xuo Luo (blood c a p i l l a r i e s ) appear.. at the top or at the bottom. in particular at the level of the Sun Luo (energetic capillaries). disperse the Xuo Luo _ second.” Blood stases at the level of the Jingluo (principal and secondary channels). symptomatology and diagnosis of the 5 diseases (hydropsy.: Blood stasis at the level of the Sun Luo (secondary vessels) are also studied in Chapter 39 of this classic (“Study on Stasis at the Level of the Blood Luo”) (2): “In fullness. then balance the Jingmai (principal channels). we read: “The concentration of perverse energy simultaneously in Yin and in Yang provokes Shi Shui (Stone-Water: hydronephrosis). without fixed localization.” The explanation of Zhang Shi is the following: 103 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . balance the Jingmai _ and last. Ma Shi emphasizes the method of dispersion of the Luo. that in this Chapter 57 of the Lingshu. very common in clinic. the opposite technique can cause unfavorable signs like fainting. anasarca.“. It is necessary to disperse according to the rules and not make a mistake of “number” of the needling of the Luo.

N. hence ascites with hard belly. exterior is Yang.“In relation to the human body. then from the intestines toward the kidneys via its “internal duct” (internal trajectory). The Lower Jiao leads the dietary liquid toward the intestines. Cf.. Lingshu. (Figure 1) When the doors (kidneys) are “closed”. “Shui” = water. “Shi” = stone.V. it is of “Kidney-Water” origin. hence inability to have erection. ascites. When it ascends to the stomach. 104 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . These illnesses have the tendency to lean even more to the Yin side than to the Yang side. This disease starts at the sub-umbilical region and reaches the lower abdomen. this is because they present more Yin signs than Yang signs. it is the sign of Shi Shui (hydronephrosis). 3. When is reaches the top. . kidneys are Yin. that is to say. 257.Chapter 4 of the Lingshu (4) also describes the pulse concerning Shi Shui: “. nephrolithiasis. stomach is Yang. Volume II. English translation by ESG. communicates with the kidneys via the intermediary of the Lower Jiao (Xiajiao). it constitutes what one calls “phenomenon of overflowing of Water (Kidney) with defeat of Earth (Spleen).The very changing (Da) pulse of the kidney is the signs of Yin Wei (sexual impotence).. hence hydronephrosis. p.” b .N.” 126. It encompasses the group of diseases of renal origin such as: hydronephrosis. interior is Yin. water accumulates within the peritoneal space located between the kidneys and stomach. Barely changing. We read in the Neijing that the kidneys are the “doors” of the stomach because the stomach 2. or else it accumulates within the kidneys. Here is the explanation of Zhang Shi: “Yin Wei (sexual impotence) is an ailment characterized by a deadening of Yin.. As for Shi Shui (hydronephrosis). the stomach. Literally. Edition.. it is death”.

Ma Shi adds: “The changing (Da) pulse is a pathologic pulse of the heart. This disease is fatal. it is the sign revealing the excess of Fire and shortage of Water. This state is the origin of Shi Shui (hydronephrosis). it affects the epigastrium. it is the sign of the presence of Shi Shui (hydronephrosis). Below.” 127.Figure 1: Energy of the Lower Jiao (Xiajiao) and the kidneys. Barely changing. Also Chapter 7 of the Suwen states: “Yin and Yang become concentrated because there is a plethora of Yin and deficiency of Yang. and above. this affliction reaches the hypogastrium giving it a ptotic appearance. responsible for Yin Wei (sexual impotence). 105 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . If the pulse of the kidney is very changing.

_ progressive increase of fibromatous mass as in a pregnant woman Intra-uterine formation. 106 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . influencing menstruation (absence of rules) no 128/129.Diseases Etiology Symptomatology Starting phase: _ palpebral edema _ agitated carotid pulse _ cold at the inner thigh _ swollen legs and feet then abdomnal swelling Diagnosis _ Absence of pitting (Water follows the movement of the fingers during pressure) Shui Zhang (Hydropsy) According to Ma and Zhang: _ overflowing or water due to insufficiency of energy “cold” of Taiyang (Bl) “humidity” of Taiyin (Sp) Fu Zhang (Anasarca) _ Fixation of perverse “cold” energy within the cutaneous spaces _ generalized edema _ big abdomen _ thickened skin _ absence of change of the color of the skin • to the touch: _ soft _ buzzing sound _ Presnce of pitting (The energy does not follow the movements of the fingers) Gu Zhang (Tympanism) Acording to Zhang Shi: _ massive infiltration of “cold” perverse within the empty spaces of the organism (abdomen) “Cold” perverse energy retained within the abdominal cavity. at the exterior of the intestines: _ Energetic and blood stasis (thick energy and blood) _ Swollen body as in anasarca _ Greyish yellow abdominal skin _ collateral circulation Zhang Tan (Polyp) _ the size of an egg then develops as in a pregnant woman _ Extra-uterine formation without effect on menstruation (normal rules) Shi Jia (Fibroma) Perverse “cold” energy retained within the uterine neck: _ obstruction of the uterus _ thick energy and blood unable to be evacuated.

CHAPTER LVIII
Pirate Wind (Zie Feng) (1)

Chapter 58 of the Lingshu gives dissertation on Zie Feng Xie Qi (Pirate Wind, perverse energy), erratic and disorderd energy of the 4 Seasons, very harmful, able to cause numerous diseases. But, clinically, diseases can be triggered in individuals carrying “latent perverse energy”, _ during a new infiltration of “recent perverse energy”, _ during a digestive disorder _ or during a psycho-afffective disturbance (causal factors of circulatory disturbances of blood and energy). The causes of the disease are therefore numerous. But the essential object of this chapter is centered on diseases caused by Zie Feng, hence the title of this chapter: “Pirate Wind (Zie Feng)”. This chapter consists of 3 paragraphs.

1. Regarding “Zie Feng”, consult Chapter 79 (“Years and Dew”) of this classic.

PARAGRAPH 1
Huangdi: “You have often affirmed that Zie Feng (Pirate Wind, Bandit Wind, Rascal Wind = disordered energy of the 4 Seasons) is a harmful energy able to cause numerous diseases. Yet, clearly, people, sheltered behind partitions or not leaving their room, abruptly become ill... . This is not because they do not know how to defend against the wind; what are then the causes?”
130.

Qi Bo:

“These individuals are certainly carriers of the energy “Latent Perverse Humidity” concealed within the Xue Mai (blood capillaries) and within Fen Rou

107

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(demarcation of the flesh: dermo-dermal system). Also, they are ill: _ because they are keepers of thick blood after a fall, _ because they are in the grip of a joy or sudden sorrow, _ because their diet is poorly regulated _ because they are neither adapted to cold nor heat, _ and, finally, because they are subjected to an attack of Wind-Cold during opening of the pores causing a stagnation of blood and energy with fusion of recent perverse energy and latent perverse energy, responsible for the syndrome Han Bi (algoparesthesia caused by cold). Sweating caused by heat also favors the penetration of wind to cause disease. Therefore, aside from Zie Feng (Pirate Wind), the disease is surely due to other causes.”

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:

“This paragraph speaks about individuals carrying “latent perverse energy” subjected to a new attack of “recent perverse energy” which triggers disease. In other words, the disease is not only caused by Zie Feng (Pirate Wind or disordered seasonal energy), but also by other factors. The penetration of Zie Feng into the organism, responsible for the disease, is a common and natural phenomenon. Yet, there are individuals who, locked up in their room without contact with Zie Feng, suddenly fall ill. Huangdi expresses doubt about this phenomenon, hence Qi Bo’s reply.”

II - N.V.N.: Wind, cold, heat, humidity, dryness and fire form the group of normal and variable energies of the 4 seasons. During their abnormal appearance, they carry the name “disordered energies” or Zie Feng (Pirate Wind) and constitute etiologic factors of diseases.

Therefore, for example: _ in spring, the majority of diseases are caused by wind _ in summer, the majority of diseases are caused by heat _ at end of summer, the majority of diseases are caused by humidity _ in autumn, the majority of diseases are caused by dryness _ in winter, the majority of diseases are caused by cold.

131.

This is the general rule of the diseases known as “offensive” (Wai Gan) diseases of the 4 seasons. But during one season, the offensive disease can present with a wide diversity of clinical forms due to the complexity of the human terrain. Moreover, any perverse energy can combine one to the other and trigger a more complex disease. Therefore, wind can be associated with cold or other perverse energies, hence the numerous clinical forms because of the combination of different causes. Example: in articular Bi, the association of 3 perverse energies (wind, cold, humidity) is always permanent feature. Yang Si Fang states: “• If Wind injures the Qi (energy) _ if Cold injures the Shen (mental)

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_ and if Humidity injures the Jing (quntessence) it is because: _ Wind injures the Wei (defensive energy) _ Cold injures the Ying (nutritive energy) _ Cold-Water injures Heart-Fire. • Humidity is the perverse energy of Earth. It injures the Jing Qi (energetic quintessence) of the kidney; this is why, during attack of humidity, the four limbs are cold (Ni Jue).”

PARAGRAPH 2
Huangdi: “What you have come to inform me is that the patients had experienced it themselves. But some individuals not exposed to perverse energy and not having any reason to be frightened are suddenly taken ill... Why? Is it due to a demon or spirit (Gui Shen)?” Qi Bo: “This also originates from “latent manifested.

perverse

energy” which has not yet

On the occaision of an annoyance or compassion, blood and energy, being disturbed within the interior, clash with one another. The cause is found then within the interior and the depth; it is neither visible, nor audible. This is why one attributes it to Gui (demon) and Shen (mental). ”

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains:

132.

“This paragraph explains disorders of the Jing (quintessence), Qi (energy) and Shen (mental) due to the presence of “latent perverse energy” localizing within the epidermo-dermal spaces and at the level of Yuan Ma (fibrous, serous and mucous membranes) (2).
Jing of Water is Chi (will). Jing of Fire is Shen (mental). When Chi (will) is thwarted, it injures the Jing of the kidney organ, and when the heart is taken by emotion, it injures the Shen (mental). As a result, _ blood and energy are disturbed in the interior, _ the source energy and perverse energy confront one another. Causal seeds are then formed before the disease declares itself. Here, it is a matter of an illness of Qi (energy) and not an illness of Xing (form). This is why it is neither visible nor audible as if were provoked by Gui Shen (demon-spirit). In reality, these do not exist.”

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II - Ma Shi states:

“Generally, “latent perverse energy” (like humidity) is concealed in place within the organism and waits for the favorable moment of a new attack of “recent perverse energy” to deploy or spread. The battle between these two perverse energies (latent and recent) causes disorders of the blood and energy, hence illness. All these manifestations take place in invisible and silent fashion. Failing to appreciate these facts, one attributes them to demons and spirits.”

III - N.V.N.: 1 - In practice, it is necessary to base one’s judgment on the duration of the seriousness of the symptoms to distinguish latent perverse energy and recent perverse energy. If the symptomatology of latent perverse energy is followed by signs of chronic disease, the recent perverse energy activates the latent perverse energy. In contrast, if, at the starting phase, in the absence of symptomatology of latent perverse energy, the disease manifests by serious signs of marked fever, evolving toward the syndrome of Dryness “burning the Yin root”, it si the sign of auto-manifestation of latent perverse energy.
133.

2 - The explanation of Zhang Shi is crucial to the comprehension of the fixation of latent perverse energy within the epidermo-dermal spaces and at the level of Yuan Ma. This fact is due to the insufficiency of Wei (defensive) energy. Knowledge of the formation of Wei (defensive energy), Ying (nutritive energy), Jing (quintessence) and Shen (mental) therefore permit resolution of all pathologic problems.

2. Designates a thin layer of tissue that envelops an organ (i.e. pleura), cavity (peritoneum) or natural conduit (aponeurosis, choroid, endocardium, ependyma, meninges, etc.).

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Figure 1:

Defensive functions of Wei energy.

PARAGRAPH 3
Huangdi: “Some illnesses are cured by Zhu Wu (invocation). How is that?” Qi Bo: “In the knowledge of departure of “invocation” past, Tian Wu (cult masters) treated illnesses as a function of the the phenomena of “victory” of the disease and the points of its manifestations... from which they applied the method of (Zhu Wu). ” 134.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains: “To know the phenomena of “victory” of the disease” is to know how to identify the triumphant action of Jing (quintessence), Qi (Ying and Wei energy) and Shen (mental) over diseases. The “method of invocation” is an everyday therapy practiced long ago, before and during the time of Huangdi, based on the perfect knowledge of the phenomena of “repression” of the law of the 5 Movements”. Yang Shi Feng has stated: “In antiquity, Zhu Wu (invocation) was a medical speciality classed among the “13 Other Arts” of the era. The Tian Wu (Masters of Worship) practiced this science. This is why the ideogram “Yi” (ancient character designating “physician”) contained within its lower part the ideogram “Wu” (cult). Thus, one must not confuse Wu Yi (Masters of Worship/physician) (3) with the Tong Gu (sourcerers). This is like the “Southerners” (designating Chinese of the South and Vietnamese) still using the old adage: “Without imprinting on humanism, one can never become Wu Yi.”

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Figure 2: Movements of repression of the law of the 5 Movements.

135.

II - N.V.N.: 1 - Chapter 13 of the Suwen (“Mobilization of Jing and the Transformation of the Energy”) is devoted to the method of Zhu Wu (invocation or ancient psychotherapy): “Huangdi: I have heard it said that in ancient times, it was sufficient, to cure diseases, to employ the method of “Zhu Wu” (invocations) which permitted realizing the beneficial transformations of the mental energy (Jing) and biologic energy (Qi). Today, how does it come to be that, with medications against internal diseases and needles of stone (lithopuncture) against external diseases, treatment proves to be ineffective?”
3. In this regard, in French and German language, one translates it “sorcerer”, which makes M.T.C. lose its historic and medical value.

Qi Bo: In the past, man lived among the birds and quadripeds. He engaged in exercise to struggle against the cold and went into the shade and coolness to avoid the heat (of the sun). In the interior, no passion could disturb his mind; at the exterior, no public function could hinder his freedom of action. In this way, in this time of calm amd sobriety, the mental state of man was solid in the interior; the perverse energy from the exterior could not penetrate deeply into the body. This is the reason why medications were not necessary to treat internal diseases, and needles of stone were not necessary to look after external diseases. Mental changes brought about by “invocations” were sufficient. Man today is no longer the same. He is overwhelmed by worry in the interior and overwork at the exterior. Moreover, he does not follow the evolution of the energy of the four seasons and falls victim to attack by perverse wind. Therefore, the energy of the body is in insufficiency (emptiness); perverse energy profits from this emptiness, insulting it day and night. In the interior, it penetrates deeply to the organs and bowels, bones and marrows; at the exterior, it causes damage to the orifices (nose, mouth,...), flesh and skin. Slight illnesses become serious, the most serious becoming fatal. In this case, the Zhu Wu method is ineffective.” 2 - According to Wang Bing (physician of the Tang Dynasty, 762 A.D.): “Zhu Wu is a ancient method of treatment which consisted of meditating to look for the causes of the disease without the aid of medicines or needles.”

Zhu Wu can be considered an original form of psychotherapy. It was an everyday practice in antiquity when one acknowledged a deep interdependence between psychologic phenomena. This interdepenednce justified

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the application of this method, not only in psychologic illnesses, but also in organic illnesses whose genesis was always favored, according to this conception, by the intervention of psychologic factors (worries of all orders, emotional shock, various conflicts, the struggle for existence...).
136.

This non-systematized psychotherapy presents several important characteristics which merit being emphasized:

a - Use of sacred rites: They take place in an atmosphere marked with piety and devotion, often before an altar intended for the worship of ancestors. They consist of inviting the patient to “pray”, “meditate” on his illness and ingest a little glass of water (containing some ashes of sticks of incense). b - Prayers: They are directed at acquiring the beneficial influence of the Supreme Being on the illness. This spiritual faith, which added to the physiologic action of the therapy itself, permitted a tenfold increase in the chances for cure. c - Evocation of all causes of the disease, psychologic or not, allowed the patient: _ to become aware of the interferences of psychologic factors in the determination of his disease, _ to knowingly experience the threat which includes all internal “dissolving” _ and to furnish the therapist with all information about the history of his illness.
These are the important components to guide the physician in the choice of a form of appropriate psychotherapy.
137.

BOOK VII
Book VII consists of 7 chapters:

Chapter 59 : Irregular Circulation of Wei Energy (Wei Qi Zi Zhang) Chapter 60 : Inscriptions Engraved into Jade (Yu Ban)

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Chapter 61 : The Five Prohibitions (Wu Jin) Chapter 62 : Arterial Points (Dong Shu) Chapter 63 : Dissertation on the Five Sapors (Wu Wei Lun) Chapter 64 : Yin and Yang and the 25 Morphotypes (Yin Yang Er Shi Wu Ren) Chapter 65 : The 5 Musical Notes and 5 Sapors (Wu Yin Wu Wei)

no 138/139.

CHAPTER LIX
Irregular Circulation of Wei Energy (Wei Qi Zi Zhang)

Chapter 59 of the Lingshu speaks on:

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PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: “When Wei (defensive) energy is retained within the stomach. As diseases evolve differently as a function of etiology.” Huangdi: “How do you needle them?” Ba Gao: “In thoracic accumulation. resulting in numerous illnesses. it stagnates and does not circulate. Concerning morphology. In abdominal accumulation. the cause of energetic stagnation at the level of the thorax and abdomen. This state. _ and the treatment and choice of points._ the irregular circulation of Wei (defensive) energy. disperse: _ Sanli (St 36) _ and Qijie (other name for Qichong. How can one abolish it?” 140. contrary to the rule. in the event of accumulation of the energy within the abdomen. big or small) and the age of the individual (young or old) in order to apply an appropriate therapy. hence the title: “Irregular Circulation of Wei Energy. one must needle the points located at the upper part of the body. In the event of accumulation at the same time above and below. the physician must base his judgment on morphology (fat or thin. The illnesses studied in this chapter originate from energetic stagnation due to the nonconforming circulation of Wei (defensive) energy. this chapter describes 3 morphotypes as a function of the energetic and blood state (excessive or insufficient) of the individual: obese. disperse: _ Daying (St 5) _ Tiantu (CV 22) _ and Huichong (other name for Lianquan- CV 23). causes thoraco-abdominal fullness with dyspnea and energetic afflux toward the top. fleshy and muscular. 115 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the points located at the lower part. Ba Gao: “In the event of accumulation of the energy within the thorax.St 30). one must needle the points located around these two regions.” This chapter consists of 5 paragraphs.

As a result. powerful energy originating from Shui Gu (Water-Cereals: foods).. located at the middle of the neck below the pharynx. aponeurosis. and on the indications and contraindications of therapy. located below the tip of the 11th rib.Zhang Shi states: 116 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . needling is contraindicated. it is advised to needle the points located at the upper part of the body: _ Daying (St 5). it indicates the paroxysmal phase of the energy. But after needling.In thoraco-abdominal accumulation. located 2 cun outside the anterior midline. tense and hurried. at the external edge of the tibia. one must employ the method of grouping together”of the needling called Ge Zu (claw of pulse). • In serious accumulations of Wei energy. serous and mucous membranes.St 30) to which one adds the point Zhangmen (Li 13). According to the Suwen: 141. One must tonify it’. on the femoral artery.St 30). Therefore. How then do you treat it?” Qi Bo recommends: “1 .2 cun from the inferior maxillary angle. If the pulse is changing (Da). .Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on the accumulation of the energy within the thorax and abdomen. it indicates the shortage of energy. One must wait for the calm phase to needle. needle according to the technique called Ge Zu (“claw of the pulse”) is recommended. “Wei. in the middle of the large muscular mass between the two muscles _ and Qijie (Qichong..In the thoraco-abdominal accumulation of Wei energy. located in a crease 4 cun below the pharynx _ and Lianquan (CV 23). the stagnation of Wei energy within the thorax or abdomen is an unusual phenomenon. one must examine the pulse. for example.In the thoracic accumulation and Wei energy.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . hence the appearance of illnesses of the limbs. tense (Xian) and hurried (Jin) or if the pulse does not arrive under the finger. energetic afflux toward the top. 3 . thorax and abdomen. Tiantu (CV 22). located 3 cun below the knee. Raise the neck to locate this point. one must carefully observe the pulse: _ if the pulse is changing.In the abdominal accumulation of Wei energy.” II . disperse: _ the above-noted points and _ the point located 1 cun below the false ribs (Zhangmen- Li 13). peritoneum. Sanli (St 36) and Qijie (Qichong. • In the event of seriousness.) and spreads within the thorax and abdomen. contrary to the rule. But before needling.. does not circulate in the channels. _ if the pulse is exhausted.. 2 . thoraco-abdominal fullness is indicated by such clinical manifestations as dyspnea. one must needle the above-cited points: Daying (St 5). Lianquan (CV 23). _ Tiantu (CV 22). responsible for numerous illnesses. one must disperse: _ Sanli (St 36). but in the epidermo-dermal spaces and at the level of Yuan Ma (fibrous. located 1.

form the ideogram (fishes) that evokes the image of a chicken claw.“This paragraph gives dissertation on the production and circulation of Wei (defensive) energy which follows the Luomai (secondary vessels) of the Yangming to spread toward the top. The Foot Yangming (St) channel unites: _ at the Renmai (CV) at the point Zhongwen (CV 12) to reach Chengjiang (CV 24) (see Figure 1) _ and at the Daimai (channel of the belt).: 1 . As the energy of the spleen controls the dermis (flesh). It responds to the spleen. its depth not exceeding the “spaces of distribution of the flesh”. when it accumulates within the abdomen. the key point is to examine the state of the Wei energy because its insufficiency is the cause of “100 diseases”. associated with markdely tense abdominal skin is the indicator of escaping of the Ying energy.This paragraph emphasizes the importance of the points by which the Wei energy exteriorizes to the exterior to control the epidermo-dermal. Similarly. _ technique provoking reactive phenomena of the energy of the spleen because the spleen organ controls the system of connective tissues (flesh).Before needling. at the left and right of the umbilicus. 143.V. 117 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .N. 142. Therefore.” 2 . _ specific technique in the treatment of Bi of the flesh (dermalgia). Tiantu (CV 22) and Lianquan (CV 23) because these points are the sites of exit of the Wei energy toward the cutaneous system of the upper part of the body. muscular and osseous systems of the upper and lower part of the body because. to link up to Qijie (St 30) located at the groin. When this energy is found blocked and accumulated in the thorax.” III .Li 4): “3 or 4 needles oriented toward the point of impact evoking the claw of a chicken. This method treats Gu Bi (pain of the flesh: dermalgias). this method responds to the spleen organ. needling consists of several needles directed in a fashion in the pattern of a claw of a chicken. It is a general technique of needling: _ after having implanted the needle to a specific depth. bottom amd 4 sides of the body.” In summary. 3 . one must carefully examine the pulse because.. it is necessary to needle Daying (St 5). the Wei energy follows the Yangming (St) to become exteriorized at the cutaneous system. tense and hurried pulse is the sign revealing the emptiness of Yin _ the exhausted pulse which does not reach the fingers. The Wei energy is a powerful energy originating from the Shui Gu (Water-Cereals: foods) whose metabolism is carried out at the level of the Stomach bowel. according to Chapter 68 of this classic (“Top of the Diaphragm”): “. according to Zhang Jing Yue: _ the changing. lift it up slightly and place it permanently at the level of the dermis.” Ma Shi explains: “At the left as at the right. once metabolized. This is why. With the aid of 3 needles. one needles the points noted above to treat diseases originating from the irregular circulation of Wei energy. “Hegu Ci” does not designate the needling of the point Hegu (LI 4).As for the technique called Ge Zu (foot of pulse). Qichong) and Sanli (St 36) because these points are the sites of exteriorization of the Wei energy toward the cutaneous system of the lower part of the body. it is that described in Chapter 7 of this classic (“Use of the Needles”) under the name “Hegu Ci” (needling reproducing the angle found at Hegu.N. it is necessary to needle Qijie (St 30. This type of needling must touch “the spaces of distribution of the flesh” (Xi and Gu: small valleys and valleys)..

needling is absolutely contraindicated. 4 . 118 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .We present below diagrams of points utilized in this paragraph.In these two cases.

one must examine the space located between the 2 eyebrows. The appearance of a green. red.PC 3) belonging to the lung which governs the skin. yellow or black color.. The excessive exhaustion of Ying (nutritive) energy at the exterior with humid skin and abundant sweating indicates disease of the blood and energy. the point Jue Zhong (other name for Yintang. But the Ying is an energy. _ In order to determine disease of the blood and energy. energy and blood... one must examine the eyes because the energy of the liver 119 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . muscles and bones determined?” Bao Gao: “The appearance of a shiny and smooth color between the two eyebrows indicates disease of the skin. _ In order to determine disease of the flesh. The appearance of a dusty and faded color at the ears is the sign revealing disease of the bones. the appearance of a green. at the lips is the indicator of an attack of the flesh. A shiny and smooth appearance at the this level indicates a disease of the skin. 1) _ Abdominal accumulation (Fig. therefore invisible. 3) 144. this is why it is recommended to base one’s judgment on sweating to distinguish disease of blood and energy. at the lips heralds disease of the flesh. one must examine the energetic state of the Ying (nutritive energy). 2) _ Thoraco-abdominal accumulation (Fig. that is to say.. yellow or black color. The appearance of a green. at the eyes heralds disease of the muscles. _ In order to determine disease of the muscles.. Therefore. red or black color. red.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Ma Shi states: “This paragraph gives dissertation on the method of determination of the disease of the skin and flesh. energy and blood.Figure 2 Figure 3 PARAGRAPH 2 Points to needle in the case of accumulation of Wei (defensive) energy: _ Thoracic accumulation (Fig. muscles and bones. one must examine the lips because they respond to the spleen which governs the “flesh” (dermal) system. Huangdi: “Based on what criterion is a disease belonging to the skin and flesh. _ In order to determine disease of the skin..

substance beneficial to the marrow and brain. it is advised to treat the external zone of the 4 limbs because: _ the skin is superficial _ the channels all begin at the tips of the fingers and toes. it is advised to treat them at the level of the Luomai because the stagnation of the energy and blood can bring about a fullness of the Jingluo (principal and secondary channels) with phenomena of suffocation/accumulation (characterized by a visible and palpable swelling/upthrust). but the skin have their zones of localization (Bu) the flesh have their zones of attachment (Zhu) blood and energy have their sites of circulation (Shu) the bones have their sites of association (Zhao). it is advised to only treat the affectd site. at the level of the articulations because the empty spaces of the articualtions are the sites of reception of synovial fluid. it is advised to treat their zones of attachment because these are: _ the sites of distribution of the flesh where the Yang channels of the hand and foot circulate _ and the relatively thick sites where the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) pass. • In diseases of the blood and energy.governs the muscles and exteriorizes at the eyes. left and right. one must examine the ears because the energy of the kidney governs the bones and exteriorizes at the ears. • In diseases of the muscles. • In diseases of the bones. the “100 Diseases” is immeasurable. • In diseases of the flesh. ” me.” 146. it is advised to treat their sites of association. 120 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . one does not distinguish Yin and Yang.” PARAGRAPH 3 Huangdi: “What are these diseases and how are they treated?” Bao Gao: “The evolution _ the diseases _ the diseases _ the diseases _ the diseases Huangdi: “Please clarify of of of of of 145. _ In order to determine disease of the bones. that is to say.” for Bao Gao: “• In diseases of the skin.

that is to say. and in serious diseases. it suffices to base one’s judgment on the region affected without needing to specify Yin or Yang.Zhang Shi specifies: “Therapeutically. They can be localized in the interior or at the exterior of the body. muscles and bones. it is necessary to know their sites of circulation which are found at the Luo point of the channels because. left or right. blood and energy. needling must be deep or superficial. muscels and bones. it is necessary to know their “sites of attachment” at the level of the arms and legs. they necessitate the use of numerous needles. that is to say. there appears the phenomenon of swelling and thrusting up of this level. at the level of the 6 Yang channels of the foot and hand. and at the zones of the flesh belonging to the Foot Shaoyin (Ki). It is in this manner that the great workers (good doctors) practice.Huangdi: “How do you needle them?” Bao Gao: “Diseases evolve to infinity. In order to determine the diseases of the flesh. on the joints which are related to the marrow and brain.. the points to choose are all found in the areas belonging to the skin and flesh. . when there is stagnation of blood and energy.” 121 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it is necessary to know their “localization” because they evolve toward the 4 limbs.Ma Shi clarifies: “This paragraph completes the previous one and speaks on the therapeutic methods for diseases of the skin and flesh. needling is superficial. In order to determine diseases of the blood and energy. it is necessary to base one’s judgment on the “sites of their adherence”.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . blood and energy. In order to determine the diseases of the bones. The regulation of the energy must be carried out as a function of the evolution of the disease.. In order to determine the diseases of the muscles. One must base one’s judgment on the location of the disease in order to apply an appropriate treatment. The therapeutic rules are numerous. In benign diseases. In order to determine the diseases of the skin.” II .

Above 20 years. man is named “Zhuang” (adult). In the muscular. is Cou Li are coarse. adoloescent or child. Huangdi: “How do you explain the cold body and hot body?” Bao Gao: “In individuals possessing abundant fatty substance. the muscle adhere solidly to the skin”. bony marrows). and “Cou Li” (adipose layer separating muscular masses) are coarse.Ma Shi explains: 122 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the muscles are firm and flesh. quite full. ” Huangdi: “How do you evaluate corpulence or thinness?” Bao Gao: “Man of marked corpulence is distinguished into 3 types: obese. This is why their body is cold. fleshy and muscular”. man is called “Shao” (adolescent). cold or hot. Above 18 years. In contrast. the muscles are hard and solid. But if the Cou Li are fine and supple. the limbs are firm and flesh. Huangdi: “How do you differentiate these 3 types of men?” Bao Gao: “In the obese. supple. Above 6 years. fine and supple. adult. In the fleshy. This is why their body is hot. Huangdi: “The human body can be fat or thin. large or small. their body is cold. and Cou Li.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . man is named “Xiao” (child). man is called “Lao” (old man). the individual can be old. In individuals possessing abundance of Chi (substance conserved within the bones. 148.PARAGRAPH 4 147. How do you classify them?” Bao Gao: “Above 50 years. their body is hot. According to age. the muscles are soft and lax.

adipose substance (Gao) and medullary substance (of the bones = Chi) are equally formed.“This paragraph speaks on the temperature of the body as a function: _ of the fatty substance (Gao) _ the medullary substance of the bones (Chi) _ and the state of the adipose substance separating the muscular masses (Cou Li). In the “Chi”. This is why their body is harmonious. Huangdi: “What is the amount of energy and blood of these 3 types of men?” Bao Gao: “In the fleshy. the energy is in abundance. the body is of weak stature (smaller than in the muscular). _ in individuals of the fleshy type. _ in individuals of the muscular type. In the “Chi”. This is why their hot body endures the cold so well. In the muscular. the flesh is plated with muscles and the muscles adhere to the flesh. Their body is neither large nor small.” II .” Huangdi: “What is the normal type?” Bao Gao: “In normal individuals.N. PARAGRAPH 5 Huangdi: “How do you differentiate fat and thin.Zhang Shi adds: “The Cou Li designates the markedly crumbled adipose layer located between the fleshy masses.” 149.: The definitions of Zhang Jing Yue are the following: _ in individuals of the “chi” type. These 3 types of men differ from the normal type. the energy is strongly attached to the flesh.V. it maintains the entire organism. skin and flesh. it gives much heat. 123 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This is why they are called “normal individuals”. and the skin is lax. This is why their belly is large and hanging. large and small?” Bao Gao: “In the fleshy.” III . the energy is in abundance. This is why their size remains small.N. the energy and flesh are yielding. the blood is in abundance. the body is of high stature (larger than in the fleshy). In the muscular. the blood is clear and energy very active but of small quantity.

hence firmness and watertightness of the muscular masses. In the small possessing nuch “Chi”.Huangdi: “Good! How do you treat them?” Bao Gao: “One must first differentiate these 3 types of men and determine the insufficient or excessive state of their blood and the state of purity of their energy. Therefore. These 3 types of man are only fleshy. This is why the body is of weak stature and small. hence hanging belly.V. 2 . In the muscular. one must grasp the reason for “ hanging belly” in the fleshy.” III . their body is of weak stature.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . in the fleshy. preventing the body from growing bigger. 3 . the body is well developed. It is a question of “large”. the energy is in abundance and the epidermo-dermal system of the subumbilical region is soft and lax. 150. then apply the method of regularization according to the rules of the Jingmai (principal channels). The abundance of energy gives heat to their body that allows it to better endure the cold. it is first necessary to determine the quantity and quality of blood and energy. “tall size” and “low size” in the muscular and the “inability to grow bigger” in the “Chi”. Individuals of “Chi” type contain pure blood and “active” (mobile) energy. This chapter therefore emphasizes the necessity of understanding the formation of Wei energy in the 124 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . muscular and small. the body is of tall stature and well developed. In all the cases. In the muscular. the body is of small stature because the energy immerges deeply within the interior and is unable to exteriorize toward the adipose region.N. the energy is excessive which renders the skin lax and causes the belly to fall. fleshy and muscular. It is a question of “small”. but having the same ability to endure the cold.The fleshy contains much energy.In order to treat these 3 types. Such are the 3 types of man which differs from normal individuals.Ma Shi clarifies: “1 . The muscular contain much blood which spreads throughout the entire body which maintains a neither cold nor hot state.” II . In the “Chi” types.N. and finally. but in small quantity.: The analysis of Zhang Shi permits comprehension of the fundamental role of the Wei (defensive) energy in 3 morphotypes: obese. This is due to the excess of Wei energy overflowing the region of distribution of the flesh.In general. apply the method of regularization according to the rules of the Jingmai (principal channels). in the fleshy.Zhang Shi clarifies: “The excess of Wei (defensive) energy causes the “opening” of Cou Li (adipose layer between muscular masses). It is a matter of “fat” (obese) as opposed to thin.

they are like instruments of war when they are used without reflection. If the little needles properly used can save the life of the patient. the needles are compared to very dangerous arms. CHAPTER LX Inscriptions Engraved into Jade (Yu Ban) Chapter 60 of the Lingshu demonstrates the etiology of tumor and the therapeutic rules. needling the point Wuli (LI 13) can be harmful to the patient. hence the title: “Inscriptions Engraved into Jade (Yu Ban)”. the title is explained. Huangdi orders Qi Bo to engrave them into jade in order to transmit them to future generations. for example. to inscribe into jade to make a precious object” contained in this chapter. The object of this chapter is to furnish advice of vigillance to physicians during needling. 151. causing a rapid depletion of blood and energy of the 5 organs. In this chapter.treatment of diseases of energetic and endogenous origin. Faced with the very precious nature of these recommendations.. Chapter 60 of the Lingshu contains 6 paragraphs. ending up in a brief delay of death.. because of the phrase “. 125 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . then the serious and fatal forms of “toxic” tumors deeply localized in the interior of the organism against which acupuncture is not indicated due to the presence of signs of discordance between the pulse and the disease. Ma Shi notes. Therefore.

I know that all this conforms with the Dao of the modification/transformation of Heaven and Earth and of “human affairs”. But. Therefore. although small. See Lingshu. that one cannot know the end. are instruments for the safeguarding of life. can only participate in activities of the natural world. rules) of government of the people is similar to the methods of utilization of the needles. N. among the “9 Needles”. which represents the Earth (geology) and to the middle. the Dao (principles. Furthermore.N. In Chapter 38 (1) of this classic (“Contrary and Favorable. Huangdi therefore questions Qi Bo: “The use of the “9 Needles” as a function of their name and their number. are only aimed to kill. and at the middle. rules) because. man. This is so subtle and penetrating. according 126 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . . In Chapter 45 of this same classic (“Evaluation of the Exterior”).N. Do you wish to give me an explanation?” Qi Bo: “Do objects exist that are larger than Heaven? Among the instruments greater than the little needles exist only the “5 types of arms” (Wu Bing) intended to kill and not to safeguard life. they respond to Heaven. faced with the complexity of the problem. the needles have the characteristic of being concordant with the “Three Powers”. belonging to Heaven and Earth. As a result. _ the deep is like the core not being perceived _ the top (surface. I would like to gather all this dense (like hair) information in order to establish a recapitulative diagram of the whole. Huangdi: “I have always thought of the needles as miners’ instruments. so vast and immense. I fear that you exaggerate their greatness.V. and you say that. above.Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks about the concordant nature of the little needles and the “Three Powers” (San Tai: Heaven-Earth-Man) from the fact that their very high use is related to that of the “5 types of arms”. certainly quite imposing.: This paragraph stresses the problem of the legitimate role of the needles of acupuncture involving the Universal Dao. I have still not clearly grasped its true Dao (principles. which are of lesser size?” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . between them and the “5 types of arms”.” II . it is also said: “The Dao of the sages is founded on the observation of the top. to Man. beginning with 1 and ending with 9. Edition. Is this possible?” 153. the bottom. while the needles. in the Dao of acupuncture.V. In this manner..N. one cannot consider them “little”. which corresponds to “human affairs” . Volume II.PARAGRAPH 1 152. below. being precious. These arms. _ the large ones cannot remain at the surface.. superficial) is such that it cannot be covered. certainly have another more profound meaning which escapes me. Fat and Thin”). 1. _ the little ones cannot go to the depths. to Earth. which responds to Heaven (astronomy). Therefore.

while the little needles treat diseases and safeguard the life of the people. and the production of pus is generally invisible. wearing standard claquant au vent.. its goal is to eliminate as quickly as possible this perverse energy. to Yin • and at the middle. in order to be transmitted to future generations. The establishment of the law is not done in one day or several hours. bow and lance. the production of purulent blood does not descend from Heaven and does not suddenly appear from Earth. PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “Some illnesses start via an alternation of joy and anger or via a digestive disorder which causes: _ an insufficiency of Yin energy of the 5 organs and an excess of Yang energy of the 6 bowels with stagnation of Ying (nutritive) energy. In summary. 154. In man. it causes serious disease. are lined up in the center of the plain. This is why. in order to battle. to man. _ or a blockage of blood and energy with confrontation of 2 heats (endogenous and exogenous). to Yang • at Earth. They stem from minor accumulated and repeated consequences of harmful energy evolving in a chronic fashion to end up being serious. abide by the rules. and the ignoramus only deals with it after its appearance. sword. the Sage treats disease before it forms. when two armies. It is the same for a country whose people obey the rules and soldiers. spear. respecting authority. _ In the “Heaven/Earth” space. . swords and lances.to precise rules of measurement and the particular method of calculation. The formation of abscesses ( Y u n g ) and tumors (Yu).” Huangdi: “The formation of Yung (abscesses) and Yu (tumors) can arise unnoticed. causing the formation of Yung (abscess) and Ju (tumors).. Even the Sage (good physician) usually finds such disease difficult to cure. Can one cure these diseases with the little needles?” Qi Bo: “When perverse energy infiltrates deeply within the body. In order to rescue him from disease. the needles have effects responding: • at Heaven. man is the most precious. the needles have the role of joining together the San Tai (3 Powers) of the human being.” According to Zhang Jing Yue: _ The “Wu Bing” (Five Arms) used in the time of Huangdi are: large knife. In every case. the cause of the conflict is already old. _ These 5 types of arms give death. In this domain. the origin of pyogenic production. the appearance of abscesses and tumors is generally due to negligence in the practice of the Dao of Eugenism (Yang Sheng). What is the course of action to take?” 127 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

the prognosis is very poor. if abscesses accumulate in the interior. treatment of large abscesses by large neeldes. in the presence of a purulent formation. This is why the above-cited pustules are not of “Wind. • “Pustules” designate lesions of the skin formed by a circumscribed uprising of the epidermis containing purulent liquid.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . the disease is grave with 10 risks of defeat against one chance of survival. • “Excess of joy or anger and digestive disorder” are classed among the internal causes of disease.” II . but caused by little chronic accumulations of blood and energy which progressively provoke disease. These rules are named the “10 risks of death to one chance of life”.” 128 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . If these pustules localizing at the exterior are of small size. the least stagnation of which progressively causes the formation of pustules. They start via a small vesicle filled with serous fluid whose base rapidly becomes indurated at the level of which a gangrenous plaque forms which is encircled by an inflammatory zone. The pustules can be of malignant nature. the effect is reduced. the Sage treats what has not yet formed and elaborates the therapeutic rules which he inscribes onto bamboo tablets in order to transmit them. the effect is harmful.N.Qi Bo: “After the formation of pus. why. Heat or Humidity” etiology of Heaven and Earth.N. circulating from the interior toward the exterior. Cold. lithopuncture and Ti No. This disease can be compared to a confrontation of two armies whose cause is not dated from several days. 5 with sword tip) are judiciously recommended. to future generations. the sage wait neither for the formation of pustules nor pyogenic production to work out the therapeutic rules in order to inscribe them onto tablets of bamboo.V. cure is rapid.Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on the blood and energy located at the epidermo-dermal part. PARAGRAPH 3 Huangdi: “When the suppuration is advanced and it passes into the blood. In contrast. continuously. 155. but also for those who wish to consult them. the mortality is 9 out of 10. Is treatment via the little needles still possible?” Qi Bo: “In the In the This is Long (needle Huangdi: treatment of little abscesses by little needles. This is why. These are intended for future generations.: Chapter 81 of this classic (“Abscesses and Tumors”) is entirely devoted to the study of Yung (abscess) and Yu (tumor). Therefore.

due to the insufficiency of the energy of the lung. bones). It turns green via the phenomenon of transgression of perverse energy of the liver occuring in the region called “non victorious” (normally. the fifth sign of “ c o n t r a r y ” .Ma Shi comments: 157. this denotes an insufficiency of the energy of the kidney. belong to the 5 organs because 1 . _ the appearance of greenish color at the white of the eye (cornea) and the contraction of the black of the eye (iris) are the first signs of “ c o n t r a r y ” . it is recommended to use lithopuncture or needles of the Fi Long (No. contrary signs of abscesses are fatal. liver and kidney.Green color of the conjunctiva and shrinkage of the pupil: signs of attack of the energy of the 3 organs. LungMetal inhibits Liver-Wood. _ abdominal pains and thirst.Vomiting after taking medications: signs of weakening of the energy of the stomach. When the pupil (black part) contracts.Blockage of the shoulder and neck stiffness: signs of disturbance of the Yang energy because the Taiyang is “master” of all the Yang channels. _ cervical stiffness associated with a blockage of the shoulder. Does a means exist to it?” “The key point is to base one’s judgment on the “ c o n t r a r y ” nature and “ f a v o r a b l e ” nature of the disease.Zhang Shi explains: “Use of the little needles to treat small abscesses usually provokes a simple medical action whose effectiveness is always assured.Abdominal pains and thirst: signs of the exhaustion of the energy of the spleen because it controls the circulation of organic liquid and aids the stomach in fulfilling its functions. Generally. the second sign of “ c o n t r a r y ” . This is death. it is the opposite). _ hoarse voice with pale white facies. flesh. 3 .curb Qi Bo: “The evolution of abscesses and tumors is often harmful. 5) type. the organs are injured and the contrary signs are: 1 . the fourth sign of “ c o n t r a r y ” . “”Eyes”. Their elimination permits survival. • Large abscesses are grouped into: _ favorable abscesses: the disease evolves toward the exterior (skin. _ vomiting after absorption of medication. external orifices of the liver. lung. When they evolve toward the interior.Hoarse voice: sign of attack of the energgy of the heart because the heart organ governs speech. _ contrary abscesses: the disease evolves toward the interior (5 organs). 4 . 5 . muscles. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . In contrast. 2 . “In the patient. Signs aside from these “ c o n t r a r y ” are called “ f a v o r a b l e ” . in the case of large abscesses. use of long needles to treat large abscesses usually provokes a contrary afflux of the energy generally ending up in death.” Huangdi: “I would like to know what you mean by “ c o n t r a r y ” and “ f a v o r a b l e ” ? ” Qi Bo: 156.” II .The conjunctiva (white part) correspond to the lung. or here. 129 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the third signs of “ c o n t r a r y ” . This is why. This is life.

6 cun above the knee. but orange. 5 . 130 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . those of external-internal direction are the indicator of disturbance of Shaoyang (SJ and GB). 2.: A . 4 .N. Yin and Yang lose their connection. Edition. Therefore. according to Chapter 74 of this classic (“Dissertation on Diseases and the Examination of the Skin of the Forearm”): “A red conjunctiva is the indicator of an attack of the heart. one must determine the benign or malignant nature of these abscesses. to the side of and below the 3rd dorsal vertebra. yellow. If it is a question of endogenous origin. . like Feishu (Bl 13). heralds disturbance of Fire. green. Capillaries of descending trajectory are the indicator of disturbance of the Taiyang (SI and Bl). to the 6 Yang (foot and hand) and to the Dumai (GV).Region of Futu (St 32).N. they manifest on the back or nucha and are curable. In all the cases.” III . that of the liver. 158. and in the phase evolving toward pyogenic formation. they are incurable.2 . that of the spleen.N.Region of the Back Shu points. 3 .The eyes are the “external orifices” associated not only with the liver but also with the 5 organs..Midline region of the back where the Dumai (GV) is found.The shoulder belongs to the 3 Yang of the hand.V. Pishu (Bl 20) to the side of and below the 11th dorsal vertebra. Shenshu (Bl 15). N. death is inevitable when the abscess (anthrax) manifests in one of the following 5 regions: 1 . these abscesses manifest on the arms and are fatal.Nuchal region belonging to the Dumai (GV) and Taiyang (Bl). They can also originate from a digestive disorder or a disequilibrium of Ying (nutritive energy) oor of Wei (defensive energy).” B . black. 3 . that of the lung. In other words. the abscesses of these 5 regions are curable. at the starting phase. 5 . 2 . If these abscesses are of exogenous etiology. hence confrontation of “2 Heats” with pyogenic formation. then the flesh and the muscles. But moxabustion is advised. he evacuates the “stagnant” energy toward the cutaneous system avoiding it becoming inflammatory. If the movements of the shoulder and nucha are restricted. sometimes. that of the kidney. Volume I. and the nucha. Sometimes. point belonging to the Foot Yangming.Vomiting after medication ingestion indicates an insufficiency of the energy of the spleen.Abdominal pains denotes a fullness of the energy of perverse energy. the thorax.. this is due to the fullness of Yang and emptiness of Yin.The hoarse voice originates from the insufficiency of the energy of the lung and heart. In effect. and the emptiness and fullness of the essential energy to evaluate the prognosis of life or death. one can conclude that examination of the color of the eyes constitutes a significant contribution to diagnosis in Chinese energetic medicine. 4 . etc.According to Chapter 21 (paragraph 21) of this classic (“Diseases of Heat and Cold”) (2). Zhang Shi clarifies: “Abscesses can be of Wind-Cold origin coming from the exterior or following an internal perturbation of psycho-affective (internal) origin. white. neither red. those of the ascending trajectory are the indicator of disturbance of the Yangming (LI and St).” (Figure 1) According to this assertion. the good physician first treats the skin. and thirst. Such are the “contrary” signs associated with abscesses. nor yellow.V.Calf region where the point Zhicheng (Bl 56) is found which is prohibited from being needled. See Huangdi Neijing Lingshu. Pale white color is due to the insufficiency of the energy of all 5 organs.

Zhang Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on the fatal outcome in 15 days in cases of chronic stagnation of blood and energy at the level of the Jingmai with pyogenic formation. weight loss and small and resistant pulse. hot body (fever) and small and hurried pulse.” EXPLANaTIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . hot body (fever) and changing (Da) pulse are associated with the 1st “contrary” syndrome. abdominal fullness. weight loss. death can take place before abscesses form. 131 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ Cough. _ Continuous epistaxis and changing (Da) pulse. with the 5th “ c o n t r a r y ” syndrome. In the presence of these syndromes. to the 3rd “contrary” syndrome. hematuria. death follows at the end of 15 days. cold of the 4 limbs and changing (Da) pulse. _ Cough. _ Boborygmi. with the 2nd “ c o n t r a r y ” syndrome. Huangdi: “All diseases possess “ c o n t r a r y ” signs and “ f a v o r a b l e ” signs. How do you know them?” Qi Bo: “_ Abdominal bloating. If these activities of the 5 organs are distorted by a contrary state (to the law of the 5 Movements). to the 4th “ c o n t r a r y ” syndrome.PARAGRAPH 4 Figure 1 159.

5.Ma Shi explains: “All diseases possess “contrary” signs and “favorable” signs. “Cough. “Continuous epistaxis” is the indicator of a contrary state of the liver.” PARAGRAPH Qi Bo: 5 160. Some diseases. melena and changing (Da) pulse with s t o p p a g e ” are associated with the second lethal contrary s y n d r o m e . Physicians who needle without taking into account these “contrary” signs practice a “contrary” t h e r a p y . cold of the 4 limbs and diarrhea” are Yin signs and the changing 132 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . weight loss and the small and resistant pulse” indicate therefore a contrary state of the lung. excessive swelling of the abdomen and postprandial diarrhea with exhausted pulse” are associated with the fifth lethal c o n t r a r y syndrome. the 5 organs can no longer fulfill their function and their source energy is disturbed. In the presence of these syndromes. cold of the 4 limbs. “Cough. weight loss and marked diarrhea” are associated with the first lethal c o n t r a r y syndrome. This is why death occurs at the end of 15 days. hematuria. In the event of contrary circulation. “Excessive swelling of the abdomen. b . 3. fever and changing pulse” denote a state of fullness of perverse energy. 3. “The other 5 “contrary” syndromes of acute and lethal nature are therefore: 1. provoke death at the end of 15 days. “Abdominal bloating. presenting contrary signs. “Excessive swelling of the abdomen. “Cough.“Boborygmi and abdominal bloating. 5. 1. fever and changing pulse” denopte a contrary stste of the spleen. and the lung “covers” it. and others presenting also with contrary signs cause death at the end of a day. The heart governs the blood and vessels. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I .“Abdominal bloating. cold of the 4 limbs and changing pulse” indicate the contrary state of the kidney. The blood and vessels originate from the 5 organs. “Hematemesis. fever and the small and hurried pulse” denotes therefore a contrary state of the heart. “Cough. 4. weight loss and resistant pulse” are associated with the third lethal c o n t r a r y syndrome. 4. 2. 2. nausea and vomiting. 1. weight loss. thoracic oppression with radiation to the back and small and hurried pulse” are associated with the fourth lethal contrary s y n d r o m e . The lung is the site of residence of the “100 vessels” before they reach the pilo-cutaneous system. The liver conserves the blood. hematuria.Therefore. death takes place at the end of one day. “Boborygmi and bloating. The 5 contrary syndromes causing death at the end of 15 days are the following: a .

it also concerns a Yin syndrome with Yang pulse. c . e . hot (fever) body” herald an insufficiency of the essential energy with fullness of perverse fire. . The other 5 lethal “contrary” syndromes causing death in 1 day are: a .pulse is Yang.. These signs are associated with the fourth lethal contrarysyndrome.“Continuous epistaxis” is a Yin symptom and the changing pulse is Yang.“Excessive swelling of the abdomen in the interior and intestinal hemorrhage below” are associated with a Yin syndrome. In the presence of these syndromes. These signs are associated with the third lethal contrary syndrome. Moreover.“Cough. The changing pulse is Yang. death occurs in 1 day.” III .“Excessive swelling of the abdomen. e .N. d . In the presence of these “contrary” syndromes. These signs are associated with the second lethal contrary syndrome. weight loss.“Hematemesis. b . weight loss and marked diarrhea” are the signs associated with the 1st lethal contrary syndrome.Cough and vomiting above. weight loss” indicate an exhaustion of the essential energy.. hematuria below. cold of the 4 limbs. c .“Cough above.V. The changing pulse with stoppage is a fatal pulse. 2. the pulse is resistant. d . abdominal swelling in the middle and diarrhea” denote the seriousness of the disease characterized by an exhausted pulse. fullness and abdominal pain with radiation toward the lumbar region and small and hurried pulse” indicate the emptiness of Yin with fullness of Fire. 161.: We present below a summary table of contrary syndromes of Yung-Yu (abscesses-tumors) and other diseases. it concerns then a Yin syndrome with a Yang pulse. 133 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . and the small and hurried pulse also denotes the non-regression of perverse energy. These signs are associated with the fifth lethal contrary syndrome.N.“Cough above. death takes place at the end of 15 days. hematuris below and weight loss” are the signs of fullness of Fire and emptiness of Water. and the small and resistance pulse denotes the non-regression of perverse energy.

Please tell me why the manifestation of the needles can have so harmful an effect. the needles can kill patients instead of curing them. The Jingmai form a reunion of 28 vessels circulating following very specific rules. Acupuncture can kill. Huangdi: “Master! You have spoken with extraordinary effectiveness of the needles which can to be compared to Heaven and Earth. they respond to the 6 bowels. if one ignores the rules of needling.yosis) Contrary aspects of diseases: discordance between pulse and signs _ abdominal bloating _ hot body (fever) _ changing pulse Contrary aspects of the lethal syndromes 1st contrary syndrome _ excessive bloating _ cold of the 4 limbs _ weight loss _ marked diarrhea _ excessive bloating _ melena _ changing pulse with pause 2nd contrary syndrome _ vomiting after taking medications _ Boborygmi _ abdominal fullness _ cold of the 4 limbs _ changing pulse 3rd contrary syndrome _ abdominal pains _ thirst _ Continuous epistaxis _ changing pulse _ cough _ hematemesis _ weight loss 4th contrary syndrome _ cervical stiffness _ blockage of the shoulder _ cough _ hematuria _ weight loss _ small and resistant pulse _ hematemesis _ thoracic oppression _ small and hurried pulse 5th contrary syndrome _ hoarse voice _ pale white facies _ Cough _ weight loss _ hot body (fever) _ small and hurried pulse _ cough _ nausea and vomiting _ excessive swelling of the abdomen _ post-prandial diarrhea _ exhausted pulse PARAGRAPH 6 162.” 134 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . and below. in the interior.Contrary Syndromes Contrary aspects of Yung-Yu evolving toward the organs _ greenish conjunctiva _ shrinkage of the pupil (m. they link up with the 5 organs. they respond to astronomy.” Huangdi: “Your words greatly disturb me. and at the exterior. Above. but it cannot resuscitate the dead! Would the Master say otherwise?” Qi Bo: “Effectively. to geomancy.

the energy of one organ will be exhausted.” Huangdi: “Please Qi Bo: give me more information” 163. These notions of great truth are inscribed in jade in 135 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Therfore. Examination is not necessary in order to know the cause. the stomach is the “sea” of the Water-Cereal (Shui Gu). these needles aerate the jingmai. the energy of the body becomes exhausted during manipulation of the needle.Qi Bo: “The reason is quite simple. the dispersion 5 X 5 = 25. Please inscribe them into jade.Zhang Shi describes: “1 . If one repeats. Those who fail to appreciate the art of the needles can be compared to a murderous criminal with his sword or an alcoholic in an intoxicated state.” Huangdi: “The rules of needling that you have submitted to me are invaluable. so they may be transmitted to future generations. The sea is the site of emission of the clouds traveling throughout Heaven. The Jing Sui are the large circulatory routes (Dai Luo) belonging to the 5 organs and 6 bowels. the Qi (energy) will rapidly be exhausted. “Man has his energy as a result of the cereals (Gu). In man. and the stomach is the site of production of blood and energy flowing within the Jing Sui (“impeccable. the energy of the 5 organs will totally be destroyed. erroneously.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . regulate the blood and energy and transmit the contrary and favorable movements at the level of the points of reunion. If one repeats. The cereals release their energy as a result of the stomach. Therapeutic errors can therfore be avoided. eroneously. To act in this manner is to eliminate the energy of the “Celestial Source” (Tian Shen) thereby cutting short the life of the patient.” Huangdi: “Are there forbidden points at the level of the channels of the foot and hand?” Qi Bo: “If one applies the method known as “to go against to eliminate” at the point Wuli (LI 13).This paragraph speaks on the relationship of the little needles with San Tai (3 Powers: Heaven-Earth-Man).. of Blood-Energy (Xue-Qi).. this death comes from ignorance of the “forbidden points” and not because the needles kill. 164. the dispersion 5 times. perfect channels”) . If one uses the method known as “to go against to eliminate” . . mentioning the “Forbidden Points” of acupuncture. Therefore.

Because the Dai Luo of the 5 organs and 6 bowels are in relation with the Jingmai (principal channels) to diffuse to the 4 limbs. the Chi (foot) area is also late. with Chamfrault. the lower abdominal region is prohibited from being needled _ after these 3 months. when one carefully examines the Chi (foot). if the pulse is huuried. the Chi (foot) area is also hurried. the Dai luo (Longitudinal Luo) (3) of the Hand Yangming (LI) and its principal channel (Hand Yangming . 2 . The point Wuli (LI 13) is located 3 cun above Quchi (LI 11). Huangdi will order Qi Bo to inscribe it in jade under the title “Forbidden Needling”. Debility and a poor general state impose particular precautions in needling. Acupuncture is contraindicated in certain particular pathophysiologic and psychologic states: _ anger and frightful states _ drunken states. This is not the fault of Heaven. below).N. due to the energy of the stomach. The Hand Yangming (LI) is the “bowel” of the Hand Taiyin (Lu). if the pulse is late. exhaustion after severe or prolonged physical exertion.V. Physicians who poorly assimilate the Dao of the San Tai go against the circulatory functions of the blood and energy and provoke great harm even more terroble than arms that kill. 1. As a result. • “To go against” is to go in front of the energy that arrives to stop it. we translated them as “Longitudinal Luo”. The previous history of miscarriage in a patient presenting with a generally deficient state represents an absolute contraindication. 165. _ the blood and energy of the 5 organs circulating within the vessels (Mai) reach the Hand Taiyin (Lu) in order to respond to the “Chi” (foot”) and “Cun” (inch) pulses.LI) connect at the point Wuli (LI 13) before disseminating to the skin.: I. 136 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The loss of the energy is therefore the cause of death. This is why. The pregnant state merits special note: _ during the first 3 months.N. see MTC. NVN edition.order to transmit them to future generations. 2. The channels are Yin in relation to the skin which is Yang. This is why. • The organ is Yin in relation to the bowel which is Yang. lumbar and gluteal regions and points susceptible to provoke live reactions (see “Da Cheng”. and “to go in pursuit” is to pursue the energy that comes to leave. 3. In 1969. _ the blood and energy of the 5 organs circulating outside the the vessels (Mai) reach the Hand Yangming (LI) in order to respond to the cutaneous system. Consequently. 3. Therefore. youth. but murder committed by man. it is useful to examine the Cun (inch). _ needle at the “threshold of the door” (superficial puncture of a forbidden point) and death will take place in the house (in the patient) (4) _ and deeply needle the “door” and death will take place on the spot (in the physician’s office). II . _ to needle the energy that arrives 5 times is to obtain all the energy of the 5 organs _ to needle the energy which comes to leave 5 times is to induce the energy to escape _ and to needle the 25 Shu (antique) is to empty the energy of these “Shu”. Faced with this danger. it is prohibited to needle the upper abdominal.Dai Luo designates the “Distinct Luo” or “Luo Bie” belonging to the 12 principal channels.

Note that the word “door” used in enegetic medicine of Huangdi’s era was only employed in Western Scientific Medicine from the 20th century (the “Gate Control” theory of Melzac and Wall). 5. the cephalic region is prohibited from being needled. In children. there are 26 energetic points which must not be needled deeply.4. • We note below the “points prohibited from being needled” mentioned in the Zhen Jiu Da Cheng (5): a) Points prohibited from acupuncture are: Naoshu (GV 17) Xinhui (GV 22) Shenting (GV 24) Yuzhen (Bl 9) Luoque (Bl 8) Chenling (GB 18) Luxi (SJ 19) Jiaosun (SJ 20) Chengqi (St 1) Shendao (GV 11) Lingtai (GV 10) b) Points prohibited during pregnancy Hegu (LI 4) Sanyinjiao (Sp 6) Shimen (CV 5) c) Points susceptible to provoke fainting: Yunmen (XB 2) Jinwei (CV 15) Quepen (St 12) Shanzhong (CV 17) Shuifen (CV 9) Shenque (CV 8) Huiyin (CV 1) Henggu (Ki 11) Qichong (St 30) Jimen (Sp 11) Chengjin (Bl 56) Sanli (LI 10) Sanyangluo (SJ 8) Quingling (He 2) 167. According to the Neijing. it is prohibited for novices to practice deep needling on the points: 1) Shou Wuli (LI 13) 2) Chengqi (St 1) 3) Ruzhong (St 17) 4) Quchong (St 30) 5) Jimen (Sp 11) 6) Quingling (He 2) 7) Luoque (Bl 8) 8) Yuzhen (Bl 9) 9) Chengjin (Bl 56) 10) Lingxu (Ki 24) 11) Sanyangluo (SJ 8) 12) Luxi (SJ 19) 13) Jiaosun (SJ 20) 14) Wangu (GB 12) 15) Changling (GB 19) 16) Yuanye (GB 22) 17) Jimai (Li 12) 18) Zhongshu (GV 7) 19) Naoshu (GV 17) 20) Xinhui (GV 22) 21) Shenting (GV 24) 22) Shendao (GV 11) 23) Huiyin (CV 1) 24) Shenque (CV 8) 25) Shuifen (CV 9) 26) Shanzhong (CV 17) 166. Therefore. The use of these points therefore necessitates particular precautions. one can resort to oblique or less deep punctures. In practice. This restriction is justified by the existence of vital organs or large underlying vessels and by proximity to sense organs. 4. 137 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

Jianjing (GB 21) e) The needle touching the 5 organs or making Chongyang (St 42) bleed can cause death. “Art and Practice of Acupuncture and Moxabustion of Yang Chi Chou (1522-1620 A. N.V. Also classed among the prohibited points are: Haiquan (PC ? ). Points prohibited from moxabustion are also cited in the Da Cheng: Yamen (GV 15) Fengfu (GV 16) Tianshu (Bl 10) Chengguang (Bl 6) Linqi (GB 41) Touwei (St 8) Jingming (Bl 1) Zanzhu (Bl 2) Suliao (GV 25) Heliao (SI 19) Yingxiang (SI 20) Qianliao (SI 18) Xiaguan (St 7) Renying (St 9) Tianyou (SJ 16) Shaofu (He 8) Yuanye (GB 22) Ruzhong (St 17) Jinwei (CV 15) Quchai (Bl 4) Jianzhen (SI 9) Yangchi (SJ 4) Zhongchong (XB 9) Shaochang (Lu 11) Yuji (Lu 10) Jingqu (Lu 8) Diwuhui (GB 42) Yangquan (GB 33) Yao Yangquan (GV 3) Jizhong (GV 6) Yinbai (Sp 1) Lougu (Sp 7) Yinling (Sp 9) Tiaokou (St 38) Dubi (St 35) Yinshi (St 33) Futu (St 32) Biguan (St 31) Shenmai (Bl 62) Weizhnong (Bl 40) Yinmen (Bl 37) Chengfu (Bl 36) Baihuanshu (Bl 30) Xinshu (Bl 15). Edition.N. located in the sublingual region Quanliao (SI 18).D. III. 5. The Da Cheng also raises the problem of “Meeting-Pursuit” 138 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .). 168. II. etc.

.. During needling. _ Yin channels circulate in the interior of the energetic circuit.One implants the needle to “one depth” of the energetic layer to reach the Ying energy. During the needling. one must have present in mind the sites of departure and arrival of the Jingluo: _ the 3 Yang channels of the foot going from head to foot _ the 3 Yin channels of the foot leaving from the foot toward the thoraco-abdominal region _ the 3 Yin channels of the hand leaving the thorax to reach the hand _ the 3 Yang channels of the hand going from hand to head. the Luo Yang. “orient to the left. all en sachant measuring the depth in inches (cun)”. it is indispensible for understanding the movements of the Ying energy and Wei energy: _ Yang channels circulate to the exterior of the energetic circuit. one must remain in the zone of “Suspended Yang” just as in the zone of “Double Wei” (Er Wei) and one must have clear-sightedness to evaluate the persistence or disappearance of the disease.” are movements intended to disperse in light of coolong what is heated up. one performs a stopping movement to wait for the Deqi.. one flattens out the entire site by rubbing to disseminate the blood and energy. c . At each depth.At the moment of the arrival of the energy. The technique of needling is the following: a . in the interior. it is necessary to provoke a “Suspended Yang” before employing the technique of “InspirationExpiration”. With the left hand. _ “Push in well. These acupuncture techniques are illustrated by these phrases: _ “Agitate. As for needling the Yin area corresponding to the even number. In short..”.Finally. one poses the point of the needle and asks the patient to cough while driving the needle in well toward the left and toward the right up to the dermis. the Luo Yin. one transmits to the needle an advancing movement in order to follow it. this movement is called “Maneuver of Pursuit”. Second.. This technique involves needling the Yang area responding to the odd number.. once the Deqi is obtained. one holds the needle as of one mimics the “Apparent Movement” of Heaven. one must block in order to stop. these Jingluo differ according to their depth.”. one transmits to the needle a retreating movement in order to guide it. retreat and receive.. to “two depths” to reach the Wei energy. “The Essentials of Acupuncture” states: 170. “orient to the right. at the exterior. 1 . Then it adds: “Two depths from the Ying layer is associated with the Wei zone. with the fingernail. 169.” are movements intended to tonify in light of heating up what is cooled down.”. this movement is called “Maneuver of Meeting”. “One depth from the energetic layer is associated with the Ying zone...”.. one avoids this pressure.” 3 . with the right hand. one looks for the point to needle with the left hand and. “meet and capture. one must bring forth in order to support.In the first place. then one advances the needle up to the dermis. from the right hand. in the case where one has made the point bleed. In the event of emptiness.At the moment of departure of the energy.This is a means of supply and of capturing the energy by implantation of the needle. one orients the point of the needle in the direction opposite to that of the circulation of the Jingmai to execute the “Technique of Meeting” and in the same direction to execute the “Technique of Pursuit”.. one massages the point in order to render it stable as if one mimics the “Apparent Repose” of Earth. advance and turn. b . During fullness. 2 . The Neijing has said justifiably: “In the event of fullness..Concerning the “technique of needle implantation”. 139 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . “pursue and bring forth. first.

To avoid bleeding. with the left hand one massages the point exercising a strong pressure of about 1. Tonification and dispersion are always performd as a function of dietary energy. Among acupuncture points. only the Shu points extending in width are visible and hard to the touch. Needling the channels must be done according to the rule of “Meeting-Pursuit”.. one must press on the point. The “5 Exhaustions” apply to a great emptiness of the essential energy for which dispersion is prohibited. with the right hand.” 171. one shakes the needle to achieve the technique of “Tonification-Dispersion”.5 kg. The “5 Prohibitions” designates the 5 days that needling of certain regions of the body is prohibited. CHAPTER LXI The 5 Prohibitions (Wu Jin) Chapter 61 of the Lingshu speaks on the definition of the _ _ _ _ _ “5 Prohibitions” (Wu Jin) “5 Exhaustions” (Wu Dua) “5 Excesses” (Wu Guo) “5 Contraries” (Wu Ni) “9 Indications” (Jiu Yi) (1) among which the “5 Prohibitions” are taken for the title of this chapter.As soon as the Deqi is obtained. 140 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . massaging it immediately upon removal of the needle. It is necessary then to immediately stop the action. Superficial of deep needling can cause an “Ill of acupuncture (fainting).

The “5 Contraries” designates the discordance between the pulse and signs during which needling is absolutely advised against. Huangdi: “I have heard something about the “5 Excesses” (Wu Guo).” Qi Bo: “The discordance between signs and pulses is a contrary state. Chapter 78 (“Dissertation on the 9 Needles”).” Needles” is to know the “9 “To delve very deeply into the theory of the “9 Indications”. Prohibitions” (Wu Jin) of acpuncture.” Qi Bo: “Tonification and dispersion must not exceed their limit. Cf. prohibited. This chapter consists of 4 paragraphs.” Huangdi: “I have heard something about the “5 Qi Bo: Exhaustions” (Wu Dua).” “Dispersion is strictly advised aganist in diseases forbidden to be needled”.” Huangdi: “I have heard something about the “9 Qi Bo: Indications” (Jiu Yi). PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: “I have heard something about the “5 What are these prohibitions?” Qi Bo: “It concerns the days needling is 172.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 141 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .The “5 Excesses” concern the limits of tonification and dispersion to never overstep.” Huangdi: “I have heard something about the “5 Contraries” (Wu Ni). 1. The “9 Indications” are not addressed here because they are developed in the chapter “9 Needles” of this classic.

Each has its correspondence: _ Jia-Yi (1st and 2nd Celestial Stems) respond to the head _ Ren-Gui (9th and 10th Celestial Stems).I . Xu and Chou. to the feet _ Bing-Ding (3rd and 4th Celestial Stems). the 5th. On the Bing Ding (3rd and 4th Celestial Stems) day. do not needle the head or utilize the method “Fa Meng” (light up vision) to treat the eyes and ears. “5 Excesses”. “5 Contraries” and the “9 Indications”.N. In regard to the “5 Excesses”. to the lower part of the body 142 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The 10 Celestial Stems start on the Jia-Yi (1st and 2nd Celestial Stems) day and end on the Ren-Gui (9th and 10th Celestial Stems) day. to the upper part of the body _ Gong-Xin (7th and 8th Celestial Stems). do not needle the thigh and On the Ren Gui (9th and 10th Celestial Stems) day.: The theory of the “9 Needles” is shown in Chapter 1 of this classic (“9 Needles and 12 Yuan”).Zhang Shi explains: “This paragraph completes the previous one via the study of the “5 Prohibitions”. “5 Exhaustions”.N. do not needle the leg and Such are the Wu Jin (5 prohibitions). throat and the point Lianquan (CV 23) . On the Wu Ji (5th and 6th Celestial Stems) day and on the day responding to Si Gui (“4 Precious” designating Chen. do not use the method “Chen Ai” (raise dust) to needle the shoulder. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . 8th. Zhang Jing yue specifies: “Excessive tonification maintains the perverse energy and excessive dispersion exhausts the essential energy. knee. Wei. On the Gong Xin (7th and 8th Celestial Stems) day. that is to say. II . Huangdi: “What is the meaning of the Wu Jin (5 Prohibitions) ? Please inform me of the days acupuncture are prohibited. 11th and 2nd Terrestrial Branches) do not needle the abdominal area or utilize the method Ju Zhao (remove fingernail) to disperse water (organic liquid).” Qi Bo: “On the Jia Yi (1st and 2nd Celestial Stems) day. foot.V.” PARAGRAPH 2 173.Zhang Shi explains: “1.

Gu Zhao is a technique of dispersion of “Water encroaching on Earth-Spleen” causing a stiffness of the limbs. that is to say. 2. needling the point Tinggong (SI 19) must be done at the Wu hour (7th Terrestrial Branch.V. In this case. Fa Meng (Light Up Vision) and Chen Ai (Raise Dust) are two methods of “ventilating” the energy.Ma Shi states: “The parts of the body responding to the “Celestial Stems” are: _ the head. dryness or with effusion of the synovial membranes.. it is forbidden to needle one these regions of the body on the corresponding day. on day Bing-Ding (3rd and 4th Celestial Stems) _ the thigh and knee. Chen. dyspnea. for example. Xu and Chou). fear of dust and smoke.” II . Chen Ai is a needling technique used to treat Yang afflux at the level of the thorax with the following manifestations: cough. 2. in hypoacusia and amblyopia. 11th and 2nd.” III . Yin and Yang spontaneously gather together and not under the action of the metabolism of the energy. 5. 175.N. This is why it meets up with Si-Gui (“4 Precious” designating the 4 Terrestrial Branches. Thus. Yin-Wood. Fa Meng is a needling technique of used in ENT. lumbar region and knee joint with acute or chronic inflammation. this is why it is forbidden to “extract” the Qi (that is to say. particularly tendinous synovia.In order to respond to the 4 Seasons (Heaven). 3. Tianrong (SI 17) and Lianquan (CV 23) are two specific points used. 174. to needle) on the days of the activity of these stems. “11-13h”). . The 10 Celestial Stems create and transform the “5 Movements” of Earth. on day Ren-Gui (9th nd 10th Celestial Stems).: 1. The union of these stems is spontaneous. neck and throat. These techniques and point utilized are described in Chapter 75 of this classic (“Effects of Needling on the Source Energy and Perverse Energy”).N. Therefore. Wu-Ji (5th and 6th Celestial Stems) respond to Earth. 5th. on day Jia-Yi (1st and 2nd Celestial Stems) _ the shoulder.. It concerns a simple needling technique to remove liquid located in the cutaneous system. 8th. (Fig. that is to say. on day Gong-Xin (7th and 8th Celestial Stems) _ the leg and foot. 143 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Wei. thoracic fullness. 1) 3. 4. Jia (1st Celestial Stem) designates Yang-Wood and Yi (2nd Celestial Stem).

even in the presence of perverse energy. Zhang Shi: “In the cases of cachexia and escape of the energy and blood. 144 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . fever. Huangdi: “What is the meaning of “5 Qi Bo: Exhaustions” (Wu Dua) ? ” “Extreme weight loss (cachexia) applies to the 1st exhaustion. 3. 4. Extreme weakness after marked hemorrhage characterizes the 2nd exhaustion. inflammatory rheumatism. Extreme weakness after marked sweating qualifies the 3rd exhaustion. applies to 1st Contrary. Diarrhea. Extreme weakness after marked diarrhea involves the 4th exhaustion. feverish body and empty (Xu).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 176. with calm (Jing) pulse and sweating with agitated ( D o n g ) . pulse designates the 3rd Contrary. 2. In all these cases. The overflowing of the perverse energy toward the exterior. with w i d e √ (Hong) a n d changing (Da) pulse.” PARAGRAPH 4 Huangdi: “What is the significance of the “5 Qi Bo: Contraries” (Wu Ni) ? ” “1. the method fo dispersion is strictly advised against.PARAGRAPH 3 Figure 1 The three points cited in Chapter 75 of thic classic. dispersion is strictly prohibited. pale color and melena (sign of seriousness of the disease). The disease of heat. Extreme weakness after post-partum metrorrhagia characterizes the 5th exhaustion. with articular inflammations. involves the 2nd Contrary. “Zhua Bi” (chronic paresthesia). with dry and thinned body.

) furnishes us with the following information: “1. melenous stools with coagulated blood. thinned body and hard and full pulse denotes a serious attack on SpleenStomach with appearance of Organ-Root. Hun.N. The 5 organs receive the Jing (quintessence). Overflowing of perverse energy toward the exterior..N. In the Cold-Heat disease. This phenomenon bears the name “Separation/Escaping” of blood and energy. a separation of Yin and Yang. If these 5 components are absent. Po and Yi.D. The full and hurried pulse after sweating indicates the non-excretion of perverse energy via the sweat gland. One must never injure the Jing beacuse this lesion spontaneously causes Emptiness of Yin expressing as a deprivation of energy. The heat disease with calm pulse is an Yang affliction with Yin pulse. The prognosis is fatal. the wide√ and changing pulse heralds an excretion of Yin toward the bottom and a Yang fullness toward the top. whitish color and melena” are the signs heralding the annihilation of the energy (of the exterior) and escaping of blood and organic liquid (of the interior). The exhausted pulse indicates the total deterioration of the Spleen-Stomach system. Zhang Jing Yue (1563-1640 A.. results from the escaping of Jing (quintessence) and Qi (energy). The disease of Cold-Heat. 3. causing the depletion of Yin with heat manifestations (fever). dried out and thinned body. 5. In the Zhua Bi disease (chronic paresthesia).” II .: In relationship to the “5 Contraries” (Wu Ni). that is to say.characterizes the 4th Contrary. indicates the 5th Contrary. hot body and exhausted (empty) pulse heralds the escaping of Yuan Qi (source energy). “rupture” of the muscular mass. the wide√ (Hong) and changing (Da) pulse denotes the presence of Yang in a victorious state. the pulse is generally deep and weak. The disease of heat with calm pulse is a Yang syndrome with Yin pulse. 4. top and bottom. acupuncture is strictly forbidden. treatment by acupuncture is advised against. 3. “Weight loss.V. the full (Shi) and hurried pulse indicates the exhaustion of the energy of the Yin root.Ma Shi explains: “1. 2. In these 5 Contrary” syndromes. instead of a calm pulse. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . The 5 Contrary syndromes (Wu Jin) are all associated with “Emptiness of Yin” conforming to Chapter 8 of this classic (“Origin of the Mental”): “. 177. in the chronic state with emaciation (weight loss) and hard pulse. With diarrhea. 2. Such are the “5 Contrary” (Wu Ni). 4.. The dimunition of bodily form caused by cold and heat with strong and hard pulse indicates the fullness of perverse energy and emptiness of essential energy.. After sweating. With diarrhea.” 145 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Zhua Bi (chronic paresthesia) with “rupture-decay” of the muscular masses is due to the presence of perverse humidity which alters the “Xing” (form) and becomes transformed little by little into heat. As a result. In contrast. 5. those manipulating the needles must carefully study the state of the patient to determine the presence or absence of Jing. 5. Shen.

Renying (St 9). Jingqu (Lu 8) and Lieque (Lu 7) are propelled by the energy of the lung in relation to the unceasing movements of inspiration and expiration. is propelled by Han Qi (free energy exempt from constraint) of the stomach. This chapter also addresses the obvious relevance of the Luo Vessels (Longitudinal Luo or Luo Bie) and Si Jie (4 points of passage.” This chapter consist of 4 paragraphs. _ The arterial point of the Foot Yangming (St). 146 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Taixi (Ki 3). CHAPTER LXII Arterial Points (Dong Shu) (1) Chapter 62 of the Lingshu raises the problem of the existence of “arterial points” (Dong Shu) at the level of the 3 channels: Hand Taiyin (Lu).no. entry and exit) in the circulatory process of Ying Qi (nutritive energy). hence the title of this chapter. 178/179. Foot Yangming (St) and Foot Shaoyin (Ki). is propelled by the energy of the descending branch of the Chongmai. Taiyuan (Lu 9). _ The arterial points of Cun Kou (radial pulse). Foot Yangming (St) and Foot Shaoyin (Ki). Ma Shi emphasizes: “Chapter 62 of the Lingshu gives dissertation on the unceasing pulsations of certain points located on the Hand Taiyin (Lu). _ the arterial point of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki).

only the Hand Taiyin (Lu).UJ) bears the name Xin Qi (metabolized 147 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . and “Shu” designates the energetic points of unceasing movements. and each inspiration. has its source at the stomach. “Dong” in the sense of “Dong Mai” which means “arterial vessels”.“sea” of the 5 organs and 6 bowels.. Huangdi: “Among the 12 Jingmai. also to 2 pulsations. From here.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . the energetic potential gradually dies doww. The stomach. Inspiration and expiration are uninterrupted. Qi Bo: Kou (mouth of the inch: radial pulse). Concerning the points of the other vessels. it is necessary to carefully study the stomach vessel to better understand the lung vessel. Where does where does is leak/escape/recede What are the routes of this clearly grasped their mechanism. the channel of the lung because this channel. recieves the Cereal Water (Shui Gu: food) in order to transform it into energy. Literally. although starting at the lung organ. • Qi Bo’s reply calls forth. Why?” Qi Bo: “This underscores. At its arrival at the thenar eminence (Yuji. Foot Yangming (St) and Foot Shaoyin (Ki) such as: _ Taiyuan (Lu 9) _ Renying (St 9) _ Taixi (Ki 3) _ Chongyang (St 42).Lu 10) .” “When the energy leaves the organ for the exterior. the energy grows progressively weaker. hence Huangdi’s question. PARAGRAPH 1 180.1. The pure energy reaches the lung. even more. Foot Yangming (St) and Foot Shaoyin (Ki) are endowed with arterial points. in the first place.Ma Shi explains: “Huangdi questions about the pulsatile (arterial) points belonging only to the Hand Taiyin (Lu). Each expiration responds to 2 pulsations. That contained in the Shangjiao (Upper Jiao. the pulsation is weak and imperceptible.” Huangdi: “The energy passes via Cun it progresses rapidly. this energy come from? When it regresses slowly. The energy of the lung starts via the Taiyin (Lu) and follows the respiratory rhythm. The stomach is the “sea” of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. the residual energy becomes dispersed in order to carry out an ascent. . fuit√? progression and this regression? I have still not Please inform me. This is why the pulsations are unceasing.. the importance of the relationship between the energy of the stomach and the pulse. Therefore. it is as rapid as an arrow shot from a bow. like a waterfall dropping into a river.

that is. it is elaborated at the Zhongjiao (MJ).The lung. Ying Qi is a pure energy (Sheng Qi). b .This cyclic circulation follows the respiratory rhythm. a total of 5 pulsations for each respiration. As a result. once arriving at the thenar eminence.: The original text of this paragraph is extremely difficult to interpret. and each expiration also to 2 pulsations.N. is the only organ endowed with uninterrupted movements. one distinguishes 2 types of Ying (Rong) energy. The energy leaves the organ like an arrow flying from a bow.St). it reaches: _ the Hand Yangming (LI) _ Foot Yangming (St) _ Foot Taiyin (Sp) _ Hand Shaoyin (He) _ Hand Taiyang (SI) _ Foot Taiyang (Bl) _ Foot Shaoyin (Ki) _ Hand Jueyin (XB) _ Hand Shaoyang (SJ) _ Foot Shaoyang (GB) _ Foot Jueyin (Li).V. it passes to the thenar eminence in order to pursue its trajectory. belong to the Hand Taiyin (Lu) where the point Taiyuan (Lu 9) is found.Lu 11).LJ). Do not confuse the energy of the stomach. “Qi” = energy) and that circulating within the Jingmai called “Ying (Rong) Qi (nutritive energy). it flows into the lung to be transported into the Taiyin (Lu).N. Each inspiration responds to 2 pulsations.” II . This is why. It descends to the Xiajiao (Lower Jiao. Our translation is based of the explanations of Zhang Jing Yue (1563-1640 A. to which one must add 1 more respiration responding to the movement of rest.D. the pulsations are unceasing. finally returning to the Hand Taiyin (Lu). Then from there. Wei Qi. also called Zu Qi (energy of the foot or energy of Foot Yangming.MJ) is named Ying Qi (nutritive energy). site of outcome/result of the “100 vessels”. that contained within the Jingmai called Wei Qi (“Wei” = stomach. it spreads thin to carry out an ascending movement (toward Shaochang. 181.). 182. According to Ma Shi. 2. Sheng Qi (pure energy coming from foods) follows the Xin Qi (metabolized energy or new energy) in order to circulate within the Jingmai. 148 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the other channels.Cun Kou (mouth of the inch: radial pulse). site of reunion of the 12 Jingmai. the energy grows weaker. But once arriving at Yuji (Lu 10). under the action of the Zhongjiao (MJ). with the defensive energy called Wei Qi. being in continual motion. then.energy or new energy) and that contained in the Zhongjiao (Middle Jiao. Inspiration and expiration. c . When it arrives at Cun Kou. This energy contained in the stomach is only the Wei Qi (energy of the stomach) (2). then asecnds to the Shangjiao (UJ). It cannot be compard to the other organs. when it leaves the thenar eminence. a . manifest by weak and small pulsations. Therefore.

From the brain. 183. Therefore. elaborated at the Shangjiao (UJ). reaches the cephalic region via th laryngo-pharyngeal route. First. mouth) penetrates into the brain via the ocular system comes back out at the forehead passes to the point Re Zhu Ren (other for Shangguan. and via the ocular path.GB 3) reaches the point Jiache (St 6) to unite with Foot Yangming (St) and redescends with the Foot Yangming (St) to the point (St 9) . nose. it comes back out via the point Jingming (Bl 1). top (Renying: carotid pulse) and (Cun Kou: radial pulse) beat in unison. Yin and Yang. ears. and descends to the point Jiache (St 6). It makes up part of the energy of the stomach. the large pulse is contrary.” bottom EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . Han Qi rises up toward the head via the path of the throat. then successively passes the points: _ Zanshu (Bl 2) _ Quchai (Bl 4) _ Wuchu (Bl 5) _ Chengguang (Bl 6) _ Tongtian (Bl 7) _ and Luoque (Bl 8) to penetrate into the brain. string In total. reaching the point Shangguan (GB 3). the small pulse is contrary _ and in the Yin disease. Han Qi. it emerges at the forehead. where it unites with the Foot Yangming (St) which accompanies it to the point Renying (St 9). Yin and Yang are in together in movement and restlike a tense whose relaxing represents the disease.PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “Where do the pulsations of the Foot Yangming (St) come from?” Qi Bo: “The energy of the stomach flow out into the lung. When the energy of the stomach arrives at the lung. This particular vessel of the energy of the stomach ascends and descends in such a way that top and 149 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . A part of this energy. Han Qi (free energy exempt from constraint) . it affects the “7 orifices”.Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph concerns the pulsations of the energy of the Foot Yangming (St). _ _ _ _ _ _ Renying reaches the “7 orifices” (eyes. This is why: _ in the Yang disease. is totally Yang. The infiltration of these vessels of the energy of the stomach in this cephalic region transmits unceasing pulsations to Renying (St 9: carotid pulse) .

Examination of Qi Kou is performed at the right wrist. at the left pulse. the energy of the stomach and that of the lung are mutually controlled. it indicates the disease of exogenous etiology in the process of disappearing. Ma Shi’s explanation in Chapter 19 (“Energies of the 4 Seasons”). nor full. its pulse is reflected at Renying (St 9: carotid pulse).N. but soft. its pulse is reflected at Cun Kou (radial pulse). of this classic is the following: “Examination of the pulse is aimed at appreciating the state of worsening or improvement of the disease. As a result. it denoted the regression of the disease of endogenous etiology.bottom.V. Cun Kou of the right wrist bears the name Qi Kou (“mouth of the energy”) and that of the left. Paragraph 16. and examination of Renying. their pulsations are in harmony as if they were one”. Qi Kou (right radial pulse) is intended to respond to diseases localizing at the 6 Yin channels (feet and hands) because it belongs to the energy coming from the organs (Yin). the pulse must be wide and large because the small pulse is contrary (to the disease).: This paragraph involves the processes of the unceasing movements of the point Renying (St 9: carotid pulse) of the Foot Yangming. Renying (left radial pulse). in the case where the Yang disease is calm and the Yin disease is agitated like drawing a string on the/one’s side√. Such is the cause of the permanent beating of the pulse of the stomach from which one can determine the nature of the disease.” II . (Figure 1) Zhang Jing Yue specifies: “The energy of the stomach is the Yangming. belonging to the energy coming from the bowels (Yang). the name Renying (“human reception”). Yin and Yang beat in unison. 184. In individuals affected by Yang diseases. In the presence of these pulses. If Qi Kou is neither firm. As a result. is intended to respond to diseases localizing at the 6 Yang channels (feet and hands). the disease evolves in 3 days toward cure. Similarly.” 150 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . if the channels are still in a state of fullness. In clinical practice. this represents disease.N. if Renying reveals the same qualities. nor slippery. That of the lung is the Taiyin.

PARAGRAPH 3 151 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only 185. .Figure 1: Circulation of Han Qi (free energy exempt from constraint) of the stomach and the Renying (carotid) pulse.

J. descends the inner surface of the thigh. Is this that?” 186. reaches the posterior part of the internal malleolus. “sea” of the 12 Jingmai. page 253. There is the Chongmai named “Sea” of the 5 Organs and 6 Bowels. Qi Bo: “This is not that. behind the internal malleolus. it has a vessel which projects into Qijie (other name for Qichong. Edition. located on the posterior tibial artery.” II .Ki 4 is located) to heat up the bones and muscles of the leg.N.N. follows the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) in order to descend the inner thigh of the leg and cross the points: _ Fuliu (Ki 7) _ Shaohai (Ki 6) _ Shuiquan (Ki 5) _ Dachong (Ki 4). A branch passes to Qijie (other name for Qichong.T.V. 152 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . page 235. This blood and energy is directed toward the top and emerges via the throat where it flows down into the Yang channels. N.St 30). numerous branches penetrate toward the top of the foot and into the space of the great toe where they permeate and heat up the muscles and tendons. in order to arrive at Yongquan (Ki 1) located at the sole of the foot. is a great vessel coming from the kidney. is found in order to heat up the lower limb. the Chongmai emits numerous little vessels toward the top of the foot where the point Chongyang (St 42).N. At the bottom of the abdomen.. Edition. Volume II. Once having arrived atDachong (Ki 4). (Figure 2) It is therefore via the Chongmai that the pulsations of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) are unceasing.. The 5 organs and 6 bowels are maintained in blood and energy by the Chongmai.: Chapter 38 of this classic (“Contrary and Favorable. We recall it here: Huangdi: “Only the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) is endowed with a vessel directed toward the bottom. Luo point of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I .St 30) and from there it runs alongside the inner thigh and penetrates into the popliteal crease and edges its way toward the inner surface of the leg to permeate the 3 Yin channels to behind the internal malleolus where the great Luo of the kidney is found. It is therefore via the energy of Chongmai that the pulsations of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) are unceasing. bearing the name 3. Fat and Thin”) also describes the descending branch of the Chongmai (3). descends the inner thigh. Taixi (Ki 3).S. Dachong (Ki 4). arrives at the top of the foot via the path of the Luo of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) (where Dachong. one of the “8 Curious Vessels” large vessel coming from the kidney. The Chongmai. At this level.Huangdi: “Where do the arterial pulsations of Foot Shaoyin (Ki) come from?” Qi Bo: “Chongmai. See Lingshu. located on the pedal artery.V. has a branch which passes to Qijie (Qichong.Ma Shi specifies: “This paragraph concerns the arterial point of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki).St 30).

runs alongside the inner thigh to the popliteal crease and flows alongside the inner leg to the point Dachong (Ki 4). no one would be able to explain this Dao. Ma Shi furnishes a similar explanation in this regard: “This paragraph concerns the descending trajectory of the Chongmai. The Chongmai is the “sea” of the 5 organs and 6 bowels because it maintains them in blood and energy. Small ancient coins or. 187. more subtle than Hao and Li (4). the artery continues to beat.St 30).Figure 2: Descending branch of the Chongmai and its branches.” 4. origin of cold (of the feet). In the event of stagnation of these little vessels. Its descending trajectory starts at Qijie (Qichong. Li = miilimeter. more exactly. located behind the iinternal malleolus 153 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . and the absence of pulse at the top of the foot indicates Jue Ni (afflux). In the absence of stasis.” Huangdi: “The Dao (of acupuncture) transmitted by the sages is deep! It is more luminous than the sun and moon. Without you. we know how to understand the favorable and unfavorable reason.” Huangdi: “On what basis to you say that?” Qi Bo: “It is based on patient questioning and palpation of the pulse (of the pedal artery). the artery (pedal) stops beating. Therefore. small units of measure: Hao = centimeter.

During attack by perverse energy or great cold. like a circle without end. it is an unfavorable sign. This is why. the opposite is favorable. not able to be stopped by any perverse energy. like a circle without end. Huangdi would like to be informed: _ about Ying Qi which follows the Tong Qi (a priori energy) in order to circulate within the channels. beginning by the zones associated with the Foot Taiyang (Bl) and ending by the Foot Taiyin (Sp). The are also the sites where the Luo vessels belonging to the Jingmai depart from.” PARAGRAPH 4 Huangdi: “ Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) circulate everywhere within the body. entry and exit) are quicker/ shortened √ r a c c o u r c i sites of reunion of Qi (Ying and Wei). When the 4 limbs are free of perverse energy. despite the obstruction of these Luo vessels by perverse energy. (Figure 2) In the event of stasis at the level of these branches.where numerous branches depart: _ the ascending branches start at Qijie and are directed toward the leg and permeate the 3 Yin channels (liver. above and below.. Y i n g and Wei resume their normal pathway (path of the Luo) in order to circulate like a circle without end. absence of beating of the artery (pedal) indciates a contrary afflux (Jue Ni). _ and the branches which reach the top of the foot and pass to the point Yingquan (Ki 1) on the one hand.. But what criterion explains this? One basis one’s judgment on information from the patient before examining the pulse. What path aids the Qi to circulate beforehand?”comme aupraravent 188. beginning by the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and ending by the Foot Jueyin (Li). the correlation of Yin and Yang of the channels continues to be assured by the routes of the Si Jie. The Si Jie (4 sites of passage. Yin and Yang are perturbed.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . cannot be enumerated. Qi Bo: “The 4 limbs are the sites of gathering of the Yin channels and Yang channels. The absence or presence of energetic afflux at the level of the foot is therefore easy to diagnose. _ and about Wei Qi circulating within the interchannel spaces and within the pilo-cutaneous system.” Huangdi: Correct! This is clearly the meaning of the “Necklace of Jade without beginning or end” whose cycles are constantly renewed. responsible for cold feet. 154 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . spleen and kidney). permeate the Luo to heat up the muscles and tendons. This clearly explains the problem I wanted to delve deeply into.Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on the circulation of Ying and Wei. the limbs are fatigued and lax. If the artery (pedal) ceases beating. and the space of the great toe on the other hand. the points of reunion of blood and energy are in disequilibrium. .

155 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Edition. page 47. Faced with the case of an individual. there are always other paths of aeration which are free that allow the Ying Qi to circulate following a circle without end. beginning by the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and ending by the Foot Jueyin (Li)? _ and by what pathway can Wei circulate like before. called “Si Jie” are the auxillary mechanisms of aeration of the Jingmai (5). in the case of obstruction of the Luo vessels..N. Therefore.: This paragraph’s theme is the role of the Luo vessels (Longitudinal Luo or Luo Bie: Distinct Luo) and “Si Jie” (4 points of passage. _ Si Jie are the 4 points of opening by which Ying Qi circulating within the channels communicate with Wei Qi circulating outside the channels within the flesh and skin. presenting fatiguability and laxity of the limbs. suddenly in the presence of perverse energy or great cold. This is why neither perverse energy nor great cold can stop it. that is to say. entry and exit) in the circulatory process of Ying energy within the channels. 189. no 190/191. that is to say. See Chapter 52 of the Lingshu (“Defensive Energy”). In effect.T. Our reply is that of Qi Bo’s. 5. four in number.S.” II .V. _ the 4 limbs are the sites of reunion of beginning and ending of the Yin and Yang channels (5). _ how can these channels avoid obstruction? _ by what pathway can Ying circulate as before. Recall that: _ the Luo points are the principal mechanisms of aeration of the Jingmai _ the Qijie points.N.• Yin and Yang channels communicate like a circle without beginning or end. J. They are also the sites of connection of the Luomai and Jingmai. beginning by the Foot Taiyang (Bl) and ending by the Foot Taiyin (Sp)? The problem is quite delicate.

it extends 156 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This is why. _ the bitter sapor is directed toward the bones and its nausea and vomiting. PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi questions Shao Yu: “The “Five Sapors”. this energy (sapor) reaches the descending route and inserts into the bladder whose wall is thin and supple. _ the spicy sapor is directed toward the energetic part provoke the sensation of emptiness of the heart. _ the salty sapor is directed toward the blood part and thirst. _ the sour sapor is directed toward the muscles and its urinary retention. of immersing and astringent quality. Can you tell me the cause. Yin Qi designates the genito-urinary system. this wall retracts and causes blockage of the liquid circulation.Middle Jiao/MJ and Shangjiao. “During penetration of sour sapor into the stomach. If the interior of the stomach is temperate. is directed toward the two Jiao (Zhongjiao.Upper Jiao/UJ) and can no longer carry out movements of entry and exit. when the sour sapor reaches the liver. hence urinary retention. but I unaware of their origin.CHAPTER LXIII Dissertation on the Five Sapors (Wu Wei Lu) This Chapter 63 of the Lingshu speaks on the distribution of the “5 Sapors” at the level of the organs. The title. excess can provoke its excess can provoke and its excess can excess can provoke and its excess can I know this. is thus explained. elaborated at the level of the stomach. This chapter consists of 5 paragraphs.” Shao Yu replies: 192. it remains in the stomach. “Dissertation on the Five Sapors” (Wu Wei Lu). The excessive supply of sapor can cause diseases. In contact with the sour sapor. its energy. that is to say. Therefore. are all directed toward their site of distribution and can cause disease. _ the sweet sapor is directed toward the flesh (dermis) provoke melacholy. site of gathering of the energy of the muscles.

Then. The vesicular covering membrane. in Chapter 23 of the Suwen (“Discourse on the Five Energies”). it becomes directed toward the 2 Jiao: Zhongjiao (MJ) and Shangjiao (UJ). Its excess can cause thirst. 157 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Ma Shi clarifies: “The sour sapor is an energy of a “descending. hence urinary retention. This retraction blocks the liquid route. The liver governs the muscles. In diseases of the muscles. It then produces a fusion of blood and salty sapor. Its sapor is sour. it extends toward Tong Jin (reunion of accumulated muscles in the pubic region) at the level of Yin Qi (energy of the genital organs). This is why. “When the salty sapor penetrates into the stomach. responsible for blood stagnation bringing with it an afflux of stomach water in order to augment the hygrometric degree. the pharyngeal path and base of the tongue dry out. do not give overly sour foods. Why?” Shao Yu: 193. when the water of the interior of the stomach is exhausted.” PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “ T h e salty sapor reaches the blood part. it is advised: “Sour disperses the muscles.toward Tong Jin (Union of Muscles). and at the exterior. The moderate and well-balanced heat (Wen) of the interior of the stomach prompts it to reach the bottom and insert into the bladder. gathering and conserving” nature. its energy reaches the Zhongjiao (MJ) which directs it into the blood vessels. thin and supple. becomes retracted upon receiving the sour sapor. in the interior. urinary retention is its illness. Arriving at the Zhongjiao (Middle Jiao: fundus) of the stomach. giving a sensation of thirst. In this regard.

when sapor energy of ginger and garlic rises up toward the Shangjiao (UJ). The salty sapor is an energy belonging to Water-Cold.These blood vessels are circulatory routes dependent on the Zhongjiao (MJ).V.” PARAGRAPH 3 194. hence the necessary presence of liquid substance contained within the stomach to humidify them. the salty sapor must necessarily flow down into the Zhongjiao (MJ) before passing into the blood because this is the site of departure of all blood and energetic vessels of the organism. The spicy sapor circulates with the Qi ( 1 ) . it stimulates without stopping the Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy). it causes “agitation” of the heart (emptiness of the heart). once within the stomach. When the energy of the salty sapor arrives at the Zhongjiao (MJ).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . its energy ascends toward the Shangjiao (UJ) whose function is to receive the dietary Jing and distribute it into the Yang (external) parts of the body. hence exhaustion of gastric liquid. Blood vessels are pathways belonging to the Zhongjiao (MJ).N. they can reach the exterior by sweating. Upon exhaustion of this liquid substance. Blood stagnation due to fusion of blood and salty sapor automatically triggers a call to the lqiuid substance contained within the stomach. “Blood is a thick substance of red color conditioned by the Zhongjiao (MJ) which executes the order of the Shen lodged within the heart. it spontaneously passes into the blood. the salty sapor passes spontaneously into the blood.Ma Shi clarifies: “This paragraph concerns the overly salty food causing thirst. According to him. If it remains in the region “under the heart” (epigastric) for a longtime.” II . Its excess can provoke agitation of the heart (sensation of emptiness of the heart).N.” 158 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the laryngo-pharyngeal route and base of the tongue dry out provoking the sensation of thirst. As a result. Therefore. Huangdi: “The spicy sapor reaches the energetic part. Why?” Shao Yu: “When the spicy sapor arrives in the stomach. the fusion of blood and salty sapor causes the phenomena of stagnation and dryness/accumulation.: The explanaton of the process of formation of blood stagnation given by Ren Yu Yin is very close to that furnished by Ma Shi. Together. Once within the stomach. responsible for dryness of the throat (pharynx) and tongue with sensation of thirst. This is why.

the energy of the spicy sapor. Why?” Shao Yu: “The bitter sapor . Wei (defensive) energy. So. Zhongjiao (MJ) and Xiajiao (LJ). When the spicy sapor arrives in the stomach. 1. At this level.: This paragraph accentuates the functions of the Shangjiao (UJ) and Xiajiao (LJ). If the spicy sapor of ginger and garlic stagnates for a longtime within the region “under the heart” (gastric). The arrival of the spicy sapor expresses as sweating. 159 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . PARAGRAPH 4 Huangdi: “The bitter sapor is directed toward the bones. As a result. it descends into Xia Wan (lower portion of the stomach) where it: _ obstructs the circulatory paths of the Sanjiao (SJ): Shangjiao (UJ). do not give overly spicy foods”. in penetrating into the stomach. Qi designates Ying and Wei and not “breath” (movement of air that one produces upon expiring forcefully) as has been claimed by some European acupuncturists.V. making up part of the osseous system.N. perturbs the energy of Wu Gu (5 Cereals). In diseases of Qi. indicator of the escaping of the energy Therefore.EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . Their misappreciation renders the practice of acupuncture uncertain. _ disturbs the metabolic functions of the stomach _ and causes the dysharmony of the Qi (energy). once it has arived at the Shangjiao (UJ). elaborated from the Xiajiao (LJ). circulates within the intercellular spaces. hence nausea and vomiting.” II . it can disturb this region and rise up toward the Shangjiao (UJ) to trigger a sensation of “emptiness of the heart”. Its excess causes nausea and vomiting. its energy must necessarily reach the Shangjiao (UJ) because it is the site of reception of Qi. how can the heart not be in emptiness? Chapter 23 of the Suwen (“Disocurse on the Five Energies”) advises: 195. • The teeth. In medicine. during their meeting. are called “terminal sites of the bones”. cannot interfere with the Qi.N. the spicy sapor and the energy of the heart fuse and circulate together. foods that can no longer defeat it.Ma Shi clarifies: “This paragraph concerns overly spicy food with the ability to provoke a sensation of “emptiness of the heart” (agitation of the heart). Moreover. the Wei receives the energy of the spicy sapor. “Spicy disperses the Qi.

CV 12) and Shangjiao (UJ. it also arrives at the teeth.” Chapter 23 of the Suwen advises: “Bitter disperses the bones. Once in the stomach. the bitter sapor cannot be defeated by the other energies (already contained within the stomach).xxxx. In diseases of the bones. The teeth are the terminal parts of the bony system.CV 10 is found). responsible for nausea and vomiting.xxxxx. once in the stomach. the teeth. is directed first toward the bones. it descends into Xia Wan (lower portion of the stomach where the point xxxxx .” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Ma Shi clarifies: “This paragraph involves the nausea and vomiting due to overly bitter foods.CV 13) become obstructed. that is to say. Therefore. nausea and vomiting are the indicators of the penetration of bitter sapor into the bones.The spicy sapor . hence the phenomena of dysharmony of the energy of the stomach. 196. and the energies located at the Zhongjiao (MJ. As a result. When the bitter sapor reaches the bones. post-prandial vomiting is the indicator of an attack of the bones by excessive bitter sapor.” 160 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . do not give overly bitter foods.

” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . “the sweet sapor is directed toward the flesh” because the sweet sapor responds to Earth and Spleen-Earth governs the flesh (dermis). its energy is weak and modest and cannot ascend to the Sangjiao (UJ). PARAGRAPH 5 Huangdi: “The sweet sapor is directed toward the flesh (dermis). This is why its energy is weak and cannot reach the Shangjiao (UJ: cardia). Why?” Shao Yu: “The sweet sapor arrives at the stomach. it stagnates within the Zhongjiao (MJ: fundus). 161 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 197. The sweet sapor is directed toward the exterior. The sweet sapor attracts parasites.” II . Its excess causes malancholy.Zhang Jing Yue (1563-1640 A. Therefore. As a result. the stomach becomes weak and distended. Its energy is slow and weak.: 1 .) gives us the following information: “The nature of the sweet sapor is supple and fluid. This parasitosis is the cause of melancholy in man. This is why the text speaks of “reawakening/agitation” of parasites.N. The sweet sapor of supple quality rsponds to Earth. Moreover.V. Along with the other dietary energies. the energy of the sweet sapor.D.N.Figure 1: Overly bitter sapor within Xia Wan. consequently reaches this region in such a way that the interior (Li) and exterior (Biao) communicate. This is why its energy reaches the flesh (dermis). This is why the excess of sweet sapor causes melancholy. once within the stomach. responsible for “awakening” and “agitation” of parasites.Ma Shi clarifies: “This paragraph involves overly sweet foods with the ability to cause melancholy. it cannot ascend to the Shangjiao (UJ) and must remain with the other dietary energies within the stomach. As the flesh is at the external part of the body. the cause of melancholy. hence stomach distention.

In Chapter 23 of the Suwen. CHAPTER LXIV Yin and Yang and the 25 Morphotypes (Yin Yang Er Shi Wu Ren) 162 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .” 2 . This is why the energy of the sweet sapor is weak and imperceptible. it is advised: “Sweet disperses the flesh. In conclusion. they unite with humidity to become transformed into lumbricoides whose movements influence the energy of the heart. _ “Yangming-Dryness-Heat” is the natural energy of the stomach. The “soft” quality belongs to Earth and the “wet” quality. the best way is to endeavour to understand. Lumbricoides are parasites responding to Yin. In the chronic state. Ma Shi has said: “In order to conquer lack of understanding. Also.Ren Gu Yin issues the following remarks: “The sweet sapor is associated with the culture of ricefields. In diseases of the flesh. the majority of works published on this subject in the West to this day do not conform to the spirit of Huangdi due to an imperfect and partial knowledge of Classical Chinese Medicine. If the stomach is weak and distended. _ “Taiyin-Humidity-Earth” govern Qi and render it supple and humid. It responds to the energy of the Kun Palace ( ) corresponding to Earth whose property is “suppleness” and “humidity”. to humidity. hence “torments” of the heart (melancholy). 198.” 199. Unfortunately. the movements of lumbricoides allow the heart to be plagued by torments”.This is why too sweet sapors come to a standstill within the stomach with the other dietary energies. Its fundamental bases are developed in Chapter 23 of the Suwen (“Discourse on the Five Energies”) and Chapters 54 (“Celestial Age”). causing confusion and lack of understanding. do not give overly sweet foods. Chinese “dietetics” rely on very simple and clear principles. 63 (“Dissertation on the Five Sapors”) and 64 (“Yin and Yang and the 25 Morphotypes”) of the Lingshu.

the classification of beings and things do not leave the scope of the “5 Movements”...). This chapter consists of 15 paragraphs.. PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: “I have heard something about 2 types of man responding to Yin and Yang.) and the 4 Seasons (spring. Zhu. centered on the study of the 25 Morphotypes as a function of Yin and Yang and the 5 Movements. Gong. Yu) the coloration of the skin (white. there exist 5 X 5 = 25 types of man. within the space “Heaven-Earth” and within the “6 Regions” (4 cardinal points + anterior and posterior). I would like simply to be informed of: _ these 25 types of man _ the formation of their energy and blood _ and the knowledge of the external structure in order to judge their interior. rounded face. Each morphotype is studied as a function of: _ _ _ _ _ the musical note (Jiao... whose morphology is grouped into 5 different prototypes of normal type. Shang. loyal. 200. is therefore entitled: “Yin and Yang and the 25 Morphotypes (Yin Yang Er Shi Wu Ren)”.. besides the Yin type and Yang type. black.Chapter 64 of the Lingshu speaks on the 25 Morphotypes according to Yin-Yang and the 5 Movements. The therapeutic rules and princple of choice of points used in these cases are also addressed. summer. How do you distinguish them?” According to Ba Gao.) behavior (sincere attitude. In this manner. left/right) in light of determining the emptiness and fullness of blood and energy of each of the 25 Morphotypes. Each movement decays into “5 Different Impulses”. How do you distinguish them?” Qi Bo: 163 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The significance of this chapter resides in the study of the 3 Yin and 3 Yang channels (top/bottom. Chapter 64.) the bodily form (square face.. I know all this. yellow..

Earth. and Yin and Yang is divided in turn into “5 Movements” (Wu Xing). human morphology responding to the 5 Movements is classified into 25 distinct types of man. making 1+2+2 = 5. within each movement exists 1 Yin and 1 Yang.” Qi Bo: “Therefore listen! I am going to explain them to you slowly and progressively. Tai Yi (“First Principle”: to pass from one extreme to the other) is divided into Yin and Yang. Metal. Each of these 5 Movements are regrouped into 5 other movements. and within Yin and within Yang exist the First Principle (Tai Yi). “to base one’s judgment on the external aspect in order to judge the interior” is a notion that Ba Gao himself has not yet been able to elucidate. Because the 5 Movements each consist of 5 other movements. Therefore. As for men responding to the Yin channels and Yang channels. In the space “Heaven-Earth”.Ma Shi explains: “In this paragraph. This is why Heaven. The experiences that have not been transmitted are a heavy loss. Huangdi relates that Ba Gao had explained to him human morphology as a function of the 5 Movements. leaving his place with deference. Wood is the principle movement. they do not enter into the context of the 5 Movements. says: “I have heard this said.“Your question is most pertinent! It concerns here knowledge carefully perserved by our Masters that Ba Gao was not yet able to elucidate.” Huangdi. but this movement is divided into “Top/Bottom” movement and “Left/Right” movement. I wish to gather all the knowledge of our Masters and enclose them preciously in the Box of Gold. and the organism must faithfully reflect this law.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . for example.” 164 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Therefore. Earth and Man are necessarily found within the sphere of activity of the 5 Movements. 201. Men responding to the 5 Movements each have a different morphologic type. But experiences developed in a disorderly fashion are severely disapproved of. Fire. energetic formation and blood. Therefore.” Huangdi: “Please teach me all of them. Water” and then distinguish the 5 Colors in order to differentiate these 5 types of man which form in all 5 X 5 = 25 Morphotypes.” Qi Bo: “It is first necessary to determine the 5 prototypes of man responding to “Wood.

behaves like man of the East. 165 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . His attitude is level-headed and presumption.V. • He is greenish in color and has a long face. • The “ W o o d ” prototype is grouped into 4 morphotypes: top. PARAGRAPH 2 Qi Bo: “First. The body is small. 202. left and right. He is talented and hard-working. • He likes spring and summer and poorly tolerates autumn and winter.II .: As for typology linked to the Jingmai (principal channels). This type of man responding to the note Shang Jiao (upper Jiao) belongs to the Foot Jueyin (Li).N.N. The individual of “Wood” prototype. compared to the note Shang Jiao (upper J i a o ) . The head is small. then clearly differentiate the 5 Colors responding to the 5 Movements in order to establish the 25 types of man. The shoulders are large. bottom. Fire. Metal. determine the 5 Protoypes responding to “Wood. Earth. He is preoccupied with and given entirely to his work. Chapter 72 of the classic (“Celestial Relationships”) is devoted to it. Water”. The back is straight. The feet and hands are agile.

These comparisons therefore are based on the representation of Wood. “Shoulders and back are large” evokes the image of the bushy appearance of its branches and leaves. The W o o d morphotype modelled on the note Di Jiao (upper left Jiao) is compared to the type responding to the Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the right and to the type responding to the upper part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). “He is not so rubust” like Wood with its fragile branches and easily stirred by wind. The Wood morphotype modelled on the note Tai Jiao (major Jiao) is compared to the type responding to the Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the left and to the type responding to the upper part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). Greenish-gray is the color of Wood. 4. more advanced state).Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on the Wood prototype of man compared to the note Jiao and responding to the Foot Jueyin (Li). The signs of attack are basically nonchalance and fatigue (asthenia) belonging to the liver organ. material of common objects. This is why. This is why the Wood type is compared to the note Shang Jiao (Upper Jiao) and man of the East (1). Interior-Exterior” system of relationship. “Small head” evokes the image of the branch of a tree. “He is talented” like Wood. Its attitude is honest and loyal. “Straight body” evokes the mage of a tree trunk. 3. “He poorly tolerates autumn and winter” like Wood which loses its foliage and dries out during these two periods. These similarities then are based on the reactive phenomena of the 4 Seasons.1. Its attitude is conformist. in autumn and winter. The W o o d morphotype modelled on the note Xie Jiao (Jiao of the right) is compared to the type responding to the Foot Shaoyang of the right and to the type responding to the lower part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . 203. Wood corresponds to the East. to the note Jiao and to the color green. The W o o d morphotype modelled on the note Fan Jiao (half Jiao) is compared to the typer responding to the Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the left and to the type rsponding to the lower part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). Its attitude is toward progress (better. “He like spring and summer” like Wood is lush during these two seasons. the disease belongs to the Foot Jueyin (LI). “He is preoccupied with and entirely given to his work” like Wood permanently active. 166 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . in the event of attack of perverse energy. The Foot Shaoyang (GB) and Foot Jueyin (Li) constitute the “Yin-Yang. “Long face” evokes the image of the elongated shape of its vegetable. “Small feet and hands” evokes the appearance of branches and roots which are finer. Its attitude is affabilty and accomodation (with a tendency to submission). 2.

The Wu Yin (5 basic notes of Oriental music) are utilized in medicine within the relationship between Heaven. Earth and Man.. Tai Jiao (major Jiao). Di Jiao and Fan Jiao. Generally. to Metal _ Yu.: 1 . Ancient China was divided into 5 regions: East. to Fire 205. West. In this way: _ Jiao responds to Wood _ Zhi. Gong.N.. are the sites of gathering of the Jingmai (energy) and Xuemai (blood). _ Gong. Di Jiao and Fan Jiao. II . 204. 167 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .” 1. Xie Jiao. Di Jiao (left upper Jiao) and Fan Jiao (halfJiao) are secondary notes associated with the mutation of Yin-Yang (responding to the liver and gallbladder). The Wu Yin are: Jiao. Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the left side and Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the right side. to Water. Xie Jiao (Jiao of the left). Shang and Yu. Each fundamental note becomes divided into into Tai Jiao. Xie Jiao. Zhi. North.Shang Jiao (Upper Jiao) is the principal note responding the Liver-Wood (Foot Jueyin). the Wu Yin (5 basic notes) represent the Wu Xing (5 Movements).V. Each responds to one tone (musical) which is proper to it: Tai Jiao.N. South and Center. to Earth _ Shang. and their upper and lower parts.

. 168 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only ...Figure 1: The five basic notes of oriental music (Wu Yin) of Huangdi’s era. 204.

169 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .The Tai Jiao (Upper Jiao) morphotype.This paragraph speaks on man of “Wood” prototype compared to the note Shang Jiao (upper Jiao) responding to the Foot Jueyin (Li) (Figure 2). bottom. right. b . compared to the Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the right. is similar to the type responding to the lower part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) because this part is the site of manifestation of the physiologic natures of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). 206. belonging to the Foot Shaoyang (GB) because it is in “Yin-Yang.The Xie Jiao (Jiao of the left) morphotype. compared to the left Foot Shaoyang (GB). Its attitude is conformism. Interior-Exterior” relationship with Foot Jueyin (Li). Its attitude is accomodation and submission.Figure 2: “Wood” protoype compared the note Shang Jiao and to the Foot Jueyin (Li) 2 . a . is similar to the type responding to the upper part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) because this part is the site of physiologic manifestations of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). • The “Wood” prototype is divided yet again into 4 morphotypes: top. left.

Figure 3: The four tones of Shang Jiao and their physiologic characterisitics.

c - The Di Jiao (left upper Jiao) morphotype compared to the Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the right is similar to the type responding to the upper part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) because this part is the site where the physiologic characteristics of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) manifest. Its attitude is achievement toward progress. d - The Fan Jiao (half Jiao) morphotype compared to the Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the left is similar to the type responding to the lower part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) because this part is the site of manifestation of the physiologic characteristics of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). Its attitude is honesty and loyalty (Figure 3).

PARAGRAPH 3
“The individual of the “Fire” prototype compared to the note Shang Zhi (upper Zhi) behaves like man of the South. • He is reddish in color with thin and pointed face. The body and back muscles are large. The hips and abdomen are well developed. The feet and hands are relatively small. The gait is well placed. The mind is quick and clear-sighted. He walks with body balanced. He has a generosity of spirit and disregards wealth and power. He loses confidence and appears preoccupied. He knows “human affairs” perfectly. He likes elegance and beauty. With a rapid and hurried heart, he does not profit from “Celestial Age” and dies suddenly. He likes spring and summer and poorly tolerates autumn and winter, periods during which he is easily attacked by perverse energy. Hand The “ F i r e ” type compared to the note Shang Zhi (upper Zhi) belongs to the Shaoyin (He). His attitude is sincerity and loyalty. 207.

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• The “Fire” prototype is divided into 4 morphotypes: top, bottom, left, right. 1 - The “ F i r e ” morphotype modelled on the note Zhi Zhi (substantial Zhi) is compared to the type responding to the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the left and to the type responding to the upper part of the Hand Taiyang (SI). His attitude is superficiality. 2 - The “ F i r e ” morphotype modelled on the note Shao Zhi (minor Zhi) is compared to the type responding to the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the right and to the type responding to the lower part of the Hand Taiyang (SI). His attitude is optimism and joy. 3 - The “ F i r e ” morphotype modelled on the note Yuo Zhi (Zhi of the right) is compared to the type responding to the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the right and to the type responding to the upper part of the Hand Taiyang (SI). His attitude is ambition. (He does not yield to the steps of others and poorly tolerates being behind others). 4 - The “ F i r e ” morphotype modelled on the note Zhi Fan (half Zhi) is compared to the type responding to the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the left and to the type responding to the lower part of the Hand Taiyang (SI). His attitude is self-conceit.”

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains:

“This paragraph speaks on the “Fire” type of man divided into 4 archetypes: top, bottom, left and right. 1 - The “Fire” type corresponds to the South, to the note Zhi and the the color red. This is why the “Fire” type is compard to the note Shang Zhi (upper Zhi) and to man of the South. a - Red is the color of Fire. “Large body” evokes the image of the power of fire. “Thin and pointed face and small head” evokes the image of the slender and small appearance of the advancing wave of fire√. “Dorso-scapular region, plevic bone and abdominal muscles are well developed” evoking the image of the shape of fire whose dimension becomes progressively reduced toward the top. “The feet and hands are small” evokes the advance of the spreading of fire toward the 4 sides.” 208. “The gait is well placed” evokes the image of the formation of fire starting always via the bottom, then reaching the top. “The mind is quick” evokes the image of fire constantly in motion. b - “He possesses a generosity of spirit and disregards wealth and power” evokes the image of the spontaneous nature of fire. “He loses confidence and appears preoccupied”; he knows ‘human problems’ perfectly” evokes the image of the illuminated nature of fire that lights up all sides “Rapid heart” evokes the image of the smooth and bustling of fire. “Life is short and death sudden” evokes the image of the power of fire which is not eternal.

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c - “He likes spring and summer” because fire is powerful during these two seasons. “He poorly tolerates autumn and winter” because fire is weak during this period. Such are the basic characteristics of fire. Hand Shaoyin (He) responds to Fire. Blood and energy circulate abundantly because of their association with Fire.

2 - The 2nd part of this paragraph is focused on the Hand Taiyang (SI) because heart and small intestine constitute the “Yin-Yang, Internal-External” system of relationship. a - “Zhi Zhi” (Zhi substantial) is the 1st tonality of the basic note Zhi responding to the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the left and the upper part of the Hand Taiyang (SI, left and right: bilateral). b - “Shao Zhi” (Zhi minor) is the 2nd tonality of the basic note Zhi responding to the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the right and the lower part of the Hand Taiyang (SI, left and right). c - “Yuo Zhi” (Zhi of the right) is the 3rd tonality of the basic note Zhi responding to the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the right and the upper part of the Hand Taiyang (SI, left and right). d - “Zhi Fan” (half Zhi) is the 4th tonality of the basic note Zhi responding to the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the left and the lower part of the Hand Taiyang (SI, left and right).”

III - N.V.N.: In this paragraph, man of the “Fire” prototype is placed in similarity with the note Shang Zhi (upper Zhi) responding to the Hand Shaoyin (He) (Figure 4). The “Fire” prototype is distinguished yet again into 4 morphotypes: top, bottom, left, right responding to the Hand Taiyang (SI) because it has a “Yin-Yang, Interior-Exterior” relationship with Hand Shaoyin (He).”
209.

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Figure 4: The “Fire”prototype compared to the note Shang Zhi responding to the Hand Shaoyin (He). 1. The Zhi Zhi (substantial Zhi) morphotype compared to the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the left is similar to the upper part of the Hand Taiyang (SI) because this part is the site of manifestation of the physiologic characteristics of the Hand Taiyang (SI). Its attitude is superficiality. 2. The Shao Zhi (Zhi minor) morphotype compared to the Hand taiyang (SI) of the right is similar to the lower part of the Hand Taiyang (SI) because this part is the site of manifestation of the physiologic characterisitics of the Hand Taiyang (SI). Its attitude is optimism and rejoicing. 3. The Yuo Zhi (Zhi of the right) morphotype compared to the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the right is similar to the upper part of the Hand Taiyang (SI) because this part is the site of manifestation of the physiologic characteristics of the Hand Taiyang (SI). Its attitude is not to be behind others. 210. 4. The Zhi Fan (half Zhi) morphotype compared to the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the left is similar to the lower part of the Hand Taiyang (SI) because this part is the site of manifestation of the physiologic characteristics of the Hand Taiyang (SI). Its attitude is arrogance (Figure 5).

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PARAGRAPH 4
Shang

Figure 5: The four tones of Shang Zhi and their physiologic characteristics.
211.

“The individual of “Earth” prototype, compared to the note Gong (upper Gong), behaves like man of the Center. • He is yellow in color and has a round face. The head is large; the shoulders and back are sturdy. The abdomen is large. The thighs and legs are beautiful and the body well-proportioned. The gait is confident and the stride not very reduced. He has a peaceful heart and takes interest in others. He does not like power and only looks to please others.

• The “Earth” prototype likes and summer, periods during which This type of man responds to His attitude is sincerity and left,

autumn and winter and poorly tolerates spring he is sensitive to attack by perverse energy. the Foot Taiyin (Sp). devotion.

• The “ E a r t h ” prototype is divided as well into 4 morphotypes: top, bottom, right.

1. The “Earth” morphotype modelled on the note Tai Gong (Gong major) is compared to the type associated with the Foot Yangming (St) of the left and to the type responding to the upper part of the Foot Yangming (St). His attitude is conciliation. 2. The “ E a r t h ” morphotype modelled on the note Jia Gong (added √ increased G o n g ) is compared to the type associated with the Foot Yangming (St) of the left and to the type responding to the lower part of the Foot Yangming (St). His attitude is decency and honesty. 3. The “ E a r t h ” morphotype modelled on the note Shao Gong (Gong minor) is compared to the type responding to the Foot Yangming (St) of the right and to the type responding to the upper part of the Foot Yangming (St). His attitude is simplicity and infatuation√ . 4. The “ E a r t h ” morphotype modelled on the note Zuo Gong (Gong of the left) is compared to the type responding to the Foot Yangming (St) of the right and to the type responding to the lower part of the Foot Yangming (St).

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His

attitude is

toiling

and

attentiveness.”

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on man of “Earth” prototype grouped into 4 morphotpyes: top, bottom, left, right.
212.

1. Center governs Earth and Earth responds to the principal note “Gong” and to the color yellow. This is why the Earth prototype is compared to the note Shang Gong (upper Gong) and to man of the Center. “The face is round” like the shape of the Earth. “The head is large” because it represents the highest part of Earth. “The shoulders and back are well-developed” because they represent the “thick” nature of Earth. “The abdomen is large” because Earth developed by widening. “The thighs and legs are beautiful” like the force of permeation of the Earth within this part of the body. “The feet and hands are small and tapered√” like the force of permeation of the Earth thinning out at this level. “The flesh in abundance and the body well-proportioned” like the Earth which governs the flesh as much at the top as at the bottom of the body. “Confident gait and stride not very high” like the “slow” nature of the Earth. “Peaceful heart” like the Earth devoid of the quality of revolt. “He looks only to please others” like the power of Earth producing beings and things. “He does not like power” like the benevolent quality of the Earth just as easily to the rich as to the poor. “He likes autumn and winter” like the permeating nature of the humidity of the Earth. “He poorly tolerates spring and summer” like the Earth apprehending dryness. This is why in spring and summer, he is easily attacked by perverse energy. 2. The first part of this paragraph places emphasis on the characteristics of man of “Earth” prototype. The Foot Taiyin (Sp) belongs to Earth-Spleen. As a result, all principal and secondary vessels of the spleen circulate slowly and harmoniously within the organism. 3. The second part of this paragraph addresses the Foot Yangming (St) because the stomach and spleen constitute the “Yin-Yang, Interior-Exterior” system of relationship. _ In the Tai Gong (Gong major) type, of the upper part on the left side, that is to say, at the upper part of the Foot Yangming (St), blood and energy are in abundance, beard and moustache are handsome and long. In contrast, if the blood and energy are in insufficiency, beard and moustache are sparse. Therefore, “the upper part called Yangming (St) is the only site where all energetic and blood vessels belonging to the stomach circulate.” _ In the Jia Gong (increased Gong) type, of the lower part on the left, that is to say, the lower part of the Foot Yangming (St), if the blood and energy are in excess, the hair of the thorax and legs is beautiful. In contrast, • if the blood is in abundance and the energy in insufficiency, the hair is short. • and if the blood and energy are simultaneously in insufficiency, the hair is absent. As a result, “the lower part called Yangming (St) is the only site where all energetic and blood vessels belonging to the stomach circulate”.”

II - N.V.N.: This paragraph speaks on man of the “Earth” prototype compared to the note Shang Gong (upper Gong) responding to the Foot Taiyin (Sp) (Figure 6). The “Earth” prototype, compared to the note Shang Gong (upper Gong) and responding to the Foot Taiyin (Sp), is also divided into 4 morphotypes: top, bottom, left, right, belonging to the Foot Yangming (St) because it is

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in “Yin-Yang, Interior-Exterior” relationship with the Foot Taiyin (Sp).
213.

Figure 6: Man of “Earth” type compared to the note Shang Gong responding to the Foot Taiyin (Sp).

1. The Tai Gong (Gong major) morphotype compared to the Foot Yangming (St) of the left is similar to the type responding to the upper part of the Foot Yangming (St) because this part is the site of physiologic manifestations of the Foot Yangming (St). 214. The attitude of the “Tai Gong” type is of living on good terms. 2. The Jia Gong (increased Gong) morphotype, compared to the Foot Yangming (St) of the left, is similar to the type responding to the lower part of the Foot Yangming (St) because this part is the site of manifestations of the physiologic nature of the Foot Yangming (St).

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Its attitude is solemn and serious. 3. The Shao Gong (small Gong) morphotype compared to the Foot Yangming (St) of the right is similar to the type responding to the upper part of the Foot Yangming (St) because this part is the site of manifestation of the physiologic natures of the Foot Yangming (St). 215. Its attitude is flexibility in order to obtain an accomplished whole of talent and beauty√. 4. The Zuo Gong (Gong of the left) morphotype compared to the Foot Yangming (St) of the right is similar to the type responding to the lower part of the Foot Yangming (St) because this part is the site of appearance of the physiologic natures of the Foot Yangming (St). Its attitude is attentiveness (Figure 7).

PARAGRAPH

5
Shang (upper Shang),

“The “Metal” prototype, compared to the note Shang behaves like man of the West.

• He is white in color with square face. The head, shoulders and back are small. The abdomen is straight. The heel bone appears to jut out toward the exterior. The joints are supple and slight. He is watches over the cleanliness of his body. He is of energetic nature. He is predisposed to the academic m a n d a r i n (legal) profession. • He worships autumn and wiinter and poorly tolerates spring and summer. In spring and summer, he is easily attatcked by perverse energy. This “Metal” type belongs to the Hand Taiyin (Lu). His attitude is firmness. • But the man of “ M e t a l ” prototype is also divided into 4 morphotypes: top, bottom, left, right. 1. The “Metal” prototype modelled on the note Tai Shang (Shang major) is compared to the type responding to the Hand Yangming (LI) of the left and to the type responding to the top part of the Hand Yangming (LI). His attitude is cleanliness. 2. The “ M e t a l ” prototype modelled on the note Yuo Shang (Shang of the right) is compared to the type responding to the Hand Yangming (LI) of the left and to the type responding to the bottom part of the Hand Yangming (LI). His attitude is casualness and stubborn pleasantness. 216. 3. The “Metal” prototype modelled on the note Zie Shang (Shang of the left) is compared to the type responding to the Hand Yangming (LI) of the right and to the type responding to the top part of the Hand Yangming (LI). 4. The “ M e t a l ” prototype nodelled on the note Shao Shang (little Shang) is compared to the type responding to the Hand Yangming (LI) of the right and to the

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Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on man of the “Metal” type responding to the Hand Taiyin (Lu). 2. “Heel bone appears to jut out to the exterior” explains the state of hardness of metal. and Metal responds to the note Shang and to the color white. bottom. The Tai Shang (Shang major) morphotype compared with the Hand Yangming (LI) of the left is similar to the type responding to the upper part of the Hand Yangming (LI) because it is the site of manifestation of the physiologic characteristics of the type belonging to the Hand Yangming (LI). “He is of energetic nature” like the rigidity of metal. 3. It is the same for the other types of man cited in the previous paragraphs.√ 178 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . West governs Metal.: This paragraph speaks on the man of “Metal” prototype compared to the note “Shang Shang” (upper Shang) responding to the Hand Taiyin (Lu) (Figure 8). left.type reponding to the bottom part of the Hand Yangming (LI). “Small head and straight belly” reflect metal which. Interior-Exterior” relationship with the Hand Taiyin (Lu). nature of metal. 217. His attitude is the pursuit of cleanliness of his body and refusal to allow it to become contaminated. “Squared face and white color” denote the appearance and constitution of metal. “He watches over the cleanliness of his body” like the appearance of clean metal without stain. This is why the Metal type is compared to the note Shang Shang (upper Shang) and behaves like man of the West. Man of “Tai Shang. • The “Metal” prototype compared to the note Shang Shang and responding to the Hand Taiyin (Lu) is again divided into 4 morphotypes: top. upon falling because of his weight.N. The second part of this paragraph addresses the Hand Yangming (LI) because the lung and large intestine constitute the “Yin-Yang.N. disappears little by little in depth and does not appear little by little toward the surface√. sometimes he is violently agitated” denotes the peaceful. Interior-Exterior” system of relationship. His attitude is solemnity and dignity. Zie Shang and Shao Shang” types involve the Jingmai and blood vessels belonging to the Hand Yangming (LI) traveling the body. but very dynamically active. “He tolerates autumn and winter” like the plethoric “metal” energy during periods of cold and coolness.V. right belonging to the Hand Yangming (LI) because it is in “YinYang.. 1. The Hand Taiyin (Lu) has the ability to consolidate all Yang channels and all blood vessels.. 218. “The joints are slight” because metal does not possess d’entre-noeuds. “He does not tolerate spring and summer” because metal fears fire. “Sometimes he is calm. 4.” II . 1. Yuo Shang.

219. 4. PARAGRAPH 6 179 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . His attitude is formal and ceremonious. The Yuo Shang (Shang of the left) morphotype compared to the Hand Yangming (LI) of the left is similar to the type responding to the lower part of the Hand Yangming (LI) because this part represents the physiologic characteristics of the type belonging to the Hand Yangming (LI). 3. The Zie Shang (Shang of the left) morphotype comopared to the Hand Yangming (LI) of the right is similar to the type responding to the upper part of the Hand Yangming (LI) because this part represents the physiologic characteristics of the type belonging to the Hand Yangming (LI). 2. His attitude is not to hurry and to be agreeable without being obstinate. The Shao Shang (Shang minor) morphotype compared to the Hand Yangming (LI) of the right is similar to the type responding to the lower part of the Hand Yangming (LI) because this part is the site of manifestation of the physiologic characteristics of the type belonging to the Hand Yangming (LI).Figure 8: Man of the “Metal” prototype compared to the note Shang Shang and to the Hand Taiyin (Lu). His attitude is to pursue reason and blame√.

His attitude is nobleness and virtue. The length of the back exceeds everyday norms. This “Water” type belongs to the Foot Shaoyin (Ki). 4. 220. • In this manner. The head is large and chin pointed. His attitude is falseness and hypocrisy. The “Water” morphotype modelled on the note Cong Yu (other Yu) is compared to the type responding to the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the right. left. 1. The “ W a t e r ” morphotype modelled on the note Tai Yu (Yu major) is compared to the type responding to the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the right. His attitude is presumption and arrogance. he is often attacked by perverse energy.“The man of the “ W a t e r ” prototype is compared to the note Shang Yu (upper Yu). The shoulders and back are straight. 2. This notion is difficult for the non-specialist physician. similar to the type belonging to the upper part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). right. His attitude is unpleasant smugness and arrogance. This is why he neglects it and ignores the importance of the “ q u a n t i t a t i v e ” state and “ q u a l i t a t i v e ” state of the human being. • This type of man is blackish in color with hollow face. • Man of the “ W a t e r ” prototype is also divided into 4 morphotypes: top. He behaves like man of the North. The lower part of the lumbar vertebrae to the coccyx is long. His attitude is sincerity and neatness. similar to the type responding to the upper part of Foot Taiyang (Bl). human morphology responds to the 5 Movements divided into 25 morphotypes. • He likes autumn and winter and poorly tolerates spring and summer. The abdomen is large. He is carries out murder. similar to the type responding to the lower part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). He is insolent and deceitful and fears nothing. In spring and summer. 3. He is inclined to fool people. The gait is generally accompanied by balance of the body. similar to the type belonging to the lower part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). The feet and hands are usually agitated. bottom. The “ W a t e r ” morphotype modelled on the note Zhi Yu (substantial Yu) is compared to the type responding to the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the left.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 180 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The “ W a t e r ” morphotype modelled on the note Shao Yu (Yu minor) is compared to the type responding to the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the left.

221. “Straight shoulders” because water flows out from above downward. the regions traveled by the kidney channel are of humid and absorbing quality√. at its height.. 2 . “He poorly tolerates spring and summer. they neglect the importance of the “quantitative” and “qualitative” states of the human being. “He caaries out murder√” because water can anihilate beings and things. Interior-Exterior” system of relationship.. This is why the “Water” type is compared to the note “Shang Yu” (upper Yu) and behaves like man of the North.” The Foot Shaoyin (Ki) responds to Water. As a result.” 181 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . “The head is large” like the surface of water which is not pointed. water is not lost. the gait is generally accompanied by balance of the body” because the flow of water always stirs up the undulation of waves. “The chin is pointed” because water flows out toward the 4 Seas. “The base of the lumbar vertebrae to the coccyx is long.. North governs Water.. On the contrary. • The 5 prototypes responding to the 5 Movements and becoming transformed into 25 morphotypes are still unknown to numerous practitioners. and Water responds to the the note “Yu” and to the color black. “The feet and hands are usually agitated. “He is insolent and deceitful and fears nothing” like water which itself marks out the path of flow without being able to stop. “He like autumn and winter” because during those two seasons. “The abdomen is large” because the seas have a large size and expanse enabling them to contain the “thousand things”. “The face is hollow” like the surface of water which undulates. water does not widen. “He is inclined to fool people” like water which has an unstable quality.” because water flows out stretching away√.The second part of this paragraph addresses the types of man responding to the Foot Taiyang (Bl) because the kidney and bladder constitute the “Yin-Yang.This paragraph speaks on man of the “Water” prototype responding to the Foot Shaoyin (Ki). Therefore.I . As a result..Ma Shi explains: “1 .

left .V.N. The Cong Yu (other Yu) morphotype compared to the Foot taiyang (Bl) of the right is similar to the type responding to the lower part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) because this part is the site of physiologic manifestations of the Foot Taiyang (Bl).. His attitude is unpleasantly conceited and insolent.. His attitude is falseness and hypocrisy. The Zhi Yu (substantial Yu) morphotype compared to the Foot Taiang (Bl) of the left is similar to the type responding to the upper part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) because this part is the site of physiologic 182 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .: 222. 1. The Shao Yu (Yu minor) morphotype compared to the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the left is similar to the type responding to the lower part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) because this part is the site of physiologic manifestations of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). His attitude is sincerity and neatness. 3. right belonging to the Foot Taiyang (Bl) because the bladder and kidney constitute one system of “Yin-Yang.. Interior-Exterior” relationship. The Tai Yu (Yu major) morphotype compared to the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the right is similar to the the type responding to the upper part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) because this part is the site of physiologic manifestations of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). II . • The “Water” prototype responding to the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) is differentiated into 4 morphotypes: top..N.Figure 10: Man of the “Water” prototype compared to the note Shang Yu and to the Foot Shayin (Ki).. bottom. 223. 2. 4. This paragraph concerns man of the “Water” prototype compared to the note Sang Yu (upper Yu) responding to the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) (Figure 10).

manifestations of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). His atitude is nobleness and virtue (Figure 11)... 183 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .. 222..

Will you explain this to me?” 184 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the concordance of bodily form and color√ √ is the mark of richness and worthiness. PARAGRAPH 7 223.. In effect. attack of perverse energy is a fearsome triggering factor of disease. In contrast. Huangdi: “What about the individual whose morphology does not respond to color?√ √ ” Qi Bo: “When form triumphs over color and when color triumphs over form.” Huangdi: “Bodily form and color√ mutually have a predominant period called “Nian Qi”.. at “Nian Qi” (Year of Dread√ ).Figure 11: The 4 tones of Shang Yu and their physiologic characteristics. If the treatment is not appropriate. the disease can cause disturbing problems.. we must pay attention to these phenomena.

Nian _ to _ to _ to _ to _ to _ to Qi starts at 7 years of which one adds 9 years: which one adds 9 years: which one adds 9 years: which one adds 9 years: which one adds 9 years: which one adds 9 years: age. 224.D. 2 . The number 9 is the big (Liao: old) number of Yang.N. to speak of “Nian Qi” is to speak of the morphotypes responding to upper part or lower part of the corresponding Jingmai (principal channels). critical years of prevention. during these periods. all attacks will bring about serious diseases and all inadequate treatments will cause alarming problems. 7 + 9 = 16 years 16 + 9 = 25 years 25 + 9 = 34 years 34 + 9 = 43 years 43 + 9 = 52 years 52 + 9 = 61 years. the explanation of Zhang Jing Yue (1563-1640 A. periods during which the human being is particularly vulnerable. In relationship to “Nian Qi”. These years constitute “Dai Nian Qi” (Great Years of Dread).: This paragraph involves the discordance between “form” (Xing: morphology) and “color”. Generally. Therefore. .” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. the Year of Dread (Nian Qi) manifests every 9 years (counting from the age of 7): 7 + 9 = 16 years 16 + 9 = 25 years 25 + 9 = 34 years 34 + 9 = 43 years 43 + 9 = 52 years 52 + 9 = 61 years. Such are the preventative years during the life of the human being. One must not ignore them in order to protect against perverse energy and maintain good health. PARAGRAPH 8 185 225. the appearance of phenomena of transmutation is the rule. otherwise.V.“Victory of color over form”: Ex: Individual of “Wood” prototype with appearance of black color.Qi Bo: the “Generally.. one must not exaggerate sexual relations.) is the following: “The number 7 is the small (Shao) number of Yang.. Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . At this “maximal 9” number. indicators revealing disease that can be classified into two groups: 1 .“Victory of form over color”: Ex: Individual of “Wood” prototype with appearance of yellow color.

the beard is the 2 labial commissures. at the same time. withered and dried out. abundant. it is rare..” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . _ if the blood and energy are insufficient at the same time.. strides are big. Their circulation follows the Jing (channels) and Mai (vessels) of the regions which are associated with them. pubic hair is beautiful and long. the beard is beautiful and long. The toes appear not very fleshy. the beard is short. pubic hair is not very thick and is short. the extremities are predisposed to cold and frostbite.” 186 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In contrast. _ if the blood is insuficient and energy abundant. Should I base my judgment on your explanations to establish the realtionships between form (Xing) and energy (Qi) ? ” Qi Bo: “• When the upper part of the Foot Yangming (St) is plethoric in blood and energy. ascending to the umbilcus. the beard is scarce.. In contrast. Blood and energy are necessary to maintain the epidermo-dermal system and return heat to the organism. 226. the pubic hair is absent. _ if the blood is abundant and energy insufficient. _ if the blood is insufficient and energy _ if the energy is insufficient and blood _ if the energy and blood are insufficient absent and one observes numerous wrinkles of abundant. The 2 feet are ice cold. According to our old masters: “The bodily form is divided into upper and lower regions that can be in a state of emptiness or fullness.Ma Shi explans: “The 8 paragraph above complete the study of the “bodily form” (Xing) proposed by Qi Bo. If hair exists. Muscular atrophy or paresis of the feet is often observed. • When the lower part of the Foot Yangming (St) is plethoric in blood and energy.Huangdi: “You have spoken: _ of the characteristics of the upper part and lower part of the 3 Yang _ and of the excess and insufficiency of blood and energy. ascending to the thorax.” This is why the study of the 5 human prototypes is based on the 3 Yin of the foot and hand as a function of the 5 Movements and that of the other morphotypes and on the 3 Yang of the foot and hand as a function of their upper and lower parts. While walking.

In relationship to the Foot Yangming (St).. _ The feet and hands are the “roots” of the Yang channels. 2 . the appearance of numerous labial wrinkles in the case of insufficiency of blood and energy contained in this facial segment of the Foot Yangming (St). 2. _ “The strides are big” because the limbs are maintained by the energy of the stomach. the simultaneous insufficiency of blood and energy in the lower parts of the body is a determining factor of paralysis and algoparesthesia (Bi) of the lower limbs.N. Zhang Jing Yue’s explanation is the following: “1 .. _ In the insufficiency of blood with excess of energy.V. Mons pubis: prominence over the pubic symphysis. hence.The Foot Yangming (St) starts at the side of the nasal ala. follows the lower border of the ocular fossa.II .St 30) to gather at Tong Jin (reunion of muscular forces of the pelvisMons Veneris) (2). 187 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only ..: From this paragraph. “cold-edema” manifests at the lower region of the body. reappears at the commissure of the lips. this hair extends to the umbilicus or to the thorax. This is why the pubic hair is the manifestation of the energetico-blood power of the Foot Yangming (St). the study of the configuration and external structure√ of the living being is based on the physiologic manifestations of the lower part and upper part of the 3 Yang of the foot and hand. ascends to the root of the nose to join the internal canthus of the eye. 227. It humidifies Tong Jin (pelvic muscles: Mons Veneris) and maintains the joints. As a result.N. it passes to Qijie (Qichong. _ The Foot Yangming (St) is the “sea” of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. From the point Quilai (St 29).” (Figure 12). in the event of insufficiency of Yang energy.. descends toward the cheek to penetrate into the gums of the upper maxilla. the toes are fleshless and easily attacked by perverse cold. Sometimes. Therefore. _ “The toes do not appear very fleshy and the feet are ice cold” because the energy of the stomach is insuficient there.The Foot Yangming (St) circultes from above downward.

and the external malleoli are covered by a firm and thick skin.V. If blood is insufficient and energy abundant. Attack of Cold-Humidity often causes “Bi” (algoparesthesia). the beard is absent. .Figure 12: Qijie (St 30) and Mons Veneris (Tong Jin).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. the hair of the legs is sparse and the skin of the external malleoli is thin and supple. the hair of the leg is beautiful and long and the external malleoli are large. If blood and energy are both insufficient. If blood is insufficient and energy abundant.When the lower part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) is full of blood and energy. If blood is abundant and energy insufficient. the hair of the legs is beautiful but short. reaches above the angle of the hairline at the upper part of the temple.N. descends towards the maxillary condyle in front of the tragal indentation..When the upper part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) is full of blood and energy. 188 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 2 . If blood and energy are both insufficient. This is why the insufficiency or excess of energy and blood of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) has affect on the growth of the beard. the beard is beautiful but short.: 228. If blood is abundant and energy insufficient. PARAGRAPH 9 “1 . the beard is sparse.. We quote the explanation of Zhang Jing Yue: “The Foot Shaoyang (GB) starts at the external canthus of the eye. the hair of the legs is absent and the external malleoli are small and thin. the beard (sideburns and moustache) is beautiful and long. ostealgia and dryness of the nails.

the flesh of the level of the heel is full and firm. . contrast. the subaxillary hair is abundant and the thenar eminence is fleshy and 189 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .The Foot Shaoyang (GB) goes back down the external side of the thigh and arrives below and in front of the peroneal head.” PARAGRAPH 10 “1 . _ if energy and blood are both insufficient. the eyebrows are beautiful and long. 2 ..When the upper part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) is abundant in blood and energy. .” PARAGRAPH 11 “1 energy.N.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. A secondary branch ascends the to the cranium and goes back down to the face where it links with the nose. unites with the heel. arrives in front of the external malleolus.The Foot Taiyang (Bl) starts at the internal canthus of the eye. the eyebrows are withered and the face is full of wrinkles.When the lower part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) is full of blood and energy. .V. if blood and energy are both insufficient. reaches the calf. the moustache is withered... 2 .: The explanation of Zhang Jing Yue is the following: “1 . This is why disturbances of this lower part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) affects the heel.. .When the lower part of the Hand Yangming (LI) is full of blood and energy. passes behind the external malleolus. In contrast... _ if blood is abundant and energy insufficient. This is why disturbances of this branch of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) affects the eyebrows and face. they cause cramps and pain of the heel. the countenance√ is beautiful. the face is fleshy. if blood is insufficient and energy abundant. In contrast. In _ _ 229. runs alongside the outer leg. _ if blood is insufficient and energy abundant. reaches the external tip of the eyebrow. 2 . the moustache is absent. . the Foot Taiyang (Bl) reaches the popliteal fossa. _ if energy is insufficient and blood abundant.. the heel is thin and devoid of flesh. As a result. its influence bears on the external side of the leg.When the upper part of the Hand Yangming (LI) is full of blood and the moustache is beautiful.. _ if blood and energy are balanced.Below.

deeply penetrates into the ear. the Hand Yangming (LI) passes to the angle formed by the two metacarpals.” PARAGRAPH 12 “1 .: The explanation of Zhang Jing Yue is the following: “1 .warm. 2 .. In contrast.” 190 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This is why the emptiness and fullness of blood and energy manifest at the level of the moustache.When the lower part of the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) is full of blood and energy. . _ if energy is insuficient and blood abundant. runs alongside the postero-external surface (energetic description) of the raduis... if blood and energy are both insufficient. the back of the hand is fleshless and cold. ascends toward the base of the nostril of the opposite side.: The explanation of Zhang Jing Yue is the following: “1 . . Interior-Exterior” relationship with the Hand Taiyin (Lu). ascends to the orbital edge.Below. . encircles the lower maxilla. _ if blood and energy both insufficient. 2 .Above. reappears in front of and above the tragus..Below. encircles the upper lip. _ if blood and energy are both insuficient. 230.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N.. passes to the dorsal surface of the hand.N. the Hand Yangming (LI) passes to the cheek.V. the forearm and tenar eminence are thin and cold. the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) reaches behind the ear.V. In contrast. This is why disturbances of this lower part of the channel affects this region. the back of the hand is thinned with the appearance of numerous venous vessels. arrives at the upper maxilla. This is why the emptiness and fullness of this lower part of the Hand Yangming (LI) manifests at the level of the thenar eminence. 2 .When the upper part of the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) is full of blood and energy.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. forearm and subaxillary region. the eyebrows are beautiful and long and the coloration of the ear pinna is beautiful (shiny). the Hand Shaoyang (SJ) starts at the external ungual angle (energetic description) of the fourth finger. In contrast. crosses the same contralateral channel..N.Above. the back of the hand is fleshy and warm. the 2 ears are dried out and the coloration of the ear pinna is unattractive (dull). This is why the emptiness and fullness of blood and energy of this part of the channel manifests at the level of the eyebrows and ears. goes into (Yin-Yang.

: The explanation of Zhang Jing Yue is the following: “1 . This is why the emptiness and fullness of blood and energy of the upper part of this channel manifests a the chin (beard) and face. As a consequence. from the insufficient state of blood and energy of the Foot Taiyang (Bl).. if blood and energy are both insufficient.” PARAGRAPH 14 231. to carefully observe the excess or insufficiency of the form (Xing) and energy (Qi) in order to apply the method of regularization is to know the reason of “ C o n t r a r y / F a v o r a b l e ” (Ni Zuan). .When the lower part of the Hand Taiyang (SI) is full of blood and energy..N. the second reaches the external canthus of the eye and is directed toward the ear... In contrast. Huangdi: “Are there very specific acupuncture rules reserved for these 25 morphotypes?” Qi Bo: “Abundant eyebrows originate from the abundance of blood and energy of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) and eyebrows in a poor state (withered).When the upper part of the Hand Taiyang (SI) is full of blood and energy. Fat body and dark (dull) color of the skin result from the loss of energy and blood.Above. In contrast. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 191 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 2 . the face is thin and complexion withered (dark). the Hand Taiyang (SI) runs alongside the external side of the hand.V.Below. the Hand Taiyang (SI) arrives behind the inferior maxillary angle where it divides into 2 branches: the first passes to the internal canthus of the eye and goes into relationship with the zygomatic bone. reaches the wrist. if blood and energy are both insufficient. the muscles of the palm of the hand are full. This is why disturbances of this lower part of the channel affects the palm of the hand.PARAGRAPH 13 “1 . 2 .” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. the beard is abundant and long and the face consistent. the palm of the hand is thin and cold. .

Ma Shi: “This paragraph speaks on the configuration and external structure of the living being.V. Qi Bo uses the Foot Taiyang (Bl) as example because it represents the Yang channels. it is necessary to know how to determine the Form (Xing) and energy (Qi) in order to disperse in the event of fullness and to tonify in the event of emptiness. in order to study the state of emptiness and fullness of blood and energy. The upper part of this channel manifests at the eyebrows. “Thin body with dull color” indicates the concommitant insufficiency of blood and energy. In effect: Cold is Heaven. prevents walking. a model of practice of acupuncture. • In practice.N. To act in this manner is “favorable” (Zuan). palpate the length of the Jingluo (principal and secondary channels) to evaluate the state of stagnation/ accumulation of blood and energy. with the finger. Jing Qi (energetic quintessence) is man. one can determine the state of blood and energy of the entire body as a function of this channel. This paragraph addresses the problem of emptiness and fullness of blood and energy whose regulation consists of respecting the reason of “Contrary/Favorable” (Ni Zuan). to act otherwise is “contrary” (Ni). causal factor of “Tong Bi” (algoparesthesia) which. This is why. PARAGRAPH 15 Huangdi: “How do you treat diseases located at the level of the Yin channels and Yang channels?” Qi Bo: “First. Water is Earth. 192 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .: 232. in summary. That of the right and that of the left total 126 (3). taking the Foot Taiyang (Bl) as example. and its lower part. these blood and energetic components of the body. In contrast. passing the back. also at the eyebrows. “Fat body and shiny color” is the sign of excess blood and energy. As a result. it is the indicator of excess of energy and insuficiency of blood.I . Next.N. the Foot Taiyang (Bl) responding to Water-Cold is at the same time “master” of the energy of the Yang channels and of Jing-Xue (energetic quintessence and blood). The Foot Taiyang (Bl) goes from the head to the foot. Therefore. In our time.” II . in serious cases. one must examine Cun Kou (radial pulse) and Renying (carotid pulse) to detemine the state of mptiness/Fullness of Yin and Yang in order to apply the method of regularization. the beauty of the eyebrows is the indicator revealing the state of abundance of blood and energy and their unattractiveness confirms the state of deficiency of 3. the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the right and left totals 67 X 2 = 134 points. This dissertation constitutes. if the body is fat with dull color.

On must employ the method of “dispersion of the blood” (bleeding technique) in order to aerate the Luomai and reestablish the circulation of blood. massage therapy and the technique of the needles left in place are indicated. one must needle the points located above in order to make the energy ascend toward the top. In this manner. to know the 25 morphotypes and the localization of blood and energy. when the energy is excessive. when the energy is excessive. In the normal state. 193 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . stagnation of blood and energy prevents the arrival of Yuan Qi (source energy. At the top. If. 3 . 2 . • The disease can be localized at the top of the body or down below.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. Cun Kou governs the interior and represents Yin energy. Therefore. despite the needles left in place. one must needle the points located down below in order to bring the energy toward the bottom. This is why one must utilize the tecnique of”needle left in place” and know how to wait for the arrival of the energy. • Obstruction of the Luomai (Luo vessels) results from the engorgement of the Jingmai (pirncipal channels). Down below. 233. Cun Kou and Renying maintain their equilibrium. one must combine this with the technique called “to go against/in opposition” . one must help the blood and energy to circulate. one must bring it toward the top. vital or essential energy). In these two cases. the needles must remain in place unitl the arrival of the energy. canals) in order to be able to practice acupuncture effectively. the needles are left in place a long time.Cun Kou (radial pulse) belongs to the Hand Taiyin (Lu) whose energy activates the circulation of the 3 Yin. one must bring it toward the bottom. to the left and right (with diagnostic purpose) is to understand the therapeutic rules of acupuncture. and Renying also governs the interior and represents Yang energy. Renying (carotid pulse) belongs to the Foot Yangming (St) whose energgy controls the circulation of the 3 Yang.: 1 .The treatment consists of calling on the Yang energy to heat up the places of condensation/stagnation. one must base one’s judgment on the bodily structure to apply treatment by acupuncture.N.V. above and below.In the excess of energy of the upper part of the body. In the case of confrontation with the cold and heat. In the insufficiency of the energy of the upper part of the body.In the “Bi” syndrome (algoparesthesia). In the case of obstruction at the level of the channels without stagnation of blood and energy (located outside the channel). the energy does not arrive. and in the presence of disease they are directed toward emptiness or fullness (4). • It is then necessary to go deeply into the Jing Sui (deep routes.

The morphotypes responding to Wu Yin (5 musical notes) are described as a function of the Yang channels of the foot and hand and as a function of the 5 organs with their therapeutic principle. One part of this chapter is focused on the indication and contraindication of some sapors (foods) in the morphotypes responding to the Wu Yin (5 musical notes). 5 Fruits and 5 Sapors.. no 234/235. Consult notably Chapter 9 (“Beginning and Ending”) and Chapter 48 (“Prohibition and Submission”).. 4. The 5 Cereals. 194 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it is necessary therefore to acquire a deep knowledge of the circulation of blood and energy. fundamental notions of the practice of acupuncture. each possess a specific action on the harmonization of the energy of the 5 Organs and their channels. CHAPTER LXV The 5 Musical Notes and 5 Sapors (Wu Yin Wu Wei) This Chapter 65 of the Lingshu completes the previous one.In order to perfect the practice of acupuncture. in particular those of the internal vessels (Jing Sui) of the 25 biotypes described in this chapter of the Lingshu. This is why this chapter is entitled: “The 5 Musical Notes and 5 Sapors” (Wu Yin Wu Wei). also addressed. This chapter consists of 3 paragraphs.4 . Another part of this chapter speaks on the reason for the absence of moustache and beard in women and eunuchs and raises the problem of “emptiness” and “fullness” of blood and energy at the level of the Jingmai.

and Shang Jiao (upper Jiao).PARAGRAPH 1 “1. 5. belonging to the “Wood” note. belonging to the “Metal” note. 2. belonging to to the “Wood”note. 236. must be 195 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . must be treated at the upper part of the Hand Yangming (LI) of the left responding to Metal. and Tai Gong (Gong major). 11 . The morphotypes Yuo Zhi (Zhi of the right) and Shao Zhi (Zhi minor) belonging to the “Fire” note must be treated at the upper part of the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the right responding to Fire. must be treated at the upper part of the Hand Yangming (LI) of the left responding to Metal. 3. 7 . 12 . The morphotypes Yuo Shang (Shang of the left). 8 . The morphotypes Shao Zhi (Zhi minor) . 6 .The morphotypes Zhia Yu (substantial Yu) and Cong Yu (other Yu) belonging to the “Water” note must be treated at the lower part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the right responding to Water.The morphotypes Tai Shang (Shang major) and Shang Shang (upper S h a n g ) belonging to the “Metal” note must be treated at the lower part of the Foot Yangming (St) of the right responding to “Earth”. 4. 9 . belonging to the “Fire” note. 10 . belonging to the “Fire” note. The morphotype Yuo Jiao (Jiao of the right) and Tai Jiao (Jiao major) belonging to the “Wood” note must be treated at the lower part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the left responding to Wood. belonging to the “Earth” note. The morphotypes Tai Zhi (Zhi major) and Shao Zhi (Zhi minor) belonging to the “Fire” note must be treated at the upper part of the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the left responding to Fire.The morphotypes Cong Yu (other Yu) and Shao Yu (Yu minor) belonging to the “Water” note must be treated at the lower part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the left responding to Water.The morphotypes Shao Gong (Gong minor) and Tai Gong (Gong major) belonging to the “Earth” note must be treated at the lower part of the Foot Yangming (St) of the right responding to Earth.The morphotypes Shao Shang (Shang minor) and Yuo Shang (Shang of the r i g h t ) belonging to the “Metal” note must be treated at the lower part of the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the right responding to “Fire”. and Yuo Zhi (Zhi of the right).The morphotypes Tai Shang (Shang major) .The morphotypes Fan Jiao (half Jiao) and Shao Jiao (Jiao minor) belonging to the “Wood” note must be trested at the lower part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the right responding to Wood.

The 3rd paragraph is divided into 12 clauses concerning the similarity of certain morphotypes and their treatment.” II . “Chapter 65 completes the previous one. The upper pat of the Hand Yangming (LI) of the left. The lower part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the left. _ 6 clauses for the “Zhi” (Fire) prototype.N. . The 1st paragraph of this chapter is composed of 12 clauses concerning the 25 morphotypes and their treatment. 1. b) some are missing Examples: The lower part of the Hand Yangming (LI) of the left. c) some are not in accord with the notions of 5 Yin (musical notes). These errors are certainly due to the difficulty in deciphering the ancient texts and especially due to the limited knowledge of energetic medicine on the part of transcribers and translators. EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I ..: This paragraph is the logical continuation of the previous one. without commentary. In this way.Ma Shi explains: 237.. Such mistakes in the transmitted copies! I am content to copy this chapter in its entirety. .. The lower part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the right.treated at the upper part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the left responding to “Water”. because only the Sages themselves could rectify them. _ 7 clauses for the “Yu” (Water) prototype among which a) some are repeated Examples: The upper part of the Hand Yangming (LI) of the left.. “Yin and Yang and the 25 Morphotypes” and describes their relationship with the 5 Movements. In total: _ 12 clauses for the “Jiao” (Wood) prototype.V. The 2nd paragraph is composed of 5 clauses concerning the 5 prototypes and their corresponding foods. Upper/Lower. for example: • Yuo Zhi (Zhi of the right) and Shao Zhi (Zhi minor) responding to the “Fire” note and the Hand Taiyang 196 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . One bases one’s judgment on the “upper/lower” and “left/right” responding to the “5 Yin” (5 basic musical notes) in order to establish the relationships of the morphotypes with the 3 Yang channels of the foot and hand to determine an adequate therapy. _ 8 clauses for the “Gong” (Earth) prototype. The lower part of the Foot Yangming (St) of the right. Left/Right and the 5 Movements.N. _ 8 clauses for the “Shang” (Metal) prototype.

while according to Chapter 64. • Tai Shang (Shang major) and Shang Shang (upper Shang) are treated at the level of the lower part of the Foot Yangming (St) of the right. The morphotypes Shang Gong (upper Gong) and Tai Gong (Gong major). 238. The morphotypes Shang Yu (upper Yu) and Tai Yu (Yu major). correspond to: _ black bean among the 5 cereals _ pork among the 5 animals _ chestnut among the 5 fruits _ t h e Foot Shaoyin (Ki) among the 12 Jingmai _ the k i d n e y among the 5 organs _ b l a c k among the 5 colors _ salty among the 5 sapors _ w i n t e r among the 5 seasons. for example: • Shao Shang (Shang minor) and Yuo Shang (Shang of the right). associated with the “Metal” note. like the “Fire” prototype. it is noted that some morphotypes belonging to the “Left/Right”. This error is most certainly due to confusing the Hand Yangming (LI) and Hand Taiyang (SI). 2. PARAGRAPH 2 “1. They are obviously gross errors on the part of transcribers and translators that persisted down the line/as a theme over the centuries√. • Called “Yuo Zhi (Zhi of the right). it is therefore necessary to delve deeply into the previous Chapter 64 (“Yin and Yang and the 25 Morphotypes”). correspond to: 197 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .(SI) also responding to the “Fire” note are the basic notions for a therapy which uses the “Fire” note in individuals of “Fire” morphotype. correspond to: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ w h e a t √ √ among the 5 cereals l a m b among the 5 animals a p r i c o t among the 5 fruits the Hand Shaoyin (He) among the 12 Jingmai the h e a r t among the 5 organs r e d among the 5 colors bitter among the 5 sapors s u m m e r among the 5 seasons. 2. 3. In this way. and the Hand Taiyang (SI) responding to the “Fire” channel are treated at the level of the “Metal” channel. they must be treated at the level of the upper part of the Hand Yangming (LI) of the left. like the “Water” prototype. Nevertheless. The morphotypes Shang Zhi (upper Zhi) and Yuo Zhi (Zhi of the right). it is is associated with the “Fire” prototype decribed in the previous chapter with numerous details on the physiology of blood and energy. like the “ E a r t h ” prototype. Upper/ Lower” type responding to the “5 Yin” (5 basic notes) and linked to the 5 Movements cited in Chapter 64 are not always in accord with those described in this paragraph. In order to understand this paragraph.

lamb. like the “ W o o d ” prototype...V.: This paragraph speaks on the correspondences between the morphotypes responding th the Wu Yin (5 musical notes) and the “5 cereals. 5 animals. 5.. correspond to: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ sticky rice among the 5 cereals chicken among the 5 animals peach among the 5 fruits the Hand Taiyin (Lu) among the 12 Jingmai the l u n g among the 5 organs white among the 5 colors spicy among the 5 sapors a u t u m n among the 5 seasons. 5 seasons. 5 fruits. as clarified by Ma Shi: “Individuals of “Shang Zhi” (upper Zhi ) and “Yuo Zhi” (Zhi of the right) types are morphotypes responding to the note “Fire”._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ millet√ √ among the 5 cereals beef among the 5 animals j u j u b e among the 5 fruits the Foot Taiyin (Sp) among the 5 Jingmai the s p l e e n among the 5 organs y e l l o w among the 5 colors s w e e t among the 5 sapors end of summer among the 5 seasons. 5 colors. The morphotypes Shang Jiao (upper Jiao) and Tai Jiao (Jiao major) . This is why. 5 fruits. The morphotypes Shang Shang (upper Shang) and Yuo Shang (Shang of the r i g h t ) . among the 5 cereals. endowed with calorific (fire) properties.” 240. like the “Metal” prototype. 5 animals. apricot. 198 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . wheat. “ in order to establish a group of principles and methods of dietary regimes with a therapeutic purpose. Summary table of diets applied in the 5 groups of morphotypes.. We present below a summary table of diets in the 5 groups of morphotypes cited in this paragraph. 4. correspond to: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ s e s a m e among the 5 cereals d o g among the 5 animals plum among the 5 fruits the Foot Jueyin (Li) among the 12 Jingmai the liver among the 5 organs g r e e n among the 5 colors sour among the 5 sapors spring among the 5 seasons. are used to treat these types of man.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N.N...

9. The morphotypes Zie Shang (Shang of the left) and Yuo Shang (Shang of right) are treated at the upper part of the Hand Yangming (LI) of the left. The morphotypes Zie Jiao (Jiao of the right) and Tai Jiao (Jiao major) are treated at the upper part of the Foot Yangming (St) of the left. • The 5 morphotypes: Yuo Zhi. Jia Gong and Zuo Gong 199 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The morphotypes Tai Gong (Gong major) and Shang Jiao (upper J i a o ) are treated at the upper part of the Foot Yangming (St) of the right. 8. Yuo Zhi Shang Yu. • The 5 morphotypes: Yuo Jiao. Shao Zhi. Tai Gong Shang Shang Yuo Shang Shang Jiao. Shang Gong. 3. Tai Yu Shang Gong. 2. Tai Gong. Shao Shang. • The 5 morphotypes: Shao Gong. The morphotypes Jia Gong (increased Gong) and Tai Gong (Gong major) are treated at the upper part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the left. 6. 7. Shang Shang and Zie S h a n g belong to Metal. Shang Zhi belong to Fire. The morphotypes Tai Yu (Yu major) and Tai Jiao (Jiao major) are treated at the upper part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the right. Tai Jiao 5 Movement s Fire Water Earth Metal Wood 5 Cereals Wheat Black Bean Millet Sticky Rice Sesame 5 Animals Lamb Pork Beef Chicken Dog 5 Fruits Apricot Chestnut Jujube (Pear) Peach Plum Jingmai Hand Shaoyin (He) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Foot Taiyin (Sp) Hand Taiyin (Lu) Foot Jueyin (LI) 5 Organs Heart Kidney Spleen Lung Liver 5 Colors Red Black Yellow White Green 5 Sapors Bitter Salty Sweet Spicy Sour 5 Seasons Summer Winter End of Summer Autumn Spring PARAGRAPH 3 “1. Di Shang. The morphotypes S h a o Yu (Yu minor) and Tai Yu (Yu major) are treated at the lower part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) of the right. 5. Di Jiao. The morphotypes Tai Jiao (Jiao major) and Tai Gong (Gong major) are treated at the upper part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the right. The morphotypes Zhi Fan (half Zhi) and Tai Gong (Gong major) are treated at the lower part of the Hand Taiyang (SI) of the left.Individuals responding to 5 Yin Shang Zhi. Shang Jiao. the 4. Tai Jiao and Fan Jiao belong to Wood. Zhi Zhi. The morphotypes Fan Jiao (half Jiao) and Tai Jiao (Jiao major) are treated at the lower part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB) of the left. Fan Zhi and 2 4 1 . • The 5 morphotypes: Yuo Shang.

” Here is Zhang Shi’s explanation: “The Foot Shaoyang (GB) and Foot Yangming (St) are vessels which join and communicate at the level of the lower maxillary angle where Jiache (St 6) is found. Ma Shi wonders: “Tai Gong responds to Earth and the treatment must be carried out at the level of the Foot Yangming (St) (Stomach=Earth). I do not know why one treats them at the level of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). Zhi Fan and Tai Gong are treated at the lower left part of the Hand Taiyang (SI). Ma Shi asks: “Jia Ging and Tao Gong belongs to the “Earth” note. Jia Gong and Tai Gong are treated at the level of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). Why can the Foot Yangming (St) also treat Wood? I do not understand.” 2.V.: 1. Shang Yu. Therefore.” 5.belong to Earth. man of the “Tai Gong” type and that of “Shang Jiao” type can be treated at the level of the Foot Yangming (St). Therefore. Zhi Yu. they are treated at the level of the Hand Yangming (LI). Tai Yu and Shao Yu belong to Water. must be treated at the level of Wood (Liver). belonging to the “Wood” note. What is the reason why this paragraph also adds Shang Jiao which responds to Wood? I do not understand. responding to the “Earth” note.N. Zie Jiao and Tai Jiao are treated at the upper left part of the Foot Yangming (St). But why can Tai Gong (Gong major). I understand it perfectly. belonging to the “Fire” note. As a result. Therefore. Tai Gong and Shang Jiao are treated at the upper right part of the Foot Yangming (St).” 3.” Zhang Shi explains: “Jia Gong and Tai Gong are compared to the Foot Yangming (St=Earth) which reaches the face and exteriorizes in front of the ear and unites with the Foot Shaoyang (GB) at the point Gua Shu Ren (GB 3: other name Shangguan). The Shao Yu and Tai Yu types are treated at the lower right part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). Zie Jiao and Tai Jiao can be treated at the level of the Foot Yangming (St). Zhang Shi clarifies: “Zie Shang and Yuo Shang belong to the “Metal” note. Jia Gong and Tai Gong are treated at the level of the left part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). Ma Shi asks: “Jiao”.” Zhang Shi replies: “The Foot Yangming (St) and Foot Jueyin (Li) join and communicate at the level of the neck (laryngopharyngeal region) and within the nasal cavity. also be treated at 200 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . As a result. they are treated at the lower right part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). Ma Shi wonders: “Zhi Fan (half Zhi).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N.” 4. Zhang Shi explains: 242. • The 5 morphotypes: Cong Yu. “Shao Yu and Tai Yu respond to Water.” 6. must be treated at the level of the Hand Taiyang (SI). Zie Shang and Yuo Shang are treated at the upper left part of the Hand Yangming (LI).

Tai Yu (Yu major) and Tai Jiao (Jiao major) are treated at the upper right part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). runs alongside the anterior part of the leg to unite at the point Xiajiuxu (St 39: other name Xialian). All have their source at the level of Jing Qi (quintessence of energy) coming from Shui Gu (Cereal/ Water) at the level of the stomach. to the left or right.. . musculoskeletal and medullary systems.” 7. crosses the diaphragm. Left/Right” using the same energy to treat the same channel which can be located above or below. Tai Jiao (Jiao major) and Tai Gong (Gong major) are treated at the upper right part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). PARAGRAPH 4 Huangdi: “In women.”. arrives at the stomach. . Qiaoyin (GB 11). Zhang Shi’s explanation does not conform to the text. Zhang Shi specifies: “Blood and energy of the epidermo-dermal layer are devoted to the production of hair and beard and to warming up the organic. sweat gland.. Fubakl (GB 10).” 8. I understand perfectly that the treatment must be carried out at the level of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). But why can Tai Jiao (Jiao major). b) Zhang Shi’s explanation allows us to understand the importance of the “reunionmeeting” points in daily practice... Therefore. This is why Tai Gong (Gong major) responding to the “Earth” note can be treated at the level of the Hand Taiyang (SI). It is certainly a question of an omission by transcribers. It follows the deep route of the organs and bowels to exteriorize and permeate the pilo-cutaneous system. Ma Shi wonders: “Tai Yu (Yu major) responds to the “Water” note..” 9. site of its exteriorization and also site of “reunion-meeting” of the Hand Taiyang (SI) and Foot Yangming (St).. In the interior. the Chongmai ascends the length of the antero-internal surface of the lumbar spine to constitute the “sea” of the Jingluo (principal and secondary 201 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .. Gu You Lim states: “It concerns a technique called “Upper/Lower. Tai Yu (Yu major) and Tai Jiao (Jiao major) are treated at the level of the upper part of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). 243.this level?” Zhang Shi explains: “The Hand Taiyang (SI) reaches the neck.. They are the routes of “reunion-meeting” located at the cephalic region of the 2 channels Foot Taiyang (Bl) and Foot Shaoyang (GB). also be treated at this level? Zhang Shi explains: “At the cranium. the Foot Taiyang (Bl) possesses vessels that communicate with the Foot Shaoyang (GB) at the points Shuaigu (GB 8). responding to the “Wood” note.. a branch follows the laryngo-pharyngeal system. is the absence of beard and moustache due to the absence of blood and energy?” Qi Bo: “The C h o n g m a i and Renmai (CV) start at the level of the uterus.. This Jing (quintessence) circulates from the Great Luo (Da Luo) of the stomach. In conclusion: a) In relation to the treatment of Tai Jiao (Jiao major) and Tai Gong (Gong major) types. Fan Jiao (half Jiao) and Tai Jiao (Jiao major) are treated at the lower left part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB).

originating from the stomach.. If the blood alone is abundant. then within the Jingmai (principal channels) and finally within the Xun Luo (little luo or energetic capillaries) in order to permeate the pilocutaneous system.N.channels). passing via the uterus. This energy is the a priori Jing Qi conducted by the Xiajiao (Lower Jiao. vessels. This energy coming from the kidneys starts at the level of the uterus (Bao Chong).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . musculoskeletal. medullary. have internal vessels called “Fu Chong” (1) reaching the antero-internal part of the spine and playing the role of “sea” of the Jingluo (principal and secondary channels). muscles. 244. beard and moustache are absent. Heaven) and from the “Kun” palace ( . the excessive state of the energy and insufficient state of blood are natural phenomena originating from the repeated and cyclic loss of blood during menstruation. respiration) and their acquired source (Earth. Earth). II . blood and energy maintain the pilo-cutaneous system and heat up the “flesh” system.V. located 202 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . It is the Shaoyin (Ki) which commands it under the action of the Xiajiao (LJ). circulates first within the Dao Luo (Great Luo) of the stomach. The production and circulation of blood and energy are therefore very complex. It follows the path of the Renmai (CV) and Chongmai to reach the interior od the vessels. 2.. The previous paragraph speaks on the blood and energy.).. alimentation). these two channels. 3. 5. while this one deals with the problem of blood and energy attracted by the Chongmai and Renmai (CV) toward the buccal region in order to produce beard and moustache. it permeates the skin and produces hair. In summary. generative sources of the beard and hair conducted by the 3 Yang channels. 1. all begin from the “Qian” palace ( . The uterus (Bao Chong) is the “sea” of blood. When the C h o n g m a i and Renmai (CV) can no longer produce hair. that is to say that they all have their innate source (Heaven. flesh. In the plethoric state. At the exterior. This is why their misunderstanding naturally leads to therapeutic errors. The Chongmai and Renmai (CV).” 245. bones. this “curious” bowel. 4. The previous paragraph speaks on the blood and energy which. This paragraph speaks particularly on the energy and blood of the uterus circulating from the Chongmai and Renmai (CV) in order to reach the interior and exterior of the Jingmai (principal channels).N. blood and energy of the human being aimed at maintaining the skin. This energy is nine other than Jing Qi (a posteriori energetic quintessence) conducted by the Chongmai.LJ).. pass alongside the abdomen to unite with the laryngo-pharyngeal system where a vessels which penetrates deeply into the mouth departs from. In women.Zhang Shi explains: “This paragraph completes the previous one in speaking on the decanting of the energy at the level of the pilocutaneous system in order to heat up all organic systems (sweat gland. C h o n g m a i and Renmai (CV) .: “Bao Chong”: “envelope of the center” designates the uterus in women.

within the pelvic cavity and intended to contain the fertilized egg until its complete development.. Among the Celestial Stems: _ Ren. Expiration follows the route of Qi Hai to the diaphragm and thorax. hence the absence of a beard. This latter is none other than the “sapors”. at 7 years of age. This is why the Nejing has said: “The Chongmai is a true path of Qijie (exteriorization of the energy). the Chongmai and Renmai (CV) no longer maintain the buccal region.” This assertion clarifies the phenomenon of maturity and recession of menstrual function in women. reaches the lung and exteriorizes at the level of the laryngo-pharyngeal system. is Yin. . the energy of the kidney is full. According to Yi Jing Jing Yi (explanations and commentaries of the “Classic of Mutations”): “The Bao Chong also bears the name “Qi Hai” (“sea” of energy) because it is the root of respiration (due to its direct connection with the kidney and lung). In effect. menses becomes manifest according to a specific cycle. _ Ren represents the concentraion of energy. the Chongmai grows weaker. “Ancient Celestial Origin”) has stated (as we have already recalled in Chpater 54 (“Celestial Age”). When there is too much Jing within the organs. _ Gui represents the manifestation of the energy. These two terms are envisioned here therefore in their dynamic aspect (the same as had been with√ Jia and Yi. dietary Jing originating from the stomach maintains the heart which transforms it into blood and makes it descend to the Bao Chong (uterus) via the path of the Chongmai. the movement of Yang going toward Yin (concentration). It is reinforced a posteriori by dietary Jing. According to Qi Bo. the Renmai (CV) circulates abundantly. Di Dao (subterranean route. Celestial Gui is innate. _ At age 7 X 7 = (49 years). The beard makes up part of blood. the Renmai (CV) is in insufficiency. corresponding to Water. This is why the body becomes exhausted. When blood and energy are insufficient. then are directly conducted to the corresponding organs. 1st and 2nd Terrestrial Branches). Menses is therefore a function of the prosperity or poverty (of blood) of the 2 channels.. page 75 ): “In girls.” • Acording to Zhang Jing Yue: “The Bao Chong also bears the name “Xue Hai” (“sea” of blood). It also baers the name “One Root of Three Branches”.. This route is that of the Chongmai which goes toward the top.. • The Bao Chong (uterus) constitutes an extermely important chapter in the energetic physiology of the female. They first reach the spleen. that is to say. 1. . the woman can no longer conceive. “The Chongmai and Renmai (CV) are the “sea of blood”. Celestial Gui” enters into play. 9th Stem. the milk teeth change. 10th Stem. the kidneys absorb it in order to distribute it throughout 203 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the young girl can conceive. bears the name “Bao” (envelope). the hair grows longer. the Suwen (Chapter 1. the Chongmai is prosperous. Celestial Gui disappears. Chongmai and Renmai (CV). that is to say. the movement of Yin going toward Yang (manifestation). Dumai (GV) and Renmai (CV) coming from the kidney. is Yang _ Gui. In the present case.” • For this reason. _ At age 7 X 2 = (14 years). pelvic routes) are obstructed. Zhang Jing Yue specifies: 246. This curious bowel is also the site of departure of the Chongmai. See Chapters 54 (“Celestial Age”) and 79 (“Years and Dew”).” • “Celestial Gui” designates the 10th Celestial Stem.

their beard and moustaches are always flourishing. conducts the a posteriorYin-Blood toward the bottom so that it may pour out into the Bao Chong. on the other hand. the innate energy sees its potential diminish. The energetic potential. is distributed within the vital sectors to the detriment of others. menses appears. muscles and blood (liver). The Chongmai governs the energy. The thesis of Wang Bing did not then agree with the thesis of the Huangdi Neijing Suwen: “Menses and sperm are the manifestations of Celestial Gui. it goes to spread first within the most essential regions of this age group to assure growth and development: bones and marrow (kidney). the Chongmai conducts the a priori energy of the kidney toward the top in order to place it in relationship with the stomach. In infants. In summary.” The energy of the kidney is therefore both innate (Ren and Gui) and acquired (dietary Jing: 5 sapors). Despite these states. As a result. at the time when the biologic energy is powerful. • On the one hand. How is 204 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . At this level. Celestial Gui becomes transformed into blood and reaches the Chongmai and Renmai (CV) which ends up at the chin and lips. The Jing conserved within the kidneys will reach the heart (kidney and heart = Shaoyin) where it will be transformed into blood. in particular genital. This intrathoracic trajectory is the genuine path of the Chongmai. in boys. This energy manifests at Dan Dian (subumbilical region) whose route of exit is found at Qijie (other name for Qichong. its maintenance and manifestations. in girls.the entire body. In this manner. being limited. • The Chongmai is the conductive route of the energy. and. then it ascends again toward the neck and reaches the laryngeal organ to become exteriorized. Gui designates at the same time the Celestial Stems.. in the Oriental spirit. the role of the Chongmai consists of bringing the energy toward the top and conducting the blood toward the bottom in the goal of establishing the realtionship between the kidney and stomach. It is therefore different from the Renmai (CV) which governs the blood. Celestial Gui designates both Jing (energetic quintessence) and blood and not just menses as was supprted by the celebrated Wang Bing (762 A.” PARAGRAPH 5 Huangdi: “In some individuals. when the Celestial Gui arrives. The need is less great to furnish growth factors as a priority. 247. This is why. hence beard and moustache. the energy reaches the side of the umbilicus where the point Huangshu (Ki 16) is found and arrives at the point Tonggu (Ki 20) where it spreads into the middle of the thorax and circulates at the level of the pleura (pulmonary). In contrast. the energy is always prosperous (innate and acquired). The same author concludes: “• Bao Chong (uterus) is the site of reunion of the a priori energy of the kidney and a posterior blood coming from the stomach.. • At puberty.D. The key point is then maintaining life. The shift is then progressively assured by the acquired energy of dietary origin. This blood will be directed into the 2 curious channels Chongmai and Renmai (CV) to nourish the flesh and make the head and body hair push out√. disturbances of the genital organ causes an exhaustion of sexual energy with inability to have an erection preventing any acts of mating.).St 30). At the time of andropause and menopause. One part of this energy then affects the genital organs and curious channels on which they depend. .

In the past. this subject involves pursuit√la recherche both from the physiologic as well as pathologic points of view in womem.” In our time. Sexuality was also an essential problem of the social life of the time.D. in eunuchs. . the site where man can penetrate.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . beard and moustache fall out after castration. Nevertheless.. their 205 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .” Qi Bo: “ C a s t r a t i o n signifes ablation of Tong Jin (reunion of pelvic muscles: Mons Veneris) ( 2 ) . At the time of the Han Dynasty (206-219 A. The Chongmai and Renmai (CV) can no longer bring the blood toward the mouth and lips.V.” II . rich and poor called “Gong” their dwelling.D. according to the Orientals. based on this doctrine transmitted from century to century. this word “Gong” was reserved only for the designation of the royal palce where only the king (man. From Xin (219 A. “Tong Jin” designates testicles. the Neijing (Suwen and Lingshu). which injures the Chongmai and Renmai (CV) and forces the blood to accumulate within the epidermo-dermal system. One attached much importance to the genitals (penis and vagina) which came to be the object of careful concern/√attentive care and to be concealed because.Ma Shi explains: 248. masculine sex) could enter and leave. Castration (ablation of the testicles) which injures these 2 curious channels is the cause of the absence of beard and moustache. had been named “Bao Chong” (Envelope of the Center) or “Si Gong” (Fetal Palace).N.. they are the sites of “distribution” of life.).N. Zhang Jing Yue furnishes us with the following explanations: 2. But it hinders erection.). “Injury to the genital organs without affecting the testicles does not prevent the Chongmai and Renmai (CV) from bringing blood toward the mouth and lips.that? In contrast. I would like to understand the cause. PARAGRAPH 6 Huangdi: “There are individuals born “emasculinated” (Tian Huan) neither ressembling castration nor women whose menses is monthly. hence falling out of beard and moustache.: In relation to the Bao Chong (Envelope of the Center: Uterus). Here. “Castration (ablation of the testicles) and the tying off of the clitoris was commonly practiced in ancient China.

hence absence of beard and moustache. _ the beauty of the eyebrows to estimate the state of profusion of blood within the Taiyang (SI and Bl). The energy there is sufficient. And by listening. but blood insufficient.000 beings and things. the sage observes: _ the red-yellow color to determine the excessive state of the “heat” energy (of the body). hence without sexual function.” PARAGRAPH 7 Huangdi: “Correct! The Sage knows perfectly the 10. In effect. “This is due to the insufficiency of Tian Qi (Celestial Energy.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Ma Shi explains: “ “Tian Huan” designates male individuals deprived of reproductive organs (emasculinated) or endowed with stunted (atrophied) “Tian Yin (anterior Yin: genital organ) lacking in any viril character. moonlight and the carrying distance of sound (musical). the mouth and lips are poorly nourished. 206 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .beard and moustache are absent.Zhang Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on Ren Dao (Human Dao)as a function of Tuan Dao (Celestial Dao). he masters the body. The Renmai (CV) and Chongmai are not developed and the Tian Jin (reunion of pelvic muscles: external genital organs) is poorly formed.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . It is a matter of phenomena that take place with time. Only the Sage achieves elucidation of the Jing Qi (energetic quintessence) of beings and things. like the radiance of the sun. _ the beauty of the beard to appreciate the state of abundance of blood within the Yangming (LI and St). What is the cause?” Qi Bo: 249. _ the green-white color to evaluate the insufficient state of the “heat” energy (of the body). a priori e n e r g y ) .

the green-white color is the sign revealing the insufficient state of the “heat” energy (of the body). The second energy. Man is endowed also with 5 Movements and 6 Energies in order to respond to Heaven and Earth. The fourth energy. Jueyin (XB + Li) has more energy than blood. in particular to the seasonal energies. Yangming (LI + St) has much blood and energy. As a result.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . with “Yangming-Dryness-Metal”. In the human body.. yellow. _ The 3 Yin and 3 Yang manifest at the time when the energy of Heaven joins together with that of the 5 Seasons. As a result. Shaoyin (He + Ki) has more blood than energy. The combination of 5 and 6 give a period of 5 X 6 = 30 years and a cycle of 30 X 2 = 60 years. _ Red governs summer and yellow. The Earth is endowed with “5 Movements” and Heaven. _ Black governs winter and responds to Water. PARAGRAPH 8 “In man. the red-yellow color is the indicator of the excessive state of the “heat” energy which is only Yang energy (of the body). 207 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ the start of this chapter speaks on the 5 Movements of Earth associated with the form (biotype) of the human being.Green.Ma Shi explains: 251. with “Shaoyang-Ministerial Fire”. For example. These phenomena are normal and respond to the “ N u m b e r ” of Heaven. white and black are the 5 Colors responding to Wu Yin (5 Sounds) and to Wu Xing (5 Movements). place of the Yang energy concealed (deep). • • • • • • The first energy (primary energy) is associated with “Jueyin-Wind-Wood”. Shaoyang (SJ + GB) has more energy than blood. “6 Energies”.. with “Shaoyin-Ministerial Fire”. As a result. Raynaud’s disease. . 250.” 3. In summary. this paragraph speaks on the human energetic to the celestial principle (Tian Dao). the “normal _ _ _ _ _ _ numbers” of blood and energy are: Taiyang (SI + Bl) has more blood than energy. This is why. Therefore. _ Green governs spring and white. with “Taiyang-Cold-Water”. this energy is distributed at the level of the feet and hands. The energy of the center (Chong Qi). The third energy. Heaven has its 6 seasons and man also has his 6 seasons. “This paragraph speaks on the “Normal Numbers” of the human being responding to the “Normal Numbers” of Heaven. Taiyin (Lu + Sp) has more blood than energy. the blackisn color is the sign heralding the excessive state of blood and the insuficient state of the energy (3). autumn. with “Taiyin-Humidity-Earth”. red. end of summer. The fifth energy.

Chapter 65: “The 5 Musical Notes and 5 Sapors”). Excess and Insufficiency” easily become confused. but he always conserves his “root” with the 6 Energies of Heaven. • At Heaven. Chapter 65). In effect: • In relation to the Taiyin. on the 6 Energies of man associated with the 6 Energies of Heaven._ and the end. Man receives the 5 Movements in order to take up a form (biotype). it is the Energy.V.” no 252/253. hence the significance of this latter paragraph. Chapter 24: “Energy and Blood. Nevertheless. note that these quantitative blood and energetic states cited in this paragraph are not always in accord with Chapter 24 of the Suwen.N. “_ more energy than blood” (Suwen. the Form. we read: “_ more blood than energy” (Lingshu.: This paragraph speaks on the potential of the blood and energy of the 3 Yin and 3 Yang (Taiyin. and at Earth. Taiyang. Shaoyang and Yangming) which is an indispensible component in the application of the techniques of tonification and dispersion. we read: “_ more energy than blood” (Lingshu. It is a matter here of an error on the part of transcriptionists. Chapter 24). The notions cited in Chapter 24 of the Suwen are correct. Do these two classics teach contradictory information or is it a question of errors of transcription? Here is the response of Zhang Jing Yue: “The 4 words: “Blood and Energy.N. Shaoyin and Jueyin. BOOK VIII Book VIII consists of 10 chapters: Chapter 66: Origin of the “100 Diseases” (Ba Bing Shui Sheng) Chapter 67: Practice of Acupuncture (Xing Zhen) Chapter 68: Above the Diaphragm (Shang Ge) Chapter 69: Panic and Fit of Rage (Yu Sue Wo Ren) 208 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Body and Mind”) • and in relation to the Jueyin. “_ more blood than energy” (Suwen.” II .

The localization of the disease is differentiated into Yin and Yang and into 3 zones (at the top.) and within the endogenous sphere (7 feelings: anger.). Cold.. CHAPTER LXVI Origin of the “100 Diseases” (Ba Bing Shui Sheng) Chapter 66 of the Lingshu speaks on the origin of the “100 Diseases” placed strictly within the exogenous sphere (6 perverse energies: Wind.. at the middle and at the bottom). Heat. 209 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Chapter 70: Cold-Heat (Han Re) Chapter 71: Perverse Guest (Xie Ke) Chapter 72: Celestial Relationships (Zhong Tian) Chapter 73: Ability in the Practice of Acupuncture (Guan Tian) 254. sadness. Chapter 74: Dissertation on Diseases and Examination of the Skin of the Forearm (Lun Xi Zhan Chi) Chapter 75: Effects of Needling on Source Energy and Perverse Energy (Ci Jie Zhen Xie) 255...

When wind. disease manifests within the bottom (of the body). When perverse energy penetrates deeply into the body.. due to emptiness (of the energy of the body). and pure humidity. Thes 3 regions (top. bottom) is different. wind. The energetic activity of these regions (top.. lumbalgia. Joy. _ or from reactive phenomena of feelings such as joy.. they injure the organs and disease manifests within Yin (interior).) is also addressed. intestinal. The principles of therapeutic perfection are also clearly specified. rain. This chapter consists of 7 paragraphs.. anger. pure humidity.. Qi Bo: “The energy belonging to these 3 regions of the body is not of the same potential. rain. it evolves 210 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .” 256... gastric.. during emptiness (of the energy of the body).) and hemorrhoids (nasal. intermediary. it starts either at Yin or at Yang. the “100 Diseases” all originate: _ from the receptivity of the wind.. disease manifests within the top (of the body). infiltrates into Yang (exterior). When pure humidity.. are not brought under control. The formation of Ji Qi (energetic accumulation) is clearly explained..The triggering process of pain (dermalgia. intermediary. in an excessive state. PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: “At their start... bottom) are the sites of manifestation of the 100 Diseases. anger. anger. penetrate with the organism. Allow me to explain to you in detail.. When joy. cold. . injure the organs. injure the top of the body. I would like to know the causes of their perturbation. The subject of this chapter concerning the causes of diseases explains the title: “Origin of the 100 Diseases” . the bottom.. arthralgia..

Therefore.D. As a result. cold and heat. injure the organs. During infiltration of “Pure Humidity” at the time of emptiness (weakness) of the body. In the evolutive phase. I speak to you about this so that you to give me clarification. despite great wind or heavy rain. It is at this time of union of these “2 emptinesses” that the disease becomes triggered. Therefore these diseases start at the Yin. they become transformed into numerous syndromes. Excessive joy and anger disturb the Chi (will: kidney). do not affect an individual in a state of emptiness (of the energy). the disease manifests within the top. diseases arise only within these 3 regions (top. the 100 Diseases are only located within one of these 3 zones. During penetration of pure humidity into the Yang part (of the body).) furnishes similar explanations: “At their start. As a result. When seasonal (climatic) energy is normal and the constitution of the 211 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Excessive anger and joy cause disturbances at the level of Wu Chi (5 wills) which.N. intermediary.: Zhang Jing Yue (1563-1640 A. do not become ill because their vital energy is not insufficient. and during their evolution. isolated perverse energy can not be an injurous factor to the health of man. difficult to name entirely. and during penetration of wind and rain into the Yang part (of the body). perverse Yin is still found at the exterior. the disease manifests within the bottom.and provokes a multitude of different syndromes that are difficult to enumerate.” II . At the starting phase. bottom).” Qi Bo: “Generally. the disease manifests within the lower part of the body. numerous are the individuals who. the “100 Diseases” all originate from upset due to bad weather or internal perturbation. perverse Yang is found at the exterior. if wind and rain. As a result. In other words.” PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “I still have not grapsed very clearly the process of formation of the disease. disease essentially results from “wind” energy playing the role of “perverse emptiness” (Xu Xie) (1) and affects the individual whose vital energy is in a state of emptiness. the disease manifests within the upper part of the body. During penetration of “Wind/Rain” energy within the body in a state of emptiness. 257. At their start.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . the 100 Diseases are only provoked by the attatck of perverse energy and psychoaffective disturbances as distributed in 3 zones: top.Zhang Shi explains: “At their start. the disease starts at Yin.N. intermediary and bottom. in turn. and disturbances of Chi injure the organs.V. the complications are incalculable.

the disease localizes within Yin. the hairs rise up (piloerection) and cause shivering. This is why the skin is painful (cutaneous pain). the disease localizes at the exterior. etc. EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Ma Shi explains: “”Wind-Emptiness” (Xu Feng) (2) is a causal factor of the disease. If the energy of man not in emptiness encounters Wind-Emptiness. disease manifests in man who encounters Wind-Emptiness when his energy is already in a state of emptiness. according to the site of penetration. it causes shivering 212 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . intermediary zone and lower zone. disease cannot be produced. 258. Once within the body. it lodges within the Luomai (secondary vessels) and provokes pain of the flesh (dermalgia). one groups them into 3 zones. perverse energy has a specific localization. and.” PARAGRAPH 3 “This is why. this localiztion has a specific name: upper zone. one designates them by the name “2 fullnesses. that is to say. Similarly. • If the perverse energy is not evacuated.” 1. _ during accumulation of the energy. • If the pain manifests in intermittent fashion. and “Wind-Fullness” (Si Feng) is a factor of the creation and growth of the thousand beings. if Heaven is fitted with Wind-Emptiness and man posesses his Energy-Fullness. and during deep penetration. the penetration id deeper still and the Jingmai (principal channels) follow the Luomai in receiving the perverse energy. The union of these “2 emptinesses” is the essential triggering factor of disease. These are relatively serious. As a result. the disease localizes in the interior _ and during sexual excess. Progressively. • The localization of the disease is divided into 3 zones: _ during infiltration of “Perverse Empitness”.individual robust. Diseases caused by Xu Xie (perverse emptiness) all originate from disordered energy of the 4 seasons and from the state of weakness of the energy of the body. Name given to disordered seasonal energy. ” In these case. the union of these 2 fullnesses can not create disease. the skin and flesh of the individual are firm and prevent the perverse energy from infiltrating into the body and creating illness. The laxity of the skin if followed by the opening of Cou Li (junctions located between the skin and muscles where the sweat gland system is found) favoring the penetration of perverse enrgy via the hairs. when “Perverse Emptiness” (Xu Xie) attacks man. it localizes first at the skin which becomes slack and and relaxed. external or internal zone. this penetration goes deep. from the fullness of perverse energy and emptiness of vital energy. In short. When the perverse energy remains within the Jingmai.

in order to determine the superficial or deep localization of the disease.see explanation on page 224. For diagnosis and treatment. 3. Therefore. other? V. It takes birth at the level of the skin in states of emptiness. Without treatment. hence joint pains and lumbar stiffness. it progresses still deeper and reaches Fu Chong ( 3 ) which causes heaviness and pain of the entire body and 4 limbs. hence cutaneous pain.Zhang Shi explains: “This paragraph addresses the process of penetration of perverse Yang into the organism necessarily starting via the exterior. 260.When perverse energy is found at the pilocutaneous system.V. it evolves toward disease of accumulation (Ji).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I .: Information from Zhang Jing Yue is in agreement: “a . during infiltration. It is so complex that it is impossible to describe.” II . In the chronic state. Disordered wind. it accumulates outside the these viscera. it passes to the Shu points. 213 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it causes difficult defecation and dysentery (bloody. with In conclusion. Perverse cold injures the Wei (defensive energy) and causes a stagnation of blood and energy. the Luomai which are more superficial than the Jingmai (principal channels). • If it persists within Fu Chong. 2. II? • If the “Cold” energy (Han Qi) is excessive.followed by fear and anxiety. • If it persists in the Jingmai. treatment must be carried out at the exterior. it evolves toward the stomach and intestines which provokes a gathering of “Water” energy (Shui Qi) characterized by gurgling and abdominal bloating.N. one attaches a great importance to this fact. superificial or deep. • If it persists in the stomach. at the level of Ma Yuan (adipose membranes) ( 4 ) of the thorax and abdomen and becomes fixed in the blood vessels. it causes boborygmi and diarrhea stool containing undigested food. If it is not evacuated from the Jingmai. that is to say. the cold perverse progressively reaches more deeply. fixed: The invasion of perverse energy extends throughout the entire body. the places of penetration of perverse cold are always painful. which provokes pains of the flesh (dermalgia). that is to say. in states of flaccidity and laxity. perverse energy becomes _ either in the Sunmai or Luomai _ either in the Jingmai or liquid vessels _ either in Fu Chong or Huan Jin (abdominal muscles) (5) _ or in Ma Yuan of the stomach and intestines. purulent stools). In other words.N. one must carefully examine the vessels laocated at Yin and Yang. in this way preventing the energy of the 6 channels (3 Yin and 3 Yang) from reaching the 4 limbs. This designates the internal vessel og the Chongmai. • If the “Heat” energy (Re Qi) is excessive.

According to Zhang Shi. d. it causes fear. this designates the memebranes covering the stomach and intestines. The process of penetration of perverse energy and formation of the “Ji” (accumulation) syndrome can be diagrammed in the following way: 214 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The Luomai course through the flesh and the Jingmai are concealed in the depths.b. When the perverse cold leaves the Luomai to reach the Jingmai. c. The energetic points (Shu: moving points or energetic sites) are sites of concentration of energy circulating within the Jingmai and are localized within the “valleys and small valleys” (Gi Gu: dermal grooves) and at the level of the joints. when perverse cold occurs at the Jingmai. As a result. 5. Chapter 77 of this classic (“9 Palaces8 Winds”) is interesting to consult. When the perverse energy reaches the Jingmai. hence pain and rigidity of the 4 limbs. it provokes shivering. This designates the abdominal muscles. 4. the 6 channels (3 Yin and 3 Yang) are obstructed. The Jingmai are linked with the organs.” In relation to “Perverse Emptiness” (Xu Xie).

Different phases of penetration of perverse energy and formation of the “Ji” syndrome PARAGRAPH 4 261. • When the perverse energy accumulates within Fu Chong (internal vessel of the Chongmai) . This “Cold” energy always causes constricting phenomena. it flows down toward the interior (intestine) emitting gurgling sounds (displacement of water). This is why it becopmes progressively displaced toward the gastrointestinal space. . it goes and comes. supple and thin/√ light region of the body.” Qi Bo: “Perverse energy infiltrates within numerous little Luo vessels. it accumulates around the umbilicus which becomes tense after a meal and lax in the state of hunger. 215 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the Sunluo (little blood capillaries). • When the perverse energy accumulates at Huan Jin (abdominal muscles) . calmed after a meal and worsened in the state of hunger. • When the perverse energy becomes localized at the energetic vessels at the level of the spinous muscles and vessels located behind the stomach and intestines. it provokes peristaltic waves within the abdomen on pressure and lifting of the fingers and a current of “heat” energy which descends toward the thighs evoking the image of flowing out of boiling water.. • When the perverse energy stops at the Yangming (St). • When the perverse energy accumulates within Ma Yuan (membranes. it causes pain radiating toward the exterior to Huan Jin (abdomnal m u s c l e s ) . This energetic mass is mobile. the accumulation appears only in the hunger state and disappears after a meal. one will not find it. If one attempts to look for it with the hand. it is impossible to stop it because it accumulates in the Sunluo of the arms. If it involves “Cold” perverse energy. . that is to say.. p e r i t o n e u m . If it involves “Water” perverse energy. to cause the “Ji” (accumulation) syndrome. . it presents in the form of accumulation like that of the Yangming (St) with pain worsened after a meal and calmed by hunger. it causes abdominal bloating and boborygmi (displacement of air). ascend and descends. ) . hence stabbing abdominal pain. Huangdi: “I would like you to inform me in a general fashion about the origin of diseases.

262. for the first time in 1971. 216 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .: In the West. internal vessel of the Chongmai (6). upon lifting the fingers.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. Zhang Jing Yue gives one description: “The internal vessel of the Chongmai. follows the vertebral column to reach the top.. then... it is necessary to look for peristaltic waves on finger pressure (on the abdomen). it causes obstruction preventing the Xin Ye (organic liquid) from circulating. Chong = Chongmai).. we pointed out the “Fu Chong”.” This comment has an obvious impact on the diagnostic and therapeutic plan.V. it comes out again at Qijie (other name for Qichong.St 30) in order to go into relationship with the inner thigh before penetrating into the popliteal fossa.N.. descends toward the inner thigh.. called “Fu Chong (Fu = hidden/√innermost.). • When the perverse energy becomes fixed at the Shu (energetic) points of the Jingmai (principal channels). In order to diagnose the presence of accumulation of perverse energy at the level of Fu Chong... mouth. . It then descends via the path of the Dumai (GV) to connect with the Luo of the Shaoyin (Ki). waves followed by a sensation of a current of “heat” energy which. Such are the routes of penetration of perverse energy toward the bottom (deep) and not toward the top (superficial). hence drying out and obstruction of the “orifices” (nose.

blood extravasates toward the exterior triggering epistaxis. severe attack of “cold” energy at the time of psychoaffective disturbances (anger.) accentuates the Jue Ni (contrary afflux) which blocks the circulation of the energy of the 6 channels (3 Yin and 3 Yang) and that of the “Wen” (Moderate Heat’ “mild” heat) energy..6. This blockage causes blood stagnation and becomes transfromed into Ji Qi (energetic accumulation). Don Bosco Edition. a disordered life or overwork can injure the Luomai: _ the Yang Luo being disturbed.V. becomes transformed into Ji Qi (energetic accumulation) . being inextricable.: This paragraph demonstrates the principal causes of the formation of”Ji Qi”. Marseille. 217 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . See “Energetic Topography in Chinese Medicine”. joy. then a sensation of ice cold legs with disturbance of blood circulation. “ Contrary Afflux” (Jue Ni) of cold starts at the bottom. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. It first causes painful stasis of the feet with trouble walking. _ the Yin Luo being disturbed. • Sometimes. in the chronic state. then by Jue Ni (contrary afflux) of this cold toward the top.. • If the exterior of the stomach and intestines is affected by “cold” energy. the frothy and spoliees substances and blood enter into conflict constituting a type of adherent stasis which. • Sometimes.” Huangdi: “What is the process of formation of Ji Qi ? ” Qi Bo: 263. _ the Luomai of the stomach and intestines being disturbed. overeating. Stasis of blood vessels causes a progressive ascent of the “cold” energy up to the abdomen. hence bloating with accumulation of frothy and spolieee/despoiled material which.N. becomes transformed into Ji Qi (energetic accumulation). blood extravasates toward the interior triggering r e c t o r r a g i e . PARAGRAPH 5 Huangdi: “What is the process of triggering of the “Ji” Qi Bo: (accumulation) disease?” “ Ji Qi (accumulation) is first caused by “cold” energy. blood extravasates toward the exterior provoking gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

In summary. Attack of cold followed by cold food injures the lung. the Luomai that go from superficial to deep. from overwork and especially from negligence√. it prevents the Yang energy from functioning. all illnesses injuring the organs occur within the Yin sphere. The “injured liver” is an illness localizing at the Xue (blood). 265. all these phenomena originate from the divergence√ of the mouth and lower abdomen. When the “cold” energy reaches from the top to the abdomen and intestines. 3. These affect the blood in a state of stasis. In this way.According to Zhang Jing Yue: “1 . Overwork and loss of sleep injure the Luomai of the Yin and Yang. The “injured lung” is an illness localizing at the Qi (energy). Such are the 3 zones (upper. Digestive disorder or overeating disturb the functions of the stomach and intestines. and “Yin Luo” . Ice cold legs cause blood and energetic stasis. making possible the combining of this blood with the frothy and spoliees substances and its concentration at the exterior of the stomach and intestines to transform into Ji Qi. The “injured” spleen is an illness localizing at the Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy). 2. middle and lower) within which diseases occur. 218 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Coitus in a drunken state and exposure to wind after marked sweating injures spleen. transform into Ji Qi. PARAGRAPH 6 Huangdi: “How do diseases of the Yin zone take place?” Qi Bo: “Sadness and preoccupation injure the heart.Zhang Shi explains: “The “injured heart” is an illness localizing at the Yang. Frothy and spoliees substances extravasate and mix with the blood transforming into Ji Qi. 264. Recall that “Yang Luo” designates the Luomai that go from deep to superficial. Physical effort (overwork) after coitus or after sweating injures the kidney.The afflux of cold toward the bottom provokes joint pains with trouble walking. The “injured kidney” is an illness localizing at the “Yin root”. in the long run. hence abdominal bloating and accumulation of frothy and spoliees substances (substances poorly metabolized) which.” the EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTAIRES I .

. Do not act against climatic conditions (that is to say. In summary. 219 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . joy.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N.N. This cold causes an obstruction at the level of the Shu (energetic) points of the 6 channels (3 Yin and 3 Yang) and blocks the circulation of the “Wen” energy (mild energy or moderate heat).N. Know clearly the excess and insufficiency before using tonification or dispersion. But the therapeutic result depends on the technique of needling and especially on the manipulation of the needles. the formation of Ji Qi is possible when the “cold” energy attacks the exterior (of the organism) at a time of sadness..V. in the chronic state.N.V. treat the organs as a function of the seasons). It results in a stagnation of Yin-Blood which. This must obviously be constantly be kept in mind. transforms into Ji Qi .: Tonification and dispersion are known in the West. This is what this short paragraph teaches. PARAGRAPH 7 Huangdi: “Correct! How do you treat it?” Qi Bo: the “Carefully examine the localization of the pain to determine the reactions of concerned channels. injuring the interior..II . In this manner is the treatment adequate.: This paragraph speaks on the formation of Ji Qi (energetic accumulation) originating from the association of psychologic components and the “cold” energy (Han Qi).

the reaction only appears after several sessions of acupuncture. CHAPTER LXVII Practice of Acupuncture (Xing Zhen) Chapter 67 of the Lingshu speaks on the different Yin-Yang complexions of the human body. For this reason. In individuals of the “Chong Yang’ (Superimposed Yang) type. The Yin energy and Yang energy can be in emptiness or fullness.no 266/267. This chapter then emphasizes the rules of manipulation of the needle during treatment which justifies its title: “Pratice of Acupuncture”. the energy reacts as soon as the needle is put in. the reaction is relatively slow. In individuals whose Yin and Yang are balanced. and in that of the “Chong Yang” type endowed with a part of Yin. the reaction of the needle is rapid. during needling. The worsening of the disease by misunderstanding the technique of manipulation of the needle on the part of the poor physician is also broached. PARAGRAPH 1 220 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This chapter consists of 3 paragraphs. the energy reacts differently from one individual to another. and individuals whose Yin is more abundant than Yang.

5. 2.Huangdi. In yet others. the Shen Qi (mental energy) is naturally excitable and the energy (Qi) reacts easily. 268. the energy arrives only after several seesions of acupuncture. of the left and right sides. heart and lung.” Huangdi: “What do you mean by “man of the Chong Qi Bo: which Yang type”?” “The Chong Yang type is marked by pasionate/fervent feelings like fire burns vividly√ √ . I would like to know the causes. In yet others. his Shen (mental) is naturally excitable and his energy reacts quickly. I have followed them to treat the “100 families”. 3. In others. In still others the energy arrives after removal of the needle. are in excess. When the energy of 221 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the blood and energy of these families are not the same. 1. The energy of the 2 organs. As a result. 4. and that of the Heart and Lung. The Yang energy circulates abundantly and smoothly and opens toward the “4 Seas”. simultaneous presence of 2 forms of Yang) . in others.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . “After having listened to your explanations on the “Rules of the 9 Neeldes”.” Qi Bo: “In individuals of the “Chong Yang” (Superimposed Yang. Finally. His speech is rapid. He walks with long strides. 6. the energy arrives as soon as the needle is put in. He has an arrogant/proud temperment. are in excess.Zhang Shi explains: “In the “Chong Yang” type. These 6 different reactions of the energy are seen in all circumstances. the energy of the 3 Yang of the foot and hand. The heart receives the Shen (mental) and the lung is the “master” of the Qi (energy). Nevertheless. the energy arrives immediately at the needle√ √ ? . the energy arrives “in the wrong way” only after some sessions of acupuncture. the energy arrives “in the wrong way” (Ni: indicates aggravation of the disease) as soon as the needle is removed. In some individuals whose Shen Qi (mental energy) is barely affected.

the Chong Yang type is endowed with a small amount of Yin energy which impedes the movements of “Separation/Reunion” of Yin and Yang and prevents the Shen Qi from responding rapidly to needling. This is why the Shen Qi reacts promptly to needling. Therefore. This is why the Shen Qi cannot respond rapidly to needling.” PARAGRAPH 3 Huangdi: 270. In our case. to speak of “Yin within Yang” is to speak of damage caused by Yin that the Yang cannot avoid√?. the word “Yang” designates the Wei (defensive) energy. As a result.the heart and that of the lung is in excess. 222 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .The movements of “Separation/Reunion” (of Yin and Yang) are then impeded. Why?” Qi Bo: “These Chong Yang types only possess a little Yin energy in the interior. that which possesses more Yang is generally joyous and that which possesses more Yin is usually easily angered. Stagnation and suffocation are two qualities belonging to Yin. but his anger is easily controlled.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Zhang Shi explains: “Clear-sightedness and cheerfulness are two qualities belonging to Yang. Huangdi: “Nevertheless.” are their characteristics?” Huangdi: “What Qi Bo: “The type of excess Yang is generally joyous and the type of excess Yin is normally easily angered. the Xin-Shen (Heart-Shen) is impulsive and the Qi (energy) is radiant. there are “Chong Yang” types whose Shen Qi does not react as quickly. Frequently being easily angered is due to the presence of a small quantity of Yin within Yang.” II. but it is easily “cooled down” (brought under control) by the Yang.” PARAGRAPH 2 269. Ma Shi adds: “Here.

In the excessive state.” Huangdi: “Sometimes the energy only reacts after several acupuncture sessions. nutritive) energy and Wei (defensive) energy. The only result from ignorance of the circulation of Ying (Rong.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Ma Shi explains: “Contrary reactions during implantation of the needle and worsening of the disease after needling do not originate from the superficial or deep state of the Yin and Yang energy.“In Qi Bo: certain individuals. The contrary reacttion therefore originates from the depth of implantation of the needles: 223 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . nor from their superficial or deep state. What is the energy responsible for this reaction?” Qi Bo: “The contrary reaction and the aggravation of the disease after acupuncture neither originate from the Yin energy and Yang energy. the needling must be superficial _ and to summon the Ying energy. the reaction is then difficult to produce. This is why the energy reacts spontaneously to needling. Which energy is responsible for this reaction?” Qi Bo: “In these individuals. What is the energy responsible for this late reaction?” Qi Bo: “It is a question of individuals whose Yin is in excess and Yang is in insufficiency. The Ying energy circulates deeply. within the channels. This is why it necessitates several acupuncture sessions for it to appear. the Yin energy is in excess and the Yang energy is in insufficiency. As a result.” Huangdi: “In certain individuals. Yin and Yang are balanced. The poor physician is responsible and not the Xing Qi (form/energy). outside the channels. This is why the energy reacts late. Their energy is concealed within the interior.” Huangdi: “Sometimes. Why?” “In them. after removal of the needle. blood and energy are fluid and freeflowing. contrary reactions take place after needling. the energy responds immediately to needling. and the Wei superficially. _ to summon the Wei energy. the energy only reacts after removal of the needle. Yin (deep) attracts Yang (superficial) in order to bury it/ s e l f √ √ deeply. 271. the needling must be deep.

” no 272/273._ deep needling instead of superficial needling _ superficial needling instead of deep needling. 224 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the acupuncturist must understand well the forms (types) of energy in order to transmit to the needle the proper depth. As a result.

In contrast.. is characterized by post-prandial vomiting. 24 hours after a meal. I would like you to explain it to me in detail. vomiting only occurs 24 hours (circadian cycle) after a meal. “The word “Ge” means diaphragm. earthworms. PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: "Shang Ge” (supra-diaphragmatic) syndrome.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . I still have not clearly understood its etiologic process.CHAPTER LXVIII Above the Diaphragm (Shang Ge) Chapter 68 of the Lingshu speaks on the diaphragmatic syndromes grouped into: _ Shang Ge (supra-diaphragmatic) syndromes and _ Xia Ge (sub-diaphragmatic) syndromes. in “Xia Ge” (sub-diaphragmatic) syndrome. one takes the diaphragm as reference point to individualize the supra-diaprhagmatic syndrome of energetic origin and the sub-diaphragmatic syndrome or parasitic origin. caused by the accumulation of the energy. This chapter consists of 3 paragraphs.). the supra. Here. I know this. This is why the term “Shang Ge” (“Above the Diaphragm”) had been chosen as the title of this chapter. and the second.and sub-diaphragmatic syndromes are not provokes by the muscle itself. The Shang Ge syndrome is a common ailment. The first is characterized by spontaneous vomiting after a meal.Ma Shi explains: 274.. by late vomiting. Instead. due to the presence of worms (tapeworms. 225 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

N. no longer move about and accumulate within the region of Xia Wen (duodenum). some brothers confused the “Guan Ge” (barrier-separation) syndrome cited in pulsology and the “Ge” (diaphragmatic) syndrome.N.V. 275. When it can no longer circulate. Nei Yung provokes painful tractions of the region of Xia Wen (duodenum).However. the sub-diaphragmatic syndrome of “parasitic” origin is more detailed than the supradiaphragmatic syndrome of “energetic” origin. What a pity! The diaphragm is attached in front to the region of Juiwei (CV 15) and behind it inserts at the level of the 11th dorsal vertebra.N. _ In the case where Nei Yung is located in the interior of Xia Wen. Intestinal worms. and the plundered/strippedspoliee “cold” substance flows out toward the ntestines. _ In the case where Nei Yung is located at the exterior of Xia Wen. tapeworms.) and requires them to collect in the region of Xia Wen (duodenum) hence: _ fullness of energy of the stomach and intestines _ blockage of the circulation of Wei (defensive) energy _ easy settling of worms in this region. In this paragraph. perverse energy accumulates in this region.. they are totally ignorant of the diseases caused by the energy and diseases caused by worms. subjected to the cold. Also. the pains are superficial and the skin (of this region) is “burning”.: 226 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the Wei (defensive) energy designates the energy of the spleen. Here. intestinal worms ascend in search of food which also aggravates the emptiness of the region of Xia Wen and favors the concentration of perverse cold in the form of Ji Ju (Accumulation/ Gathering) which becomes transformed into Nei Yung (internal abcess). • At the time of a meal. the energy of the intestines is damaged and “cooled down”.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N.V..” II . This perverse cold hampers the movements of worms (earthworms. in our times.: Information from Zhang Jing Yue is worthwhile: “When the energy of the stomach is affected. digestive disturbance and unstable cold and heat injure the energy of the stomach and favor the outflow of p l u n d e r e d / s t r i p p e d s p o l i e e (dietary) cold toward the intestines. • Once formed. It is a muscle separating the thorax from the abdomen which has the role of preventing the impure energy from rising up toward the top and “soiling” the lung and heart.” PARAGRAPH 2 Qi Bo: “Uncontrolled joy and anger. the pains are deep and can only be perceived on palpation.

sometimes superficially at the epidermo-dermal region. perverse cold is latent either in the interior or at the exterior of Xia Wen. _ when it is deep. Also. • Then it is necessary to: _ know how to associate the therapeutic methods with hygenic and medical means. Do not exceed 3 punctures.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . 227 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . It is only instead by the latter that one prescribes salty and bitter flavor to eliminate the abscess (pus) via the digestive (anal) route. Generally. _ Repeat the needling. will supperate. they rapidly gather within Xia Wen and are transformed into “Nei Yung” (internal abscess) and impede digestive movements.According to Zhang Jing Yue: “When worms are subjected to cold and perceive food odors. A large abscess. _ First apply a superficial stick near the abscess. they are driven to ascend to look for nourishment. not against the “natural world” is to aid the energy of the interior to circulate harmoniously. 276. determine the direction of the inflammatory energy”. to live with serenity and calm. needling must be deep. hence late vomiting arising only at the end of the circadian cycle (24 hours after a meal). then progressively orient the needle deeper.. nedling must be superficial. is to follow the Wei (defensive) energy according to the circulation of Zu and Shou Yangming (St and LI) to choose the points to needle. This is why the “heat” (inflammatory--> pain) energy sometimes manifests deeply within the abdomen..” PARAGRAPH 3 Huangdi: “What Qi Bo: to is the treatment?” “Exert slight pressure on the spot where Nei Yung (internal abscess) is found determine the direction (of shifting) of the “inflammatory” energy. When the worms reach the top and allow √their place in the perverse cold.Zhang Shi explains: “1. _ respect the “prohibitions” to supress the toxic energy in the interior. “. as a result. of Nei The key point is needling as a function of the deep or superficial localization Yung: _ when it is superficial. • It is advised to add warm applications to the needled area with the goal of introducing warm air to the interior to reduce the virulence of the perverse energy.

one only perceives that there is only nothingness. acquires serenity... Ignorant or learned. are the following: “In the interior. one only finds nothingness. the essential or vital energy. after a long progression succedds in “leaving himself” to rejoin the Essential Unity and becomes aware of the precariousness of manifesting. nothing from nothing is still nothing.N. . the men of this era were of peaceful ways.2. the appearance no longer has anything of the appearance. in examining nothingness. If one needles three times in this manner. association of these two flavors has the purpose of activating digestion and stopping vomiting.. “Do not exceed 3 punctures” implies that: _ in the first place. ancient men have a calm mind and little passion. how could the disease survive? 277. They are tranquil and never doubt.. they were called “Fa” (simple and sincere). Outside. They are satisifed with their food and type of clothes.N. rest is then called “true rest”.” This text translates the state of mind of the sage who. as a result. “Then. No obscene words troubled their hearts. _ bitter flavor follows the transformation of Fire and can heat up the stomach. no desire tired their eyes. explaining the exact sense of the term “serenity and nothingness” used by Qi Bo. nothing from nothing is also nothing. • The prescription of salty and bitter flavor is mentioned because: _ salty flavor follows the transformation of Water and possesses two properties: solidification and liquifaction. “To live with serenity and calm. Of these words from Chapter 1 of the Suwen (“Ancient Celestial Origin”). . “Transparency is in general calm. one with the other. Their bodies can be fatigued but moderately so. They lived in harmony.” II . the heart no longer has anything of the heart. Always in harmony with the Dao of Eugenism. Qi Bo specifies: “The Sages of the ancient era recommended to avoid the energy and perverse wind and to always have the heart in a state of “serenity and nothingness” so that the Jing energy (quintessence) remains harmonious and the Shen (mental) remains strong in the interior.. At the exterior. often at rest. Their Jing energy is harmonious. Therefore.: The true principles in order to observe the “nothingness” of Lao Tsu. If the calm is no longer calm. superficial needling chases away the perverse Yang energy _ in the second place. 228 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . without jealousy or envy..V. often in motion. examine the beings. 3. examine the heart. . how will desire arise? Desire not arising is true repose. produced by the Shui Gu (Water-Cereals).. If there is no nothingness. needling deeper still makes the cereal energy return. that is to say. This was due to “perfect virtue”. examine the appearance. there remains only nothingness. the beings are no longer beings. they had no fears of external phenomena. Truth usually contains Jing..”. they could live to one hundred years without their healkth being diminished. deep needling evacuates the perverse Yin energy _ and finally. Therefore. Therefore. the cereal energy will escape. “Truth usually corrsponds to beings. He then clearly understand/conceives√ the notion of “Nothingness” and. Nothingness is already nothing. wise or not. As a result.

no 278/279. CHAPTER LXIX Panic and Fit of Rage: Aphonia 229 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

The larynx (Hou Lung) is the path of ascent and descent of the energy. The hyoid (Huang Gu) .(Yu Que Wu Ren) Chapter 69 of the Lingshu speaks on the pathologic process of aphonia and emphasizes the importance of the epiglottis. Treatment consists of dispersing the blood Luo located at the Zu Shaoyin (Ki) and Chongmai.” 280. lips. hence aphonia. This chapter contains 2 paragraphs. The uvula (Xuan Yung) is the “border town√ door of sounds”. The thickness and size of the epiglottis affects the tonality of sound. as well as the point Tiantu (CV 22). larynx. The lips and mouth are shutters of the door of sounds.. PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi questions Shao Shi: “Panic and fit of rage can cause sudden extinction of the voice. . The basic causes of aphonia are of psychoaffective origin. commands 230 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The naso-pharynx (Hang Zang) is the limit of entry and exit of the energy. When “cold” energy becomes localized at the epiglottis. mouth and hyoid in utterance. governed by the Shen Qi (mental energy). This originates from the obstruction of which energetic route? Or what is the type of energy which ceases to circulate in order to hinder the emission of sounds? I want you to explain the basis of the therapeutic goals to me. The epiglottis (Hui Yan) is the door of emission of sounds. Shao Shi relies: “The pharynx (Ye Hou) is the path of “Shui Gu” (Water Cereals).. such as panic. This is why this chapter is entitled “Panic and Fit of Rage: Aphonia”. fit of rage. it hinders the movements of opening and closing. uvula.

The neck of the human being is endowed with two ducts: a pliable duct and a firm duct. and Ye Hou (phraynx). Also. • This is why continuous rhinorrhea originates from the obstruction of the nasal fossa impeding the area of distribution of the energy (air).the function of the tongue and the emission of sounds.” 231 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . opening and closing are difficult and the path of entry and exit is slow. hence stuttering (Chong Yon). 281. It is the path of entry and exit of the Celestial energy (air). opening and closing flow easily and the path of entry of the energy is easy.Zhang Shi explains: “1. If the epiglottis is large and thick. to the energy of Earth (swallowing). situated at the posterior part. The pliable duct is located at the anterior part and bears the name “Ye Hou” (pharynx). these sounds are not from the voice. Similarly. is named “Hou Lung” (larynx). Also. It communicates with the 5 organs. If the epiglottis is small and thin. in Chapter 29 of the Suwen (“Study on Taiyin and Yangming”). • Sudden aphonia is due to the fixation of perverse cold at the level of the epiglottis. It is the path of entry of the Shui Gu (Water Cereals). Yang is easily attacked by Wind (Heaven) and Yin by Humidity (Earth). if there are sounds. the path of exit is rapid. It communicates with the 6 bowels. It loses its function of emission of sounds. hence aphonia.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . we read: “Hou Lung (larynx) responds to the energy of Heaven (respiration). The firm duct.

designates the fleshy and elongated median projection of the nasal part of the pharynx. the liquid components (impure) stagnate and the area of distribution of the energy loses its function. During swallowing. 3. These problems are due to the poor functionng of the opening and closing movements of the epiglottis.V. it has a relationship with the “Heart-Lung” system. when the energy does not circulate. This is why one names it “door of emission of sounds”. In other words. it separates the pharynx(path of Shui Gu.” II .Water Cereals) from the larynx (respiratory path). generally called “tongue”√. it controls lingual movements. it closes the larynx at the time of swallowing and opens the larynx during respiration and speaking. Xuan Yung (uvula). 232 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 2. Below.N. 4. 7.N. is located at the upper part of the laryngopharyngeal system. 5.: It appears necessary to us to present a diagram localizing the anatomic components and energetic vessels mentioned in this chapter (1). This is why on calls it “barrier” (flap of the great door separating these 2 regions). It also has a relationship with the base of the tongue. The naso-pharyngeal orifice is closed because the energy (pure) does not circulate. Therefore. The energy (inspired air) and the liquid substance of the mouth and nose communicate at this level. Huan Gu (hyoid). 6. his is why on names it “ambassador” of the Shen Qi (mental energy). It corresponds to the lung.Figure 1: Energetic vessels at the level of the buccal and laryngeal cavities. midline bone in the shape of a horseshoe. Stuttering (Chong Yon) designates a problem of speech of psycho-motor origin which manifests as staccato repetetions of of a syllabus and involuntary stoppage in the rate of flow of words. 282. Hui Yan (epiglottis) is a cartilaginous strip of triangular shape which juts into the glottis. Hang Zang (naso-pharynx) is situated above the laryngo-pharyngeal organs and at the posterior part of the nasal cavity.

Treatment consists of dispersing the blood at the level of the 2 channels. The Westernization of Classical Chinese Medicine without completely mastering the true basis of energetic medicine is only an imaginary project. “.). the therapy of energetic medicine is not rigid. Midsi edition. Zu Shaoyin (Ki) and Renmai (CV). “1.N. Zu Shaoyin (Ki) and Renmai (CV).PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “How do you needle?” Qi Bo replies: “In ascending. See Figure 1. Whether to apply tonification or dispersion depends on whether the cause of the disease is internal or external.According to Zhang Jing Yue.” II . The e p i g l o t t i s contains a vessel linked to the Renmai (CV)..V.. it reaches the top and links up to the “orifices” (nose. that is to say. EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . As a result.N. 2. the point Tiantu (CV 22). to eliminate the perverse cold.. Zu Shaoyin (Ki) and Renmai (CV)” means to say that one must disperse the point of reunion/meeting of these 2 channels.Zhang Shi explains: 283. The energetic path of the kidney has 2 branches: _ one branch which reaches the base of the tongue _ and another which connects to the points Lianquan (CV 23) and Yutang (CV 18) to go into realtionship with the Jing Qi (liquid quintessence). taken from “Atlas of Anatomy”. “. mouth.. 2 .: 1 .” 1. one must needle the point Tiantu (CV 22) in order to recuperate the energy of the epiglottis to assure the emission of sounds.Disperse the blood at the level of the 2 channels. is to needle in dispersion the point Taixi (Ki 3) of the Zu Shaoyin (Ki) at the level of the 2 feet (malleoli) because this point is the site where the blood of the vessels flows out”. Because the Zu Shaoyin (Ki) has the function of reception/conservation of the a priori Jing Qi (innate energetic quintessence)..to disperse the blood of the 2 channels. Zu Shaoyin (Ki) _ enters into connection with the base of the tongue _ commnicates with the h y o i d _ and ends at the e p i g l o t t i s .It is deplorable that some French and German translations of this chapter do not conform at all to the spirit of the original text. 233 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . page 279. In summary..

the words “Cold-Heat” are taken for the title of this chapter.no 284/285. diagnosis and principal therapy of “scrofula” (1)(Lou Li). This chapter contains 2 paragraphs. CHAPTER LXX Cold-Heat (Han Re) Chapter 70 of the Lingshu speaks on the etiology. This affliction is generally accompanied by signs of “cold” (sensation) and “heat” (fever). 234 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In this way.

infectious and contagious energy able to manifest at any time of the year. Because this ganglionic chain evokes the image of a mousehole. (Jiao) . Because the “toxic energy” (Du Qi) accumulates in the Jingmai (principal channels). First. that is to say. Generally. at the neck and axilla.“Toxic energy” (Du Qi): the generic name serving to designate a type of extremely virulent perverse energy as opposed to the disordered perverse energy of the 4 seasons. Glandular swelling.” (Re Lou) is due to fixation of “toxic” energy within the vessels 1. When “ t o x i c ” energy is located within the Jingmai (principal channels) without reaching the “flesh” system to transform into blood and pus. toxic cold.PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: “ Scrofulas” (Lou Li) manifest by fever (Re) and fear of cold (Han). Huangdi: “What is the chief therapy of the scrofulas?” Qi Bo: “The “root” and the “summit” 286. the disease originates from stagnation of “toxic” energy at the level of the Jingmai (principal channels). the disease drags on indefinitely.” 235 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it is a question of toxic wind.. From there it evolves to the Jueyin (XB and Li) and Taiyin (Lu and Sp). it “root” (Ben) is found at the level of the organs and its “summit” (Jiao) appears at the level of the neck and axilla. .Ma Shi explains: “The term “Lou Li” (scrofula) designates the ganglionic chain extending from above downward and generally localizes at the neck and axilla. Generally. As a result. a . treatment is easy. it is given the name “Re Lou”. b . lymphadenopathy. In the majority of cases. then reaches the Yangming (LI and St).. (Ben) of this disease is found at the level of the internal organ.This disease has its “root” (Ben) at the level of the organs and its “summit” (Jiao) at the level of the neck and axilla. toxic heat. it starts at the Shaoyang (SJ and GB).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . they are located at the neck and sub-axillary region. Which energy is responsible for this illness?” Qi Bo: “ Adenitis” (lymphatics).

sadness/anger. these ganglia are not adherent to the deep layer.V. Generally. In the majority of cases. Then the “muscular” (tendinous Jing) energy condenses and assumes the form of little nodules (ganglia) which connect up one to the other.N. 6. In the evolutive phase. immobile. In contrast. According to our masters of antiquity. it is inflammed and painful. Yangming and Shaoyang. Scrofula is an external disease. This toxic substance (saliva) infiltrates into the 2.Zhang Jing Yue gives us the following definitions: “Lou Li”: generic name designating non-suppurative cervical or axillary adenitis (reactive adenitis). At the start.. 9. acupuncture and moxabustion are strictly contra-indicated. 3. 287. localizing at the anterior part of the neck.Zhang Shi states: “1. “Li”: adenitis of large size. this ailment appears in the post-auricular. Chapter 74 of this classic (“Dissertation on Diseases and Examination of the Skin of the Forearm”) is consulted to more deeply understand the evolution of this disease.” III . long ago. is is of psychoaffective origin (worry/preoccupation. usually resistant to treatment. “Lou”: adenitis of small size. 288. according to some authors. “Shi Lou”: adenitis of “humdity” origin. Mobile on palpation. if they are rooted in the flesh. followed by fever (heat) and chills (cold). it presents in the form of one or two nodules the size of a grain of wheat whose number progressively increases. “Gan Li”: adenitis of tendino-muscular origin. In this regard. scrofula is the particular form tuberculosis (perhaps even syphilis) takes when it hits young lympphatic individuals. one used cat meat to make up anti-scrofula medicines according to the principles of inhibition (of the law of 5 Movements). localizing at the sides of the neck.. “Dan Lou”: adenitis of “phlegm” origin. “Re Lou”: generic name designating cervical or axillary adenitis revealing an oozing nature or chronic appearance (scrofula. The skin of the infected area is a pale red color. The energy of the liver compressed is transformed into “Phlegm-Fire” and accumulates within the Shaoyang and Yangming channels. scrofulas originate from the absorption of food products saturated with mouse saliva√ (2). 2. Lou Li (scrofula) also has the name “Re Lou” (adenitis. “Re Seng”: adenitis with central fistula not yet firm and other fistulas at the periphery making the form of a “mousesouris”. of firm and contractile nature. organs and exteriorizes at the level of the Jingluo (principal and secondary channels) of the neck and axilla to trigger the disease.)..).. 8. It is caused by the fixation of toxic energy within these two channels. One recognizes 9 types of adenitis: 1. ecrouelle=scrofula?!. acupuncture and moxabustion are recommended. lymphadenitis). 3.II . In our times. This is why. 2. “Luo Li”: adenitis which connects up one to the other in the form of a sting of pearls (mousehole).: A . “Qi Li”: adenitis of energetic origin which becomes swollen after each bout of anger and becomes inflammatory and edematous. “Mouse crossing the hole”: cervical or axillary adenitis uncurable upon the appearance of an ulceration on the sole of the foot. 236 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 7. 5. 4. that is to say.N. cervical or sub-axillary areas associated with 2 channels.

judging the depth by observing the surface and discerning the invisible by analysis of the visible. one treats the summit in disease of the root and the root in disease of the summit. in other words. to know the principles of contrary-favorable is to know how to resolve therapeutic problems. often treatment of the root gives good results. To fail to recognize these notions is to risks regrettable errors.” PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “What is the therapeutic conduct of this disease?” Qi Bo: “The therapeutic conduct consists of obeying the principle of “Summit-Root” 237 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Chapter 65 (“Study of Summit-Root Following the Evoultion of the Disease”). and to know the notion of root-summit is to be able to cure any disease. the physician often confronts concrete pathologic situations which can be complex and of infinite diversity. Faced with all these situations. often treatment of the summit is effective. it acute or chronic nature. either a “contrary” or “favorable” treatment or a treatment of the “root” or “summit”. In the Suwen. It permits foreseeing the seriousness of some diseases.” B . its utility is of great capacity. What is the significance of this?” Qi Bo: “During needling.The problem of “Root” (Ben) and “Summit” (Jiao) has the objective of adapting treatment to the particular disease: _ to etiology or symptomatology _ to seriousness or benignness _ to acute or chronic nature. Despite the limits of a reasoning based on “Root-Summit”. Therapeutically. often orthodox treatment cures the disease. often heterodox treatment curbs pathologic manifestations. In this manner. it is important to discern the Root and Summit and study the evolutive process of the disease before making a therapeutic decision. The key point is to conform with the therapeutic principles of “root” and “summit” according to the pathologic process. but to practice it is difficult. evaluating the extent of the pathologic process from a simple clinical sign and anticipating the development of the disease as soon as it manifests. In other cases. Zhang Jing Yue emphasizes: “The clinical application of the notion of “Root-Summit” is not simple. it is necessary to discern the disease belonging to Yin and that belonging to Yang.All these adenitises are resistant and very serious.” This paragraph therefore stresses the importance of the notion “Root-Summit” (Ben-Jiao) and its usually complex application. It has clearly been stated: Some diseases localizing at the summit are treated at the summit. In general practice. and some others localizing at the root are treated at the root. To understand “Root-Summit” is easy. 289. It demands a deeper knowledge of what is “contrary” and what is “favorable” in the goal of therapy. “Contrary-Favorable” and “Yin-Yang”. before choosing a therapy. we read: Huangdi: “The disease has its “root” (Ben) and its “summit” (Jiao) and needling ahs its “contrary” and “favorable” effects.

In contrast. _ in the presence of a single blood vessel crossing the pupil. is a serious sign because 290. the disease is relatively easy to treat.” 238 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In the absence of these vessels. hence the appearance of little capillaries crossing the pupil.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Ma Shi explains: “The eye is the site of reunion of the Jing (quintessence) of the 5 organs and the pupil is formed by the Jing of the bones (kidney). that is to say. This is why the fatal evolution of the disease is distinguished into slow or rapid evolution as a function of the number of blood vessels crossing the pupil. crossing the pupil. transmitting to the needle slow movements of advancing and retreating in order to disseminate the toxic energy accumulated within the interior (of the body).(Jiao Ben) in order to progressively eliminate the cold (chills) and heat (fever) of the disease. In rising up toward the top (eye). death follows in 1 year. death follows in 2 years. the toxic energy encroaches on the Yin (blood) zone and contaminates the ocular vessels. the descent of a single vessel crossing the pupil is the indicator of a high degree of toxicity of perverse energy and the relatively rapid evolution of the disease (death in 1 year). _ in the presence of 2 blood vessels crossing the pupil. The presence of little blood capillaries. The key point is: _ to follow the channels in order to choose the points _ and utilize a suitable acupuncture method. The descent of 2 or 3 vessels crossing the pupil indicates the relatively slow evolution of the disease toward the fatal period (death in 2 or 3 years). death follows in 3 years.” Huangdi: “What is the prognosis of life (prosperous) and of death (disastrous) of the disease?” Qi Bo: “Turn the eyelid over and examine the eye. _ in the presence of 3 blood vessesl crossing the pupil. a single session of acupuncture suffices to obtain good results and 3 sessions to assure cure. the technique of tonification and dispersion. directed from the top downward. If the scrofula (Lou Li) is small in size like a grain of wheat.

5. Fixation of perverse energy and the cause of insomnia. “in opposition” and “in pursuit”. Relationships betwen the “8 Xu” (8 Emptinesses) and the 5 organs. Needling techniques: tonification and dispersion. 291. CHAPTER LXXI Perverse Guest (Xie Ke) Chapter 71 of the Lingshu speaks on the fixation of perverse energy within the organism. Absence of points of the Hand Shaoyin (He) and the role of the Xin Bao Luo (XB). Correlation between Heaven. 2. The theme of the paragraphs are: 1. 6. This chapter contains 6 paragraphs. 239 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 3. Rules of needling as a function of entering and exiting of the energy within the Jingmai.Figure 1: Prognosis of seriousness of the disease (scrofula). 4. Earth and Man.

Tin is then in emptiness and the eyes can no longer close. controls the vessels of the heart and establishes the respiratory route. the Yang energy goes into fullness. Xin Ye (metabolized food liquid) and Zong Qi (innate or ancestral energy) circulate following the “3 direct routes” (San Sui): _ Zong Qi (innate energy). In the event of contrary afflux of perverse energy bcoming fixed within the 5 organs and 6 bowels.” Huangdi: “How is it treated?” 240 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . “ perverse guest” (Xie Ke: perverse energy lodged within the o r g a n i s m ) prevents the individual from closing his eyes and lying down. in the conforming to the _ Wei Qi (defensive energy) . _ Ying Qi (Rong Qi: nutritive energy) . reaches the laryngopharyngeal organs. hence insomnia. only circulates within the Yang part without penetrating into the Yin part. wastes.PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi questions Ba Gao: “ S o m e t i m e s . Wei Qi (defensive energy) only protects the external part of the body. that is to say. “ K h r o ” (1) n u m b e r s of the clepsydra. Which energy is responsible for this problem?” Ba Gao: “Once “Wu Gu” (5 Cereals) are in the stomach. circulates first in uninterrupted fashion within the epidermo-dermal space and within the zone of distribution of the flesh ( Fen Ru: space separating the dermis and muscles). When the Yang energy is in fullness. at the exterior. the Xin Ye. maintain interior. This Y i n g energy circulates through the entire body. conducts it these two substances the 4 limbs and. 292. generally within the zone belonging to the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) before following the circuit of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. the Yangqiao is in an excessive state and cannot penetrate into the Yin part. conserved in the thorax. isolated from√ toward the vessels (blood) within which the combination of transforms into Xue (blood) which. During the day. originating from the Cereal-Water (Shui-Gu). it circulates within the Yang part and at night within the Yin part of the body. As Wei Qi only circulates in the Yang part. are directed into the 5 organs and 6 bowels. nimble and fiery energy.

the individual regains his sleep. use stalks of reeds.” EXLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . it is advised to tonify Yang and disperse Yin. When the circulation of Yin and Yang becomes reestablished. Transpiration is the sign of its effectiveness. I would like you to teach me about this decoction. Shenmai (Bl 62). three times a day. This water is conserved in a receptical shaken 10. “To disperse the excess” is to needle the point of exit of the Yangqiao. Zhaohai (Ki 6). 3 of this decoction assures cure. make the patient drink a small cup of this decoction.1. that is to say. Allow the water to sit until it becomes clear.“To tonify the insufficiency” is to needle the point of exit of the Yinqiao. Ba Gao: “One uses 8 sheng of water originating from a remote source of 10. the first of this decoction is sufficient to amke sleep return.” 293.Zhang Shi explains: “1 . As it is combustible. It is also recommended to prescribe a decoction of Ban Xia (Pinella t u b e r i f e r a ) . a method of “ a e r a t i o n ” of the Jingmai. After filtrating it. In cases of fullness of Yin and emptiness of Yang with frequent desire to stretch out (clinomania) (3). and increase the dose according to the seriousness of the illness. In recent illness. In chronic illness.” Huangdi: “Precisely! This is then a method of “deobstuction” in the case of engorgment. in order to reestablish the equilibrium of Yin and Yang.000 times. that is to say.000 li ( 2 ) . _ and of regularizing the energy in a state of emptiness and that in a state of fullness in order to aerate the Jingmai and chase away the perverse energy. belonging to the Foot Taiyang (Bl). belonging to the Foot Shaoyin (Ki). Withdraw 5 sheng of this clear water which one brings to a boil.5 don of Ban Xia. 241 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Ba Gao: “Treatment of insomnia consists: _ of tonifying the Yin part in a state of insufficiency and dispersing the Yang part in a state of excess. Upon boiling add 1 sheng of sticky rice and 0. Unit of measure in the time of the ancient era.

Due to the union of Wu (5th Celestial Stem) and Gui (10th Celestial Stem). Ban Xia awakens the energy of first Yin and goes into relationship with the stomach. These numbers are intended to reinforce the action of the energy of the stomach. these 2 terms are therefore envisioned in their dynamic aspect as had been de meme que l’avaient ete Jia (1st Celestial Stem) and Yi (2nd Celestial Stem). therefore rapidly obtaining the expected decoction. Excessive desire to stay in bed. the method of “aeration” of the Jingmai (principal channels) or “harmonization” of Yin and Yang. oval in shape and both sweet and spicy in flavor. governs Center-Earth. _ 5. As a result.The kidney is the Water Organ. is Yin. Cf. 1 Li = 0. this is because: _ 8 is the number of production/transformation of Water. that is to say. It corresponds to the “Water” (kidney) movement. • One uses reed stalks to burn to create a big fire to activate boiling. Its energy maintains that of the stomach because the ease of the abdomen and evacuation of urine and fecal matter was the two major preoccupations of ancient Chinese medicine.000 li. 242 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .04 cm. NVN Edition. 294. is Yang. It is reinforced “a posteriori” by dietary Jing (quintessence). The kidney conserves Tian Gui (Celestial Gui) (5) responding to the “Water” movement. 3. primary factor in sleep. It is a matter then of one of the methods of “deobstruction of the arroyo”. • One shakes the water vigorously because this is of a nature “without force” and. In the present case. without that. the movement of Yang going toward Yin (concentration). Here. 3 . that is to say. This is why one uses water from a remote source of 10. • The stomach. It is also the producer organ of the energy. responds to the Foot Yangming (St). “Pharmacology in Oriental Energetic Medicine”. The 5th month (lunar) is the period of production and growth of Ban Xia. Ban Xia receives the energy of the first Yin to be produced. The stomach responds to Wu-Earth (Wu = 5th Celestial Stem). interior and exterior. 9th Celestial Stem. Nguyen Van Nghi and Mai Van Dong. Fire and Water. • Sticky rice is a cereal responding to Earth and ripens in autumn. _ Gui. Celestial Gui is innate. 5. it cannot aid Water-Cold to circulate. As a result. “Gui” is the 10th Celestial Stem. the movement of Yin going toward Yang (manifestation). the union of Yin and Yang is a factor of production/transformation of “Water-Cold.” 4. Among the Celestial Stems: _ Ren. When the energy circulates. _ Gui represents the manifestation of the energy. According to Qi Bo. once absorbed. bowel of Humidity-Heat. • If the number of doses of Ban Xia (Pinellia tuberifera) is 8 Sheng and 5 sheng respectively.2. the energy of 1st Yin becomes transformed into great energies.Ban Xia (4) (Pinellia tuberifera). _ Ren represents the concentration of the energy. the number of formation/maintenance of Earth. 10th Celestial Stem. whose role is to reestablish the equilibrium of Yin and Yang. water freely flows out. 2 .

_ Heaven possesses 4 seasons. 6 bowels. 365 articulations (points of acupuncture).V. square (6). The head of man is round. 10 toes.“The “3 direct routes” (San Sui) are: _ the route of wastes. and man. and man.” PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “I would like you to inform me about the correlations between the “4 limbs 100 articulations”. activated by Shangjiao (Upper Jiao. _ Heaven possesses 6 laws (musical). and man. and Earth. activated by Zhongjiao (Middle Jiao. fundamental factors in insomnia. and man. Regarding the circulation of Wei Qi (defensive energy). _ Heaven has at its disposal winter.LJ) _ the route of Xin-Ye (water originating from food metabolism). _ Heaven possesses 365 days.: Zhang Jing Yue furnishes us with the following information: 1 . one must reread Chapter 43 (“Discourse on Obsrtuctions”) and Chapter 10 (“Vessels-Channels”) of this classic. and his feet are square. • Ban Xia increases the potential of Yin and reinforces the large intestine tract. _ Heaven has at its disposal the sun and moon and the 2 eyes of man. 5 organs. and man.MJ) _ the route of Zong Qi (innate. is linked to the heart by an energetic vessel. and man. Women do not have testicles and penis. belonging to the lung. • Regarding the circulation of Ying Qi (nutritive energy). one must reread Chapters 15 (“Fifty Rong“) and 16 (“Nutritive Energy“) of this classic. But acupuncture is usually associated with phytotherapy. _ Heaven is endowed with 5 sounds (musical). 243 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . but they possesses uterus and ovaries. and man. and man. ancestral energy). a medicinal plant known since antiquity. and man. _ Earth is endowed with high mountains.N. • The larynx. 10 fingers. 295. Zong Qi (ancestral energy) reaches the larynx to activate the respiratory movements.UJ). 4 limbs. _ Heaven is endowed with “10 Celestial Stems” . _ Earth is endowed with “12 Terrestrial Branches” . _ Earth is endowed with “9 regions”. with “9 orifices”. with shoulders and knees.II . _ Heaven emits thunder and lightning. and man. penis and testicles.” Ba Gao: “_ Heaven is round. See explanation on the following page. As a result. _ Heaven has at its disposal wind and rain. joy and anger. Ban Xia (Pinellia tuberfiera) is a specific plant in the treatment of insomnia. and man. activated by Xiajiao (Lower Jiao. 2 . sounds and voice.N. Heaven and Earth.Tonification and dispersion are two techniques of acupuncture. • Sticky rice has the property of treating fullness of Yang and emptiness of Yin. 296. cold and heat. 6.

298. and man. and man. _ Earth is endowed with 12 rivers. and man. humidity. Ex: mountain.. _ Beginning of spring _ Beginning of summer _ Beginning of autumn _ Beginning of winter _ Spring equinox _ Summer solstice _ Autumn equinox _ Winter solstice. and the Earth has its Wu Li (5 regions): _ East _ West _ North _ South _ Center. _ Earth is covered with herbs. Such are the correlations between Heaven. 12 Jingmai (principal channels). and man. river. • The word “Heaven” implies the sense of cyclic transmutation of the 6 energies: wind.: 1 . and man. and man. _ The year has 12 “moons” (months). _ Heaven has at its disposal day and night.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. and man. Earth and man. Xing (form). wheat. and man. axillae and popliteal fosae. small bones. . hair. prominent muscles. and man. heat. and man.Here. awakening and sleep.. Also.N. in man. in Chapter 5 of the Suwen (“Phenomena of Correspondences of Yin and Yang”)._ Earth has at its disposal deep caverns. jutting bones. individuals are infertile. the living being must obey the law of mutations of Heaven and Earth. _ Earth possesses sites where herbs do not sprout. 12 great joints. _ Earth possesses forests. and “Square”. _ Earth is endowed with towns and villages. Wei (defensive) energy. In order to live. _ Heaven possesses stars. 244 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This is why Heaven and Earth become “father” and “mother” of all beings. Yin. 297. rice. teeth. _ Earth is endowed with small mountains. the words “Round” and “Square” do not desiignate geometric shapes but must be taken in the philosophical sense. and man. _ Earth possesses rocky mountains. we read: “ •Heaven has Jing (pure energy). “Round” represents Yang. and Earth. dryness and cold.V. _ Earth has at its disposal subterranean sources. membranes and vessels. The word “Earth” designates material form (therefore visible).

The “9 regions” of Earth of the ancient era are: Jing Chou. to Water-Kidney (7). to Earth-Spleen Shang. the “foot” part in comparison to Earth and the “middle” part in comparison to “human affairs” to maintain the 5 organs. Sheng Chou. Yue Chou and Qi Chou. • Only the sages envisioned the “head” part of the body in comparison to Heaven. in an unbroken fashion. Yang Chou. This is why movement and rest are the 2 sublime rules of the transformation.Figure 1: Square and Round (symbol of harmony) • Pure Yang rises up to Heaven.The “9 orifices” of the human being are: _ 2 eyes _ 2 ears _ 2 nostrils _ 1 mouth _ 1 anal orifice _ 1 urethral meatus. toward birth.The “8 Laws” of Heaven designate the 8 fundamental rules of ancient music bearing the name “Huang Chong”. 3 . Si Chou. Yu Chou. which responds to Wood-Liver Zhi. growth. Liang Chou. to Fire-Heart Gong. Yung Chou. 4 _ _ _ _ _ .The “5 fundamental sounds” of ancient music are: Jiao. 245 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . stagnation and conservation. to Metal-Lung Yu. 5 . impure Yin descends to Earth. It concerns the laws of modification of musical sounds whose tonalities respond to the 6 bowels.” 2 .

_ resurfaces by the point Jingqu (Lu 8). the meaning of “ t o n i f i c a t i o n ” and “ d i s p e r s i o n ” . _ runs alongside the internal side (energetic description) of the forearm. acceleration/slowing down and stoppage/ departure of the energy. _ penetrates into the axilla 246 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ reaches the internal side (energetic description) of the thenar eminence. • It comes back out at the point Taiyuan (Lu 9) to ascend to the wrist fold. it circulates deeply at the level of the bone (first metacarpal) toward Cun Kou (radial pulse). _ the sites of entry/exit. 7. its energy and that of the Luo Yin are very acive.” Ba Gao: “1. The Hand Taiyin (Lu) vessel emerges at the tip of the thumb (at the point Shaoshang. _ curves toward the internal side (energetic description) running alongside the boundary of the white flesh. _ and reaches the point Taiyuan (Lu 9) where it breaks off changing into the skin. See Chapter 64 (“Yin and Yang and the 25 Morphotypes”) of the Lingshu. _ penetrates under the big tendon (of the biceps) where the point Chize (Lu 5 ) is found. At this level. the method of “stretching the skin (massage) to facilitate the opening of (junction between the skin and muscles) during removal of the needle. 299. _ arrives at the region of Yuji (Lu 10) where it unites with the Luo Yin. • From Yuji (Lu 10).” Ba Gao: “The answer to the problem raised by His Majesty is to be found in the Dao of Acupuncture. _ curves toward the interior where it reaches the inner arm.Lu 11). me: How do you understand these problems? I would also like you to clarify for _ the well-ordered and winding routes of the Jingmai.PARAGRAPH 3 Huangdi: “Please _ _ _ _ Cou Li inform me about: the rules of needle manipulation. _ arrives at the fold of the elbow.” Huangdi: “I would like you to speak about this to me in detail. _ and also the activity of the Shu (antique) points of the 6 bowels at the level of the body. the principles of acupuncture practice.

where the point Daling (XB 7) is found. The “favorable” circulation of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) goes from the organ to the hand. 5th Shu-antique point. its energy is very active.XB) vessel emerges at the tip of the middle finger at the point Zhongchong (XB 9). that is to say. at the point Zhong Chong (XB 9). it returns to the Ying point. 2 .The energy of the lung emerges at the tip of the thumb at the Jing point. Such is the contrary circulation of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) going from the hand to the thorax. that is to say. _ exteriorizes at the middle of the wrist fold. And finally. 300._ and is directed toward the lung organ.Hand Jueyin) emerges at the tip of the middle finger at the Jing point. inside the tendon of the biceps brachial where the point Quze (XB 3) is found. between 2 tendons of the muscles (large and small palmaris). responding to the “Wood-Liver” movement. that is to say. that is to say. the energy of the lung is very active. responding to the the “Metal-Lung” movement.The Hand Jueyin (Xin Bao. to the point Yuji (Lu 10). that is to say. _ curves toward the internal side (energetic description) _ runs alongside the internal side (energetic description) of the middle finger. From the Ying point. This circulation is “ c o n t r a r y ” (from hand to thorax) to the “ f a v o r a b l e ” trajectory of the Hand Jueyin (XB) which goes from thorax to hand. to the point Taiyuan (Lu 9). _ reaches the forearm. 2nd Shu-antique. 301. At this level. From the Jing point. Then from there. it is directed into the thorax and penetrates into the lung. it passes to the He point. 2 . responding to the “Water-Kidney” movement. in comparison to the f a v o r a b l e circulation of the energy of the lung going from the thorax to the hand. 247 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it goes directly to the Yuan point. _ stops at the middle of the palm of the hand a the point Laogong (XB 8). at the point Jingqu (Lu 8).Zhang Shi explains: “This paragraph and the follwoing one speaks on the “contrary” circulation of the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and Hand Jueyin (XB) as a function of the Shu-antique points. 1st Shu antique point. _ circulates between the 2 bones (2nd and 3rd metacarpals). from the He point. 1st Shu-antique point. 3rd Shu-antique point. _ stops at the point of reunion of the 2 bones. it is directed again to Cun Kou (radial pulse) to emerge at the level of the Jing point. that is to say. responding to the “Earth-Spleen” movement. At this level. responding to “Fire-Heart”. From the Jing point. because the thenar eminence is the zone of reunion of all the Luo Yin. at the point Shaoshang (Lu 11). 1 . responding to the “Wood-Liver” movement. 4th Shu-antique point.The energy of the Xin Bao Luo (XB. and return is contrary”. _ ascends and penetrates into the middle of the thorax _ links up with the vessle of the heart. _ is directed toward the middle of the elbow fold. that is to say. This is why it is said: “Departure is favorable. at the point Neiguan (XB 6).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . In contrast. the circulation described in this paragraph goes from the hand to the thorax. _ curves between 2 tendons where the point Jianshi (XB 5) is found. 2 cun from the wrist. to the point Chize (Lu 5).

_ and reaches the thorax to penetrate nto the heart. that is to say. 302. and return. to the point Quze (XB 3). _ arrives at the Jing point.N. responding to the “Water-Kidney” movement. concerning the Hand Taiyin (Lu) and Hand Jueyin (XB). Chapters 2 (“Origin of the Shu-antique Points”) and 10 (“Vessels-Channels”) of this classic are interesting to consult. 3rd Shu-antique point. that is to say. _ is directed toward the He point._ reaches the middle of the palm to the Ying point. This is why it is said: “Departure is favorable. contrary”. that is to say. responding to the “Metal-Lung” movement. that is to say. It ia a question therefore of a circulation called “in the wrong direction” (contrary) of the Hand Jueyin (XB). responding to the “Earth-Spleen” movement. 248 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 2nd Shu-antique point. _ is directed toward the middle of the wrist crease to the Yuan point.V.” II . 4th Shu-antique point. responding to the “Fire-Heart” movement. For the remainder. 301.. to the point Daling (XB 7).. 5th Shu-antique point. This circulation goes from the hand to the thorax.: This paragraph raises the problem of the circulation in the wrong direction of the Jingmai. at the point Jianshi (XB 5). at the point Laogong (XB 8).N.302.

This is why the Hand Shaoyin (He) does not possess Shu p o i n t s . Huangdi: “The Hand Shaoyin (He) is the only vessel not having specific Shu p o i n t s (8). Why?” Ba Gao: “The Hand Shaoyin belongs to the heart The heart is sovereign organ of the 5 organs and 6 bowels.. ” Huangdi: 249 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The Xin Bao is the vessel whose “master” is the heart. This is why perverse energy cannot infiltrate to it. In the case where it reaches there. The damaged heart brings about the disappearance of the Shen (mental). the heart is damaged. It possesses Shu points (specific points: Shu-antique points) to supply the heart.. to speak of perverse energy located at the heart is to designate the localization of perverse energy at the level of the Xin Bao Luo ( 9 ) . this is death. It is of strong temperment.Figure 2: Figure 3: Normal circulation and circulation in the wrong direction: Hand Taiyin (Lu) Hand Jueyin (XB) PARAGRAPH 4 303. It is the dwelling place of the Jing (quintessence) and of the Shen (mental). Therefore.

the Xin Bao has the heart for its “master”. it does not reaxh the organ (heart). This is why Shenmen (He 7) is considered as the unique Shu point of the Hand Shaoyin (He). To practice in this manner is to eliminate the perverse energy and consolidate the source energy (Cheng Qi) based on the Celestial Order (manipulation at the level of the Jingmai transmitted via cosmic energy). the 5 organs (Lung. Shenmen (He 7) must be needled as a function of the emptiness or fullness of this vessel (Hand Shaoyin. like all other channels.N. is susceptible to exposure to infiltration by cosmic energy. the heart organ. The Xin Bao (XB) is the protective envelope of the heart. the technique of tonification. ” 8.V. one only uses the point at the tip of the pointed bone (styloid process of the ulna) behind the palm of the hand. The Hand Jueyin (XB) is the channel of the Xin Bao (XB. and the heart is the sovereign organ where the Jing (quntessence) and the Shen (mental) lives.” II . specific) points and the bowels each 6 Shu points.envelope of the heart). In this case.He). These 2 channels originate from a single organ. In other words. In the event of illness. 9. is it true that it is protected from all illnesses?” Ba Gao: “When the Hand Shaoyin (He) is affected. the point Shenmen (He 7). Energetic vessels envelopping the heart. hence the name “Master of Heart” (Xin Zhu).: 1 . As a result. in the event of fullness of perverse energy. • The heart. except the heart.According to Chapter 2 of this classic (“Origin of the Shu-antique Points”) (10). cannot be attacked by perverse energy. This is why one uses Shenmen (He 7) to treat ailments of the Hand Shaoyin (He) according to the technique of tonification in the case of emptiness of the essential energy of the body or the technique of dispersion in the case of fullness of perverse energy. EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . and in the event of emptiness of essential energy (of the body). But its channel. the “ c o n t r a r y ” or “favorable”. According to Ma Shi: 250 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . sovereign organ.N. Spleen and Kidney) each possess 5 Shu (antiques. Huangdi’s question allows elucidation of the reason for the absence of Shu (antique) points at the levelof Hand Shaoyin (He). that is to say. As for the rest of the channel (Hand Shaoyin. Master of Heart/Xin Bao. Designates the Shu-antique points.“The Hand Shaoyin (He) being the only one without s h u points.Zhang Shi explains: “The Hand Shaoyin is the channel of the heart.He). 304. Liver. “slow” or “ r a p i d ” circulation takes up that of the Hand Jueyin (XB). the illness remains at the channel. one must use the technique of dispersion.

In our era. 4) Lingdao (He 4): Jing point responding to the “Lung-Metal” movement and 5) Shaohai (He 3): He point responding to the “Kidney-Water” movement.” 305. This is why the Shu (antique) points belonging to the Xin Bao (XB) are used in place of those of the Hand Shaoyin (He).The 5 Shu (antique) points of the Hand Shaoyin (He) have only been indicated from the time of the Han Dynasty (206-220 A.D.D. N. These points are: 1) Shaochong (He 9): Jing point responding to the “Liver-Wood” movement. 251 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the needling is generally only performed on the Xin Bao (XB). See Lingshu. Volume I. 2) Shaofu (He 8): Ying point responding to the “Heart-Fire” movement. When one uses needles. Edition. these points are perfectly known and classified.V.N. 3) Shenmen (He 7): Yuan-Shu point responding to the “Spleen-Earth” movement.) in his famous work “Jia-Yi Jing”. It must not be attacked by perverse energy. 10.) by the grand master acupuncturist Huangfu Mi (215. 2 . The Xin Bao Luo (XB) and the heart channel (Hand Shaoyin) communicate and act as substitute for the “Royal Master” (heart) in order to command all organic functions.“The heart is the Great Director√ of the 5 organs and 6 bowels.282 A.

• If Yin (interior) and Yang (exterior) are simultaneously affected. this is cure. between elbow and wrist) n order to determine: 252 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . PARAGRAPH 5 Huangdi: “What is the significance of tonification and dispersion in 306. the perverse energy is still localized within the body. it is necessary to know: _ the “root” (point of departure) and “summit” (point of arrival) of the 12 Jingmai. The empty and galloping pulse heralds the insufficiency of the essential energy (of the body) and the chronicity of the illness. • Furthermore. If heat is not located in these regions. If heat (fever) persists in the thoraco-abdominal region and at the level of the limbs. • The slippery and full pulse indicates the worsening of the illness. _ the cold and heat of the skin. the illness is difficult to treat. _ the excessive and insufficient state and “slippery” (Hua) and “rough” (Se) nature of the pulse.Figure 4: Trajectory of the Hand Shaoyin (He) and its points. one must examine the skin of the “Chi” region (region of the anterior surface of the forearm. acupuncture?” Ba Gao: “First.

with the purpose of specifying the state of Cold/Heat and Dryness/ Humidity. Dispersion demands a vertical implantation of the needle. knowledge of the Jingmai and examination of the colors are fundamental to the determination of the syndromes of Cold and Heat and the Tong Bi syndromes (algoparesthesia of rheumatic origin).” Huangdi: “How do you practice “ t a p p i n g ” . then one softly and vertically implants the needle with the right hand so as not to disturb the Shen (mental) of the patient to eliminate perverse energy. According to Zhang Jing Yue._ the state of firmness of the muscles _ and the character of the pulse. and tonification necessitates the closure of the needled point (with the aid of the finger) during removal of the needle. The implantation of the needle must not be abrupt to avoid reactions at the level of the tissue fibers (which occur around the needle and provoke pain). one must know the state of emptiness and fullness of the illness in order to apply the technique of tonification and dispersion as a function of movements of rapid or slow rotation transmitted to the needle. in the case of concomitant emptiness of the interior (Yin) and exterior 253 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The method of “conduction of the energy” is also utilized to prevent the overflowing of the energy toward the interior in the goal of calming the Chen Qi (source energy: essential or vital energy) and helping it to circulate normally. ” Huangdi: “I still have not grasped very well the method of manipulation of the needle during tonification and dispersion. and the right hand secures the sought-after point on the trajectory of the channel.V. 307. which can be s l i p p e r y or r o u g h .: 1 . The left hand presses on the area to be needled.” Ba Gao: “The Dao of needling demands the proper attitude and a tranquil mind. In this manner.N. First. the method of massage (by small light taps with the aid of the fingers or edge of the hand) to facilitate the opening of Cou Li (junction between the dermis and muscles) ? ” Ba Gao: “One taps the area to be needled delicately with the aid of the left hand. • One must also examine the 5 colors at the level of the eyes in order to determine the state of the 5 organs with the purpose of predicting the benign or serious state of the illness.“Yin and Yang are simultaneously in emptiness”.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N.

In other words. it governs the exterior. of blod and energy to appreciate: _ the state of the 5 organs _ and the state of the blood routes (blood Luo) and pilo-cutaneous system to diagnostic ends of Cold/Heat of Tong Bi (algoparesthesia: pain and engorgement caused by obstruction). the “Chi” area is also rough.(Yang). . The appearance of a green color at the level of this network indicates pain. “Top-Bottom. The Hand and Foot Yangming (LI and St) also bear the same name. “Yin-Yang” regions.” 308. When the perverse energy of this Luomai is in fullness. 254 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . where the “Chi” pulse (“foot” pulse) is found. perverse energy advances from the exterior toward the interior. of bllod (Yin) and energy (Yang). As a result. the cutaneous covering has the same correspondences as the system of “Mai” (vessels). (Paragraph 7).V. The Luomai is Yang. The simulatneous appearance of all 5 colors affirms a disease of “Cold-Heat”. This is why. the determination of the paths of penetration of perverse energy and the search for the evolutive nature of the disease toawrd a therapeutic goal. how do you explain the pathophysiologic and evolutive mechanism of diseases as a function of these criteria?” Qi Bo: “One determines the division of cutaneous regions based on the zones of passage of the Jingmai and Luomai. The appearance of a blackish color indicates “Bi” (obstruction). that is to say. between wrist and elbow. we read: “. acupuncture is strictly prohibited. the “Chi” area of the skin is also slippery. examine the region of the forearm. 11. The Jingmai is Yin. The skin then is divided into “Left-Right”. the appearance of a white color reveals a disease of “Cold”.. • In Chapter 56 (“Discourse on the Cutaneous Regions”) of the Suwen (12). The appearance of a yellow-red color denotes a disease of “Heat”. devoted to the study of the cutaneous territories of the Jingmai.The appearance of “Fu Luo” (superficial energetic network) in the region of this channel belongs to the Luomai of the Shaoyang. it governs the interior. the physician examines the slippery and rough state of the skin of the “Chi” region in order to determine the potential degree of Cold and Heat. from Luo to Jing. Dryness and Humidity. Edition.“Examine the Chi” region (“foot” pulse)”. N. of the Lingshu (11).. 2 . When the perverse energy of this Luomai is in fullness. • The Luo Yang of the Shaoyang channel is called “Shu Chi” (rigid flesh).. Volume I. from the Yang part. perverse energy reaches the interior. we read: Huangdi: “I have heard it said: _ that the skin is divided into 12 regions following the system of the 12 Jingmai (vessels of principal paths). The appearance of “Fu Luo” (superficial energetic network) as much in the upper as in the lower part √of the Yangming belongs to the Luomai of this channel. it leaves the channel to infiltrate into the organ.When the pulse is slippery.N. The Hand and Foot Shaoyang (SJ and GB) also bears the same name. When the pulse is rough. it reaches the corresponding Jing. This evolution is the same for all the channels. 309. it progresses toward the corresponding Jing (channel). In other words. and when it occurs in the Yin part. In Chapter 4 (“Pathologic Forms of Attack of the Organs and Bowels by Perverse Energy”).. _ that the muscles possess a system of “relations-unions” _ and that attacks of these different regions are necessarily different. • The Luo Yang of the Yangming channel is called “Hai Fei” (very harmful influence: “closure”).

bones and joints.Zhang Shi explains: “The lung and heart have their Jingmai located on the upper limbs. When perverse energy reaches this organ and bowel. Luo.• The Luo Yang of the Taiyang channel is called “Guan Shu” (barrier of the flesh. The kidney and bladder have their “Yin-Yang” system at the level of their channels located on the foot. 310. 2 inguinal creases and 2 popliteal fossae) not only represent the joints where the Cheng Qi (source.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . When perverse energy reaches the spleen. The Hand and foot Taiyang (SI and Bl) also have the same name. These “8 Xu” (2 elbows..The History by the Image of the Period 1971- 1981”). PARAGRAPH 6 Huangdi: “Man possesses “8 Xu” (small empty spaces: interstices. “opening”). 13. hence spasms of the limbs. When perverse energy reaches the liver. This is why perverse energy must 255 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . based on these different chapters of the Lingshu. that is to say. 12. fissures). it remains securely at the 2 elbows. When the perverse energy of this Luomai is in fullness. that is to say. we have been able to demonstrate the analgesic action of acupuncture (see “Acupuncture in the West. The spleen and stomach have their “Yin-Yang” system at the level of their channels on the foot. The appearance of “Fu Luo” in the region of this channel belongs to the Luomai of the Taiyang. Volume III. it must stop first at the 2 elbows. page 287. When perverse energy reaches these organs. at the points Zhongman (Sp 12) and Qichong (St 30). at the points Chize (Lu 5) and Shaohai (He 3). but also the sites of development of the blood Luo. The liver and gallbladder have their “Yin-Yang” system at the level of their channels located on the foot. it most probably stops at the axillae. When perverse energy reaches this organ and bowel. sites of passage of the Cheng Qi (essential energy) and sites of “reunion-gathering” of the blood Luo. it obviously stays at the 2 inguinal creases (thigh and groin). vital or essential e n e r g y ) passes. The “8 Xu” cited in this paragraph are “”private dwelling places” of the 5 organs. it must remain first in the groin region. it most probably settles at the 2 popliteal fossae. at the points Qimen (Li 14) and Yuanye (GB 22). What do they represent?” Ba Gao: “When perverse energy reaches the lung and heart. it must settle first in the axillae. it must stay first at the popliteal fossae where the points Yingu (Ki 10) and Weizhong (Bl 40) are found. Perverse energy and blood must not stop at these places because their retention injures the tendons.. 2 axillae. When perverse energy reaches this organ and bowel. From 1970. When perverse energy reaches the kidney. “Huangdi Nejing Suwen”.”. it progresses toward the Jing corresponding (channel).

In energetic medicine. Day and night. _ all blood.” Zhang Jing Yue concludes: “The 8 Xi” (8 emptinesses) are well-guarded and kept paths of the passage of Cheng Qi (essential energy). _ all marrows. The word “Xu” (emptiness) used in this paragraph must not be understood in the sense of insufficiency used in pathology.V. the joints are the sites of passage of the energy and blood. 256 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . at the joints. if it reaches there. the “8 Xu” (8 emptinesses) are named “8 Xi” (8 valleys): “_ All energetic vessels gather at the eyes.N. _ all muscles and tendons. it causes joint blockage.N. at the heart.” II . but in the sense of “the collection of soft and hard parts by which 2 or more adjoining bones are united: “joints”. _ all energies. In Chapter 10 of the Suwen (“Production and Transformation of the Organs”).: This paragraph involves the pathologic process of spasm of the limbs whose theapy depends on the reason for the blockage of energetic origin. If perverse energy becomes lodged there. Qi (energy) and Xue (blood). all pass and pass again the “8 Xi” (valleys).not remain there.” 311. it causes disturbances of flexion and extension whose localization indicates pathology of the corresponding organs. at the brain. at the lung. hence spasm of the limbs.

2 groins and 2 popliteal fossa. Treatment by acupuncture. according to the “4 Celestial Aspects” (Si Xiang). This chapter contains 3 paragraphs: 1. by the parents). Each type is endowed with a different temperment. 2 axilla. Morphology and temperment of the 5 types of man (responding to the “4 Celestial Aspects”). 257 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . or more precisely. despite these different constitutions. The term “Zhong Tian” (Celestial Relations) implies that. CHAPTER LXXII Celestial Relations (Zhong Tian) Chapter 72 of the Linghsu speaks on the 5 types of man according to the Yin and Yang of Heaven. 2. no 312/313.Figure 5: The “8 Xu”: 2 elbows. These 5 types of man are the: _ Taiyin type _ Shaoyin type _ Taiyang type _ Shaoyang type _ “Well-Balanced Yin-Yang” type. the human being always retains the innate nature furnished by the Yin and Yang of Heaven and Earth (that is to say. a temperment created a priori by “Heaven”.

” Huangdi: “Could you instruct me about this typology?” Shao Shi: “1. Man also conforms to this rule. He is cruel and ungrateful. Their musculature and bony structure. there are men of Taiyin. He only looks after his own interest and does not like to lose out. The man of “ S h a o y i n ” type is greedy for small gains. Methods of appreciation and determination of these 5 types of man. Huangdi questions Shao Shi: “I have often heard you speak of the 2 types of man: the “Yin” type and the “Yang” type. He often is given to anger when affairs of others are crowned with success. He is extremely cunning and only reveals himself after others√ . he has the air of modesty and scrupulousness. The man of “ T a i y i n ” type is greedy and inhuman.” Huangdi: “I would like to know only the essentials. He is deceitful. are also different. How are they distinguished?” Shao Shi replies” “In the “Heaven-Earth” space. Can this Yin and this Yang manifest at the exterior by objectively observable temperments?” Shao Shi: “In a general fashion. It is too cursory to speak of 2 types. Shaoyang types and men of “Well-Balanced Yin-Yang” t y p e . Such are the “characteristics of the heart” (temperment) and behavior of the 258 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . As a result. PARAGRAPH 1 314. Shaoyin. there is no man of only Y i n type or only Yang t y p e . Sages and men of virtue are made u p √ in their “heart” of Yin and Y a n g . He appears correct and appealing and is not expressive. These 5 tpyes of men are morphologically different. the 6 regions (4 cardinal points + top and bottom) are linked to the number 5. Taiyang. the misfortune of others brings him joy. Such are the characteristics of the heart” (temperment) and behavior of the “ T a i y i n ” type of man. On appearance. but sly meanness accumulates in the interior. He thinks only of doing harm to others. One cannot describe them clearly. their blood and energy.3. 2.

2. They respond to the type of man whose Yin and Yang are balanced.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . but he is confident and proud. he becomes proud and pretentious. 315. He only seeks to live according to the evolution of time. Such are the “characteristics of the heart” (temperment) and behavior of the “ T a i y a n g ” type of man. He considers himself more talented than others. When one confides in him a little poste de m a n d a r i n √ . This attitude is brilliant in rules of affairs. Chapter 64 of this classic (“Yin and Yang and the 25 Morphotypes”) speaks about the creation of Xing (form) via the 5 Movements of the Earth. he does not care about good or bad. Despite his honorable situation. The man of “ S h a o y a n g ” type is meticulous and conscientious. He does not repent in spite of errors. _ to Shaoyin corresponding to the number 2 (even) _ to Shaoyang corresponding to the numebr 3 (odd) _ to Taiyin corresponding to the number 4 (even) and to men of the Taiyang and Shaoyang.The “1st Yin” and “1st Yang” are Liang Yi (two principles of mutations) (1) which derive from se produire? during creation of the world (Heaven-Earth). Si Xiang (4 aspects) (2) derive from the mutation of Liang Yi (1st Yin + 1st Yang) and respond: _ to Taiyang corresponding to the number 1 (odd) 316. Such are the “characteristics of the heart” (temperment) and behavior of the “ S h a o y a n g ” type of man. but he is incapable of dealing with matters of the interior. The man of “Well-Balanced Yin-Yang” type like a peaceful and calm life.“ S h a o y i n ” type of man. Nothing alarms him and he does not rush after pleasures. while this Chapter 72 studies Yin and Yang of Heaven and Earth (Liang Yi) which creates the “4 aspects” (Si Xiang) of the space 259 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . he is devoted to hollow phrases and brags of his exploits. 5. the • In ancient times. never force. 4. Devoid of talent. He likes to to give dissertation on great events. The man of “Taiyang” type takes little interest in his residence. His activities conform with the Rules of Nature. He is focused on matters of the exterior (diplomacy). Taiyin and Shaoyin type.Zhang Shi explains: “1. The results of his work is poor. to persuade others. he always has a reason. He utilizes virtue. In his actions.Man receives the energy of Heaven and Earth to create Xing (form) and Qi (energy). he remains humble. he feels sick everywhere within himself and leads an unstable life. 3. physicians used acupuncture and moxabustion to treat patients as a function of the 5 types of man cited above according to the method of tonification in the event of emptiness and the method of dispersion in the event of fullness.

the capable physician utilized the needles and leaves of mugwort (Artemesia) to teat diseases. 4..The Sage differs from from ordinary man by his perfect harmony of “Yin-Yang”. becomes directed: _ either toward Yin. during its evolution. gives rise to hatred and jealousy: a) High-placed government official gives rise to jealousy. 2. knew perfectly how to discern the temperment of these 5 types of man. b) High-ranking mandarin gives rise to hatred of master. _ or toward cold. Shaoyin.The words “Taiyin. Shaoyin. Hand and Foot Taiyang and Hand and Foot Shaoyang). In the past. 2.“. _ man receiving more Yin than Yang is named “Shaoyin”. In effect. one distinguishes 5 types of man according to the reception of Celestial energy. for 3 reasons.N. _ or toward heat.To diminish by modesty and demonstrate humility when one takes interest in high function” is a good mark of humility. _ The more considerable my good fortune/happiness√. the lower will be my mind√. _ or toward “well-balanced Yin-Yang”. the more important will be my gift to others.V.1. _ The greater my function. the practitioner cannot ignore these facts because disease of blood and energy.” And Xun Shu wonders: “The higher my rank. Hu Kou advanced: “Man. _ man only receiving the Yang of Heaven is called “Taiyang” _ and man receiving more Yang than Yin is designated “Shaoyang”. c) Too much good fortune gives rise to resentment. 317. in order to apply the method of tonification in case of emptiness and the method of dispersion in case of fullness. Taiyang and Shaoyang” utilized in this paragraph do not designate the channels of the foot and hsnd (Hand and Foot Taiyin.” PARAGRAPH 2 260 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . See explanations in “I Jing” (“Book of Changes”) responding to the “Taiyin.: The explanations of Zhang Jing Yue are in total accord with that of Zhang Shi: “1. Taiyang and Shaoyang” in order to study the temperments of the living being. This is why this chapter is entitled “Zhong Tian” (“Celestial Relationships”).In the past.N.” II . will I avoid these 3 hatreds?” The question and response of Xin Shu conform to the theme of the text. In this manner. 3.. the smaller will be my heart. Clinically. In this fashion. _ man receiving only the Yin of Heaven bears the name “Taiyin”. _ or toward Yang. Hand and Foot Shaoyin.

Yin is in excess. In the “ T a i y a n g ” type. and the circulation of the energy and blood is steady.Huangdi: “How do you treat these 5 types of men?” Shao Shi: “1. _ the 6 bowels do not function regularly. _ Yin and Yang are lax _ the muscles are lax _ the skin is thin. the disease does not improve. Yang is very rich and Yin is very poor. In the “ S h a o y i n ” type. If the dispersion is excessive. and Yang. one must render the Jingmai “full” (principal channels located deep: Yin) and lightly disperse the Luomai (secondary vessels located superficially: Yang). _ blood is localized in the interior. If one only disperses the Luo Yang. This is why one must carefully examine him before applying treatment. In him: _ the stomach is small and the intestines are large. In _ the Jingmai are small and the Luomai are large corrected! p. and Yang. the tonification method. _ and carefully examine the attitude of the individual to determine the excessive or insufficient state of the energy and blood. one must employ the dispersion method. it can cause the escaping of Yang ending up in “agitated madness” (Kuang). In the event of the absence of fullness and emptiness. One must carefully examine him (due to the lack of Yin). him: 4. During treatment. difficult to treat. 5. _ the energy of Yangming (St) is in insufficiency and that of the Taiyang (Bl) in excess. at the exterior. Yang is forced to escape to the exterior. 318. In the “ T a i y i n ” type. In the “ S h a o y a n g ” type. Only disperse Yang. the energy can no longer retain the blood and the Yuan Qi (sourceenergy) is rapidly exhausted. not very fluid. the Zhong Qi (“center” energy) then becomes insufficient. Yin is very rich. Do not let the Yin escape.320. In him: _ Yin-Yang is disturbed by Wei Qi (defensive energy). In the “Well-Balanced Yin-Yang” type. one must: _ carfully observe changes in Yin and Yang to discern the fullness of perverse energy and emptiness of the essential energy (of the body). Yin and Yang are harmonious. 2. In the event of fullness of perverse energy. in insufficiency. and in the event of emptiness of essential energy. and the patient. and the energy. If dispersion os not performed in time. Yang is in excess. and Yin. very poor. in insufficiency. 3. If Yin and Yang have simultaneously escaped. Otherwise. death is sudden or else the patient suddenly falls into coma. During treatment. one must base one’s 261 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

this is based on the localization of the stomach (top = Yang) and intestines (bottom = Yin) in order to determine the phenomena of insufficiency (energetic) of the stomach and intestines. the method of “Regulation of Yin and Yang” is absolutely advised. But before treatment. In the “Shaoyin” type.V. during hemorrhage. It is obvious that when Yin is in insufficiency.: 1 . Chapter 40 (“Study on Abdomen-Center”) and Chapter 46 (“Discourse of Pathogenesis”) of the Suwen. the Yuan Qi (source energy) becomes rapidly exhausted. large. Zhang Jing Yue stated in this regard: “The Yangming (St) is the “sea” of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. before the phenomena of insufficiency of Yang and excess of Yin. They each support one another. but to only disperse the Yang.“Small stomach and large intestines”.The escaping of Yang results in Yang madness (agitated). As a result.“. hence the easy escaping of blood and rapid exhaustion of the source energy (Yuan Qi. the stomach is small.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . and intestines.Zhang Shi explains: 319.“The Jingmai are small and the Luomai are large”. This problem is very complex. the intestines quickly evacuate them and fabricate very little energy.” 2 . excessive dispersion of the Yang energy can cause a double escaping: _ escaping of Yang energy _ and escaping of the Yang Root. Chapter 23 (“Discourse on the Five Energies”). • The therapeutic rules cited above constitute the methods of “Regulation of Yin and Yang” serving as a basis of diagnosis and treatment applied in the 5 prototypes of man. Yang no longer has a “root”.. sudden death or coma. one must carefully observe these phenomena because the energy in insufficiency cannot retain the blood. the stomach does not contain much cereal and produces less energy.. hence escaping of blood (hemorrhage) and. it is recommended to reread Chapters 2 (“Harmonization of the mental Energy by the Four Seasons”). therefore. 2 .. the disequilibrium of Yin and Yang of the interior rapidly causes the same phenomenon of disequilibrium at the exterior.” Zhang Jing Yue explained it in this manner: “Dispersion applied to Yin in a state of insufficiency causes escaping of Yin. This is why Shao Shi advised to not provoke the escape of Yin.” II . The Jing Qi (energetic quintessence) released at the level of the Zhongjiao (Middle Jiao.N.” 3 . Here. In this case.judgment on the channels to choose the points to needle. _ large. death is sudden.. and the intestines are evacuative bowels: _ small.N. The insufficiency of the Yangming (St) and excess of the Taiyang (Bl) originate from the disequilbrium of acquired energy and innate energy.The previous paragraph speaks on the Yin and Yang of the exterior. essential or vital energy).MJ) and that produced at the level of the Xiajiao (Lower Jiao. This one studies the Yin and Yang of the interior. 320. 262 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This occurs.LJ) are of the same origin (cereal). hence. “1.In the “Shaoyin” type.

.”. He does not reveal his thoughts. 263 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Such is the “ S h a o y i n ” type of man. Zhang Jing Yue comments on this subject: “The Jingmai are deep. How should I distinguish them at first encountering them?” Shao Shi: “Numerous are those who do not know how to distinguish these 5 types of man (responding to the “4 Aspects” of Heaven) because they do not make up part of the group of 25 morphotypes (responding to the “5 Movements” of Earth) describes previously ( 3 ) . 2. The Luomai are superficial. He acts slyly with intention to harm.. His mind is agitated. This is why. He believes himself to be superior to others. His attitude is humble. they respond to Yin. See Chapter 64 (“Yin and Yang and the 25 Morphtypes”).The “ T a i y a n g ” type is proud and pretentious. 3. Such is the “ T a i y a n g ” type of man. Huangdi: “How then can one recognize these types of man?” Shao Shi: “1. _ Yang is abundant and the Luo are large. he does not hold straight like an ox. but his attitude is furtive. 3.This description is based on the notion “Biao-Li” (Exterior-Interior) in order to determine the energetic pathophysiology concerning the insufficiency of Yin and the excess of Yang. Such is the man of “ T a i y i n ” type. arrogant and insolent. he walks with stooped back as if he wished to conceal his thoughts.” PARAGRAPH 3 Huangdi: “I do not forget having already seen these 5 types of man. His knees appear folded. _ Yin is insufficient and the Jingmai are small.The “ S h a o y i n ” type has the appearance of a well-mannered man. His eyes are often fixed toward the bottom. He walks with chest stuck out and belly sucked in. 321. they respond to Yang.The “ T a i y i n ” type is endowed with a skin that appears black like blackberries. in the “Shaoyang” type.

The “Well-balanced Yin-Yang” type has a distnguished look.“ T a i y i n ” Type a) Behavior: _ ambitious and inhumane _ scrupulous to any point of view _ underhanded and malicious _ miserly (he detests spending) _ flexible mentality but withdrawn _ gestures and actions do not manifest at the same time. otherwise the illness will be incurable. He walks with head high and body moving.V. 5.: We present below a synthesis of the behavior (character and actions). b) Disposition/Constitution-√: _ Yin in abundance and Yang absent _ impure Yin-Blood _ Wei (defensive) energy not very fluid _ Yin and Yang in disequilibrium _ soft muscle and thick skin. external morphology (appearance and attitudes) and treatment of these 5 types of man (responding to the “4 Celestial Aspects”).The “ S h a o y a n g ” type is haughty. 322. The shoulders. He knows how to adapt to all situations. 1 . He is affable and strict. He is conciliatory and expresses benevolence. Such is the “ S h a o y a n g ” type of man. c) External Morphology: _ blackish color like blackberries _ humble attitude. 2 . He is is known to all as a serious and honest man. but great ideas _ eyes fixed to the sun _ knees slightly bent in the standing position but without stooped back d) Treatment: _ Urgently apply the method of dispersion. Such is the “Well-balanced Yin-Yang” type of man.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N.4.“ S h a o y i n ” Type a) Behavior: _ lusts after small profits _ full of deceitfulness 264 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . constitution. arms and elbows are drawn toward the back.N.

3 . but does not achieve doing well _ charged with a small position. but drawn to misplaced vanity _ likes external relationships. one must carefully examine them because: _ the blood easily can escape _ the energy is quickly exhausted. Before treatment. b) Constitution: _ Much Yang and not much Yin _ little Jingmai (principle channels). d) Treatment: _ the bowels are in disequilibrium _ the Yangming (St) vessel is small _ the Taiyang (Bl) vessel is large. d) Treatment: _ do not allow Yin to become exhausted.“ T a i y a n g ” Type a) Behavior: _ leads a stable life _ likes to brag and is pleased with lofty events _ devoid of talent.Kuang). c) External Morpholgy: _ proud and pretentious appearance _ but stooped back and bent kness (signs of submission). is devoted to empty words and deliberately praises his greatness _ crude and unpolished actions and attitudes _ ignores good and bad. but incapable of assuming internal matters._ _ _ _ delighted at the misfortune of others likes to injure people and harm them rage in the face of success of others brutal and devoid of a spirit of benevolence. truth and falsehood _ never repents of his faults. Only disperse Yang _ but excessive dispersion of the Yang energy results in “Yang-Madness” (agitated madness.“ S h a o y a n g ” Type a) Behavior: _ serious work. but large Luomai (secondary channels) 265 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 323. 4 . b) Constitution√: _ Yin in excess and Yang in insufficiency _ Small stomach and large intestines c) External Morphology: _ dignifies air but furtive and scheming attitude with intention to harm _ walks like an hunchback as if he wanted to conceal his thought. b) Constitution: _ Yang in abundance and Yin in insufficiency.

the disease is difficult to cure. In Chinese terminology. d) Treatment: _ If one disperses only the Luomai. treatment must be carried out as a function of the channels. being in insufficiency. 4.“Well-balanced Yin-Yang” Type a) Behavior: _ calm and well-balanced life _ does not feel anxious and does not chase after pleasures _ conciliatory spirit _ modest despite high placed position _ uses virtue to convince and laws to administer (like the effective method to “govern” the country). the Yang energy escapes and Zhong Qi (“center” energy). c) External Morphology: _ calm and level-headed appearance _ scrupulous and serious attitude _ benevolent and reflective air (4). d) Treatment: _ carefully determine Yin and Yang and discern emptiness and fullness of the perverse energy and essential energy _ disperse fullness and tonify emptiness _ in the event of absence of emptiness or fullness._ blood in the interior and energy at the exterior _ fullness of Yin and emptiness of Yang. c) Extenal Morphology: _ Haughty carriage. head usually raised and body waddling _ shoulders and elbows held to the rear. no 324/325. 5 . b) Constitution: _ Yin and Yang energies are balanced _ Blood and vessels (energetic) are harmonious. CHAPTER 266 LXXIII Ability in the Practice of Acupuncture Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it is what one calls “the sage”.

questioning Qi Bo. • Moxabustion is precisely indicated in diseases caused by “Great Cold” in the interior and by concomitant emptiness of Yin and Yang. acupuncturists.” Qi Bo: “Your subject is ready to hear the Dao of Acupuncture as formulated by His Majesty. Jing and He) under the permanent influence of Yin and Yang. To those whose spirit merits it. I had been able to appreciate the immensity of their clinical importance. Cold/Heat. 8 Feng (winds) and 5 Organs/6 Bowels. the 5 Movements. 4 Seasons. Emptiness/ Fullness _ and the choice of points in order to practice acupuncture or moxabustion. Yin/Yang and Interior/Exterior”. I have attempted to go deeply into it and make a synthesis. • Tonification must be applied according to the technique known as “square” ( ). declares: “After having listened many a time to your teachings on the role of the “9 N e e d l e s ” . masseurs and therapists by invocations and meditations from antiquity. Ying. _ observation of the colors of the face. I would like to submit my work to the Master so that he may deign to correct it and model in after the Dao (of Acupuncture). Shu. _ the “favorable/contrary” circulation _ and the movements “reunion/meeting. and dispersion according to the technique known as “round” ( ). This chapter contains 5 paragraphs. the last paragraph of this chapter addreses the problem of the initiation of nurses. Left/Right. otherwise. we will teach it to them. Finally. Huangdi. we will refrain from it. entry/exit” of the energy and on the therapeutic problems posed by: _ the properties of the Wu Shu (5 Shu-antique points: Jing. _ the abundance or shortage of Blood and Energy of the Jingmai.(Guan Neng) Chapter 73 of the Lingshu speaks on the theoretical and practical problems of acupuncture linked to knowledge of: _ the relationship between Xing (form) and Qi (energy). therapeutic efficacy depends on this. _ the characteristics of the disease: Interior/Exterior.” Huangdi: “The practice of acupuncture is necessarily built on: 267 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ the localizations “Top/Bottom. PARAGRAPH 1 326.

_ the differentiation of emptiness and fullness of the Jingmai and Luomai disseminated to the left and right of the body as well as the sites of their Reunion/Meeting._ the precise knowledge of anatomic regions (Xing = form) and energetic regions (Qi = energy) and top/bottom and left/right regions of the body. _ In the event of penetration of perverse energy into the Great Luo of the left. In this manner. _ the knowledge of the role of the “4 Seas” (Sea of Energy. to possesses all these notions is to master clinical practice and grasp the functions of the “9 Needles” . it is necesary to go deeply into: _ the reason of contrary and favorable in order to be able to judge the opportunity to treat in the favorable case and the pointlessness of treating in the contrary case.“Study on the Energetic Points”) is of such importance that Huangdi has ordered his ministers to colliger all the works on this subject into the Linglan Palace under the title: “Locations of the Energetic Points”. the contrary/ favorable circulation and the sites of entry/exit of the energy (Qi). _ the discernment of the principles of liberation of accumulations (energetic) and techniques of tonification in the event of emptiness and dispersion in the event of fullness. 268 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ the comprehension of the rules of protection against perverse energy and its elimination. site of entry/exit and arrival/departure of the energy of the Jingmai. one must know how to use the technique known as needling on the opposite side (Mu Ci). Biao (exterior) and Li (interior). 327.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. _ in the event of equality of Emptiness and Fullness. _ the determination of the localization of the Cold and Heat energy and site of their progression. and vice versa. _ the determination of Yin and Yang. Furthermore. one must know how to base one’s judgment on the insufficient and excessive states of the Jingmai in order to aerate them. without neglecting eugenism. one must know how to associate them to Yin and Yang to regulate them.: 1. the term Qi Men (“door of the energy”) (1) designates the energetic point. _ the determination of the Summit (Jiao) and Root (Ben) in order to resolve the evolutive process of perverse energy and identify the location of the disease. _ The identification of the doors of the energy (Qi Men) located above and below (the channels of the hand are above and those of the foot are below. this is to follow the Dao of needling. Here. the sites of entry/exit of the energy are named “ d o o r s ” ) . _ in the event of confrontation of Cold and Heat. Sea of Blood. Finally. the abundance and shortage of Xue (Blood).N. Sea of Marrows and Sea of Cereals). The study of energetic points (Chapter 58 of the Suwen.V. the disease becomes triggered at the right.

Its Shu point of the top is Baihui (GV 20) and that of the bottom is Fengfu (GV 16). that of the bottom is Renying (St 9). This guest energy is not fixed and cannot penetrate into the Shu points of the principal channels. _ the Chongmai is the “Sea of Blood” of the 12 channels. Left/Right) into the energetic routes by which it diffuses into the 4 limbs. Volume II. the top and bottom of the cervical spine designate the points Yamen (GV 15) and Dazhui (GV 14).V. Its Shu point of the top is Qijie (St 30.during the day. do not use the muscles and bones. Settled within the Dailuo of the left side. In relation to “needling on the opposite side” (Mu Ci).V. the organism will be therefore weakened. Chapter 33. 269 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it spreads or penetrates into the Jingmai (principal channels) linked to the 5 organs. the doors of the energy close up even more. This is why one must employ the method of “needling on the opposite side”.Qi Men (“door of the energy”) had also been mentioned in Paragraph 9 of Chapter 3 of the Suwen (“Relationship of the Vital Energy to that of Heaven”): “ .Qichong) and that of the bottom is ZuSanli (St 36). Suwen. Its Shu point of the top is found at the top and bottom of Zhu Gu (the cervical vertebrae) (4). In effect. it flows out toward the left side. Yin and Yang are therefore attacked and the 5 organs are injured.” Treatment consists of needling the Jing-well point. _ The brain is the “Sea of Marrows”. From the Luomai. page 177. Volume I. during the night. 3. Cf. 3. one must treat the Jing (principal channels). 328. it is at full strength. it settles first in the pilocutaneous system. the Yang energy of the body protects the exterior. Edition. the 5 organs.N. it flows out toward the right side. it begins to be produced. N. footnote 3. at noon. This is the method of “Great Needling” of Ju needling. 1st Shu-antique point of the principal channel). JTS Productions edition).√ 2. corresponding to the opposite Dailuo. Wang Bing defined it as “sweat gland holes” (2). and settled at the right side..” It should be noted that the term Qi Men cited in this paragraph has a different meaning from that found in the Suwen. do not become open to white frost. From there. Cf. According to the Lingshu (3).. 4. in the last place. Also. Volume II.N. In short. Its Shu point of the top is Dazhu (Bl 11) and that of the bottom the points Shanglian (St 37) and Xianlian (St 39). it is necessary to let this energy rest and be put under cover and the doors of the energy properly be closed up. From the Jingmai. When the Yang energy enters within the Yin part. At dawn. From the Sunluo. Lingshu. Qi Bo explains it in this way (5): “When guest perverse energy infiltrates into the organism. the “4 Seas” are the following: _ the stomach is the “Sea of Shui Gu” (Cereal Water). 1. in the evening. it becomes directed into the Dailuo (6) (Great Luo) provoking the singular diseases (7). According to Ma Shi (see Lingshu. One had to await 1970 for the word “door” (in English: “gate”) to again be used by Malzack and Wall (“Gate Control Theory”) in their theory on the mechanism of pain. in the first place. In this case. Chapter 33 (“Study of the Seas”). without possibility of reaching the Jingmai. But in the case where the guest energy arriving at the Sunluo is blocked at this level. it spreads or it takes the paths of the Sunluo (little Luo). it invades the stomach and intestines. 2. the pilocutaneous system and. edition. _ Tanzhong (CV 17) is the “Sea of the Energy”. it grows weaker. the doors of the energy begin to close. Any violation of these rules of the evolution of the Yang energy during these 3 periods of the day incite attack by perverse energy. it spreads or reaches the Luomai (secondary vessels). N. the different phases of penetration of perverse energy into the organism concern. It spreads out therefore into all parts (Top/Bottom.

4. for him. The Jing Qi (energy of the channels) circulates in bending and s t r a i g h t e n i n g √ or entering and exiting in accord with very specific rules. of the face permit determination of disease associated with Cold or Heat and manifesting at the level of the channels. Southeast and Southwest). For Pienn Tsio.. Knowledge of the role of the “5 Shu (antique) points” permits utilizing the technique of tonification and dispersion consisting of transmitting slow or rapid movements to the needle. Yin and Y a n g (of man) coordinate the 5 Movements. Edition. to the left or right. According to Zhang Jing Yue. transversal Luo. 7. distinct. longitudinal Luo. 2. Mingtang is therefore the site of manifestation of the pathologic states of the 5 organs and 6 bowels and the site of appearance of the colors of the 5 organs involved. curious. According to Zhang Jing Yue: “The “singular” diseases cited in this paragraph are those of the Dailuo and not of the Jing. after having evaluated the characteristics of the Cold and Heat and their slippery (Hua) or rough (Se) state. N.V.. Chapter 63 (“Discourse on Needling on the Opposite Side”). PARAGRAPH 2 329. Not=rthwest. one can diagnose the degree of seriousness of the disease. “1. Therefore. As a result. belonging to Yin and Yang (of Heaven). 5.). 270 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The 4 seasons and “8 Cardinal Points” or “Ba Feng” (4 cardinal points + Northeast. it concerned only the 15 Longitudinal Luo. In other words.N. 6. Cf. the identification of “Summit” (Jiao) and “Root (Ben) is done at the level of the pulses. Suwen. The 5 organs and 6 bowels are endowed with functions responding to these 5 Movements and to Yin and Yang. According to Wu Gong: “The Dailuo are the principal branches of the 12 channels”. they designate the secondary vessels (tendinomuscular.. study attentive to the colors associated at the top or bottom. during the examination of the effected organs. 3. 4. have influence on the human being each part of which possesses the same characteristics manifesting at Mintang (nose).

one obtains a contrary reaction. Such are the key and sufficient components in the practice of acupuncture. or the point Shenmai (Bl 62). one should use moxabustion. Due to the diaphragm separating the body into upper and lower parts. In stagnation of perverse cold at the level of the passages of the Luo Yin or at the level of the organs (via the path of the Luo Yin). site of departure of Yangqiao. then one uses the method of deep needling with the needle left in place in order to aid the vital (essential) energy to rereach its circulatory path in the goal of countering the perverse energy.. one should also prescribe moxabustion. one should apply moxa to the points Xialian (St 39) and Sanli (St 36). The 6 bowels also possess Jing. one pinpoints the paths of the Jingmai before selecting the points.Ma Shi explains: “a. c. In all cases. if the perverse energy ascends from the bottom upward. the Yinqiao. if the stagnation of the Luomai present in the form of hard trajectories. one must practice moxabustion. one should only use moxabustion. good physician does not commit this error. In men. In the event of concomitant insufficiency of Yin and Yang. Ying..” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . and in the event of insufficiency of the energy of the bottom.. one should choose the point Zhaohai (Ki 6). likewise. Ying. use the Yangqiao. b. one must attention to the previous localization of the pain (that one disperses at the level of local points). Jing and He points grouped nder the name “Lu Shu” (6 Shu-antique points) among which the Shu and Yuan points open at the same time. In diseases of contrary afflux (Jue Ni). Shu. one must use the method of propulsion to chase out the perverse cold. one must leave the needle in place until the arrival of the energy (De Qi) to refill the bottom. the same method makes it descend.” refers to Chapter 3 (“Explanations of the Little Needles”) of this classic. with appearance of signs of cold such as muscular weakness (atrophy) with ice cold limbs up to the knee.“The Jing Qi (energy of the channels) circulates in bending and straightening.5. Jing and He points grouped under the name “Wu Shu” (5 Shu-antique points). 6. and in women. Similarly. In pains without fixed location.. site the the The 7. In the event of insufficiency of the energy at the top. If one treats Yinqiao in men and the Yangqiao in women.The 5 organs each possess Jing. one must push the energy toward the top (by the method of propulsion cited above) to tonify the top. if the stagnation of cold occurs at the level of the Jingmai (principal channels). In contrast.” refers to Chapter 71 271 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .“Techniques of tonification and dispersion. Shu. Yuan. one can easily determine the location of the disease. In diseases that do not respond to acupuncture. If heat is lodged in the upper part of the body. 330. First. the method consists of transmitting propulsion movements to the needle allowing immobilization of the heat to attract it toward the bottom. of departure of the Yinqiao.

”. Refer to Chapter 77 (“9 Palaces-8 Winds”) of this classic.”.“Mingtang (nose) is the site of manifestation of the pathophysiologic states of the 5 organs. hese two points designate Sanli (St 36)..” implies that the Celestial Dao (natural world) also possesses Yin and Yang and 5 movements.. d. f. One transmits movements of propulsion to the needle to tonify the upper (superficial) zone.” II ..” III . moon.” g. Above. As a result..Znag Shi states: “To leave the needle in place and await the arrival of the Yang energy is to leave the needle on the spot until the arrival of heat at the point of the needle.... 8 astronomic rhythms) in order to avoid the disordered perverse energy of the 4 seasons. The He point (6th Shu-antique point) is suitable for treatment of the bowels.N.. and one leaves the needle in place to increase the energetic potential of the lower (deep) zone. It is aimed at expelling the perverse cold and perverse heat etiology of the disease. Generally. in the “central” zone.” (8) PARAGRAPH 3 “During the practice of acupuncture. This technique always is aimed at tonifying the Yang of the body to combat perverse cold. 331.V. acupuncture is strictly forbidden and moxabustion is strongly recommended. The lung and heart are located in the upper zone.“Xialian (St 39) and Sanli (St 36). stagnation of perverse cold into the interdermal-dermal and inter-arterial spaces does not cause fixed location. Here.). more exactly. and the liver and kidney.. smooth skin and rough skin are diagnostic components allowing determination of cold or heat etiologies of the disease. and down below. to determine the evolutive principles of the Ba Sheng (8 energetic divisions of the year or.In the event of simutlaneous emptiness of Yin and Yang..(“Cold-Heat”) of this classic.N. Refer to Chapter 49 (“The Five Colors”) of this classic.“The 4 seasons and 8 cardinal points (Ba Feng = 8 winds or directions). one must know how to observe the Celestial Lights (sun. one must scrupulously respect the rules.“The diaphragm possesses top and bottom.”. One must also know clearly the foundation of the Wu Lun (5 social ties) ( 9 ) of the 100 families and also discern well the 272 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . One must delve deeply into the trajectory of the Jingmai before selecting the points to needle. h. the spllen.: Zhang Jing Yue furnishes us with the following iinformation: “Warm skin and cold skin. This division permits the determination of the sites of disturbance of the energy of the 5 organs. one should apply moxas to the Yangqiao in men and to the Yinqiao in women. in the lower zone. stars. e.

the muscle become firm.The “rules of practice” of acupuncture ar also described in Chapter 26 of the Suwen (“Incidence of the 8 Principal Rhythms on Human Energy”) where we read: Huangdi: “What are the principles governing the practice of acupuncture?” Qi Bo: “One must know the laws of Heaven and Earth and procede conforming to the principles that govern astronomic phenomena.V. Modifications and transformations are very important and subtle problems that poor physicians ignore and good physicians llok after like precious objects. p. 429.: 1 . the muscle become lax. When the weather is beautiful and mild. blood flows out freely and the energy circulates easily. at once present and absent. As a result. I. out. When it is cold and gloomy. 8. it is necessary to delve deeply into the favorable and contrary phenomena of the 4 seasons before addressing the problem with the practice of acupuncture. blood has a tendency to stagnate and the energy to sink down. such as the circulation of Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy).True Winds and Perverse Winds in order to better understand other pernicious energies. defensive (Wei) energy rises to the surface. blood is more fluid. moon. the defensive energy. defensive energy becomes dispersed. These do not present themselves in material or visible form. the 5 social ties are: _ between king and subject _ between father and son _ between brother and sister _ between husband and wife _ between friends. blood and energy are in abundance. blood and energy begin to become pruified. this is why the balancing of blood and energy must be based on the study of to flow vessels 273 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . JTS Productions Ed. At the full moon. 333. It is also necessary to carefully explore the experiences of our ancient masters in order to adapt them to current circumstances. When the moon is waning.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. the sun. the physician worsens the disease. 4 seasons and 8 principle astronomic rhythms (Ba Sheng) exercise an influence over human energy that should be evaluated before putting acupuncture to work. the secondary channels and empty. According to Confusian moral/ethics√. Vol. stars. Consult Chapter 17 (“Measurement of the Vessels”) (Lingshu. to master in depth what occurs in the interior of our bodies. in failing to recognize diseases duet to wind or disordered energy of the 8 Sheng of the year. they manifest like Shen Qi (mental energy). In effect. Therefore. the container no longer adapts to the contents√. At the new moon. Therefore.). Xue (blood) and Qi (energy) is the primary condition to transmit the traditions to posterity.N. 9.

at the new moon.The Ba Sheng (8 principal astronomic rhythms = 8 energetic divisions of the year) are: _ the 2 equinoxes: • spring equinox • autumn equinox 334.Celestial phenomena. _ it is recommended: • not to disperse at the new moon • not to tonify at the full moon • not to needle during the waning moon. tonification risks bringing about an increase in blood and energetic mass and a stasis of blood in the secondary vessels. needling provokes disturbances of the vital energy also called disturbances of the channels. of the knowledge of astronomic phenomena. Their essential characteristic is the tendency to become worse. In this manner. dispersion could weaken the internal organs. _ one should needle when it is warm. I would like to know how to imitate the Ancients? Qi Bo: “In order to follow the examples of the Ancients... _ the extreme states of emptiness and fullness between which natural phenomena and the progress of stars oscillate. These fundamental rules assure energetic reequilibration at the optimal time. 3 . it is necessary first to know the classic book of acupuncture and then to put into practice the aqcuired notions. These disturbances could be due to the fusion of Yin and Yang energies. _ one should not needle when it is very cold. In principle.” In the same Chapter 26 of Suwen (“Incidence of the 8 Principal Rhythms on Human Energy”). The power of the “confused and humbleoscure” observer” is the indispensible factor in 274 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The necessity to adopt treatment as a function of the timestemps. _ the 2 solstices: • summer solstice • winter solstice _ the 4 beginnings: • beginning of spring • beginning of summer • beginning of autumn • beginning of winter.” 2 . to the mixture of essential and perverse energies or to the deficiency of Yang energy at the exterior and the perturbation of Yin energy in the interior. in a word. we read: Huangdi: “Now that I know the influence of Celestial phenomena on human energy. During the waning of the moon.“Carefully explore the experiences of our ancient masters. all of these phenomena results in what one calls a “superimposition of fullnesses”. phases of the moon and climatic fluctuations is one of the essential conditions to assure therapeutic effectiveness. They follow the knowledge: _ of the order of nature. During the full moon.

allow establishing the proper treatment. The good physician against this perverse energy in treating as soon as it manifests. it is this acute sense of observation matched with long experience that can direct the acquisition of new truths worthy of being transmitted to posterity. knows perfectly: the localization of the energy in order to monitor its doors of entry and exit the method of regulating the blood and energy the times of tonification and dispersion the meaning of slow and rapid needling and the principles of the choice of points. the individual has the feeling: _ of being ill. to evacuate the perverse energy and recuperate the essential (vital) energy. with flexibility. If one uses the method of “Meeting/Pursuit” to disperse. lunar month and climate. This maneuver is executed with calm and ease. This maneuver imposes the perverse energy to follow the movements of the needle to be eliminated. it is not easy to define the pathologic state of the patient. 275 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . one leaves the needle in place until the regulation of the energy before removing it rapidly. transmitting to the needle rapid. As a general rule. Immediately upon removal of the needle. When the True Perverse (“Cheng Xia”) attacks man in a state of sweating during physical effort. the physician must diagnose the illness in its latent phase. worsening it. then he is not _ of being cured while he is always ill _ of having an unhealthy look while he carries no illness. 2_ _ _ _ _ This is why the physician. then. 1. At the true starting phase. the illness is slight. rotating movement as a function of the state of the llness. one massages the skin lightly with the left hand at the level of the point chosen. skillfully using the needles. it causes chills. while the poor physician only intervenes once the illness is in full evolution. Therefore. dissolved within darkness. The collation of physical signs gathered via observation and the determination of their correlation with cosmic phenomena. the times. insipid. In dispersion. In this manner. by reason of the absence of any clinical manifestation. Only a spirit endowed with the “vision of the invisible” can penetrate these phenomena. These two qualities moreover permit the establishment of a heirarchy among physicians. he maneuvers the needle with his dexterity. the physician must be able to grasp the subclinical disturbances of the organism by sole observation of the state of the defensive energy. In tonification. In this case.establishing an early diagnosis. the illness appears as something invisible. and with the right hand applies pressure on the point of impact and slowly inserts the needle. The implantation of the needle must be rapid and removal slow. it manifests at the face by a change in color. This is why one says that one can observe the genuinereel through confused and complex appearances. one must stir r e m u e r the needle in order to enlarge the point of impact in order to facilitate the expulsion of the perverse energy. at the time when it is still devoid of any clinical expression.When perverse energy attcks man in a state of weakness or emptiness.” PARAGRAPH 4 335.

N. This maneuver avoids the elimination of the vital energy.: 1.√ enigmatic and imperceptible signs for others.V. at the time when the energy of the “Three Regions and Nine Places√” is still maintained in a state of equilibrium and has yet to present signs of deficiency.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N.Regarding the “true perverse energy”. 3. any aggression coming from the exterior in order to curb it and prevent it. therefore. Qi The essential fact in use of needles is not to neglect the problem of the Shen (mental energy). one must know how to master the method Feng (square) which gives us the time and manner to do it. 336. The lesions provoked by this latter disruptive force are usually transient and benign.The precise definition of the terms “tonification” and “dispersion” is given in the Suwen (Chapter 26): Huangdi: “ I have heard something about tonification and dispersion and have not clearly grasped their meaning. when it is exposed to wind after intense physical effort. the great physician can immediately discern. the following explanation is found in the Suwen (Chapter 26 (“Incidence of the 8 Rhythms on Human Energy”)): “One distinguishes two disruptive forces: _ Xu Xia or “disruptive force acting on the organism in a state of emptiness” which is represented by the perverse energy of the 4 seasons and 8 principal astronomic rhythms _ Cheng Xia or “disruptive force acting on the organism in apparent good health”. allows it to evolve. This is why on says that to penetrate the intimate mechanism of the “Three Regions and Nine Places” is to permanently guard the door in total security√. therefore they often occur to physicians who do not know their nature and do not have the ability to link them to their true cause. One should disperse when: _ the energy is in full effervescence _ the moon is full _ the sun begins to heat up the Earth _ the organism is in a state of stable equilibrium. In order to determine the cause of the disease and specify it or the channels affected. It attacks the body as it perspires. it is necessary to base the examination of the pulses and exploration of the “Three regions and Nine Places√”.one obsturcts the point of impact. And one should: 276 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Regarding “physicians”.” Qi Bo: “For dispersion. Qi Bo gives us his opinion: “The superior physician (Shang Gong) treats the disease before its apparent start. also in Chapter 26 of the Suwen. Recall that the “Three Regions and Nine Places/?Centers/Environmentslieux” are divided between “Heaven-Earth-Man” (see the following table). As a result. while the sweal gland orifices are still wide open. 2. The inferior physician (Xia Gong) treats the disease when already present because he does not know how to recognize the interrelationships between the “Three Regions and Nine Places√” and.

_ stick the needle in during inspiration _ turn it during the next inspiration _ and remove it slowly during expiration. The terms Yuan (round) and Feng (square) do not involve the shape of the needles. Regions Centers lieux Upper (Heaven) Relationships temporal part of Foot Shaoyang (GB) facial (cheek) portion of Foot Yangming (St) auricular portion of Hand Shaoyang (SJ 21) Hand Taiyin (Lu) at the point Taiyuan (Lu 9) Hand Yangming (LI) at the point Hegu (LI 4) Hand Shaoyin (He) at the point Shenmen (He 7) Upper (Heaven) Middle (Earth) Lower (Man) Upper (Heaven) Middle (Earth) Middle (Earth) Lower (Man) Upper (Heaven) Lower (Man) Middle (Earth) Lower (Man) Foot Jueyin (Li) at the point Taichong (Li 3) in women and Jimai (Li 12) in men Foot Shaoyin (Ki) at the point Taixi (Ki 3) Foot Taiyin (Sp) at the point Jimen (Sp 11) or Foot Yangming (St) at the point Chongyang (St 42) Then from Chapter 27 of the Suwen (“Separation and Reunion of Pure Energy and Perverse Energy”). These components have a mutual effect that can be compared and analyzed. it consists of mobilizing the energy and channeling it toward the ill region. must necessarily observe the evolutions of the natural world: _ in Heaven. that is to say. For tonification. one must stick right in the center of the Ying points and remove the needle during inspiration. 338. the state of emptiness and fullness of the energy and blood because energy and blood are precious things one must look after”.great physicians. before adopting treatment. The application of the Feng technique allows optimal dispersion. 337. there are sidereal degrees _ in Earth. there are courses of water _ in Man. one must know how to master the technique Yuan (round): theoretically. allows all perverse energy to be expelled and regulates the energetic circulation. 277 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it evokes the necessity of applying the treatment as a function of the constitution (obese or thin) of the individual. there are Jingmai. Practically. Qi Bo adds: “a.

_ as soon as the needle is removed. the perverse energy will be totally dispersed toward the exterior. Acting in this manner. the courses of water reach the boiling point. _ leave the needle in place a moment to obtain De Qi.” 4.And in order to tonify insufficiencies. _ If it involves Wind profiting from the insufficiency of the body. If at Cun Kou the disease cannot be localized either at Yin or Yang. the courses of water are slow and peaceful. _ strong when the perverse energy is calm and passes without settling. _ When the energy of Heaven is red-hot and that of Earth hot. what one calls “tonification”. _ push the needle in well at the end of expiration. what one calls “dispersion”. Acting in this way. the pulsations are strong or weak: _ weak when the perverse energy flows afflue. it will then circulate with the Ying (nutritive) energy and Wei (defensive) energy. Treatment consists of: _ pushing the needle in well during inspiration to prevent the ascent of the energy _ leave it in place a moment to prevent the perverse energy from spreading _ turn it during inspiration with the goal of obtaining De Qi (arrival of the energy) _ wait to gradually remove it and completely lift it out at the end of expiration. _ When the energy of Heaven is cold and that of Earth iced over. _ calmly wait for the arrival of the energy like one waits for an honored guest without becoming preoccupied with the time that passes._ When the energy of Heaven and that of Earth are moderate.Regarding the Shen (mental) “which one must not neglect”. press on and masage the opening in such a way as to conserve the mental energy. It is the same for the penetration of perverse energy. b. As soon as it is localized. blood freezes. one must rapidly treat to curb its evolution. one should very carefully examine the “3 Regions 9 Places√”. The essential technique of needling can be summarized in this manner: 339. the great energy is conserved within the channel. that is to say. initially: _ palpate and massage the point to obtain cutaneous dilation _ apply pressure on the point and press to spread the energy _ make a flicking motion there to concentrate the attention of the patient on the point then _ press well on the point and needle it _ leave the needle in place a moment _ at the arrival of the energy. Qi Bo gives us the following explanations (Chapter 278 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . remove it with the right hand and close the opening off with the left hand to prevent it from escaping. _ If it involves Heat. _ If it involves Cold. that is to say. the Jingmai become stirred and rebound√ like a course of water under the effect of a thunderstorm. At Cun Kou (wrist pulse). water freezes and transforms into ice. blood and energy heat up.

the Shen described in this Chpater 72 of the Lingshu does not designate the power to directly grasp facts by simple inspection.” Huangdi: “We will teach: _ the way of observing colors to those who have clear-sighted vision _ the way of hearing sounds (of the voice) to those who have keen hearing _ the way of expressing thought to those who have noble and academic language and well-articulated speech _ the way of manipulating needles and moxa to those who have easy and measured tone of voice. immediately by simple inspection without having to resort to questioning. In the final analysis. finally. and consequently. What do you mean by that?” Qi Bo: “Form is the power to grasp morphologic. For us. How do you define this ability?” Huangdi: “One must impart to each a specialty in teaching him according to his capacity so that he can assume his work with competence”. deepen the therapeutic methods _ the way of massage to direct the energy to those who have supple and fluid hands. The Mental is the power to grasp directly. The combination of these two methods of diagnosis permit visualization of the morbid process because it is impossible to establish a diagnosis of certitude when one of the essential signs cannot be detected and integrated into a whole. it is the capacity to instantly interpret phenomena by a movement of extremely rapid thought and penetrate the interior of an object to grasp what is unique.. sensorial. observe the phenomena of transformation of Yin and Yang. But you often speak of Xing (form) and Shen (mental). Emptiness and Fullness and the complexity of biologic phenomena.26 of the Suwen): Huangdi: “Marvelous account! No one but you can grasp the relationships between Man and Yin-Yang. but by the Jing (anatomic. Direct vision of the intimate mechanisms of the “3 Regions and Nine Places√” by the Mental radiatesdispenser the application of the principles of the “9 Needles”. the wind that chases away the clouds. invisible modifications based on questioning and examination of the pulses. inexpressible. excellent muscular force and peaceful heart 279 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Leigong: “Your subject wishes to hear the teaching of the abilities of practice. and.. psychologic. skillful actions and a heart full of judgment so that they can aerate the blood and energy. structural. Leigong questions Huangdi: “The Zhen Lun (Discussion on Needles) that His Majesty comes to evoke states: “We only teach acupuncture to those predisposed to this art”. It is like light which flashes out of the darkness. PARAGRAPH 5 340.) of the 5 organs. easy gait. about it√. This sudden illumination permits seeing at once what escapes others. regulate the contrary and favorable. This is why one calls it “Mental”..

cultural transmission is lost. physician’s aids (nurses). similar to a type of ancient psychotherapy. a specialty responding to his abilities. Bottom (geography) and Middle (human affairs). _ if one transmits them to unworthy people. Qi Bo: “I am going to try to explain it to you precisely._ the way of using magic words (invocation: Zhu Wu) to treat illnesses to those who have a regular jealous nature√ to hold impertinent and hard words _ and the way of palpating and kneading/shaping√ masses (energetic and blood: stasis) and chronic Bi (paresthetic) illnesses to those who have clumsy hands and who commit blunders in repetitive fashion. I will charge myself to execute it according to your teachings. Such is the reason for the Dao of Medicine. Huangdi gives criteria n the personality of the practitioner in the choice of his specialty or orientation.: Each individual has an ability or gift which is proper to him and is necessary to make use of in order to draw out the best in him. _ Ask the subject concerned to press strongly on the carapace of the animal. I cannot assume this cultural transmission to future generations. But my people are affected by numerous fatal illnesses. If the subject has a malign hand. has been given in Chapter 58 of this classic (“Pirate-Wind”). the medical profession is recommended.” 280 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . masseurs and invocators (ancient psychologists). 2. This is the sole means of preserving it for a long time. I therefore implore you. one can easily verify this by the following method: 341. one considers educational training to be slight and one becomes engaged in irresponsibilty. _ Take a tortoise and place it in washtub.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N.N. the medical profession ( 1 0 ) is therefore not recommended. Chapter 69 of the Suwen (“Great Discourse on the Energetic Exchanges and Their Alterations”) has also spoken about the problem of the perpetuation of knowledge by teaching reserved for worthy people: Huangdi: “I have heard something about: _ without teachings by the learned. in the name of the nation. therefore. 1. the animal dies in 50 days. art only able to be transmitted to those who are apt to follow it”. if the hand is beneficent.. according to Shang Jing: “The Dao of medical research consists of the knowledge of the Top (astronomy). dear master. to explain this to me. In effect.“. My knowledge being imperfect. As for the transmission to future generations.“Magic words (invocations or “Zhu Wu”)”: information on this technique. In this paragraph. What do you think?” 10. In conclusion.. This is the end of the Dao. Each has. In contrast. the animal remains alive. Thanks to this. therapeutic methods are awarded success and the reappointment of practitioners transcends boundaries√ . acupuncture is an art that can only be transmitted to those who are likely to follow it. The “medical profession” of Huandgi’s era included physicians.V.

343. The determination of the localization of the energy of Earth (Di Qi) involves geography.Huangdi: “What is its meaning?” 342. to which respond energetic activitities. Qi Bo: “The Dao of Medicine consists of determining and comprehending the localization of the 3 energies. Zhang Jing Yue (163-1640 A. the tortoise is considered a very sacred animal. can redirect deeply concealed energy toward the surface.The method of “the hand pressing on the back of the tortoise” was derived from the obvious inherent superstitious beliefs of the era of high antiquity. Therefore. was considered the image of the world and the divine read predictions from it. The comprehension of the modification-transformation of the energy of Man (Ren Qi) involves human affairs.”. The detremination of the localization of the energy of Heaven (Tian Qi) involves astronomy. Earth and Man. round at the top (like Earth and Heaven). its longevity is known..” This reptile enters into the greatest Oriental myths because it is the animal representation of the universe. square at the bottom. It respires via its ears and. modified or altered. Its carapace. therefore.) states regarding this: “The tortoise activates the circulation of the Renmai (CV). our ancient masters utilized it to detect the cruel and harmful hands of the human being. are rational and normal.D. In Antiquity. that of Heaven.” 3. 281 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . and the energy in an insufficient state is that which comes after climatic energy. This is why it is said: “The circumductions of Heaven and Earth. The energy in an excessive state is that which comes before seasonal climatic energy.. It was therefore supposed to acknowledge good physicians and nurses.

States of the skin of Chi Fu and diagnosis of diseases: edema. . This method consists of oberving the exterior to define to the interior.. 5. anasarca. Examination of the eyes and the determination of the diseases of the 5 organs and ocular diseases. PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: “I think that the examination of the colors and pulses is not necessary because observation of the state of the Chi Fu region (skin of the forearm...and infra-lumbar. algoparesthesia. scapulo-dorsal. 3. Evaluation of the seriousness of fetal diseases.The pulse in pregnancy. 282 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .States of the skin of Chi Fu and the prognosis of recent hemorrhage and certain death. It consists of 5 paragraphs: 1.. How do you succeed in this?” 344. muscular atrophy. 2. 4. Signs of icterus.States of the skin of the elbow. cold and heat. regions.CHAPTER LXXIV Dissertation on Diseases and the Examination of the Skin of the Forearm (Lun Xi Zhan Chi) Chapter 74 of the Lingshu speaks on the examination of “Chi Fu” (skin of the forearm) in the determination of the energetic state of the 5 organs and the evolutive process of diseases. thoracic. the skin between the “ C h i ” pulse and the elbow) is sufficient to determine the type of disease. dorsal face and palm of the hand and the determination of diseases localizing in the supra.The transformation of Yin and Yang. that is to say.

indicator favorable of cure.If the pulse is slippery and full. 5 . then evaluate the state of firmness or suppleness of the flesh system of the region of Chi Fu in order to diagnose the type of disease. 2 .If the individual is sleepy both day and night with extreme weight loss. 345. 4 . this is Ji Jie (atrophy). disease (algoparesthesia 7 . large or small.If the skin of Chi Fu is warty like the dry scales of a fish. this is the overflowing of “Humidity-Water” up to the feet and hands (anasarca). this is F e n g disease (Wind). one should clearly assess the slow or rapid. 3 .If the skin and muscles of Chi Fu are flaccid and diminished in volume. 8 .If the skin of Chi Fu is first cold and the cold stays some time not b e c o m i n g avant que ne vienne heat.If the individual presents signs such as: _ subocular swelling as during sleep _ agitated carotid pulse _ frequent cough _ and impression left after finger pressure ( 1 ) these are signs revealing the disease of Feng Shui (edema of ”Wind-Water” etiology). this is the sign indicating the i m m i n e n t / r e c e n t √ p r o c h e exteriorization of the energy (heat). this is the disease of “Cold-Heat” (Han Re). this is the Feng Bi caused by Wind).If the skin of Chi Fu is burning hot as against a flame. In this manner. this is the sign of diarrhea excessive emptiness of the energy (asthenia). Literally. 1 . 6 . one says “making the sign of “pitting””. this is the W e n disease (“Moderate Heat”). first hot then cold. this also the disease of Cold-Heat.If the skin of Chi Fu is burning hot with the pulse in great fullness. 12 . 1. 9 .H e a t ) . during the examination. 11 . the disease belongs to the incurable group of Han Re ( C o l d .If the skin of Chi Fu is cold with small pulse.If the skin of Chi Fu is slippery.If the skin of Chi Fu is rough.If the skin of Chi Fu is slippery like grease. or 10 .” 283 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . this is the F e n g (Wind) disease. for example. smooth and velvety.Qi Bo: “Initially. slipperty or rough nature of the “ C h i ” (foot) pulse.

cough is aggravated by the reflux of “Water” energy. Therefore. These 284 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the abdomen is the site of Zhiyin (arrival of Yin). Qi Bo: “Water is Yin. Yang benefits from this emptiness to trigger hypopnea with fever. Worsening of the cough by the dorsal decubitus position is due to an afflux of “Water” energy (Shui Qi). The flooding (afflux) of the energy of the heart toward the top is perceived by the bitterness of the mouth and dryness of the tongue. When Wind circulates. _ the disease of “Shui Qi” (Water energy) prevents the individual from stretching out because.N. The dorsal decubitus position os impossible due to the dysharmony of the energy of the stomach.The disease of Feng Shui (edema of Wind-Water etiology) is due to the infiltration of Wind energy into the pilocutaneous layer.N.V. Chapter 4 of this classic (“Pathologic forms of Attack of the Organs and Bowels”) is important to recall. Water within the abdomen always causes subocular swelling. 2. the disease of “Shui Qi” always starts with edema of the eyes.Zhang Shi explains: “1. Regarding Feng Shui (edema of Wind-Water origin). _ boborygmi is caused by disturbance of the energy of the stomach.: 1. in this position. It can affect the spleen to stimulate sadness and anorexia.. The Taiyang governs Cold-Water and its energy circulates within the external region of the body. In a general way. 3.Smooth and slippery skin comes from the disturbance of organic liquid caused by Wind (Feng). The dorsal decubitus position is impossible because it worsens the cough with expectoration of clear liquid. . ascends the forehead.EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . Water of Taiyang follows the energy and flows out into the pilocutaneous region which causes subocular swelling always accompanied by agitation of the carotid pulse and edema of the skin. the area under the eyes is also Yin. In summary.” Huangdi: “Why?” 346. cough is frequent because Water stagnates at the level of the skin and the skin is linked to the lung. perverse wind is Yang. Yin being in empitness. Huangdi: “What is the cause of the disease of Feng Shui (Wind-Water)?” Qi Bo: “Perverse energy floods where there is emptiness of the energy. Feng Shui). Water follows it and provokes edema (of Wind-Water origin.” II .The foot Taiyang (Bl) starts at the internal canthus of the eye. sweating and red symptoms signal an attack of the lower abdomen by heat. descends to the cervical region.. urine. The kidney organ is Yin. In this case.

D. intermittent fever). hence amenorrhea. that of the body is surely very hot. i) Cold skin of Chi Fu with small pulse is the sign revealing deficiency of Yang energy. g) Verrucous (warty) skin. from the withering/thinning of the “flesh” system and from the rising up of Water._ the sensation of heaviness of the body with difficulty walking follows a disturbance of the circulation from the channel of the stomach to the lower limbs. c) Smooth and slippery skin is the sign revealing disturbance of the organic liquid indicating the presence of Wind (Feng) coming from the exterior. d) Thinning of the region of Chi Fu due to the consecutive emptiness of Yin and Yang bears the name “Jia Ji” (atrophy) and originates from the disease of the incurable group of Cold-Heat (Han Re). _ in women. f) Rough skin at Chi Fu signals insufficiency of blood.) conveys the following elements: “a) The lower eyelid also bears the name “place of dwelling of the silk worm” (Zua Xin). It is a question of excess of perverse Yang. These vessels belong to the heart and connect to the uterus. Non-diffused blood is the origin of “Feng Bi” (algoparesthesia of “Wind” etiology). originates from the weakness of EarthSpleen. h) The skin of Chi Fu being burning hot. amenorrhea is due to an obstruction of the uterine vessels (Bao Mai).” 2. this denotes the recuperation of the essential energy. e) Slippery skin as if it were greasy originates from the infiltration of Wind (Feng).” Figure 1: Forearm (Chi Fu) 285 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . When the “Water” energy (Shui Qi) refluxes toward the top. causal factor of diarrhea or the insufficiency of the energy (asthenia). indicator of the amelioration of the disease. b) The imprint left after finger pressure is the sign indicating Feng Shui (edema of “Water-Wind” etiology). 347. The disease then carries the name “Wen Bing” (disease of “moderate heat”). The skin of Chi Fu first very hot (fever) then very cold (chills) is the sign of alternation of the disease of “Han Re” (Cold-Heat. Chapter 4 of this classic (“Pathologic Forms of Attack of the Organs and Bowels”) also mentions this. Zhang Jing Yue (1563-1640 A. it compresses the lungs and prevents the energy of the heart from descending. evoking the image of dries fish scales. If the pulse has a “slippery” quality.

Heat localized only at the skin of the external side of the elbow is the sign revealing attack of heat of the thoracic region.Heat localized only in the skin of the elbow indicates the attack of heat of supra-lumbar region. stomach. the lower zone of the body _ the external surface is Yang.N.Heat localized only at the skin of the middle of the forearm is the indicator of attack of heat of the dorso-abdominal region. it responds to the exterior part of the body _ the internal surface is Yin.Heat localized only at the skin of the internal sdie of the elbow indicates attack of heat of the scapulo-dorsal region. This is the path of conformity between Heaven and Earth.lower parts. 5. these circulate outside the channels responding to the energy of Heaven (Dan Qi) in order to diffuse to Earth.The appearance of bluish-colored Luomai (venous vessels) at the level of thenar eminence is the indicator of the presence of cold in the stomach.Heat localized only 3 or 4 cun below the elbow is the sign revealing the presence of intestinal parasitosis. upper/lower elbow responding to the different parts external/internal.Heat localized only at the skin of the back of the hand is the indicator of attack of heat of the infra-lumbar region.). the the 7. 8. upper. Because the blood and energy circulate within the vessels responding to the energy of Earth (Di Qi) in order to reach Heaven.N. In effect.V.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . 3.” II .Heat localized only at the palm of the hand signals the presence of heat in abdomen. 6. the two elbows being lower down.PARAGRAPH 2 the “1.. _ the upper part represents the upper part of the body _ the lower part. 9. 348.: This paragraph demonstrates the correspondences between the cutaneous regions beyond the elbow and 286 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Zhang Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks about the different cutaneous zones of the external/internal.Cold localized only at the palm of the hand indicates the presence of cold in abdomen.. 2. it responds to the internal part of the lumbar and abdominal area (intestines. 4.

from the point Neiguan (XB 6) to the elbow. When it is hot. The apearance of little bluish vessels at the level of the thenar eminence is the sign revealing the presence of cold within the abdomen. We again find the following information in the commentaries of Zhang Jing Yue: “The elbow is located behind the joint of the arm and forearm. that is to say. allow a topographic as well as etio-pathogenic diagnosis of the ailment from a distance. considered to reflect the other regions of the body. The area located 3 cun below the elbow. Therefore. that is to say.” Figure 2: 287 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . It responds to the lumbo-abdominal region. As a result. The anterior part of the elbow is the site of passage of the three Yin channels of the hand. Chapter 10 of this classic (“Channels-Vessels”) also mentions this. The posterior part of the elbow is the forearm called “Shou” or “Bi”. it is the site of manifestation of signs of cold and heat coming from the exterior of the abdomen. 349. observation of this part of the upper limb. As a result. The palm of the hand is the site of reunion of the three Yin channels.certain large parts of the body. it denotes the existence of parasites within the intestines. from the point Sanli (LI 10) to the wrist and that located 2 cun from the wrist. it responds to the anterior region of the thorax. belongs to the Yin part.

the top is affected by Heat _ if it is at the bottom. 350. death in three years. death in one and a half years. the right is affected by Heat _ if it is at the top. 3. The appearance of black color signals disease of Kidney origin. 4. the left is affected by Heat _ if it is at the right. 2. _ Two red venules. Firm. _ if the channels is in excess. anxiety) are the signs heralding imminent death. • Diagnosis of odontalgias: Applying pressure on the Yangming (LI and St). _ A red venule oriented from outside to intside signals disease of Shaoyang (SJ and GB) origin. 5. _ A red venule oriented from the bottom upward signals disease of the Yangming (LI and St) origin. it is affected by Heat _ if it is at the left. (blood Luo: capillaries): red color indicates excess of Heat (fever) greenish color indicates excess of pain blackish color indicates chronic Bi disease 288 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ A red half venule. • Diagnosis by blood vessels _ The abundance of blood of _ The abundance of blood of _ The abundance of blood of (algoparesthesia) 351. the bottom is affected by Heat. At the eyes. 1. The appearance of red color signals disease of Heart etiology. death in two and half years. _ Two and half red venules. _ Three red venules. • Examination of the eyes and diagnosis of ocular diseases: _ A red venule oriented from the top downward signals disease of Taiyang (SI and Bl) origin. The appearance of yellow mixed with other ill-defined colors signals disease localized in the middle of the thorax. The appearance of green color signals disease of Liver origin. hard skin of Chi Fu and a small and insufficient pulse of the Qi (energy) associated with a depressive syndrome (sadness. The appearance of white color signals disease of Lung origin. death in two years. • Examination of the eyes and prognosis of ocular diseases: _ A red venule oriented from the top downward toward the pupil signals death in one year.Little venules on the thenar eminence. 6. The appearance of yellow color signals disease of Spleen origin. PARAGRAPH 3 pulse) “Burning hot skin of Chi Fu and a changing (Da) pulse of Renying (carotid are the signs revealing an imminent hemorrhage.

“Slight yellow color” indicates the manifestation of disease at the level of the skin. hence hemorrhage because the skin belongs to Yang and the blood vessels to Yin. to speak of diseases located in the middle of the thorax is to speak of the energy of the 5 organs exteriorizing from the diaphragm. The individual refuses to eat (anorexia). The previous paragraph speaks on the examination of the subocular region in order to determine cutaneous edema while this one addresses the examination of the colors of the eyes in order to appreciate the state of the Yin energy of the 5 organs. to the Foot Yangming (St). The energy of Earth waters and saturates the 4 sides. “Painful body” indicates the manifestation of disease at the level of the flesh. that is to say. 289 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This is why the prognosis is fatal. 3.The colors of the eyes represent the state of blood and energy of the 5 organs. The pulse is small and rough. Painful body.The burning hot skin of Chi Fu and the changing (Da) pulse of Renying originate from the fullness of the 3 Yang.The first part of this paragraph concerns the examination of the colors of the eyes in the determination of the Yin energy of the 5 organs while this part gives dissertation on diagnosis based on ocular vessels to appreciate the energy of the 3 Yang. Therefore. slight yellow color._ The abundance of blood of red. The firm skin of Chi Fu and the excessively small occurs with the fullness of Yang and the exhaustion of Yin. a large or small. Cold-Heat disease (Han Re) is due to the disturbance of Water energy and Fire energy. 4. of Yin and Yang.The upper teeth belong to the Hand Yangming (LI). The term “middle of the thorax” designates the diaphragm. pulse) In some individuals. superficial or deep Cun Kou (radial resembling Renying (carotid pulse) indicates a disease difficult to treat.“Painful body. 6. yellow nails. Urine is yellow. 352. yellow tartarous teeth. Here. The pupil is formed by the osseous Jing of the kidney.Ma Shi explains: “1. intermittent fever).. and the lower teeth. The problem becomes complex due to the appearance of colors in the course of the pathologic process.Study is focused on the Xue Mai (blood and vessels) directed by the jueyin (XB) whose root is found at the Foot Shaoyin (Ki). The colors respond to yang and the vessels to Yin. The energy of Xin Bao (XB) takes its source at the kidney and reaches underneath the heart. the individual refuses to eat”: these are signs belongingt ot disease localizing at Earth-Center. The disease has the tendency to be dormant. This exchange is fatal. are signs of icterus (Huang Dan). yellow tartarous teeth. During this time.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . black and green color indicates disease of Cold-Heat (Han Re. 2. The blood and energy of the 5 organs circulates in the interior of the vessels and manifests at Cun Kou (radial pulse) and their modifications appear at the eyes because the Jing (quintessence) of the 5 organs gather at the eyes.. These two methods of examination are therefore based on observation of the exterior in order to evaluate the interior. yellow color. the energy of the Fire Organ descends to the bottom and unites with Yin. 5.. it is a question of the transformation/modification between Yin and Yang. The toxic energy of the Water Organ reaches the top and unites with the Fire Organ..

small (Wei). to Biao (exterior) and Li (interior). Compare with Chapter 13 (“Tendinomuscular Channels”). This is why the red venules are oriented from the bottom upward and the disease is associated with the Yangming.Cun Kou (radial pulse) represents Yin.Perverse energy infiltrates within the Yin part (of the body) and brings about the diseaswe of ColdHeat (Han Re) whose prognosis is founded on the appearance of red venules directed towrd the pupil. the disease becomes surely oriented tpward Yin or Yang. Chapter 70 of this classic (“Cold-Heat”) has mentioned it in relations to the prognosis of the scrofulas (Lua Li) (3). The Yangming (St) possesses a vessel responding to the lower eyelid. 2. and Renying deep and slippery. and 290 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . b .Icterus. recall the explanation of Leigong (Chapter 49: “The Five Colors”) above: Leigong: “How do you diagnose the worsening or improvement of the disease?” Huangdi: “Examination of the interior and exterior is essential. bowel belonging to the heart. _ Mai Kou superficial and slippery indicate progression of the disease. The Shaoyang (GB) circulates at the side of the external canthus of the eye. It becomes concentrated and heats up the gallbladder hindering the circulation of bile which then does not follow the normal route and saturates the tissues to trigger Yang Icterus. the worsening of that located at the exterior. In this regard. bile extravasates and saturates the tissues to trigger Yin Icterus. hurried (Jin) and deep (Chen) indicates worsening of the disease located in the interior. The heart governs the Xue Mai (blood and vessels).V. It compresses the liver. The spleen and stomach become weakened. Yang. superficial or deep. “Yang Icterus” and “Yin Icterus”.” II . physical or psychoaffective origin. This is why the red venules are oriented from the exterior toward the interior and the disease is associated eith the Shaoyang. the pulse is small and rapid.“Yellow tartarous teeth” indicates the manifestation of disease at the level of the limbs. _ Mai Kou slippery and deep indicates progressive worsening of the disease located in the interior. hurried (Jin) and superficial (Fu). If Cun Kou and Renying have the same quality. Yang Icterus is due to a compression of perverse energy which becomes transformed into Heat-Humidity. Icterus corresponds to the spleen. In Yin Icetrus. teeth and blood capillaries. a . _ Mai Kou slippery (Hua). Based on the signs of Heat-Humidity or Cold-Humidity. small or large. They are the principal reasons for the difficulty of therapy. This is why the individual becomes anorexic. 353. 354. This is why the red venules are oriented from the top downward and the disease is associated with the Taiyang (2). the Spleen-Stomach system grows weaker.N. The small intestine also has the name “red intestine”. and Renying changing (Da). Yin icterus is of dietary. one distinguishes two main types of icterus. according to Chinese medicine.The Taiyang (Bl) has a vessels responding to the upper eyelid.N. Central Yang (Zhong Yang) comes to a standstill with production of Heat-Humidity. and Renying (carotid pulse). d . “Urine of red yellow color with small and rough pulse” are signs of manifestation of disease at the level of the vessels. its regression. like spring and summer respond to Yin and Yang. is one of the pathognomonic signs of numerous diseases whose evolution enters into the sphere of the the Liver-Gallbladder and Spleen-Stomach systems.: This paragraph involves diagnosis by inspection of the eyes. c .

In diseases of the bowels. then the head hair returns toward the bottom.“Bristling of the head hair” comes from the dryness of blood like a dried herb. The Suwen. that caused by a digestive disorder. 291 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . in Chapter 18 (“Energetic Aspects of the Pulse of Man in Good Health”). full and superficial. _ the appearance of a retro-auricular venule indicates pain. From birth (of the human being). the body hair and head hair are surplus products of the blood originating from the Jing (quintessence) and Xue (blood).This paragraph speaks on the blod and energy of the human being whose source is innate (Pan Zian) (4). _ diarrhea containing blood filaments accumulating in the form of grains of with small pulse but warm hands and feet is easy to treat. superficial or deep. the superficial and changing pulse also indicates disease easy to treat. small or large. The head hair falls out because it responds to the quality of blood and energy carrying out rotatory movements from below upward and transforming into head hair. the progressive worsening of that at the exterior.Zhang Shi explains: “a. Compare page 244-246 above. b. Death is certain.V. indicate a disease difficult to treat. In women.” II .Shaoyin designates Yin Kidney. _ a pronounced bounding/striking√ Shaoyin pulse indicates pregnancy. c. and Qi Kou full and resistant.Diarrhea is distinguished also by liquid stools of yellow and red color. the noting of a strongly agitated Chi (foot) pulse indicates that she is pregant and that the fetus is of masculine sex. In contrast. In diseases of the organs.N.N. In pediatrics. Renying full and resistant indicates an ailment caused by Cold. The prognosis is fatal. _ Renying and Qi Kou both having the same qualities. 355.” 3. also mentions this.Masculine sex of the fetus is diagnosed at the Chi (Foot) pulse of the left side. 2. PARAGRAPH 4 “ In obstetrics.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I .Renying slippery. the small pulse is unfavorable. This blood and energy circulates in a spiral like a circle coming from the top downward and from the bottom upward. the deep and changing pulse indicates disease easy to treat.: Zhang Jing Yue gives us the following information: “1. The bristling of head hair originates therefore from the rupture of phemonema of ascent and descent of the blood and energy. _ bristling of head hair is fatal.

356. into Yin. it is said: “Cold creates Heat and Heat creates Cold. Maximal Yin becomes transformed into Yang. 1. and Yang. is one is affected by cold. 4. humidity infiltrates into the organism and remains in a latent state until winter to then trigger cough.” PARAGRAPH 5 “The changing climate of the 4 Seasons is dominated by Cold and Heat. it becomes transformed into Heat.Diarrhea with blood-streaked stools indicates the presence of fire in the blood. perverse heat infiltrates into the organism and remains in a latent state until autumn to then trigger the disease of Heat-Cold (intermittent disease). _ In spring. _ In autumn.Gallbladder system. it becomes transformed into Cold.“Lancinating pains” cited in this paragraph are of Liver-Gallbladder origin because: _ the Foot Shaoyang (GB) passes behind the ear _ green color is associated with the Foot Jueyin (Li) _ blue color responds to pain _ the liver responds to the muscles and tendons. it is a matter of contrasting phenomena and the disease is diifcult to treat. Heat. Therefore. If the pulse is small and if the hands and feet are cold. but the hands and feet are warm. EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES Zhang Shi explains: “This paragraph completes the previous one and speaks on the transformation of Yin and Yang. Tian Zhen Fang has noted: “The appearance of Xue Luo (blood capillaries) of bluish color behind the ear above the point Wangu (GB 12) is one of the signs of epilepsy. _ In summer. when the Cold reaches its maximum. Unfortunately. This is why the disease is easy to treat. pains are due to disturbances of the Liver.3. and when Heat reaches its maximum. In this case. this is poorly transcribed by some French authors as “Anterior Heaven” (literal translation). As a result. heat and cold. In contrast. diarrhea without blood-streaked stools is not associated with the “fire” syndrome. This is why. It is also said: ”_ In winter.“In winter.” Such is the process of transformation of Yin and Yang. 4. Yet Yin governs Cold. the spleen governing the 4 limbs are still in a good state.” “4 Such are the manifestations of disease conforming to the Seasons”. and Maximal Yang. in spring one will have the disease of heat (5). It is necessary to make it bleed”. perverse wind infiltrates iinto the organism and remains in a latent state until summer to then trigger diarrhea and dysentery. The pulse is small. because toxic 292 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . perverse cold infiltrates nto the organism and remains in a latent state until spring to then trigger disease of heat.

that is to say. This is why. intermittent fever) because this toxic (perverse) heat remains in Mu Yuan (membranous layer) (6) and affects the organic Yang energy (organic cold which begins to become manifest in autumn) to trigger the disease Heat-Cold (of Yin type). when one is affected by wind. if one is affected by humidity in autumn. “In summer. It governs the top.(perverse) cold remains in the epidermo-dermal layer and affects the organic Yang energy (organic heat which begins to become exteriorized in spring) becoming transformed into heat. When Yang disease reaches the the uppermost part of the body. Wind is the perverse Yang of Heaven. But the pathologic process also especially depends on the energetic state of the human being.Yang Qi (Yang energy) belongs to Heaven. in winter one will have cough. 357. is one is affected by heat.” 293 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . if one is affected by wind in spring. They also depend on the movements of ascent/descent-top/bottom of the 4 seasons. In this manner. This is why. in autumn one will have the disease of Heat-Cold (fever and chills. This is why. when one is affected by humidity. it returns to the bottom. 2. perverse cold and perverse heat follow the movements of “celestial transformation” to respectively bring about the disease of Wen Re (mild heat of spring) and the disease Heat-Cold. When Yin disease reaches the lowermost part of the body. This is why. in summer one will have diarrhea or dysentery. It governs the bottom. the lower part of the body is always affected first. the upper part of the body is always affected first. On must understand it to mean “Wen” disease (mild heat of spring). It is a question here of the Yin and Yang routes of Heaven and Earth. Yin Qi (Yin energy) belongs to Earth. it returns toward the top. 5. on the “terrain”. Humidity is the perverse Yang of Earth.

4. serous membrane. cornea. original energy) in the etiopathologic process.. choroid... sclera.6. fibrous membrane. aponeurosis.. nuclear membrane. The methods of needling the “5 Perverse” (5 perverse energies: Wu Xie): _ Yung Xie (pyogenic energy) _ Dai Xie (great perverse energy) also called Shi Xie (full perverse) _ Wei Xie (small perverse energy) also called Xu Xie (empty perverse) _ Re Xie (perverse heat) _ Han Xie (perverse cold). CHAPTER LXXV Effects of Needling on the Source Energy and Perverse Energy (Ci Jie Zhen Xie) Chapter 75 of the Lingshu speaks on: 1. Thin layer of tissue which envelopes an organ or lines a body cavity or natural duct or meatus: mucous membrane. 3.... cell membrane. The evolutive process of Qi Xie (perverse energy) and the role of Zheng Qi (regular energy) and Chen Qi (source. 2. false membrane. .. no 358/359. The causes of triggering of ailments such as: _ pain _ abscess 294 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The methods of “5 Delivrances Liberations/Releases” (Wu Jie): _ Chen Ai (shake off dust) _ Fa Meng (recover sight) _ Ju Chao (cut off nails) _ Che Yi (remove clothes) _ Ji Huo (free from troubles)embarras . endocardium.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

hyperpyrexia chills pruritis blockage (obstruction: Bi) paresthesia osteoneuralgia muscular spasms hemiplegia “fullness of bones” (Gu Shi: osteoarthritis) tendinomuscular tumors bony tumors tumnors of the flesh (dermis).

360.

These ailments are due to attack of the Jingmai and to the defeat of the Zheng Qi (regular or essential energy). In other words, the perverse energy retained within the organism is the cause of disease whose seriousness is a function of the virulence of perverse energy and weakness of Chen Qi (source energy). In summary, Chapter 75 of the Lingshu speaks on the problem of the Chen Qi (source energy) and Xie Qi (perverse energy) and addresses the presentation of the “5 Delivrances” (Wu Jie) and the needling of the “5 Perverse (Wu Xie). This chapter contains 10 paragraphs.

PARAGRAPH 1
Huangdi: “Among the methods of needling, I have heard you speak of those of the “5 D e l i v e r a n c e s ” (Wu Jie). What are they?” Qi Bo: “Actually, there exists methods called “5 Deliverances” _ The first is called Chen Ai (shake off dust). _ The second is called Fa Meng (recover sight). _ The third is called Ju Chao (cut off nails). _ The fourth is called Che Yi (remove clothes). _ The fifth is called Jie Huo (free from troubles). like preciseness.”
361.

(Wu

Jie).

Huangdi: “I would Qi Bo:

“1- Chen Ai (shake off dust) is a method of superficial needling at the level of Wai Jing ( 1 ) to chase away perverse Yang. 2- Fa Meng (recover sight) concerns needling points of the Yang channels in diseases of the bowels.

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3- Ju Chao (cut off nails) is intended for needling Luo vessels belonging to the Guan Jie (doors of deliverance = doors of entry/exit of the energy: points of the principal channels).

1. External, peripheral channels.

4- Chi Yi (remove clothes) involves the needling of curious points located within Yang regions (of the body: epidermo-dermal layers). 5- Jie Huo (free from troubles) applies to needling according to precise knowledge of the principles of regulation, tonification and dispersion in order to normalize emptiness and fullness.” Huangdi: “Yau have spoken of the superficial needling of peripheral channels (Wai Jing) according to the method Chen Ai (shake off dust) used in the treatment of Yang diseases. I have still not perfectly grasped its meaning. Please tell me in detail.” Qi Bo: “The method Chen Ai (shake off dust) is used in the treatment of great afflux/flooding of the Yang energy. Perverse Yang accumulating within the thorax causes such signs as: _ thoracic fullness and oppression _ supra-clavicular breathing (drawing and elevation of the shoulders) _ ascent of the Great Energy (Dai Qi) with: • dyspneic attacks • loud breathing, patient in seated position, head lowered • inability to lie down _ during the attack: fear of dust and smoke. Chen Ai is an urgent therapy like sweeping dust while cleaning a house.” Huangdi: “Very good! What point must one needle?” Qi Bo: “The point Tianrong (SI 17) . ”

362.

Huangdi: “If there is cough with reascent of the energy, the patient is hunched up and the thorax is painful, what point should be needled?” Qi Bo: “The point Lianquan (CV 23) . ” there special rules for needling these points?”

Huangdi: “Are Qi Bo:

“During the needling of Tianrong (SI 17) , the time the needle is placed must not exceed that covered in 1 Li (= about 1500 meters), and during the needling of Lianquan (CV 23), one must remove the needles upon the change of color (of the

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face of the patient).” Huangdi: “Excellent!”

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
N.V.N.: 1- The exact title of this chapter is “Ci Jie Chen Xie”, literally “Needling of the Source Energy and Perverse Energy Points”. The word “Jie” (energetic articulation) designates the sites of the 365 reunions/meetings (points), sites of entry and exit of the Shen Qi (mental energy). “Ci Jie” implies that the infiltration of perverse energy impedes the circulation of the essential energy and that needling is directed at regulating and normalizing the Chen Qi (source energy). 2- “Wai Jing” (external channels) designate the peripheral trajectories of the 12 principal channels, and “Nei Jing” (internal channels), the central or internal trajectories traveling the intrathoraco-abdominal regions (at the level of the organs/bowels). Yang Shang Tian mentions: “The channels that enter into the organs/bowels are the Nei Jing and those that exit and travel the four limbs are the Wai Jing.”
363.

3- Regarding the method “Jie Huo” (free from troubles), Zhang Jing states: “To speak of Jie Huo is to speak of clinical problems; as a consequence, perfect knowledge of the method of harmonization of Yin and Yang and that of the regulation of Emptiness and Fullness can modifiy the state of the disease”. 4- Here, Dai Qi (Great Energy) designates Ting Qi (active, innate energy), that is to say, the energy of Qi Hai located in the thorax (bearing the name Shang Qihai = upper sea of energy). 5- According to Zhang Shi, fear of dust and smoke is the sign associated with disturbances of the Yangming (St) responding to Earth. Therefore, to “remove dust” and “chase away smoke” is to suppress the impure energy located at the Yangming. 6- The “sensation of obstruction of the laryngeal system” corresponds to dysphonia. 7- The point Tianrong (SI 17) belongs to the Hand Taiyang (SI). Its effect is to combat contrary afflux of the Yang energy, thereby aerating the corresponding channel. 8- During the afflux/flooding of the energy toward the top, “the individual is hunched over and the thorax is painful” due to the rupture of connection of the Celestial energy (air) and the Terrestrial energy (food energy). In this case, it is necessary to needle the point Lianquan (CV 23) to reestablish the normal circulation of the energy of the kidnay. 9- Tianrong (SI 17) and Lianquan (CV 23) are the two specific points used urgently in great attacks provoked by contrary afflux.

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Figure 1: Localization of Tianrong (SI 17) and Lianquan (CV 23).
364.

PARAGRAPH 2
Huangdi: “I have still not grasped very well the scope of the Fa Meng method (recover sight). To me, this method is useful for treating the loss of hearing and vision. But the Master has said that it concerns a method consisting of only needling the Shu points of the bowels in order to treat ailments of the 6 bowels. What then are the effective points to treat these diseases?” Qi Bo: “A most pertinent question! This is a great method of acupuncture, a true art born of Shenming (clearsightedness, intelligence). Oral or written explanation cannot truly describe it. One names it “Fa Meng” (recover sight) due to its effectiveness as distinct as the act of brushing away dust to see clearly. Huangdi: “Good! Do you wish to give me the details?” Qi Bo: “Needling used in the treatment of the loss of hearing (deafness) and loss of vision (blindness) must be performed at noon. Needling the point Tinggong (SI 19) must provoke in the patient a sensation along the length of the Jingmai up to the interior of the ear and the perception of sound in the ear. Tinggong (SI 19) of the Hand Taiyang (SI) is specific in the treatment of disturbances of vision and hearing.”

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Huangdi: “Your explanation is excellent! What indicates the perception of sound at the level of the ears?” Qi Bo: “During needling, ask the patient to tightly close the two nostrils (using two fingers) and close the mouth. In this way, the individual better senses the reaction which is produced at the point of the needle (the individual hears sounds provoked by the needle).” Huangdi: “Very good! I call these phenomena the invisible effects of needling, perfectly concordant with the energetic transformations of the human body.”

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
N.V.N.: 1- “Noon”, the middle of the day, is the maximal period of Yang energy.

365.

2- The point Tinggong (SI 19) is the site of reunion-meeting of three vessels: Hand and Foot Shaoyang (SJ and GB) and Hand Taiyang (SI). 3- The Hand and Foot Shaoyang (SJ and GB) each have a vessel that penetrates into the ear from the rear and resurfaces in front of the ear to reach the external canthus of the eye. Needling Tinggong (SI 19) can therefore have direct effects on the ocular and auricular systems. When the needling is correct, the patient perceives a sound, like an echo, originating from the needle in manipulated movement by the physician. According to Zhang Jing Yue, this point Tinggong (SI 19) not only treats diseases “with form”, but also diseases “without form” (energy).

PARAGRAPH 3 299

Figure 2: Localization of the point Tinggong (SI 19).

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Huangdi: “Regarding the method Ju Chao (cut off nails), the Master has spoke of needling of Quan Jie (articulations) and of Chi Luo (energetic capillaries). I would like you to explains this to me in detail.” Qi Bo: “The lumbar region and vertebral column constitute the principal articular system of the body. The trunk and limbs (lower) are the bolts and hinges of the pose of the standing position of the human being. 366. Yin Qi (penis) is an organ of reproduction, pairing and formation of Jing (sexual = sperm). It is also the route of liquid excretion (urine). This is why excessive eating or psychologic disturbances (joy, anger...) are the causes of overflowing of organic liquid in the interior, that is to say, within the tunica vaginalis of the testicle (or of the spermatic cord) which progressively enlarges (hydrocele). This liquid stasis at this level is injurous to the lower limbs and lumbar region, hence difficult flexing and straightening up the body and inability to walk or run. This disease is treated with the Pi type needle (needle with sword-like point used to evacuate liquid or pyogenic formations). Here, it concerns treatment of disease having form (hydrocele) that one cannot mask. This is why one lifts it up like one cuts nails short (Ju Chao) . ”

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains: “Diseases of the Taiyin (Sp) and Yangming (St) originate from a digestive disorder, and those of the Shaoyin (He and Ki) and Jueyin (XB and Li), from psychologic disturbances (excessive joy, anger...). When the organic liquid floods the interior, it accumulates at the kidney and stagnates at the testicles (hydrocele). For treatment, one must localize the disease at the level of one or another channel then needle the Chi Luo (energetic capillaries) situated at the level of the joints (knee). This technique bears the name “Ju Chao” (cut off nails, as if one lifts off an excresence).” II - N.V.N.: This paragraph speaks on the method of “Ju Chao” (cut off nails) and takes as a clinical example hydrocele whose treatment is compared to “clipping nails” because: _ the word “Chao” designates nails (of the digits) responding to the energy of the liver, _ the Foot Jueyin (Li) possesses vessels ending up at the genitals. Hydrocele has two causes: _ overflowing of organic liquid originating from a digestive disorder disturbing the Taiyin-Yangming (Sp-St) system and _ psychologic factors (excessive joy, anger...) disturbing the Shaoyin-Jueyin (Ki-Li) system.

PARAGRAPH 4

367.

Huangdi: “Regarding the method of Che Yi (remove clothes), you have spoken of needling the curious points of the Yang region, points not having a fixed location. Can you be more explicit?”

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Qi Bo:

“Here, it is a question of diseases originating from the excess of Yang energy and insufficiency of Yin energy. When the Yin energy is in insufficiency, it brings about internal heat, and when the Yang energy is in excess, it provokes external heat. During the accumulation of perverse heat in the interior (of the organism), the patient has the impression of having hot cinders within his body, and during the accumulation of heat at the exterior (at the level of the epidermo-dermal system), the patient has the impression of having a red hot body and cannot tolerate wearing clothes; he refuses the presence of anyone near him and even lying down on a mat. In _ _ _ _ this case, the Cou Li (sweat glands) are closed, hence the absence of sweating, the tongue is dry, the muscles are warm and dried out the sense of taste is abolished (agueusia).”

Huangdi: “Good! How should one treat this?” Qi Bo: “Needle the points Tianfu (Lu 3) and Dazhu (Bl 11) 3 times to which one adds Zhonglu Shu (Bl 29) to make the perverse heat retreat. Then tonify the Foot Taiyin (Sp) and Hand Taiyin (Lu) to lower the fever by sweating. With the reduction of fever, sweating progressively disappears. Cure is always as quick as removing the clothes (Che Yi).” Huangdi: “Excellent!”

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
N.V.N.: This paragraph speaks on the needling method whose effect is “as quick as undressing” (Che Yi), a method reserved for the treatment of excess perverse Yang and the insufficiency of Chen Qi (essential or vital energy of the body) whose clinical signs are basically: _ hyperthermia 368. _ absence of sweating _ curvature of the lumbar region (lumbalgia) _ loss of appetite... . Treatment consists of making the patient perspire thereby combatting fever. The points used are: • Tianfu (Lu 3) _ on the external border of the biceps brachii 3 cun below the anterior edge of the axillary fold, 6 cun above the elbow crease _ Window of Heaven point _ according to the Lingshu (Chapter 2: “Origin of the Shu (Antique) Points”), of Tianfu (Lu 3) and Tianchi (XB 1) one receives the energy, the other blood. Therefore, they moreover treat: hemoptysis, amnesia, myopia... .

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• Dazhu (Bl 11) _ 1.5 cun to the side of the spinal aponeurosis of the 1st dorsal vertebra in the first intercostal space _ Distinct Luo point of the Dumai (GV) _ reunion-meeting point of the Hand and Foot Taiyang (SI and Bl) and Hand and Foot Shaoyang (SJ and GB) _ reunion point of the energy of bones _ important point employed in neuro-psychiatry, especially in cases of epilepsy with spasm (Lingshu, Chapter 22, “Yin Madnesses and Yang Madnesses”) _ specific point making up part of the group of points used in the Che Yi method. • _ _ _ _

Zhonglu Shu (Bl 29) 1.5 cun to the side of the 3rd sacral vertebra point with tonifying action on the energy of the kidneys of the sacral region point with stimulating action on digestive functions point with curative action on coxo-femoral pain.

• Dadu (Sp 2) _ on the inner surface of the great toe in front of the metatarso-phalangeal joint _ point of tonification in the event of emptiness of the energy of the spleen _ sudorification point in fever _ specific point in the treatment of febrile illnesses without sweating.

Zhang Jing Yue gives us the following information: 369. “The point Dazhu (Bl 11) is specific in the treatment of illnesses of Cold-Heat (intermittent fevers). In the absence of fever during the disease of Shanghan (Evolutive Cold) with absence of sweating and thoracic oppression, one must needle Dazhu (Bl 11). The Hand Taiyin (Lu) governs the energy, and the Foot Taiyin (Sp), the cereal energy. When these two channels are found in a state of insufficiency, the Yang Qi (Heat energy) rises up toward the top and impedes the secretion of Yin Qi (Cold energy), hence febrile illness. This is why, to disperse the Yang, one must tonify these two Yang channels so that the Yin energy can circulate. When sweating appears, the fever regresses and the disease is cured.”

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Figure 3: Location of the points Tianfu (Lu 3). The limbs are paralyzed. Dadu (Sp 2). have 303 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In Western medicine. The two medicines.N. in particular the function of reproduction of the Jing (quintessence). We must not divulge it in a botched upb a c l e e way. more or less complete suspension of all functions of the 5 organs.V. characterized by the sudden loss of consciousness and voluntary mobility with preservation of circulation and respiration. in a deliberate/treacherous p e r f i d e fashion that is much more serious than simple disturbancese m b a r a s s . it localizes sometimes at the left. Dazhu (Bl 11).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. sometimes at the bottom of the body. Western and Oriental. Huangdi: “Good! How is it treated?” Qi Bo: “Disperse the excess (of perverse energy) and tonify the insufficiency (of the energy of the body) in order to reequilibrate Yin and Yang. The disease is sudden. “apoplexy” (1) or “apoplectic icterus” is due to a more or less total cessation of all brain functions (site of gathering of the Jing of the 5 organs). Zhonglu Shu (Bl 29).: This paragraph speaks on Zhong Feng (direct attack of wind: apoplexy) causing an abrupt. sometimes at the right and sometimes at the top. PARAGRAPH 5 Huangdi: “Regarding the method Jie Huo (free from trouble). ” 370. The effect of the needling is as rapid as being delivered from trouble (Jie Huo). How do you get rid of these troubles?” Qi Bo: “The direct attack of Wind (Chong Feng: apoplexy) brings the blood and vessels (energetic) toward emptiness and the perverse energy toward fullness.” Huangdi: “Perfect! Please carefully preserve this prescription in the library of Ling Lan. movements of flexion/ straigthening up and rotatio of the body are abolished and the sense of orientation is lost. the tonification of insufficiency and dispersion of excess in order to modify the emptiness and fullness and the mastering of the etiopathologic process. you have emphasized the perfect knowledge of the method of regulariztion of Yin and Yang.

D.D.) and Song (960-1279 A. The disease can be caused: _ either by a fullness of Fire (according to Lui Hejian.) that the pathophysiologic study of Zhong Feng was well developed. but also with pathogenic (perverse energy) agents. dysarthria. This progression depends on the superfificla or deep localization of the perverse energy and the benignness or seriousness of the disease. 371.) Dynasties. 1115-1234 A.e. stroke). in the West.therefore the same pathophysiologic reasoning. the disappearance of the essential energy associated with the presence of perverse energy constitutes the two essential factors in the triggering of apoplectic syndromes: Yinshi (loss of voluntary movement.D. to the rupture or occlusion of blood vessel (i. supports us in the conviction of allying and combining these two medicines in the interest of all. 1120-1200 A. studying the Suwen. paresthesia or spasm and immobility of the limbs) and Wai Shi (deviation of the mouth and eyes). but presence of facial paralysis _ or hemiplegia without accompanying signs. Zhong Feng or apoplexy has been studied since antiquity. a wind of cosmic (perverse) origin that attacks Shu points of the 5 organs and 6 bowels and progresses rapidly toward the interior of the body or a wind of organic (Nei Feng) origin that floods/affluxes toward the regions where the blood and energy are in a state of insufficiency. It is from the Jin Kui (“Coffer of Gold”. Sudden. Finally. According to the Suwen (Chapter 42. In the Tang (618-907 A. loss of bodily function due. according to other authors: a) Zhang Jing Yue (Ming Dynasty): “Perverse wind is not the cause of apoplexy”.).D. 1180-1251 A. These notions are recounted in numerous classic works. It is a group of diseases characterized by sudden coma followed by: _ hemplegia _ deviation of the mouth and eyes _ tongue stiffness with dysarthria. This example. When this “empty-perverse energy” reaches the middle of the body. Finally. usually marked. in benign forms. notes in regard to Chapter 62 (“Discourse on the Regulation of the 304 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Zhong Feng (direct attack of wind: apoplexy) has been identified as a disease having relationships not only to internal (organic) emptiness. “Dissertation on Wind”): “Called “evolutive wind” (Shang Feng). c) Zhang Ba Long. However. One must complete the other toward the same goal of preserving health. From the Luomai system. b) Ye Tian Shi (Ching Dynasty): “Zhong Feng is basicaly due to “wind-fire” of Yang Liver. _ by an emptiness of the energy (according to Li Dong Yuan. adding numerous others. the perverse energy first evolves toward the system of Jingmai.” According to Jin Kui (“Coffer of Gold”) of Zhang Zhong Jing (150-219 A.D. then into the system of organs/bowels.): “A direct attack of Feng against the superficial blood-energetic routes in the event of depletion can be at the origin of hemiplegia.” 1.) _ or by Humidity-Phlegm (according to Chu Dan Yi). one notes: _ absence of come. it invades deeply then destroys the Ying and Wei layers.D.

“External Wind” etiology According to the Suwen: “Zhong Feng has for an origin an emptiness of essential energy and a fixation of perverse energy within the organism”. 1. responsible for apoplexy. _ or an insufficiency of the “Liver-Kidney” system. This emptiness favors severe attack of pathogenic energy coming from the exterior (perverse energy). “Fullness of Fire” (organic) 3. if the apoplexy is caused by an “internal emptiness”. “Emptiness of the Energy” (organic). 373. “Phlegm-Humidity” (organic) 5.” The following development on Zhong Feng is based on these classic documents. “Fullness of Fire” etiology After Lui Hejian. The mechanism of triggering of Zhong Feng is extremely complex. In this case. causing an emptiness at the superficial part at the level of the Luo vessels. “Internal Wind” (organic) 4. It is the consequence of an energetic disequilibrium originating from one of the following etiologies: _ psycoaffective disturbances _ digestive disorder _ psychologic fatigue _ sexual excess. causing a production of “InternalWind” (organic).Energetic Routes”): “The afflux/flooding of blood and energy toward the cephalic limit is the origin of a loss of consciousness followed by falling/collapsechute and an absence of voluntary movement without respiration or sanguinoenergetic circulation being interrupted. In general. Water-Kidney is in insuffiency causing a slowing down of the Water movement.” In total. essential factor in the triggering of Zhong Feng. it always necessary to take the external factor into account. Water loses 305 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . These phenomena express as: _ a deviation of the mouth and eyes _ paralysis of half of the body (hemiplegia). I. one distinguishes 5 different etiologies of Zhong Feng: 1. depletion of the energy of the Luomai and the attack by perverse wind are the causes of apoplexy. This loss of consciousness evolves toward the reestablishment of functions of awareness or toward fatal worsening. Zhang Zhong Jing adds in his book entitled “Jin Kui” (Box of Gold): “In Zhong Feng: _ the pulse is superficial and hurried: “hurried” corresponds to “Cold” and “superficial” to emptiness _ the Luomai are in emptiness and constitute vectors of perverse energy _ the perverse energy becomes localized in the hemibody√. Similarly. Based on this notion. 2. It is basically due to: _ either an exhaustion of essential energy in the interior of the body. 372. the tension of the Fire of the heart (therefore Xin Bao) is the origin of Zhong Feng. “External Wind” (perverse energy) 2.

1180-1251 A.” 374. phlegm-humidity can be the origin of Zhong feng: “In the Northwest region (cold climate). it brings about a dimunition of the Water-Yin movement which cannot sufficiently maintain Liver-Wood.its inhibitory action on Fire.): “Zhong Feng is found: _ especially in angered individuals more than forty years old. In effect. In fact.” II.” 5. then falling/ collapsechute. the Yang energy of the body bears the name “Wind” like the wind of Heaven and Earth. this Heat-Phlegm of perverse origin is not truly the cause of apoplexy because.” But for Zhang Jing Yue. Zhang Ba Long of the Ching Dynasty is of the same opinion as that of Lui Hejian and gives the name “Da Jue” (great coma) to Zhong Feng. In the Southeast region (temperate climate with predominance of Earth-Humidity). it is the great fullness of fire of the Heart-Liver system which transmits to the blood extremely accelerated movements toward the cranium. disturbances of the movement of Yang energy are the cause. the author bases this on the explanations of Lui Hejian to demonstrate the mechanism of triggering of internal wind in Zhong Feng. “Phlegm-Humidity” etiology According to Chu Dan Yi. the Jin Kui (“Coffer of Gold”) distinguishes Zhong Feng from benign. 3. “Emptiness of the Energy” etiology The terrain influences the appearance of Zhong Feng. Based on the text of the Neijing. This latter factor is responsible for the acceleration of the Yang movement. the disease is then that of fullness. cause of a sudden attack. the period during which the energy of man begins to grow weaker _ rarely in vigorous and balanced individuals _ sometimes in obese individuals. the Yang part of the Liver (Yang Liver) enters then into extreme fullness. darkening of the mental sphere. 4. According to him. Zhong Feng is due to an attack of this perverse humidity which within the organism becomes transformed into phlegm.D. he Yin part of the liver (Yin Liver) being empty. according to Li Dong Yuan (alias Li Gao. causing loss of consciousness. serious and topographic forms according to the localization of perverse energy at the level of the Jingluo and the organs and bowels: 306 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Zhong Feng is due to an attack of perverse cold. As for symptomatologic study. the liver is the organ corresponding to Wind. but also by a severe modification of the organic energy. He adds: “Zhong Feng is not only a disease caused by an attack of perverse wind coming from the exterior. this phlegm deteriorates into Heat and the Heat into Wind. according to him: “Fire of the Heart-Fire system in a state of fullness heating up the organic liquid and transforming it into Phlegm-Humidity is responsible for Zhong Feng. This provokes the phenomena called “Emptiness of Yin and Fullness of Yang” characterized by strong exhalation of Heat energy toward the cephalic limit. bearing then the name “Internal Wind”. When the Jing of the blood is in insufficiency. “Internal Wind” etiology After Ye Tian Si. In effect.

In the presence of these signs. • Direct attack of the Jingluo They are the slight forms of apoplexy. the blood floods towrd the cephalic extremity. _ Attack of the Jing routes (principal channels) becomes expressed by a sensation of injury and heaviness. _ Attack of the system of bowels becomes expressed by a loss of consciousness. • Direct attack of the organs and bowels The premonitory signs of attack are: _ vertigo and cardiac palpitations _ or else dysarthria and paresthesia of the tips of the digits. one must immediately look to decelerate if it is a question of the “energetic obstruction” form or the form of escaping of the energy in order to apply an urgent treatment. 375. To facilitate the symptomatologic study of Zhong Feng. slippery and superficial pulse. rapid and tighttendu pulse tongue with damp yellow coating. The clincial signs are of “Yin” nature or “Yang” nature. coma is always followed by: _ stertorous respiration _ deviation of the mouth and eyes 2. In contrast. paresis or dysbasia (2) _ or absence of coma but presence of hemiplegia. The clinical signs are: _ either paresthesia. stiffness of the tongue with dysarthria or facial paralysis _ or finallt coma (without seriousness) accompanied sometimes by fever. we adopt the classification of the Jin Kui: _ symptomatology of the attack of the Jingluo _ symptomatology of the attatck of the organs/bowels. a) Signs of obstruction The “Fire” energy being exhausted. spasms of the limbs _ tighttendu._ Attack of the Luo routes (secondary channels and superficial branches) become expressed by paresthesia. resumption of awareness is nearly immediate. Difficulty walking. _ hemiplegia _ stiffness of the tongue with dysarthria and dyscataposia (3). in the serious cases. _ Attack of the system of organs becomes expressed by coma. the “Wind” movement of the liver becomes accelerated with production of phlegm. • “Yin” Nature: _ absence of agitation 307 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the disease suddenly deteriorates into coma. At the time of the attack. In benign cases. • _ _ _ _ _ _ _ “Yang” Nature: closed hands trismus (4) stertorous respiration red facies anuria and constipation large. chills.

_ “epileptic coma” which is accompanied by generalized or localized convulsive fits. 2. The clinical signs then are: _ flushing of facies (like covered with make-up) _ excessive sweating (in th form of little droplets) _ filant free-flowing. 4. smooth. 1. more or less complete cessation of cerebral function without suspension of respiration and sanguino-energetic circulation. 5. Lockjaw: tonic spasm of the muscles of mastication. the Yang root itself escapes. Surging of Fire (Internal) _ headache 308 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . b) Signs of Escaping The energetic root being exhausted. 3. Breathing that is slower. runny. white coating. it is clinicaly illustrated by facial paralysis and hemiplegia. In serious cases. It is a question of a direct attack on the organs and bowels._ snoring (phlegmyglarieux) _ deep and late pulse _ tongue with damp. treatment must be etiologic. based on the following signs: a. the Yang of the organism suddenly escapes. very weak pulse (as if it is going to run out) _ or superficial. After coma. large and floating pulse. paralytic sequelae are the rule. Notes: 376.In the face of coma. one must distinguish: _ “apoplectic coma” which denotes an abrupt. Fullness of Wind (Internal) _ headache _ visual disturbance _ vertigo _ paresthesia _ tense/tauttendu pulse. It is accompanied by extreme pallor and generally by respiratory arrest. shallower (or both) than normal. It is provoked by a cardiac pause. bracycardia or excessive tachycardia or by sudden sanguino-energetic hypotension at the level of the Jingluo. meticulous search for specific signs is critical before applying an appropriate treatment.Therapeutically. The clincial signs are: _ closed eyes _ open mouth _ opened hands _ stertorous or hypopneic (5) respiration _ urinary incontinence _ ice cold limbs _ galloping and weak pulse. _ “syncope” which is a severe and complete loss of consciousness linked to sudden cerebral anorexia. b. or _ spasms of the limbs. Difficulty swallowing. This coma can arise in apparent full health and there are no sequelae after the attack.

PARAGRAPH 6 Huangdi: “I have heard you speak of the needling method “Wu Xie” (“5 Perverse”) . large pulse. tonify insufficiency and disperse excess. one must know how to harmonize Yin and Yang. Diseases are caused by “Re Xie” (perverse heat). in order to treat apoplexy. yellow coat rapid. c. 377. Diseases are caused by Wei Xie (perverse energy of weak virulence). Diseases are caused by “Han Xie” (perverse cold). What do you mean by “5 Perverse”?” Qi Bo: “Diseases are caused by “Yung Xie” (pyogenic perverse energy). This detailed study of the pathophysiology of apoplexy allows us to understand the necessity of uniting Western and Oriental medicine because. according to the Neijing.” Huangdi: “ What are the needling methods of the 5 Perverse?” 309 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Diseases are caused by “Dai Xie” (perverse energy of great virulence). clear urine _ tense and galloping pulse d. This method permits “freeing from troubles” (Jie Hua)._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ red eyes reddness of facies deviation of the mouth and eyes mouth dryness agitation amnesia constipation dysuria red tongue with a dry. Such are the diseases caused by the 5 Perverse. This is why. diseases originate from the modification of the energy of the body. Emptiness of Energy _ psyhesthenia _ cardiac palpitations _ hyperpnea _ fear of speaking _ polyuria. Phlegm-Humidity _ pale color _ slimy expectoration _ limb paresthesia _ damp tongue _ slippery pulse.

If Yung Xie is located at the level of the Yin channels or Yang channels.Needling Yung Xie (pyogenic perverse energy) consists of not expeditiously dispersing the perverse energy in full evolutive phase. The procedire must be carried out slowly and lightly as if one was in the process of realizing/starting to realize a modification of usage and nature√ √ . one must follow it or the corresponding channels to choose the channel and the points to disperse√ . 3. This is a method of dispersion aimed at strongly and rightly striking the circulatory route of the perverse energy as a function of the change in color and pulse. 2.The needling of Dai Xie (great perverse energy: perverse energy of great virulence) consists of decreasing its toxicity in progressively weakening it. 1. That His majesty allow his subject to demonstrate to him in detail the use of these 5 methods! In effect.Method of extermination of energetic stasis in the case of edema and accumulation. To do so is to progressively eliminate the pyogenic energy. in the majority of cases. Before tonification. circulatory route of the essential energy so that the perverse energy no longer has a place to infiltrate into the organism.Method of dispersion of the perverse energy in the case of Dai Xie (perverse energy of great virulence). If the abscess is not yet formed. 2.Qi Bo: “The method of needling of the 5 Perverse do not exceed the number 5: 378. one must soften by massaging it or else use the method of conduction of the energy which consists of making the perverse energy circulate to aid it in leaving its site of stagnation. One must also carefully observe the state of the perverse energy and essential energy in order not to disturb the source energy (Chen Qi).Method of tonification of the Yang energy in the case of Wei Xie (perverse energy of weak virulence). 4. it is recommended to carefully observe the Emptiness and Fullness and aim at just the right site of the cirulation of the perverse energy.Method of extermination of the heat in the case of Bi Re (obstruction caused by heat = inflammation. Needling must be performed at the level of the Yang channels located at Fen Rou (region of distribution of the flesh) because. 1. To act in this manner is to normalize the 3 7 9 .Method of potentiation of heat to warm up the blood and energy in the case of Bi Han (obstruction caused by cold). Dai Xie is found in this region. 3. abscess). 5. 310 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Needling must be performed at the level of Fen Rou (region of distribution of the flesh).The needling of Wei Xie (small perverse energy: perverse energy of weak virulence) consists of increasing the potential of the essential energy of the body in a state of emptiness by tonification in order to prevent the perverse energy from being detrimental to it.

4 cun long. To needle Wei Xie (perverse energy of weak virulence).The needling of Han Xie (perverse cold) consists of progressively rectifying the heat in the blood and energy. To needle Han Xie (perverse heat). During the implantation of the needle. 3. 1.) _ either by acupuncture _ or moxabustion.” Huangdi: “What types of needles should be used in the treatment of the 5 Perverse (Wu Xie)?” Qi Bo: “In order to needle Yung Xie (pyogenic perverse energy). one must determine: _ the state of the perverse energy and essential energy _ and the state of the pulse and colors.V. one uses the C j h a i type needle (with big s h a f t / h a n d l e m a n c h e and head like an arrow tip). one must enlarge the point of impact to facilitate the exteriorization of the perverse energy to assure cure. 1.. The implantation of the needle must be done slowly to consolidate the return of the Shen Qi (mental energy).6 cun long).6 cun long).The needling of Re Xie (perverse heat) consists of transforming the heat into cold and of preventing its return to avoid its relapse.. Before needling. one uses the Feng type needle (with triangular tip. To needle Dai Xie (perverse energy of great virulence). patch. one must close off the point of impact (with the aid of the finger) to retaqin the energy (to prevent its exit) in order to augment the potential of the Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) thereby preserving the source energy (Chen Qi). 5. After removal of the needle.Needling Dai Xie (great perverse energy or perverse energy of great virulence): Dai Xie bears the name Qi Xie (curious perverse energy) whose needling must not be performed without reflexion. When the abscess has not yet formed.Needling Wei Xie (perverse energy of weak virulence): Wei Xie also has the name Xu Xie (empty perverse energy) whose treatment is understood to have two phases: _ first tonification of the channel or channels in a state of emptiness 311 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . To needle Re Xie (perverse heat). pommade. 2.: Zhang Jing Yue clarifies this information: “1.N. EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. one must resorb it: _ either by massage _ or by medications for external use (lotion. one uses the Hao type needle (with filiform point. 1.6 wide).6 cun long). creme.4. one uses the P i type needle (with sword-like tip. plaster. one uses the Y u a n type needle (with oval point. 3.Needling Yung Xie (abscess): 380.

In this way. It concerns one of the methods of reasoning encompassing: _ the correspondences between Heaven and Earth _ the relationships between the seasons _ and the participation of the human being in these manifestations of the natural world. hence: _ opening of the pores _ decreased potential of blood and energy _ and damp skin. 381. based on these phenomena. In relying on these facts. PARAGRAPH 7 “That His majesty permit his subject to speak to him about the significance of the Jie Jie method (untie the knot). The 5 types of needles cited in this paragraph are mentioned in Chapter 1 (“9 Needles and 12 Yuan”) of this classic. in the substratum is surely found a subterranean source of water and the sun pushes up the reeds and les acores√ . • Yin and Yang become transformed into heat and cold.” words. 5. hence: _ closure of the piolcutaneous system _ absence of sweating _ toughening of the blood/energy system _ rigidity and redness r u g o s i t e of the flesh system. water becomes transformed into ice.Needling Han Xie (perverse heat): The technique consists of transmitting to the needle slow movements to guarantee the return of the Chen Qi (source energy. one must deobstruct the points of impact. when it is hot. In effect. one can know the direction of outcomesens de denouement perfectly. In man. “open the doors” to chase out the perverse energy. In other the disease. the heat warms up the water on the surface of the earth and transforms it into clouds and rain. that is to say. b) When it is cold. 312 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . for example: In a humid place. a) When it is cold. to cure Wei. Yang energy is retained in the interior (deep). This is why the roots (of trees) often suffer from dryness. In man. Yang energy escapes to the exterior and causes laxity of the pilocuteaneous system._ disperse the channel or channels in a state of fullness. This technique allows potentiation of the essential energy and weakening of the perverse energy. 4.term emcompassing the functions of Ying and blood and energy) in the heat.Needling of Re Xie (perverse heat): The technique consists of transmitting to the needle rapid movements and widening the point of impact to facilitate the evacuation of perverse energy. one can judge the importance of the shortage or abundance of the energy in man.

the term “Jie Jie” also implies the sense of freeing accumulations of perverse energy.Subterranean water. toughenings and blood and energetic accumulations. the technique of dispersion must be employed to wipe out the stases.• _ _ _ (caused This is also the time when: man liking to sail can no longer circulate about the ice man liking to dig in the earth can no longer dig a hole in the ice man skillfully using needles can no longer treat ice cold limbs by Jue Ni: contrary afflux of cold). Biao and Li designate the anatomic layers at the level of which one determines the emptiness and fullness of the blood and energy. Treatment of Jue Ni (cold hands and feet) consists basically of utilizing Hua Qi (fire energy: moxabustion) to heat up the Jingmai located at the level of the great joints. it is necessary to use: _ first. One cannot soften them instantly.As man responds to Heaven and Earth. conclusion). moxabustion _ second. This therapy is one of the methods of Jie Jie (outcome. respectively. 2. 3. In man. EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. denouement). 382. in the interior (Li) and at the exterior (Biao) of the earth. This is what one calls the method of Jie Jie ( o u t c o m e ) . acupuncture. When the heat (organic) is retained. the energetic and blood vessels circulate freely. It is like sailors forced to wait for beautiful weather (when the ice melts) before being able to sail or for the man of the soil before being able to dig a hole in the earth. he must know the Dao (principles. This knowledge is the same resolution of the word “outcome” (denouement)√. reeds and acores are the manifestations located. • Blood vessels become rigid from the cold and cause disturbances of mobility. and this is the time to examine the clinical signs: _ if the pulse beats without difficulty. The procedure must be repeated until the potential diminution of the energy of Jue Ni (contrary afflux). 1.N.V. acupuncture is used to reestablish the harmony of the blood and energy _ if the pulse is hard and hurried (signs of fullness of the perverse energy). PARAGRAPH 8 313 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .: This paragraph speaks on the meaning of Jie Jie (outcome. rules) of the natural world.To treat cold hands and feet (caused by Jue Ni: contrary afflux). It is the same for blood vessels and energetic vessels. As a result.

314 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Q i . the top and cold down below . ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 384. the physcian must judge the emptiness and fullness of the Jingmai (principal channels) while palpating them. After needling.“The essential effect of needling is to harmonize the circulation of Qi ( e n e r g y ) . This technique also carries the name Jie Jie (undo the knot). Tong Qi can no longer descend and provokes the stagnation of blood and energy.. The procedure is stopped upon the disappearance of the heat. Moreover. This is why. percussing the points of impact and observing the corresponding reactions. one cannot treat it by acupuncture. is the source (of the formation) of Ying (Rong: nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive e n e r g y ) . a) If one of the 6 channels presents phenomena of fullness at the top and emptiness down below . the physician must ask the patient to lie down on his back and. if they all present the same. Yang energy begins to descend. it cures spontaneously√ √ . it involves the excess of the energy of Heng Luo (transversal Luo vessel) which impedes the circulation of the principal channel. originating from food metabolism and preserved in the stoamch. raving. c) In the case of heat at vessels in a state of emptiness Stop the procedure when the This technique is known bottom”. The treatment consists of determining the Heng Luo effected and dispersing it. one must examine the blacked at the bottom of the body and tonify them. 383. This technique bears the name “to push and disperse”.. Tong Qi accumulating within Shang Qihai (upper sea of the e n e r g y ) reaches the respiratory routes and the Tong Qi accumulating within the Xia Qihai (lower sea of the energy) descends to Qichong (St 30) toward the feet. it is advised to needle the cervico-nuchal region belonging to the Foot Taiyang (Bl) and leave the needle in place a long time. it is necessary to apply moxabustion to the scapulo-cervico-nuchal region to assure the normal descent of the heat. pushing from the top downward to the middle of Quepen (St 12). Y i n g and W e i circulate following their own route except the Tong Qi (active. One then can treat the energy which spontaneously descends. innate energy) . The harmony of the 6 channels (3 Yin and 3 Yang of the foot and hand) indicates the absence of disease or. grasping the front of his head with two hands. it is recommended to needle the Foot Yangming (St) and its Dai Luo (great Luo of the stomach) in tonification in the event of emptiness of the energy and in dispersion in the event of fullness of the blood. visual and auditory hallucinations. During treatment by acupuncture. If moxabustion is not used to activate the energetic and blood circulation. he presses and massages himself along the 2 Renying (St 9) and the 2 Daiying (St 5) with 4 fingers (thumbs and index fingers) according to the manual methods called “Juan” (roll) and “An” (press). as “to conduct the heat from the top toward the d) In the case of strong fever (hyperthermia) accompanied by Yang Madness (Kuang). b) In the case of cold at the top and heat down below . when Cold-Yin causes Jue Ni (contrary afflux responsible for cold feet).

N. CV 12). 2. The word “Qi” (energy) designates therefore Ying. Figure 4: Shang Qihai (Tanzhong. afflux (flooding) of the Cold-Yin energy. When this phemonemon of flooding occurs at the foot. CV 17) region and inferior (abdomianl.: 1. Middle Qihai (Zhong Qihai. CV 17). Cv 6.This paragarph speaks about the harmonization of Qi (energy). Inferior Qihai (Xia Qihai. Superior Qihai (Shang Qihai. the circulatory path of 315 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . CV 6) region.V. But the word “Qi” designates at the same time: _ Ying Qi (Rong: nutritive energy) circulating within the channels and _ Wei Qi (defensive energy) circulating outside the channels _ and Tong Qi (innae. pelvic. that is to say. Wei and Tong Qi.“Sea of Energy”) passes to the point Qichong (St 30) to reach the feet.The word “Jue” (“afflux”. CV 12) communicates with the digestive routes. 385. Clinically. According to Zhang Jing Yue: “Tong Qi. Xia Qihai (Qihai. one must determine these types of energy toward a therapeutic goal. CV 17) communicates with the respiratory routes. CV 6) and Qichong (St 30).” (Figure 4). flooding) implies the sense of Jue Ni (contrary afflux). is located at the level of Qihai (sea of energy) of the superior (thoracic. Zhong Qihai (Zhongwan.N. also called Dai Qi (great energy). active energy) localizing within the thorax and abdomen.

The 6 channels designates the 3 Yin and 3 Yang of the foot and hand. 3. During the needling.” And Zhang Jing Yue adds: “The ailment characterized by cold at the top and heat at the bottom is due to the emptiness of Yang above and fullness below. Figure 5: Localization of the points Tianzhu (Bl 10) and Dazhuoi (GV 14). This is why it is recommended to needle the points of the cervico-nuchal region belonging to the Taiyang to bring the energy toward the top. one must use moxabustion to combat the cold because acupuncture alone cannot resolve the problem of Jue Ni (contrary afflux or flooding). • Case of fullness at the top and emptiness below originates from the afflux of the energy of the channel of the foot. The harmony of these Jingmai is synonymous with the absence of disease. First. This technique has the name “to conduct the energy from the top toward the bottom”.the Yang energy is blocked and the Tong Qi can no longer descend. • Case of cold at the top and heat below According to Zhang Shi: “This syndrome is due to the ascent of the Xiajiao (Lower Jiao) which goes from the bottom upward. originates from Water of the bladder and the disease of cold at the top and heat at the bottom is due to a blockage of the energy of Taiyang at the bottom. As a result. one must needle the points Dazhui (GV 14) and Tianzhu (Bl 10) of the cervico-nuchal region to which is added moxabustion until the ascent of the energy (heat). The Taioyang. • Case of heat above and cold below According to Ma Shi: “In the ailments caused by heat at the top and cold down below. One must examine the Heng Luo (transversal Luo vessel) of the corresponding principal channel and disperse it. one must moreover apply moxabustion to the region which extends from the neck to the nucha toward the shoulder until the energy (heat) of the bottom reaches the top. This technique also has the name “Jie Jie” (untie the knot). master of the energy of the Yang channels. 316 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 386. one must examine the collapsedaffaisee vessels of the region of the Jingmai to tonify them in order to bring the energy from the top toward the bottom.” This technique is named “Push the energy fron=m the bottom toward the top”.

This technique is called “to push and disperse”. massage must be used according to the Juan (roll) and An (push) methods at thelevel of the points Daiying (St 5). Together with acupuncture.. Strong fever injures the blood and energy. .• Case of strong fever with hallucinations. 317 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . mental confusion. Renying and Quepen. One must tonify the Foot Yangming (St) and its Dai Luo (Great Luo) because the stomach channel contains much blood and energy. Renying (St 9) and Quepen (St 12) until the disappearance of the heat.. Figure 6: Localization of the points: Daiying.

Perverse energy (Xie Qi) has nin it the nature of Xu feng (Emptiness/Wind). it evacuates itself. 3.The principal.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N.The source energy (original. it deeply infiltrates into the organism and can no longer be released. With each intrusion. In other words.N. regular energy (Zheng Qi) is also called Zheng Feng (regular wind) coming from one of the 4 cardinal directions responding to the corresponding season. injurous to the energy of man. Chen Qi) originates from Tian Qi (energy of Heaven: respiration) and from Di Qi (energ of Earth: foods) to maintain the body. What do you mean by “Chen Qi” (source energy)?” Qi Bo: “1. source energy) _ and Xie Qi (perverse energy).. In contrast. What is their cause?” Qi Bo: “They are all caused by Xie Qi (perverse energy) of a different nature. generally. Zheng Feng (regular wind) only affects man superficially.V. This regular wind (Zhong Feng) reveals neither the nature of Shi Feng (Emptiness/Fullness: destructive wind) nor that of Xu Feng (Emptiness/Wind: wind that only penetrates into the organism when one is in emptiness). Huangdi: “I have heard you speak of numerous Qi (energy): _ Zheng Qi (principal. 2.” 387.: Zhang Jing Yue furnishes us with the following information: 318 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . .. Their evolution is limitless.PARAGRAPH 9 Huangdi: “One channel can create numerous diseases _ in the form of pain _ in the form of abscess _ in the form of Heat (fever) _ in the form of cold (chills) _ in the form of itching sensations _ in the form of numbness (Bi) _ in the form of paresthesia. standard energy) _ Chen Qi (original. at each occurence. it can use the Chen Qi (source energy) to be brought to the exterior. This is why. Zheng Feng is not very powerful and cannot triumph over the Chen Qi (source energy).

if the perverse Yang is victorious.if the perverse energy stagnates.if the perverse energy comes back out via the cutaneous route.When Xu Xie (perverse emptiness) attacks man. and that circulating within the Yin region. 3. the Yang is in emptiness.Zheng Feng (regular wind) is the seasonal wind which regularly occurs slowly and harmoniously. The energy localizing at Zhongjiao (Middle Jiao) is Zhong Qi (center energy). it causes Bi (obstruction).Chen Qi (source energy) also has the name Yuan Qi (original energy). the a posteriori energy (6). The energy localizing at the spleen is Xung Qi (excitingexaltante energy of the distribution). Jin Luan (muscular spasm) level of the vessels. the Chen Qi (source energy) goes away. it causes “itching”.if the perverse energy follows the path of the Ying (nutritive) energy and the Wei (defesnive ) energy to enter and exit. Wei Qi (defensive energy).“1. Before birth. Blood Bi (blood obstruction) and forms abscesses. it causes syndromes of heat . This energy has two components: _ the energy of Heaven (Dan Qi) which penetrates into the organism via the respiratory route _ and the energy of Earth (Di Qi) which penetrates into the organism via the digestive route. f. it causes syndromes of cold. abcdesystem. 319 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 2. if the Yang is in emptiness. One can become perplexed when some acupuncturists refuse to accept the word “energy” to designate “Qi” and translates it as “breath” or when some authors deny the words “a priori”. 2. and that circulating at the exterior. When it attacks the flesh system (dermis). Hui tian) and translate these as “anterior Heaven” and “posterior Heaven”. The energy localizing at the stomach is Wei Qi (gastric energy). it causes Osseous Bi (bony obstruction: level of the muscles. “a posteriori” (Tian tian. this is the productive wind opposed to Shi Feng (Fullness/Wind) of destructive nature very harmful to man. if the cold is victorious. and after birth. the energy localizing at the Xiajiao (Lower Jiao) is Yin-Yuan (Yin source) and Yang Yuan (Yang source). it causes such signs as: _ chills _ piloerection _ opening of the pores. man receives the a priori energy. 388. if the Chen Qi goes away. if the perverse Yin is victorious. The energy circulating in the interior (of the channels) is Ying Qi (nutritive energy). it infiltrates deeply into the organism: level of the bones. 389. h.” PARAGRAPH 10 “1.The energy circulating within the Yang region (of the body) bears the name Yang Qi. Yin Qi. g. the perverse cold attacks the pilocutaneous 6. it opposes the Wei (defensive) In this case.When _ at the blockage) _ at the _ at the 3energy. it causes opening of the pores and agitation of the hairs (piloerection).

10. it causes bony pain (osteo-neuralgia) with alteration of the flesh system ( a t r o p h y ) .There are diseases caused by chronic stasis of perverse energy over several years. The perverse energy favors heat and suppuration. If the infiltration of perverse energy is relatively less deep. 9. All these perverse energies manifest in non-fixed locations. responsible for pain of the hemibody. the perverse energy alone persists and causes Tian Ku (hemiplegia) . it causes Gu Shi (osteomalacia). In the chronic state.” 320 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In this case. the collection of these stases (perverse energy. In the chronic state.There are diseases caused by perverse energy at the level of the tendinomuscular system triggering disturbances of flexion and extension. 6. slowly progressing more deeply and leaving behind it an accumulation of Xin Ye (organic liquid substances).There are stases hard to palpation caused by a chronic accumulation of perverse energy at the level of the osseous system.There are diseases caused by the accumulation of perverse energy at the level of the flesh (dermis) to which are added those of the Tong Qi (active. _ If the cold is victorious.There are diseases caused by chronic stasis of perverse energy. 390. Wei energy and organic liquids) form Zhang Lui (intestinal tumors) . but they all have precise names. it causes the confrontation of cold and heat. innate energy). The area uneffected by the heat transforms into Rou Ju (tumors of the flesh) . 7. they penetrate deeply into the bone and adhere to the bony fibers which rapidly increase in volume to trigger Gu Lui (osseous tumors) . the disease worsens: _ disturbance of the circulation of blood and energy _ increase in the volume of static mass _ and transformation into Xi Lui (tumor of static origin). _ If the heat infiltrates into the bone. finally. It is the same for the Xin Ye (organic liquid s u b s t a n c e s ) which stagnate within the stomach and intestines.When the Xu Xie (perverse emptiness) only infiltrates into half the body and deeply reaches the organism. it causes the dysharmony between the blood and energy. the Wei energy pursues the aggressive movement of the perverse energy and can no longer return to the exterior. With each new attack of perverse energy. _ If the heat is victorious. it causes bony necrosis (osteonecrosis) with pyogenic formation. 8. it causes “loss of sensation” (paresthesia).i.When the Xu Xie (perverse emptiness) penetrates deeply into the organism and remains there for a long time. 5.if the Wei energy stagnates. In the chronic state. the Wei (defensive) energy is the cause of Jin Lui (tumors of the muscles). 4. it dwells with the Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) weakening them. The Chen Qi (source energy) then abandons its place and. supple to palpation.

: This paragraph speaks on the formation of numerous diseases of energetic origin: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ joint blockage abscess pruritis hemiplegia (accompanied by pain of the hemibody or not) ostealgia osteonecrosis osteomalacia muscular tumors intestinal tumors tumors of static origin osseous tumors dermal tumors. 391..V. 321 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N..N. .

8 Winds (Jiu Gong Ba Feng) Chapter 79: Dissertation on the “9 Needles” (Jiu Zhen Lun) Chapter 80: Years and Dew (Zuo Lo) Chapter 81: Abscesses and Tumors (Yung Ju) no 392/393.Book IX Boox IX consists of 6 chapters: Chapter 76: Movements of the Wei Energy (Wei Qi Xing) Chapter 77: 9 Palaces . 322 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: “ I would like to hear you speak about the circulation of the Wei (defensive) energy and of its movements of entering and exiting from the “Yin/YangInterior/Exterior” of the body.” Qi Bo: “The year has 12 months. form the Jing (vertical line: celestial longitude). Mao (4th Terrestrial Branch) and You (10th Terrestrial Branch) . located 323 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . It is stated by our ancient masters: “Wei energy is the “sea of 100 diseases”. This chapter consists of 5 paragraphs. 394.” This chapter also addresses the problem of the wait for the arrival of the energy at the level of the 3 Yin and 3 Yang during application of the method of tonification and dispersion. 12 hours. it carries out 50 cycles around the body during one day and one night.CHAPTER LXXVI Movements of the Wei Energy (Wei Qi Xing) Chapter 76 of the Lingshu speaks on the circulation of Wei energy. ( 1 ) Zi (1st Terrestrial Branch) and Wu (7th Terrestrial Branch). that is. and the day. Needling as a function of a schedule/timetablehoraires can potentiate the effect of treatment. 25 passages within Yang and 25 within Yin. Its circulation obeys very precise rules and is divided into “Yin-Yang/Day-Night”. located respectvely to the South and North.

The Maohour (5-7h) corresponds to the morning. and the Wu and Zhang stars. from the F a n g star to the M a o star. b) The celestial vault consists of 28 constellations. is Yang. it circulates 25 times atthe level of the Yin channels. which passes via the North. becomes the Jing (celestial longitude).respectively to the East and West. _ from the F a n g star of the East. As a result.Ma Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on the circulation of the Wei energy during the day and night.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . The Fang and Mao stars are located at Wei (latitude: East-West). South. and at night. North) which gives 28/4 = 7 constellations for each cardinal point. West. arrives at the X u star of the East and crosses near to the 14 constellations. a) The Zi hour (23-1h) corresponds to the middle of the night (midnight). arrives at the P i star of the West and crosses near to the 14 constellations. 395. This is why the circulation of the Wei energy and the solar convolution are similar and is subject to the same law. These periods respond to Jing (longitude: North-South). They do not move). _ Mao (4th Terrestrial Branch) is oriented toward the East and is subjected to the movements of ascent. During the day. From there. beginning at the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) and ending at the Foot Taiyin (Sp). These periods respond to Wei (latitude: East-West).” II . 25 times in the Yin where it carries out rotative movements in the same time at the level of the inter-organ spaces.. from the X u star to the Z h a n g star. the Wei energy circulates 50 times around the body. to the evening. 1.N. it circulates 25 times at the level of the Foot and Hand Yangming (St and LI). In man. the Jing (celestial longitude). the Jing (celestial longitude). the stars located between Fang and Pi are Yang. The solar convolution around the 28 constellations desrcibe in obvious fashion the 4 cardinal points (East.. during one day and one night. and those located between Mao and Xin are Yin. is Yin. Jing Yang govern day. form the Wei (horizontal line: celestial latitude). . it circulates 25 times in the Yang. During the night. at Jing (Longitude: North-South).V. In 1 night and 1 day the Wei energy travels around the body 50 times. _ and from the M a o star of the West. The line traced from East to West. (2) _ Jing (celestial longitude) is static. During the day. This is why the line connecting these 2 poles is named Jing (celestial longitude). night. and the Wu hour (11-13h). Yang governs day. which passes via the South. night.N. 324 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .: a) Zhang Jing Yue gives us the following details: “ _ The 12 hours designate the 12 Terrestrial Branches. and the You hour (17-19h). and Yin. and Jing Yin. _ Wei (celestial latitude) is dynamic. the middle of the day (noon). becomes the Wei (celestial latitude) and that traced from North to South. _ Zi (1st Terrestrial Branch) and Wu (7th Terrestrial Branch) are located respectively at the North pole and South pole. One Chinese “hour” = 2 Western hours.

The 7 stars traveling across the West are Que. South. Recall that the 12 Terrestrial Branches are: 1. 7th. and Yin. This is why. Wei.Zi (rat) = 23h-1h 2 . the Wei energy circulates 25 times within the Yang part. Jing.Wei (goat) = 13h-15h 9 . Mao. within Heaven. 325 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Chen.Chen (dragon) = 7h-9h 6 . the movements of the Wei energy and the apparent movements of the sun are parallel and obey the same Yin-Yang law. The Xu star located at Zi (1st Terrestrial Branch: 23h-1h) and the Zhang star located at Wu (7th Terrestrial Branch: 11h-13h) are the 2 coordinates that allow the location of Jing (celestial longitude). 6th. Xin. 11th. Fang. 2nd and 3rd Terrestrial Branches) are Yin. durng the day. Wu. Wei and Shen (4th. The stars located successively at Mao.You (cock) = 17h-19h 11 . the night.Chou (buffalo) = 1h-3h 3 . and Yin. Table 1: Distribution of the 28 constellations within the 4 cardinal point.Wu (horse) = 11h-13h 8 . Zi. 8th and 9th Terrestrial Branches) are Yang. East. 1st. _ Heaven is divided into 4 cardinal points (North.Yin (tiger) = 3h-5h 4 .Si (snake) = 9h-11h 7 . Chi. Xu. Se and Bi. Yang governs the 6 bowels. In total. Nu. Yu.Shen (monkey) = 15h-17h 10 .Xu (dog) = 19h-21h 12 .Hai (pig) = 21h-23h. The Fang star located at Mao (4th Terrestrial Branch: 5h-7h) and the Mao star located at You (10th Terrestrial Branch: 17h-19h) are the 2 coordinates that allow the location of Wei (celestial latitude).Mao (cat) = 5h-7h 5 . 5th. Zui and Sin. Lua. the 5 organs. Luo. 396. Ju and Chen. Xu. Ynag of Heaven governs the day. Pi. and Yin (10th. b) We present below a table of distribution of the 28 constellations at the level of the 4 cardinal points and two figures of the distribution of the 28 constellations within the celestial vault/canopy√: one according to the Neijing and the other established by Chamfrault and ourselves. 12th. Chou. In total. Hai. Each cardinal point consists of 7 constellations (28/4): The 7 stars traveling across the East are Jia. 25 times within the Yin part of the body. 7 X 4 = 28 constellations (stars) travel. West). Si. The 7 stars traveling across the South are Jing.This is why the line connecting these 2 cardinal points is named Wei (celestial latitude). The stars located successively at You.” 2. Zhang. Niu. Gui. Zi and Ge. Geng. In man. The 7 stars traveling across the North are Tou. and during the night.

Zi 7 .Chi 4 .EAST and the name of the stars 1 .Xin 6 . 326 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Jia 2 .Fang 5 .Geng 3 .Ge SOUTH and the name of the stars Jing Gui Lua Jing Zhang Ju Chen WEST and the name of the stars Que Lou Wei Mao Pi Zui Sin NORTH and the name of the stars Tou Yu Nu Xu Niu Se Bi 397.

398. “This is why. it spreads toward the Foot taiyang _ reaches the head _ and descends the nucha and back to the external tip of the little toe (where the point Zhiying.Figure 1: Distribution of the 28 constellations (according to the Neijing). PARAGRAPH 2 Figure 2: Distribution of the 28 constellations (according to Chamfrault).Bl 67 is found). As soon as one opens his eyes. 1. after having completed 25 passages within the Yin. the Wei energy emerges at the level of the eye.From the internal canthus of the eye. 2. at daybreak.From the external canthus of the eye. (Bl). it begins to circulate. it spreads toward the bottom and 327 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

When it reaches the foot. passes via the 6 bowels and arrives at the Foot Shaoyin (Ki). reaches the path of the Hand Yangming (LI) arrives at the shoulder and arm reaches the side the thumb and penetrates into the palm of the hand. 1.From the external canthus of the eye. it is directed toward the path of the Shaoyang (SJ).Ki) _ reascends toward the top _ and flows into the eye. it transforms into ocular Jing (Jing Ming). When the Jing of the 5 organs and 6 bowels reunites at the eye. In effect. 4. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N.: This paragraph concerns the circulation of the Wei Qi during the day at the level of the Yang part of the body. Its trajectory takes off from the Foot Taiyang (Bl). the eye is the site of gathering of the energy of the “good descendents/lineage lignee” or Tong Mai (designating the Ying. 3. This is why.GB 44) is found).SI 1 is found). Hand 5.From the external canthus of the eye.St 4 5 is found). at daybreak. _ descends toward the shoulder _ reaches the arm _ and ends at the external tip of the ring finger (where the point GuanchongSJ 1 is found). Yang arrives and the eyes open up. Wei and Jing energies). when Yin comes to an end. then it exits via internal malleolus. 328 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the Wei energy manifests at the eye”. _ reaches the Yin region (Foot Shaoyin. _ reaches the shoulder _ and descends the forearm to the external tip of the little finger (where the point Shaoze. _ descends toward the shoulder _ is directed toward the foot _ and reaches the interdigital space of the 4th and 5th toes and ends at the external tip of the 4th toe (where the point Qiaoyin.The Foot Taiyang (Bl) starts at the point Jingming (Bl 1). 7. 6_ _ _ _ the From the back of the ear. This point of departure explains why it ia said: “At daybreak.V. it spreads toward the sub-auricular region. it spreads toward the path of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). It forms in this way a “Zhou” ( 3 ) . _ reaches the region belonging to the point Chenqi (St 1) _ arrives at the region of the point Jiache (St 6) _ follows the path of the Foot Yangming (St) _ and descend toward the external tip of the 2nd toe (where the point Lidui.N. 399.follows the path of the Hand Taiyang (SI). it spreads in front of the ear.From the external canthus of the eye. it also penetrates into the sole.

and Yang comes from Yin.4 Zhou’ _ when the sun is displaced one She ( 4 ) . the Wei energy cannot be separated from the Foot Shaoyin (Ki). Jing (quintessence) is Yin. during one day and one night. where the point Jingming Bl 1 occurs. 3. in order to circulate. • Ying Qi. Therefore. and at night. In conclusion. it circulates within the Yang part.The Hand Yangming (LI) possesses a secondary vessel which penetrates into the ear and then returns to the principal channel located in the subauricular region where the point Futu (LI 18) is found.Via the route of the Foot Yangming (St).Bl 67. is displaced 2 She. It must inevitably follow the lung to descend. In effect. 2..” In other words.GB 1 is found. the circulation of Wei energy is carried out during the day in the Yang part of the body to which it must join the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) in order to accomplish one Zhou.The circulation of Wei energy does not follow the circadian rhthym like the Ying Qi does.. This is why Upper Qihai (Upper Sea of Energy) is found at Tanzhong (CV 17) and Lower Qihai (Lower Sea of Energy) is found at the Dan Dian (infraumbilical zone).8 X 3 = 5. and Water is the root of the energy. to the paths of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). The kidney responds to Water. circulates first in a continuous fashion within the epidermo-dermal space and the zone of distribution of the flesh (Fen Ru: space sparating dermis and muscle). The reason for the exteriorization of Wei energy from the Xiajiao (Lower Jiao) is then clear. originating from the Cereal Water (Shui Gu). we read: “The Wei Qi (defensive energy). the paths of the Foot and Hand Shaoyang (GB and SJ) and toward the Foot and Hand Yangming (St and LI). . arrives at the back and descends to the foot to the point Zhiyin. in order to spread. fiery and agile energy. Then it begins to appear at the external canthus of the eye. without penetrating.8 X 4 = 329 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . and Yin comes from Yang. up to the point Shangyang (LI 1). the Wei energy reaches Jingming (Bl 1) via the path of the Yinqiao curious channel and completes one cycle or “Zhou”. From this point. the Wei energy travels the body is displaced 4 She. _ when the sun in 1. 400. • Qi (energy) is Yang. the kidney and lung are the fundamental bases of Yin and Yang. where the point Tongziliao. the Wei energy travels the body in 1. During the day. without penetrating. by its origin. cycle. It starts at the internal canthus of the eye.8 = 1. the Wei energy reaches the dorsal surface of the foot. to reach.785 cycles). is Yin. within the Yin part of the body. in Chapter 71 of this classic (“Perverse Guest”). the Wei energy spreads to the cranium via the path of the Foot Taiyang (Bl). Circuit.Upon the opening of the eyes. _ when the sun Zhou (precisely 50/28 _ when the sun 6. runs along the nucha.3 Zhou. penetrates iinto the sole and exits from the internal malleolus where the point Shaohai (Ki 6) is found belonging to the Foot Shaoyin (Ki). the Wei energy travels the body in 1. PARAGRAPH 3 “This is why. 3. the Wei energy travels the body in 1. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the Ben (Root) of man is none other than the Jing and Qi. 4. generally in the region belonging to the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) before following the circuit of the 5 organs and 6 bowels. It is this route that the Wei energy diffuses to.8 X 2 = is displaced 3 She.

330 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . sun is displaced 5 She. it passes to the spleen _ and from the spleen. one must also add 0. that the Yang ends at the Yin and that the Yin begins to receive the energy. _ from the Foot Shaoyin (Ki).8 Zhou. _ when the 12.V.8 X 5 = sun is displaced 6 She.N. the “sleep/wake” cycle in man. it passes to the kidney to end one Zhou (that is. .8 X 6 = sun is displaced 7 She. it circulates at the level of the 3 Yang (Taiyang. it passes to the heart _ from the heart. 25 Zhou during the night as for the Yang part during day). “Star” or unit of measure of solar movement (of one constellation or the other) = solar degree. from the Foot Shaoyin (Ki).8 401. it passes to the liver _ from the liver.6 Zhou. Shaoyang. _ and when X 14 = 25. During the night. it passes to the lung _ from the lung.2 (see above) as 0.2 Zhou.. It is. During the day. • When the energy reaches the Yin. Yangming) and ends up at the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) where it completes the cycle (Zhou). _ when the 9..7. the Wei energy travels the body in 1. the Wei energy travels the body in1. _ when the 10. EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N...0 Zhou.8 X 7 = the sun is displaced 14 She. As a consequence.2 Zhou. in this manner.: This paragraph involves the 25 diurnal and 25 nocturnal cycles of the Wei energy.4 is the number for 1 day and 1 night. it passes to the kidney _ from the kidney. the Wei energy travels the body in 1. the • To 25 Zhou during the night. it passes to the kidney organ and circulates following the inhibitory chains of the “5 Movements”. We present below a diagram of the circulation of Wei energy at the level of the 3 Yang and at the level of the 5 organs (Figure 3). takes into account these surplus√ numbers. late or early.” 4. the Wei energy travels the body in 1.

331 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .402.

In one day and one night. Huangdi: “Within the organism. 332 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the water of the clepsydra seeps out 100 Ke ( 6 ) .departure/arrival” which are not always the same. and 25 Ke represents a half day of one continuous d a y √ . and the start of the circulation of Wei energy. The rule of needling depends on all this√ . if the disease occurs at the 3 Yang channels. One must respect the Time in order to determine the period of treatment because the “100 Diseases” apart from time and season are difficult to cure. Qi Bo: “The celestial movements are in excess or insufficiency..Figure 3: Circulation of the Wei energy at the level of the 3 Yang and 5 organs (according to the law of the 5 Movements). PARAGRAPH 4 401. are long or short. one must use the method of pursuit to tonify”. How can one determine these to practice acupuncture?” 403. by the end of the night. and the days can be long or short. In other words. The days. The length of the days is determined by the movements of “ g r o w t h / d e c l i n e ” of the 4 seasons ( 5 ) . This advice concerns tonification and dispersion performed before or after the arrival of the energy. from morning to night. This method of waiting to establish the localiztion of the energy also bears the name “Fung She” (propicious moment) . One must therefore determine the emptiness or fullness of the energy in order to apply an appropriate treatment. This is why it is said: “To treat the emptiness. Wei energy carries out movements of “ascent/descent ..

one must wait for the arrival of the energy in the Yin zone in order to needle. this is fullness. then rapid is to render full” implies slow implantation and rapid removal of the needle (in the case of tonification). _ “To speak of emptiness and fullness like to be or not to be” means to say that one must speak of fullness when the energy is present and of emptiness when the energy is absent.V.: This paragraph emphasizes tonification and dispersion. he jumps as if he lost something.N. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand the Wei energy of man is found in the Yin part and 333 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . During the spring and autumn equinox. within 5. and from summer solstice the days begin to get shorter and the nights longer. “To examine before and after like to lose or not to lose” means to say one must determine the emptiness and fullness of the energy to apply in the first place or in the second place tonification or dispersion and examine for the regression or persistence of the energy.” PARAGRAPH 5 “When the clepsydra indicates: _ 1 Ke of outflow. Taiyang (Bl and SI) _ 2 Ke of outflow. the days begin to get longer and the nights shorter. 6. Unit if time in Huangdi’s era. “To render the fullness into emptiness” is to disperse the perverse energy situated within the channel in fullness. the days and nights have the same duration. _ ”This is emptiness. Yangming (St and LI) _ 4 Ke of outflow. and during dispersion. “To excrete what is full” indicates that one must apply the technique of dispersion in the case of fullness of Qi Kou. _ “To eliminate the compressions” is to dissolve the stagnation of perverse energy the Jingmai. the individual quivers as if he gained something. It is the same for diseases located at the 3 Yin channels. _ “First slow.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. Shaoyang (GB and SJ) _ 3 Ke of outflow.one must wait for the energy to be well/clearly√ in the Yang zone in order to needle. But from winter solstice. techniques of acupuncture whose definition is found in Chapter 3 (“Explanations and the Little Needles”) of this classic: “_ “To render the emptiness into fullness” signifies that it is necessary to apply the technique of tonification in the case of emptiness of Qi Kou (moiuth of the energy: radial pulse). “First rapid then slow is to render empty” implies rapid implantation and slow removal of the needle (in the case of dispersion). 404. like gain and loss” signifies that during tonification.

the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Shaoyang (GB and SJ) _ 7 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Taiyang (Bl and SI) _ 6 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Yangming (St and LI) _ 16 Ke of outflow.circulates within the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) _ 5 Ke of outflow. one counts 14 stars and 50 Ke of outflow of the clepsydra. the Wei energy of man is found in the Yin part and circulates within the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) _ 21 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Taiyang (Bl and SI) _ 14 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Yangming (St and LI) _ 20 Ke of outflow. The classic. the Wei energy of man is found in the Yin part and circulates within the Foot Saoyin (Ki) _ 13 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Yin part and circulates within the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) _ 9 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Shaoyang (GB and SJ) _ 11 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Yangming (St and LI) _ 24 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Yangming (St and LI) _ 8 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Taiyang (Bl and SI) _ 10 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Yin part and circulates within the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) _ 25 Ke of outflow. The solar cycle. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Taiyang (Bl and SI). the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Taiyang (Bl and SI) _ 22 Ke of outflow. states: 334 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . corresponds to the circuit of one star. “Da Yu”. From the Feng star to the Pi star. and the outflow of the clepsydra is about 3 4/7 Ke. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Shaoyang (GB and SJ) 405. representing a half day. Such is the calculation (timetable) of the circulation of Wei energy during a half day. the Wei energy of man is found in the Yin part and circulates within the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) _ 17 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Yangming (St and LI) _ 12 Ke of outflow. _ 19 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Taiyang (Bl and SI) _ 18 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Shaoyang (GB and SJ) _ 15 Ke of outflow. the Wei energy of man is found in the Foot and Hand Shaoyang (GB and SJ) _ 23 Ke of outflow.

the Wei energy successively circulates at the level of the 3 Yang. then within the Yin zone belonging to the Foot Shaoyin (Ki).V. The natural world also obeys this rule which. the sun is displaced from one star to another. This is why. 335 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .“In permanent fashion. The cycle is perpetual. is clear: _ after the end.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. and the energy of man begins to surely circulate at the level of the Foot and Hand Taiyang (Bl and SI).. in the course of the displacement of the sun (from one star to another). is the beginning _ after day.: We present below: _ two tables of scheduledhoraire movements of the Wei energy (diurnal and nocturnal) _ and a study of the sites of reunion/passage (Qi Jie) of the Ying (nutritive) Qi and Wei (defensive) energy toward a practical goal. . other Ke succeed them _ after 50 cycles.N. the Wei energy begins again.. in spite of its complexity. is night _ after 100 Ke.

1.Scheduled movements of the Wei energy a) Table 1: during the day b) Table 2: during the night 406. 407. 336 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

Bl) Shaoyang (SJ. St) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Taiyang (SI. St) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Taiyang (SI. GB) Yangming (LI. Bl Shaoyin (passage to the Ki-He axis) Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . GB) Yangming (LI. Bl) Shaoyang (SJ. St) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Taiyang (SI. GB) Yangming (LI. GB) Yangming (LI. St) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Taiyang (SI. Bl) Shaoyang (SJ. St) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Taiyang (SI. GB) Yangimng (LI. GB) Yangimng (LI. St) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Taiyang (SI. Bl) Shaoyang (SJ. GB) Yangming (LI. St) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) 337 49 Ke 50 Ke 11h 45mn36s 12h00mn00s Taiyang (SI. Bl) Shaoyang (SJ. St) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Taiyang (SI. GB) Yangming (LI. St) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Taiyang (SI. GB) Yangming (LI. Bl) Shaoyang (SJ. Bl) Shaoyang (SJ. GB) Yangming (LI. GB) Yangimng (LI.Ancient Hour 1 Ke 2 Ke 3 Ke 4 Ke 5 Ke 6 Ke 7 Ke 8 Ke 9 Ke 10 Ke 11 Ke 12 Ke 13 Ke 14 Ke 15 Ke 16 Ke 17 Ke 18 Ke 19 Ke 20 Ke 21 Ke 22 Ke 23 Ke 24 Ke 25 Ke 26 Ke 27 Ke 28 Ke 29 Ke 30 Ke 31 Ke 32 Ke 33 Ke 34 Ke 35 Ke 36 Ke 37 Ke 38 Ke 39 Ke 40 Ke 41 Ke 42 Ke 43 Ke 44 Ke 45 K 46 Ke 47 Ke 48 Ke Actual hour 0h 14mn 24s 0h 28mn 48s 0h 43mn 12s 0h 57mn 36s 1h 12mn 0s 1h 26mn 24s 1h 40mn 48s 1h 55mn 12s 2h 9mn 36s 2h 24mn 0s 2h 38mn 24s 2h 52mn 48s 3h 7mn 12s 3h 21mn 36s 3h 36mn 0s 3h 50mn 24s 4h 4mn 48s 4h 19mn 12s 4h 33mn 36s 4h 48mn 0s 5h 2mn 24s 5h 16mn 48s 5h 31mn 12s 5h 45mn 36s 6h 0mn 0s 6h 14mn 24s 6h 28mn 48s 6h 48mn 0s 6h 57mn 36s 7h 12mn 0s 7h 36mn 24s 7h 40mn 48s 7h 5mn 12s 8h 9mn 36s 8h 24mn 0s 8h 38mn 24s 8h 52mn 48s 9h 7mn 12s 9h 2imn 36s 9h 36mn 0s 9h 50mn 24s 10h04mn 48s 10h 19mn12s 10h 31mn 12s 10h 48mn00s 11h02mn 24s 11h16mn48s 11h31mn12s Yang Zone (Yang Channels) Taiyang (SI. Bl) Shaoyang (SJ. Bl) Shaoyang (SJ. Bl) Shaoyang (SJ. St) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Taiyang (SI. Bl) Shaoyang (SJ. GB) Yangimng (LI. Bl) Shaoyang (SJ. St) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Taiyang (SI. St) Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Taiyang (SI.

338 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .408.

Hand Yangming (LI) 10. Hand Jueyin (XB) Interphalangeal area (4th/5th finger) ext. Li 2 and Li 4 Ext.Bl 59) √ 2. betw. Foot Taiyin (Sp) Lidui (St 45) Submaxillary area (Renying zone) Back ":shu" area & sublingual zone Area above Jingming Area of the external canthus of the eye Frontal area below ear (Touwei zone) Brachial area inside and at the level of Binao (LI 14) Back "shu" area Renying (St 9) Sanyinjiao (Sp 6) Pishu (Bl 20) other? New point (PN 1) 7. betw.Table 3: Reunion-meeting points (Qi Jie) of Ying and Wei at the level of upper and lower zones. Hand Shaoyin (He) 12. Foot Yangming (St) 6. Hand Taiyin (Lu) 11. area of the 2nd toe (Lidui zone) Area loc. Zhongjing (Li 4) and Sanyinjiao (Sp 6) Qiaoyin (GB 44) Tinggong (SI 19) Fuliu (Ki 7) Jiaoxin (Ki 8) Zhongfong (Li 4) Shenshu (Bl 23) Lianquan (CV 23) Ganshu (Bl 18) 4. to internal part of the tip of 4th finger Area loc. Foot Taiyang (Bl) Area between the heel (Fuyang. on int. Hand Shaoyang (SJ) 9. Foot Jueyin (Li) 5. Sp 6 & Sp 8 Area betw. betw. Hand Taiyang (SI) Area below ulnar styloid ("Yanglao" zone) 8. crease of wrist ("Daling" zone) Yanglao (SI 6) Yemen (SJ 2) Sizhukong (SJ 23) Quchi (LI 11) Binao (LI 14) Taiyuan (Lu 9) Touwei (St 8) Tianfu (Lu 3) Shenmen (He 7) Xinshu (Bl 15) Daling (XB 7) Area loc. Channel Localization Lower "reunion" pts. in front of the ear ("Jong Long") Back "shu" area and submental zone Back "shu" area Upper "reunion" pts. area of the 4th toe ("Shaoyang" region") Area loc. on inner leg betw. in 4th intercostal space 1 distance outside the breast Tianchi (XB 1) 339 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . (roots) Fuyang (Bl 59) Localization Ocular zone ("Mingmen") Area loc. edge of pisiform on flexion crease of the wrist ("Shenmen" zone) Area loc. Foot Shaoyang (GB) 3. (summit) Jingming (Bl 1) 1. 2 tendons at middle of ant. Foot Shaoyin (Ki) Ext. elbow (LI 11) & the point Binao (LI 14) Area of the "inch" pulse Area loc.

hence sensation of cold. the disease 340 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . The lower zones (roots) and upper zones (summits) can be in a state of emptiness or fullness. one uses the point Qichong (St 30). one must use the point of the cranial region (Bahui. abdomen or on the lower limb. In effect. they become reunited at very specific places. one must use the method of dispersion to undermine the perverse energy. one must exert pressure on the point used for a long time and wait for the De Qi (arrival of the energy) under the finger. thoracic. one located down below called “root” (Ben) and another above called “summit” (Jiao). in the same chapter. hence sensation of heat. one must use the method of tonification to make the energy of the body. to stop the evolution of the disease localizing: _ at the head. _ at the abdomen. _ in the event of emptiness. hence vertigo. circulate. Always according to the Lingshu (Chapter 52): “If the pain is erratic. The emptiness of the summit immobilizes the Yang (Wei) energy which cannot ascend. _ at the thorax. According to Chapter 52 (“Defensive Energy”) of the Lingshu: “The root is found down below.Ki 16 and Tianshu. at the middle of the calf.2. Before needling. abdominal and lower limb regions. The summit is found at the top. the spot of blood stagnation has not formed. always according to the Lingshu. one must use the points of the upper part of the thorax and the Back Shu points between the 1st aqnd 2nd dorsal vertebrae. One must use the “Hao” type needles. one reads: _ “Each part of the body has a very specific energetic zone of transit to which one applies treatment by acupuncture according to the energetic disturbances of the corresponding zone.GV 20). lower and transit) lies in the treatment of diseases due to disturbances of the energy of the cephalic. The significance of these neuralgic points of these three different zones (upper. The points belonging to the zones of transit must be needled as a function of the clinical signs: _ headache _ vertigo _ syncope _ abdominal pain _ upset stomach with flatulence _ illnesses of energetic storage.” In order to pass from a lower zone toward the upper zone.” 410. The emptiness of the root becomes expressed as an emptiness of Yang energy. in a state of immobilization.Sites of reunion and passage of Ying energy and Wei energy: 409. The fullness of thr summit is caused by perverse fever provoking a painful sensation of heat. Each principal channel therefore has two very distinct points of reunion. located to the side of the artery of the groin crease. _ at the lower limbs.St 25). This is why: _ in the event of fullness. In this manner. The fullness of the root is caused by perverse heat. this zone of transit can also be in a state of emptiness or fullness. Since Wei and Ying energy circulate differently. the physician then gets a specific objective sensation. one must use the Back Shu points between the 7th dorsal vertebrae and the lumbosacral region and the points belonging to the Chongmai and the “moving vessels” located at the two sides of the umbilicus (Huangshu. One stops the evolution of the disease in this manner. and the point Chengshan (Bl 57). the energy must cross a zone of transit (Qi Jie) located in the thorax.

” 3- In conclusion: • The circulation of the energy obeys the law of Yin-Yang and is divided into: _ extenal (Yang) circulation and _ internal Yin) circulation.. 341 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . of this classic. 410. 80 (“Great Confusions√”). • These timetables horaires of arrival and departure permit application of needling according to the energetic principles of Chinese medicine.. The treatment is not always effective. the disease is chronic. Notes: The Qi Jie points above are drawn from Chapter 52 (“Defensive Energy”) of the Lingshu. If the blod stagnation has a form but without painful component.can easily be treated. • These sites of reunion between the Ying (nutritive) and Wei (defensive) energies and these sites of transit are grouped together as specific points in the treatment of diseases due to disturbances of the energy and not of the blood. The other groups of Qi Jie points are cited in different chapters: 18 (“Production and Reunion of Ying and Wei”). These important ideas represent one path of current research on the components of chronobiolgy and data on the true acupuncture techniques that furnish them√√. 52 (“Defensive Energy”).

Zhen.CHAPTER LXXVII 9 Palaces . there is an atmospheric change. _ Xu feng (false winds) which are in opposition to thetemps weather and destroy beings and things. Li. East. Tai Yi perodically moves/displaces/shifts√ toward the 8 cardinal points (North. This chapter also addresses the “8 Winds” (Ba Feng) coming from the 8 cardinal points. PARAGRAPH 1 412. Southeast. or else several days before or after this day. These 8 winds are grouped together into: _ Shi Feng (true winds) which agree with thetemps weather and have the function of maintaining the development of reproduction of beings and things. based his on this phenomena one can determine the state of the wind and rain in order to predict the seriousness or benignity of the disease. Kan. This chapter contains 4 paragraphs. West. Northeast. on the day of exchange. that is 3 X 8 = 24 energetic divisions (cf. Gen. Dui and center). “ Tai Yi (Supreme Unity: Polar Star) becomes displaced from Dong Zi (winter solstice: 21st or 22nd of December) in order to seek dwelling in the 342 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . further on) for the 8 cardinal points during the year (about 365 days). is also the day of exchange of the climatic energy. from one palace to another. This is why our old masters established the method aimed at protecting against diseases (prophylaxis) based on the “9 Palaces-8 Winds” (9 Gong-8 Feng)√. Xun. During the year. The day of displacement of Tai Yi.8 Winds (Jiu Gong Ba Feng) Chapter 77 of the Lingshu speaks on the location of “Tai Yi” (supreme unity: polar star). Kun. South. Northwest and Southwest) and the “9 Palaces” (or Gong which are: Qian. Each cardinal point is the site of distribution of 3 climatic energies (or 3 energetic divisions) during 46 days (or thereabouts). If.

Gen. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Kan = 1 responding to Water. at the Dong Zi (winter solstice) palace to begin the cycle again.: This chapter gives us a table of the “9 Palaces” in order to explain the “8 Winds” (Ba Feng) coming from the 8 cardinal directions.The orientation of the 9 Palaces is based on the localization of the Ba Gua (8 “Marvels” or 8 Trigrams) which are Qian. The following day. it seeks dwelling in the in Luo (Yin path) palace for 45 413. located to the West Qian = 6 responding also to Metal. conforme) The following day. it seeks dwelling in the Tian Liu (celestial palace for 46 days.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. The following day (47th).V. located to the Southwest Gen = 8 responding also to Earth.Ye Zhe (mass of leaves) palace during 46 days. In this manner. depot) The following day. Zhen. Xun.The localization of these “marvels” (trigrams) is based on the nature of the 5 Movements arranged at the sides of the 8 cardinal points. that is to say. The following day. days. b. it lies in the Shang Guo (gathering of fruits) palace for 45 The following day. Li. located to the Southeast Diu = 7 responding to Metal. located to the Northwest Kun = 2 responding to Earth. 343 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . days. days.N. it seeks dwelling in the Xin Luo (new path) palace for 45 The next day it returns to the Ye Zhe (mass of leaves) palace. located o the Northeast. it remains at the Shang Men (door of the warehouse) palace for 46 days. it lies in the Xuan Wei (true depthprofondeur palace for 46 days. Kan. Kun and Diu. a. located to the North Li = 9 responding to Fire. located to the South Zhen = 3 responding to Wood. located to the East Xun = 4 responding also to Wood.

In this way. extremely important factors in pathology.Figure 1: The 9 Palaces (Original figure from the Lingshu) c. (cf Figure 1) 414.The displacement of Tai Yi (from one Palace to another) always brings about an atmospheric change of the 4 seasons and 8 periods of the year. etc. d. each “marvel” (trigram) responds to one atmospheric energy. Zhang Jing Yue clarifies for us: 344 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . a change characterized by favorable or unavorable movements of the Wind (Shi Feng or Xu Feng).According to the characteristics of Yin-Yang and the 5 Movements. for example: _ Zhen located to the East (Wood) responds to Chun Fen (spring equinox: March 21st) _ Li located to the South (Fire) responds to Xia Zi (summer solstice: June 21st or 22nd) _ Diu located to the West (Metal) responds to Qiu Fen (autumn equinox: September 23st) _ Kan located to the North (Water) responds to Dong Zi (winter solstice: December 21st or 22nd).

Shang Men is the palace of Zhen (square 3). 345 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . It governs for 46 days the following 3 periods: _ Summer Solstice (Xia Zi) _ Moderate Heat (Xiao Shu) _ Great Heat (Da Shu). In effect. 2. 6.Xuan Wei is the palace of Kun (square 2). 4.Shang Guo is the palace of Diu (square 7).Yin Luo is the palace of Xun (square 4). It governs for 45 days the following 3 periods: _ Spring Equinox (Chun Fen) _ Pure Light (Quing Ming) _ Showers of Spring (Gu Yu). It governs for 45 days the following 3 periods: _ Beginning of Winter (Li Dong) _ Light Snow (Xiao Xue) _ Heavy Snow (Da Xue). Zhong Gong.Shang Tian (also called Tian Gong: Celestial Palace) is the palace of Li (square 9). square 5. In all. It governs for 46 days the following 3 periods: _ Beginning of Spring (Li Chun) _ Fine Rain (Yu Shu) _ Awakening of Worms and Microbes (Jing Zhe). This is why the palaces are 9 in number. Tai Yi becomes displaced at the level of the 8 Palaces for 365 (46+46+46+45+46+ 46+46+45) days to fulfill its annual cycle. 3. but we only describe 8 (the central palace. 5. 1. 8. Qian and Xun where it only stays for 45 days. It governs for 46 days the following 3 periods: _ Winter Solstice (Dong Zi) _ Slightly Intense Cold (Xiao Han) _ Great Cold (Da Han). It governs for 46 days the following 3 periods: _ Beginning of Autumn (Li Qiu) _ Dry Heat (Chu Shu) _ Thick Fog (Bai Lu). It governs for 46 days the following 3 periods: _ Autumn Equinox (Qiu Fen) _ Thick and fresh Fog (Han Luo) _ Dew Falling (Shuang Jiang). 415. being governed by Tai Yi itself).Ye Zhe is the palace of Kan (square 1).Xin Luo is the palace of Qian (square 6).“Tai Yi remains in each palace for 46 days except in 2 palaces.Tian Liu is the palace of Gen (square 8). It governs for 45 days the following 3 periods: _ Beginning of Summer (Li Xia) _ Beginning of the Time of Floods (Xia Man) _ Beginning of the Time of Sowing (Mang Zhong). 7.

these numbers express atmospheric changes (cold.N. that is to say. maximal cold. 346 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In other words. one calculates the day of its arrival into the other palaces.: Each palace (Gong) possesses a number called “number of Luo Shu”. from the number 1 (number of the Kan palace).(10 + 10) = 1. _ the number of the Zhen palace of the east is 3 _ 3 multiplied by 3 = 9.The numbers are classified into Yang (odd) and Yin (even). In other words. unitary number which represents the Li palace of the South _ 9 multiplied by 3 = 27 _ 27 .The numbers replying to/?restarting atrepartir the 4 cardinal points (North. In addition. to the East is the Zhen palace where Chun Fen (spring equinox) occurs. that is to say. that is to say. This returns to the East to the Zhen palace whose number 3 represents the maximum moderate heat of spring. Maximal coolness√is transformed into cold. at its maximal phase. from there. 2. Maximal cold is transformed into moderate heat (Wen: warm). This becomes displaced toward the South to the Li palace whose number 9 represents Xia Zi (summer solstice). The number 3 and its multiples express the number of the 4 cardinal points. they are grouped together at/withaux the 4 cardinal points. unitary number of the Diiu palace of the West _ 7 multiplied by 3 = 21 _ 21 . At the end of the cycle. East.(10 + 10) = 7. untiary number of the Xhen palace of the East. 1. then it returns to the number 1 (number of the Kan palace). a number which represents the different phases of atmospheric change of the 4 seasons and the luminous force of the day. therefore. the movements of the Yang (odd) numbers are cyclic. the number 3 represents the moderate heat (Wen or “warm” energy) of spring. South. 416. maximal heat.PARAGRAPH 2 “Tai Yi is displaced on the Dong Zi day (winter solstice) to enter into the Ye Z h e (mass of leaves) palace.V. EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. unitary number of the Kan palace of the North _ 1 multiplied by 3 = 3. West) are all unitary numbers called “Curious Numbers” or Yang numbers. becomes transformed into heat. They represent day. Therefore. This becomes displaced toward the West to the Diu palace whose number 7 represents Qiu Fen (autumn equinox). sunrise (in the East) and sunset (in the West). The association of Yang (1) and Yin (2) gives: 1 + 2 = 3. Tai Yi progressively passes to the number 9 (number of the Li palace). namely: _ left (East) = 3 _ top (South) = 9 _ right (West) = 7 _ bottom (North) = 1 (see tableau)√?. Maximal heat becomes transformed into coolnessfraicheur. maximal coolness√. The cyclic movements of Tai Yi are perpetual. This is displaced toward the North to the Kan palace whose number 1 represents Dong Zi (winter solstice). heat) of the 4 seasons and the radiant strength of the day. This warm energy fo spring.

toward the middle of the day (noon) to reach its maximal potential. to the Southwest at the Kun palace.These atmospheric movements therefore are cyclic and perpetual. Figure 2 4. _ 2 multiplied by 8 = 16 _ 16 .The 4 angles mentioned in the table of the Lingshu (see above) each possess an even number (Yin) called “occaisional number” whose orientation/movement is opposite to that of the odd (Yang) number. this luminous force gradually is displaced toward the number 9. Then progressively it carries out movements of rotation toward the number 7. that is to say.10 = 6. 417. _ 2 multiplied by 4 = 8. toward afternoon. 3. occaisonal number of the gen palace located to the Northeast. The number 1 represents night (midnight) whose luminous force is the weakest (see Figure 2). occaisional number of the Qian palace located to the Northwest _ 2 multiplied by 6 = 12 _ 12 . occaisioanl number of the Xun palace located to the Southeast.As for daily temperature. the number 3 represents the first glimmer of the sun (dawn).10 = 2. slowly growing weaker. that is to say. 347 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . _ 2 multiplied by 2 = 4. that is to say. occaisional number of the Kun palace located to the Southwest. From the number 3. The Yin number starts with 2.

5. a. In this way.The Yin number (even) 2 multipied by 5 = 10. In effect. of day and night. 348 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 3 horizontal and the 2 diagonal squares.The essential point is the number 5 noted in the center of the table of the 9 Palaces (Figure 1) because it is considered as the base of development of all the numbers. like those of the “curious (Yang) numbers”. b. the movement of the numbers are cyclic (see Figure 3). the movement of the occaisional (Yin) numbers. can represent energetic variations of the 4 seasons and the change in luminous strength of the day in order to explain the phenomena of departure/arrival of the cold and heat. it is sufficient to compare it with the numbers mentioned in the squares of the table of the 9 Palaces (see Figure 1 and Paragraph 1) in order to have an astonishing meaning√. This number 10 recurs when one adds the numbers of the squares of the 8 cardinal points: _ 9 (Top/South) + 1 (Bottom/North) = 10 _ 3 (Left/East) + 7 (Right/West) = 10 _ 4 (Southeast) + 6 (Northwest) = 10 _ 2 (Southwest) + 8 (Northeast) = 10. In fact.The Yang (odd) number 3 multiplied by 5 = 15 This number 15 recurs when one adds the numbers of the 3 vertical.In other words. Figure 3 418.

the people are at peace and diseases are rare. “The days of displacement of Tai Yi (Supreme Unity) are always followed by atmospheric changes: rains and winds. _ During the sojourn of Tai Yi at Dong Zi (winter solstice). If the rains and winds take place the same day of its displacement. 419. c. If the rains and winds take place before the day of displacment.The Yin (even) numbers (2 + 4 + 6 + 8) multiplied by 5 gives the number 100.• 3 horizontal squares: _ 4 + 9 + 2 = 15 _ 3 + 5 + 7 = 15 _ 8 + 1 + 6 = 15 • 3 vertical squares: _ 4 + 3 + 8 = 15 _ 9 + 5 + 1 = 15 _ 2 + 7 + 6 = 15 • 2 diagonal squares: * Southeast/Northwest squares: _ 4 + 5 + 6 =15 * Southwest/Northeast squares: _ 2 + 5 + 8 = 15 (see Figure 4). During the sojourn of Tai Yi at Chun Fen (spring equinox). d. abundant rains precede and marked dryness follow. it is favorable. it occupies the place of the King.The Yang (Odd) numbers (1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9) multiplied by 5 give the number 100. the monsoon is abundant. when there ar 349 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . when there are atmospheric changes. PARAGRAPH 3 Figure 4: The “9 Palaces” and “9 Numbers”.

Based on these phenomena. 420. This is why one must know how to predict Xu Feng to avoid disasters and diseases.atmopsheric During atmopsheric During atmospheric changes. it infiltrates deeply into interior to lodge in the spleen. a wind very evil and very.V. When it attacks man. Called energetic modifications. we observe the direction of arrival of the wind to evaluate prognosis. 350 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. and. 2. when there are place of the Mandarin.Introduction to the study of Shi Feng and Xu Feng. we follow the displacements of Tai Yi to determine seriousness or benignness of disease. Zhong Gong (Central Palace). it occupied the the sojourn of Tai Yi at changes. Therefore. a very harmful wind to beings and things. The sages avoid False Wind (Xu Feng) as they would a stream of arrows and stones. When it attacks man. when Tai Yi occurs in the Central Palace (Zhong Gong).Wind coming from the Southwest is named “Mu Feng” (cunning wind). very deadly.Prognosis during displacement of Tai Yi 2. it occupies the place of the Minister. 1. Its energy governs deficiencies (Ruo). perverse energy does not succeed in injuring their health. Such is the true meaning of eugenism. at the exterior it penetrates into the vessels (channels). when there are place of the people. and. it can become directed toward the sides of the Ba Feng (8 Winds) in order to determine harmful or propserous meteorologic phenomena.N. it occupies the the sojourn of Tai Yi at changes. its energy governs the diseases of Heat (Re). raises sand and stone. it penetrates into the flesh (dermis). at the exterior.Wind coming from the South is called “Da Ruo Feng” (very weak wind).: This paragraph is divided into 2 parts: 1. Xia Zi (summer solstice). disturbances take place on the day of passage of Tai Yi within one of these 5 palaces noted like the wind which breaks branches. The wind coming from the opposite direction opposite to the sejourn of Tai Yi is named “Xu Feng” (False Wind). PARAGRAPH 4 “This is why. it infiltrates deeply into the interior to lodge in the heart.

rows of paravertebral muscles).Wind coming from the East is named “Yin Er Feng” (child wind). it infitrates deeply into the interior to lodge within the small intestine. Its energy governs the sensation of heaviness of the body. and. When it attack man. The “8 Winds” (Ba Feng) noted above all come from the side of “Xu Qi” (false energy. and. In rainy and humid places. When it attacks man. 5. and. 421.3. The ailments caused by 2 Shi Qi (2 true perverse energies) and 1 Xu Qi (false or disordered energy or “Empty Energy”). become transformed into ColdHeat disease (Han Re). it penetrates deeply into the interior to lodge within the heart. it pentrates into the flesh (dermis). and its obstruction. they cause numerous diseases. 7. North is named “Da Gang Feng” (extremely powerful penetrates deeply into the interior to lodge within it penetrates into the bones and the 2 Lu Jin (2 Its energy governs the diseases of Cold (Han). it penetrates deeply into the interior to lodge in the stomach. it the kidney. 351 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Wind coming from the Northeast is called “Xiong Feng” (brutal wind). it penetrates into the Hand Taiyang (SI). it penetrates into the ribs. 6. When it attacks man. disordered energy). It energy governs the sensation of heaviness of the body. at the exterior. it penetrates into the vessels (channels). When at attacks man. it infiltrates deeply into the interior to lodge within the lung. at the exterior. 4. The association of the 3 Xu Qi: _ Xu Ren: energy of man in a state of emptiness _ Xu Qi: disordered energy of the seasons _ Xu Nian: annual energy in a state of emptiness is the origin of lethal diseases and sudden death. 422. This is why in man. at the exterior. and. The exhaustion of this vessel expresses as an overflowing of perverse energy. these ailments evolve toward the Wei disease (atrophic impotence). it penetrates into the skin (epidermis). by a stoppage of energetic circulation able to provoke sudden death. and. Its energy governs the diseases of dryness (Zao). When it attacks man. under the axilla and within the joints of the upper limbs. the sages avoid the Wind as one arrows and stones.Wind coming from the Southeast is called “Ruo Feng” (weakening wind). it penetrates deeply into the interior to lodge within the large intestine and. at the exterior.Wind coming from the Northwest is called “Zhe Feng” (destructive wind). This is why. 8. at the exterior. at the exterior.Wind coming from the wind).Wind coming from the West is called “Gang Feng” (powerful wind). When it attacks man. when they occur in the presence of wind and rain.

The Yin energy has not yet drawn back/moved backrecule. it reaches the Lung. 6. This study is based on the 8 cardnal points in relationship to Yin and Yang and the 5 Movements in order to explain the importance of the influence of the evolution of the cosmic energy in human beings.The Northeast responds to the Gen-Earth palace. This is why its energy bears the name Zhe Feng (destructive wind). this wind responds to the Fire organ. This is why 352 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In man.Zhang Shi explains: “This paragraph speaks on the different types of Xu Feng (false or empty wind). This is why it has the name Gang Feng (powerful. Metal responds to the West. this wind responds to the Metal organ. the wind becomes powerful. it causes disturbances of the Hand Taiyang (SI) because the small intestine.The South responds to the Li-Fire palace. When the energy is cooled down. Water responds to the North. it settles in the vessels.The Northwest responds to the Qian-Metal palace. 1. it responds to the Earth organ. In man. In the interior.Feng). and. is the fire-bowel of the Xiajiao (Lower Jiao. 4. its energy is tragic. when one treats the kidney. it reaches the spleen organ. it is always the Xin Bao (XB) which is affected. responding to Bing (3rd Celestial Stem). the Yang energy is found in full phase of fullness.The Southwest responds to the Kun-Earth palace. In the disease of the heart.LJ). at the exterior. at the exterior. The association of these 2 energies is very harmful to the production of the Yang energy. Its disease is that of the Heat. this is why. hard wind). it settles in the skin (epidermis). it reaches the kidney organ. 423. and. it lodges at the top. When heat comes to manifest. coma and hemiplegia. In our case. 2. and coming from the North. The attack of these 3 Xu Qi associated with a direct attack of wind (Zhong always cause collapse. it settles at the bottom. and. It disease is that of dryness.The West responds to the Diu-Metal palace. The energy of metal is hard (powerful). As a result. when it attacks man.The North responds to the Kan-Water palace. The Yin energy comes from birth. and the Yang energy is still not found in a phase of fullness. The departure and arrival resemble a discussion (deliberation). one also treats the bladder. its energy is destructive. In the interior. it settles within the bones and paravertebral muscles (Lu Jin) belonging to the Foot Taiyang (Bl). it responds to the Water organ. Their energy governs the disease of Cold. at the exterior. 3. It is this wind coming from the Kan palace and named Mu Feng (cunning wind). it reaches the heart. In the interior. In the interior. very harmful to human beings. it can provoke sudden death. During attack of the wind from the South. In man.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . Metal governs destruction. this is why it is called Da Gang Feng (extremely violent wind). at the exterior. it settles in the flesh (dermis). 5. hence the name Da Ruo Feng (very weak wind). the wind is very weak. and. In man.

II . the wind of the East is always accompanied by rain. 7. causal factor of numerous diseases of humidity. The Yin energy is mild (warm).N. and. it reaches the liver organ.: These notions are among the basic elements of diagnosis and therapy of Oriental energetic medicine.” 424. it settles in the flesh (dermis) system and causes the sensation of heaviness of the body. When one treats the liver. it reaches the large intestine because it responds to Geng (7th Celestial Stem) and to Metal and is found in the region of the Xiajiao (LJ). For the purpose of research. it causes Ruo Feng (weak wind). it settles in the tendinomuscular system. At the Southeast. we present below 2 tables: 353 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it settles at the joints of the upper limbs at the level of the Hand Yangming (LI). humidity is victorious. It relies on the support of Wood to “defy/scorn” Earth. In man. The wind triumphs over humidity. This is why.The East responds to the Xhen-Wood palace.The Southeast responds to the Xun-Wood palace. at the exterior.V. it responds to the Wood organ. it is iimpossible to ignore them. But the Child Wind (Ying Er Feng) can transform into humidity because the Southeast is the dwelling place of water and the site of residence of humidity.N. In the interior. one also treats the gallbladder.this wind is called Xiong Feng (violent wind). and. it reaches the stomach. At the exterior. For acupuncturists. In man. 8. This is why it can injure the human body. This is why it bears the name Ying Er Feng (child wind). The wind arises in the East. In the interior. at the exterior.

Southeast South Southwest Xin Wood 4 Beginning of summer Ruo Feng (weakening wind) Li Fire 9 Summer solstice Da Ruo Feng (very weakened wind) Kun Earth 2 Beginning of Autumn Mu Feng (cunning wind) East West Zhen Wood 3 Spring equinox Ying Er Feng (child wind) 5 Central Palace Diu Metal 7 Autumn equinox Gang Feng (violent wind) Northeast North Northwest Gen Earth Kan Water 8 Beginning of Spring Xiong Feng (brutal wind) 1 Winter solstice Da Gang Feng (extremely violent wind) Qian Metal 6 Beginning of winter Zhe Feng (destructive wind) 1 - Table of the “9 Palaces” and “8 Winds” 425. 354 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

5 Movements Direction of Wind Name of the Wind Influences Interior (Li) on Exterior (Biao) man Diseases Fire South Da Ruo Feng (very weak wind) Mu Feng (cunning wind) Gang Feng (violent wind) Zhe Feng (destructive wind) Da Gang Feng (extremely violent wind) Xiong Feng (brutal wind) Ying Er Feng (child wind) Ruo Feng (weakening wind) Heart Vessels Heat Earth Southwest Spleen Dermal system Deficiencies (asthenia) Dryness Metal West Lung Epidermal system Hand Taiyang Metal Northwest Small Intestine Energetic Destructions Water North Kidney Bone system Paravertebral muscles Costal system Cold Earth Northeast Large Intestines Articulations of the limbs (?) Humidity Wood East Liver Tendinomuscular system Dermal system Wood Southeast Stomach Sensation of heaviness of body 2 .Table of the “8 Winds” as a function of the 5 Movements no 426/427. 355 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

Yin and Yang.CHAPTER LXXVII Dissertation on the "9 Needles" (Jiu Zhen Lun) Chapter 78 of the Lingshu speaks on the 9 types of needles and their use following the notion of “homogenization” of “Heaven-Earth-Man” in determining pathologic natures as a function of the way of life of the human being in the natural world. The general indications for acupuncture and moxabustion. massage. Qigong. PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: “I have often heard you speak of the “9 Needles” whose scope and capacity 356 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This chapter also integrates the great fundamental ideas in the application of acupuncture and moxabustion: _ the functions of the 5 organs _ the relationships between Yin and Yang of the human being _ the triggering process of disease of the blood and energy. soothingadoucissants remedies and alcoholized remedies are quoted. This chapter contains 4 paragraphs.

whose numbers of beginning is 1 and whose ending number is 9. This is why the needle. 1. I would liketo ask you what is their origin and what justifies their names?” Qi Bo: “The “9 Neeldes” are based on the numbers of mutation of the Yin and Yang of Heaven and Earth. _ 6. The origin of the 9 Needles also originates from these basic numbers (from 1 to 9). must have a big head with pointed tip authorizing a slightly deep penetration (into the dermis) in order to evacuate only perverse energy. _ 4. is why it is said: is the number of Heaven the number of Earth the number of Man the number of the 4 Seasons the number of the 5 Sounds the number of the 6 Lu (6 Resonant Pipest u b e s ) the number of the 7 Stars the number of the 8 Winds the number of the 9 Regions (Ye). But I still have not clearly grasped certain aspects. Among the 5 organs. must have a body straight as bamboo (Zu) and a well-rounded tip in order not to injure the flesh because injury to this region exhausts the energy of the spleen. _ 7. 4. This is why the needle. 2. from 1 to 9.“1” responds to Heaven. the lung responds to the number 1. The skin and hair (epidermis) are the sites of reunion of the energy of the lung belonging to the Yang part of the body. created to puncture and treat. The flesh (dermal) system respond to Earth-Spleen. 3. to Yin.“2” responds to Earth. basic numbers from which the “9 Regions” are established. _ 3. 357 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Multiplying 9 by 9.“3” responds to Man. Man’s life depend on blood and energy.are rich and immense.” Huangdi: “How do the needles respond to the number 9?” Qi Bo: “By calculation.“4” responds to the “4 Seasons”. _ 9. This _ 1 _ 2. to Yang. _ 5. created to puncture and treat. one obtains 81. created/ d e s i g n e d ? to puncture and treat. the sages created the numbers of mutation of the Yin and Yang of Heaven and Earth. 429. must have a large body with rounded tip to be able to “massage” the vessels (without damaging them) and to p o u s s e r move the Zheng Qi (essential energy) to expel the perverse energy. This is why the needle. _ 8. to Heaven and to Yang. number of Huang Zhong (Yellow Bell) or “number of universal mutations”. 428. It is the “cover/lid√ ” of the 5 organs and 6 bowels.

When Xu Xie (perverse energy) settles within the Jingmai (principal channels). Southwest) of the year (4 seasons). created to puncture and treat. The 6 Lu harmonizes Yin and Yang of the 4 Seasons with the 12 Jingmai. the word “regions” implies the epidermal and articular regions. the word “season” implies the “8 Winds” (Ba Feng) coming from the 8 cardinal directions (North. 9. 5. created to puncture and treat. must have a pointed and sharp cutting tip like a sword to incise and evacuate pus. it passes to the Luomai (secondary channels) to trigger Bi Tong (painful blackage). Southeast. 2 hips and 2 knees). This is why the needle.“5” reponds to the “5 Sounds”.“6” responds to the “6 Lu” (3 resonant Yin and 3 resonant Yang pipes). these two energies transform into Yung (abscess). In mixing. must have a long body and very pointed tip to chase away the Xie Qi (perverse energy) concealed within the joints. West + Northwest. that is to say. 2 auricular orifices. This is why the needle. must be pointed and thin like a long hair and of relatively large body to chase away Bao Qi (bold energy). Xu Feng (empty wind) comes from Be Zheng (8 directions: 8 cardinal points). 7. This is why the needle. Here.“7” responds to the “7 Stars”. South. This is why the needles. must be very streamlined like the of the mosquito and used according to the method of awaiting the De Qi (arrival of the energy).“9” responds to the “9 Regions” (Ye). The 7 Stars represent the 7 orifices of man: 2 orbital cavities. must have a body straight as bamboo with a pointed and sharp cutting tipt r a c h a n t to disperse the heat (toxic) via evacuation of blood thereby reducing chronic and recurring disease. During the 4 seasons. The removal of the needle is only carried out upon the arrival of Zheng Qi (essential energy). 8. created to puncture and treat. region where Yin and Yang are in the process of separating. 6. it causes Bao Bi (violent obstruction). when the Chen Qi (source energy) and Xie Qi (perverse energy) are onder the action of the needle. created to puncture and treat. 2 elbows. Northeast. the 8 Winds coming from the 8 cardinal directions can infiltrate into the organism to trigger Liu Bing (refractory diseases). The 8 Winds (Ba Feng) represent the 8 joints of the limbs (2 shoulders.Here. This is why the needle. 430. it lodges within the joints to trigger Shen Bi (deep bloackage). The number 5 represents the center responding to the region belonging to Z i (1st Terrestrial branch: 23h-1h) and to Wu (7th Terrestrial Branch: 11h-13h). 358 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .“8” reponds to the “8 Winds”. 2 nasal orifices and 1 buccal cavity. East. and cold and heat confront one another. This wind is very harmful to man. created to puncture and treat. When Xu Xie (perverse wind) is localized in the channels.

These two palaces. Envisioned globally.): “The Five Sounds are linked to the 5 Movements responding to the Terrestrial Branches (Tian Gan).When perverse Yin (water) invades the body. But 10 = 9 + 1.The number 5 and the 5 Sounds. in the middle of 1 and 9. the even numbers also start from 1. _ 9 is found at the Li palace located to the South and responding to summer solstice and the 7th Terrestrial branch. 6. The formation of Yung (abscess) originates from the opposition of these two energies (Cold and Heat). 5. 9 among which 9 is the end number _ even numbers: 2.This paragraph involves the origin of the “9 Needles” according to the basic numbers of phenomena of mutation/transformation of Yin and Yang (movement and rest) of the natural world (Heaven-Earth) cited in the ancient claasic. According to Zhang Jing Yue (1563-1640 A. 10 among which 10 is the end number. Wu (11h-13h). the basic number of all mutations and transformations of all beings and things in the universe. respond respectively to winter (Cold) and summer (Heat) and to the Terrestrial Branches Zi and Wu . This is why.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. “I Jing” (“Book of Changes”).: 1. 431. 2. the basic numbers of mutation are divided into: _ odd numbers: 1.” 359 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Based on the diagram of the “9 Palaces” (9 Gong): _ 1 is found at the Kan palace located to the North and responding to winter solstice and the 1st Terrestrial Branch.D. 8.N. As a result. rounded tip to evacuate the water lodged in the skin and joints. The “9 Needles” also obey this law. 7. Kan and Li. 3.V. This is why the needle. But 5 is found in the center. created to puncture and treat. 9 X 9 = 81” constitute the numbers of Huang Zhong (Yellow Bell). hence the existence of the discrimination between Zi and Wu during the distribution of the spatial zones. This number occurs in the middle between 1 and 9. causing hydrarthrosis. from “1 to 9. odd number. it stagnates within the skin causing Feng Shui (wind-water = edema) and within the joints. Zi (23h-1h). must have a large body and small. 4. between the Kan and Li palaces (see Figure 1).

the F i needle. It serves to evacuate large pyogenic formations originating from the confrontation of two heats. 2). It is 1. the L i needle. For the fourth type of needle.6 cun long and serves to treat Y u n g (abscesses) and Bi ( o b s t r u c t i o n s ) . Its point is relatively large and its body thin in order to needle deeply.5 cun. It treats “heat abscesses” (Yung Re) by evacuation of thickened blood and pus. perverse heat and heat of the body. the F e n g needle. is modeled after the cutting edge of the sword. For the second type of needle. its length is that of the tip of a grain of millet is 3. It is therefore 1. The sixth type of needle.6 cun. It treats regions of the “distribution of the flesh” (Fen Ru: dermis). For the third type of needle. it serves to massage the vessels to increase the potential of the Zheng Qi (essential energy) and to evacuate Xie Qi (perverse energy). Its body is round and its tip very slender. The fifth type of needle. Its length is 1. the Yuan needle.6 cun.Figure 1: The number 5 and “9 Palaces” (Chart of the “8 Chants Woods√bois of the Sacred Turtle”: chart of mutations) PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “On what model are the needles based?” Qi Bo: “For the first type of needle. the Ti needle. 360 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the Chen needle. its length is that of Ru Zhen (nedle for quilting) like the previous one (needle no. Its body is cylindrical and its tip oval. its length is that of Jin Zhen (needle for attaching a turban) from which one has removed the point. is modeled after Li Zhen (Li needle). its length is that of Ru Zhen (needle for quilting).

The seventh type of needle. needles no. these needles are made according to very specific rules. the C h a n g needle. is modeled after Hao Mao (thin hair).6 cun long and serves to treat the Han Re (Cold-Heat) ailments and Tong Bi (painful obstructions) located at the level of the Luomai (secondary vessels). it is 1. it is 7 cun long and serves to treat the Chen Bi (deep obstructions). In this manner is the study of the “9 Needles” achieved. The ninth type of needle. It is 4 cun long. 2 and 4).: The “9 Needles” mentioned in this paragraph are therefore. are reflective of the form. The eighth type of needle.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. 361 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .N. pointed or blunt. It serves to evacuate water located at the level of the joints (hydrarthosis). is modeled after Qi Zhen (long needle). 433. by analogy. Its point is slightly rounded. the Da needle. Long or short. the H a o needle.V. function or length of the needles or instruments in standard use in Huangdi’s time. is modeled after Feng Zhen (cf.

The bowels and the 3 sub-diaphragmatic organs (liver. 4.11th TB) and Ji-Hai (6th CS .The right foor responds to Li Dong (beginning of winter) and to the days Wu-Xu (5th CS . neck.5th TB) and Ji-Si (6th CS . 6.The left foot responds to Li Chun (beginning of spring) and to the days W u Yin (5th Celestial Stem . for example. 5. spleen. 8.The right hip responds to Qiu-Fen (autumn equinox) and to the days X i n You (8th CS .Figure 2: The “9 Needles” of Huangdi’s era. in the case of abscess or edema localizing to the left or right.The left hand responds to Li Xia (beginning of summer) and to the days W u Chen (5th CS .The lumbar region. at the 362 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .6th TB). In this way.The thorax. kidney) respond to Dong Zu (central abdominal region) whose “great forbidden days” belong to Wu (5th CS) and Ji (6th CS). 7.The left hip responds to Chun Feng (spring equinox) and to the days Y i M a o (2nd CS .12th TB). 9.10th TB). ” Qi Bo: “Your subject would like then to demonstrate to His Majesty the correspondences between the different parts of the body and the 9 Regions. coccyx and the Yin (uterus and anus) respond to Dong Zhi (winter solstice) and to the days Ren-Zi (9th CS 1st TB). throat.7th TB). 3. 2. 434. PARAGRAPH 3 Huangdi: “ I would like to hear from you regarding the relationships between the diferent parts of the body and the “9 Regions” ( Y e ) .9th TB). 1.The right hand responds to Li Qiu (beginning of autumn) and to the days Wu-Shen (5th CS . face and head respond to Xia Zhi (summer solstice) and to the day Bing-Wu (3rd CS .4th TB).3rd Terrestrial Branch) and Ji-Chou (6th Celestial Stem and 2nd Terrestrial Branch). The “9 Regions” noted above are utilized to determine the localization of the energy of Ba Sheng (8 cardinal points).

435.top or bottom of the body. Therefore. This is why. and the maximal fullness of Yin energy and the longest night take place on the winter solstice (Dong Zhi). heat.N. spleen. the maximal fullness of Yang energy and longest day take place on the summer solstice (Xia Zhi). to Qui Fen”.The body of man responds to the “9 Regions”. _ The abdomen occurs at the center (of the body). ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. left and right of the human beings is divided into Yin and Yang: _ the top is Yang. This is why the 6 bowels and the 3 organs (liver. regions located between the hands and feet (upper and lower limbs) are attributed to Chun fen (spring equinox). uterus) respond to Dong Zhi (winter solstice). that is to say. in man. neck. This means to say also that the top and bottom. head and face respond to Xia Zhi (summer solstice) and the Yin (anus. kidney) respond to Zhong Gong (Central Palace). and below. This is why the thorax. In the course of the year. and the right. 2. and Yang rises up toward the top. Yin _ the left is Yang. each azimuth (1) is coordinated with the “Celestial Stem” day (Gan Zhi) in relationship to the position of the 8 cardinal points. warmth. to the emptiness and to the fullness of the 4 seasons allowing explanation of the theory of HeavenEarth-Man. and the bottom. _ The two lateral parts of the abdomen. These components are linked to climatic variations (cold. to Li Xia (beginning of summer). it is advised to treat by the method of evacuation during these days. to the right and left of the epigastrium (hypochondria). and the right hand. This is why. 1. the period during which day and night have the same duration. coolness). and the right (Yin) foot. the system of coordination of the human body responding to the “9 Regions” is based on the temporal positions of the “9 Palaces/8 “Marvels” which according to the “I Jing” (“Classic Book of Changes”) are linked to Yin and Yang and to the 5 Movements. the left (Yang) foot responds to Li Chun (beginning of spring). descent. to Yin and to Yang. to Li Dong (beginning of winter). the site of reunion of all Yin. summer. _ The cool climate of autumn and cold climate of winter belong to Yin and Yin descends. autumn and winter) _ and 9 days of entrance of Tai Yi (supreme unity) within the central palace of the “9 Palaces-8 “Marvels”.Here. This is why it is said: “The left hand responds to Chun Fen. 10 Celestial Stems (CS) and 12 Terrestrial 363 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . and Yin. in man. _ Above the lumbar region is the site of reunion of all Yang. and the left (Yang) hand.V. the irhgt (Yin) hand reponds to Li Qiu (beginning of autumn).: This paragraph speaks on the correspondences between the “9 Regions” of the body and the “time movements” of the year: _ 2 solstices (winter and summer) _ 2 equinoxes (spring and autumn) _ 4 seasonal beginnings (spring. within the year: _ The warm climate of spring and hot climate of summer belong to Yang. days that we call “forbidden celestial days” . Yin _ Yang govern ascent.

the “great forbidden days” designate the days during which Tai Yi (Supreme Unity) occurs at Wu (5th CS) and Ji (6th CS) belonging to Earth responding to the Central Palace (Zhong Gong). after Li Chun (beginning of spring). uterus) respond to the Kan (1) palace to the North.4th TB). The arc of the horizon measured clockwise from the south point in astronomy.6th TB). East. Therefore. the climatic (seasonal) energy corresponds to the North to which belongs that of the day Ren-Zi (9th CS . After Li Xia (beginning of summer). Northeast.10th TB). as a result.11th TB) and Ji-Hai (6th CS . Therefore.10th TB). spleen and kidney) and the 6 bowels. West. h) Zhong Gong (Central Palace) designates the abdomen.5th TB) and Ji-Si (6th CS . coccyx and 2 Yin respond to this energy. Soutwest. In effect. b) The left hypochondria responds to the Zhen (3) palace situated in the East. Kan (1). the climatic (seasonal) energy corrsesponds to that of the Northeast and to the days Yin (3rd TB) and Chou (2nd TB). g) The lumbars. After Chun Fen (spring equinox). that of the left hip responds to that energy.1st TB). Therefore.” Earth prospers at Si Gui (4 precious sides). coccyx and 2 Yin (anus. South. West). Therefore. that of the right hip responds to this energy.12th TB). c) the left hand responds to the Xun (4) palace situated in the Southeast. Therefore. the palace of the 4 angles (Northwest.Branches (TB). Northeast. a) The left foot responds to the Gen (8) palace located to the Northeast. that of the lumbars. Li (9). that of the right hand responds to this energy. New York: Random House. In this paragraph. 1. In this regard. the climatic (seasonal) energy corresponds to that of the East and to the day Yi-Mao (2nd CS . After Li Qiu (beginning of autumn). the site where Tai Yi (Supreme Unity) is located during its displacements. Kun (2). As for the palaces of the 4 sides (North. or from the north point in navigation. After Dong Zhi (winter solstice). the climatic (seasonal) energy corresponds to that ofthe Southeast and to the days Wu-Chen (5th CS . to the point where a vertical circle through a given heavenly body intersects the horizon (Random House Webster’s College Dictionary. Therefore. the climatic (seasonal) energy corresponds to that of the Northwest to which belongs that of the day Wu-Xu (5th CS .9th TB) and Ji-You (6th CS . e) The right hypochondria responds to the Diu (7) palace to the West. the “8 true winds” coming from the 8 cardinal directions. East. Therefore. Zhang Jing Yue furnishes us with the following explanations: “Qian (6). The number 9 designates the “9 Palaces” (Gong). the climatic (seasonal) energy corresponds to that of the Southwest and the days Wu-Shen (5th CS . the climatic (seasonal) energy corresponds to that of the West to which belongs that of the day Xin-You (8th CS .). 1997. 364 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Zhen (3) and Diu (7) are at the 4 sides: North. Gen (8) and Xun (4) are at the 4 angles: Northwest. Southeast) respond to Wu-Ji (5th CS . the 3 organs (liver. that of the left hand responds to this energy. Southeast. 436. that of the right foot responds to this energy. f) The right foot responds to the Qian (6) palace to the Northwest. South. Southwest. they each have a preponderant energy appropriate to them. that of the left foot responds to this energy. that is to say. After Qiu Fen (autumn equinox). and the term “8 Zheng”. This is why it is said: “The 3 organs and 6 bowels respond to Zhong Gong”. After Li Dong (beginning of winter). d) error in sequence/something missing? The right hand responds to the Kun (2) palace to the Southwest.6th CS).

Table of correlations between bodily regions and the "9 Palaces". 365 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . This is why it is the “master” of the top and bottom. it is recommended against to treat during the forbidden days at the risk of provoking an escaping of the source energy (Yuan Qi: essential energy). for example. in the event of abscesses. In this way. 437. The “forbidden days” constitute a key chapter in the practice of acupuncture which must be completed by the lecture of Chapter 73 (“Ability in the Practice of Acupuncture”) of the Lingshu and Chapter 23 (“Discourse on the Five Energies”) of the Suwen. left and right of the humna body.This true energy of Heaven and Earth govern that of man.

2) Right hypochondrion 3 organs and 6 bowels (abdomen) Left hand Beginning of summer (LI XIA) Beginning of autumn (LI QIU) Beginning of spring (LI CHUN) Beginning of winter (LI DONG) Wu .You (5th CS and Xth TB) Tai Yu occurs on days "Wu-Ji" (5th-6th CS) "Zhen" Palace (East .8) "Xun" Palace (Southeast .3) "Diu" Palace (West .7) "Center" Palace (Center .Si (5th CS and Vth TB) & (6th CS and VIth TB) Wu .Region of the Body Responses of Tai Yi Prohibited Days Orientations of the "9 palaces" "Li" Palace (South . head Summer solstice (XIA ZI) Winter solstice (DONG ZI) Bing .Yin and Ji .5) "Gen" Palace (Northeast .Chen and Ji . neck.Xu and Ji .1) Thorax.Wu (3rd CS and VIIth TB) Ren .Sen and Ji . .Mao (2nd CS and IVth TB) Xin .Wei (5th CS and IXth TB) & (6th CS and VIIIth TB) Wu .Zi (9th CS and Ist TB) Lumbar vertebrae and "2 Yin" (penis+anus) Left hypochondrion Spring equinox (CHUN FEN) Autumn equinox (QIU FEN) Yi .Hai (5th CS and XIth TB) & (6th CS and XIIth TB) Right hand Left foot Right foot PARAGRAPH 4 366 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only 438.Chou (5th CS and IIIrd TB) & (6th CS and IInd TB) Wu .4) "Qian" Palace (Northwest .6) "Kun" Palace (Southwest .9) "Kan" Palace (North .

• _ _ _ _ _ • _ _ _ _ _ • _ _ _ _ _ _ Among disturbances of the 5 organs: the heart governs eructations the lung. the disease generally manifests at the muscles and bones. diarrhea the bladder.In the indidivual whose unwell Xing is associated with a peaceful Jing Shen. Therapeutically. 3. Therapeutically. pyrosis (3) the kidney. 4. 2. The disease manifests by a loss of sensation (paresthesia. moxabustion is absolutely indicated. edema (anasarca).“1. cough the liver. the disease generally manifests at the level of the laryngo-pharyngeal organs. Therapeutically. the ascent of the energy (food) and hiccups the large and small intestines. yawning. Among disturbances of the 6 bowels: the gallbladder governs anger the stomach. smoothing adoucissants/sweetened?√ medicines are recommended. lithopuncture is indicated. urinary incontinence the Sanjaio. 5. Heartburn. • Among the 5 Gatherings: _ the gathering of the Jing (quintessence) within the liver causes melancholy _ the gathering of the Jing within the heart gives rise to laughter 367 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Abnormal or pathologic garrulousness.In individuals whose Wing and Jing Shen are simultaneously unwell. 3.In individuals in states of frequent and repetitive fright. the stomach. the disease generally manifests at the Jingmai (principal channels). the lung sweet. the circulation of the Jinmai (tendinomuscular channels) is blocked. Among the 5 Sapors: the sour sapor first reaches the liver bitter. the heart spicy. acid reflux. the kidney tasteless/bland. 2. the disease generally manifests at the flesh (dermis).In individuals whose peaceful Xing is associated with an unwell Jing Shen. the application of warm poultices (medications with calorific properties) and Qigong are advised. the spleen salty. massage with fermented (alcohol) medications are indicated. Therapeutically. logorrhea (2) the spleen.In the individual whose peaceful Xing (bodily form) is associated with an unwell Jing Shen (mental). numbness). Therapeutically.

in winter the Yin disease. rhinorrhea (nasal mucus) the kidney. vertigo. • Among the 5 Fatigues: _ fatigue of the eyes affects the blood _ exaggeration of the/the lying-stretched out position taken to extremes harms the energy _ “ seated position injures the muscles _ “ standing position affects the bones _ “ walking harms the tendons. the blood _ the salty sapor. tears the lung. into the Yang causes Dian Xi (delerious into the Yin causes mutism (Yin) into Yang gives rise to calm. the energy _ the bitter sapor. Among the 5 Secretions: the heart governs sweat the liver. in summer. humidity. dryness the spleeb. anger..(unmotivated. incessant) _ the gathering of the Jing within the lung provokes affliction _ the gathering of the Jing within the kidney causes fright _ the gathering of the Jing within the spleen bringa about preoccupation.. • Among the 5 Precipitations (Great Hastes): _ the sour sapor quickens se precipite the tendons _ the spicy sapor. • _ _ _ _ _ Among the 5 Suppressions: the sour sapor is suppressed in ailments of the energy the bitter sapor is suppressed in ailments of the blood the salty sapor is suppresses in ailments of the bones the Yang disease. • _ _ _ _ _ • _ _ _ _ _ Among the 5 Aversions: the liver fears wind the heart. drool the spleen. and Yin 368 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . cold the kidney. the bones _ the sweet sapor. • Among the 5 Perverse (Wu _ perverse energy infiltrating madnesses. heat the lung.) _ perverse energy infiltrating _ perverse energy infiltrating leaving/exiting Yang. 439. agitated madnesses) _ perverse energy infiltrating blood) _ perverse energy infiltrating diseases like headache. 5 Perverse Energies): into the Yang causes the Kuang disease (Yang into the Yin causes Xue Bi (obstruction of 440. sialorrhea (saliva). the flesh. Xie.

much blood and not much energy the Shaoyin. much energy and not much blood. one disperses the energy and not the blood. the Po (sensitive soul) the spleen. The Foot Taiyang (Bl) is in Biao-Li (external-internal) relationship with the Foot Shaoyin (Ki). master of the tendons and muscles the spleen. master of the flesh (dermis) the kidney. During the needling of Taiyang. Among the 3 Yin and 3 Yang: the Yangming has much blood and energy the Taiyang. 441.” Biao-Li (external-internal) relationships of the 369 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . master of the skin the liver. one disperses the blood and energy. This is why it is said: “During the needling of Yangming. Such are the Yin-Yang. During the needling of Shaoyin. one disperses the blood and not the energy. • The Hand Shaoyang (SJ) is in Biao-Li (external-internal) relationship with the Hand Jueyin (XB). The Foot Shaoyang (GB) is in Biao-Li (external-internal) relationship with the Foot Jueyin (Li). the Yi (thought. the Hun (vegetative soul). master of the bones. the Jing (quintessence) and Chi (will) the liver.• _ _ _ _ _ • _ _ _ _ _ • _ _ _ _ _ _ Among the 5 Receivings: the heart receives the Shen (mental) the lung. During the needling of Jueyin. channels of the hand. much blood and not much energy the Jueyin. • The Foot Yangming (St) is in Biao-Li (external-internal) relationship with the Foot taiyin (Sp). reflection) the kidney. one disperses the blood and not the energy. During the needling of Shaoyang. much blood and not much energy the Shaoyang. Such are the Yin-Yang. • The Hand Yangming (LI) is in Biao-Li (external-internal) relationship with the Hand Taiyin (Lu). one disperses the blood and not the energy. • The Hand Taiyang (SI) is in Biao-Li (external-internal) relationship with the Hand Shaoyin (He). much energy and not much blood the Taiyin. Biao-Li (external-internal) relationships of the channels of the foot. one disperses the energy and not the blood. Among the 5 Masters: the heart is master of the vessels the lung. During the needling of Taiyin.

The heart governs eructation. mucus and drool”. 370 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . As a result. 2.Tasteless/bland sapor.The “5 Gatherings” designate the 5 flowingsaffluences√ of the Jing (quintessence) of the organ toward another organ in a state of emptiness which triggers a specific pathology. Cao Shi Tong indicates: “The 5 organs absorb the dietary Jing and secretes it in the form of liquid at the level of the external orifices. disturbances of the upper region of the stomach include those of the heart. eructation is due to the flooding/afflux of the energy of the stomach hindering digestive metabolism√√. it is associated with Earth (spleen). In contrast. the process of triggering of these two pathologic phenomena is different and their treatment must be distinct.N. In this way. It is not part of the group of “5 Sapors” because. Clinically. sweat. before penetrating into the stomach. the flowing of the Jing of the other 4 organs toward the liver in a state of emptiness causes melancholy (sadness).: 1.EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. insert figure 4. Therefore. It is the same for the other flowings. 5. 442. each organ has its own appropriate function of transformation and secretion of dietary Jing: tears. it therefore is of the same type as the sweet sapor. According to our ancient masters.Regading the “5 Secretions”.V.Each organs has an aversion: _ the liver fears wind because the wind contracts the muscles _ the heart fears heat because the heat injures blood vessels _ the lung fears cold because the cold impedes the circulation of the energy _ the kidney fears dryness because it likes coolness _ the spleen fears humidity because it likes dryness. 3. anger provoked by a blockage of the energy of Liver Yin or by a dysequilibrium between the energy of the liver and that of the gallbladder (liver in emptiness amd gallbladder in fullness). for example. saliva.

_ the prolonged standing position harms the lumbar vertebrae and bones.Regarding the “5 Fatigues”. 8. Wan Xun mentions: “Prolonged staring is detrimental to the Shen (mental).6.In dietetics. It governs the blood and its diseases generally manifest at the level of the blood vessels. It governs the osseous system and its diseases generally manifest at he level of the bony marrow. The spleen likes movement. _ the prolonged seated position harms the flesh. This is why. This is why it harms the energy. It governs the flesh (dermis) and its diseases generally manifest at the level of the dermal system. The prolonged lying position the energetic circulation. 9.The “5 Sapors” are the Jing released during food metabolism. _ the liver is a Yang organ. In effect. It responds to autumn and Yin diseases of the lung start in the summer. _ the spleen is a Yin organ. This is why it can injure the blood. It governs spring and Yang diseases of the liver start in winter. 7. _ the kidney is a Yin organ. the distributor organ of the dietary Jing. 371 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Here. the term “5 Pathologic Manifestations” implies diseases of the 5 organs. the corresponding sapor of the ill organ must be suppressed or diminished. Before being directed to the corresponding organs. they first reach the spleen. _ the kidney is a Yin organ. insert figure 443. _ prolonged walking injures muscles and tendons”. _ the heart is a Yang organ.

Yin and Yang. lose their connection. their energy grows weaker first at the bottom. the clinical manifestations are not apparent. vertigo. it descends..D. and Yin energy governs descent and pssses from right to left. when they respond to Yin. It is the same for the energy of autumn and winter. whether the prientation of the energy is toward excess or toward insufficiency. hence one sees nothing.. Young people affected by this disease die in autumn. in emptiness. and the bottom. we read in Chapter 80 (“Essay on the Orientation of the Energy Toward Excess and Insufficiency”) of the Suwen: Leigong: “Considering the excessive and insufficient states of the energy. the signs and pulses follow Yin. it originates then from the bottom. the energy of spring and that of summer responding to Yang are favorable and make life.) gives the following explanation: “ The energy belonging to Yang (man) and located to the left is favorable.In past times. If they become directed toward Yin with Yin signs and pulses. 372 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .) caused by disturbances of the ascent and descent of the energy. This is why. from the feet to the knees becomes cold. they are contrary and make death. it originates then from the top.D. like a man living in a desert or shut up in an empty room. In the very old.10.” From his point of view. autumn and winter. this is life. The disease continues to worsen and generally survival does not exceed one day. this is death. independently of abundance and shortage. their energy occuring at the top is favorable. but the old can survive. Likewise. their energy is in fullness at the bottom. their energy occuring at the bottom is favorable. one utilized the term Dian Xi (delerious. provoking headache of the vertex whose Yin-Yang origin is difficult to determine because this ailment originates from the separation of the energies of the 5 organs. and that belonging to Yin (woman) and located to the right is favorable. wild diseases) to desugnate diseases of the cephalic region ( headache. which is favorable and which is unfavorable?” Huangdi: “Yang energy governs ascent and passes from left to right. Regarding this. they are favorable and make life. if they are oriented toward Yin as in autumn and winter. In this case.) continues: 444. the two energies.” Leigong: “Can energetic excess cause Jue disease?” Huangdi: “When the Yin energy has ascended and cannot descend. In young people. the contrary is the single cause of the disease of afflux/ flooding (Jue). When the Yang energy has ascended and cannot descend. it ascends.” Zhang Zhongjing (150-210 A. Therefore. Because old people have less appetite. the top is in fullness. the contrary is always the cause of Jue disease (afflux/flooding). In contrast. the signs and pulses follow Yang. Young people often engage in lust. Spring and summer. this is life. Zhang Jing Yue (1563-1640 A. In this manner.

Body and Mind”) of the Suwen. Likewise. flooding (afflux) can be of Yin or Yang origin. The pulses and signs then are of Yang nature. • _ _ _ _ _ _ _ The Jing of the kidney has seven functions: anatomic function: bones function of the “7 orifices”: hearing (ears) psychologic function: Chi (will) calorific function (organic heat) cooling function (organic cold) genetic function (heredity) sexual function (procreation). it is not necessarily caused by a fullness of Yin”.Each organ possesses Jing (quintessence) of different functions. “Yi” (thought. they are contrary and fatal. 12. 373 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . In this manner. when it is Yin.“Spring and summer are the two periods of production of blood. reflection) and “Chi” (will) is clarified in Chapter 8 (“Origin of the Mental”) of this classic.The definitions of the words “Shen” (mental). 13. But in this paragraph. The Jing of the liver has a triple function: anatomic function: muscels and tendons function of the “7 orifices”: visual acuity (eyes) psychologic function: Hun (vegetative soul). it is not inevitably due to a fullness of Yang. The Jing of the spleen has a triple function: anatomic function: dermis function of the “7 orifices”: taste (lips) psychologic function: Yi (thought) 445. we find a slightly different explanation from that cited in Chapter 65 (“The 5 Musical Notes and 5 Sapors”) of the Lingshu and Chapter 24 (“Energy and Blood. • _ _ _ • _ _ _ • _ _ _ • _ _ _ The Jing of the heart has a triple function: anatomic function: blood vessels function of the “7 orifices”: speech (tongue) psychologic function: Shen (mental). If they reveal a Yin nature as during autumn and winter. “Po” (sensitive soul).The excess and insufficiency of blood and energy are the two criteria that permit directing therapy toward tonification or dispersion during acupuncture. 11. The Jing of the lung has a triple function: anatomic function: epidermis function of the “7 orifices”: olfaction (nose) psychologic function: Po (sensitive soul). In man. “Hun” (vegetative soul). When it is Yang.

Nevertheless. 1 . 2) A table of classification of the properties and functions of of the 5 organs mentioned in this chapter. Ynagming. Shaoyang. Shaoyin) for the purpose of research.Comparative table of the 12 channels 374 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 446. the analysis of commentaries au fils of the centuries of our old masters show that the notions cited in the Suwen are correct. We present below two tables: 1) A comparative table of three different chapters from classic works concerning excess and insufficiancy of blood and energy at the level of the 3 Yin and 3 Yang (Taiyang. Jueyin. Taiyin.

Lingshu _ much blood _ little energy _ little blood _ much energy _ much blood _ little energy _ much blood _ little energy _ little blood _ much energy _ much blood _ little energy Chapter of Sing Shu _ much blood _ little energy _ little blood _ much energy _ much blood _ little energy _ much blood _ little energy _ much blood _ little energy _ little blood _ much energy Chapter of Suwen _ much blood _ little energy _ little blood _ much energy _ much blood _ little energy _ little blood _ much energy _ little blood _ much energy _ much blood _ little energy 2 .6 Channels Taiyang (SI and Bl) Shaoyang (SJ and GB) Yangming (LI and St) Taiyin (Lu and Sp) Jueyin (XB and Li) Shaoyin (He and Ki) Chapter 76.Table of classification of properties/functions of the 5 organs 375 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

376 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .5 Organs Energy of the 5 organs Energy of the 6 bowels Liver-Wood logorrhea Heart-Fire eructation Spleen-Earth regurgitation Lung-Metal cough Kidney-Water yawning Bl governs urinary incontinence salty GB governs anger SI governs diarrhea bitter Stomach governs hicups sweet LI governs diarrhea spicy 5 Sapors sour 5 Gatherings (of Jing) malancholy causeless laughter heat preoccupation affection fright 5 Aversions wind humidity dryness cold 5 Secretions tears sweat saliva mucus drool 5 Fatigues exaggerated walk: muscles & tendons sour --> muscles & tendons eye fatigue: blood bitter --> blood p rolonged seated exaggerated lying exaggerated position: flesh position: energy standing position: bones sweet --> flesh spicy --> energy salty --> bones 5 Precipitations 5 Suppressions suppress sour sapor Hun (vegetative soul) Muscles & tendons suppress bitter suppress sweet sapor sapor Shen (mental) Vessels Yi (thought) Flesh suppress spicy sapor Po (sensitive soul) Skin suppress salty sapor Chi (will) Bones 5 Receivings 5 Masters 447.

At the end of each “day-night” cycle. _ the “3 Emptinesses” and the “3 Fullnesses” in the determination of disease. The explanation for the title of this chapter is given by Ma Shi: “In this chapter is found the phrase: “The simultaneous meeting of wind and rain bears the name “meeting of the year with dew”. “Years and Dew” (Zue Lo). PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi questions Qi Bo: “According to the classics: “In summer.. and in autumn. heat strikes us. _ perverse energy in a latent state and recent perverse energy. _ the methods of observation of wind (Feng) on the 1st day of the month of January (day of the lunar year) in the determination of prognosis of diseases during the 4 seasons. the Wei ( d e f e n s i v e ) energy gathers at Fengfu (GV 16) . the Nue disease (Cold-Heat: fever-chills) is triggered ( 1 ) . the perverse energy descends along the paravertebral muscles (Lu). Qi Bo: “At the level of Fengfu (GV 16).. and the following days. What is its cause?” 448.CHAPTER LXXIX Years and Dew (Zue Lo) Chapter 79 of the Lingshu develops numerous ideas: _ the physiology and early and late causes of the periodic bouts and intermittent nature of the disease Nue (Fever/Chills). It manifests by periodic bouts of fever and chills”. hence the title. it descends 377 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .” This chapter contains 7 paragraphs.

Because the Wei energy progressively returns toward the top. 378 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .. it emerges at the point located between the two Quepen (St 12. it penetrates inot the interior and follows the Fuchong ( 2 ) vessel to the top. By the 21st day. Here. the bouts of fever and chills cannot manifest daily. Such is the relationship of cause to effect concerning the perverse energy during its attack at the level of the spinous muscles. an intermittent disease. As a result.. the periods of bouts of fever and chills are gradually earlier. As for the Wei (defensive) energy.. if the perverse energy. it descends one vertebrae each day. perverse heat infiltrates into the organism and remains in a latent state until autumn to trigger the Nue disease (fever and chills). Here.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . the sweat glands open up and the perverse energy profits to infiltrate into the interior and trigger bouts of fever and chills. As a result. it arrives at the coccyx.” 2. In contrast. but only at the end of 2 days. “Fuchong” is an internal vessel of the Chongmai (see Figure 1). its circulatory movements are slowed down. upon its arrival at Fengfu (GV 16).one verterba each day. it is instead a question of an energetic disease caused by a seasonal energy of the latent type. supraclavicular crease). the trajectory is long and the penetration deep. in this case. This term translated by sinologists is not entirely exact because “paludism” is an infectious disease provoked by a specific hematozooan inoculated by the sting of a mosquito that is a member of the Anopheles species (Anopheles maculipennis). This is why daily boiuts of fever and chills gradually become less frequent. 449. By the 9th day. and by the 22nd day. it is does not involve “paludism” (malaria). the daily bouts are gradually slowed. This is why each day that the Wei energy arrives at Fengfu (GV 16). via the routes of the Jingluo (principal and secondary channels) reaches the 5 organs which adjoin the peritoneum.” 1. The Suwen states thusly: “In summer.Ma Shi explains: “The content of this paragraph is similar to Paragraph 3 of Chapter 35 (“Discourse on the “Fever-Chills” Disease”). It is advised to consult it carefully.

: Some words used in this paragraph merit clarification..Figure 1: Circulatory path of perverse energy and Wei Qi (defensive energy) at the level of the Dumai (GV) and Chongmai. Once it has arrived at the coocyx.. 379 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . 2.N. Its name indicates that it is runs along the antero-interior surface of the spine. II . According to Zhang Jing Yue: “Fuchong is a branch of the curious channel Chongmai.T 1 before diverting toward Tiantu (CV 22) (3). 449. According to the “Jia-I Jing” (? Boof of Changes?). the word “Lu” designates the 2 muscular rows located to the 2 sides of the spine where the Foot Taiyang (Bl) and the Luo vessels of the Dumai (GV) circulate.” (Figure 1).N. the Wei energy works its way into the interior to reach Fuchong which conducts it to the level of C7 . 1.V. 450. The translation “vertebral column” is not loyal to the text and deceives the practice of acupuncture. point located at the superior border of the manubrium in a crease.

edition.: Here.V. while that of N u e is intermittent.N. the state of cold and heat of the organism. This is why the zone of penetration of perverse energy is also that of the manifestation of the disease. The arrival of the Wei Qi at the location of the perverse energy is necessary to trigger the opening of the pores. Wind u s u a l l y remains at the fixed place while N u e follows the Jingluo (principal and secondary channels) to progressively pentrate to the organs. But the site of meeting of the Wei Qi and the perverse energy changes each day by one vertebrae. It follows the channels to carry out movement of entry and exit and wait for the Wei (defensive) energy to trigger bouts of fever and cills.” II . But the fever caused by W i n d is continuous. 380 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . FeverC h i l l s ) have a reciprocal relationship. it creates a reactive phenomena that triggers the bouts of fever and chills. “Fu” means “place.” Huangdi: “Exactly! The disease of Wind (Feng) and that of Nue (Cold-Heat.N. In effect.N. Whose specific actions are mentioned in “Medicine Traditionelle Chinoise”. Nue is a perverse energy belonging to the wind and cold. to heat and humidity. it becomes fixed in the Yang (external) parts of the body. As a result. 451. spot” (palace) of penetration of perverse energy. the periods of bouts of fever and chills do not coincide with the arrival of the Wei Qi at Fengfu (GV 16). Chapter 2 (“Origin of the Shu (Antique) Points”) of this classic clarifies: “The point located between the 2 Quepen (St 12) belongs to the Renmai (CV). This is why. there is not any site of penetration of perverse energy into the body having the name Fengfu. It bears the name Tiantu (CV 22).” 3.3.Zhang Shi explains: “Wind (Feng) is the perverse Yang of Heaven. As a result. How do you explain that?” Qi Bo: “The 2 Fengfu (Palace of the Wind) do not have a very specific localization.” PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “Each time the Wei Qi (defensive energy) arrives at Fengfu (GV 16). Its basic actions are to modify the state of Yin and Yang. N. Huangdi: “Absolutely!” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . Why?” Qi Bo: “Once within the organism.V. the word “Fengfu” does not designate the point Fengfu (GV 16) of the Dumai (GV). when the Wei energy arrives at the place of fixation of N u e . it causes the opening of the pores favoring the penetration of perverse energy to trigger disease. when it penetrates into the organism.

In brief.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 381 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . for example: _ when the perverse energy penetrates into the cranio-cervical region. the bouts appear upon the arrival of the Wei energy into this region. the signs of emptiness and fullness are not the same and the site of penetration of the perverse energy is different. When it is involves cold. In contrast. Therefore. when the pores are tightly closed. in this case. Qi Bo states: “Perverse energy infiltrates into the cranio-cervical region. But it acts at the time of opening of the pores when it takes advantage of the emotiness in order to deeply infiltrate into the interior. and when it involves heat. the bouts appear upon the arrival of the Wei into this region. the appearance of the bouts takes place at the time of passage of the Wei energy into the region affected by the perverse energy. Must the perverse wind be associated with cold and heat or must it await the emptiness of the organism and the perverse energy of the “8 Climatic Periods of the 4 Seasons” ( 4 ) in order to trigger disease?” 452. Paragraph 4. cold and heat. This is why the bouts do not take place at the moment of the arrival of the Wei energy into Fengfu. _ when the perverse energy penetrates into the region of the limbs. the site of infiltration of perverse energy is not constant. This is why.W i n d does not attack man at fixed seasonal periods. the response of the Wei energy to the perverse energy results in two key factors: opening of the pores and the site of induction of the perverse energy which is also the site of manifestation of the disease. the evolutive process of the disease is extremely rapid. runs alongside the vertebral column and is directed toward the bottom. greatly open. the skin and hair are lax.In Chapter 35 (“Discourse on “Fever-Chills” Disease”). of the Suwen. and the pores. Therefore. very tightly closed. the bouts appear upon the arrival of the Wei into this region. even if there is an attack of perverse energy.” PARAGRAPH 3 Huangdi questions Shao Yu: “ I have heard you say that the “8 Winds of the 4 Seasons” infiltrates into the organism to create two different energetic states. In this way. Shao Yu: “Obviously not! The P i r a t e . the disease is superficial ans slight and its evolution is relatively slow. the skin and hair are taut. and the pores. _ when the perverse energy penetrates into the dorso-lumbar region.

Zhang Shi explains: “The 4 Seasons have their Cold and their Heat in alternation. During the infiltration of Wind Cold into the organism. Zhang Jing Yue clarifies: “The perverse wind can penetrate into the organism without waiting for the “8 Climatic Periods of the 4 Seasons” during which the perverse energy takes advantage of the energy of the body to create the disease.” II . one distiguishes Cold-Wind and Heat-Wind. the perverse energy also can infiltrate into the organism when the pores are closed. Volume II. N.: This paragraph speaks about the infiltration of wind into the organism.N. causal factor of the triggering of disease. the skin and hair are flaccid. 4. 382 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .N. See Chapter 26 (“Incidence of the 8 Principal Rhythms on Human Energy”) of the Suwen. But. Obviously.8 Astronomic Rhythms”. The pernicious energies of the “8 Climatic Periods of the 4 Seasons” are called ““Pirate-Wind” . Among the “8 Winds”. As for “Pirate-Wind”. it infiltrates only into organism if the energy of the body is in a state of emptiness and not due to the opening/closure of the pores provoked by the cold and heat. disease can suddenly occur. In this regard.V.V. the disease is superficial. hence the seriousness and rapid evolution of the disease.Perverse Energy”. Principle based on macrocosmic phenomena consisting of determining the favorable or unfavorable state of Wind coming from the 8 direcions of the cosmos (8 cardinal points) with the purpose of predicting the quality of rice harvest. This is why. This principle is still more commonly used by Oriental agriculturists than Western ones.I . Edition.N. This paragraph clearly distiguishes the orientation and location of Tai Yi (Great Principle of the 1st Celestial Stem) (5) already mentioned in previous chapters of this classic. and the pores. In that case. the opening and closing of the pores and the contraction and relaxation of the skin are not linked to climatic variation. hence the benignness and slow evolutioon of the disease. What is the cause of this?” Shao Yu: “ D i d √n’a-t-elle pas eu His Majesty not have knowledge of the cause of attack of perverse energy?” In individuals leading a normal life. We have translated it as “4 Seasons . open.” Huangdi: “Could you explain it to me in detail?” Shao Yu: “Man exists in relationship to Heaven and Earth and rsponds to the sun and moon.” 453. PARAGRAPH 4 Huangdi: “Even in some individuals well-adapted to the cold and heat and endowed with a properly closed sweat gland system. 5. the opening of the pores favors the penetration of perverse energy and the disease is deep. the skin and hair are tense and the pores closed and during the infiltration of Heat-Wind.

. Shao Yu bases his judgment on the Yin nature of the West (Occidental) and the Yang nature of the East (Oriental) to explain the high seas and low seas caused by the movements of lunar and solar attraction according to very specific periods (full moon and waning moon) (Figure 2). the water of the sea is abundant to the West. without being able to penetrate deeply to the interior.V..” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 454. the blood and energy are plethoric. the flesh and muscles are firm. the blood and energy are in insufficiency and the Wei (defensive) energy disperses.. the skin is lax and the pores are open.: 1.. Figure 2: 383 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it becomes localized superficially._ at the full moon.N. N. the bodily form assumes its usual appearance. In this period. the substance is dilute. _ when the moon is waning. the body hair and head hair dry out and the cutaneous folds are sparse. the Pirate-Wind can infiltrate deeply into the interior to trigger fatal disease. in man.. the hair is long and firm and the skin is covered with a substance (sebum). Upon encountering the Pirate-Wind (perverse energy). the water of the seas is abundant to the East.. In this paragraph. but the flesh and muscles are weaker. at the exterior.

the moon in a waning period (6) and the climatic energy (of the 4 seasons) in disequilibrium from Pirate-Wind (perverse energy) within the organism are the “3 Emptinesses”. the perverse energy cannot attack them. “Jiao”). The human body and the water of the seas follow the rhythm od emptiness and fullness of the moon.” Huangdi: “I would like you to tell me about the “3 Shao Emptinesses. the full moon and the balanced climatic energy are the “3 Fullnesses” (San Shi) which do not permit the PirateWind to penetrate into the human body. Such are the phenomena due to an insufficiency of Yin and excess of Yang. in individuals affected by the “3 Fullnesses”(San Shi). The sea of the West (Occidental: Atlantic Ocean) is Yin. Naturally. The moon is Yin responding to water.” 455. it concerns here an irrefutable reasoning coming from the impulse of the heart√ √ . The moon is Yin.” Huangdi: “Your explanation is excellent! I desire that this be dranw up in the “Coffer of Gold” under the name San Shi (3 Fullnesses). the sea of the West (Atlantic Ocean) is plethoric. the disease is fatal and death occurs suddenly.Phenomena of lunar attraction. here is the explanation of Zhang Shi: “The cutaneous folds are the sites of gahering of small vessels (capillaries) coming from the Sanjiao (SJ). and at the waning moon. and others serious diseases which manifest loudly. 2. Yang Shang Tian clarifies: “The sun is Yang. As a result. the physician who ignores the “3 Emptinesses” is a poor practitioner. Why?” Shao Yu: “In individuals affected by the “3 Emptinesses” (San Xu) . The moon has its full and empty phases. This is why they have the name Jiao Li (paths of Jiao: “heater”. This is why.” Huangdi: “And the “3 Shao Fullnesses” ? ” Yu: “The excess of annual energy (Nian Shi). The sea of the East (Oriental: Pacific Ocean) is Yang.” PARAGRAPH 5 Huangdi: “Some individuals affected by severe diseases die suddenly. Regarding the cutaneous folds. at the full moon.” Yu: “The annual energy in a state of insufficiency (Xu Nian). In contrast. ” 384 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the sea of the East (Pacific Ocean) is plethoric.

N.N.” II . If this wind and rain comes from the South. See definition in Chapter 73 (“Study on the Origin of Disease”) in the Suwen. Volume III. This is why. in that year cette annee-la. upon the simultaneous encounter of the year whose energy is in insufficiency (Xu Nian) from the moon in a waning period and disequilibrated climatic energy. that is to say.EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 456. 457. Edition. 8 Energetic Divisions” (Si Shi Ba Cheng) (8).Zhang Shi explains: “The “insufficiency of the annual energy (Xu Nian)” designates the deficiencies of the 6 energies belonging to Si Tian: Tiquan (7).V. directly to the organs to trigger sudden death. poorly. The “climatic energy in disequilibrium” explains the abnormal state of the energy of the 4 seasons. First and last quarter of the moon. they are harmful and bear the name Xu Feng (Vicious Wind). they cannot attack them. the Wei energy becomes unstable. ” Huangdi: “How Shao is this energy observed?” Yu: “One usually observes this climatic energy on the Dong Zhi day (winter solstice).: This paragraph stresses the basic notions of diagnosis and treatment of energetic Oriental medicine: “3 Emptinesses and 3 Fullnesses”. PARAGRAPH 6 Huangdi: “I would like to know how in some years many people are affected by the same illness?” Shao Yu: “This originates from the energetic state of the “4 Seasons. with the sun and moon.protected people are eaisly prone to attack by Xu Feng . this is why in that year ill individuals are very numerous. the period during which Tai Yi (Great One: Supreme Unity) is displaced to the He Xi (Palace of Hibernation) and causes reactive phenomena of Heaven. I . from wind and rain. sick individuals are relatively few in number. 385 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . If they occur in the middle of night when people are asleep. N. As a result. 7. In contrast.V. The Wei Qi (defensive energy) is constantly in relationship with Heaven and Earth. 6. The Wei Qi has the function of protecting and consolidating the external part of the body. if they come in the middle of the day. When it is in a state of emptiness.N. the pore open up and allow the perverse energy to penetrate brutally into the organism.

_ on the Li Chun (beginning of spring) day. This is why windy and rainy years bear the name “Years and Dew” (Zue Lo). N. ill individuals are numerous and mortality is higher. The year during which the wind and rain arrive conforming to the previous date of the season is 386 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .. ill individuals are not very numerous and mortality is minute. the energy of the body begins to arsie/be born√. Xu Feng and latent perverse energy. battle between themselves and provoke a change in the energy at the level of the Jingluo. the wind comes from the South. during its attack. the wind comes from the West.8 Astronomic Rhythms”. for example: _ on the Dong Zhi (winter solstice) day. hence disease. if the energy of the year is in discordance. the period of growth of Yang and the opening of the pores. the simultaneous meeting of wind and rain have the name “Meeting of the Year with the Dew”. If the energy of the year is harmonious.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . In this way. Edition. . 2. 458.Zhang Shi explains: “1. We have translated it as “4 Seasons . Therefore. hence disease. there is little Pirate-Wind.But Xu Feng. in this period. See Chapter 26 (“Incidence of the 8 Principal Rhythms on Human Energy”) of the Suwen. The “8 Energetic Divisions” (Ba Cheng) are: _ Dong Zhi (winter solstice) _ Xia Zhi (summer solstice) _ Chun Fen (spring equinox) _ Qiu Fen (autumn equinox) _ Li Chun (beginning of spring) _ Li Xia (beginning of summer) _ Li Qiu (beginning of autumn) _ Li Dong (beginning of winter). at the Zi hour (23h-1h). Volume II.. the wind comes from the West. and rain is “dew” (Lo) which also comes from Heaven. In effect: _ on Dong Zhi (winter solstice).V. In contrast.N. These winds fuse with the latent perverse energy and block the circulation of the Jingluo. 8. If. These noxious winds are harmful to health. Clearly determine the position of the “8 energetic divisions” to observe the arrival of the wind and rain. Wind is the energy of Heaven. the Yang energy of the body increasesnd the pores open up favoring a new penetration of wind coming from the West. The 2 perverse energies. infiltrates up to the bone and remains in a latent state until Li Chun (Beginning of Spring). This is why the perverse wind is able to penetrate deeply to the bones and remain there ina latent state. _ on Li Chun (beginning of spring). (see Footnote 4). they is much PirateWind. people are attacked again by Xu Feng.

perverse Heat infiltrates into the organism and remains in a latent state until autumn to trigger the disease of Cold-Heat (fever-chills). Example: the year. the latent perverse energy can manifest via its own movements. display an opening of their pores.N. perverse cold easily infiltrates by this sweat gland route. During these periods of birth/growth of Yang. sometimes. our explanation is the following: Perverse energies can penetrate at a specific moment into the organism and remain there in a latent state waiting for the favorable time to manifest.V. if the wind and rain are contrary to the season. hence weakness localized to certain regions favoring the infiltration of perverse energy. dominated by noxious wind and rebellious rain weakens beings and things. the year is unstable. diseases of latent perverse energy manifest in spring and summer. if at the starting phase. is “Zue Lo” (rainy and windy dew or “year of dew”). sometimes. These assertions clarify the duration of incubation of perverse energies and their periods of manifestation. as indicated in the Suwen (Chapter 5“Phenomena of Correspondences of Yin and Yang”): “In winter. In individuals displaying a weakness of the energy of the kidney.harmonious. In clinical practice. But. In summer. free to insert itself into the epidermodermal tissue fibers. some individuals. perverse Wind infiltrates into the organism and remains in a latent state until summer to trigger diarrhea. If the signs of recent perverse energy are followed by signs of chronic disease. In contrast. In autumn.N. perverse Cold infiltrates into the organism and remains in a latent state until spring to trigger the disease of heat. the people are joyous and individuals rarely are ill.” II . 2. b. perverse Humidity infiltrates into the organism and remains in a latent state until winter to trigger cough”. According to Yang Shang Zian: “Spring-like dew” (Chun Lo)controls the reproduction of the “thousand beings”.” For example: a. 459. this incubation is rendered possible by poor bodily and a diminished capacity of defense of the organism. it is recent perverse energy which has activated the latent perverse energy. In contrast.” 387 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . in the absence of signs of latent perverse energy. during marked sweating (from excessive practice of physical activities). The ancient classics say in this regard: “The site of emptiness is the site of infiltration of perverse energy. In relation to the latent perverse energy. In spring. In a general way. latent heat of summer only declares itself during the meeting of the “cool” energy of autumn. this is the sign of auto-manifestation of latent perverse energy.: 1. latent perverse energy is activated by a new infiltration of perverse energy and triggers disease. perverse cold penetrates into the organism and resides in the Shaoyin (Ki) channel. in autumn. In the majority of cases. patients are numerous ane mortality rises. and “autumnal dew” (Qiu Lo) governs the destruction of the “thousand things”. noxious wind is rare. In winter. the disease manifests by serious signs like very high fever evolving toward the syndrome “Fire-Dryness of the Yin Root”. In one year there are 2 types of “dew” (Lo). the key point is to base one’s judgment on the duration and seriousness of the symptoms in order to distinguish “latent perverse energy” from “recent perverse energy”.

at dawn of the 1st day of the month of January. How do you distiguish and prognosticate them?” Shao Yu: “On the 1st day of the month (lunar) of January. mortality is elevated. the people are in good health. the harvest is abundant and the price of rice is low. on the 1st day of the month of January. in spring of that year many individuals are affected by serious diseases that can lead to death. the summer of that year. If. 388 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .PARAGRAPH 7 Huangdi: “Noxious wind causes benign or serious diseases. and sand and gravel. many people are ill. If. the wind occurs from the East. at the close of the 1st day of the month of January. on the 1st day of the month of January. the wind occurs from the South bearing the name Han Xiang (indicator of dryness) and the wind of the West bearing the name Bai Gu (white bone) . during the entire day of the 1st day of the month of January. all the country is in great disaster. houses are strongly secured. at noon of the 1st day of the month of January. morality is elevated. mortality is elevated. if this day. in spring of that year. at dawn of the 1st day of the month of January. the wind occurs from the North. the increased number of patients is estimated at 3 out of 10. If the wind oocurs from the Northwest on this day. If. the climate is mild and without wind. If. all the country is in misfortnem a l h e u r . In contrast. If. numerous are the individuals affected by serious disease with an estimated mortailty of 6 out of 10. • If. the mortality is elevated. the wind occurs from the North. without rain. If. the weather is cold and windy. Tai Yi (Grand One) is located at Tian Lu (Palace of Celestial Circulation). the wind occurs from the Southeast. the harvest is poor and the price of rice is expensive. the wind occurs from the North. If. mortality is raised. the wind occurs from the North. 460. stirred up. on the 1st day of the month of January. on the 1st day of the month of January. If. the wind occurs from the North. the autumn of that year.

this originates from the voctory of the Yin energy preventing the development of the Yang energy.Such are the manifestations of wind in a year permitting prediction of the arrival of the perverse energy.N. if the wind is absent on the Chou (2nd TB) day. On the Shen (9th Terrestrial Branch) day of the 10th month. the people are affected by numerous severe and sudden diseases. since antiquity. are part of the group called “Abnormal Perverse Wind” . the people are affected by numerous diseases of Dan Re (icterus). carrying away sand and gravel. the people are affected by many diseases. 389 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . On the Si (6th terrestrail Branch) day of the 4th month. breaking trees. no 462/463. shaking houses. The different types of wind cited above. 3rd and 4th months. “During the 2nd. cold is absent on the Shen (9th TB) day because the Yang energy is victorious preventing the conservation of the Yin energy. On the Xu (11th Terrestrial Branch) day of the 2nd month.” II . if the weather is not cold. if the weather is not warm. As a result. This is why the people are affected by diseases leading rapidly to death.” In our time. the people are affected by numerous diseases of the heart and abdomen. if mild heat (Wen) is absent on the Xu (11th TB) day and if the weather is not warm on the Si (6th TB) day.Zhang Shi explains: 461. The “Chinese Book of Astronomy” notes: “The Yuan Dan day (1st day of the lunar year) dominates the “8 Winds”.V. one cannot be satisfied with this observation based only on climatic change of the 1st month of January (lunar) to predict the seriousness or benigness of diseases during the entire year. • On the Chou (2nd Terrestrial Branch) day of the 2nd month (lunar). The 10th month is the period during which the Yin energy is in fullness. As a result. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . the Yang energy is plethoric. clearly understood.: This paragraph concerns the study of prediction of diseases during the 4 Seasons according to the direction of the wind. ruffling body and head hair. the people are affected by numerous diseases of Cold-Heat. factor of disease in man. if the weather is not mild. causing opening of the pores. Therefore.N. This observation. if the wind is absent. has been and still is transmitted by tradition.

insomnia. very common in clinic. • Bulimia is due to a too active heat of the stomach which the metabolism of the Shui Gu (water-cereals). As a result. the sudden appearance of an object can disseminate the Shen (mental) and Hun (vegetative soul) and disturb the cerebral Jing and ocular Jing. and on the other hand. • Clinomania (desire to stay in bed) is due to a relatively significant amassing. it is due to the stoppage of the Wei energy within th Yin zone without ability to reach the Yang zone. • Somnolence is the opposite of insomnia. clinomania (1). • Amnesia originates on the one hand from the fullness of the gastrointestinal system and the emptiness of the cardiopulmonary system. • Insomnia comes from the temporary stoppage of the Wei (defensive) energy within the Yang zone without ability to reach the Yin zone.CHAPTER LXXX The Great Problems/Confusions√ (Dai Hua) Chapter 80 of the Lingshu speaks on: _ the vertiginous states to high places en hauteur _ and certain pathologic phenomena such as: forgetfulness. • These “small problems”. _ a temporary stoppage of the Wei energy at the level of the organs 464. PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: “I have often climbed toward Dai Sheng Liang (observation post constructed 390 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . the individual has an exagggerated tendency to watch overgarder the bed (to sleep). anorexia. This chapter contains 9 paragraphs. • The Jing Qi (energetic quintessence) of the human being is concentrated at the eyes and has a close relationship with the brain. are usually caused by “confusion” embarass in the diagnosis and treatment. from the insuficiency of the energy of the top (of the body) and the excess of the energy of the bottom (of the body). bulimia. This is why this chapter has for a title: “The Great Confusions” (Dai Hua). • Anorexia results from the obstruction of the energy at the level of the stomach (bowel. that is to say. piling up of gastrointestinal energy which causes: _ a transitory slowing down of the circulation of Qi (Ying and Wei) at the level of the epidermo-dermal system. _ and a transient cessation of all activities (mental and physical). somnolence. hence vertigo. As a result.

the Jing Qi of the muscles. and to the rear. associated with the Luo. • Above. The exhaustion of the ocular Jing causes disturbances of vision marked by the perception of two images for only one (diploplia). the eyelids (Yu Shu).. the Jing Qi reaches the brain. When Yin and Yang unite to form the eyes. Arriving at the summit. Energetic Jing. it infiltrates deeply into the brain via the ocular route to cause Nao Chuan (cerebral whirling) followed by ocular tensions characterized by dizzy spells and turning movements” (vertigo). closing and opening my eyes. 465. by Yang (lung and heart).at an elevated. head bent downward to look. This is why. I looked again at the 4 sides and the same vertiginous phenomenon seized me. In conclusion. • The pupil and iris are ruled by Yin (liver and kidney). when the perverse energy affects the neck and nucha at a time of emptiness of the energy of the body. blood and energy. then would continue to ascend. What is the energy responsible for these vertigoes and these dizzy spells?” Qi Bo: “The Jing Qi (energetic quintessence) of the 5 organs and 6 bowels reaches the top to flow down/empty√ into the eyes. when the Shen Qi is overtaxed. Tendinous Jing. This is why. My bun attached. to tranquilize my “heart” (Xin) and calm my “energy’ (Qi) . Osseous Jing forms the p u p i l (Dong Si). then I tried. Blood Jing. bones. I begin to examine the core/depthf o n d of myself. First.ˆ In this manner. the 391 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . it comes out at the nucha. I placed myself on my knee. Dermal Jing. the Hun (vegetative _ and the site of production of the of the 5 organs and 6 bowels the Ying (nutritive energy) and the Wei soul) and the Po (sensitive soul) Shen Qi (mental energy). I had the feeling that my Shen (mental) and Hun (vegetative soul) were grasped by panic and my gaze to be found in a state of fascination. the eye is: _ the site of perception of the Jing _ the site of permanent passage of (defensive energy). form the ocular system. I turned my head to observe the 4 sides. overworked. the sclera and blood vessels. On my way. but in vain. the Xue Luo (blood capillaries). Gyrating motions continued. • • • • • • The deep cavity containing the Jing is named “ e y e ” . the i r i s .. cool or cold peak of a mountain). then suddenly disappeared. this Jing becomes exhausted and loses its harmony with the 5 organs and 6 bowels. the H u n and P o become dispersed and the Chi (will) and Yi (thought) a r e disturbed. the sclera (Ba Yan). • When perverse energy attacks the ocular Jing.

it penetrates deeply into the brain via the ophthalmic route to cause ocular tension.Wu Guan clarifies: “The “Jingming” (ocular) energy appears at the eyes. f. site of flowing out of Jing Qi (energetic quintessence) of the 5 organs. . “Jingming” is also the name of the point Bl 1.” 2. to speak of Yin and Yang in a state of harmony reaching the eyes is to speak of the energy of Jingming (ocular Jing). but the color reflecting at the exterior is black.. the sclera (Ba Yan) is formed from the Jing of the lung.ocular Jing is luminous and bears the name Jing Ming (Luminous.“.. This is why the eyes are the “ambassadors” of the heart and the heart is the dwelling place of the Shen. 392 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Zhang Jing Yue states: “a. hence ablouissements and vertigo. c.the lung governs the energetic Jing (quintessence).V.” EXPLANATINS AND COMMENTARIES N.perverse energy affects the neck and nucha”. When the Jing and Shen are disturbed..N. the knowledge of dimensions. It originates at the 5 organs and permits the observation of beings and things. the eyelids are formed by the Jing of the spleen and bear the name Yu Shu (movements of opening and closing. b. the heart can no longer transport the Jing toward the eyes. the lung and heart.” 466. we read: “The “Jingming” (ocular) (1) energy appears at the eyes. Hun and Po. 1. and the heart is the dwelling place of the Shen (mental). The “deep cavity” designates the ocular orifice. In other words.Ma Shi notes: “In ophthalmology. the isolation of these energetic components is the cause of dizzy spells and vertigo. d. Radiant l u m i n e u x Jing). Jingming and the colors are traits of luminous manifestation of the pure energy (Jing) of the 5 organs. and Yang.The heart governs the Jing of the blood vessels. during infiltration of perverse energy into the points Fengfu (GV 16). In contrast.. at the face.. Tianzhu (Bl 10). It responds to Wood and its color is green. But the heart uses the eyes in order to manifest. All of these mental and cultural activities have their source at the heart.: This paragraph concerns the pathophysiology of the eye. it responds to Metal and its color is white.. • The perception of abnormal images is due to the dissemination of the Jing and Shen. and the colors. As a result. Yin designates the liver and kidney. in Chapter 17 (“Subtleties of the Pulse Examination”) of the Suwen. 3. e. In ophthalmology. In other words. it responds to Fire and its color is red. All 5 colors also reach this site.The liver governs the tendinous Jing. This is why the color of the iris (He Yan) is more pale than that of the pupil. white for black.” 1. covering and protection of the anterior part of the eye). In effect. As a result..the spleen governs the dermal Jing and responds to Earth. the distinguishing of black and white. • The eyes are the “ambassadors” of the heart. is the sign of exhaustion of the Jing of the 5 organs. As a result.The kidney governs the osseous Jing. the ocular vessels (Luo) are controlled by the Xin-Shen (heart-mental). 467. This is why the interior of the pupil (Dong Si) is excessively gleaming. It responds to Water and its color is jet black. to take long for short.

468.Figure 1: The different energetic zones of the eye. Figure 2: The Jing of the 5 organs and the ocular system (according to Zhang Jing Yue). 393 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

394 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Ma Shi notes: “When the Shen has an aversion against anything.Figure 3: Jingming (luminous Jing of the eye). This means to say that the intestines and stomach are in fullness and that the heart and lung are in emptiness. hence dizzy spells. What is the energy responsible for this illness?” Qi Bo: “ A m n e s i a originates from the insufficiancy of the energy at the top and excess of energy down below.. and the S h e n . the reascent of this energy at the is no longer assured. I have always experienced vertigo. furing their encounter. the Wei (defensive) energy remains below. the Jing Qi (energetic quintessence) is disturbed and the Shen leaves its place. the Chi (will) does not follow. In the end. the situation cited is described according to 2 degrees of seriousness: _ the slight state of confusion called M i _ and the serious confusion called H u o . As soon as one leaves the place. But this vertigo disappears immediately upon leaving this place.” PARAGRAPH 3 Huangdi: “Some individuals suffer from a m n e s i a . ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 469. its repulsions. These desires and its repulsions. PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: “I have doubt about the truth of your account because each time I returned to Dong Yuan (post constructed at the Garden of the East) . hence amnesia” . When aversion and sympathy join. then it returns. Th heart and lung being in emptiness.. Will my Shen (mental) and my Hun (vegetative soul) always be unsteady chancelants each time I will ascend to the Garden of the East? Why does so bizarre a phenomena exist?” Qi Bo: “No! The heart has its desires. . disturb the Jing ( q u i n t e s s e n c e ) and prevent the eyes from seeing distinctly which brings the S h e n to a confusing situation. the S h e n returns and tthe state normalizes. Therfore.

. The Shen Qi (mental energy) cannot reach the entire body. It is a question of the syndrome of insufficiency of Yang of the upper part of the body. The Yang-Heat energy retained within the stomach activates digestion. In effect. It does not at all indicate the excess energy of the bottom. What is the energy responsible for this?” Qi Bo: “The Dietary Jing gathers at the spleen and the Yang-Heat energy is retained within the stomach. hence forgetfulness. ” 395 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . therefore in a contrary direction. it obstructs the stomach canal.EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . the heart and lung being in emptiness at the upper part of the body. This is why the individual gets hungry quickly.” PARAGRAPH 4 Huangdi: “Some individuals often are hungry. If the energy of the stomach floods/affluxes towrds the top. Insert figure 470.Zhang Jing Yue gives us this information: “The phrase “. but they refuse to eat. hence a n o r e x i a .. the Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) stagnate at the bottom.excess of energy down below” is used to contrast the bottom from the top.

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. What is the energy responsible for that?” Qi Bo: “The Wei (defensive) energy. not suceeding in reaching the Yin part. The Yang energy is then found in a state of fullness and the fullness of this Yang energy causes that of the Yangqiao.N. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 396 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . insert figure PARAGRAPH 5 471. Huangdi: “Some individuals suffer from i n s o m n i a . hence i n s o m n i a . causing obstruction provoked by a contrary afflux/flooding (Jue Ni) of the energy of the stomach. the Yin energy is found in a state of emptiness. the penetration of the Wei energy within the Yin part is not assured. anorexia is due to an obstruction of the stomach canal (esophagus). remains within the Yang part. In this manner. This is why the eyes can no longer open.: According to energetic medicine.V.

the individual awakes.N. 472. responsible for disordering of sleep and waking. When it is found at the Yang. and when it is found within at the Yin.I . within the Yin part. insert figure This is why The Nejing defines the eyes as sites of reunion of Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy). the Wei energy remains longer in the Yin or in the Yang. The Wei (defensive) energy circulates within the Yin and Yang parts (of the body).V. hence disequilibrium of “Yin-Yang”. close their eyes and can no longer see. II . All energies carry out movements of entering and exiting at the level of the point Jingming (Bl 1). Usually.Zhang Shi explains: “The Yinqiao and Yangqiao unite at the point Jingming (Bl 1) of the Taiyang (Bl). due to disease. Hun (vegetative soul) and Po (sensitive soul). According to Zhang Jing Yue: “The Wei energy circulates during the day woithin the Yang part. uniquely dependent of the circulatory state of of the Wei energy within the Yin part or Yang part of the body. the individual goes to sleep. in the ill individual. What is the causal energy?” 397 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .: This paragraph involves the energetic pathophysiology of insomnia. and during the night.” PARAGRAPH 6 Huangdi: “Some individuals.N. sleep and waking are disordered. In contrast.

the Wei energy must 398 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .” PARAGRAPH 7 Huangdi: ”Some individuals have an exaggerated tendency to watch over the bed (clinomania) in order to find sleep. Zhang Shi states: “The entry of the energy of the Yangqiao and the exiting of the energy of the Yinqiao via the route of the Yangqiao is carried out at the level of the point Jingming (Bl 1).. _ the stomach and intestines are of large size _ the skin is damp _ and the zone of distribution of the flesh (Fan Rou: interdermo-muscular s p a c e ) is coarse. and when the Yin energy becomes directed toward excess.at the level of the region of the Yangqiao and Yinqiao where the Yang energy enters into the Yin and the Yin energy exits the Yang. man must sleep. it provokes opening of the eyes (insomnia). located at the internal canthus of the eye.. This fullness causes that of the Yinqiao. the Yang energy is found in a state of emptiness. the Wei energy circulates. it causes opening of the eyes (insomnia) and when the Yin energy is in excess.: This paragraph and the previous one have a relationship with the two channels. the circulation of the Wei energy is relatively slow.N. when the penetrattion of the Wei energy within the Yang part is not assured. Due to the large volume of the stomach and intestines. the individual can never see and is found in a state of s o m n o l e n c e . the Yin energy is found in a state of fullness. When this circulation within the Yang part approaches its end. • At the level of the stomach and intestines of large size.Qi Bo: reach “The Wei (defensive) energy retined within the Yin part does not come to the Yang part. • Normally. The Wei energy being retained within the Yin part. it brings about closure of the eyes (hypersomnia). The closing and opening of the eyes has been studied in Chpater 21 (“Diseases of Colc and Heat”) of this classic: “. within the Yin part. it provokes closure of the eyes (hypersomnia). Therefore. Due to the humidity of the skin and coarseness of the “zone of distribution of the flesh”. the time of retention of the Wei (defensive) energy is relatively long. and when this circulation within Yin part approaches its eend. within the Yang part.V. What is the causal energy?” Qi Bo: “In these individuals. Yinqiao and Yangqiao. When the Yang energy becomes directed toward excess. ” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. man must wake. and during the night. 473. When the Yang energy is in excess at this level. This is why the eyes close. during the day.

one often encounters patients suffering from insomnia. • When the Wei energy remains for a longer time within the Yin part. What is the energy responsible for this?” Qi Bo: “The perverse energy is retained within the Shangjiao (Upper Jiao. Some are ignorant of this mechanism and mistake it for a weakness/fatigue of the spleen (Pi Quan). the skin is smooth and taut. At the level of the humid skin and coarse “zone of the distribution of the flesh” (Fan Rou). the longing to sleep is due to an accumulation of “cold” (food) energy within the stomach and intestines. its circulation is no longer normal.V. hence desire to sleep. N. It is obstructed and its energy can no longer reach the Yang part.UJ).” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 474. Qi Bo has furnished the causes of a audden need for sleep.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES N. hence sudden need for sleep. in clinic.stop for a longer time. This is why they sleep very little.: Zhang Jing Yue adds information on post-prandial somnolence: “After a meal. PARAGRAPH 9 399 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .N. hence desire to sleep. • In individuals whose stomach and intestines are os small size. The Wei (defensive) energy is then found in a state of fullness in the Yin part.V. Recall that. the Wei energy is retained within the Yin part.” PARAGRAPH 8 Huangdi: “Some indivuals with regularly poor sleep suddenly have need of a great sleep.N. the “zone of distribution of the flesh” is finer and free and the Wei energy remains for a longer time withn=in the Yang part. The sudden need for sleep is also due to too abundant an absorption of cold water after a full meal. In this case. the circulation of the Wei energy must slow down. This ailment is doe to the presence of perverse energy localized in the organism preventing the We energy from reaching the Yin part.: In this paragraph. this is why man tends to close his eyes to look for sleep.

to reestablish the function of the 5 rgans and 6 bowels. d.N. “It is necessary: _ first. Shen. Sanjiao).to eliminate the different types of perverse energy” means to say to suppress the benign and confusing signs that cause serious complications.: In summery. essential components of energetic physiology.” EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I .The word “Chi” (will) is often employed in the global sense to designate psychologic components like Jing (quintessence).Zhang Shi explains: “The ailments cited in this chapter are benign.. _ then. it is necessary to carefully examine the state of the Chi (will) and Xing (bodily form) of the individual. to utilize dispersion in the event of fullness (of perverse energy) and tonification in the event of emptiness (of the energy of the body). One must thinks of this during treatment.N.“. Wei (defensive energy).Huangdi: “Perfect! How do you treat them?” Qi Bo: 475. Xue (blood) and Qi (energy). Hun (vegetative soul).The state of the Xing (bodily form) depends on that of the Jing (energetic quintessence)." 400 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Zhang Jing Yue adds: "Suffering (excessive sadness) carries detriment to the Yang zone belonging to the Lung-Heart. but confused during diagnosis and treatment.. Ying (nutritive energy). one must: _ know not only the points and channels _ but also and especially the "energetic approaches" )Jing. Shen (mental) and Sanjiao (SJ). c.to reestablish the functions of the 5 organs and 6 bowels” implies the sense of harmonization of the Jing (quintessence). Shen (mental energy). and excessive joy injures the Yin zone belonging to the Spleen-Kidney.“. 476. Qi.V. Qi (Ying and Wei energies).. This is why: _ the Chi (will) in a disturbed state injures the Shen (mental) _ and the Xing (bodily form) overtaxed damages the Jing (quintessence). a. b. But before treating." II . Yi (thought) and Chi (will).. to eliminate the different types of benign perverse energy _ and finally. to attenuate or cure a disease or morbid manifestation by acupuncture. Po (sensitive soul).

The evolutive phases and fatal periods of these ailments are indicated and earlytreatment is absolutely advised. 401 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . CHAPTER LXXXI Abscesses and Tumors (Yung Ju) This last chapter of the Lingshu (Chapter 81) speaks on the causes of the formation of abscesses (Yung) and tumors (Ju). this is why this chapter is entitled: "Abscesses and Tumors" (Jung Ju).477. Localization of the different forms of abscesses and tumors are also presented. It contains 20 paragraphs.

to treat the insufficiency is to tonify the emptiness to gain back the excess.MJ) releases Qi (energy) which. _ one must examine the pulses and apply the method of regulation. Please the reasons. but I still do not know how Yung (abscesses) and tumors (Ju) are produced and their periods benigness and seriousness. At Heaven. The same phenomena take place at the level of the blood and energy. this is to utilize the method of dispersion to reduce the fullness. In the event of fullness. I know where the equilibrium and disequilibrium of blood and energy come from. then the Luomai (secondary vessels) and finally. maintain the joints ans aerate the sweat gland system (Cou Li) _ the Zhongjiao (Middle Jiao. the blood fills first the Sunluo. it provokes a blood stasis which calls on the Wei energy. _ in the harmonious state. The Xue (blood) and Mai (vesssels). hear When the cold perverse infiltrates into the Jingluo (principal and secondary channels). comparable to dew. flows down within the Sunluo (blood-energetic capillaries) and harmonize the Xin Ye (organic liquids) which become transformed into Xue (blood). I would like you to inform me about all this. one must add the emptiness.PARAGRAPH 1 Huangdi: "I know from hearsay that: _ the stomach and intestines receive the Ge Qi (cereal energy) _ the Shangjiao (Upper Jiao. Yin and Yang circulate under the propulsive action of the respiratory movements and perform cyuclic transmissions around the body conforming to the cyclic movements of the natural world (Heaven-Earth). _ in the plethoric state. and at Earth. life and death. they cause: _ the eclipse of the sun or moon _ the overflowing of the river routes _ the drying out of plants and trees _ the poor harvest of the Wu Gu (5 Cereals) _ the division of the routes of communication _ and the isolation of people in the hamlet. Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) circulate with stopping.UJ) releases Qi (energy) to heat up the flesh parts. Therefore. This concentrates around the blood stasis with the inability to carry out movements of 402 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . spreads within the Xi Gu (valleys and small valleys). When the stellar movements are irregular. the Jingmai (principal channels). _ the rapid removal of the needle diminishes the virulence of the perverse energy and the the needle left in place augments the potential of the essential energy of the body. 478." Qi Bo: "The circulation of the Jingmai is perpetual conforming to the stellar movements of Heaven and periodic movements of Earth. to the flowing of rivers. they respond to the astral movements.

" II .The energy released at the level of the Shangjiao (UJ) designates the Wei Qi (defensive energy) which has for functions: heating up the flesh parts. the the needle left in place augments the potential of the energy of the body in a state of emptiness.return. hence tumefaction and inflammation.N. The "cold" energy in a state of compression becomes transformed into heat ( 1 ) . 479. the interflesh spaces are the sites of reunion of the Xi and Gu. the blood dries out. hence the formation of Yung (abscesses). the muscles and bones are no longer maintained and the flesh (dermis) is no longer saturated. toxic heat) _ domination of heat and destruction of organic tissues wwith pyogenic formation.V. Chapter 37 ("Study on the Affluxes/ Flooding of the Energy") of the Suwen indicates: "The great reunion of the flesh is called "Gu" and the little reunions. In a state of softening.N.Pyogenic Phase _ transformation of cold into heat ("false heat". b. maintaining the joints and aerating the sweat gland system. the marrow becomes exhausted. This toxic heat decomposes the organic tissues and transforms them into pus. One distinguishes 3 principal phases of the process: a. The energy released at the level of the Zhongjiao (MJ) is the Ying Qi (nutritive energy).This paragraph speaks on the process of pyogenic formation. EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . explanatory basis of the external pathology of Oriental energetic medicine. and when the bones are damaged. • Xi Gu designates the small valleys and valleys. the infected Jingmai are "smoke out"e n f u m e n t the 5 organs. Non-evacuated pus softens the muscles and tendons.Malignant Phase _ non-evacuation of pus and pyogenic fixation within the neuromuscular system _ degradation of the musculoskeletal system _ infestation of the Jingluo system _ overheating and "smoking out" of the 5 organs (death). If the pus is not eliminated. it is death. c." 1. 480. 2. When the 5 organs are affected.: 1. "Xi".Ma Shi explains: "The rapid removal of the needle evacuates the perverse energy in a state of fullness.Inflammatory Phase _ infiltration of cold within the interchannel spaces _ slowing down of blood circulation _ stasis formation with disturbances of Xue (blood) and Xin Ye (organic liquids) _ influence on the Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) _ concentration and accumulation of Wei with absence of return circulation. It is a question of "false heat". Pus is localized within the bony cavities. they damage the bones. sites of circulation of Ying Qi and Wei Qi and sites of 403 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . It is comparable to the dew which humdifies plants because it explains the mechanism of secretion of the Xin Ye (organic liquids) which maintain the entire body.

reunion of the Da Qi (great energy). Yin and Yang are the generic encompassing Blood and Energy.We present below a schematic study of the different phases of pyogenic formation (Figure 1). the energy advances 3 cun. Interior (Li) and Exterior (Biao) of the body. the energy and blood are activated by the respiratory rhythms and function accroding to a very specific law: "With each expiration. Jing and Luo. that is. Organs and Bowels. 6 cun for every respiration. Figure 1: Pyogenic formation and degradation of the musculoskeletal system with attack of the 5 organs. In man. and with each inspiration." 3. the energy advances 3 cun." • Here. PARAGRAPH 2 Huangdi: "Please explain to me in detail the different forms of Yung (abscesses) and Ju 404 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .

( t u m o r s ) and their fatal periods as well as their names."
481.

Qi Bo:

"At the subaxillary region (lower) and below the laryngo-pharyngeal organs, the ailment bears the name Meng Ju (powerful tumor). Without treatment, it transforms into pus whose non-elimination causes an obstruction of the throat (gullet). Death occurs in a half day. During the evacuation of pus, prescribe a diet composed of chilled Shi Gao (melted pork fat). Cure occurs in 3 days."

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains: "The throat is the "door" of respiration. the respiratory movements at this level are very powerful. This is why the abscess located at this part of the neck is called Meng Ju (powerful tumor). When pus is formed, one must eliminate it urgently to avoid an obstruction of the throat which can cause death in a half day.

Figure 2: Formation of Meng Ju (abscess of the throat).
482.

Pork is an animal which responds to Water. Its melted and cooled fat (lard) has the property of conveying

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the toxic heat toward the bottom to be eliminated via the recto-vesicular route."

II - N.V.N.: Because of its location, Meng Ju (powerful tumor) is also called "abscess of the throat". It is due to an accumulation of toxic heat at the level of the 3 channels: Renmai (CV), Foot Jueyin (Li) and Hand Taiyin (Lu) (Figure 2).

PARAGRAPH 3
"At the neck, The affliction is the name of Yao Ju (fatal tumor). This voluminous tumor becomes red black. If it is not urgently treated, the toxic heat descends within the axillary crease. First, it reaches the anterior part of the thorax and injures the Renmai (CV), then it penetrates deeply and "inflammes" the lung and liver. Death occurs in 10 days."

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Zhang Shi explains: "The neck is the site of passage of blood and energy of the Shaoyang and Yangming (SJ/GB and LI/St). The abscess located within this region of the neck must be treated without delay in order to block the descent of the heat into the axillary crease. Three cun below that, the point Yuanye (GB 22, on the anterior axillary line in the 4th intercostla space) is found from where a vessel arises which oenetrates deeply into the thorax and reaches the Renmai (CV) on the one hand, and on the other hand, the lung and liver. Toxic heat follows this route and contaminates these two organs; death occurs in 10 days. According to the Neijing, "The good physician first treats the Bi Fu (epidermo-dermal system), then the Jingluo (principal and secondary channels) and, finally, the Zangfu (organs/bowels). The physician who treats abscesses and tumors must follow this rule."

II - N.V.N.: According to Zhang Jing Yue (1563-1640 A.D.), Yao Ju (fatal tumor) is an asbcess located behind and below the ear, 1 cun 3 fen from there. This cervical tumor is rarely curable. That of the right belongs to LiverWood, and that to the left, to Lung-Metal. Zhang Shi's thesis can be diagramed in the following fashion (Figure 3). 483.

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Figure 3: Formation of Yao Ju (cervical tumor) and its fatal evolution.

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PARAGRAPH 4
"The Yang Qi (Yang energy) in great fullness overheats the cranium and accumulates at the nucha to trigger Nao Que (nuchal tumor) . The individual is anxious and pains are of the needle-stick type. When the disease reaches the interior, it causes "agitation" of the heart. The disease is incurable; it ends up generally in death." EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES

484....

I - Zhang Shi explains: "Yang Qi "in great fullness" designates the energy of the 3 Yang (Taiyang, Shaoyang, Yangming) affected simultaneously. Here, the 3 Yang are represented by the Taiyang (2). It possesses a vessel which enetrates deeply into the brain and comes back out at the neck and nucha. When the Yang energy is in great fullness, it overheats the brain and accumulates at the nucha to trigger Nao Ju (nuchal tumor). • The heart is the Taiyang in Yang. The heart and Taiyang (SI) unite at the level of their root (Jiao) and their summit (Ben). When the energy of the heart is compressed, the inidivual is sad and has palpitations. It concerns phenomena of interference of toxic heat of the bowels at the level of the organs. These phenomena are fatal." II - N.V.N.: According to Zhang Jing Yue, Nao Ju (nuchal tumor) is due to a blockage of Yin Jing (Yin quintessence) with exhalation of the toxic heat toward the top. Nao Ju manifests at the point Fengfu (GV 16). At the starting phase, it is small like a mustard seed of grey-violet color. Then it enlarges and takes the form of a big twig. In serious cases, it can reach the top of the skull or descend to the point Dazhui (GV 14). Pain is totally absent; moxabustion must be applied until pain appears. Tianjin gives the following definition: "The word "Nao Que" implies the sense of "fire" which melts metal. The inflammation is located at the nucha. Toxic heat there is in maximal fullness. At any moment, it can reach the cranium or descend to Dazhui (GV 14). The cranial vault is overheated, hence the name "Nao Que" (Figure 4)."

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2. The Taiyang opens to the exterior and plays the role of protection of the entire system of Jingmai (principal channels of the body). 485...

Figure 4: Formation of Nao Que (nuchal tumor) and points of the Foot Taiyang (Bl) (vessels amanating toward the interior of the cranium).

PARAGRAPH 5

484...

"At the shoulder and arm, the affliction is called Pi Yung (inflammatory s t a i n t a c h e ) ( 3 ) . It is of blackish red color. Urgent treatment consists of provoking a hypersweating to the feet. This disease does not reach the 5 organs. If it goes back 4 or 5 days, moxabustion is absolutely advised."

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EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
Zhang Shi explains: "Pi Yung also has the name Jianyu Yung (shoulder abscess). This abscess is superficial. it does not injure the 5 organs. Moxabustion is used to eliminate the perverse energy by the calorific route."

3. Also see "Pi Yung of the knee", page 493∆.

PARAGRAPH 6
" Mei Ju (sheathed or ganglionic tumor) is red and firm. It manifests at the axillary crease. treatment consists of performing several sticks at the level of the tumor with the aid of a fine and long needle of stone (lithopuncture). After needling, smear the points of impact with pork fat. Cure will be obtained at the end of 6 hours. Bandaging Mei Ju is advised against. If the tumor remains hard without suppuration, it is a question of Ma Dao Jia Yung (scrofula) . One must treat it urgently."

EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES

486.

I - Zhang Shi explains: "The needle of stone must be fine in order not to injure the tissue system and long to perform deep sticks. The sticks must be awayeloignee from one another. II - N.V.N.: According to the basic explanation of external pathology of Classical Chinese Medicine, Mei Ju manifests in the form of a granule in the middle of the axillary crease (axillary adenitis). It is due to the solidification of the sanguino-energetic stagnation during compression of the energy of the Foot Jueyin (Li) and Foot taiyin (Sp) (Figure 5).

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Figure 5: Formation of Mai Ju (axillary tumor). As for Ma Dao Jia Yung (scrofula), it is due to disturbances of the energy of the 3 channels: Hand Shaoyang (SJ), Foot Jueyin (Li) and Foot Shaoyang (GB). It has an elongated and hard form (like stone). Sometines, it starts in the subauricular region and reaches the supraclavicular area or scapular region to descend to the hypochondrial region. In serious cases, it occurs at the front of the thorax and creates red and inflammed projections with pyogenic formation. Upon encountering the wind, the pus becomes liquified and exudes without stopping. its prognosis is grave.

PARAGRAPH 7

487.

"Jing Ju (tumor in a well en puits) manifests at the thorax and presents in the form of a bean. Without treatment, at the end of 3 or 4 days, it reaches the abdomen and becomes iincurable. Death occurs iin 7 days."
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
N.V.N.: The word "Jing" (well, shaft) implies the sense of depth. According to Zhang Jing Yue, Jing Ju manifests right in the cadiac fossa (thorax). At the start, it has the form of a yeloow bean without ant change in the skin. It also bears the name Chuan Xin Du (penetrating tumor crossing the heart). This disease is extremely serious.

PARAGRAPH 8
"Gan Ju (sweet tumor) breaks out in the thoracic region. It has a greenish color and the form of a fruit of Trichosanthis (Qualou) ( 4 ) . Generally, the individual is sometimes feverish, sometimes chilled. Urgent treatment consists if combatting the fever and chills (Han Re). The affliction can last 10 days, then death occurs. On the day of death, the suppuration begins to flow out."
EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES
I - Ma Shi explains: "The tumor is located at the top and slightly to the side of the breast, at the point Yingchuang (St 16), in the 3rd intercostal space, belonging to the Foot Yangming (St) which responds to Earth and the sweet sapor. This is why on gives it the name "sweet tumor of the breast".

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This affliction originates from the energetic stasis following a chronic psychoaffective illness (anguish, anxiety...)."
4. Spicy plant (family Curcubitacea) from Asiatic tropical regions and yielding a long and tortuous fruit.

II - Zhang Shi adds: "The thorax belongs to the Jueyin (Li) and Yangming (St). The Yangming (St) activates the movements of transformation of the Taiyin (Sp), and Jueyin (Li) stimulates the movements of metamorphosis of the Shaoyang (GB). These movements of exchange of Yin and Yang are responsible for the alternating 488. movements of cold and heat. This affliction is due to the compression of toxic energy of the liver organ and stomach bowel. It "summit" (Jiao) is found at the level of the Luomai (secondary vessels) and its "root" (Ben), at the level of the diaphragm. This is why it is difficult to make it disappear. It becomes very active when the energy of the body becomes weakened."

Figure 6: Formation of Gan Ju (breast tumor).

PARAGRAPH 9
" Bai Ju (rigid tumor) manifests in the hypochondrial region. This disease generally is encountered in women. It is recommended to treat it with moxabustion. When pus is formed, an excrescence of flesh the size of a red bean appears at the center of the tumor. it is advised to prescribe a decoction of leaves of the root of Lingqiao (Forsythia) . Boil 1 sheng of leaves and 1 sheng of root of this ingredient in 1 dou 6 sheng of water until reduced to 3 sheng. Have the patient drink this decoction, dress him warmly and settle him close

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the method applied to large abscesses. In women." EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 489. subaxillary area. the energy is usually in excess.: Acording to Zhang Jing Yue. 413 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . treatment is moxabustion.Zhang Shi explains: "The hypochordria. hence the name Bai Ju (fixed tumor). in insufficiency. Cure is therefore assured. I .N. Baiju (fixed tumor) also has the name Xia Ju (hypochondrial tumor). Leaves and roots of Lingqiao (Forsythia) are utilized because: _ the leaves have the property of purifying heat and provoking sweating _ the roots have the property of releasing toxicity. This is why the text states that "this diseases is usually encountered in women". In women.N.by the boiler until sweating reaches the feet. belongs to the lung and liver.V. This type of tumor settles in the epidermo-dermal layer. This disharmony of blood and energy often causes this ailment. The hypochondria is the region belnging to the liver." II . When the tumor is in the pyogenic phase. anger and rage are the principal causes of this disease (Figure 7). Although the afliction bears the name "BaiJu" (fixed tumor). the mortification of the flesh and muscles and softening of the bones are absent. and the blood.

N. Wothout treatment. Its external appearance does not present itself with clearly notable changes√ .Zhang Shi explains: "Tumor of the thigh and leg is due to the presence of perverse energy of great virulence of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki)." EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . without exteriorizing. Such is the reason for death occuring in 30 days. The kidney is a water organ.V. Without treatment.: According to Zhang Jing Yue. pus eats away and softens the bones. Gu Xing Ju designates osteitis of the femur and tibia. But in the interior. death occurs in 30 days. Figure 8: 414 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . death occurs in 30 days. inflamming them. This toxic energy adheres to the bones.] " Gu Xing Ju (tumor of femur and tibia) manifests at the thigh and leg.N. 490.PARAGRAPH 10 Figure 7: Formation of Bai Ju (fixed tumor)." II . and the moon respond to Yin and to Water.

V. Zang (organs) and Fu (bowels). PARAGRAPH 11 491. This is why the tumor adheres to the bones. " Rui Ju (piercing p e r c a n t t u m o r ) manifests within the coccygeal region. Rui Ju originates from the concentration of toxic energy coming from the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) and Foot Taiyang (Bl) (Figure 9)." II . The kidney responds to Yin and governs the bones. Biao (exterior) and Li (interior) are indispensible notions for the practice of medicine. the tumor is hard. Jiao (summit) and Root (Ben).Zhang Shi explains: "The coccyx is part of the Foot taiyang (Bl). Figure 9: 415 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .N. Without urgent treatment. large and firm. large and red. Yin and Yang. death occurs in 30 days because the Taiyang is "master" of all Yang channels.: According to Zhang Jing Yue.Formation and location of Gu Xing Ju (osteitis of the femur and tibia). specialists who treat abscesses and tumors even moreso must delve deeply into all these notions developed in the Neijing. Jing (quintessence) and Shen (mental). The kidney and bladder are respectively water organ and water bowel. As a result. Despite the overflowing of toxic Yang toward the exterior. notions which permit physicians to do research on "species of life among species of death√".N." EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . death occurs also in 30 days. it is red in color. Xue (blood) and Xin Ye (organic liquids). Also. The bladder is Yang and governs the Yang (external) part of the body.

416 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . Sixty days is the number of realization (formation) of water. 493. In summary.PARAGRAPH 12 Formation of Rui Ju (tumor of the coccyx). the absence of treatment is equivalent to death.Zhang Shu explains: "Gu Yin (internal part of the thigh) belonging to the 3 Yin channels. " Chi Shi (red p a r t i c i p a n t ) manifests within Gu Yin (internal part of the thigh). the Yin is fatally affected bringing on death.N. death occurs in 60 days.N. This is also the area of passage of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki)." II ." EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . the entire thigh is the site of reunion-meeting of the Yin Qi (Yin energy).V. The bilateral affliction is incurable and the individual dies in 10 days. 492. the last of the Yin numbers. Foot Shaoyin (Ki). and 10 days. Figure 10: Formation of Chi Shi (tumor of the inner thigh). As a result. Toxic fire develops to amaximum there. The inner thigh is the area where the points _ Jimen (Sp 11) and Xuehai (Sp 10) of the Foot Taiyin (Sp) and _ Yinbao (Li 9) and Wuli (Li 10) of the Foot Jueyin (Li) are found. Without treatment. When the affliction reaches the the two thighs.: Due to its location. hence the name Chi Shi (red participant). Foot Jueyin (Li) and Foot Taiyin (Sp). Chi Shi also carries the name Gu Yin Ju (tumor of the inner thigh).

One must then wait for the tumor to become much softer (pyogenic phase) to needle to evacuate the pus via the route of the Taiyang (Figures 11 and 12). It has the appearance of learge swelling that is hard as stone.PARAGRAPH 13 " Pi Yung (inflammatory staint a c h e ) (5) manifests at the knee. 494. the toxic energy follows the path of the Shaoyang to penetrate into the interior (Yangming) and aggravate the disease. It is considered the "hinge of the door" and the toxic energy follows the movements of the Shaoyang. but this affliction is accompanied by a syndrome of Cold-Heat (fever and chills). lithipuncture is prohibited because erroneous use of stone points to eliminate pus indicates death. See also "Pi Yung of the arm". Pi Yung is due to the fixation of toxic energy within the half-internal and half-extenrla space of the energetic layer controlled by the Shaoyang (SJ/GB). at the starting phase. 5.N.: According to Zhang Jing Yue." EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . It is advised against to use lithopuncture because. a very poor prognosis. II . At the starting phase. The tumor of soft quality has a good prognosis. The skin is not changed.Zhang Shi explains: "The knee is the site of reunion of the tendond and muscles making up part of the Foot Shaoyang (GB). Pi Yung is due to the fullness of the energy and emptiness of blood. someimes it descends toward the Yangming (Dryness-Heat) to trigger the alternating phenomena of cold (chills) and heat (fever). to the 417 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . sometimes it reaches the Taiyang (Cold-Water). PARAGRAPH 14 "Abscesses (Yung) and tumors (Ju) localizing at vertebral articulations. page 424. It is advised to await the pyogenic phase to aplly lithopuncture in order to assure the life of the patient." Figure 11: Movements of the Shaoyang. and that of hard quality.N.V. The bilaterality of the disease indicates its incurability and is associated with the group of paraplegic diseases.

" EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . are all incurable. thoracic and lumbar). 495. death takes place n 30 days. at the Dumai (GV) which is linked to the organs. and those which arise in the Yin region herald death in 30 days.T.T1) responds to the liver organ _ the 11th articulation (T4 . According to Yu Ba Rong: "The abscess localizing at vertebral articulations with radiation to the two sides injures the Back Shu of the organs and bowels.N. When the lesion manifests within the Yang region. one must not allow them to become infected by toxic energy. See explanation in Volume II. 496. Chapter 40 ("Yin and Yang . Edition.C 5) responds to the Xin Bao Luo (XB) _ the 5th articulation (C5 .T8) responds to the kidney organ.C 6) rsponds to the heart organ _ the 7th articulation (C7 .S. if the abscess manifests at the midline of the back. Those which manifest in the Yang region herald death in 100 days.T5) responds to the spleen organ _ the 14th articualtion (T7 .Zhang Shi explains: "The word "articulation" used in this paragraph refers to the 21 articulations of the vertebral column (cervical.: According to Zhang Jing Yue." II . In contrast. to the right with radiation to the left and vice versa. the disease is deep and is associated with the organ. the vertebral articulations are sites of passage of entering and exiting of the Shen Qi. it is death.V. • To speak of the number "100 days" is to designate in general the number of the sun (day) and to speak of the number "30 Days" is to designate in general the number of the moon (month) (6). 418 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . As a result. J. Each articulation constitutes the site of exchange of the energy (Jiao Qi) and the site of entry and exit of the Shen Qi (mental energy) responding to the 5 organs. 6. that is to say.C 4) responds to the lung organ _ the 4th articulation (C4 . the disease is superficial and is associated with the bowel. Therfore.left or right and at the top or bottom. death occurs in 100 days. The disease becomes serious and incurable when it is localized above with radiation toward the bottom.Pure and Impure") of the Lingshu.N. _ the 3rd articulation (C3 . When the lesion occurs in the Yin region.

causing a blood obstruction which swells up like a rabbit snout√ ?museau . 419 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . As a result. one notes an outflowing of pus mixed with viscous substance." EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . This ailment is due to the infiltration of toxic energy at the level of the descending branch of the Chongmai.V.N.Figure 13: Formation and location of vertebral tumors (according to Zhang Shi). " II . PARAGRAPH 15 "Tumor localizing at the leg has the name Tu Nia (bite m o r s u r e of the rabbit) .N. at the inner surface of the leg. the tumor localizing in the Yin part of the leg bears the name Tu Nia (rabbit bite). at the ulcerous phase of Tu Nia (osteitis of the tibia). One must treat urgently because it places the life of the patient in danger. It is red to the bone.: According to Zhang Jing Yue.Zhang Shi explains: "The rabbit is an animal responding to Yin.

the perverse energy comes from the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) and stagnates within the vessels to trigger Zou Huan. This tumor is not fatal." EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I .. its disturbances always manifest via Cold (chills) and heat (fever). Zou Huan also has the name Nei Que Ju (tumor of the internal malleolus). "Tumor localizing at the internal malleolus bears the name Zou Huan (slow pace ' a l l u r e ) . the perverse energy going from interior to exterior.N. 498.. 420 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . arrives at the internal malleolus. but the color of the skin remains unchanged. Therefore.. One must needle the inflammed and edematous site. its appearance is that of an abscess (Yung). It receives the a priori Qi Shui (water energy). . It has the appearance of an abscess (Yung).N. This treatment is aimed at combatting the syndrome of Cold-Heat.Figure 14: Formation of Tu Nia (tibial osteitis) and the descending branch of the Chongmai. ascends to Rangu (Ki 2)." II . Here.. but the color of the skin remains unchanged.. The Foot Shaoyin (Ki) starts below the little toe.: Due to its location. there exist two types which are of external origin. the perverse energy going from exterior to interior. PARAGRAPH 16 497. reaches the middle of the sole of the foot. Among abscesses (Yung) and tumors (Ju).V.... and there exist two which are of internal origin. Lithopuncture is utilized.Zhang Shi explains: "This paragraph speaks on the localization of perverse energy at the level of the region of the Foot Shaoyin (Ki) responsible for edematous abscess (Yung Shung).. 497.

..N. this is why the text states that death occurs in 100 days. 499. "The tumor localizing at the dorsal surface and sole of the foot is named Si Zin Disturbances) ." II . toxic Yang is in great fullness (superimposition of Yang) with emptiness of the Yin root. This becomes exhausted even more over time.N. _ The Taiyang is at the same time bowel of the kidney and "master" of the energy of the Yang channels. PARAGRAPH 17 (4 498. Its shape is that of a big abscess. 421 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .Zhang Shi explains: "Here. the words "Si Zin" (4 Disturbances) implies the sense of disturbances of the left and right region of the 2 channels Tai and Shao: _ The Shaoyang governs the energy of birth (Sheng Qi) of primary Yang emitted by the kidney. As a result." EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . When a large abscess occurs at the foot. it is necessary to urgently treat this ailment. otherwise death occurs in 100 days. the Yang receives the energy at the level of the 4 limbs.Figure 15: Formation of Zou Huan (tumor of the internal malleolus). otherwise the Yang energy will be damaged and death will take place in "3 moons" (3 months).: According to Zhang Jing Yue.V. One must treat it urgently.

at the starting phase." II . When he uses the word "Li" from Lidui (St 45). it is as big as a blood." EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES 422 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .N. The disease is incurable and the prognosis is grave. cold increases its potential and injures Earth (Stomach-Spleen: Yangimg-Taiyin). It is blackish red in color. If the ailment does not regress.: According to Zhang Jing Yue. Li Yung has the size of a small toe. puffed up and long. This is the indicator of the presence of perverse energy within the Jingluo. It is not of great size.Zhang Shi explains: "Here. otherwise the abscess becomes incurable. Black is the color of water and cold. When the Wei Qi (defensive energy) converges at this spot the abscess becomes rounded and emerges. 500. Death EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . cold perverse occurs at the point Lidui (St 45) and the abscess appearing at this level is called Li Yung (formidable abscess). it is probably because the toxic energy infiltrates first into the Foot Yangming (St) before reaching the side of the sole of the foot." the name Li Yung the start. PARAGRAPH 19 "The abscess localizing at the toe is named Tou Yung (escaping abscess) .N.V.Figure 16: Formation of Si Zin (tumor of the dorsal surface and sole of the foot). PARAGRAPH 18 "The abscess located at the side of the foot bears (formidable r e d o u t a b l e a b s c e s s ) . one must urgently cut the ganrenous digit to avoid death. The explanation of Zhang Shi is not clear because here it is a question of an abscess located to the side of the sole of the foot and not the second toe. the energy of Heaven. At little toe One must urgently treat it to eliminate the black progressively gets bigger and the disease worsens and takes place in 100 days. If one does not eliminate the black blood.

: According to Zhang Jing Yue. from Yin toward Yang to trigger the abscess called Tou Yung (escaping abscess). It is the same for the Jing points located at the tips of the toes. otherwise the perverse energy proceeds to converge toward the 5 organs. The Foot Shaoyin (Ki) recieves the a priori energy: Water and Fire. The prognosis is fatal. At the start.. hence fever. The black red color of the abscess indicates the excessive fullness of toxic fire and toxic water. red black color indicates worsening of the disease. it is the indicator of acceleration of the virulence of the toxic energy. this tmor is located on the hand or foot.Zhang Shi explains: "Here." PARAGRAPH 20 Huangdi: "You have spoken about abscess (Yung) and tumors (Ju). tou Yung also bears the name Tou Ju (escaping tumor). the morbid process is characterized by change in the tissues and their putrification. The heat which predominates is responsible for the mortification of the tissues and suppuration. Shu. then it escapes from the iinterior toward the exterior. SAt this level.I . it localizes at the toe. the prognosis os favorable." II . But how do you differeniate them?" Qi Bo: "Ying (nutritive energy) and Wei (defensive energy) blocked within the interchannel spaces prevents blood from circulating. hence blood stasis whose presence impedes the circulation of Wei energy. Urgent surgery must be strictly performed. the toxic energy occurs at the Foot Shaoyin (Ki).N. Surgical intervention is urgently indicated to save the patient. points are founhd on the foot. If the color remians black-violet. 423 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .. Zhang Jing Yue recalls the importance of the points of this region: "The Yuan. This is why the abscess of tis region are very harmful. This concentrates and overheats. it is red like the color of a very ripe jujube. The pain is of the burning type.. First. then it speards to the others and to the foot itself. In contrast. First.V. it is sign of regression of the perverse energy. then it priogressively becomes black. Only surgical intervention can save the patient. it is the size of a rice grain and presents in the form of a small vesicle that contains yellow serum.N. that is to say. 501. In the majority of cases. if the color becomes neither red nor black. and death is inevitable.

of the terrain. In human beings. Such is the distinction between Ju (tumor) and Yung (abscess) . The skin covering the J u is hard and dark gray like that of the neck of a buffalo.N. The marrow and bones are intact. The raising of the moral standards√of the Creator is therefore immense. the heat in maximal fullness penetrates deeply within the skin and muscles and provokes a drying out of the marrow and bones exhausting the Xue (blood) and Qi (energy).Zhang Shi explains: "This paragraph establishes the difference between an abscess (Yung) and tumor (Ju) as a function of the cyclic and perpetual movements of the blood and energy able to be modified according to the degree of virulence of the toxic energy on the one hand. the 5 organs are not damaged. 424 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . " EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTARIES I . and on the other hand. Such is the process of the formation of Ju (tumor) . abscess) . as a function of the "ungrateful" or generous" heart of the individual. 502. The least disordering of these movements causes abscesses and tumors.N." II . What about Ju (tumor) ? ' Qi Bo: "In the state of compression.: To facilitate research work. These several thousand words inscribed on bamboo tablets must be transmaiited to future generations in order to avoid disastrous results. • It is because of that the sage has created the "9 Needles" associated with the Santai (3 Principles: Heaven-Man-Earth) to restore the work of the Creator.V.This ailment does not progress deeply. that is to say. this is why one names it Yung (inflammation. the blood and energy carry out the same cyclic and perpetual movements as that of Heaven and Earth. we present below a synthetic table of the types of abscesses and tumors cited in this last chapter of the Lingshu. Huangdi: "Good. At the deep zone. it decomposes the muscles and bones. whereas that covering Y u n g is thin and shiny.

Pi Yung (shoulder and arm abscess) 5.Localization and name 1.Nao Que (nuchal tumor) 4. hard. 425 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only . without ulceration _ progression to abdomen _ death in 7 days 503.Meng Ju (Throat abscess) 2.Mei Ju (subaxillary tumor) 6.Jing Ju (intrathoracic tumor) _ anomaly of color and Shen _ needle stick type of pain _ black red color _ moxabustion _ urgent treatment with sudorification _benign prognosis (5 organ level undisturbed) _ cure in 6 days _ red and hard _ long needle _ lard application _ no dressing _ urgent treatment _ bean sized.Yao Ju (neck tumor) Symptomatology Treatment Prognosis _ pyogenic formation _ lard _ evacuation of pus _ cure in 3 days _ non-evacuated pus = throat obstruction _ death in a half day Without urgent treatment: _ descent of toxic heat into the axillary crease _ disturbed Renmai (CV) _ overheating Li/Lu _death in 10 days _ incurable disease _ fatal prognosis _ large tumor _ dark black red color 3.

Chi Shi (inner thigh tumor) 12. death in 10 days _ large size.Si Zin (tumor of dorsum and sole of foot) 17.Localization and Name 7.Bai Ju (hypochondrial tumor. . If bilateral disease.Gu Xing Ju (thigh and leg tumor) 10.Yung and Ju (vertebral tumors and abscesses) 14.Li Ying (abscess of lateral side of foot) 18. death in 100 days _ fatal prognosis _urgent treatment _ eliminate Cold-Heat _ urgent treatment _ urgent treatment _urgent surgical intervention Table of Contents 426 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only no 504/505.Pi Yung (knee abscess) 13.Zou Huan (tumor of internal malleolus) 16. disease of women) 9.Gan Ju (thoracic/breast tumuo) 8. pus adheres to the bone _ red and hard Treatment _ urgent treatment _ combat intermittent fever _ moxabustion _ decoction of Forsythia _ treatment by fumagation Prognosis _ death in 10 days _ pyogenic outflow on day of death _ benign prognosis _ without treatment. 30 days if located in Yin _ benign prognosis _ benign prognosis _ without treatment death in 100 days _without treatment. death in 30 days _ urgent treatment _without urgent treatment death in 30 days _ without urgent treatment death in 60 days. needling is prohibited (wait for the pyogenic phase) _ urgent treatment _ fatal prognosis _ death in 100 days if tumor located in Yang. very hard _ absence of color of skin _ red _ adheres to bone _ red to the bone _ appearance of an abscess _ skin color unchanged _ appearance of a large abscess _ big as a small digit _ blackish red or black without√ red color _ at the start.Tou Yung (toe abscess) Symptomatology _ size of Trichsanthis fruit _ fever and chills _ large abscess with excrescence of flesh _ bean sized _ no change at level of skin _ in interior.Tu Nia (tibial tumor) 15.Rui Ju (coccyx tumor) 11.

................................................................................. 151 (Wu Ban) Chapter 61: The Five Prohibitions....... 273 (Shang Ge) Chapter 69: Panic and Fit of Rage: Aphonia.................................................... 279 (Yu Que Wo Ren) Chapter 70: Cold-Heat........... ..................................................................................................................................Preface ................................... 291 Book Book 427 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only ....................................... 285 (Han Re) Chapter 71: Perverse Guest.............. ...... 103 (Wu Wei) Chapter 57: Hydropsia................................................................. 171 (Wu Jin) Chapter 62: Arterial Points................................ 79 (Tian Niam) Chapter 55: Contrary and Favorable....................................... ............. 97 (Yi Zuan) Chapter 56: The Five Flavors..................... 139 (Wei Qi Zi Zhang) Chapter 60: Inscriptions Engraved on Jade.................................................................................. 59 (Wei Qi) Chapter 53: Discussion on Pain.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. .................... 43 (Lun Yung) Chapter 51: Shu of the Back............................................. 267 (Xing Zhen) Chapter 68: Above the Diaphragm...................................................... 179 (Dong Shu) Chapter 63: Dissertation on the Five Flavors.............................................. 13 (Wu Za) Chapter 50: Discussion on Courage........ 191 (Wu Wei Lun) Chapter 64: Yin and Yang and the 25 Morphotypes.............................................. ... 9 Book VI: Chapter 49: The Five Colors.................................................. 199 (Yin Yang Er Shi Wu Ren) Chapter 65: The 5 Musical Notes and 5 Flavors..................................................................... 235 (Wu Yin Wu Wei) VIII: Chapter 66: Origin of the “100 Diseases”............................................ 117 (Shui Zhang) Chapter 58: Pirate Wind.................................... 255 (Ba Bing Shui Sheng) Chapter 67: Practice of Acupuncture.......... 53 (Bei Shu) Chapter 52: Defensive Energy............. 75 (Lun Tong) Chapter 54: Celestial Age... 129 (Zie Feng) VII: Chapter 59: Irregular Circulation of Wei Energy................................... .......................................................................................

..................................... 343 (Lun Xi Zhan Chi) Chapter 75: Effects of Needling on the Source Energy and Perverse Energy......(Xie Ke) Chapter 72: Celestial Relationships...........................8 Winds............................. 411 (Jiu Gong Ba Feng) Chapter 78: Dissertations on the “9 Needles”... 505 428 Rough Draft For JTS Students Only .................... 477 (Yung Ju) Table of Contents.................................................................................. 359 (Ci Jie Zhen Xie) Book IX: Chapter 76: Movements of Wei Energy. 313 (Zhong Tian) Chapter 73: Ability in the Practice of Acupuncture.................................................................................................. 427 (Jiu Zhen Lun) Chapter 79: Years and Dew.............................................................. 447 (Zue Lo) Chapter 80: Great Confusions......................... 393 (Wei Qi Xing) Chapter 77: 9 Palaces ........................................................................................... 325 (Guan Nang) Chapter 74: Dissertations on Diseases and Examination of the Skin of the Forearm........................................................................................................................................ 463 (Dai Huo) Chapter 81: Abscesses and Tumors..........................................

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