Water Pollution

By Kanik Gupta

sources and effects Is the water safe to drink? Prevention and what we can do ?    . and Sources  What is water pollution? Major types of pollutants.Water Pollution: Types. Effects.

. and Sources of Water Pollution • Water is polluted by infectious bacteria .. biological. inorganic and organic chemicals . and excess heat . • The WHO estimates that 3.5 million people a year become ill from infectious agents. an estimated 1. or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms.Types.S. Effects. • In the U.4 million people die prematurely each year from waterborne diseases. • Water pollution is any chemical.

• One method of measuring water quality involves measuring the number of colonies of fecal coliform bacteria present in a water sample. . • Indicator species are living organisms that are monitored to determine levels of pollution. colonies/100 milliliters. and indicator organisms . sediment content. and turbidity of water. • Drinking water should not contain any • Chemical analysis includes checking inorganic and organic chemicals present.• Scientists monitor water quality by using bacterial counts. chemical analysis.

overgrazing. 2. Agricultural activities are the leading cause of water pollution from erosion. and mining.Sources of water pollution The leading sources of water pollution are agriculture. industries. Industrial facilities are another large source of water pollution. and excess salt from irrigated soils. . fertilizers and pesticides. 1. and mining is a third source.

Ninety-five percent of people in developed countries and 74% of people in developing countries have access to clean drinking water. • In a warmer world. .• One of every five people in the world lacks • access to safe drinking water. too much rain and too little rain can increase water pollution.

3. temperature. . Volume of the stream. 1. volume of wastes entering. Organisms that have a high oxygen demand can’ t survive in the curve. flow rate. A combination of dilution and biodegradation can allow recovery of stream pollution 2. The breakdown of pollutants by bacteria creates an oxygen sag curve . and pH levels all affect how great a sag curve is produced.Pollution of Freshwater Streams Streams can recover from moderate levels of degradable water pollutants if the flows are not reduced.

Half of the world’s 500 major rivers are heavily polluted. For example: Religious beliefs. . little economic development.Water Pollution: Now Stream pollution in most developing countries is a serious and growing problem. and most of them run through developing countries where waste treatment is minimal or nonexistent . cultural traditions. and a large population interact to cause severe pollution of the Ganges River in India . poverty.

Groundwater Pollution: Causes and Persistence  Sources of groundwater pollution Slow flowing: slow dilution and dispersion Consequences of lower dissolved oxygen Fewer bacteria to decompose wastes Cooler temperatures: slow down chemical reactions “Degradable” and nondegradable wastes in groundwater      .

and return to aquifer (very expensive) Inject microorganisms to clean up contamination (less expensive but still costly) Pump nanoparticles of inorganic compounds to remove pollutants (may be the cheapest. easiest.Preventing and Cleaning Up Pollution in Groundwater Solutions Groundwater Pollution Prevention Find substitutes for toxic chemicals Keep toxic chemicals out of the environment Install monitoring wells near landfills and underground tanks Require leak detectors on underground tanks Ban hazardous waste disposal in landfills and injection wells Store harmful liquids in aboveground tanks with leak detection and collection systems Cleanup Pump to surface. and most effective method but is still being developed) . clean.

Effects of Oil on Ocean Life  Crude and refined petroleum Tanker accidents and blowouts Exxon Valdez Volatile hydrocarbons kill larvae Tar-like globs coat birds and marine mammals Oil destroys insulation and buoyancy Heavy oil sinks and kills bottom organisms Coral reefs die Slow recovery Oil slicks ruin beaches Limited effectiveness of clean up methods           .

oil drilling. solar-aquatic.Preventing and Cleaning Up Pollution in Coastal Waters Solutions Coastal Water Pollution Prevention Cleanup Reduce input of toxic pollutants Separate sewage and storm lines Ban dumping of wastes and sewage by maritime and cruise ships in coastal waters Ban ocean dumping of sludge and hazardous dredged material Protect sensitive areas from development. and oil shipping Regulate coastal development Recycle used oil Require double hulls for oil tankers Improve oil-spill cleanup capabilities Sprinkle nanoparticles over an oil or sewage spill to dissolve the oil or sewage without creating harmful byproducts (still under development) Require at least secondary treatment of coastal sewage Use wetlands. or other methods to treat sewage .

recycle. reuse) • Reduce resource waste • Reduce air pollution • Reduce poverty • Reduce birth rates . reduce.Reducing Water Pollution Solutions Water Pollution • Prevent groundwater contamination • Greatly reduce nonpoint runoff • Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation • Find substitutes for toxic pollutants • Work with nature to treat sewage • Practice four R's of resource use (refuse.

oil. • Never apply fertilizer or pesticides near a body of water.What Can We Do? What Can You Do? Water Pollution • Fertilize your garden and yard plants with manure or compost instead of commercial inorganic fertilizer. antifreeze. . • Compost your food wastes. • Do not use water fresheners in toilets. • Do not flush unwanted medicines down the toilet. • Do not pour pesticides. • Minimize your use of pesticides. solvents. • Grow or buy organic foods. paints. or other products containing harmful chemicals down the drain or onto the ground.

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